4230 manual
4230 Flow Meter
Installation and Operation Guide
Part #60-3233-142 of Assembly #60-3234-051
Copyright © 1994. All rights reserved, Teledyne Isco, Inc.
Revision Y, April 16, 2007.
Foreword
This instruction manual is designed to help you gain a thorough understanding of the
operation of the equipment. Teledyne Isco recommends that you read this manual
completely before placing the equipment in service.
Although Teledyne Isco designs reliability into all equipment, there is always the possibility of a malfunction. This manual may help in diagnosing and repairing the malfunction.
If the problem persists, call or e-mail the Teledyne Isco Technical Service Department
for assistance. Simple difficulties can often be diagnosed over the phone.
If it is necessary to return the equipment to the factory for service, please follow the
shipping instructions provided by the Customer Service Department, including the
use of the Return Authorization Number specified. Be sure to include a note
describing the malfunction. This will aid in the prompt repair and return of the
equipment.
Teledyne Isco welcomes suggestions that would improve the information presented in
this manual or enhance the operation of the equipment itself.
Teledyne Isco is continually improving its products and reserves the right to
change product specifications, replacement parts, schematics, and instructions without notice.
Contact Information
Customer Service
Phone:
(800) 228-4373
(USA, Canada, Mexico)
(402) 464-0231
(Outside North America)
Fax:
(402) 465-3022
Email:
IscoCSR@teledyne.com
Technical Service
Phone:
Email:
(800) 775-2965
(Analytical)
(800) 228-4373
(Samplers and Flow Meters)
IscoService@teledyne.com
Return equipment to: 4700 Superior Street, Lincoln, NE 68504-1398
Other Correspondence
Mail to:
P.O. Box 82531, Lincoln, NE 68501-2531
Email:
IscoInfo@teledyne.com
Web site:
www.isco.com
Revised September 15, 2005
4230 Flow Meter
Safety
4230 Flow Meter
Safety
General Warnings
Before installing, operating, or maintaining this equipment, it is
imperative that all hazards and preventive measures are fully
understood. While specific hazards may vary according to
location and application, take heed of the following general
warnings:
WARNING
Avoid hazardous practices! If you use this instrument in
any way not specified in this manual, the protection
provided by the instrument may be impaired.
AVERTISSEMENT
Éviter les usages périlleux! Si vous utilisez cet instrument
d’une manière autre que celles qui sont specifiées dans ce
manuel, la protection fournie de l’instrument peut être
affaiblie; cela augmentera votre risque de blessure.
Hazard Severity Levels
This manual applies Hazard Severity Levels to the safety alerts,
These three levels are described in the sample alerts below.
CAUTION
Cautions identify a potential hazard, which if not avoided, may
result in minor or moderate injury. This category can also warn
you of unsafe practices, or conditions that may cause property
damage.
WARNING
Warnings identify a potentially hazardous condition, which
if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury.
DANGER
DANGER – limited to the most extreme situations
to identify an imminent hazard, which if not
avoided, will result in death or serious injury.
iii
4230 Flow Meter
Safety
Hazard Symbols
The equipment and this manual use symbols used to warn of
hazards. The symbols are explained below.
Hazard Symbols
Warnings and Cautions
The exclamation point within the triangle is a warning sign alerting you of
important instructions in the instrument’s technical reference manual.
The lightning flash and arrowhead within the triangle is a warning sign alerting you of “dangerous voltage” inside the product.
Symboles de sécurité
Ce symbole signale l’existence d’instructions importantes relatives au produit dans ce manuel.
Ce symbole signale la présence d’un danger d’électocution.
Warnungen und Vorsichtshinweise
Das Ausrufezeichen in Dreieck ist ein Warnzeichen, das Sie darauf
aufmerksam macht, daß wichtige Anleitungen zu diesem Handbuch
gehören.
Der gepfeilte Blitz im Dreieck ist ein Warnzeichen, das Sei vor “gefährlichen
Spannungen” im Inneren des Produkts warnt.
Advertencias y Precauciones
Esta señal le advierte sobre la importancia de las instrucciones del manual
que acompañan a este producto.
Esta señal alerta sobre la presencia de alto voltaje en el interior del
producto.
iv
- ADDENDUM The 4230 flow meter will become inaccurate displaying the depth, flow, and
total flow when exposed to electromagnetic fields in excess of 1.0V/m between
105 MgHz and 820 MgHz. It is suggested that the instrument be placed in a
location where these electromagnetic fields are not present, or the source of the
radiation is removed from the vicinity of the instrument if possible.
4230 Flow Meter
Safety
vi
4230 Flow Meter
Table of Contents
Section 1 Introduction
1.1 Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.2 Compatible Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.3 Operating Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
1.3.1 Operation of the Bubbler System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
1.3.2 Pressure Transducer Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
1.3.3 Automatic Drift Compensation Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
1.4 Software Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1.5 Controls, Indicators, and Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1.6 Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1.7 How to Make Battery Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
1.7.1 Calculating Current Draw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Section 2 Programming
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Operation of the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Keypad Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Programming Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Description of Program Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
2.5.1 Operating Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
2.5.2 Flow Conversion Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
2.5.3 Adjust Level, Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
2.5.4 Reset Totalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
2.5.5 Sampler Pacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
2.5.6 Sampler Enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
2.5.7 Alarm Dialout Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
2.5.8 Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
2.5.9 Reports/History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
2.6 Interpreting the Program Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
2.7 Step 1 - Operating Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
2.7.1 Optional Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
2.7.2 Serial Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
2.8 Step 2 - Flow Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
2.8.1 Flow Metering Inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-36
2.8.2 Enter Maximum Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37
2.8.3 Programming the 4-20 mA Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37
2.9 Step 3 - Parameter to Adjust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-38
2.10 Step 4 - Reset Totalizer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45
2.11 Step 5 - Sampler Pacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45
2.12 Step 6 - Sampler Enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-47
2.13 Step 7 - Alarm Dialout Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-51
2.14 Step 8 - Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-53
2.15 Step 9 - Reports/History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-55
2.15.1 Flow Meter History Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57
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4230 Flow Meter
Table of Contents
Section 3 Installation
3.1 Preparation for Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1.1 Install Desiccant Canister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1.2 Install External Desiccant Cartridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1.3 Opening the Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3.2 Connection to a Power Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3.2.1 Low Power Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3.2.2 Isco Sampler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3.2.3 Isco Nickel-Cadmium Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3.2.4 Isco Lead-Acid Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3.2.5 AC Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3.2.6 External 12 Volt Direct Current Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
3.3 Bubble Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
3.3.1 Setting the Bubble Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
3.3.2 Bubble Rate and Power Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
3.3.3 Purging a Clogged Bubble Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
3.3.4 Adjusting the Bubble Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
3.3.5 Locking the Bubble Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
3.3.6 Effects of Changing the Bubble Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
3.3.7 Super Bubble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
3.4 4230 Mounting and Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
3.4.1 Carrying Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
3.4.2 Location of the Flow Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
3.4.3 Safety Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
3.5 The Bubble Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
3.5.1 Standard Bubble Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
3.5.2 Comparing Vinyl and Teflon Bubble Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
3.5.3 Bubble Line Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
3.5.4 Teflon Line Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
3.5.5 Attaching the Teflon Bubble Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
3.5.6 Attaching the Vinyl Bubble Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3.5.7 Installing the Bubble Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3.5.8 High-Velocity Flow Streams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
3.5.9 Stilling Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
3.5.10 Flume Bubble Line Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
3.5.11 Bubble Line Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
3.5.12 Open Channel Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
3.6 Flow Metering Inserts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
3.7 The Bubbler Tube Retainer Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
3.8 Connection to a Sampler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
3.8.1 Connection to Other Isco Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Section 4 Optional Equipment
4.1 4200T Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.1.1 How it Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.1.2 Modem and Flowlink Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
4.1.3 Connection to a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
4.1.4 Types of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.2 Connections to External Serial Device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.3 4 to 20 mA (Analog) Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
4.3.1 External 4-20 mA Output Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
4.3.2 Internal Analog Output Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.4 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
4.5 Isco Flowlink Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.6 High-Low Alarm Relay Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.6.1 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
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4.6.2 Wiring to a 4200 Series Flow Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7 Parameter Sensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.1 Installation of Parameter Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.2 Temperature Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8 pH Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.1 How the pH Probe Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.2 pH Probe Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.3 pH Probe Installation Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.4 Storage and Maintenance of pH Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9 The Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.) Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.1 How the D.O. Probe Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.2 Probe Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.3 Membrane Thicknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.4 Probe Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.5 Probe Operation and Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.6 Calibrating the D.O. Probe with a Flow Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.10 Installation of Parameter Probes in Round Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.10.1 Spring Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.10.2 Scissors Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11 YSI 600 Multiple Parameter Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12 Mechanical Totalizer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-10
4-11
4-11
4-12
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-18
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-22
4-22
4-22
4-24
4-26
4-26
4-27
4-28
4-31
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
5.1 Care of the Flow Meter Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.1.1 Care of the Case Seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.1.2 Preventing Moisture Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.2 Desiccators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
5.2.1 Regenerating the Internal Case Desiccant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
5.2.2 Regenerating the External Desiccant Cartridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.3 Bubble Line Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
5.3.1 Inspection of the Bubble Line Outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
5.3.2 Automatic Air Purge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
5.4 Maintenance of the Printer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
5.4.1 Changing the Paper Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
5.4.2 Ink Ribbon Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.4.3 Do Not Lubricate or Disassemble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.5 Servicing And Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.5.1 Disassembling the Flow Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.5.2 Fuse Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
5.5.3 Display Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
5.6 System Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
5.7 Operation of the Bubbler System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
5.7.1 Internal Air Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
5.7.2 Air Output to Bubble Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
5.7.3 Purge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
5.7.4 Pressure Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
5.7.5 Automatic Drift Compensation Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
5.8 Preliminary Troubleshooting Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
5.8.1 If Serious Problems Occur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
5.8.2 Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
5.9 Precautions for Servicing CMOS Circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
5.9.1 Hazard of Static Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
5.10 Using FLASH UPDATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
5.10.1 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
5.10.2 Before Running FLASH UPDATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
5.10.3 Running FLASH UPDATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
5.10.4 About Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
ix
4230 Flow Meter
Table of Contents
Appendix A Accessories and Replacement Parts
A.1 Replacement Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
A.2 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-8
Appendix B Programming Worksheets
B.1
B.2
B.3
B.4
B.5
B.6
B.7
B.8
B.9
Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Flow Conversion: Level-to-Flow Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
Parameter to Adjust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5
Reset Totalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5
Sampler Pacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5
Sampler Enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5
Alarm Dialout Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-6
Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-6
Reports/History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7
Appendix C General Safety Procedures
C.1 Practical Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
C.2 Lethal Atmospheres in Sewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-4
C.3 Hazardous Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-6
Appendix D Material Safety Data Sheets
D.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1
List of Figures
1-1 4230 Controls and Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1-2 4230 Side View Showing Connectors and Pin Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1-3 Measuring Flow Meter Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
2-1 The YSI 600 Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
2-2 Flow Metering Insert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37
2-3 Level Measurement in Round Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-39
2-4 YSI 600 Sonde Calibration Flow Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-44
3-1 Battery Installed on Flow Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3-2 4230 Suspended by Handle (handles may vary) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
3-3 Attaching the Bubble Line to the 4230 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
3-4 Positioning the Bubble Line in the Flow Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
3-5 Installing the Stainless Steel Bubble Line Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
3-6 Flow Metering Insert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
3-7 Bubbler Tube Retainer Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
4-1 4-20 mA Output Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4-2 674 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4-3 Temperature Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
4-4 pH Probe With Protective Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
4-5 201 pH Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
4-6 D.O. (Dissolved Oxygen) Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
4-7 D.O. Parameter Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
4-8 Sensor Installed on a Spring Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26
4-9 Scissors Ring Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28
4-10 YSI 600 Multiple Sensor Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-29
5-1 Location of the Case Desiccating Canister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
5-2 Changing the Chart Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
5-3 Ink Ribbon Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5-4 Lifting the Flow Meter from the Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
x
4230 Flow Meter
Table of Contents
5-5 Location of the Three Fuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-6 4230 Bubbler System Pressure Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-7 Schematic Diagram of the Bubbler System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-8 Update File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-9 Options Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-10 Preferences Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-10
5-12
5-13
5-19
5-19
5-19
List of Tables
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
2-1
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
5-1
C-1
4230 Controls, Indicators, and Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
4230 Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Technical Specifications for Flowlink and Bubbler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
4230 Chart Longevity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Battery Life Expectancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
ASCII Output Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
4-20 mA Output Interface: Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Multiple Analog Output Board: Technical Specifications (each circuit) . . . . . . . . 4-7
pH Probe Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
D.O. Probe Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
YSI 600 Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-29
Minimum DOS and Computer Hardware Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
Hazardous Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-6
xi
4230 Flow Meter
Table of Contents
xii
4230 Flow Meter
Section 1 Introduction
This section provides a general introduction to the 4230 Bubbler
Flow Meter. It includes a description of the flow meter, an explanation of how the unit operates, and technical specifications.
Manual Organization – This manual provides the information
necessary to operate, maintain, and perform minor service on the
4230. The manual is organized into five sections:
Section 1: Introduction, operation, and specifications
Section 2: Keypad operation and programming for the 4230
Flow Meter
Section 3: Installation and options application-specific to the
4230
Section 4: Options and accessories for all 4200 Series flow
meters
Section 5: Routine maintenance and minor service
Following Section 5 are appendices covering safety, accessory
parts, replacement parts, and material safety data.
1.1 Description
The 4230 uses the bubbler method of level measurement. The
flow meter is normally used with some type of primary measuring device to measure flow in an open channel. The 4230 has
built-in standard level-to-flow conversions, that cover the vast
majority of open channel flow measurement situations. The 4230
is also capable of calculating flow using the Manning Equation.
Additionally, you can enter a non-standard equation or data
points, that effectively plot a user-derived flow profile for a flow
stream. The 4230 supports the Isco data acquisition, storage, and
retrieval system with the use of optional Flowlink software. The
4230 has enough memory to store over 40,000 data readings. An
optional 4200T Modem, with speech capability, is available to
transmit stored data over standard dial-up telephone lines.
1.2 Compatible
Equipment
The 4230 Flow Meter may be used with the following equipment:
Manufactured by Teledyne Isco
• 6700 Series Portable and Refrigerated Samplers
• 3700 Series Sequential, Composite and Refrigerated
Samplers
• GLS and Glacier Compact Samplers
• 4-20 mA Output Interface
• Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge
• High-Low Alarm Relay Box
1-1
4230 Flow Meter
Section 1 Introduction
Manufactured by Others
• IBM Personal Computer or compatible clone with Isco
Flowlink software
• Laptop Computer with Isco software
• YSI 600 Multi-Parameter Sonde
Optional Equipment and Accessories
• 4200T Modem - Speech-capable, with connector and
cable
• D.O. (dissolved oxygen) and pH parameter probes
• Flow Metering Inserts for round-pipe installations in
sizes of 6", 8", 10", and 12".
• Bubble lines, in lengths of 25 feet (Teflon 0.125" OD,
0.065" ID) and 50 feet (vinyl 0.250" OD, 0.125" ID)
• Stainless steel extension tube for the bubble line (4.0
feet 0.125" OD)
• Isco Flowlink® Software for data acquisition, storage,
and management
• Carrier and Mounting rings for mounting the bubble
line outlet in round pipes.
1.3 Operating Principles
When measuring flow rate, the 4230 is used with a primary measuring device (typically a weir or a flume) or other open channel
flow arrangement where a known relationship exists between
level and flow rate. The level measuring device is a bubbler
which measures the liquid level in the flow stream. The flow
meter electronically converts the level reading into a
properly-scaled flow rate value. The flow meter also provides
standard or optional flow-related output signals to be used for:
• Flow-proportional sampler pacing and enabling
• Recording flow rate information on an external
printer/plotter or circular chart recorder
• Data transfer through a modem
• Control of a 4-20 mA device
• Data transfer by a laptop computer
The flow meter contains microprocessor-controlled circuitry to
calculate level and flow rate from the signals produced by the
pressure transducer, store the program you entered, and operate
the display and the internal printer. An alphanumeric liquid
crystal display (LCD) is provided to show current total flow, level,
and flow rate, and to prompt you in programming the flow meter
during setup or subsequent program changes. An internal
printer provides a “hard copy” printout of the information computed by the flow meter, plots level or flow rate, and generates
reports. Connectors for other equipment used with the 4230 are
arranged vertically on the right side of the flow meter case.
1-2
4230 Flow Meter
Section 1 Introduction
1.3.1 Operation of the
Bubbler System
The bubbler system, used by the 4230 to sense level in the flow
stream, works as follows: A small compressor pumps air into a
reservoir. This air is released slowly by a needle valve into a
bubble line, a length of small diameter flexible tubing. The other
end of this tube is submerged in the flow stream. Inside the flow
meter, the bubble line also connects to one side of a differential
pressure transducer. As air is released slowly into the bubble line
by the needle valve, pressure builds inside the line to force the
air out of the line into the flow stream. When there is enough
pressure to counteract the hydrostatic pressure of the flow
stream, a bubble will be forced from the end of the line. The
amount of pressure required to force the bubble from the end of
the line is directly dependent on the hydrostatic pressure of the
flow stream over the end of the bubble line. The pressure transducer inside the flow meter senses this pressure and converts it
into an electrical signal that the 4230 converts into level. From
the measured level detected by the bubbler and consulting
lookup tables for the primary device you are using, the flow
meter then calculates flow rate and total flow.
1.3.2 Pressure Transducer
Operation
The differential pressure transducer used with the bubbler contains a resistance bridge on a silicon diaphragm. Pressure
against one side of this diaphragm causes it to flex slightly. This
flexing causes the resistors on one side of the bridge to stretch
slightly. At the same time the resistors on the other side of the
bridge compress slightly. The result is an unbalance in the
bridge, proportional to the increase of air pressure, caused in
turn by an increase in level of the flow stream. This bridge is fed
from a constant-voltage source; changes in output are the result
of changes in pressure.
1.3.3 Automatic Drift
Compensation Valve
The 4230 Flow Meter contains the software and circuitry necessary to measure the output of the pressure transducer at zero
pressure. When the flow meter is first turned on, and periodically
after that, the processor actuates the automatic drift compensation valve, which connects the input port of the pressure transducer to the reference port. With the two ports connected, it then
measures the output offset. The flow meter stores this offset
reading in memory and uses it in level calculations. The flow
meter periodically repeats this zero-offset measurement and
stores the new reading in memory. The repetition of this process
causes zero drift in the pressure transducer or the amplifier to
cancel out, eliminating the most significant cause of drift, especially when the flow meter is operating at low water levels.
The valve also provides temperature compensation at zero
pressure. The software controlling the 4230 determines how
often this compensation cycle is repeated. Drift compensation
cycles range from two to fifteen minutes.
1-3
4230 Flow Meter
Section 1 Introduction
1.4 Software Upgrades
To update the software in a 4200 Series Flow Meter, you do not
have to return the unit to the factory or replace an EPROM. With
Flash Memory, software updates can easily be installed in the
field with a disk, a computer, and a cable. See Section 5 for
instructions for Flash software updates. For more information
about installing software upgrades in the 4230 Flow Meter,
contact your Teledyne Isco representative or call the factory.
1.5 Controls, Indicators,
and Connectors
The controls, indicators, and connectors of the 4230 Flow Meter
are listed in Table 1-1, and their functions are briefly described.
Refer to Figure 1-1 for a view of the controls and indicators, and
Figure 1-2 for a view of the connectors and their pin functions.
1.6 Technical
Specifications
The technical specifications for the 4230 Flow Meter are found in
Table 1-2. The anticipated longevity for a roll of paper used in the
printer is shown for various chart speeds in Table 1-4. Battery
life expectancy for three programming combinations is found in
Table 1-5, with a brief description of how to make battery calculations immediately following.
Note
Various options and accessories used with the 4230 are
described throughout the manual. For convenience, the Teledyne Isco part numbers for these items are listed on the
Accessory Parts List found at the end of the Replacement
Parts List. Part numbers for equipment not listed on this sheet
are available from the factory.
