Samlexpower PST-60S-12A Owner`s manual

Samlexpower PST-60S-12A Owner`s manual
DC-AC
Inverters
PST-60S-12A
PST-60S-24A
Owner's
Manual
Please read this
manual before
operating your
Inverter
INDEX
INDEX
Safety Instructions ............................................................................................. 2,3
Inverters - General Information ...................................................................... 4,5,6
Characteristics of Sinusoidal AC Power ............................................................... 7
Advantages of Sine Wave Inverters ...................................................................... 8
AC Power Distribution and Grounding ..................................................... 9,10,11
Limiting Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) .................................................... 11
Powering direct/embedded SMPS ...................................................................... 12
Principle of Operation ........................................................................................ 13
Layout ................................................................................................................. 13
Specifying Batteries, Chargers and Alternators .............................. 14,15,16,17,18
Installation ...................................................................................... 19,20,21,22,23
Operation ....................................................................................................... 24,25
Protection Against Abnormal Conditions ...................................................... 25,26
Troubleshooting Guide .................................................................................. 27,28
Specifications ...................................................................................................... 29
Warranty ............................................................................................................. 30
Page 1
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Please read these instructions before installing or operating the inverter to prevent personal
injury or damage to the inverter.
GENERAL
Installation and wiring compliance
- Installation and wiring must comply with the local and national electrical codes and must
be done by a certified electrician
Preventing electrical shock
- Always connect the grounding connection on the inverter to the appropriate grounding
system
- Disassembly / repair should be carried out by qualified personnel only.
- Disconnect all AC and DC side connections before working on any circuits associated with
the inverter. Turning the on/off switch on the inverter to off position may not entirely
remove dangerous voltages
- Be careful when touching bare terminals of capacitors. The capacitors may retain high
lethal voltages even after the power has been removed. Discharge the capacitors before
working on the circuits
Installation environment
- The inverter should be installed indoor only in a well ventilated, cool, dry environment
- Do not expose to moisture, rain, snow or liquids of any type.
- To reduce the risk of overheating and fire, do not obstruct the suction and discharge
openings of the cooling fan
- To ensure proper ventilation, do not install in a low clearance compartment
Preventing fire and explosion hazards
Working with the inverter may produce arcs or sparks. Thus, the inverter should not be used
in areas where there are inflammable materials or gases requiring ignition protected equipment. These areas may include spaces containing gasoline powered machinery, fuel tanks,
battery compartments
Precautions when working with batteries.
- Batteries contain very corrosive diluted sulphuric acid as electrolyte. Precautions should be
taken to prevent contact with skin, eyes or clothing
- Batteries generate hydrogen and oxygen during charging resulting in evolution of explosive
gas mixture. Care should be taken to ventilate the battery area and follow the battery
manufacturer’s recommendations.
- Never smoke or allow a spark or flame near the batteries.
- Use caution to reduce the risk of dropping a metal tool on the battery. It could spark or short
circuit the battery or other electrical parts and could cause an explosion.
- Remove metal items like rings, bracelets and watches when working with batteries. The
batteries can produce a short circuit current high enough to weld a ring or the like to metal
and thus cause a severe burn.
- If you need to remove a battery, always remove the ground terminal from the battery first.
Make sure that all the accessories are off so that you do not cause a spark
Page 2
INVERTER RELATED
Preventing paralleling of the AC output
The AC output of this inverter cannot be synchronised with another AC source and hence, it
is not suitable for paralleling. The AC output of the inverter should never be connected
directly to an electrical breaker panel / load center which is also fed from the utility power /
generator. Such a connection may result in parallel operation of the different power sources
and AC power from the utility / generator will be fed back into the inverter which will
instantly damage the output section of the inverter and may also pose a fire and safety
hazard. If an electrical breaker panel / load center is fed from an inverter and this panel is
also required to be powered from additional alternate AC sources, the AC power from all
the AC sources like the utility / generator / inverter should first be fed to a manual selector
switch and the output of the selector switch should be connected to the electrical breaker
panel / load center.
To prevent possibility of paralleling and severe damage to the inverter, never use a simple
jumper cable with a male plug on both ends to connect the AC output of the inverter to a
handy wall receptacle in the home / RV.
Connecting to multi-wire branch circuits
Do not directly connect the hot side of the inverter to the two hot legs of the 120 / 240 VAC
electrical breaker panel / load centre where multi-wire ( common neutral ) branch circuit
wiring method is used for distribution of AC power. This may lead to overloading /
overheating of the neutral conductor and is a risk of fire.
A split phase transformer ( isolated or auto-transformer ) of suitable wattage rating ( 25 %
more than the wattage rating of the inverter ) with primary of 120 VAC and secondary of
120 / 240 VAC ( Two 120 VAC split phases 180 degrees apart) should be used. The hot and
neutral of the 120 VAC output of the inverter should be fed to the primary of this transformer and the 2 hot outputs ( 120 VAC split phases ) and the neutral from the secondary of
this transformer should be connected to the electrical breaker panel / load centre.
Preventing input over voltage
It is to be ensured that the input voltage of the inverter does not exceed 16.5 VDC for PST60S-12A or 33 VDC for PST-60S-24A to prevent permanent damage to the inverter. Please
observe the following precautions:
- Ensure that the maximum charging voltage of the battery charger / alternator / solar
charge controller is below 16.5 VDC for PST-60S-12A or 33 VDC for PST-60S-24A
- Do not use unregulated solar panels to charge a battery. Under cold ambient temperatures,
the output of the solar panel may exceed 18 VDC for 12 V system or 36 VDC for 24 V
system. Always use a charge controller between the solar panel and the battery.
- Do not connect the inverter to a battery system with a voltage higher than the rated
battery input voltage.
Preventing reverse polarity on the input side
When making battery connection on the input side, make sure that the polarity of battery
connection is correct (Connect the positive of the battery to the positive terminal of the
inverter and the negative of the battery to the negative terminal of the inverter). If the input
is connected in reverse polarity, DC fuse(s) inside the inverter will blow and may also cause
permanent damage to the inverter. DAMAGE CAUSED BY REVERSE POLARITY IS
NOT COVERED BY YOUR WARRANTY!
Page 3
INVERTERS - GENERAL INFORMATION
Why an inverter is needed
The utility grid supplies you with alternating current (AC) electricity. AC is the standard
form of electricity for anything that “plugs in” to the utility power. Direct current (DC)
electricity flows in a single direction. Batteries provide DC electricity. AC alternates its
direction many times per second. AC is used for grid service because it is more practical
for long distance transmission. For more details read “Characteristics of Sinusoidal AC
Power” on page 7.
An inverter converts DC to AC, and also changes the voltage. In other words, it is a
power adapter. It allows a battery-based system to run conventional AC appliances
directly or through conventional home wiring. There are ways to use DC directly, but for
a modern lifestyle, you will need an inverter for the vast majority, if not all of your loads
( in electrical terms, “loads” are devices that use electrical energy).
Incidentally, there is another type of inverter called grid-interactive. It is used to feed
solar (or other renewable) energy into a grid-connected home and to feed excess energy
back into the utility grid. This inverter is NOT grid interactive
Inverter should meet the application
To choose an inverter; you should first define your needs. Where is the inverter to be
used? Inverters are available for use in buildings (including homes), for recreational
vehicles, boats, and portable applications. Will it be connected to the utility grid in some
way? Electrical conventions and safety standards differ for various applications, so don’t
improvise.
Electrical Standards
The DC input voltage must conform to that of the electrical system and battery bank. 12
volts is recommended for small, simple systems. 24 and 48 volts are the common
standards for higher capacities. A higher voltage system carries less current, which makes
the system wiring cheaper and easier.
The inverter’s AC output must conform to the conventional power in the region in order
to run locally available appliances. The standard for AC utility service in North America
is 120 and 240 Volts at a frequency of 60 Hertz (cycles per second). In Europe, South
America, and most other places, it is 230 volts at 50 Hertz.
Power capacity – “Continuous” and “Surge”
How much load can an inverter handle? Its power output is rated in Watts. Read details
under “Characteristics of Sinusoidal AC Power” on page 7. There are two levels of
power rating -a continuous rating and a surge rating. Continuous means the amount of
power the inverter can handle for an indefinite period of hours. When an inverter is rated
at a certain number of Watts, that number generally refers to its continuous rating. The
“surge power” indicates the power to handle instantaneous overload of a short duration
to provide the higher power required to start certain type of devices and appliances.