1-4
4230 Flow Meter
Section 1 Introduction
Figure 1-1 4230 Controls and Indicators
1-5
4230 Flow Meter
Section 1 Introduction
Pin Function
Power
Sampler
A = Channel 1 (-) Red
B = Channel 3 (+) Green
C = Channel 1 (+) White
D = Channel 2 (-) Brown
E = Channel 3 (-) Black
F = Channel 2 (+) Blue
A
B
Ground
12V
A
B
C
D
E
F
12V
Ground
Flow Pulse Output
Bottle Number Input
Event Mark Input
Inhibit/Enable Output
Rain Gauge
A
B
C
D
12V
Ground
SDO
Rain Gauge Input
Interrogator
A
B
C
D
E
F
12V
Ground
Sense Line
SDO
SDI
Analog Output Pulse
Modem
(or Analog
Output)
B
Tip
C
Ring
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
12V
Ground
Input Signal (+)
Temp (-)
Temp (+)
Switched 12V
Input Signal (-)
Parameter
Bubble Rate
Adjust Knob
Figure 1-2 4230 Side View Showing Connectors and Pin
Functions
1-6
4230 Flow Meter
Section 1 Introduction
Table 1-1 4230 Controls, Indicators, and Connectors
CONTROLS
SETTINGS
ON/OFF
On - Off
Keypad
Momentary Switches
24-key. 4 column matrix - Program flow meter through series of keystrokes prompted by messages on the display. Certain keys perform specific functions, (printing reports or entering program choices into
memory). Arrow keys move through menus. Number keys enter numeric
values.See Section 2.
Bubble Rate
Adjust Valve
1 bubble per second
(normally)
Controls the rate of air discharge from the pump and reservoir into the
bubble line.
INDICATOR
READING
Display
Multi-function
Internal Printer
Various
Provides hard copy of total flow, level or flow rate variation over time; provides sampling information and a printout of the program. Prints reports.
Generates up to 3 different linear data plots. Chart characters and plots
are generated on plain paper roll with an ink ribbon.
CONNECTOR
TYPE
FUNCTION
12 VDC
2-pin male M/S
Connects 12 VDC power to flow meter
Sampler
6-pin male M/S
Connects flow meter to sampler; provides flow pulse to sampler; receives
sampler bottle number, composite sample and event mark signal.
Rain Gauge/
YSI 600 Sonde
9-pin female M/S
Interrogator
6-pin female M/S
Modem (optional)
5-pin male M/S
Connects flow meter to telephone line for remote data transmission. This
connector will only be present on units that have the optional modem
installed.
Analog Output
(optional)
6-pin male M/S
Provides analog data output from the flow meter to external, non-Isco
control and recording devices.
Parameter
7-pin female M/S
(Custom)
FUNCTION
Turns the flow meter on and off. Internal memory is protected with a
standby battery. See Section 2.
FUNCTION
2-line, 40 characters per line, liquid crystal display (LCD.) Prompts you
through program procedure; displays total flow,. present flow rate and
level. May also display parameter readings, if sensors present.
Connects flow meter to a Isco Rain Gauge or YSI 600 Multi-Parameter
Sonde. Also provides output to High-Low Alarm Relay Box.
Provides serial data in/out and power. Can also be used with 4-20 mA
Output Interface.
Connects flow meter to parameter sensor: temperature, pH, or D.O. Note
that you can only have temperature and one parameter (pH or D.O.) at
the same time.
Table 1-2 4230 Technical Specifications
Physical and Electrical
Size
17" high × 111⁄2" wide × 10 1⁄2" deep (without power source)
Weight
19 lb. 1 oz
Material
High-impact molded polystyrene structural foam
Type
Self-certified NEMA 4X Enclosure
Display Type
2-line, 40 character/line alphanumeric dot matrix liquid crystal
Power
12 -14 VDC, 16 mA average at 12.5 VDC (Printer set at 1" per hour)
1-7
4230 Flow Meter
Section 1 Introduction
Table 1-2 4230 Technical Specifications (Continued)
Typical Battery Life
7-10 days with printer at 1" per hour and 4 Ampere-hour Ni-Cad battery
12 days with purge and printer turned off and bubble rate set at 1 bubble per second
Operating Temperature
0° to 140°F (–18° to 60°C)
Storage Temperature
–40° to 158°F (–40° to 70°C)
Additional Power Required for Optional Equipment
Modem
60 mA maximum during operation; 0.1 mA maximum standby
High-Low Alarm Relay Box
10 mA standby, typical; 190 mA - both relays operated
Chart Speeds
Off,1⁄2, 1, 2, or 4 inches per hour
Ribbon
19.7 ft. (6 m) black nylon - replaceable
Operating Speed
1.5 lines per second at 68°F. (20° C)
Character Size
0.09" high × 0.07" wide (2.4mm × 1.7 mm), 12 pitch
Printer Recording Span
User-selected from 3/4 ft. (3.6 cm) to over 30 ft. (9.1 m) with multiple over-ranges
Internal Printer
1
/240 of selected recording span
Chart Resolution
0.001 ft. (0.3 mm)
Display Resolution
Paper
4.5" wide × 65 ft. (11.4 cm × 19.8 m) plain white paper, replaceable
Plotter Reliability
2.5 million lines MCBF (mean cycles before failure)
Reports Printed
Program selections, interval activity reports, flow meter history
Printer Recording Modes
Level over time, flow rate over time; includes totalized flow, sampler events, rainfall,
temperature, pH (or) D.O.
Plotted Linear Data
3 different linear plots can be printed at the same time
Table 1-3 Technical Specifications for Flowlink and Bubbler
Isco Flowlink Data Storage and Retrieval System
Memory Partitions
Maximum of 6 user-defined memory partitions for level or event storage
Data Storage
Rate of data storage user-selected in 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, or 120 minute intervals
Baud Rates
Serial connection - 300, 1200, 2400, 4800, or 9600 baud.
Serial connection with the optional internal modem - 2400 baud
Storage
80,000 bytes, apportioned per reading as follows: flow = 4 bytes, level = 2 bytes,
sample = 4 bytes, pH or D.O. = 1 byte)
Level Date
Level readings are stored as a 16-bit number representing 1/10,000 meter
(0.0394 inch); effective range is 0–65279 meters
Bubbler Specifications
Measurement Range
0.01 ft. (3 mm) to 10.0 ft. (3.1 m)
Maximum Depth
21.0 ft. (6.4 m)
1-8
4230 Flow Meter
Section 1 Introduction
Table 1-3 Technical Specifications for Flowlink and Bubbler (Continued)
Measurement Accuracy
Level change of 0.01 to 1.0 ft. (0.006 to 1.5 m) ±0.005 ft. (0.003 m)
(22°C, 1 bubble per second)
Level change of 0.1 to 5.0 ft. (0.03 to 1.6 m) ±0.010 ft. (0.006 m)
Level change of 0.1 to 10.0 ft. (0.03 to 3.1 m) ±0.035 ft. (0.01 m)
Long-term calibration change
Typically, 0.5% of reading per year
Temperature effects on level mea- Maximum error (feet) = 0.0003 × Level (in feet) × Temperature
surement accuracy
(Deviation from 22°C within compensated range)
Transducer Pressure Safety
Range
Transducer is capable of withstanding maximum air pump outlet pressure without
damage
Standard Bubble Lines
25 ft. (7.6 m) 0.125" (0.32 mm) OD, 0.065" (0.17 cm) ID Teflon®
50 ft. (15.2 m) 0.250" (0.63 cm) OD, 0.125" (0.32 cm) ID vinyl
Automatic Drift Compensation
Zero-corrected to ±0.002 ft. (0.0006 m) at intervals of 2 to 15 minutes. (Interval is
software-controlled.)
Optional
Stainless steel extension tubes for the bubble line.
4 ft. 1.2 m long × 0.065" (0.17 cm) or 0.125" (0.32 cm) ID
Compensated Temperature
Range
0° to 60°C
Miscellaneous
Flow Rate Calculations
The flow meter creates a table of level-versus-flow rate from program selections;
this table divides the level span into 256 equally-spaced level increments. Each
level increment corresponds to a specific flow rate. During data collection, if the
measured level falls between two table values, the flow meter will perform a linear
interpolation to calculate the flow rate value.
Table 1-4 4230 Chart Longevity
Chart Speed, Inch/Hour
Time to Empty Roll
(Note: Report Generator is OFF)
4
195 Hours (81/8Days)
2
163/4Days
1
321/2 Days
0.5
65 Days
Table 1-5 Battery Life Expectancy
Flow Meter Settings
Minimum
Default2
Maximum
Bubble Rate
1.5 / Second
1.5 / Second
1.5 / Second
Printer
Off
Off
4" per Hour
Report Generator
Off
Off
Every Hour
Purge Interval
1 Hour
15 Minutes
5 Minutes
Purge Duration
1
1
3 Seconds
Average Current
14 mA
15 mA
27 mA
/2 Second
/2 Second
1-9
4230 Flow Meter
Section 1 Introduction
Table 1-5 Battery Life Expectancy (Continued)
Nickel-Cadmium3
10.7 Days5
10 Days
5.5 Days
Lead-Acid4
17.4 Days
16.2 Days
9 Days
Notes
1. These figures are approximations based on calculations; actual
times for your flow meter may deviate due to factors of battery
age, charge condition, operating temperatures, and component
variations. “Minimum” settings are those providing the lowest
average current draw. “Maximum” settings are those requiring
the highest current draw. Your program should draw somewhere
between the two.
2. The default settings are the program entered at the factory. You
can reset the flow meter to the default program at any time by
pressing the 1 and CLEAR ENTRY keys at the same time.
3. This battery has a capacity of 4.0 ampere-hours at room temperature (20° C).
4. This battery has a capacity of 6.5 ampere-hours at room temperature (20° C). (Both batteries are assumed to be fully-charged with
at least 95% of rated capacity and in good condition. These calculations also assume a 5% safety factor at the end of discharge.
Lead-acid batteries should never be completely discharged.)
5. All fractional times are rounded down, rather than up.
1.7 How to Make Battery
Calculations
To calculate battery life expectancy for an installation, you must
know two things:
• The capacity of the battery you are using
• The average current draw of the flow meter or (other
device) powered
Battery capacity is expressed in ampere-hours. The battery manufacturer provides this information for each battery. This value is
the product of a load current times an arbitrary time period, ten
hours for nickel-cadmium batteries, and twenty hours for
lead-acid types. The terminal voltage of the battery at the end of
this time period is the discharged cell voltage, 10 volts for
nickel-cadmium and 10.5 volts for lead-acid types. Batteries are
considered fully discharged well before the terminal voltage
drops to zero volts.
Isco batteries are rated at 4 ampere-hours for the
nickel-cadmium and 6.5 ampere-hours for lead-acid types.
Convert the battery current capacity into milliamperes and then
divide this figure by the average current drawn by the unit. This
will give you a number in hours. Divide that figure by 24, and
you will have the number of days.
Note that the published ampere-hour figures do not mean that
you can expect to draw 4 amperes from the nickel-cadmium
battery (or 6.5 amperes from the lead-acid battery) for one hour.
At the one-hour rate, discharges are typically less than half the
ten- or twenty-hour rate.
1-10
4230 Flow Meter
Section 1 Introduction
To convert ampere-hours to milliamperes, multiply by 1,000.
Examples:
4 ampere-hours × 1,000 = 4,000 mAh
6.5 ampere-hours × 1,000 = 6,500 mAh
If you divide this figure by the average current of the flow meter,
say 15 mA, you will have:
4,000 ÷ 15 = 266.67 hours
Divide this number by twenty-four to get days:
266.67 hours ÷ 24 = 11.1 days
For considerations of safety, we suggest you subtract 10% from
this number (100% – 5% for 95% capacity and 5% for a reserve at
the end of discharge).
11.1 – 1.1 = 10 days
This is the battery expectancy for a nickel-cadmium battery with
a 15 mA continuous average drain, with a 10% derating factor.
You can use the same method to calculate for lead-acid batteries,
except the current will be 6,500 mA, and the period correspondingly longer, in this case a little over 16 days. You can run the full
number of days calculated without derating if your batteries are
new and at 100% capacity, but you will leave yourself no safety
factor if you are in error on either of these assumptions.
Remember, if the battery fails, there will be a period of time
during which no measurements will be taken, (and no data
stored, if you are also using Flowlink® software).
Batteries lose capacity as they age. Capacity also drops off as
temperature falls. Low temperatures make less capacity
available due to the slowing of the chemical reactions, while high
temperatures accelerate the deterioration of battery plate separators, particularly if they are aged. Nickel-cadmium batteries
show fairly rapid rates of self-discharge. A battery that is fully
charged and then placed in storage will lose some capacity each
day. In a week, this could easily be 5% or more.
When using lead-acid batteries, you must be careful to avoid
complete discharge, as this may cause cell reversal, which will
ruin the battery. Also, complete discharge in low temperature
ambients may cause the battery to freeze, which can deform the
plates or even crack the case. Always operate these batteries
with a reserve factor.
1.7.1 Calculating Current
Draw
Calculating current draw for a 4230 Flow Meter is somewhat
more difficult than calculating the battery capacity. You cannot
simply measure the idle current of the unit unless the printer
and report generator are turned off in the program. These functions require power periodically, but not all the time. If the
figures given in the previous table are not satisfactory for your
application, you can use the following procedure (shown in
Figure 1-3) to measure the actual current draw.
1-11
4230 Flow Meter
Section 1 Introduction
Fluke® 87
(or other currentaveraging meter)
FLUKE 87 TRUE RMS MULTIMETER
00I5
Flow
Meter
mA
A
Connect Cable
60-1394-023,
or you can make
your own.
A
mA μA Com
VΩ
+ lead
–
Battery, 12 Volt
+
+ clip
A good quality, adjustable, regulated DC power supply
can be substituted for the 12-volt battery. The power
supply should have at least 3 Amperes output, preferably more, and capable of overcurrent surges.
Figure 1-3 Measuring Flow Meter Current
Note
Do not attempt this procedure unless you have the proper
equipment available and know how to make electrical measurements.
To measure current for a varying load requires a more-sophisticated type of multimeter, one that is capable of averaging high
and low readings over a period of time. The Fluke® 87 Multimeter is one example of this type of meter. You should set the
meter on MIN/MAX and let it run with your program for several
hours or more. Other manufacturers’ meters are also acceptable,
but only if they are capable of averaging current draw. You
should run the test for at least eight hours, longer if necessary, or
until the flow meter has exercised the entire program. The longer
you run the test, the more accurate the average will be.
More information about batteries used to power Isco equipment
is available from the Isco Power Products Guide, which is shipped
with this manual and any flow meter order.
1-12
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
2.1 Getting Started
You must program the 4230 Flow Meter to accurately monitor a
flow stream. The 4230 will usually also need a primary measuring device, a structure placed across a stream that regulates
flow. This section describes programming the flow meter with the
aid of the keypad and display. There are nine program steps that
control all aspects of the flow meter's operation.
Teledyne Isco ships the flow meter with a program already
installed that is called the default program. You can use this
program as an example to see the flow meter's capabilities. The
default program is just to test the unit at the factory. The flow
meter's internal computer must always have something programmed into the unit, so that becomes the default program.
Your flow situation will usually require other programming
choices. The text provided with each screen explains the reasons
for the various menu options.
2.2 Operation of the
Display
The display is a two-line, forty character-per-line liquid crystal
(LCD). It has a backlight feature for easy viewing in low light situations. The display has three different operating modes,
normal, programming, and messages. In the normal mode, the
display shows such things as level, flow rate, total flow,
parameter measurement, etc. In the programming mode, the top
line of the display shows each step as you work through the
program while the bottom line shows the choices available for
that step. In the message mode, the display provides instructional information, such as how to leave programming, or what to
do if you have entered a number that is out-of-range.
Following is a “normal” display on the flow meter. This is typical
of what the flow meter will display when it is in the normal operating mode and you are not programming it.
0000004.78 CF
1.03 CFS
1.13 FT
(X X)
16-MAR-94
8:25:37
An interpretation of the numbers on this display would be as
follows: Time and date will be replaced by pH/D.O. and temperature if you are using parameter sensing. The (X X) to the right
of the time indicates letters that may appear from time to time
on the 4230 Flow Meter.
The letter C appears when the flow meter is communicating with
a remote computer (Flowlink applications only). The letter Z will
appear when the flow meter is doing an auto-zero. The letter P
will appear when the flow meter is purging the bubble line. The
letters E or D will appear (Enable or Disable) when the Sampler
Enable function (step 6) is programmed by condition. (Pro-
2-1
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
grammed by condition means that the flow meter will enable the
sampler only when a certain condition or set of conditions, sensed
by the flow meter, are met.)
Total Flow
Flow Rate
Current Level Date (or pH/D.O.)
Time (temperature)
Following is a typical programming display on the flow meter:
(One of the items in the second line will be flashing. The item
flashing is the selection currently held in memory.)
TOTALIZED VOLUME UNITS
• CF • • GAL • • M3 • • AF • • L • • MGAL •
Following is a typical display providing instructional information:
CHANGES HAVE BEEN MADE IN STEP
PRESS '0' TO CONTINUE, PRESS '1' TO DISCARD
Note
If you stop programming for more than two minutes, the flow
meter will time out, and whatever is on the display, (message
or program step) will revert to the “normal” display, shown previously.
The program consists of steps and substeps. The steps are listed
on the flow meter front panel. Most steps contain several substeps. Generally, you need to complete all the substeps before
stopping, or the flow meter will reject the changes you made for
that step after it times out. There are some exceptions.
The flow meter keeps in memory any changes that you made for
the finished steps (all substeps completed before stopping). Most
steps not finished when you stop will return to the previous
selection.
2.3 Keypad Functions
Programming is done on the flow meter's keypad in response to
messages on the display. The following sections describe the
function of each key.
OFF and ON – These two keys turn the flow meter off and on.
Go To Program Step – Pressing this key lets you go directly to
a particular step without passing through all the steps of the
program. The display will ask you to enter the number of the
step you want to program. Enter the number by pressing one of
the number keys. There are nine program steps, so numbers
from one to nine are valid.
Exit Program – Press this key when you want to leave the programming mode and return to the normal operating mode.
Clear Entry – This key lets you return to the previous entry for
a program step if you have changed the entry, but have not yet
pressed Enter.
2-2
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Enter/Program Step – This key has two functions. One is to
enter a program selection into the flow meter's memory (Enter).
The other is to step through the program (Program Step).
Print Program – Pressing this key makes the flow meter print
out a complete list of the current program kept in memory.
Print Report – One of the functions of the flow meter is to print
periodic reports of the activity recorded on the flow meter at
regular intervals. The contents of these reports are defined in
step 1. If you set up the flow meter to generate these reports, you
can have a report printed at any time by pressing this key. The
report will cover the time interval from the last scheduled report
up to the time you press this key.
The flow meter will print the next report at the next scheduled
time. If power fails for five minutes or more, the flow meter will
print a report when power is restored that will cover the interval
between the last report and the time that the power failed. The
next report will cover the time from the power failure to next
scheduled report time.
Chart Advance – Pressing this key causes the paper chart to
advance through the printer at the fastest possible speed.
Nothing will be printed while you press this key.
Chart Reroll – You can unroll the chart from the take-up roll to
look at it by pulling it out with your hands. Pressing this key
rewinds the chart onto the take-up roll.
Number keys – These keys let you enter numeric values into
the flow meter.
Decimal Point – This key lets you enter a decimal point into a
numeric value when programming. On flow meters equipped
with the optional modem, you can use this character as a comma
(delay) when entering telephone dialout numbers.
Arrow keys – These keys, referred to as the left and right arrow
keys let you select a programming option by moving across the
menus shown on the second line of the display.
+/– key – This key lets you enter a plus or minus to a quantity
entered. Its most common use is in entering values for the
equation, a method of flow conversion. On flow meters equipped
with the optional modem, you can use this character as a dash
when entering dialout numbers.
Manual Purge – This key lets you purge the bubble line on the
4230 at any time.
2.4 Programming
Procedure
To begin programming the 4230, turn on the flow meter and wait
for the display to settle. Then either press the Enter/Program
Step key (generally referred to as Enter) or the Go To
Program Step key.
The display will change to two lines of text; the first line
describes the step you are programming, and the second line
shows the menu choices available. One of the choices shown will
2-3
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
be flashing. The flashing indicates that this choice is the current
one held in memory. If you are satisfied with this choice, just
press Enter, and the flow meter will advance to the next step.
If you want a different choice from the one that is flashing, you
can move across the display by using the left and right arrow
keys. Each time you press the right arrow key, the flashing
selection will move one position to the right. This will continue
until the flashing is over the last selection.
From time to time you will notice an arrow that points to the
right edge of the display. This indicates additional choices are
available beyond what you can see on the display. By continuing
to press the right arrow key, you can view these unseen options.
After reaching the furthest option, the arrow will move to the left
side of the display, indicating that there are options unseen to
the left. These are the options you started with. If you want to go
back to one of them, use the left arrow key until the option you
need reappears.
When the desired selection is flashing, press Enter. The display
will then automatically advance to the next step of the program.
All of the program steps contain several substeps that must be
completed before you advance to the next program step. Some
steps, like Reset Totalizer contain only a few substeps. Some
steps will require the entry of a numeric value.
Program these steps by using the number and decimal keys to
enter the correct value.
You can program most of the flow meter in the shop, rather than
at the job site, with the exception of step 3, Adjust Level/Parameters. To set level, you must make an accurate measurement of
the level in the flow stream and then enter that value. This can
only be done at the job site.
If you are programming the flow meter for the first time, generally you will begin by pressing Enter, and start with step 1. If
the flow meter has been in use and you only need to change the
program, you would be more likely to use the Go To Program
Step key. With this key, you can go directly to the program step
you need to change, instead of having to step through every
single screen.
If you change an entry and want to change it again, you can
make the display revert to the original entry by pressing Clear
Entry. If you have already pressed Enter, however, the new
value will be in memory. To change it, press Exit Program. If
you are in the middle of a program step with multiple substeps,
the flow meter will display, “Changes have been made in step;
press 0 to continue or 1 to discard.” If you press 1, the display
will return to normal and the last step you were working on will
revert to its previous selection. (Any program step you completely change before you exit will remain changed.)
You can re-enter the program with either Enter or the Go To
Program Step keys. If you become confused while programming, the best suggestion is to press Exit Program and
start over. Also remember that you can have the flow meter print
2-4
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
a complete list of your program choices by exiting the program
and by pressing the Print Program key as soon as the display
returns to the normal operating condition, displaying level and
total flow, etc.
2.5 Description of
Program Steps
The flow meter is programmed using the following steps:
1. Operating Mode
2. Flow Conversion
3. Adjust Level/Parameters
4. Reset Totalizer
5. Sampler Pacing
6. Sampler Enable
7. Alarm Dialout
8. Printer
9. Reports/History
The sections that follow provide a description of each of the
program steps.
2.5.1 Operating Mode
Step 1, Operating Mode, determines how you set up the flow
meter. In this step there are two choices: Program and Setup.
Program advances you into step 1, and from there on you correlate the flow meter to the flow stream. Setup selects various
basic “housekeeping” features for the flow meter. Here you
determine the internal clock, site identification, measurement
setup, hysteresis (see page 2-15), report contents, operation of
the display backlight, and program lock. In Program, you select
the units of measure the flow meter will use for the display, calculations, and reports.
Note
If you choose NOT MEASURED for any selection, the flow
meter will make no further reference to that value or function
for the rest of the program, and you will not be able to activate
that process or function later on unless you reprogram step 1.
If there is a feature or option you need that does not appear on
your display when the manual says it should, return to step 1
and make sure you have not inadvertently left it turned off in
either the Program or Setup menus.
Selecting some features automatically excludes others. For
example, selection of pH or D.O. excludes the other parameter,
unless you use the YSI 600 Multi-Parameter Sonde, which measures pH, D.O., and conductivity at the same time.
This method keeps program size manageable and makes programming more efficient. By turning off unneeded features of the
program early, you do not have to keep de-selecting those features over and over as you work through the program.
2-5
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Consequently, you should choose carefully from the first step. We
suggest you study the program first, then fill out the Programming Worksheets (in the back of the manual), and program
the flow meter last, if you are unfamiliar with the unit.
2.5.2 Flow Conversion Type
Step 2, Flow Conversion Type, determines how the flow meter
calculates flow rate and total flow. For the 4230, flow rate is calculated by knowing the measured level and (usually) the characteristics of a structure called a primary measuring device.
A primary measuring device is a structure placed in a flow
stream through which the stream flows. These devices are made
in a number of styles and sizes, but they all have one thing in
common: For any type of primary measuring device there is a
known relationship between the level in the flow stream ahead of
the device and flow rate through the device. Consequently, after
you measure level with the flow meter, it can calculate flow rate
and total flow from the measured level, by consulting built-in
look-up tables.
Information about many common primary measuring devices is
p r o vided in th e Is co Ope n C ha nnel Flow Me asu rem en t
Handbook. This useful book provides formulas, flow rates at
various levels, and values for maximum head, as well as much
interesting descriptive material. This book is available on
request from Teledyne Isco. If your installation uses a nonstandard primary device, you should consult the manufacturer of
the device for flow rates at given levels. The flow meter will then
calculate a flow conversion for such a device on the basis of the
manufacturers' data you enter as data points or an equation. In
some instances, a nonstandard primary device could be supplied
with a flow equation; you can enter that equation into the flow
meter and the flow meter will calculate the flow rate from that
equation.
Flow Calculations Without Primary Devices – However, it
is not always necessary to have a primary measuring device. The
4230 Flow Meter can measure level and calculate flow without
having any primary device installed in the flow stream. Sometimes the shape of the flow stream itself forms the primary
device.
The Manning formula uses the shape of a pipe or channel and
its slope to calculate flow in open (non-pressurized) pipes.
An accessory is available for the 4230 called the Flow Metering
Insert. These inserts, used in round pipes of 6", 8", 10", and 12",
form a primary device inside the pipe by restricting flow and
measuring the level of the liquid backed-up behind the insert.
The opening in the insert, either a smaller round opening or a
V-notch that forms a weir, forms a primary device.
The conversion types available are WEIR/FLUME, MANNING,
DATA POINTS, EQUATION, and FLOW METERING INSERTS.
You use Weir/Flume flow conversion when your primary measuring device is a weir or a flume. A weir is a wall or dam across
the flow stream. Water must rise to the point where it flows over
2-6
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
the top of the wall. The measured level upstream of the device
and the appropriate formula are used to calculate flow. Flumes
differ from weirs in that there is no wall or barrier, but instead a
restriction, typically a sharp narrowing or change in the slope of
the channel that restricts the flow.
Again, the measured level of the stream at some point ahead of
the restriction is used by the flow meter to calculate flow. In this
flow conversion mode, the flow meter uses internal look-up tables
for many common primary measuring devices.
An Equation is used when you have a non-standard primary
device, or want to use different values from those programmed
into the look-up tables of the flow meter. Equation uses the
standard flow equation:
Q = k1HP1+ k2HP2
Where Q equals flow rate; k1 and k2 are constants; H is level (or
head), and P1 and P2 are the powers to which the two H terms
are raised. (Your equation may not have the second term, in
which case you would enter 0 for the second constant, k2.) Most
common primary devices are supported in the flow meter's
software, so generally you will not need this option. But it is
available for those needing to enter their own values, or for those
who have a nonstandard primary device for which an equation
can correlate level and flow.
The Manning Flow Conversion uses the Manning formula to
calculate flow in open or closed (non pressurized) gravity-flow situations based on slope, diameter, and roughness of the pipe. The
Manning formula is named for its developer, Robert Manning, a
19th-century Irish civil engineer. There is no primary measuring
device as such. Instead the pipe, with considerations for its slope
and internal roughness, serves as the primary device. The 4230
Flow Meter can calculate flow in round pipes, rectangular,
U-shaped, or trapezoidal channels based on this formula.
The Data Points Flow Conversion calculates flow based on a set
of user-entered data points for a flow stream. Data consists of
correlated level and flow measurements for the stream. Like the
Equation method of flow conversion, this flow conversion is most
commonly used where the primary measuring device is nonstandard, but where tables of level and flow rate data are
available from the device manufacturer. The 4230 has space for
four sets of data with as many as fifty points per set. The flow
meter then calculates flow from these data tables using a
three-point interpolation.
Flow Metering Insert Conversion - The inserts are installed in
upstream pipes and held with compressed air pressurizing a
bladder. They are set from street level with a handle that can be
extended as far as sixteen feet. The inserts contain a bubble line
outlet and have an opening in the face that is either round or triangular. The 4230 reads the upstream level (the water backs up
behind the insert) and calculates the flow through the insert
from this measured level.
2-7
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
2.5.3 Adjust Level,
Parameters
Adjust Level, Parameters calibrates the sensors that provide the
flow meter with level and other information. In this step you set
the level in the flow stream. First you measure the level, as accurately as possible. Then you enter this value with the numeric
keys. Accuracy is important. This measurement provides the
basis for all subsequent flow calculations in the flow
meter.
The flow meter also has an input port for measurements other
than level. This is the Parameter Port. Here you can sense such
variables in the stream as temperature, pH (the acidity or alkalinity of a solution) and D.O. (dissolved oxygen) in the flow
stream. You can have either pH with temperature, D.O. with
temperature, or temperature alone. The port is not dedicated to a
particular sensor, except through programming. You can change
the sensor. For example, you can change from a pH probe to a
D.O. sensor if you change the programming. Selection of either
parameter will keep the other from appearing later on the
menus. Note, however, that it is possible to measure several different stream conditions including pH and D.O. at the same time
with the YSI 600 Sonde.
The YSI 600 Sonde – The YSI 600 Sonde is a multi-purpose,
water quality measurement device. It is intended for use in
research, assessment, and regulatory compliance. The sonde
attaches to the modified RAIN GAUGE connector on the 4230.
Flow meters having only a 4-pin rain gauge connector will not
support the YSI Sonde. If you wish to upgrade your flow meter to
use this system, contact the factory. Note that you can have both
the YSI 600 Sonde and the Rain Gauge connected to the flow
meter at the same time by using a special Y-connect cable.
The YSI 600 can measure the following water qualities: dissolved oxygen (D.O.), conductivity, temperature, and pH.
Conductivity measurements made by the sonde can be used to
calculate specific conductivity, salinity, and total dissolved
solids. A brief description and specifications for the YSI 600 are
printed in Section 4 (Accessories). You may also contact the
factory or your Teledyne Isco representative. More information
on the sonde is found in the YSI 600 Manual, shipped with each
YSI 600 Sonde.
2-8
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Assembled Sonde
Conductivity (inside)
(Cover Removed)
pH glass sensor
pH reference
Temperature
D.O. sensor
Figure 2-1 The YSI 600 Sonde
2.5.4 Reset Totalizer
In this step you decide whether you want to reset the flow
meter's internal flow totalizers. If the installation is permanent
you generally won't reset the totalizer. If you are using the flow
meter as a portable recording unit and are moving it from one
site to another, you generally reset the totalizer between sites.
2.5.5 Sampler Pacing
It is common to use a flow meter with a Isco sampler. Typically,
the flow meter signals the sampler to take a sample after a
certain volume has passed. This might also occur after a condition or set of conditions has either changed or been met. This
step allows you to determine that control. There are several possible options—DISABLE, CONDITIONAL, VOLUME, and
FLOWLINK. DISABLE will keep the sampler from receiving any
flow pulses from the flow meter. VOLUME allows the flow meter
to signal the sampler whenever a specific flow volume has
passed. FLOWLINK (this option only appears if you are using
Flowlink software), allows the sampler to be signalled from the
flow meter as a result of conditions determined by Flowlink.
Note
If you choose CONDITIONAL for sampler pacing and it doesn’t
seem to work properly for you, read the section explaining hysteresis (page 2-15). Then check the hysteresis setpoints for
your conditions. (The defaults are all zero.)
You must also have the appropriate sensors to measure temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, or pH; the flow meter
cannot do this by itself, nor does it occur automatically.
Flowlink is Teledyne Isco's proprietary data acquisition and
management software. Flowlink works with personal computers,
modems, and laptop computers to monitor flow meters from a
distance. Consult the factory for more information.
2-9
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
VOLUME causes the flow meter to pace the sampler after a specific volume has passed through the flow stream.
CONDITIONAL allows pacing of the sampler by the flow meter
when a particular condition has been met, or has changed.
Among these conditions are changes in level, flow rate, temperature, rainfall, (if you are using the optional rain gauge), dissolved oxygen, or pH. You can also use a pair of conditions, or if
you are using the YSI 600 sonde, you can select multiple conditions from its sensors.
2.5.6 Sampler Enable
Sampler Enable means that in a combination flow meter/sampler
pair, the flow meter controls the sampler's ability to run its own
program. The difference between step 5, sampler pacing, and
step 6, sampler enable, is that in sampler pacing, the flow meter
merely sends flow pulses to the sampler from time to time. The
sampler counts these flow pulses to determine when to take a
sample (according to its own programming).
With sampler pacing, the sampler is always enabled. With
sampler enabling, the flow meter can actually stop operation of
the sampler. The sampler is still set up to run its own program,
but the inhibit/enable line from the flow meter will determine
when and whether the sampler runs its program. This feature is
useful for storm water runoff monitoring applications, where it
may be necessary for the flow meter/sampler pair to have to wait
a long time between storm intervals.
Again, changing or meeting a condition or set of conditions
triggers the enabling. The conditions that can be used for
sampler enabling are similar to those used for sampler pacing:
level, flow rate, rainfall, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, or a
combination of these conditions. The YSI 600 Sonde provides
several measurements at the same time. You must have the
appropriate sensors for rainfall, temperature, D.O., pH, and the
YSI outputs.
2.5.7 Alarm Dialout Mode
This feature allows you to program a 4230 to signal a remote
location through a telephone line. This feature is useful for transmitting alarm conditions or other essential information to a
remote location.
Note
You must have the optional modem installed to make use of
this program step. The menus will not even appear unless the
flow meter has a modem installed.
The Alarm Dialout feature is useful if you need to signal a
remote location when there is a change of condition in the flow
stream that could constitute an alarm. You can program as many
as five different twenty-digit telephone numbers into the flow
meter in decreasing order of importance. The modem is capable
of speech.
2-10
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
DISABLE inhibits this function altogether. CONDITIONAL
lets you program the flow meter to signal these alarms for a
variety of reasons. You can use rainfall, time, level, flow rate, dissolved oxygen, pH, rate-of-change, a combination of conditions,
or define the operation through Flowlink software from another
computer. STORM lets you set the alarm through a combination
of rainfall and time. You can also program the interval between
calls and set up the system to reset the alarm condition by
dialing back from the remote telephone.
2.5.8 Printer
The 4230 has a built-in printer. The printer is also capable of
plotting linear data along with printing alphanumeric (letters
and numbers) messages. In this step you set the speed for the
chart to advance, from 1/2" to 4" per hour.
Chart speed is set according to the amount of resolution you
want to see on the chart. If there is a great deal of activity on the
chart, you would generally choose a faster speed so the marks are
more “spread out” and are easier to interpret. If there is little
activity on the chart and you want the flow meter to run for long
periods without having to change the chart paper roll, you would
probably pick a slower speed.
The flow meter is capable of plotting three separate data lines on
the chart in addition to alphanumeric messages. These lines may
indicate various things, such as level, flow rate, pH, dissolved
oxygen, or temperature. You must have the appropriate sensors
for pH, DO, and temperature to take advantage of the availability of these plots. Rainfall is printed as a bar graph.
The printer is capable of plotting over-ranges for the data lines it
plots. You can tell when the printer is in over-range if a data line
goes off the chart on the right side and then immediately starts
over again plotting on the left side.
2.5.9 Reports/History
This step lets you program the flow meter to print out regular
reports on the internal printer. The reports the flow meter prints
are a summary of activity the unit records over a period of time.
Typically included are such items as maximum and minimum
flow rates, the time they were reached, sample records, etc.
The flow meter will let you create two separate reports, and let
you define what appears on them to a great extent. Note that the
contents of the reports are defined in Setup in step 1. Step 9
merely lets you turn them off and on and set the timing. You can
define the start time, the interval between reports and other
aspects of the report.
History provides a record of changes made to the flow meter's
program or operation events. As many as 50 changes can be
stored in the flow meter's memory at a time. The memory can
store up to 50 history items and 200 sample events at a time.
2-11
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
2.6 Interpreting the
Program Screens
Following are the program screens as they appear on the display
of a 4230. Explanations of most of the screens will be provided.
Note
Some items that appear in these menus will have parentheses
(...) around them. This means that the item may or may not
appear on your flow meter. Choices you make early in the program will make some options unavailable later.
An example of this is the pH/D.O. (Dissolved Oxygen) sensor
option. Selection of either in step 1 will keep the other from
appearing in all following menus. If your installation does not
use either sensor, you would select NOT MEASURED for both,
and no further reference to either sensor would appear again for
the rest of the program.
As you work through the program, your selections will rule out
alternatives. This will cause those alternatives not to appear
later in the program. Since there is no way of knowing what
program choices will be made for a particular installation, it is
necessary to provide all the possible menus in the manual, even
though some of them will not appear on your instrument.
Note
This list does not include all possible screens for the unit, but
does cover the screens found in a typical programming
sequence. Some diagnostic and error screens are discussed
in Section 5.
2.7 Step 1 - Operating
Mode
Turn on the machine. Wait for the display to settle. Then press
the Enter/Program Step (Enter) key. The following will
appear (step 1). If the following menu does not appear, press Exit
Program, then Go To Program Step, then press 1.
SELECT OPTION
• PROGRAM • • SETUP •
PROGRAM is always the default. If you press Enter, the display
will automatically advance to the next display, which will ask you
to select units of measurement. If you select SETUP, the following will appear:
SETUP OPTIONS: 'EXIT' TO QUIT
• SET CLOCK • • SITE ID • • MEASUREMENT SETUP •
If you press the right arrow key, the following options will
appear on the display:
SETUP OPTIONS: 'EXIT' TO QUIT
• STATUS • • ENABLE/ALARM HYSTERESIS •
Then:
SETUP OPTIONS: 'EXIT' TO QUIT
• OPTIONAL OUTPUTS • • REPORT SETUP •
2-12
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
And:
SETUP OPTIONS: 'EXIT' TO QUIT
• LCD BACKLIGHT • • (LANGUAGE) • • PROGRAM LOCK •
Finally:
SETUP OPTIONS: 'EXIT' TO QUIT
• (LANGUAGE) • • PROGRAM LOCK • • PROGRAM •
LANGUAGE may not appear on your unit. This is intended primarily for export models, as they are programmed in different
languages. Flow meters will contain English and one other language, as ordered.
If you select SET CLOCK, the following will appear:
YEAR MONTH DAY HOUR MIN
XXXX XX
XX XX
XX
Enter the year (four digits), the month (01-12), the day (01-31),
the hour (01-24), and the minute (01-59).
If you select SITE ID, the following will appear:
SITE ID: XXX
You can select any suitable three-digit number for the site identification.
If you select MEASUREMENT SETUP, the following will appear.
You will have to use the right arrow key to bring all the options
on screen:
MEASUREMENT SETUP
• DO/PH READING INTERVAL • • YSI 600 READING INT-
MEASUREMENT SETUP
-ERVAL • • PURGE INTERVAL • • SUPER BUBBLE MODE •
Note
If you are using the Isco D.O. sensor or are sensing D.O. with
the YSI 600 Sonde, select as long a measurement interval as
is practical for your application. The reasoning is that the D.O.
sensor is turned off between measurement intervals and this
turned-off period prolongs the life of the sensor.
YSI 600 READING INTERVAL refers to the YSI 600 sonde. The
flow meter can measure several different aspects of the stream at
the same time, including pH, D.O., temperature, plus conductivity.
If you select PURGE INTERVAL, the following will appear:
PURGE INTERVAL
• 5 MIN • • 10 MIN • • 15 MIN • • 30 MIN • • 1 HR •
2-13
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
PURGE INTERVAL refers to how often the flow meter discharges a blast of air through the bubble line. These periodic
blasts are intended to keep the end of the bubble line clear from
any obstruction that could clog it, preventing it from releasing
any bubbles. The option of setting the purge interval is offered
for the sake of battery conservation.
If your bubble line shows a tendency to clog, characteristic of
dirty flow streams, you should select a more frequent purge. If
the stream is very clean and there appears to be no tendency to
clog the bubble line, you could try a less frequent purge.
However, if your installation is battery-powered, you should try
to get by with less frequent purges to prolong the battery life.
Some experimentation may be necessary to find the right setting
for your installation.
If you select SUPER BUBBLE MODE, the following will appear:
SUPER BUBBLE MODE
• ON • • OFF •
Super Bubble is an Isco feature that increases the air supply to
the bubble line when the flow meter senses a rapidly rising liquid
level. This allows the level measurement to be more accurate and
to change more quickly. In operation, Super Bubble resembles
Purge in the way it forces a blast of air through the bubble line,
but the effect is different. Without Super Bubble, there would be
a period when no bubbles come out of the bubble line when the
level rises suddenly. Until the bubble rate is re-established, the
flow meter cannot accurately measure the level.