Page 4
Loads that require “surge power” to start
Resistive types of loads (like incandescent lamps, toaster, coffee maker, electric range,
iron etc) do not require extra power to start. Their starting power is the same as their
running power.
Some loads like induction motors and high inertia motor driven devices will initially
require a very large starting or “surge” power to start from rest. Once they have started
moving and have attained their rated speed, their power requirement reduces to their
normal running power. The surge may last up to 5 seconds.
TVs and microwave ovens also require surge power for starting. The manufacturers’
specification of the appliances and devices indicates only the running power required.
The surge power required has to be guessed at best. See below under “Sizing of inverter
for loads that require starting surge”
If an inverter cannot efficiently feed the surge power, it may simply shut down instead of
starting the device. If the inverter’s surge capacity is marginal, its output voltage will dip
during the surge. This can cause a dimming of the lights in the house, and will sometimes
crash a computer.
Any weakness in the battery and cabling to the inverter will further limit its ability to start
a motor. A battery bank that is undersized, in poor condition, or has corroded connections,
can be a weak link in the power chain. The inverter cables and the battery interconnect
cables must be sized properly. The spike of DC current through these cables is many
hundreds of amps at the instant of motor starting. Please follow the instructions under
"Installation - DC side connections" on pages 20 & 21.
Sizing of inverter for loads that require starting surge
Observe the following guideline to determine the continuous wattage of the inverter for
powering loads that require starting surge. (Multiply the running watts of the device/
appliance by the Surge Factor)
*NOTE:
The surge power rating specified for this inverter is valid for duration
of less than 2 second. This very short duration may not be sufficient
to start motor based loads which may require up to 5 seconds to
complete starting process. Hence, for purposes of sizing the inverter,
use only the continuous power rating of this inverter.
Type of Device or Appliance
Surge Factor for Determining the Continuous *Wattage of the Inverter
(No. of times the running power rating of the device/appliance)
Refrigerator / Freezer
Air Compressors
Dishwasher
Automatic Washer
Sump pump
Furnace fans
Industrial motors
Portable kerosene / diesel fuel heater
Circular saw
Bench Grinder
5
4
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
Page 5
Power rating of Microwaves
The power rating of the microwave generally refers to the cooking power. The electrical
power consumed by the microwave will be approximately 2 times the cooking power. The
“surge power” of the inverter should be 2 times the electrical power (i.e., 4 times the
cooking power). Please note that the surge power of the microwave is not as long as the
motor load and hence, the surge power of the inverter can be considered to determine
adequacy of meeting the starting surge power
Powering a water supply pump
A water well or pressure pump often places the greatest demand on the inverter. It
warrants special consideration. Most pumps draw a very high surge of current during start
up. The inverter must have sufficient surge capacity to handle it while running any other
loads that may be on. It is important to size an inverter sufficiently, especially to handle
the starting surge (If the exact starting rating is not available, the starting surge can be
taken as 3 times the normal running rating of the pump). Oversize it still further if you
want it to start the pump without causing lights to dim or blink.
In North America, most pumps (especially submersibles) run on 240 VAC, while smaller
appliances and lights use 120 VAC. To obtain 240 VAC from a 120 VAC inverter, use a
120 VAC to 240 VAC transformer. If you do not already have a pump installed, you can
get a 120 volt pump if you don’t need more than 1/2 HP.
Idle power
Idle power is the consumption of the inverter when it is on, but no loads are running. It is
“wasted” power, so if you expect the inverter to be on for many hours during which there
is very little load (as in most residential situations), you want this to be as low as
possible.
Phantom and idling loads
Most of the modern gadgets draw some power whenever they are plugged in. Some of
them use power to do nothing at all. An example is a TV with a remote control. Its
electric eye system is on day and night, watching for your signal to turn the screen on.
Every appliance with an external wall-plug transformer uses power even when the
appliance is turned off. These little loads are called “phantom loads” because their power
draw is unexpected, unseen, and easily forgotten.
A similar concern is “idling loads.” These are devices that must be on all the time in order
to function when needed. These include smoke detectors, alarm systems, motion detector
lights, fax machines, and answering machines. Central heating systems have a transformer in their thermostat circuit that stays on all the time. Cordless (rechargeable)
appliances draw power even after their batteries reach a full charge. If in doubt, feel the
device. If it’s warm, that indicates wasted energy.
Page 6
CHARACTERISTICS OF SINUSOIDAL AC POWER
Voltage, current, power factor, types of loads
The voltage waveform of 120 VAC, 60 Hz mains / utility power is like a sine wave. In a
voltage with a sine wave-form, the instantaneous value and polarity of the voltage varies
with respect to time and the wave-form is like a sine wave. In one cycle, it slowly rises in
the positive direction from 0 V to a peak positive value + Vpeak = 170 V, slowly drops to 0
V, changes the polarity to negative direction and slowly increases in the negative direction
to a peak negative value - Vpeak =170 V and then slowly drops back to 0 V. There are 60
such cycles in 1 sec. Cycles per second is called the “frequency” and is also termed “Hertz
(Hz.). If a linear load is connected to this type of voltage, the load will draw current which
will also have the same sine wave-form. However, the peak value of the current will depend
upon the impedance of the load. Also, the phase of the sine wave-form of the current drawn
by the linear load may be the same or lead / lag the phase of sine wave-form of the voltage.
This phase difference determines the “Power Factor (mathematically = the cosine of the
phase difference)” of the load. In a resistive type of load (like incandescent lamps, heaters
etc) the sine wave-form of the current drawn by the load has 0 phase difference with the sine
wave-form of the voltage of the AC power source. The Power Factor of a resistive load is
unity (1). The rated output power (in Watts) of the inverters is normally specified for
resistive type of loads that have unity (1) Power Factor. In a reactive type of load (like
electric motor driven loads, fluorescent lights, computers, audio / video equipment etc), the
phase of the sine wave-form of the current drawn by the load may lead or lag the sine waveform of the AC voltage source. In this case, the power factor of reactive loads is lower than
unity (1) – generally between 0.8 and 0.6. A reactive load reduces the effective wattage
that can be delivered by an AC power source
RMS and peak values
As explained above, in a sine wave, the instantaneous values of AC voltage (Volt, V) and
current (Ampere, A) vary with time. Two values are commonly used – Root Mean Square
(RMS) value and peak value. For simplicity, RMS value can be considered as an average
value. Mathematically, Peak Value = 1.414 x RMS value. For example, the 120 VAC, 60
Hz. mains / utility power is the RMS value. The peak value corresponding to this is = 1.414
x 120 = 170V.
The values of the rated output voltage and current of an AC power source are their
RMS values
AC power – Watts / VA
The power rating of an AC power source is designated in Volt Amperes (VA) or in Watts
(W)
Power in Volt Amperes (VA) = RMS Volts (V) x RMS Amps (A)
Power in Watts = RMS Volts (V) x RMS Amps (A) x Power Factor
NOTE : The rated power of the inverter in Watts (W) is normally designated for a linear,
resistive type of load that draws linear current at unity (1) power factor. If the load is
linear and reactive type, the rated power of the inverter in watts will be limited to its
normal rated power in watts (W) x Power Factor. For example, an inverter rated for
1000 W ( at unity power factor) will be able to deliver only 600 watts to a reactive type
of load with a power factor of 0.6
Page 7
ADVANTAGES OF A PURE SINE-WAVE INVERTER
OVER A MODIFIED SINE-WAVE INVERTER
The output voltage of a sine-wave inverter has a sine wave-form like the sine wave-form
of the mains / utility voltage. In a sine wave, the voltage rises and falls smoothly with a
smoothly changing phase angle and also changes its polarity instantly when it crosses 0
Volts. In a modified sine wave, the voltage rises and falls abruptly, the phase angle also
changes abruptly and it sits at 0 Volts for some time before changing its polarity. Thus,
any device that uses a control circuitry that senses the phase (for voltage / speed control)
or instantaneous zero voltage crossing (for timing control) will not work properly from a
voltage that has a modified sine wave-form.
Also, as the modified sine wave is a form of square wave, it is comprised of multiple sine
waves of odd harmonics (multiples) of the fundamental frequency of the modified sine
wave. For example, a 60 Hz. modified sine wave will consist of sine waves with odd
harmonic frequencies of 3rd (180 Hz), 5th (300 Hz.), 7th (420 Hz.) and so on. The high
frequency harmonic content in a modified sine wave produces enhanced radio interference, higher heating effect in motors / microwaves and produces overloading due to
lowering of the impedance of low frequency filter capacitors / power factor improvement
capacitors.