Super Bubble helps maintain accurate level measurement by
filling the bubble line with air, thereby ensuring that the bubble
rate will re-establish quickly when the level stabilizes.
Operation of Super Bubble will cause an increase in power consumption, because the air pump has to run. If your flow meter
operates from AC power, leave Super Bubble on. If your installation is battery-powered and the flow is generally stable
(without sudden increases), you can probably turn Super Bubble
off. Again, some experimentation may be necessary.
If you select DO/PH READING INTERVAL, the following will
appear:
DO/PH READING INTERVAL
• CONTINUOUS • • 15 SEC • • 30 SEC • • 1 MIN • • 2 MIN • • 5 MIN •
Again, this selection is offered as a means of saving battery
power (and prolonging the life of the D.O. sensor. After selecting
the appropriate parameter reading interval, press Enter. The
Setup menu will reappear. This time, select YSI 600 READING
INTERVAL from the menu. The following display will appear:
YSI 600 READING INTERVAL
•CONTINUOUS••15 SEC••30 SEC••1 MIN••2 MIN••5 MIN•
2-14
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
After selecting the appropriate parameter reading interval, press
Enter. The Setup menu will reappear. This time select STATUS
from the Setup menu. The following will appear:
4230 HW REV: XXXXXX SW REV X.XX
ID XXXXXXXXXXX
HW REV refers to the hardware revision number.
SW REV refers to the software revision number.
ID is an internal identification for the flow meter.
If you press Enter again, the flow meter will display the system
voltage:
SUPPLY VOLTAGE: XX.X
PUMP DUTY CYCLE XX.X%
The supply voltage should be from 10.5 to 13.5 (volts DC). PUMP
DUTY CYCLE tells you how much the air pump is running. The
value is refreshed every few minutes and should generally
average below 20%. If you see a value consistently higher than
this, check the bubble line, look for leaks, or check the air system
inside the flow meter.
If you do not press Enter after the first diagnostic menu
appears, the flow meter will automatically advance the display
through the next two screens and finally revert to the Setup
menu after a short time-out.
YSI SOFTWARE REV: XX.X
Return to the Setup menu if the unit has not already done so.
This time select ENABLE/ALARM HYSTERESIS from the
menu. The following will appear:
LEVEL ENABLE/ALARM
HYSTERESIS X.XXX FT (or meters)
The HYSTERESIS menu lets you set the range over which the
level (or other condition) can vary before the flow meter responds
to the change.
In the PROGRAM section, there are several steps that require a
change in a condition to make the flow meter carry out certain
actions. For example, step 6 programs the flow meter to enable
(activate) a sampler. In that step, you select a condition (or set of
conditions) that must occur before the sampler is enabled. You
enter a value (level is an example) that must be met before the
enabling occurs.
But what if this value is met briefly and then falls away? It is
possible for a condition to vary rapidly over a narrow range.
Without hysteresis, the flow meter would turn the sampler off
and on repeatedly, causing a condition known as chattering,
resulting in very erratic operation of the sampler.
With hysteresis, you can enter a value that will keep the flow
meter from responding to small changes in the enabling condition. Select a value for hysteresis narrow enough to allow the
2-15
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
flow meter to respond to any significant change, but broad
enough to ignore minor changes that could cause chattering.
Press Enter again and the following will appear:
FLOW RATE ENABLE/ALARM
HYSTERESIS X.XXX CFS (Or other units of measure.)
The next three menus may appear or not, depending on selections you made earlier in Program. They concern alarm/enable
hysteresis set points for parameter sensing—temperature, pH,
and D.O.
If you want to set hysteresis for any of these items, you should
enable them when you work through the program section, then
re-enter the Setup section (Hysteresis) and they will appear. You
can measure temperature alone, or temperature with either pH
or D.O. You cannot measure either pH or D.O. without measuring temperature.
Note
You cannot measure pH and D.O. at the same time, and selection of one will prevent the other from appearing on the menus
later.
The following will appear if you are measuring temperature:
TEMPERATURE ENABLE/ALARM
HYSTERESIS XX.XXX DEG F (or C)
The following will appear if you are measuring pH:
pH ENABLE/ALARM
HYSTERESIS X.XXX pH
The following will appear if you are measuring D. O:
DO ENABLE/ALARM
HYSTERESIS X.XXX PPM
(or mg./L. depending on units selected in Program.)
A set of menus similar to those shown above for pH, D.O., and
temperature will then appear for the YSI 600 Sonde, if you have
selected it. You can set hysteresis for YSI-pH, YSI-D.O., YSI-Conductivity, and YSI-temperature, if these parameters have been
turned on in previous program selections.
2.7.1 Optional Outputs
After all the HYSTERESIS menus have been set, press Enter.
The display will return to the Setup menu. This time select
OPTIONAL OUTPUTS.
OPTIONAL OUTPUTS
• ANALOG OUTPUT • • SERIAL OUTPUT • • ALARM BOX •
2-16
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
ALARM BOX refers to an external accessory used to signal
alarms from flow meter measurements. See Section 4 for more
information. The choice of SERIAL OUTPUT will eliminate
ALARM BOX as an option. Likewise, the choice of ALARM BOX
will eliminate SERIAL OUTPUT as an option.
If you select any of these OPTIONAL OUTPUTS, the flow meter
will request that you turn them on or off. If you are running on
battery, select OFF for all unused outputs.
ANALOG OUTPUT refers to the flow meter’s capability of managing associated equipment through a 4-20 mA current loop. The
4-20 mA current loop is a common method used to control industrial processes that are variable (rather than just fully off or on).
At the lower value (4 mA) the control is turned off (0%); at 20 mA
the control is completely turned on (100%). In between, rates
range from 1 to 99%. A typical application is a chlorinator, which
must vary in application of the chlorine gas as the amount of
water passing through the system increases or decreases.
Current ranges other than 4-20 mA are also in use, although
they are less common than 4-20 mA. Examples are 0-20 mA (supported by the flow meter on the internal card only) and for longer
current loops, 10-50 mA (not supported by the flow meter).
Teledyne Isco offers two different arrangements for the 4-20 mA
control circuit. You can have either or both with the same flow
meter. One arrangement requires the use of an external
accessory, the 4-20 mA Output Interface (see Section 4). This
module connects to the flow meter and a source of AC power and
contains the circuitry necessary to create the 4-20 mA current
loop. This accessory connects to the flow meter through the Interrogator connector.
The other 4-20 mA option is a board installed inside the flow
meter that contains circuitry for up to three separate, isolated
4-20 mA current loops. This option can also be ordered with one
or two current loops supplied. If you use both the external converter and the internal board, you can have a total of four
current loops controlled by the same flow meter. The internal
current loops are brought out to a 6-pin M/S connector in the slot
where the Modem connector is usually mounted.
To activate the internal analog output(s), return to the main
screen and press 4, 2, 0.
ANALOG CAPABLE (‘0’ TO DISABLE)
OUTPUTS 3❚ (‘EXIT PROGRAM’ WHEN DONE
Additional information for the internal analog output board,
including specifications for the loops, is found in Section 4.3.2.
The following menus determine the behavior of the 4-20 mA
current outputs. If you select ANALOG OUTPUT (another term
for the 4-20 mA Output) and the flow meter is equipped with the
2-17
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
optional internal board or the 4-20 mA external accessory has
been turned on, RANGE, SMOO THING, and MANUAL
CONTROL will appear:
ANALOG OUTPUT
• EXTERNAL 4-20 MA • • (RANGE) • • (SMOOTHING) • •
CAUTION
Each 4-20 mA output represents a constant drain on the flow
meter of at least 16 mA whether activated or not. While 4-20
mA applications are generally made in installations with commercial power available, Teledyne Isco suggests the following
for those who have a 4-20 mA output in a battery-powered
installation.
Use with battery powered flow meters only if:
• the battery is continuously on charge (for example with
a Solar Panel Battery Charger)
• the battery is very large, such as a deep-cycle or marine
type battery, or an Isco 35 Ampere-hour lead-acid
battery.
• using only one 4-20 mA output.
Keep in mind that programming choices also affect power consumption. Use “minimum” settings on the flow meter wherever
possible. (See Section 1, Table 1-9.)
Even with these circumstances, you may expect significantly
shorter charge life from your battery. To determine the effect of
this extra current draw on battery life, please refer to the section
How to Make Battery Calculations, at the end of Section 1.
Programming for the conditions and values that determine the
operation of the 4-20 mA loop (or loops) is done in Programming
Step 2, following the entry of FLOW RATE AT MAXIMUM
HEAD.
CAUTION
If you do not have the proper hardware installed and you press
4 - 2 - 0 and the number of analog outputs is not zero, the
external 4-20 mA converter will not work properly. If this occurs
return to the 4 - 2 - 0 option, and at the prompt, enter 0 for the
number of outputs activated. This will restore the external 4-20
mA converter capability.
MANUAL CONTROL will appear if you continue moving to the
right. “RANGE” will appear with the ANALOG OUTPUT menu
if the optional internal 4-20 mA converter is present in the flow
meter. If you select RANGE, the following will appear:
2-18
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
OUTPUT RANGE
• 0 - 20 mA • • 4-20 mA •
This menu lets you select the current value for zero-percent
(baseline) compatible with your equipment (internal 4-20 mA
board only).
If you select SMOOTHING from the ANALOG OUTPUT menu
the following will appear:
SMOOTHING
• NONE • • 15 SEC • • 30 SEC • • 1 MIN •
The SMOOTHING option lets you stabilize operation of the
outputs by preventing a rapid reaction to sudden sharp changes
in the condition being monitored that quickly return to normal
(transients). Selection of a smoothing interval will prevent the
equipment controlled by the 4-20 mA loop from reacting too
quickly, too much, or operating erratically. A low-pass filter algorithm is incorporated in the software.
If you select the MANUAL CONTROL option from the ANALOG
OUTPUT menu the following will appear:
MANUAL CONTROL (OUTPUT 0 = EXTERNAL)
OUTPUT 0 = 0.0 MA
This option lets you control the operation of a 4-20 mA loop to
check the operation of equipment controlled by the loop at any
level from 0 to 100%. After connecting a 4-20 mA output to a controlled device, you can program the flow meter to put a specified
current on a specific analog output. If you are using the external
4-20 mA converter, the Analog Output number will be zero.
Note
Selecting the MANUAL CONTROL option and programming
any one of the ports will prevent the values transmitted by the
other active 4-20 mA ports from being updated until the test is
completed. The other ports will continue to transmit whatever
value they held at the start of the test. Exiting from the MANUAL CONTROL menu at the end of the test will return all
active 4-20 mA ports to normal operation.
Programming for the conditions and values that determine the
operation of the 4-20 mA loop (or loops) is done in Programming
Step 2, following the entry of FLOW RATE AT MAXIMUM
HEAD
2.7.2 Serial Output
Returning to the OPTIONAL OUTPUTS menu, you will see the
SERIAL OUTPUT option. This feature lets the flow meter
transmit the most recent values for all currently enabled ports as
ASCII text. You can then write a simple program to retrieve this
data periodically, or you can do it interactively using a terminal
program.
2-19
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Note
The information in the following section is provided for those
who can write their own software programs to process the data
transmitted from the Serial Output port. Special cables may be
required. Contact Teledyne Isco technical support for more
information.
Command Line: (Use the INTERROGATOR connector.) The
lines of text contain the port values for each port that is turned
on. The DATA command will use a special command response
protocol. The following table provides the ASCII codes for port
types and standard units of measure.
Table 2-1 ASCII Output Codes
2-20
Code Parameter
Units
DE
Description
String
ID
Unit specific identifier
Unsigned long
MO
Model
String
TI
Time since 1900
Days
BV
Battery Voltage
Volts
LE
Level
Meters
LSI
Level Signal Strength
0 - 100%
FL
Flow
Cubic meters per second
VO
Volume
Cubic meters
FV
Forward volume
Cubic meters
RV
Reverse volume
Cubic meters
SV
Sampler Enabled Volume Cubic Meters
RA
Rain (rolls over every 255 Tips
tips)
CR
Current day’s rain (tips
since midnight)
Tips
PR
Previous day’s rain (tips
since midnight)
Tips
PH
pH
pH units
DO
Dissolved Oxygen
Milligrams per liter
TE
Temperature
Degrees Celsius
YPH
YSI 600 pH
pH units
YDO
YSI Dissolved Oxygen
Milligrams per liters
YCO
YSI 600 Conductivity
Millisiemens per centimeter
YSP
YSI 600 Specific Conduc- Millisiemens per centitance
meter
YSA
YSI 600 Salinity
Parts per thousand
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Table 2-1 ASCII Output Codes (Continued)
Code Parameter
Units
YTD
YSI 600 Total Dissolved
Solids
Milligrams per liter
YTE
YSI 600Temperature
Degrees Celsius
YSP
YSI 600 Specific Conduc- Millisiemens per centitance
meter
YCO
YSI 600 Conductance
Millisiemens per centimeter
YSA
YSI 600 Total Salinity
Parts per thousand
YTD
YSI 600 Total Dissolved
Solids
Milligrams per liter
YTE
YSI 600 Sonde Tempera- Degrees Celsius
ture
SS
Sampler Enable Status
Logical
B?
Bottle Number and Time
Days
CS
Check sum (does not
include the check sum,
carriage return, and line
feed)
Unsigned long
Note: The output string for a given flow meter
will have values only for those parameters it
is currently measuring. The order of the
fields in this table is subject to change. Additional data types may be inserted anywhere
in the list. Parsing routines for this output
string should search by type identifier
instead of depending on the position in the
string. If an active port has an error flag set,
the serial output will insert ERROR for the
value.
You can enter the command line by connecting the interrogator
cable with the interrogator sense line shorted to ground. Then
send a series of ‘?’ (question marks) until the flow meter
transmits the unit’s banner and prompt. The number of question
marks necessary is a function of the baud rate auto detection. At
the prompt, enter DATA<CR> and the flow meter will respond
with the appropriate ASCII output string. You can send the
DATA command as often as you want. Type ‘Q’ to leave the
command response interface.
In addition to the port values, the data includes the flow meter’s
current time, the bottle number and time stamp of the three
most recent sample events, the previous day’s rainfall total (midnight to midnight), the current day’s rainfall total since midnight, and a rainfall tips counter that rolls over every 255 tips.
(See Rain Gauge, page 4-8.) The port values appear in a
comma-separated values format. Each data field is preceded by a
two or three-character type identifier. The table lists the type
identifiers. The flow meter’s current time and the sample event
2-21
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
time stamp appear as a number in standard spreadsheet format
(days since 1900). The supported baud rates are 9600, 4800,
2400, and 1200 (no parity, eight bits and one stop bit).
Periodic Output: (Use a special RAIN GAUGE connector
cable—contact the factory for assistance.) Note that the periodic
output will terminate during phone connection and when the
interrogator cable is connected.
CAUTION
It is important to use CHECKSUM if you plan to use internal
modems or the interrogator. The UART is shared with these
devices.
If you select SERIAL OUTPUT from the OPTIONAL OUTPUTS
menu, the following display will appear:
PERIODIC SERIAL OUTPUT
• ON • • OFF
Selection of OFF from this menu will disable this feature, and
there will be no further references to it.
The Serial Output data appears on the Interrogator connector of
the flow meter. You should not use a standard interrogator cable
for this application, as the sense line in the standard cable is
shorted to ground.
Selection of ON from this menu will enable the feature and cause
the following display to appear:
SELECT BAUD RATE (N81)
• 9600 • • 4800 • • 2400 • • 1200 •
After you select the appropriate baud rate, the program will
advance to the following menu:
SERIAL OUTPUT INTERVAL
• 15 SEC • • 1 MIN • • 5 MIN • • 15 MIN •
This menu lets you select how often the flow meter transmits the
ASCII text string.
Following is an example of a string showing all options:
DE,TheresaStreet,ID,0721577657,MO,4250,TI,35317.343715,BV,12.3,LE,0.1000,VE,0.1225,FL,0.001
555,VO,2.199325,FV,2.199325,RV,0.000000,SV,2.195539,SS,1,B0,35317.307384,B0,35317.269907,B0,
35317.232593,CS,10819
If you select any of these outputs, the flow meter will request
that you turn them on or off. If you are running on battery and do
not need these options, select OFF. Otherwise, select ON. After
the OPTIONAL OUTPUTS menus have been set, press Enter.
The display will return to the SETUP menu.
The alarm box, also called the High-Low Alarm Box, is an Isco
product that allows you to operate control relays to signal alarms
when flow rate rises above or falls below a certain set value. You
can set both the high and low alarm values from 1 to 99% of the
controlling condition. (See Section 4 for more information about
the alarm box.)
2-22
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Return to the SETUP menu.
This time, select REPORT SETUP.
REPORT SETUP
• REPORT A • • REPORT B •
This step lets you determine the contents of the reports generated by the flow meter. The flow meter's report generator is
capable of creating two different reports (A and B) that can be
identical or quite different.
The reason for two reports is to allow the summary of flow meter
recording over different time periods. For example, you might
generate report A weekly, and report B monthly. At this point we
are only interested in selecting the items the flow meter will
include in each report.
Press Enter and the following will appear:
REPORT SETUP
• FLOW • • DO/PH • • YSI 600 • • SAMPLE HISTORY •
FLOW METER HISTORY is just off the screen, to the right. If
you select FLOW, the following will appear:
LEVEL IN REPORT
• YES • • NO •
Select YES if you want LEVEL to appear in the report.
FLOW RATE IN REPORT
• YES • • NO •
Select YES if you want FLOW RATE to appear in the report.
Then:
RAINFALL IN REPORT
• YES • • NO •
Select YES if you want RAINFALL to appear in the report. You
must have a rain gauge connected to the flow meter to sense
rainfall occurrence. The following will appear:
REPORT SETUP
• FLOW • • DO/PH • • SAMPLE HISTORY • • FLOW MET...
FLOW METER HISTORY is just off the screen.
This time select DO/PH. The following will appear:
PH OR DO IN REPORT
• YES • • NO •
Select YES if you want DO/PH to appear in the report. You must
have the appropriate sensor connected to sense parameters; the
flow meter is capable of sensing temperature, pH and temperature, and D.O. (dissolved oxygen) and temperature. The following will appear:
TEMPERATURE IN REPORT
• YES • • NO •
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Select yes if you want TEMPERATURE to appear in the report.
Press Enter again and the display will return to the REPORT
SETUP menu:
REPORT SETUP
• FLOW • • DO/PH • • YSI 600 • • SAMPLE HISTORY •
FLOW METER HISTORY is just off the screen.
This time select YSI 600. The following display will appear:
YSI DATA IN REPORT
• YES • • NO •
Press Enter again and the display will return to the REPORT
SETUP menu.
REPORT SETUP
• FLOW • • DO/PH • • YSI 600 • • SAMPLE HISTORY •
This time select SAMPLE HISTORY. The following will appear:
SAMPLE HISTORY IN REPORT
• YES • • NO •
Select YES if you want SAMPLE HISTORY to appear in the
report. Press Enter again and the display will return to the
REPORT SETUP menu:
REPORT SETUP
• YSI 600 • • SAMPLE HISTORY • • FLOW METER HISTORY •
This time, select FLOW METER HISTORY. The following will
appear:
FLOW METER HISTORY IN REPORT
• YES • • NO •
Select YES if you want HISTORY to appear in the report.
HISTORY is a list of the changes that have been made to the flow
meter's program.
Press Exit to leave the program. Then press Enter and reselect
SETUP. The Setup menu will reappear:
SETUP OPTIONS: 'EXIT' TO QUIT
• STATUS • • REPORT SETUP • • LCD BACKLIGHT •
SET CLOCK, SITE ID, MEASUREMENT SETUP, PROGRAM
LOCK, PROGRAM are off-screen and can be accessed with the
arrow keys.
Select LCD BACKLIGHT with the arrow key. The following will
appear:
LCD BACKLIGHT MODE
• KEYPRESS TIMEOUT • • CONTINUOUS • • OFF •
2-24
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
KEYPRESS TIMEOUT will cause the backlight to be turned on
whenever you press a key on the keypad (other than On and Off).
An internal timer is started that will keep the backlight on for
approximately two minutes after you press a key.
Each time you press a key, the timer is restarted, so the backlight
will never go off as long as you continue to program the flow
meter, with keystrokes coming less than two minutes apart. At
the end of programming, the backlight will go out, and will stay
out until you start to program again.
This feature is designed to conserve battery power by de-energizing the backlight when it is not needed. The backlight is still
available if it is necessary to program in a dark environment,
such as a manhole. We recommend using this selection if the flow
meter is battery-powered, but installed in an environment where
the lighting is poor.
CONTINUOUS will cause the backlight to be lit continuously.
Where the flow meter is powered by an AC power supply, battery
life considerations do not intervene. If the backlight makes the
display easier to read, use it. Do not use CONTINUOUS in any
installation that is battery-powered, as it will cause rapid discharge of the battery.
OFF will keep the backlight feature turned off under all circumstances. Select this option for maximum battery life in installations where there is sufficient ambient light to read the display
without the backlight feature.
Press Enter. The SETUP menu will return. This time move the
flashing cursor from LCD BACKLIGHT to LANGUAGE.
When LANGUAGE appears on your display, you may select an
alternate language to program the flow meter. The other language depends on how the flow meter was ordered. The following
display will appear:
LANGUAGE
• ENGLISH • • (second language, as ordered) •
Select the language appropriate for your application. The menus
and the printed reports will appear in the selected language. The
SETUP menu will reappear. This time, select PROGRAM LOCK
from the menu.
PROGRAM LOCK
• ON • • OFF •
PROGRAM LOCK keeps the program from being changed. Select
OFF while you are programming, and then go back and select
ON if you need to lock the program. At that, we suggest using the
lock only if there are compelling security reasons.
Further changes will require entry of the password, which is the
number of the flow meter, 4230. If you select ON, there is a
time-out before the lock engages.
If you continue to work through the rest of the program, the lock
will not engage until you are done. But if you stop programming
longer than two minutes, the lock will engage, and you will not be
able to make any further program changes.
2-25
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Note
If you choose NOT MEASURED for any selection, the flow
meter will make no further reference to that function for the rest
of the program, and you will be unable to activate that function
later. If there is a feature you need that does not appear when
the manual says it should, return to step 1 and make sure you
have not accidentally left it turned off.
If you program a parameter value as a condition for sampler
enabling, pacing, dialout, etc., and then turn that parameter
sensor off, the flow meter will also remove that condition from
the program. Consider all aspects of your program before
you make any changes.
Press Enter and the SETUP menu will reappear.
Program:
SELECT OPTION
• PROGRAM • • SETUP •
PROGRAM will be flashing. (PROGRAM is always the default
choice, because you are more likely to need to make changes in
the PROGRAM section of the software than in the SETUP
section.) The following will appear:
UNITS OF LEVEL MEASUREMENT
• FT • • IN • • M • • MM • • NOT MEASURED •
Selection of feet, inches, meters or mm depends on your situation. You would select NOT MEASURED if you were using the
flow meter for some other form of sensing only, such as pH, or
temperature. The following will appear. You will have to press
the right arrow key several times to see all of the options displayed below:
FLOW RATE UNITS OF MEASURE
• GPS • • GPM • • GPH • • MGD • • CFS • • CFM • • CF-
Pressing the right arrow key several times will move other
units onto the display:
FLOW RATE UNITS OF MEASURE
• CFH • • CFD • • LPS • • M3S • • M3M • • M3H • • M3D • • AFD •>
NOT MEASURED will also appear if you keep moving with the
right arrow key. This step establishes the units of measure the
flow meter will use in all subsequent displays and calculations.
GPS = gallons per second; GPM = gallons per minute; GPH =
gallons per hour; MGD = millions of gallons per day; CFS = cubic
feet per second; CFM = cubic feet per minute; CFH = cubic feet
per hour; CFD = cubic feet per day; LPS = liters per second; M3S
2-26
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
= cubic meters per second; M3M = cubic meters per minute; M3H
= cubic meters per hour; M3D = cubic meters per day; AFD =
acre-feet per day.
TOTALIZED VOLUME UNITS
• GAL • • MGAL • • CF • • L • • M3 • • AF •
This step determines the units value the flow meter will use to
record the totalized flow volume that passes by. GAL = gallons;
MGAL = millions of gallons; CF = cubic feet; L = liters; M3 =
cubic meters; AF = acre-feet.
For the next several substeps you must have the appropriate
sensor attached to the flow meter's Parameter Port or Rain
Gauge Port (for the Rain Gauge or YSI 600 Sonde) to take
advantage of the capabilities. You can only have D.O./temperature, pH/temperature or temperature alone on a given flow
meter, unless you use the YSI 600 Sonde. The YSI 600 Sonde provides multiple outputs simultaneously. You can use the Rain
Gauge with the YSI 600 sonde if you use a Y-connect cable.
Remember that programming for either pH or D.O. will prevent
the display of any references to the other in later program steps.
All sensors but the rain gauge must be fully submerged in the
flow stream. The pH and D.O. probes must be kept constantly
wet or they can be damaged.
The pH or D.O. probes cannot attach directly to the flow meter, as
their output signals are low. You must also install the appropriate amplifier box between the probes and the flow meter.
Note
The 270 D.O. module has been discontinued. Probes, service
kits, and accessories are still available to maintain existing field
units.
Their use in streams with intermittent flow (such as storm
drainage) is not recommended. See Section 4 (Accessories) for
more information about the pH, D.O. probes, and rain gauge. The
pH probe is a consumable item, and will eventually need
replacement.
RAIN GAUGE
• INCHES • • MM • • NOT MEASURED •
You must have an Isco 674 Rain Gauge connected to the flow
meter through the Rain Gauge Port to sense rainfall. MM = millimeters. The rain gauge is factory-calibrated. If you do not want
to use a rain gauge, you would select NOT MEASURED for this
step.
• If you choose NOT MEASURED, no further references
to rainfall will appear in the rest of the program.
pH UNITS OF MEASURE
• pH • • NOT MEASURED •
2-27
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
pH measurement determines the relative acidity or alkalinity of
a solution. You must have an Isco pH Probe connected to the flow
meter through the parameter port to sense pH. pH measurements range from 0 to 14 pH units, with solutions below 7 considered acidic and solutions above 7, alkaline. Pure water has a
pH of 7. The pH probe requires periodic recalibration for accurate
sensing of pH. See Section 4 (Accessories) for more information
about the pH probe. If you are not using a pH probe you would
select NOT MEASURED for this step.
• If you choose NOT MEASURED for pH, you will be
unable to activate pH later in the program.
• If you select pH, you will be unable to measure D.O.
later in the program.
• If your situation requires the measurement of both pH
and D.O. at the same time, or if you also need to
measure conductivity, use the YSI 600 Multi-Parameter
Sonde.
If you select NOT MEASURED for pH and press Enter; the following will appear:
D.O. UNITS
• MG/L • • PPM • • NOT MEASURED •
Measurement of dissolved oxygen is conducted in studies of
water quality in lakes and streams. Some dissolved oxygen is
necessary for the survival of aquatic life in these waters. You
must have an Isco Dissolved Oxygen Probe to sense dissolved
oxygen. The probe attaches to the Parameter Port. PPM = parts
per million; MG/L = milligrams per liter. If you are not using the
D.O. probe, you would select NOT MEASURED for this step.
• Selection of NOT MEASURED will keep D.O. from
appearing on subsequent programming menus.
Selection of PPM or MG/L will keep references to pH from
showing up on subsequent menus.
TEMPERATURE UNITS
• DEG F • • DEG C • • (NOT MEASURED) •
This step sets up measurement of the water temperature. You
must have a Temperature Probe attached to the Parameter Port.
The temperature probe contains a thermistor and needs no calibration.
Measurement is in degrees Celsius or degrees Fahrenheit. If you
are not using the temperature probe, you would select NOT
MEASURED for this step.
• Selection of NOT MEASURED will keep TEMPERATURE from appearing later.
If you are using either the pH or D.O. probe, temperature must
be measured; the NOT MEASURED option will not even appear.
The following menus concern the use of the YSI 600
Multi-Parameter Sonde. This probe allows you to measure
several characteristics of a flow stream at the same time. The
YSI 600 Sonde attaches to the Rain Gauge connector. This connector must be a special connector with nine pins.
2-28
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Note
4230 Flow meters with 4-pin Rain Gauge connectors cannot
support the YSI 600. It is necessary to return the flow meter to
the factory for modifications. There are also significant internal
modifications to the flow meter’s electronics and software.
You can use both the YSI Sonde and a Rain Gauge on flow meters
that support the YSI with a special Y-connect cable. The YSI 600
Sonde differs from the previously mentioned pH and D.O. probes.
The YSI 600 can measure pH and D.O. at the same time, as well
as temperature and conductivity.
If you are not using the YSI 600 sonde, select NO in the following
display and the flow meter will advance to the next step. Otherwise, select YES.
YSI 600 CONNECTED
• YES • • NO •
• If you select NO, you will be unable to activate the YSI
Sonde later in the program.
If no communication has been confirmed, the following display
will appear:
YSI COMMUNICATIONS CHECK
• YES • • NO •
NO is the default. If you select YES, the following display will
appear:
WARNING – DO NOT DISCONNECT POWER
YSI COMMUNICATION CHECK. PLEASE WAIT...
CAUTION
Do not disconnect either the sonde or flow meter power during
a communications check. The memory in the sonde can be
damaged by a power failure during an update.
If the communication check is bad, the following display will
appear:
COMMUNICATIONS CHECK FAILED
PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE
Note
The flow meter cannot communicate at 600 baud. If your
sonde has been set up for 600 baud, you will get a communications failure. Consult the YSI 600 Manual for what to do in
this case.
2-29
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
If the communications check is good, the following display will
appear:
COMMUNICATIONS RATE SET AT 2400 BAUD
PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE
After you press Enter, the flow meter will advance to the following display:
YSI 600 pH UNITS OF MEASURE
• pH • • NOT MEASURED •
• Selection of NOT MEASURED for any of the YSI menus
will prevent you from activating those functions later in
the program.
If you want the YSI 600 to measure pH, select pH. If you do not,
select NOT MEASURED.
YSI 600 D.O. UNITS OF MEASURE
• MG/L • • NOT MEASURED •
If you want the YSI 600 to measure D.O., select MG/L. Otherwise, select NOT MEASURED.
YSI 600 CONDUCTIVITY PARAMETER
•YSI SP COND••YSI SALINITY••YSI CONDUCTIVITY•>
For any of the YSI CONDUCTIVITY options, if you press Enter,
the following display will appear:.
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT
1.91%
This value is provided because conductivity rises (~2%/ °C) with
temperature. The default setting is 1.91%. This value is the temperature coefficient for pure KCl (potassium chloride) in water.
For other salts this value will be somewhat inaccurate, but it
does provide a close approximation for solutions of many common
salts, such as NaCl (sodium chloride), NH 4 Cl (ammonium
chloride) and sea water. If you use the value of 1.91, in most
cases you will be able to identify that gross changes are occurring
in the ionic content of the stream. If you move with the right
arrow, the following options will appear on the display
YSI 600 CONDUCTIVITY PARAMETER
• YSI T.D.S. • • NOT MEASURED •
T.D.S. stands for “total dissolved solids.” T.D.S. are measured in
parts per thousand (ppt).
TDS SCALE FACTOR
0.75
2-30
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Total dissolved solids are estimated by multiplying conductivity
by an empirical factor. This factor can vary between 0.55 and 0.9
depending on the solubility of the ionic components in the water
and its temperature.
YSI 600 TEMPERATURE UNITS
• °F • •°C • • NOT MEASURED •
Select the units appropriate for your application.
2.8 Step 2 - Flow
Conversion
FLOW CONVERSION TYPE
• WEIR/FLUME • • EQUATION • • MANNING • • DATA POINTS •>
METERING INSERTS will also appear.
WEIR/FLUME = weir or flume; EQUATION = equation;
MANNING = Manning; DATA POINTS = data points. If you
select WEIR/FLUME, the following display will appear:
TYPE OF DEVICE:
• WEIR • • FLUME •
For detailed information on weirs and flumes, refer to the Isco
Flow Measurement Handbook that was shipped with your flow
meter. Consulting the manufacturer of the specific weir or flume
is also worthwhile. For weirs and flumes, there is a preferred
location for installing the level measuring device. Proper
mounting of the level measurement device and accurate measurement of the level in the flow stream at the calibration point
are essential for accurate flow calculation by the flow meter. If
you select WEIR, the following display will appear:
SELECT TYPE OF WEIR:
• V-NOTCH • • RECTANGULAR • • CIPOLLETTI •
If you select V-NOTCH, the following will appear:
SELECT V-NOTCH WEIR ANGLE (IN DEGREES)
• 22.5 • • 30 • • 45 • • 60 • • 90 • • 120 •
If you select RECTANGULAR for the type of weir, the following
will appear:
END CONTRACTIONS ON RECTANGULAR WEIR:
• YES • • NO •
If you select YES, the following will appear:
RECTANGULAR WEIR WITH END CONTRACTIONS
ENTER CREST LENGTH XX.XXX FEET (or meters)
If you select CIPOLLETTI, the following will appear:
CIPOLLETTI WEIR
ENTER CREST LENGTH XX.XXX FEET (or meters)
2-31
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
If you selected FLUME for the type of standard device, the following display will appear:
SELECT TYPE OF FLUME
•PARSHALL • • PALMER-BOWLUS • •LEOPOLD-LAGCO •
Also available with the arrow key:
SELECT TYPE OF FLUME
• HS • • H • • HL • • TRAPEZOIDAL •
If you select PARSHALL, the following will appear:
SELECT PARSHALL SIZE:
• 1" • • 2" • • 3" • • 6" • • 9" • • 1.0' • • 1.5' • • 2.0' •
If you press the right arrow key several times, the sizes shown
below will move onto the screen:
SELECT PARSHALL SIZE:
• 3' • • 4' • • 5' • • 6' • • 8' • • 10' • • 12' •
If you select PALMER-BOWLUS for the type of flume, the following will appear:
SELECT PALMER-BOWLUS SIZE
• 4" • • 6" • • 8" • • 9" • • 10" • • 12" • • 15" • • 18" • • 21" •
If you press the right arrow key several times, the sizes shown
below will move onto the screen:
SELECT PALMER-BOWLUS SIZE
• 24" • • 27" • • 30" • • 48" •
If you select LEOPOLD-LAGCO for the type of flume, the following will appear:
LEOPOLD-LAGCO FLUME SIZE
• 4" • • 6" • • 8" • • 10" • • 12" • • 15" • • 18" • • 21" •
If you press the right arrow key several times, the sizes shown
below will move onto the screen:
LEOPOLD-LAGCO FLUME SIZE
• 24" • • 30" •
If you select HS for the type of flume, the following display will
appear:
HS FLUME SIZE
• 0.4' • • 0.5' • • 0.6' • • 0.8' • • 1.0' •
2-32
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
If you select H FLUME, the following will appear:
H FLUME SIZE
• 5' • • .75' • • 1' • • 2' • • 2.5' • • 3' • • 4.5' •
If you select HL FLUME, the following will appear:
HL FLUME SIZE
• 2.0' • • 2.5' • • 3.0' • • 3.5' • • 4.0' •
If you select TRAPEZOIDAL for the type of flume, the following
will appear:
TRAPEZOIDAL SIZE
• LG 60 V • • 2" 45 WSC • • 12” 45 SRCRC •
(This completes the section on WEIR/FLUME flow conversions.)
Returning to step 2, SELECT FLOW CONVERSION: If you
select EQUATION the following will appear:
ENTER EQUATION UNITS
Q = XXX.XXXH^X.XX + XXX.XXXH^X.XX
This step allows you to enter an equation that is appropriate for
your flow situation. The equation is expressed in the general
form of Q = k1HP1 + k2HP2, where Q = flow rate, k1 = a constant,
H = level or head, and P1 is the power to which H is raised. k2
and P2 are a second constant and power found in some equations. If your equation has only one term, you should enter 0 for
the second constant.
Again returning to step 2, SELECT FLOW CONVERSION, if
you select MANNING, the following display will appear:
SELECT MANNING TYPE
• ROUND PIPE • • U-CHANNEL • • RECTANGULAR • • T–
TRAPEZOIDAL is also available, if you move to the right with
the right arrow key.
If you select ROUND PIPE for the Manning flow conversion, the
following displays will appear:
MANNING ROUND PIPE
SLOPE = X.XXXXX ROUGH = X.XXXX
Slope is entered as a dimensionless quantity, delta Y/ delta X, not
as percent slope. Or, as otherwise expressed:
Δ
X- = Rise
----------------ΔY
Run
2-33
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
For example:
1
--------- = 0.01
100
Roughness coefficients are published in the Isco Open Channel
Flow Measurement Handbook. You must know the material the
pipe is made of. The roughness coefficients are published for all
common materials in three grades: minimum, normal and
maximum. Then:
MANNING ROUND PIPE
DIAMETER = X.XXX FEET (or meters)
If you select U-CHANNEL for the Manning flow conversion, the
following displays will appear:
MANNING U-CHANNEL
SLOPE = X.XXXXX ROUGH = X.XXX
(Slope and roughness are entered as for ROUND PIPE previously.) Then:
MANNING U-CHANNEL
WIDTH = X.XXX FEET (or meters)
If you select RECTANGULAR for the Manning flow conversion,
the following displays will appear:
MANNING RECTANGULAR
SLOPE = X.XXXXX ROUGH = X.XXX
(Slope and roughness are entered as for ROUND PIPE previously.) Then:
MANNING RECTANGULAR
WIDTH = X.XXX FEET (or meters)
If you select TRAPEZOID for the Manning flow conversion, the
following displays will appear:
MANNING TRAPEZOID
SLOPE = X.XXXXX ROUGH = X.XXX
(Slope and roughness are entered as for ROUND PIPE previously.) Then:
MANNING TRAPEZOID
TOP WIDTH = X.XXX FEET (or meters)
2-34
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Then:
MANNING TRAPEZOID
BOTTOM WIDTH = X.XXX FEET (or meters)
Returning to step 2, FLOW CONVERSION TYPE, if you select
DATA POINTS, the following displays will appear:
SELECT DATA SET
• ONE • • TWO • • THREE • • FOUR • • (NONE) •
Then:
LEVEL UNITS FOR DATA POINT ENTRY
• FT • • IN • • M • • MM •
This allows you to enter data points that are in different units
than you are using. Then:
FLOW RATE UNITS
• GPM • • GPS • • MGD • • CFS • • CFM • • M3S • • M3H • • M3D •
If you press the right arrow key a few times, the following units
of measure will appear on the display:
FLOW RATE UNITS
• LPS • • CFD • • GPH • • AFD • • CFH • • CFM • • M3M •
GPM = gallons per minute; GPS = gallons per second, MGD =
million gallons per day, CFS = cubic feet per second; CFM = cubic
feet per minute, M3S = cubic meters per second; M3M = cubic
meters per minute; M3H = cubic meters per hour; M3D = cubic
meters per day; LPS = liters per second; CFD = cubic feet per
day; GPH = gallons per hour; AFD = acre-feet per day; CFH =
cubic feet per hour.
DATA POINT flow conversion allows you to enter measured level
and flow rate values for a number of different points. The 4230
can accept as many as four sets of data points with each set containing up to fifty points.
The flow meter then performs a three-point interpolation to calculate a flow rate appropriate for the data entered. The common
use of data point flow conversion is with unusual primary measuring devices, specifically devices that the 4230 does not
support in its internal flow conversion set.
The level- to-flow rate data for such devices is usually available
from the manufacturer. From this the flow meter can create a
conversion based on the relationship between the level and flow
rate.
After the FLOW RATE UNITS menu has appeared, the next
menu is:
SET X (1-4): (0) POINTS ENTERED
• ADD POINT • • (UNITS) •
2-35
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Then:
SET 1 DATA POINT 1
ENTER: 0.00 (level units) 0.000 (units of volume)
After you have entered the data point set the following will
appear:
SET X (1-4): XX (1-50) POINTS ENTERED
• (USE) • • EDIT POINT • • ADD POINT • • CLEAR • • PRINT •
UNITS, SAVE will also appear if you move the flashing cursor
with the right arrow key. USE will only appear after four points
have been entered. USE tells the flow meter that the set is complete and can be used for the flow rate calculation.
Select EDIT POINT if you need to change either the level or the
flow value for a particular data point.