Advantages of sine-wave inverters:
•
The output wave-form is a sine-wave with very low harmonic distortion and
clean power like utility supplied electricity.
•
Inductive loads like microwaves and motors run faster, quieter and cooler
•
Reduces audible and electrical noise in fans, fluorescent lights, audio amplifiers, TV, fax and answering machines
•
Prevents crashes in computers, weird print outs and glitches in monitors
Some examples of devices that may not work properly with modified sine wave and may
also get damaged are given below:
•
Laser printers, photocopiers, magneto-optical hard drives
•
The built-in clocks in devices such as clock radios, alarm clocks, coffee
makers, bread-makers, VCR, microwave ovens etc may not keep time correctly.
•
Output voltage control devices like dimmers, ceiling fan / motor speed control
may not work properly (dimming / speed control may not function)
•
Sewing machines with speed / microprocessor control
•
Transformer-less capacitive input powered devices like (i) Razors, flashlights,
night-lights, smoke detectors etc (ii) Re-chargers for battery packs used in hand
power tools. These may get damaged. Please check with the manufacturer
of these types of devices for suitability
•
Devices that use radio frequency signals carried by the AC distribution wiring.
•
Some new furnaces with microprocessor control / Oil burner primary controls
•
High intensity discharge (HID) lamps like Metal Halide lamps. These may get
damaged. Please check with the manufacturer of these types of devices for
suitability
•
Some fluorescent lamps / light fixtures that have power factor correction
capacitors. The inverter may shut down indicating overload
Page 8
AC POWER DISTRIBUTION AND GROUNDING
CAUTION!
PLEASE NOTE THAT THE AC OUTPUT CONNECTIONS AND THE DC
INPUT CONNECTIONS ON THIS INVERTER ARE NOT
CONNECTED (BONDED) TO THE METAL CHASSIS OF THE
INVERTER. BOTH THE INPUT AND OUTPUT CONNECTIONS ARE
ISOLATED FROM THE METAL CHASSIS AND FROM EACH OTHER.
SYSTEM GROUNDING, AS REQUIRED BY NATIONAL / LOCAL
ELECTRICAL CODES / STANDARDS, IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE
USER / SYSTEM INSTALLER.
Conductors for electrical power distribution
For single phase transmission of AC power or DC power, two conductors are required
that will be carrying the current. These are called the “current-carrying” conductors. A
third conductor is used for grounding to prevent the build up of voltages that may result
in undue hazards to the connected equipment or persons. This is called the “non currentcarrying” conductor (will carry current only under ground fault conditions)
Grounding terminology
The term “grounded” indicates that one or more parts of the electrical system are
connected to earth, which is considered to have zero voltage or potential. In some areas,
the term “earthing” is used instead of grounding.
A “grounded conductor” is a “current-carrying” conductor that normally carries current
and is also connected to earth. Examples are the “neutral” conductor in AC wiring and
the negative conductor in many DC systems. A “grounded system” is a system in which
one of the current-carrying conductors is grounded
An “equipment grounding conductor” is a conductor that does not normally carry current
(except under fault conditions) and is also connected to earth. It is used to connect the
exposed metal surfaces of electrical equipment together and then to ground. Examples are
the bare copper conductor in non-metallic sheathed cable (Romex ®) and the green,
insulated conductor in power cords in portable equipment. These equipment-grounding
conductors help to prevent electric shock and allow over-current devices to operate
properly when ground faults occur. The size of this conductor should be coordinated with
the size of the over-current devices involved
A “grounding electrode” is the metallic device that is used to make actual contact with the
earth. Other types of grounding electrodes include metal water pipes and metal building
frames.
A “grounding electrode conductor” is the conductor between a common single grounding
point in the system and the grounding electrode
“Bond” refers to the connection between the “grounded conductor”, the “equipment
grounding” conductors and the “grounding electrode” conductor. Bonding is also used to
describe connecting all of the exposed metal surfaces together to complete the equipment-grounding conductors.
Page 9
Grounded Electrical Power Distribution System
The National Electrical Code (NEC) requires the use of a “grounded electrical distribution system”. As per this system, one of the two current-carrying conductors is required to
be grounded. This grounded conductor is called the “Neutral / Cold / Return”. As this
conductor is bonded to earth ground, it will be at near zero voltage or potential. There is
no risk of electrical shock if this conductor is touched. The other current carrying
conductor is called the “Line / Live / Hot”. The connection between the “Neutral” and the
grounding electrode conductor is made only at one point in the system. This is known as
the system ground. This single point connection (bond) is usually made in the service
entrance or the load center. If this connection is inadvertently made in more than one
place, then unwanted currents will flow in the equipment grounding conductors. These
unwanted currents may cause inverters and charge controllers to be unreliable and may
interfere with the operation of ground-fault detectors and over-current devices.
NOTE: A current-carrying conductor that is not bonded to the earth ground cannot
be called a “neutral”. This conductor will be at an elevated voltage with respect to
the earth ground and may produce electrical shock when touched.
Polarity and color codes for power cords and plugs for AC devices and appliances
Single phase 120 VAC, 60 Hz AC devices and appliances use 2 pole, 3 wire grounding
configuration for connection to the AC power source. The plug of the power cord has
three pins – two flat pins ( also called poles ) that are connected to the two currentcarrying conductors and a round pin which is connected to a non-current carrying
conductor ( this will carry current only during ground fault conditions ) . One flat pin is
connected to a black current-carrying conductor which is also called “Line/Live/Hot”
pole. The other flat pin is connected to the white current-carrying conductor also called
the “Neutral / Return / Cold” pole. The third round pin is connected to the non-current
carrying green “equipment grounding conductor”. This green “equipment grounding
conductor” is bonded to the metal chassis of the device or appliance.
AC output connections
The 120 VAC, 60 Hz version of the inverter uses NEMA 5-15R receptacles for connecting the AC output of the inverter to devices and appliances fitted with a NEMA 5-15P
plug. The two rectangular slots are connected to the current-carrying conductors of the
AC power source inside the inverter. The round slot is the “equipment grounding”
connection and is internally connected to the metal chassis of the inverter.
CAUTION! : For the 120 VAC, 60 Hz NEMA 5-15R receptacles used in this inverter, the current
carrying conductor connected to the longer rectangular slot is isolated from the metal chassis of the
inverter. Hence, when the metal chassis of the inverter is connected to the earth ground, the longer
rectangular slot is not grounded to the earth ground. The longer rectangular slot is, therefore, not a
“neutral”. Do not touch this slot as it will be at an elevated voltage with respect to the metal chassis
/ earth ground and may produce an electrical shock when touched.
Page 10
Grounding to earth or to other designated ground
For safety, the metal chassis of the inverter is required to be grounded to the earth ground or
to the other designated ground (For example, in a mobile RV, the metal frame of the RV is
normally designated as the negative DC ground). An equipment grounding bolt with a wing
nut has been provided for grounding the metal chassis of the inverter to the appropriate
ground. (Located under the DC input terminals)
When using the inverter in a building, connect a # 8 AWG insulated stranded copper wire
from the above equipment grounding bolt to the earth ground connection ( a connection that
connects to the ground rod or to the water pipe or to another connection that is solidly
bonded to the earth ground ). The connections must be tight against bare metal. Use star
washers to penetrate paint and corrosion.
When using the inverter in a mobile RV, connect a # 8 AWG insulated stranded copper wire
from the above equipment grounding bolt to the appropriate ground bus of the RV (usually
the vehicle chassis or a dedicated DC ground bus ). The connections must be tight against
bare metal. Use star washers to penetrate paint and corrosion.
LIMITING ELECTRO-MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE
(EMI)
The inverter contains internal switching devices which generate conducted and radiated
electromagnetic interference (EMI).
The magnitude of EMI is limited to acceptable levels by circuit design but can not be
entirely eliminated. The effects of EMI will also depend upon a number of factors
external to the power supply like proximity of the inverter to the EMI receptors, types
and quality of connecting wires and cables etc. EMI due to factors external to the inverter
can be reduced as follows:
- Ensure that the inverter is firmly grounded to the ground system of the building or the
vehicle
- Locate the inverter as far away from the EMI receptors like radio, audio and video
devices as possible
- Keep the DC side cables between the battery and the inverter as short as possible.