Select ADD POINT if you want to add another point to a data set.
CLEAR will erase an entire set of data points from the flow
meter's memory.
PRINT will make the flow meter print out the entire data set.
UNITS allows you to set or change the units of measure used in
the data set. Note that you can only set UNITS if the set is
empty, or you have cleared it. You cannot change the units once
you have entered data points into a set unless you clear it and
start over.
SAVE will save the data set as it is.
If you select either EDIT POINT or ADD POINT, the following
display will appear:
SET X (1-4) DATA POINT XX (1-50)
ENTER: XX.XX (level units) XXX.XXX (volume)
2.8.1 Flow Metering Inserts
There is one more possible flow conversion for the 4230 Bubbler
Flow Meter. This option will appear as FLOW METERING
INSERTS. These devices are metal inserts for 6", 8", 10", and 12"
diameter round pipe sewers. The inserts form a primary measuring device inside the pipe when they are placed. The inserts
are installed from street level to a maximum depth of 16 feet
with a handle made up of snap-fit extension pipes.
The inserts are sealed into the upstream pipe by inflating a
rubber bladder. Each insert is supplied with two circular weir
plates that provide either a round orifice or V-notch opening.
Once installed, the flow backs up behind the insert and a bubbler
tube in the bottom of the insert measures level.
The flow meter calculates flow based on this measured level. If
you select METERING INSERTS for the FLOW CONVERSION
mode, the following menu will appear:
SELECT WEIR/ORIFICE TYPE
• V-NOTCH • • ROUND •
2-36
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Round
Orifice
Handle
Flow
Bubbler
Rubber Bladder
Air Line
Figure 2-2 Flow Metering Insert
Then:
SELECT FLOW INSERT SIZE
• 6" • • 8" • • 10" • • 12" •
2.8.2 Enter Maximum Head
Before advancing from step 2 (Flow Conversion) to step 3
(Adjust Parameters), the flow meter will request that you enter a
value for Maximum Head (Level) for the device or flow conversion you are using.
For most standard measuring devices, this information is published or is available from the device manufacturer. Note,
however that you should not arbitrarily use the largest value
available. Instead, use the value that is the largest expected level
for your actual situation, even if this is less than the published
maximum.
The flow meter's internal resolution and its accuracy are based
on the value you enter for Maximum Head. The flow meter will
display:
FLOW RATE AT MAXIMUM HEAD
X.XXX CFS (or other units of measure)
2.8.3 Programming the 4-20
mA Outputs
If you turn on any of the 4-20 mA outputs (ANALOG OUTPUTS)
in step 1 Setup, programming the actual operation of the output
appears in step 2 Select Flow Conversion.
Note
If you do not turn on the 4-20 mA output(s) in step 1, the
menus determining its (their) operation will not appear later in
the program. If you need this function and cannot find the
appropriate menus in step 2, return to step 1, Setup and
check to see that you have not inadvertently switched the
option off.
2-37
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
For each 4-20 mA output port turned on, the flow meter will
request entry of the type of data that will drive the output, along
with minimum and maximum values. Here is an example of
what you might see for programming analog output 1.
DATA TYPE FOR ANALOG OUTPUT 1
• (OFF)••(LEVEL)••(FLOW RATE)••(pH)•
TEMPERATURE, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, CONDUCTIVITY,
SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE, SALINITY, and TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS may also appear as driving conditions.
The choices available to you will depend on what parameter measurements you have turned on previously and what accessories
(YSI, pH, DO probes, rain gauge, etc.) you are using with your
flow meter. After you select a choice, the flow meter will request
the minimum and maximum values for that choice:
ANALOG OUTPUT 1
4 MA = X.X (units)
4 MA in the second line of the display could also be 0 MA if that
is what you selected for the current loop minimum in Setup. The
units are the units of measure appropriate for the option you
selected; for example, feet or meters for level, degrees F or C for
temperature, mg/l for dissolved oxygen, etc. After you have set
the minimum value for the parameter, the flow meter will
request that you enter a value for full-scale, or 100%:
ANALOG OUTPUT 1
20 MA = X.X (units)
This value causes the port to transmit 100% or 20 mA. For
example, if the data type selected for this output were level, and
the unit is measuring level in a four-foot pipe, you would enter a
full-scale value of four feet. If the actual level reading is currently two feet, the analog output would read 12 mA (50% if the
4-20 mA current range is selected) or 10 mA (50% if the 0-20 mA
current range is selected).
The flow meter will then request that you repeat the process of
defining the data type and setting the minimum and maximum
values for any of the other analog outputs you activated previously in Setup.
2.9 Step 3 - Parameter to
Adjust
This step lets you enter the measured level in the flow stream. It
also lets you calibrate the pH (acidity or alkalinity), D.O. (dissolved oxygen) parameter sensors, and the YSI 600 Multiple
Parameter Sonde. There is no calibration step for the temperature sensor because it does not need calibration. When you
select step 3 the following will appear:
PARAMETER TO ADJUST
• NONE • • (LEVEL) • • (pH) • • (D.O.) • • (YSI 600) •
2-38
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
LEVEL will not show up if you are using the flow meter only for
parameter sensing. Likewise, pH and/or D.O. and YSI 600 will
not show up on the display if you have locked them out by programming selections you made in step 1.
Remember that selection of either pH or D.O. in step 1 will keep
the other from appearing on the display in this or subsequent
programming steps. If the parameter you want does not appear
in this menu, exit the program and return to Setup. Check to see
that you have not accidentally locked out your choice with selections made in the early part of the program. If you select NONE,
the flow meter will advance to the next step. If you select
LEVEL, the following will appear:
ENTER CURRENT LEVEL
X.XXX FEET (or other units of measure, as selected)
For this value, you must measure the level in the stream (usually
done with a measuring stick.) Generally, you should measure the
level upstream from the bubble line outlet, or at the prescribed
point in the primary measuring device. The bubbler should be
installed in an area of stable flow.
D – d = h (level)
d
h
This drawing shows you how
to measure level. You then
enter this value with the
number
keys.
LEVEL
ADJUST must be done at the
D job site, while most other programming can be done in the
shop.
Figure 2-3 Level Measurement in Round Pipes
You should remove the bubbler and mounting ring to measure
the level if either of the following occur:
• If it is not possible to measure the level upstream when
the bubbler is installed, (cramped quarters inside
smaller pipes).
• If the bubbler and its mounting ring create a visible
“jump” in the stream.
This “jump” would be any noticeable disturbance on the
surface of the flow stream where it passes over the
bubbler and mounting ring, and is typical of lower flows.
Enter this value with the number keys. LEVEL ADJUST must
be done at the job site, while most other programming can be
done in the shop. Unless you have reliable information about the
size of the channel, you should measure that, also.
2-39
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Note
It is very important to enter accurate measurements for both
the level in the stream and the dimension(s) of the channel, as
all calculations of flow will be based on these measurements. If
the values entered are incorrect, even by relatively small
amounts, all subsequent flow calculations will be incorrect
also.
For example, an error of only 1⁄4" for a 3" level and 1⁄4" for a 10"
diameter round pipe can result in a combined error of over
14%!
Errors in level measurement have a greater effect on flow calculations at low liquid levels. Dimensional errors tend to be
more significant at higher levels.
If you select pH for port to adjust, the following display will
appear. (pH will not appear as an option unless you have selected
it in step 1.) If you want to measure pH and pH does not appear
in this step, you must go back to step 1 and select pH instead of
NOT MEASURED.
pH CALIBRATION
• pH 4 & 7 • • pH 7 & 10 • • pH 4, 7, & 10 •
You can perform a two- or three-point calibration for pH with the
pH sensor. Select the calibration that best suits your stream’s
profile. If the pH in your stream in generally below 7, you would
probably select pH 4 & 7. If the pH is generally above 7, you
would probably select pH 7 & 10. If your stream’s pH varies a
great deal, for example from 3 to 12, your best choice would be
pH 4, 7, & 10. Then:
RINSE PROBE AND PLACE IN 4.0 pH SOLUTION
PRESS ENTER WHEN STABLE X.XX pH
The flow meter will direct you to repeat this process with the
other standard buffers (7 and/or 10) to calibrate the pH sensor. If
the probe fails to provide the correct output with any of the
buffer solutions you will receive the following message:
pH BUFFER/PROBE OUT OF RANGE
PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE
If you select D.O. for parameter to adjust, the following display
will appear:
DISSOLVED OXYGEN CALIBRATION
•D.O. STANDARD••ABS BAROMETRIC PRESSURE•>
2-40
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
ALTITUDE is just off screen to the right. If you select D.O.
STANDARD for the calibration method, the following display
will appear:
D.O. STANDARD
0.00 MG/L
If you select ABS (absolute) BAROMETRIC PRESSURE the following will appear:
ABS BAROMETRIC PRESSURE
X.XX mmHg
Absolute barometric pressure is barometric pressure not corrected to sea level. The barometric pressure published by the
U.S. Weather Bureau is corrected to sea level. If you use their
value, you must convert it to the absolute pressure for your
altitude. You should use Weather Bureau barometric pressure
only if you are at sea level, or are able to correct the Weather
Bureau figure to absolute pressure at your location. Enter the
value for atmospheric pressure.
WRAP D.O. PROBE IN MOIST CLOTH
PRESS ENTER WHEN STABLE: X.XX MS/CM:
Then the display will advance to the following:
CALIBRATING...
PLEASE WAIT...
If you select ALTITUDE for D.O., the following will appear:
UNITS FOR ALTITUDE ENTRY
• FT • • M •
Select the appropriate units and press Enter.
ALTITUDE
ALTITUDE = X.XX FT (or meters)
Enter the altitude for your location. Then:
WRAP D.O. PROBE IN MOIST CLOTH
PRESS ENTER WHEN STABLE: X.XXX MG/L
For more detailed information on the pH and D.O. probes, see
Section 4.
Returning to step 3, Parameter to adjust, the following display
will appear:
PARAMETER TO ADJUST
• NONE • • (LEVEL) • • (pH) • • (DO) • • (YSI 600) •
2-41
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Note
If you are using the YSI Sonde and YSI 600 does not appear
on your display, return to step 1, Program, and make sure you
have selected YES from the YSI CONNECTED menu.
If you select YSI 600, the following display will appear:
YSI 600 PARAMETER TO CALIBRATE
• NONE • • pH • • DO • • CONDUCTIVITY •
If you select pH for the parameter to calibrate, the following
display will appear:
YSI 600 pH CALIBRATION
• pH 4 & 7 • • pH 7 & 10 • • pH 4, 7, & 10 •
You can perform a two- or three-point calibration for pH with the
YSI sonde. The menus that follow are similar to those in the preceding section for the Isco pH sensor. Select the calibration that
best suits your stream’s profile. When you complete the pH calibration successfully, the following display will appear:
CALIBRATING...
PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE
Returning to the YSI menu, if you select D.O:
YSI 600 DISSOLVED OXYGEN CALIBRATION
• D.O. STANDARD• •ABS BAROMETRIC PRESSURE •>
ALTITUDE is just off screen to the right. Programming for YSI
600 D.O. is essentially the same as that described for the Isco
D.O. sensor on the preceding section, with the exception that you
always place the sensor in a cup, rather than wrap a moist cloth
around it as is done for the Isco D.O. sensor.
If you select CONDUCTIVITY for the parameter to calibrate, the
following display will appear:
CONDUCTIVITY CALIBRATION UNITS
• MS/CM • • PPT •
MS/CM is millisiemens per centimeter. The siemen is the S.I.
(Système Internationale) name for the unit of conductance,
which is also the reciprocal of the ohm. The siemen was formerly
called the mho (ohm spelled backwards), and that term is more
familiar to some. PPT is parts per thousand. Select the standard
most suitable for your application.
CONDUCTIVITY STANDARD
X.XX MS/CM
2-42
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
Then:
PLACE PROBE IN X.XX MS/CM
PRESS ENTER WHEN STABLE: X.XX MS/CM
Then:
CALIBRATING...
PLEASE WAIT...
If you select PPT for the conductivity standard:
CONDUCTIVITY STANDARD
X.XX PPT
Then:
PLACE PROBE IN X.XX PPT
PRESS ENTER WHEN STABLE: X.XX MS/CM
Then:
CALIBRATING...
PLEASE WAIT...
There is no need to calibrate the YSI 600 temperature sensor, as
it is self-calibrating. See Figure 2-4 for a YSI calibration flow
chart.
2-43
2-44
Figure 2-4 YSI 600 Sonde Calibration Flow Chart
No
Err or/warning Override
Ye s - No
Good Cal ibrat ion
Ye s
Error/
Wa rn in g
Calibrating...
Please Wait...
Ri nse probe and place in ph 10.0 solution
Press Enter when stable: X.XX pH
Ye s
Er ror/warning Override
Ye s - No
G ood Cali brat ion
Er ror/
Wa rnin g
Calibrating...
Please Wait...
Rins e Probe And Place In Ph 7.0 Solution
Press Enter when stable: X. XX pH
Ye s
No
No
No
Er ror/warning Override
Ye s - No
G ood Cali brat ion
Error /
Wa rn in g
Calibrating...
Please Wait...
Rinse probe andplace in ph 7.0 solution
Press Enter when ready: X. XX pH
Ye s
Er ror/warning Override
Ye s - No
Good Ca librat ion
E rror/
Wa rn in g
Calibrating...
Please Wait...
Rinse probe andplace in ph 4.0 solution
Press Enter when stable: X.XX pH
YS I 600 Ph Calibration
pH4 & pH7 - pH7 & pH 10 - pH4, pH7, & pH10
YS I 600 ParameterTo Calibrate
None - Ph - Conductivity - D.o.
Parameter To Adjust
None - Level-YSI 600 - Ph - D.o.
Program Step #3, “A djust Level/Parameters”
Ye s
E rror/warning override
Ye s - No
Ye s
Er ror/warning override
Ye s - No
Good Cal ibrat ion
Error/
Wa rn in g
Calibrating...
Please wait...
G ood Cali brat ion
Ye s
Ri nse probe and place in ph 10.0 solution
Press Enter when stable: X.XX pH
Error /
Wa rn in g
Calibrating...
Please wait...
Rins e probeand place in ph 7.0 solution
Press Enter when stable: X. XX pH
No
No
No
Er ror/warning override
Ye s - No
Good Cal ibrat ion
E rror/
Wa rnin g
Calibrating...
Please wait...
Rinse probe and place in ph 4.0 solution
Press Enter when stable: X.XX pH
Ye s
Er ror/warning Override
Ye s - No
Good Calib ra tion
Error/
Wa rn in g
Calibrating...
Press Enter when stable X.XX mS /cm
Place probe in XXX units solution
Press Enter when ready
Enter conductivity standard
X XX Units
Enter conductivity calibration units
mS/cm - ppt
No
No
Ye s
Er ror/warning override
Ye s - No
G ood Cali brat ion
Er ror/
Wa rn in g
Calibrating...
Press Enter when stable X. XX Mg/l
Place probein calibration cup
Press Enter when ready:
Units for altitude entry
Ft. - M
Ye s
Er ror/warning Override
Ye s - No
G ood Cali brat ion
Error/
Wa rn in g
Calibrating...
Press Enter when stable X.XX Mg/l
No
Abs. Barometric Pressure
X.XX mmHg
Place Probe in X.XX Mg/l solution
Press Enter whenready:
D.O. Standard
X.XX Mg/l
YS I 600 D.O. Calibration
D.O. Standard- Abs. Barometric Pressure - Al titude
YS I 600 ParameterTo Calibrate
None - Ph - Conductivity - D.o.
No
Ye s
Er ror/warning Override
Ye s - No
Good Calib ra tion
Error/
Wa rn in g
Calibrating...
Press Enter when stable X.XX Mg/l
Place probe in calibration cup
Press Enter when ready:
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
2.10 Step 4 - Reset Totalizer
This step allows you to reset the flow meter's internal flow
totalizer. Note that there is the possibility of more than one
totalizer. All 4200 meters have the capability of maintaining a
separate totalizer for the time the sampler is enabled through
the sampler enabling feature (step 6).
If you select step 4, the following will appear: If you select NO,
the flow meter will advance to the next step. If you select YES,
the flow meter will reset the internal totalizer to zero.
RESET TOTALIZER
• YES • • NO •
Then, if you have sampler enabling turned on (step 6), the flow
meter will ask you whether you want to reset the totalizer for the
total flow during the time the sampler was enabled. (See step 6
for an explanation of sampler enabling.)
ENABLE TOTALIZER XX CF
PRESS 'ENTER
(Other units of measure may appear.) Then:
RESET SAMPLER ENABLE TOTALIZER
• YES • • NO •
2.11 Step 5 - Sampler
Pacing
This step determines how the flow meter will signal an associated automatic wastewater sampler to take a sample. The flow
meter and sampler must be connected together with a cable. The
flow meter sends flow pulses to the sampler. The sampler uses
these flow pulses as counts. When an appropriate number of flow
pulses has been received by the sampler, it will take a sample.
If you select step 5, the following will appear:
SAMPLER PACING
• DISABLE • • (VOLUME) • • (FLOWLINK) • • CONDITIONAL •
VOLUME will not appear if the flow meter is measuring level
only, or is being used for parameter monitoring.
The FLOWLINK menu option will not appear unless Flowlink,
Teledyne Isco's proprietary data acquisition and storage
software, is installed and pacing has been downloaded from
Flowlink.
If you select DISABLE for sampler pacing, the flow meter will be
effectively disconnected from the sampler. The sampler will run
its program as if the flow meter weren't there. Selection of
DISABLE will also cause the flow meter to advance to the next
program step. If you select VOLUME for sampler pacing, the following will appear:
SAMPLER PACING
ENTER PACING VOLUME XX.XXXX (units)
(Range is max. flow ÷ 10 to max. flow × 10,000)
2-45
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
If FLOWLINK appears for sampler pacing, the operation of
sampler pacing has been determined by choices made in
Flowlink software. Flowlink controls the flow meter remotely, via
phone lines and a modem, or locally with a laptop computer and
cable. In any event, if the sampler pacing definition is controlled
by Flowlink, it can only be changed through Flowlink. If you
select CONDITIONAL for sampler pacing, the following will
appear:
CONDITION
• (LEVEL) • • (FLOW RATE) • • (RAINFALL) • • (D.O.) • • (pH) •
(TEMPERATURE), (YSI pH), (YSI DO), (YSI CONDUCTIVITY)
and (YSI TEMP) may also appear. Note that all the conditions
shown above are in parentheses. Which ones actually appear
depend on your previous programming selections. At least one of
these menu options will be available to you. Pressing the right
arrow key may be necessary to bring all items onto the display,
(provided they are available for use.)
LEVEL will only appear if the flow meter is set up to measure
level or flow. RAINFALL, D.O., pH, and TEMPERATURE measurement require the appropriate sensor probe be used with the
flow meter. Remember that only one parameter condition (D.O.
or pH) can be measured by the flow meter at a time.
RAINFALL can appear if you have a rain gauge attached to the
flow meter. TEMPERATURE can be measured alone, or with
either parameter probe.
D.O. and/or pH may not appear on the menu, depending on selections made in step 1. If you do not see the item you need, return
to step 1, and recheck your programming. If you did not make
the proper selections there, certain menu options will not appear
here, as they would have been locked out. The YSI 600 conditions
of pH, DO, CONDUCTIVITY, and TEMPERATURE will only
appear on the menu if you have turned them on in steps 1 and 3.
For any of these conditions, you can set the point at which a
change in the selected condition causes the flow meter to send a
flow pulse to the sampler. The following menu will appear:
(Selected CONDITION)
• GREATER THAN • • LESS THAN • • RATE OF CHANGE •
If you select GREATER THAN, the flow meter will ask you to
enter a maximum value for the selected condition, which if
exceeded, will trigger the flow pulse.
If you select LESS THAN, the flow meter will ask you to enter a
minimum value for the selected condition. If the condition falls
below that value later, the flow meter will send a flow pulse to
the sampler.
If you select RATE OF CHANGE, the flow meter will request two
values, one for the condition, and the other for a period of time
over which the change occurs.
2-46
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
After you have determined what condition will signal the
sampler and under what circumstances, the following menu will
appear:
SELECT OPERATOR
• DONE • • OR • • AND •
SELECT OPERATOR allows you to trigger the sampler from a
single condition or from two conditions. Suppose you wanted to
trigger the sampler from only one condition and that condition
was LEVEL. You would select level as the condition, and then
identify what change in LEVEL would be the trigger. Then you
would select DONE for the SELECT OPERATOR step. Selection
of DONE will advance the flow meter to the next program step.
However, suppose you wanted to select two conditions, either of
which would trigger the sampler. In such a case you would select
OR for the SELECT OPERATOR step. The menu will return to
the one listing the conditions. This will let you define the second
condition. Now the flow meter will trigger the sampler when
either condition changes.
Finally, suppose you had a situation where you wanted changes
in two conditions to occur before you signalled the sampler. In
that case you would select AND for the SELECT OPERATOR
step. Then you would define the second condition. Now the flow
meter will signal the sampler only after both conditions have
changed.
The next screen on the flow meter (after you have established the
conditions for sampler pacing) will request the following.
(Entering 0 sends no pulses.):
CONDITION TRUE PACING INTERVAL
PACE EVERY X MINUTES
This option lets you send flow pulses periodically to the sampler
when the conditions you established for sampler pacing are being
met. Then:
CONDITION FALSE PACING INTERVAL
PACE EVERY X MINUTES
This option allows you to send flow pulses periodically to the
sampler during the time the conditions you established for
sampler pacing are not being met. Again, entering 0 sends no
pulses.
2.12 Step 6 - Sampler
Enable
The operation of step 6, Sampler Enable is similar to step 5,
Sampler Pacing. The menus and options are similar. The difference is that where sampler pacing only causes the flow meter
to send a momentary signal (flow pulse) to the sampler, sampler
enabling actually controls an inhibit line to the sampler that can
keep the sampler from running its program. Sampler enabling is
useful where the sampler needs to remain idle for long periods of
time, such as storm water runoff applications.
2-47
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
When you select or advance to step 6, the following display will
appear:
SAMPLER ENABLE MODE
• DISABLE • • ENABLE • • CONDITIONAL • • (STORM) •
(FLOWLINK) may also appear. The FLOWLINK menu option
will not appear unless Flowlink software has been installed.
DISABLE means that the sampler will be permanently inhibited
by the flow meter. This condition will remain until you change it
in this program step, or if you are using Flowlink, until it is overridden by a command from Flowlink. Select the DISABLE option
with care; it will make the sampler appear to be inoperative, and
that could easily be misinterpreted as an equipment failure by
someone not familiar with the programming of the flow meter.
ENABLE means that the sampler is permanently enabled, free
to run its own program without any control from the flow meter.
This condition will remain until you change this menu option, or
until it is overridden by a command from Flowlink.
The STORM option will not appear unless you turned on rainfall
measurement in step 1. STORM selection is what you use when
you want to monitor storm water runoff. STORM enabling is
really a combination of conditions. First, enter a value for
LEVEL in the flow stream. Second, enter a value for RAINFALL.
Third, enter an amount of time over which the rainfall occurs.
Finally, you enter a time since the last rainfall. You must have an
Isco Rain Gauge to measure rainfall. The following menus are
the STORM sequence:
LEVEL
GREATER THAN X.XXX FT (Or other units, as selected.)
Then:
RAINFALL AMOUNT
X.XX INCHES (Or other units, as selected.)
Then:
RAINFALL TIME PERIOD
• 15 MIN • • 30 MIN • • 1 HR • • 2 HR • • 4 HR •
If you press the right arrow key several times, the following
times will appear:
RAINFALL TIME PERIOD
• 6 HR • • 8 HR • • 12 HR • • 24 HR • • 48 HR • • 72 HR •
The intervals above are the periods of time over which the
rainfall occurs. The amount of rain entered in the previous step
and detected by the rain gauge must fall during the time interval
chosen from this menu before the flow meter recognizes the event
as a storm.
2-48
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
The next menu defines the interval that must pass between
storm events.
TIME SINCE LAST RAINFALL
DAYS: X (allowable entry of 1-7)
If you select CONDITION from SAMPLER ENABLE, the following will appear:
CONDITION
• (LEVEL) • • (FLOW RATE) • • (D.O.) • • (pH) •
(TEMPERATURE), (RAINFALL), (YSI pH), (YSI DO), (YSI
CONDUCTIVITY) and (YSI TEMP) may also appear. The above
conditions are all shown in parentheses, because they may or
may not be available to you by the time you reach this menu. The
menus that do appear will depend on the flow meter type and
programming selections made earlier in the program. At least
one of the conditions will be available to you. If you select LEVEL
from CONDITION the following will appear:
LEVEL
• GREATER THAN • • LESS THAN • • RATE OF CHANGE •
After you select one of these options, the flow meter will request
that you enter a value, for example if you selected GREATER
THAN:
LEVEL
GREATER THAN X.XX FEET (Or other units.)
Enter a maximum value for the selected condition, which if
exceeded, will enable the sampler.
If you select LESS THAN, the flow meter will ask you to enter a
minimum value for the selected condition. If the condition falls
below that value later, the flow meter will enable the sampler.
If you select RATE OF CHANGE, the flow meter will ask you to
enter two values, one for the condition, and the other for a period
of time over which the change occurs.
After you have determined what condition will signal the
sampler and under what circumstances, the following menu will
appear:
SELECT OPERATOR
• DONE • • OR • • AND •
This step allows you to trigger the sampler from a single condition or from two conditions. Suppose you wanted to trigger the
sampler from only one condition and that condition was level.
You would select level as the condition, and then identify what
change in level would be the trigger. Then you would select
DONE for the SELECT OPERATOR step. Selection of DONE
will advance the flow meter to the next program step. Selection of
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
OR or AND will allow you to select another condition, and then
determine whether both conditions are necessary for enabling
(AND) or whether either condition will enable the sampler (OR).
If you select FLOW RATE:
FLOW RATE
• GREATER THAN • • LESS THAN • • RATE OF CHANGE •
You would select one of these options, and then enter a value, as
for LEVEL, previously.
The rest of the menus will appear the same as they did for
LEVEL and FLOW RATE. D.O., pH, TEMPERATURE, and
RAINFALL all require activation in step 1 and use of the appropriate sensor. Only one parameter condition (pH, D.O.) can be
measured by the flow meter at a time. pH and D.O. will not
appear on the display at the same time.
It is possible to program the Sampler Enable option so that it
operates in two different modes, latching and non-latching. To
explain this, in the non-latching mode the sampler will be
enabled only as long as the condition that caused the enabling
remains outside of “normal.” If the enabling condition returns to
“normal,” the sampler enable will turn off until the next time the
condition goes outside of “normal.”
In the latching mode, the sampler will be enabled the first time
the condition goes outside of normal and it will remain enabled
regardless of any subsequent changes in the enabling condition.
If this is the case, the following menu will allow you to reset the
sampler enable feature. This menu will not appear unless the
condition necessary to enable the sampler has been met and the
sampler is currently enabled.
WHEN ENABLE CONDITION IS NO LONGER MET
• DISABLE SAMPLER • • KEEP ENABLED •
Or:
ENABLE CURRENTLY LATCHED, RESET
• NO • • YES •
Select YES to reset the sampler enable feature; select NO to
leave the sampler enabled:.
PRINTER ON/OFF WITH ENABLE
• YES • • NO •
This selection allows you to turn the flow meter's printer on or off
when the sampler is enabled from the flow meter. This allows
you to conserve battery power and print a chart only when the
sampler is enabled. This feature is useful for monitoring storm
water runoff.
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
2.13 Step 7 - Alarm Dialout
Mode
This step lets you signal an alarm to a remote location from the
flow meter. The conditions that can cause an alarm are the same
as described previously for sampler enabling.
Note
You must have the optional internal modem installed and connected to a telephone network to make use of this feature. This
menu will not even appear if you do not have a modem. The
flow meter will automatically advance to the next step.
More information about the modem can be found in Section 4. If
you have the modem installed and select step 7, the following
will appear:
ALARM DIAL OUT
• DISABLE • • CONDITIONAL • • STORM • • FLOWLINK •
If you select DISABLE, this option will be inactivated until you
change the selection later. The program will advance to the next
step. If you select STORM, the flow meter will request definitions
similar to those for STORM in sampler enable. The following will
appear:
LEVEL
GREATER THAN X.XXX FT (Or other units of measure.)
Followed by:
RAINFALL AMOUNT
X.XX INCHES (or other units of measure)
Then:
RAINFALL TIME PERIOD
• 15 MIN • • 30 MIN • • 1 HR • • 2 HR • • 4 HR •
If you press the right arrow key several times, the following
times will appear:
RAINFALL TIME PERIOD
• 6 HR • • 8 HR • • 12 HR • • 24 HR • • 48 HR • • 72 HR •
The intervals above are the periods of time over which the
rainfall occurs. The amount of rain entered in the previous step
and detected by the rain gauge must fall during the time interval
chosen from this menu before the flow meter recognizes the event
as a storm.
The next menu defines the interval that must pass between
storm events.
TIME SINCE LAST RAINFALL
DAYS: X (allowable entry of 1-7)
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
If you select CONDITIONAL for alarm dialout, the following will
appear:
CONDITION
• (LEVEL) • • (FLOW RATE) • • (D.O.) • • (pH) •
(TEMPERATURE), (RAINFALL), (YSI pH), (YSI D.O.), (YSI
CONDUCTIVITY), and (YSI TEMP) may also appear. As mentioned previously, some of these menu options may not appear
depending on selections you made earlier in the program. At
least one of the options will be available to you.
D.O., pH, TEMPERATURE, and RAINFALL all require activation in step 1 and connection of the appropriate sensor to the
flow meter. D.O. and pH will never appear together, as only one
can be used at a time. When you have selected the condition you
want, the display will advance to the following:
CONDITION
• GREATER THAN • • LESS THAN • • RATE OF CHANGE •
For these conditions, you enter an amount, which if exceeded
(GREATER THAN), or if dropped below (LESS THAN), or if
changed too quickly (RATE OF CHANGE), will activate the
alarm dialout. For RATE OF CHANGE, you enter two values:
amount and time interval over which change occurs. Then the
display will advance to the following:
SELECT OPERATOR
• DONE • • OR • • AND •
As described previously for sampler enabling, this step allows
you to combine conditions to produce an alarm dialout signal.
Select DONE if you need only one condition to trigger the alarm.
If you want either of two conditions to trigger an alarm, select
OR. If you want both of two conditions to be met before signalling
an alarm, select AND. Selection of DONE will advance you to the
next display menu. Selection of OR or AND will return you to the
CONDITION menu to select the other condition.
The flow meter will then request that you enter the telephone
numbers for the remote alarms. Five numbers are possible, in
decreasing order of importance. You can enter as many as
eighteen digits for each phone, so the targets need not necessarily be local.
ALARM DIALOUT NUMBERS
• DONE • • NUM 1 • • NUM 2 • • NUM 3 • • NUM 4 • • NUM 5 •
If you select DONE, the flow meter will advance to the next step.
If you select one of the NUM entries, such as NUM 1, the following will appear:
FIRST PHONE NUMBER
XXXXXXXXXX
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
You can enter the phone numbers as straight multiple digit
numbers, or you can use the +/– key to enter a dash as telephone
numbers are often written. Pressing the . (decimal) key inserts
a , (comma). If you want to signal more than one remote number
at a time, the numbers are arranged in decreasing priority. NUM
1 carries the highest priority, followed by NUM 2 and so on. After
you have entered the numbers, the flow meter will request:
DELAY BETWEEN DIALOUTS
XX MINUTES
This is the time delay between calling the first number and
calling the second, etc. This option gives you time to respond to
an alarm before the flow meter dials the next number. Select a
value between 1 and 99 minutes. Then the display will advance
to the following:
CALLBACK TO DISABLE ALARM
• YES • • NO •
Select YES if you want to be able to acknowledge the alarm condition in the flow meter by calling back. No message is spoken on
this callback.
When the flow meter's modem detects the ring, it will answer
and automatically reset the alarm. If there is no one available to
answer an alarm, you can have the flow meter dial a paging
service and then someone with a pager can call back to
acknowledge the alarm.
To acknowledge an alarm from a touch tone phone; wait for the
spoken message to complete; then press *-X-X-X. The X-X-X are
the three digits of the site ID number.
2.14 Step 8 - Printer
This step sets up the operation of the flow meter's internal
p r i n t e r. T h i s p r i n t e r a l s o f u n c t i o n s a s a p l o t t e r. T h e
printer/plotter is capable of printing alphanumeric information
(words and numbers), and at the same time, plotting linear data
like flow, level, pH, etc.
The unit can print as many as three different data lines while it
regularly records other printed information supplied from the
flow meter. Program selections made in this step will determine
the appearance of the printer/printer's chart.
The first menu will request the speed of the chart.
ENTER PRINTER SPEED
• OFF • • 1/2"/HR • • 1"/HR • • 2"/HR • • 4"/HR •
If you select OFF, the printer will be disabled. No data will be
printed on the chart. The flow meter will, however, still print
reports if you activate that function in step 9. The choice made
from the other speeds depends on the amount of data you need to
record on the chart.
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
If you are recording from a relatively stable situation, are using
only one data line, and you want to achieve maximum longevity
for the chart paper roll, select a lower speed for chart advance.
On the other hand, if there is a great deal of activity in your
installation, and you must use all three data lines, selection of a
faster chart speed will probably produce a chart more easily read
and interpreted.
After you select the printer speed, the flow meter will ask you to
define what input you want depicted by printer LINE A. (The
printer can print as many as three separate data lines at the
same time.) The following display will appear:
INPUT FOR PRINTER LINE A
• (LEVEL) • • (D.O.) • • (FLOW RATE) • • (pH) • • OFF •
(TEMPERATURE), (D.O.), (YSI pH), (YSI D.O.), (YSI CONDUCTIVITY), and (YSI TEMP) can also appear. Remember that
menus in parentheses may or may not appear due to previous
program selections. Either pH or D.O. may appear, but not both.
The various YSI options will only appear if you have enabled the
YSI 600 option in step 1, previously. You must have the appropriate probes to sense these conditions for the flow meter. Select
OFF, if you do not wish to use this line.
If you select pH, D.O., TEMPERATURE, or any of the YSI
options the flow meter will request that you set limits that will
serve as the bottom of the chart and the chart full-scale.
PRINTER LINE A BOTTOM SCALE
X.XX pH (or other condition, as selected previously)
You would enter here the lowest pH value you expect to see in
your flow stream:
PRINTER LINE A FULL SCALE
X.XX pH (or other condition, as selected previously)
Enter here the highest pH value (or other condition) you expect
to see in your stream. Note that selection depends on the range
that you would normally expect to see. If your stream varies from
6 to 8 pH units, you would not want to enter 0 and 14 as limits.
The chart resolution would be poor. You could enter 5 and 9 pH
and still have good resolution if there were sharp deviations
because of the availability of over-ranges in the flow meter.
Selection of OFF from the INPUT FOR PRINTER LINE menu
will cause the printer to leave this line blank. Selection of conditions other than pH, D.O., TEMPERATURE, or YSI functions
will result in a request that you enter the full-scale value for the
condition being plotted. For example, if you selected LEVEL as a
condition, the following would appear:
PRINTER LINE A FULL SCALE
X.XXXX FEET (or other units of measure, as selected)
2-54
4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
The flow meter will automatically go into over-range if the data
goes higher than the full-scale value you have selected. You can
easily recognize over-range operation by the plotted line running
off the right side of the chart and then immediately reappearing
on the left side of the chart. Because of the over-range feature,
you can set a full-scale value that gives you good resolution on
the chart.
At the same time, the automatic over-range will prevent the loss
of data if the plotted line rises past the full-scale point. For the
other conditions, the full-scale units will be appropriate for what
is being measured (D.O., pH, temperature, etc.) Note that the
flow meter is capable of multiple over-ranges.
INPUT FOR PRINTER LINE B
•(LEVEL) • • (FLOW RATE) • • (D.O.) • • (pH) • • OFF•
(TEMPERATURE), (YSI pH), (YSI D.O.), (YSI CONDUCTIVITY), and (YSI TEMP) may also appear.
Again, just as for line A, you can select another condition to plot
on the chart. The flow meter will request a full-scale value, or
bottom and full-scale values. These values can differ from that
entered for line A.
INPUT FOR PRINTER LINE C
•(LEVEL) • • (FLOW RATE) • • (D.O.) • • (pH) • • OFF•
(TEMPERATURE), (YSI pH), (YSI D.O.), (YSI CONDUCTIVITY), and (YSI TEMP) may also appear.
For line C, you can select yet another condition to plot on the
chart. The flow meter will also request entry of a full-scale, or
bottom and full-scale values, as for the previous two lines.
PLOT RAINFALL ON CHART?
• NO • • YES •
You must have an Isco Rain Gauge connected to the flow meter to
measure rainfall. Output is recorded in either inches or millimeters. There is only one over-range for rainfall.
2.15 Step 9 Reports/History
This step lets you set up the flow meter to print periodic reports.
The typical report contains such information as the period of
time covered in the report, maximum and minimum levels, and
when they occurred. You can define two different reports in this
step. For example, this is used to provide weekly and monthly
reports. You can choose the content of the reports by working
through the menus in step 1.
When you go to step 9, the following display will appear:
REPORT GENERATOR A
• ON • • OFF • • (PRINT) •
If you select OFF, the program will advance to the next step, and
there will be no report A generated. If you select YES, the following will appear:
REPORT A DURATION TO BE IN
• HOURS • • DAYS • • MONTHS •
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
After you select the units of time, the following will appear.
ENTER REPORT A DURATION
XX HOURS
DAYS or MONTHS could also appear depending on what you
selected for the previous step. The time selected becomes the
time interval that will be covered in the report. Then the flow
meter will ask you when you want the first report printed:
PRINT REPORT A AT
YR: XXXX MONTH: XX DAY: XX HR: XX MIN: XX
Then:
REPORT GENERATOR B
• ON • • OFF • • (PRINT) •
The second report generator lets you program the flow meter to
print two independent reports at different intervals, for example.
This is useful for those who need both a weekly and a monthly
summary of activity on the flow meter.
If you select OFF for this step, the program will advance to the
next step, and there will be no report B generated. If you select
YES, the following will appear:
REPORT B DURATION TO BE IN
• HOURS • • DAYS • • MONTHS •
Select the appropriate interval for this second report. After you
select the units of time the following will appear:
ENTER REPORT B DURATION
XX HOURS
DAYS or MONTHS could also appear depending on what you
selected for the previous step. The time selected becomes the
time interval that will be covered in the report. Then the flow
meter will ask you when you want the first report printed:
PRINT REPORT A AT
YR: XXXX MONTH: XX DAY: XX HR: XX MIN: XX
After you have entered the desired date for the first report, the
program will advance to the following:
PRINT FLOW METER HISTORY
• YES • • NO •
The final step on the flow meter is HISTORY. This step presents
a record of the programming activity on the flow meter that you
can have printed on the printer. The flow meter keeps a record of
certain programming changes and prints them out. If you select
YES, the following will appear:
PRINT FLOW METER HISTORY
• PRINT SINCE LAST • • PRINT ALL •
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
If you press PRINT SINCE LAST, the flow meter will only print
the changes that have occurred since the last print request. If
there were no changes, there will be no print. If you select PRINT
ALL, the flow meter will print all the changes it has in memory,
as far back as 50 entries.
If you selected NO from PRINT FLOW METER HISTORY, the
flow meter will advance to CLEAR HISTORY - YES, NO.
If you select NO again, the flow meter will exit programming and
return to the normal display. If you clear the memory, previous
programming changes will be erased, but the flow meter will
again begin keeping track of changes the next time you change
the program.
2.15.1 Flow Meter History
Contents
D.O. ADJUSTED
pH ADJUSTED
LEVEL ADJUSTED
FLOW CONVERSION CHANGED
PLOTTER SPEED CHANGED
PLOTTER TURNED ON
PLOTTER TURNED OFF
TIME CHANGE FROM
TIME CHANGE TO
REPORT A CHANGED
REPORT B CHANGED
REPORT A TURNED ON
REPORT B TURNED ON
REPORT A TURNED OFF
REPORT B TURNED OFF
TOTALIZER RESET
INTERROGATED
SAMPLER ENABLED
SAMPLER DISABLED
ALARM ACKED BY #X
ALARM NOT ACKNOWLEDGED
YSI pH ADJUSTED
YSI D.O. ADJUSTED
YSI CONDUCTIVITY ADJUSTED
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 2 Programming
2-58
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
This section contains instructions for installing the 4230 Flow
Meter. There is also information on mounting methods, interconnection wiring, and the setup procedure.