- Twist the DC side cables. This will partially cancel out the radiated noise from the
cables
- Shield the DC side cables with metal sheathing / copper foil / braiding
- Use co-axial shielded cable for all antenna inputs (instead of 300 ohm twin leads)
- Use high quality shielded cables to attach audio and video devices to one another
- Do not operate other high power loads when operating audio / video equipment
Page 11
POWERING DIRECT / EMBEDDED SWITCHED
MODE POWER SUPPLY (SMPS)
Non-linear nature of current drawn by Switched Mode Power Supplies
Power supplies are used to convert AC voltages like 120 VAC to various DC voltages
like 3.3 V, 5 V, 12 V, 24 V, 48 V etc. Majority of modern day electronic devices use
embedded general purpose Switch Mode type of Power Supplies (SMPS) to drive the
electronic circuitry. General purpose Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) ( excepting
those that have power factor correction ) have one major disadvantage – the current
drawn by them from the AC power source has a non linear waveform ( the waveform is
not sinusoidal as the input voltage waveform but is in the form of short, larger value pulses
around the area of + Vpeak and -Vpeak ). This is due to the charging of the input filter
capacitor(s) mostly around the positive and negative peak portions of the sinusoidal input
voltage. The degree of non-linearity is measured by the "Crest Factor":
Crest Factor = Peak Current / RMS Current
In a linear load, the Crest Factor is 1.414. However, in a general purpose SMPS, due to
its non linear nature, this factor will be much higher - in the region of up to 4. This will
mean that for a particular rated RMS current (applicable for a linear load), the general
purpose SMPS will draw much larger peak currents – approx. up to 4 times more than its
rated RMS current.
Inverters are protected against over current ( also called overloading ) by either clipping
the peaks of the output voltage ( this will result in a sine wave becoming a square wave,
reduction in the RMS value of the output voltage and generation of harmonics and
electrical noise ) or by shutting down the output voltage of the inverter completely. Thus,
if an inverter / generator is used to power a general purpose SMPS, it will be forced to
deliver higher peak currents resulting in premature triggering of the inverter’s /
generator's over current protection circuits. Thus, for safe operation, the continuous RMS
current rating of the inverter / generator should be at least 2.8 times the continuous RMS
current rating of the general purpose SMPS it is required to power:
Peak current of inverter = Peak current of SMPS
or
RMS current of inverter X 1.414 = RMS current of SMPS X 4
or
RMS current of inverter = 4/1.414 X RMS current of SMPS
or
RMS current of inverter = 2.8 X RMS current of SMPS)
Alternatively, the continuous power rating of the inverter / generator in Watts / VA
should be at least 2.8 times the continuous power rating of the SMPS in Watts / VA
Page 12
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
The inverter converts the rated DC voltage of the battery to 120 V, 60 Hz. AC voltage.
The voltage conversion takes place in two stages. In the first stage, the rated DC voltage
of the battery is converted to a high voltage DC using high frequency switching and Pulse
Width Modulation (PWM) technique. In the second stage, the high voltage DC is
converted to 120 V, 60 Hz. sine-wave AC again using PWM technique. This is done by
using a special wave shaping technique where the high voltage DC is switched at a high
frequency and the pulse width of this switching is modulated with respect to a reference
sine-wave.
LAYOUT
2
3
45
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
120V AC output receptacles (optional internal GFCI)
Power on/off Switch
Green L.E.D. - Power output status
Red L.E.D. - Overload
Red L.E.D. - Over temperature
Input terminals (back of unit -not shown)
RED - Positive (+)
BLACK or WHITE - Negative (-)
7 Cooling fan (back of the unit - not shown)
8 Grounding lug (back of the unit - not shown)
9. Modular jack for optional Remote Control (bottom of the unit - not shown)
Page 13
SPECIFYING BATTERIES, CHARGERS
& ALTERNATORS
The inverter will require Deep Cycle Lead Acid Batteries of appropriate capacity.
Lead-acid batteries can be categorized by the type of application: automotive service Starting/Lighting/Ignition (SLI, a.k.a. cranking) and deep cycle service
SLI Batteries
Everybody is familiar with the SLI batteries that are used for automotive starting and
powering vehicular accessories. SLI batteries are designed to produce high power in short
bursts but must be constantly recharged (normally with an alternator while driving).
Vehicle starting typically discharges 1%-3% of a healthy SLI battery’s capacity.
The automotive SLI battery is not designed for repeated deep discharge where up to 80 %
of the battery capacity is discharged and then recharged. If an SLI battery is used for this
type of application, its useful service life will be drastically reduced
Deep Cycle Batteries
Deep cycle batteries are designed with thick-plate electrodes to serve as primary power
sources, to have a constant discharge rate, to have the capability to be deeply discharged
up to 80 % capacity and to repeatedly accept recharging. They are marketed for use in
recreation vehicles (RV), boats and electric golf carts – so they may be referred to as RV
batteries, marine batteries or golf cart batteries. There are two categories of deep cycle
lead acid batteries – wet and sealed. A wet cell battery has a high tolerance to overcharging. However, it will release hydrogen gas when charging that must be properly vented
and the water level must be checked frequently. Sealed batteries can either be Gel Cell or
AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat). Both the Gel Cell and AGM are maintenance free, have no
liquid to spill and gassing is minimal. The Gel Cell is the least affected by temperature
extremes, storage at low state of charge and has a low rate of self discharge. An AGM
battery will handle overcharging slightly better than the Gel Cell
Units of Battery capacity
The battery capacity is the measure of the energy the battery can store and deliver to a
load. It is determined by how much current any given battery can deliver over a stipulated
period of time. The energy rating is expressed in Ampere Hours (AH). As a bench mark,
the battery industry rates batteries at 20 hour rate i.e. how many Amperes of current the
battery can deliver for 20 hours at 80 º F till the voltage drops to 10.5 Volts for 12 V
battery and 21 V for 24 V battery. For example, a 100 AH battery will deliver 5 Amperes
for 20 hours. Battery capacity is also expressed as Reserve Capacity (RC) in minutes.
Reserve capacity is the time in minutes for which the battery can deliver 25 Amperes at
80 º F till the voltage drops to 10.5 Volts for 12 V battery and 21 V for 24 V battery.
Approximate relationship between the two units is as follows:
Capacity in AH = Reserve Capacity in RC minutes x 0.6
Page 14
Typical battery sizes
Below is a chart of some battery sizes applicable for powering inverters:
BCI * Group
27 / 31
4D
8D
GC2**
Battery Voltage, V
12
12
12
6
Battery AH
105
160
225
220
* Battery Council International
** Golf Cart
Reduction in usable capacity at higher discharge rates.
As stated above, the rated capacity of the battery in AH is applicable at a discharge rate of
20 Hours. As the discharge rate is increased, the usable capacity reduces due to “Peukert
Effect”. This relationship is not linear but is more or less according to the table below:
Table 1 Battery Capacity versus Rate of Discharge
Hours of Discharge
20
10
8
6
5
3
2
1
Usable Capacity
100%
87%
83%
75%
70%
60%
50%
40%
Using the above table will show that a 100 AH capacity battery will deliver 100% (i.e.
full 100 AH) capacity if it is slowly discharged over 20 hours at the rate of 5 Amperes.
However, if it is discharged at a rate of 50 Amperes then theoretically, it should provide
100 AH ÷ 50 = 2 hours. However, the Table above shows that for 2 hours discharge rate,
the capacity is reduced to 50% i.e. 50 AH. Therefore, at 50 Ampere discharge rate the
battery will actually last for 50 AH÷50 Amperes = 1 Hour
Page 15
Depth of discharge and battery life
The more deeply a battery is discharged on each cycle, the shorter the battery life. Using
more batteries than the minimum required will result in longer life for the battery bank. A
typical cycle life chart is given at Table 2 below:
TABLE 2. – TYPICAL CYCLE LIFE CHART
Depth of Discharge
% of AH Capacity
10
50
80
100
Cycle Life
Group 27 / 31
1000
320
200
150
Cycle Life
Group 8D
1500
480
300
225
Cycle Life
Group GC2
3800
1100
675
550
It is recommended that the depth of discharge should be limited to 50 %
Loss of battery capacity at low temperatures.
Batteries lose capacity in low temperatures. At 32 º F, a battery will deliver about 70 to
80 % of its rated capacity at 80 º F. If the air temperature near the battery bank is lower
than 80 º F, additional batteries will be needed to provide the same usable capacity. For
very cold climates, an insulated / heated battery compartment is recommended.
Series and parallel connection of batteries
When two or more batteries are connected in series, their voltages add up but their AH
capacity remains the same. For example, when two 12 V, 105 AH batteries are connected
in series, it becomes a 24 V, 105 AH battery. (Positive of the first battery is the positive
terminal of the series connection. The negative of the first battery is connected to the
positive of the second battery. The negative of the second battery is the negative of the
series connection)
When two or more batteries are connected in parallel, their voltages remain the same but
their capacities add up. For example, if two 12 V, 105 AH batteries are connected in
parallel, their voltage remains 12 V but their capacity becomes 105 × 2 = 210 AH
(Connect the positive terminal of the first battery to the positive terminal of the second
battery. These paralleled common positive terminals become the positive terminal of the
parallel combination. Connect the negative terminal of the first battery to the negative
terminal of the second battery. These paralleled common negative terminals becomes the
negative terminal of the parallel combination)
Page 16
Sizing the Inverter Battery Bank
One of the most frequently asked question is, “how long will the batteries last?’. This
question cannot be answered without knowing the size of the battery system and the load
on the inverter. Usually this question is turned around to ask “How long do you want your
load to run?”, and then specific calculation can be done to determine the proper battery
bank size.
There are a few basic formulae and estimation rules that are used:
Formula 1
Power in Watts (W) = Voltage in Volts (V) x Current in Amperes (A)
Formula 2
For an inverter running from a 12 V battery system (PST-60S-12A),
the DC current required from the 12 V batteries is the AC power
delivered by the inverter to the load in Watts (W) divided by 10 & for
an inverter running from a 24 V battery system (PST-60S-24A), the
DC current required from the 24 V batteries is the AC power delivered
by the inverter to the load in Watts (W) divided by 20.
Formula 3
Energy required from the battery = DC current to be delivered (A) x
time in Hours (H)
The first step is to estimate the total AC watts (W) of load(s) and for how long the load(s)
will operate in hours (H). The AC watts are normally indicated in the electrical nameplate
for each appliance or equipment. In case AC watts (W) are not indicated, formula 1 given
above may be used to calculate the AC watts by multiplying 120 VAC by the AC current in
Amperes . The next step is to derive the DC current in Amperes (A) from the AC watts as
per formulae 2 above. An example of this calculation for a 12V inverter is given below:
Let us say that the total AC Watts delivered by the12 V inverter = 1000 W
Then, using formula 2 above, the DC current to be delivered by the 12 V batteries = 1000
W ÷10 = 100 Amperes
Next, the energy required by the load in Ampere Hours (AH) is determined. For example,
if the load is to operate for 3 hours then as per Formula 3 above:
Energy to be delivered by the 12 V batteries = 100 Amperes × 3 Hours = 300 Ampere
Hours (AH)
Now, the capacity of the batteries is determined based on the run time and the usable
capacity. From Table 1, (on page 15), the usable capacity at 3 Hour discharge rate is 60%.
Hence, the actual capacity of the 12 V batteries to deliver 300 AH will be equal to 300 AH
÷ 0.6 = 500 AH
And finally, the actual desired rated capacity of the batteries is determined based on the
fact that normally only 80% of the capacity will be available with respect to the rated
capacity due to non availability of ideal and optimum operating and charging conditions.
So the final requirements will be equal to:
500 AH ÷0.8 = 625 AH (note that the actual energy required by the load was 300 AH)
It will be seen from the above that the final rated capacity of the batteries is almost 2 times
the energy required by the load in AH
Thus, as a thumb rule, the AH capacity of the batteries should be twice the energy
required by the load in AH
Page 17
For the above example, the 12 V batteries may be selected as follows:
- Use 6 Group 27/31, 12 V, 105 AH batteries in parallel to make up 630 AH, or
- Use 3 Group 8D, 12 V, 225 AH batteries in parallel to make up 675 AH
Charging Batteries
The batteries can be charged by using good quality AC powered battery charger or from
alternative energy sources like solar panels, wind or hydro systems. Make sure an
appropriate battery charge controller is used. It is recommended that the batteries may be
charged at 10% to 13 % of the Ampere Hour capacity (20 hour discharge rate). Also, for
complete charging (return of 100 % capacity ), it is recommended that a 3 stage charger
may be used (Constant current bulk charging followed by constant voltage boost /
absorption charging followed by constant voltage float charging )
Batteries, alternators and isolators on vehicles / RVs
It is recommended that for powering the inverter, one or more auxiliary deep cycle
batteries should be used that are separate from the SLI batteries. The inverter should be
powered from the deep cycle batteries. For charging the SLI and the auxiliary deep cycle
batteries, the output from the alternator should be fed to these two sets of batteries
through a battery isolator of appropriate capacity. The battery isolator is a device that
will allow the alternator to charge the two sets of batteries when the engine is running.
The isolator will allow the inverter to be operated from the auxiliary batteries and also
prevent the SLI batteries from charging the auxiliary deep cycle batteries when the engine
is not running. Battery isolators are available from auto / RV / marine parts suppliers
A majority of smaller vehicles have 40 to 105 Ampere alternator and RVs have 100 to
130 Ampere alternator. When in use, the alternators heat up and their output current
capacity can drop by up to 25%. When heated up, their charging voltage may also not
reach the desired absorption voltage and will result in return of only about 80% of the
battery capacity. In case the current output of the standard alternator is not adequate to
charge the two sets of batteries rapidly and fully to 100% of their capacity, use heavy duty
alternator that can produce higher current and voltage required to charge multiple battery
systems. These alternators are available with auto / RV parts suppliers.
Page18
INSTALLATION
GENERAL
Installation and wiring compliance
- Installation and wiring must comply with the local and the national electrical codes and
must be done by a certified electrician
- In building / residential applications, electrical codes do not allow permanent connection
of AC distribution wiring to the inverter’s AC output receptacles. The receptacles are
intended for temporary (as needed) connection of cord connected loads only. Read
details under “AC Power Distribution and Grounding” on page 9.
- The inverter does not have integral over current protection for the AC output side.
Protection should be provided by the installer
- Over current protection of the cables from the battery to the inverter has to be provided
by the installer
- The DC input positive and negative terminals are isolated from the chassis. Similarly, the
neutral pole of the AC receptacles / the neutral wire is not bonded to the chassis. System
grounding to suit the national / local electrical codes is to be undertaken by the installer.
Read details under“AC Power Distribution and Grounding” on page 9.
Preventing electrical shock
- Always connect the grounding connection on the inverter to the appropriate grounding
system. Read details under“AC Power Distribution and Grounding” on page 9.
Installation environment
- The inverter should be installed indoor only in a well ventilated, cool, dry environment
- Do not expose to moisture, rain, snow or liquids of any type.
- To reduce the risk of overheating and fire, do not obstruct the suction and discharge
openings of the cooling fan.
- To ensure proper ventilation, do not install in a low clearance compartment
- Working with the inverter may produce arcs or sparks. Thus, the inverter should not be
used in areas where there are inflammable materials or gases requiring ignition protected
equipment. These areas may include spaces containing gasoline powered machinery, fuel
tanks, battery compartments
Mounting position of the inverter
- The inverter may be mounted horizontally on the top of a horizontal surface or under a
horizontal surface. The inverter may be mounted on a vertical surface only horizontally
(the fan axis should always be horizontal i.e. the fans should not be pointing up or down)
Cooling by forced air fan ventilation
The inverters produce heat when operating. The amount of heat produced is proportional to
the amount of power supplied by the inverter. One DC fan is used to provide forced air
cooling of this inverter. The fan is thermostatically controlled and will be switched on only
if the temperature of certain hot spot inside the inverter rises above a certain temperature.
At lower loads and / or at lower ambient temperatures, the fan may not switch on at all. This is
normal. The unit is protected against over-temperature due to failure of the fan / inadequate
heat transfer. The AC output will be shut-down if the hot spot inside the inverter reaches a
certain higher temperature.
Page 19
DC SIDE CONNECTIONS
The DC input power to the inverter is derived from deep cycle batteries of the required
capacity. Read under “Specifying Batteries, Chargers and Alternators” on page 14 for
details on sizing and charging of batteries.
Preventing input over voltage
It is to be ensured that the input voltage of the inverter does not exceed 16.5 VDC for PST60S-12A or 33 VDC for PST-60S-24A to prevent permanent damage to the inverter. Please
observe the following precautions:
- Ensure that the maximum charging voltage of the battery charger / alternator / solar charge
controller is below 16.5 VDC for PST-60S-12A or 33 VDC for PST-60S-24A
- Do not use unregulated solar panels to charge a battery. Under cold ambient temperatures, the
output of the solar panel may exceed 18 V for 12V system or 36 V for 24V system. Always use
a charge controller between the solar panel and the battery.
- When using Diversion Charge Control Mode in a charge controller, the solar / wind / hydro
source is directly connected to the battery bank. In this case, the controller will divert excess
current to an external load. As the battery charges, the diversion duty cycle will increase. When
the battery is fully charged, all the source energy will flow into the diversion load if there are no
other loads. The charge controller will disconnect the diversion load if the current rating of the
controller is exceeded. Disconnection of the diversion load may damage the battery as
well as the inverter connected to the battery due to high voltages generated during
conditions of high winds (for wind generators), high water flow rates (for hydro
generators) or cold temperatures (for solar panels). It is, therefore, to be ensured that
the diversion load is sized correctly to prevent the above over voltage conditions.
- A series type of charge controller connects the solar / wind / hydro charging source directly to
the battery through the series connected switching MOSFET(s). The battery is a capacitive
type of load and will thus, dampen the input voltages of the charging source due to its capacitive
loading effect. As the inverter is connected to the battery bus, it will see the voltages of the
charging source as conditioned by the battery. Please ensure that the inverter is connected
to the battery bus only after the battery is connected to the battery bus or the inverter
is disconnected from the battery bus first before removing the battery from the
battery bus. If the inverter is connected to the battery bus without the battery
connected to the battery bus, the inverter will be fed with the high open circuit
voltages from the solar / wind / hydro and will damage the inverter permanently
- Do not connect the inverter to a battery system with a voltage higher than the rated battery
input voltage.
Preventing reverse polarity on the input side
When making battery connection on the input side, make sure that the polarity of battery
connection is correct (Connect the positive of the battery to the positive terminal of the
inverter and the negative of the battery to the negative terminal of the inverter). If the input is
connected in reverse polarity, DC fuse(s) inside the inverter will blow and may also cause
permanent damage to the inverter
Connection from the batteries to the DC input side of the inverter – cable and fuse
sizes
The flow of electric current in a conductor is opposed by the resistance of the conductor. The
resistance of the conductor is directly proportional to the length of the conductor and inversely
proportional to its cross-section (thickness). The resistance in the conductor produces
undesirable effects of voltage drop and heating. Thus, thicker and shorter conductors are
desirable. The size (thickness / cross-section) of the conductors is designated by AWG
(American Wire Gauge). Please note that a smaller AWG # denotes a thicker size of the
conductor up to AWG #1.
Page 20
The DC input circuit is required to handle very large DC currents and hence, the size of
the cables and connectors should be selected to ensure minimum voltage drop between the
battery and the inverter. Thinner cables and loose connections will result in poor inverter
performance and will produce abnormal heating leading to risk of insulation melt down
and fire.
Use oil resistant, multi-stranded copper wire cables rated at 90 º C minimum. Do not use
aluminium cable as it has higher resistance per unit length. Cables can be bought at a
marine / welding supply store
The cables from the battery to the inverter should be protected by a suitable, very fast
acting DC fuse. Use a DC fuse of the appropriate capacity in line with the positive cable.
The fuse should be within 18” from the battery. Type ANN fuses with Fuse Block 4164 made
by Bussmann are recommended.
The following size of cables and fuses are recommended. The distance shown is the
distance between the battery and the inverter. The recommended size of the cables will
limit the voltage drop to approximately 2% ( The length of the cable for calculating the
voltage drop has been taken as 2 times the distance between the inverter and the battery
assuming that two ( one positive and one negative)cables are used for the connection )
Distance up to 4'
Distance up to 6’
Ampere rating of battery fuse
PST-60S-12A
AWG # 4
AWG # 2
125A (ANN 125)
PST-60S-24A
AWG # 6
AWG # 4
60 A (ANN 60)
CAUTION! The input section of the inverter has large value capacitors connected across
the input terminals. As soon as the DC input connection loop ( Battery +
Yinverter - Ybattery negative) is completed, these
Yfuse Y inverter + Y
capacitors will start charging and will momentarily draw very heavy current
that will produce sparking on the last contact in the input loop even when the
on / off switch on the inverter is in the off position. Ensure that the fuse is
inserted only after all the connections in the loop have been completed so that
the sparking is limited to the fuse area.
Using proper DC cable termination
The battery end and the inverter end of the cables should have proper terminals that will
ensure a firm and tight connection.
DC input terminals
The DC input terminals have a tubular hole with a set screw. A suitable pin type of copper
terminal should, therefore, be used on the cable end. Do not insert the stranded bare end of
the cable directly into the tubular hole as the set screw will not pinch all the strands and will
thus make only a partial and loose contact. For thicker cables, a suitable adapter with pin
type of termination should be used. There should be no stray wire strands protruding from
the terminals as these may produce a short circuit due to the close vicinity of the plus and
minus terminals.
A pair of pin type of terminal has been provided. Crimp these terminals on the inverter end
of the cable.
Page 21
Reducing RF interference
To reduce the effect of radiated interference, twist the DC side cables. To furthur reduce RF
interference, shield the cables with sheathing /copper foil / braiding..
Taping battery cables together to reduce inductance.
Do not keep the battery cables far apart. In case it is not convenient to twist the cables, keep
them taped together to reduce their inductance. Reduced inductance of the battery cables helps
to reduce induced voltages. This reduces ripple in the battery cables and improves performance and efficiency.
AC SIDE CONNECTIONS
Preventing paralleling of the AC output
The AC output of the inverter cannot be synchronised with another AC source and hence, it is
not suitable for paralleling. The AC output of the inverter should never be connected directly
to an electrical breaker panel / load center which is also fed from the utility power / generator.
Such a connection may result in parallel operation of the different power sources and AC
power from the utility / generator will be fed back into the inverter which will instantly
damage the output section of the inverter and may also pose a fire and safety hazard. If an
electrical breaker panel / load center is fed from an inverter and this panel is also required to
be powered from additional alternate AC sources, the AC power from all the AC sources like
the utility / generator / inverter should first be fed to a manual selector switch and the output
of the selector switch should be connected to the electrical breaker panel / load center.
To prevent possibility of paralleling and severe damage to the inverter, never use a simple
jumper cable with a male plug on both ends to connect the AC output of the inverter to a
handy wall receptacle in the home / RV.
Connecting to multi-wire branch circuits
Do not directly connect the hot side of the 120 VAC of the inverter to the two hot legs of the
120 / 240 VAC electrical breaker panel / load centre where multi-wire ( common neutral )
branch circuit wiring method is used for distribution of AC power. This may lead to overloading / overheating of the neutral conductor and is a risk of fire.
A split phase transformer ( isolated or autotransformer ) of suitable wattage rating ( 25 % more
than the wattage rating of the inverter ) with primary of 120 VAC and secondary of 120 / 240
VAC ( Two 120 VAC split phases 180 degrees apart) should be used. The hot and neutral of
the 120 VAC output of the inverter should be fed to the primary of this transformer and the 2
hot outputs ( 120 VAC split phases ) and the neutral from the secondary of this transformer
should be connected to the electrical breaker panel / load centre.
Page 22
AC output connections
The inverter uses (2) NEMA 5-15R receptacles for connecting the AC output to devices
and appliances fitted with a NEMA 5-15P plug. In these NEMA 5-15 R receptacles, two
rectangular slots are connected to the current-carrying conductors of the AC power source
inside the inverter. The round slot is the “equipment grounding” connection and is
internally connected to the metal chassis of the inverter.
CAUTION! : In these NEMA 5-15R receptacles, the current carrying conductor
connected to the longer rectangular slot is isolated from the metal chassis of the inverter.
Hence, when the metal chassis of the inverter is connected to the earth ground, the longer
rectangular slot is not grounded to the earth ground. The longer rectangular slot is,
therefore, not a “neutral”. Do not touch this slot as it will be at an elevated voltage with
respect to the metal chassis / earth ground and may produce an electrical shock when
touched.
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)
An un-intentional electric path between a source of current and a grounded surface is
referred to as a "ground fault". Ground faults occur when current is leaking somewhere.
In effect, electricity is escaping to the ground. How it leaks is very imporant. If your body
provides a path to the ground for this leakage you could be injured, burned, severely
shocked or electrocuted. A GFCI protects people from electric shock by detecting leakage
and cutting off the AC source.
Installation in recreation vehicles (RV) may require GFCI protection on the AC output. In
addition, electrical codes may require GFCI protection for certan residential applications.
GFCI protection is built-in on the main printed circuit board (PCB) of the unit.
Grounding to earth or to other designated ground
Please see details regarding grounding under “AC Power Distribution and Grounding”
on page 9.
For safety, the metal chassis of the inverter is required to be grounded to the earth ground
or to the other designated ground (For example, in a mobile RV, the metal frame of the
RV is normally designated as the negative DC ground). An equipment grounding bolt
with a wing nut has been provided for grounding the metal chassis of the inverter to the
appropriate ground.
When using the inverter in a building , connect a # 8 AWG insulated stranded copper
wire from the above equipment grounding bolt to the earth ground connection ( a
connection that connects to the ground rod or to the water pipe or to another connection
that is solidly bonded to the earth ground ). The connections must be tight against bare
metal. Use star washers to penetrate paint and corrosion.
When using the inverter in a mobile RV, connect a # 8 AWG insulated stranded copper
wire from the above equipment grounding bolt to the appropriate ground bus of the RV
( usually the vehicle chassis or a dedicated DC ground bus ). The connections must be
tight against bare metal. Use star washers to penetrate paint and corrosion.
Page 23
OPERATION
Powering on the loads
After the inverter is switched on, it takes a finite time for it to become ready to deliver
full power. Hence, always switch on the load(s) after a few seconds of switching on the
inverter. Avoid switching on the inverter with the load already switched on. This may
prematurely trigger the overload protection.
When a load is switched on, it may require initial higher power surge to start. Hence, if
multiple loads are being powered, they should be switched on one by one so that the
inverter is not overloaded by the higher starting surge if all the loads are switched on at
once.
Switching the inverter on / off
Before switching on the inverter, check that all the AC loads have been switched off.
The on / off switch (2) on the front panel of the inverter is used to switch on and switch
off the inverter. This switch operates a low power control circuitry which in turn controls
all the high power circuitry.
CAUTION!
Please note that this switch is not switching the high power battery
input circuit. Parts of the DC side circuit will still be alive even
when the switch is in the off position. Hence, disconnect the DC and
AC sides before working on any circuits connected to the inverter
When the inverter is switched on, the green LED indicator (3) will be lighted. This LED
indicates that the inverter is operating normally. Under normal operating conditions, AC
output voltage will now be available at the output receptacles.
Switch on the AC load(s). The green LED should remain lighted for normal operation of
the load.
Temperature controlled cooling fan
The cooling fan is thermostatically controlled. Temperature of a critical hot spot inside
the inverter is monitored to activate the fan and the over temperature shut-down. When
the temperature of this hot spot reaches 48o C, the fan is switched on. The fan will be
automatically switched off once that spot cools down to 42o C. Please note that the fan
may not come on at low loads or if the ambient temperature is cooler. This is
normal.
Indications for normal operation.
When the inverter is operating normally and supplying AC load(s), only the green LED
(3) will be lighted. In case of abnormal operation, other displays and alarms will be
activated. Please see under “Protections Against Abnormal Conditions” on page 25.
Page 24
Switching on / off using the optional remote on / off Remote Control
An optional corded Remote Control Model, No. RC-15, is available to enable switching
on and off from a distance of 18 ft. The remote on / off control comes with 18 ft. of wire.
One end of the remote control is plugged into the 6 position modular jack (9) provided
on the inverter. To use the remote control, the inverter is first required to be switched
on from the on / off switch on the front panel. Now, the inverter can be toggled
between off / on conditions by pressing the push button on the remote control. The LED
on the remote control will light when the inverter is in the on condition.
The green L.E.D. (3) on the front panel of the inverter will switch off when the inverter is
switched off from the remote control RC-15
No load draw (idle current)
When the on / off switch is turned on, all the circuitry inside the inverter becomes alive
and the AC output is made available. In this condition, even when no load is being
supplied (or, if a load is connected but has been switched off), the inverter draws a small
amount of current from the batteries to keep the circuitry alive and ready to deliver the
required power on demand. This is called the idle current or the no load draw. Hence,
when the load is not required to be operated, turn off the on / off switch on the inverter to
prevent unnecessary current drain from the battery.
PROTECTIONS AGAINST ABNORMAL
CONDITIONS
The inverter has been provided with protections detailed below.
Low DC input voltage warning alarm. The voltage at the DC input terminals will be
lower than the voltage at the battery terminals due to the voltage drop in the battery
cables and connectors. The drop in the voltage at the DC input terminals of the inverter
could be due to lower battery voltage or due to abnormally high drop in the cables if the
cables are not thick enough (Please read under “Installation – Connection from the
batteries to the DC input side of the inverter – cable and fuse sizes” on page 21 ) If
the voltage at the DC input terminals falls below 10.7 V for PST-60S-12A or 21.4 V for
PST-60S-24A, a buzzer alarm will be sounded. The green LED (3) will continue to be
lighted and the AC output voltage will continue to be available. This warning buzzer alarm
indicates that the battery is running low and that the inverter will be shut down after
sometime if the voltage at the inverter terminals further drops to 10 V for PST-60S-12A
or 20 V for PST-60S-24A.
Shut-down due to low DC input voltage. If the inverter continues to power the load
after the low DC input voltage buzzer alarm is sounded, it will shut down temporarily
when the DC input voltage further drops below 10 V for PST-60S-12A or 20 V for PST60S-24A. The green LED (3) will remain switched on, but there will be no AC output
voltage. The buzzer alarm will continue to sound. The unit will reset automatically
when the voltage of the battery rises to 11.5 V for PST-60S-12A or 23 V for PST-60S24A.
Page 25
Shut-down due to high DC input voltage. If the voltage at the DC input terminals
exceeds 16.5 V for PST-60S-12A or 33 V for PST-60S-24A, the inverter will be shut
down temporarily. The green LED (3) will remain switched on, but there will be no AC
output. Buzzer alarm will be sounded. The unit will be reset automatically when the
voltage drops down to 16.7 V +/- 0.2 V for PST-60S-12A or 33.5 +/-0.2 V for PST60S-24A.
Shut-down due to reversal of polarity at the DC input terminals. The positive of the
battery should be connected to the positive DC input terminal of the inverter and the
negative of the battery should be connected to the negative DC input terminal of the
inverter. A reversal of polarity (the positive of the battery wrongly connected to the
negative DC input terminal of the inverter and the negative of the battery wrongly
connected to the positive DC input terminal of the inverter) will blow the DC side fuse(s)
inside the inverter. If the DC side fuses are blown, the inverter will be dead. The green
LED(3) will be switched off and there will be no AC output. REPLACE THE DC
FUSES AND CHECK IF THE UNIT WORKS. IF THE UNIT DOES NOT WORK
IT MAY HAVE BEEN DAMAGED PERMANENTLY. Please call Technical Support to
arrange for repair.
NOTE: DAMAGE CAUSED BY REVERSE POLARITY WILL NOT BE COVERED BY WARRANTY!
Shut-down due to over-temperature. In case of failure of the cooling fan or in the case
of inadequate heat removal due to higher ambient temperatures / insufficient air exchange, the temperature inside the unit will increase. The temperature of a critical hot
spot inside the inverter is monitored and at 95o C, the AC output of the inverter is shut
down temporarily. The red Over Temp LED (5) is lighted and a buzzer is sounded. The
green LED (3) will remain switched on. The unit will automatically reset after the "hot
spot" has cooled down to 70o C.
Shut-down due to overload or leakage/ ground fault. The inverter can provide a higher
than normal instantaneous (< 2 seconds) power limited to the surge power rating of the
inverter. Also, the inverter can provide continuous power limited to the continuous power
rating of the inverter. If either the continuous power or the instantaneous power is
exceeded over a longer length of time, the AC output of the inverter is shut down
permanently. The A.C. output will also be shut down due to operation of the GFCI as a
result of leakage/ground fault.The green LED (3) will remain on and the red overload LED
(4) will be switched on. The buzzer will be sounded. The inverter gets latched in this
condition. To reset, the power on / off switch (2) is required to be switched off and
on again. Before switching on the inverter again, ensure that the cause of the overload is
removed.
NOTE: If the red overload LED (4) remains lighted & buzzer is sounded after resetting
the unit, remove all the loads from the inverter and reset again. If the red overload LED (4)
still remains lighted and the buzzer is on without any load, the inverter has developed an
internal defect. Please call Tech Support.
Page 26
TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
SYMPTOM
On switching on, the green LED does
not light. Buzzer is off. There is no AC
voltage
POSSIBLE CAUSE
REMEDY
There is no voltage at the DC input
terminals
1. Check the continuity of the battery
input circuit.
2. Check that the battery fuse is intact.
Replace if blown
3. Check that all connections in the
battery input circuit are tight
Polarity of the input voltage has been
reversed that has blown the internal DC
side fuses (Note: Reverse polarity may
cause permanent damage)
Visibly check the fuse element if it is
blown. Replace the DC fuses and
check. If the it does not work it is
damaged Call Technical Support for
repair.
Low AC output voltage
(No buzzer alarm)
Low input voltage at the inverter terminals
and the load is close to the maximum
allowable power
1. Check that the battery is fully
charged. Recharge, if low.
2. Check that the battery cables are
thick enough to carry the required
current over the required length. Use
thicker cables, if required.
3. Tighten connections of the battery
input circuit
4. Reduce the load
Buzzer alarm is sounded when load is
switched on. Voltage at DC input
terminals reads between 10 to 10.7 V for
PST-60S-12A or between 20 to 21.4 V
for PST-60S-24A.
Green LED is on.
AC output voltage is available
DC input voltage is less than 10.7 V for
PST-60S-12A or less than 21.4 V for PST60S-24A
1. Check that the battery is fully
charged. Recharge, if low
2. Check that the battery cables are
thick enough to carry the required
current over the required length. Use
thicker cables, if required.
3. Tighten connections of the battery
input circuit
Buzzer alarm is sounded when load is
switched on. Voltage at the DC input
terminals reads below 10 V for
PST-60S-12A or below 20 V for
PST-60S-24A.
Green LED is on
There is no AC output
Shut-down due to low input DC voltage
(Less than 10V for PST-60S-12A or less
than 20 V for PST-60S-24A).
1. Check that the battery is fully
charged. Recharge, if low
2. Check that the battery cables are
thick enough to carry the required
current over the required length. Use
thicker cables, if required.
3. Tighten connections of the battery
input circuit
There is no AC output.
The green LED is on
Buzzer is on
Shut-down due to high input DC voltage
(> 16.5 V for PST-60S-12A or >33 V for
PST-60S-24A).
1. Check that the voltage at the DC
input terminals is less than 16.5V for
PST-60S-12A or less than 33 V for
PST-60S-24A.
2. Ensure that the maximum charging
voltage of the battery charger /
alternator / solar charge controller is
below 16.5V for PST-60S-12A or
below 33 V for PST-60S-24A
3. Ensure that an un-regulated solar
panel is not used to charge a battery.
Under cold ambient temperatures, the
output of the solar panel may exceed
18 V for 12 V system or 36 V for 24 V
system. Ensure that a charge controller
is used between the solar panel and the
battery
Page 27
SYMPTOM
The AC output shuts down completely.
The red overload LED is lighted.
The green LED is on
POSSIBLE CAUSE
REMEDY
Permanent shut-down of the AC output
due to continuous overload beyond the
continuous power rating of the inverter.
1. Reduce the load
2. The load is not suitable as it requires
higher power to operate. Use an
inverter with higher power rating.
3. If the unit goes into permanent
overload again after resetting and
removing the load completely, the unit
has become defective. Call Technical
support.
Permanent shut-down of the AC output
by the GFCI due to leakage > 5mA as a
result of ground fault
1. Check for ground fault in the load
circuit. ( A ground fault will cause a
minor shock on touching.)
Note: The unit will be latched in this
shut-down condition. To reset, switch
the power on / off switch to off and
then on again. Before switching on
again, remove the cause of the shutdown
Buzzer alarm is sounded.
Red Over Temp LED is on.
Green LED is on
There is no AC output
Shut-down due to over temperature
because of fan failure or inadequate
cooling as a result of high ambient
temperature or insufficient air exchange
Page 28
1. Check that the fan is working. If not,
the fan / fan control circuit may be
defective. Call Technical Support.
2. If the fan is working, check that the
ventilation slots on the suction side and
the openings on the discharge side of
the fan are not obstructed.
3. If the fan is working and the
openings are not obstructed, check that
enough cool replacement air is
available. Also check that the ambient
air temperature is less than 40º C
4. Reduce the load to reduce the
heating effect.
5. After the cause of over heating is
removed and the unit cools down, it
will reset automatically
SPECIFICATIONS
PST-60S-12A
PST-60S-24A
Input Voltage ....................................... 10.7 to 16.5 VDC...................21.4 to 33 V DC
Input Current at No Load ................................ < 850 mA.............................< 450 mA
Output Voltage ..................................... 120 V AC +/- 3%................120 V AC +/- 3%
Output Frequency .................................................. 60 Hz...................................60 Hz
Output Voltage Waveform ........................... Sine Wave............................Sine Wave
Total Harmonic distortion ...................................... < 3%....................................< 3%
Output Power
-Continuous ........................................ 600 Watts*............................600 Watts*
-Surge (for <2 second) ............................. 1000 Watts*.........................1000 Watts*
* The power specified is for a resistive type of load which has power factor = 1.
Reactive type of loads may have power factor of 0.8 to 0.6. The power that can
be delivered to such type of loads will reduce by this factor. See page 7 for
details.
Low Input Voltage Warning Alarm .................10.7 V...................................21.4 V
Low Input Voltage Shut-down ........................... 10 V......................................20 V
High Input Voltage Shut-down ....................... 16.5 V......................................33 V
Operating Ambient Temp. ................. .0 to 40oC +/- 5oC...................0 to 40oC +/- 5oC
Peak Efficiency ........................................................ 85%......................................85%
Cooling ....................................................... Temperature Controlled Fan................
Connections:
-Input ........................................... Tubular type screw down terminals............
-Output .......................................... 2 x Standard North American Outlet (NEMA 5-15R) .......
DC Side Input Fuse ............................................. 40A x 2...............................20A x 2
(Automotive Type ATC, 32V)
Dimensions( L x W x H) .......................................... 280 x 236 x 83 mm......................
Weight ..................................................................... 2.5 kg / 5.5 lbs.........................
Note: Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Page 29
2 YEAR Limited Warranty
The PST-60S-12A/PST-60S-24A manufactured by Samlex America, Inc. ( the “ Warrantor “ ) is warranted to be free from defects in workmanship and materials under normal use and service. This
warranty is in effect for 2 years from the date of purchase by the user ( the “ Purchaser “)
For a warranty claim, the Purchaser should contact the place of purchase to obtain a Return Authorization Number.
The defective part or unit should be returned at the Purchaser’s expense to the authorized location. A
written statement describing the nature of the defect, the date of purchase, the place of purchase, and
the Purchaser’s name, address and telephone number should also be included.
If upon the Warrantor’s examination, the defect proves to be the result of defective material or workmanship, the equipment will be repaired or replaced at the Warrantor’s option without charge, and
returned to the Purchaser at the Warrantor’s expense.
No refund of the purchase price will be granted to the Purchaser, unless the Warrantor is unable to
remedy the defect after having a reasonable number of opportunities to do so.
Warranty service shall be performed only by the Warrantor. Any attempt to remedy the defect by
anyone other than the Warrantor shall render this warranty void.
There shall be no warranty for defects or damages caused by faulty installation or hook-up, abuse or
misuse of the equipment including exposure to excessive heat, salt or fresh water spray, or water
immersion.
No other express warranty is hereby given and there are no warranties which extend beyond those
described herein. This warranty is expressly in lieu of any other expressed or implied warranties,
including any implied warranty of merchantability, fitness for the ordinary purposes for which such
goods are used, or fitness for a particular purpose, or any other obligations on the part of the Warrantor
or its employees and representatives.
There shall be no responsibility or liability whatsoever on the part of the Warrantor or its employees
and representatives for injury to any persons, or damage to person or persons, or damage to property,
or loss of income or profit, or any other consequential or resulting damage which may be claimed to
have been incurred through the use or sale of the equipment, including any possible failure of malfunction of the equipment, or part thereof.
The Warrantor assumes no liability for incidental or consequential damages of any kind.
Samlex America Inc. (the “Warrantor”)
110-17 Fawcett Road
Coquitlam BC V3K6V2 Canada
(604) 525-3836
Page 30
110-17 Fawcett Rd
T: 604 525 3836
Coquitlam, B.C.
F: 604 525 5221
Canada
V3K 6V2
Version PST-60S-12A_24A (Dec2006)
e-mail: [email protected]
website: www.samlexamerica.com
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