3.1 Preparation for Use
Teledyne Isco ships the flow meter with a roll of paper installed
and a default program entered into memory. You should familiarize yourself with the programming procedure and practice
working through the program steps, so you become comfortable
with programming the unit. With the exception of setting the
level, you can program the unit in the shop, rather than on the
job site, if you want. This is a good idea as it will minimize the
possibility of dirt and contamination getting inside the flow
meter.
3.1.1 Install Desiccant
Canister
If the unit is new, you can install the desiccant canister. It is provided in the accessory package and looks like a small, flat can
with little holes in it. Open the flow meter case lid. Note the
small clamp that resembles a bottle cap opener located near the
bottom right-hand corner of the case lid. Install the desiccant
canister by pressing it under this bracket, with its viewing
window lined up with the circular hole in the bracket. Make sure
the clamp is fully engaged over the canister. The particles inside
the desiccant window should be blue. If the particles are pink,
the desiccant is saturated and you will need to regenerate the
canister before using it. If the unit has been in use and has been
returned for reprogramming, you should clean it and inspect it as
outlined in Section 5 of this manual.
3.1.2 Install External
Desiccant Cartridge
The desiccant cartridge snaps into the large metal clamp
mounted on top of the cabinet. There is a short length of silicone
tubing that attaches to a plastic fitting on the side of the cabinet.
Attach the other end of the tubing to one end of the desiccant cartridge. Like the case desiccant canister, the material inside the
external desiccant cartridge should be colored a definite blue. If
they are violet or pink, you need to regenerate them. See Section
5. You will need to dump the particles out of the cartridges into a
small heat-proof pan for regeneration; you cannot regenerate
them inside the cartridge. The cartridge is plastic and will melt.
Venting the Desiccant Cartridge – If you suspend the flow
meter over the flow stream and there is any possibility of accidental submersion, vinyl tubing, available from Teledyne Isco,
should be attached to the vent on the end of the external desiccant cartridge and routed to a place higher than the maximum
3-1
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
possible level of the flow stream. This will prevent any water
from entering the flow meter or the vent tube for the bubbler in
case of accidental submersion.
CAUTION
Do not operate the 4230 with a saturated desiccator cartridge.
Moisture eventually will seep inside the unit causing unseen
damage.
Operation in low temperature-high humidity environments is
particularly risky. Moisture drawn into the pump will form ice,
jamming the pump and ruining it.
Do not operate the flow meter with the door left open. Moisture
will quickly saturate the desiccator. Dust may settle inside and
damage the printer.
For maximum equipment life, inspect the desiccants regularly
and regenerate them when necessary. Keep the lid closed and
latched unless you are programming or servicing the flow
meter.
3.1.3 Opening the Case
To access the flow meter keypad and internal printer, you must
open the case. Do this by unlatching the two catches on the right
side of the flow meter cabinet (as you face it) and opening the lid.
Keep the flow meter lid closed and latched whenever possible.
This will protect the internal components from dirt and moisture,
and will prolong the life of the desiccator. A case left open will
defeat the purpose of the seal by causing the desiccant canister to
quickly saturate with moisture.
Dust will also settle inside the case, wearing the moving parts of
the printer prematurely. Many flow meters are installed in damp
environments. Moisture and fumes dispersed inside the case can
form acids that will corrode the electronics.
3.2 Connection to a Power
Source
The 4230 requires a 12 volt, direct current (12 VDC) power input.
This power may come from various sources.
• Companion Isco Automatic Wastewater Sampler
• Isco AC Power Supply
• Isco Battery (lead-acid or nickel-cadmium) attached to
the flow meter
• External 12 VDC battery, such as a deep-cycle marine,
or RV type
3.2.1 Low Power Indication
3-2
When power to the flow meter falls too low for normal operation,
the message POWER LOST/LOW BATTERY will appear on the
display. When power is lost or falls below operating limits, the
flow meter will stop accumulating data (if you are using
Flowlink), and the printer will not print, but the battery-backed
RAM will save stored data (if any) and the program selections for
the flow monitoring program you have entered into memory.
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
3.2.2 Isco Sampler
If you are using the 4230 Flow Meter with an Isco Sampler in a
flow-paced sampling system, you can power the flow meter from
the sampler's battery or power supply. Connect the flow meter to
the sampler with the 6-pin flow meter-to-sampler cable. Use the
“Flow Meter” connector on the sampler and “Sampler” connector
on the flow meter. The flow meter will then receive power from
the sampler.
Under certain conditions, such as a “fast” setting on the printer
chart speed, the flow meter will draw a significant amount of
power from the sampler. While this is no problem for samplers
and flow meters powered by AC, there could be problems with
battery. In that case, it would be better for the flow meter to have
its own battery.
Note
Do not attempt to run a sampler from a power source installed
on a flow meter. The sampler's pump draws heavy current,
particularly on start-up. The connect cable cannot carry such
currents. If you must use a single power source, always install
it on the sampler.
3.2.3 Isco Nickel-Cadmium
Battery
Teledyne Isco offers a 4-ampere-hour 12-volt rechargeable
nickel-cadmium battery to power the flow meter. Teledyne Isco
packages this battery specifically for use with Isco flow meters
and samplers. Refer to the Power Products Guide accompanying
this manual for detailed information about this battery and the
procedure for charging it.
Install the battery on the top of the flow meter case, and attach
its connector to the 12 VDC connector on the side of the flow
meter. Place the battery with its cable pointing toward the right
side of the cabinet. Secure the battery by stretching the two
rubber draw catches on top of the flow meter until they slip over
the two metal “U” brackets mounted on the ends of the battery
case. Screw the battery connector into the top mating connector
on the right side of the flow meter case.
3-3
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
Figure 3-1 Battery Installed on Flow Meter
3.2.4 Isco Lead-Acid Battery
Teledyne Isco also offers a 6.5 ampere-hour 12-volt rechargeable
lead-acid battery. This battery is similar in size to the
nickel-cadmium battery, except somewhat larger, reflecting its
greater capacity.
For those familiar with nickel-cadmium batteries, operation and
maintenance of these batteries differs somewhat. Fewer
charge-discharge cycles are possible, and a single deep discharge
can ruin a battery. There is a linear voltage decrease as the
battery discharges, while nickel-cadmium batteries show essentially the same voltage throughout discharge. Failure to recharge
promptly can also ruin the battery.
Proper operation is necessary for normal service life. For more
information on these batteries refer to the Power Products Guide.
Please read that manual if you want to use lead-acid batteries.
Attaching the Isco Lead-Acid Battery – T h e
lead-acid
battery is installed the same as the nickel-cadmium battery.
Place the battery on top of the case and secure it with the rubber
draw catches. Attach the connector to the flow meter. If your flow
meter is permanently installed, you may need to allow extra
clearance above the flow meter for the slightly greater height of
this battery.
CAUTION
Do not test any type of battery for its charge condition by
“sparking” the output (shorting the terminals together with a
screwdriver or other tool).
3.2.5 AC Power Supplies
3-4
Teledyne Isco offers two different AC power supplies, the High
Capacity Power Pack and the Battery-Backed Power Pack to
power the flow meter. These power supplies are designed for
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
operation on 120 VAC, 50/60 Hz commercial power sources.
Alternate versions, designed for operation from 240 VAC, 50/60
Hz, are also available and are intended for export. Both have a
line cord for convenient attachment to the AC power source, and
are capable of operating the flow meter.
The Battery-Backed Power Pack provides 12 VDC at 5 Amps, and
is backed by a 1.2 Ampere-hour nickel-cadmium battery. This
power supply is built in a package the same size as the standard
power supply, and is intended for use where short-term power
interruptions are frequent, but unacceptable for flow meter operation. This power supply is also available in 120 and 240-volt
versions.
Attaching the Power Supply – Mount the power supply on top
of the flow meter cabinet the same as described for the battery.
Secure the power supply with the two rubber draw catches pulled
over the brackets on the ends of the case. Attach the short cable
with the smaller connector to the top connector on the right side
of the flow meter case. Connect the longer cord with the plug on
it to an AC outlet. Refer to Power Products Guide for details concerning charging the batteries with the power pack.
3.2.6 External 12 Volt Direct
Current Source
You can also power the flow meter from an external 12 VDC
source, such as an automotive, motorcycle, or marine battery.
Many people have found that a deep-cycle marine/RV battery is
particularly well-suited to this application. However, you will
have to mount batteries of this type externally, as they are too
large to fit on top of the flow meter. Teledyne Isco offers a special
optional connect cable to power the flow meter from a separate
battery.
Mount the battery securely, in an upright position, so it will not
inadvertently tip over, or have its cable easily pulled off. As
advised previously for the nickel-cadmium battery, do not check
the charge condition of lead-acid batteries by “sparking” the
output cables (momentarily shorting the wires together).
CAUTION
Be sure of proper polarity before attaching clips to the battery.
Never attach the flow meter to a source of unknown polarity or
voltage. If in doubt, check with a reliable DC voltmeter. Never
attach the flow meter directly to an AC power source regardless of circumstances. Charge the battery in accordance with
the manufacturer's instructions.
3.3 Bubble Rate
The Bubble Rate Adjust valve, located on the side of the case, is a
“needle” type valve that controls the rate air is fed from the reservoir into the bubble line and the rate the bubbles are released
into the flow stream. Turning the valve knob counterclockwise
causes the bubble rate to increase. Turning the knob clockwise
causes the bubble rate to decrease. Turning the knob clockwise
until it stops will completely shut off the air supply to the bubble
line.
3-5
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
CAUTION
Do not use anything but your fingers to turn the Bubble Rate
Adjust valve. The needle and seat inside the valve are very
small and you can damage or break them if you use tools or
force to close the valve. Once you have set the valve properly,
do not overtighten the hex screw that locks the adjustment
knob or you may strip the threads or ruin the Allen wrench.
3.3.1 Setting the Bubble Rate
The recommended bubble rate is approximately one bubble per
second. For relatively clean flow streams, this bubble rate provides adequate sensitivity with reasonable power consumption.
For flow streams with suspended solids (for example, domestic
raw sewage or streams with a high grease content), two bubbles
per second may help prevent plugging of the bubble line at the
expense of higher power consumption.
3.3.2 Bubble Rate and Power
Consumption
Power consumption by the flow meter's air pump is directly
related to the setting of the bubble rate and the inside diameter
of the bubble line. At one bubble per second, the 1/8" (0.32 cm) ID
bubble line uses about 2 1/2 times more power for the air pump
than does the 1/16" (0.16 cm) ID bubble line. Likewise, increasing
the bubble rate from 1 to 2 bubbles per second causes a 2 1/2 times
increase in power usage by the air pump.
The power the rest of the flow meter uses (except the printer) is
constant and cannot be changed, but you do select bubble rate
and bubble line size (as well as printer settings) and these items
do significantly affect power consumption. If your installation
must be battery-powered, consider the effect these factors have
very carefully before setting up the flow meter. One indication of
power consumption is the pump duty cycle. It should run less
than 20%. You can check this value in the STATUS menu of the
program.
Use caution when setting the bubble rate any higher than
one bubble per second. For greatest accuracy in small
channels, where you use either small ID tubing, or where the
bubble line is long, Teledyne Isco does not recommend bubble
rates over one bubble per second. When measuring low water
levels (a few inches, typically) it is especially important to pay
attention to the bubble line inside diameter, length, and bubble
rate.
Setting a faster bubble rate causes an increase in frictional back
pressure as a result of the tubing wall's resistance to increased
air flow. For example, consider a 25 foot (7.6 m) 1/16" ID bubble
line; the back pressure at one bubble per second is approximately
equal to 1/10" (0.25 cm) of water. If you increase the bubble rate to
2 bubbles per second, the back pressure rises to approximately
2
/10" (0.51 cm) of water, or double what it was at one bubble per
second.
Another problem that occurs with long, small-ID bubble lines set
at higher bubble rates, is that back pressure varies slightly
during the period between air pump cycles. This will show up as
3-6
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
a change in level on the display, and it will generally also show
up on the chart as a change in level. At the normal bubble rate
this variation is not noticeable, but it will become noticeable if
you set the bubble rate too high. For greatest accuracy in measuring low levels, use short bubble lines with the flow meter set
at one bubble per second. If you need longer lines, use the 1/8" ID
line rather than the 1/16" ID line.
3.3.3 Purging a Clogged
Bubble Line
When you use the 4230 to measure levels in small channels, it is
best to keep the bubble rate at one-per-second and use shorter
bubble lines. Larger-ID bubble lines are less likely to clog than
small ones, but require more energy to supply the additional air
needed.
In applications where bubble line clogging is likely to be a
problem, using the 4230 Purge feature (increasing the frequency
of the automatic purge) may be a better solution than increasing
the bubble rate. However, turning on the Purge feature will also
cause an increase in battery consumption.
3.3.4 Adjusting the Bubble
Rate
Make the initial setting of the bubble rate at the shop, rather
than at the job site. At the shop you can put the bubble line in a
container beside the flow meter and watch the rate while you
adjust it. You can, of course, set the bubble rate at the job site if
you wish, but it is easier with clean water in a clear container
beside the flow meter.
To set the bubble rate:
• Connect the flow meter to a power source and turn it on.
• Turn the valve knob all the way clockwise so no air is
escaping.
Allow some time for the system to pressurize. (The pump motor
will stop running when the system reaches the correct operating
pressure.)
• Attach a bubble line to the barbed Bubble Line fitting on
the side of the case.
• For best results, use the same size bubble line you
expect to use for the installation.
Setting the bubble rate with a large ID line and then connecting
the flow meter to a small ID line will produce a much faster
bubble rate than you want. Attach the 50-foot vinyl line directly
to the barbed fitting by pressing it over the barbs. To attach the
Teflon tube, press it into a short length of silicone tubing. Then
press the other end of the silicone tube over the barbed fitting.
• Put the free end of the bubble line in a small container
of water. Set it near the flow meter so you can watch the
escaping bubbles as you turn the valve knob.
• Turn the valve slowly counterclockwise until bubbles
start coming out of the end of the tube.
• Adjust the knob to achieve a rate of one bubble per
second.
3-7
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
• Lock the adjustment knob by tightening the hex screw
in the handle; do not over-tighten it. You will strip the
hex screw.
Note
Always recheck the bubble rate after you have installed the
flow meter. This is particularly important if you install the bubble line under several feet of water. Since you set the rate with
the bubble line under only a few inches of water, it may change
if you install the line in a deep channel.
3.3.5 Locking the Bubble
Rate
If you want to prevent accidental readjustment of the valve after
you have set it, you can lock the valve knob in place. Do this by
tightening the smaller of the two hex set screws on the valve's
handle with the 0.035" hex socket key included in the flow
meter's accessory package.
Be sure to loosen this screw before attempting to readjust the
position of the valve. Failure to do so may score the valve core or
strip the screw head.
3.3.6 Effects of Changing the
Bubble Rate
Changing the bubble rate may cause a change in the indicated
level. Air flow through the relatively small diameter bubble line
generates a frictional back pressure or head in the bubble line.
For a given bubble rate, this frictional head is constant and
creates a fixed level offset for which level calibration automatically compensates. However, increasing the bubble rate a significant amount (for example, from one to two bubbles per second)
will cause an increase in the frictional head and a consequent
increase in the indicated liquid level.
• Always set the bubble rate before you adjust the liquid
level reading on the flow meter.
• If you change the bubble rate for any reason, check and
compare the readings between the real level in the flow
stream and the indicated levels on the flow meter.
Adjust the indicated level if necessary. Since the friction head
generated at a given flow rate is a function of the bubble line
length and ID, you can minimize these frictional effects by using
the shortest length of bubble line possible.
3.3.7 Super Bubble
3-8
The 4230 features an electronic “Super Bubble” feature that
detects a rapidly-rising liquid level and temporarily increases the
bubble rate to respond correctly to the rising level. Due to a
higher friction head generated by the increased bubble rate
during this operation, the flow meter will hold the indicated
liquid level constant until the bubble rate returns to normal.
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
3.4 4230 Mounting and
Installation
Because the 4230 Flow Meter is a portable device, it may or may
not be permanently installed. You can suspend the flow meter in
temporary installations, such as sewers, or mount it permanently
in other installations, such as treatment plants, at your option.
3.4.1 Carrying Handle
To assist in carrying the flow meter, a handle is provided in the
instrument's accessory package. To use the handle, snap the
hooks at both ends into the two metal brackets at the top of
either side of the flow meter case.
3.4.2 Location of the Flow
Meter
Because it uses a bubble line, the 4230 Flow Meter does not have
to be mounted directly above the primary device, or particularly
close to the flow stream. You will need to mount the unit within
25 feet (7.6 m), or 50 feet (15.3 m) if you are using the 50 foot
bubble line. Distances greater than 50 feet are not recommended.
The 4230 does not have any special requirements for mounting.
It may be located on any relatively flat surface either horizontally, supported by the two mounting pads and the stainless steel
mounting bracket, or vertically, supported by the two plastic rails
on the bottom of the case. The flow meter may also be panel
mounted, using the mounting bracket on the top rear of the case
or suspended from a ladder rung or hook using the optional
handle.
3.4.3 Safety Considerations
In field installations of 4230 Flow Meters and associated
equipment, the safety of the personnel involved should be the
foremost consideration. No project is so important or deadline so
critical as to justify the risk of human life. Refer to the appendix
on working safely in manholes and avoiding hazardous gases;
found at the back of this manual.
WARNING
The 4230 Flow Meter has not been approved for use in
“hazardous locations” as defined by the National Electrical
Code.
3-9
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
Figure 3-2 4230 Suspended by Handle (handles may vary)
3.5 The Bubble Line
3.5.1 Standard Bubble Lines
Anchor the bubble line in the flow stream at the appropriate
measuring point in the weir, flume, or other open channel flow
situation. Air slowly bubbles out of the line into the flow stream.
The pressure in the bubble line is proportional to the liquid level
in the flow stream, and the flow meter measures this pressure,
sensing the liquid level.
Two different bubble lines are available for use with the 4230:
• 1/8" (0.32 cm) OD, 1/16" (0.17 cm) ID, Teflon® line, 25 feet
long (7.6 m).
• 1/4" (0.63 cm) OD, 1/8" inch (0.32 cm) ID, vinyl line, 50
feet long (15.2 m).
You can specify either line at the time you order the unit.
Teledyne Isco ships the bubble line in the flow meter's accessory
package, and Teledyne Isco offers replacement lengths.
3.5.2 Comparing Vinyl and
Teflon Bubble Lines
3-10
The vinyl line has two significant advantages over the Teflon
line. First, the vinyl line has a longer usable length than the
Teflon line. This is due to the small inside diameter of the Teflon
tubing, which generates an undesirable friction head at lengths
greater than 25 feet. And second, experience has shown that the
larger ID vinyl line is less likely to clog than the Teflon line when
used in flow streams with suspended solids (for example,
domestic raw sewage or streams with a high grease content).
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
However, the smaller ID Teflon line also has advantages. First,
since it has a very small inside diameter, the air volume necessary (and, as a result, battery power) is minimized, a definite
advantage for battery-powered installations. And second, almost
nothing attacks the Teflon line, while certain chemicals may
attack the vinyl.
In general, Teledyne Isco recommends that, wherever practical,
you use the vinyl line. Practice has shown that this line usually
results in more trouble-free operation. Furthermore, if the distance between the flow meter and the measuring point exceeds
25 feet, you must use the vinyl bubble line. However, if power
consumption is critical, or there are known agents in the flow
stream that might attack the vinyl line, you should use the
Teflon line.
3.5.3 Bubble Line Length
No matter which line you use, Teledyne Isco recommends you
make it as short as possible. This will minimize friction head
effects in the line and will also minimize the amount of line
exposed to cuts, kinks, etc. Shorten the line as necessary by
cutting the tubing with a sharp knife.
Long Bubble Lines – For certain applications (for example,
where it is necessary to exceed the 50-foot length of the bubble
line, or where the flow stream is extremely dirty and the end of
the line may clog), you may need to use a bubble line with an
inside diameter larger than either of the two standard lines.
Consult the factory for specific recommendations regarding size
of line, special connectors required, etc. In no case should the
inside diameter of the bubble line exceed 1/4" (0.64 cm), and you
should recognize that a larger bubble line will result in increased
power consumption, a concern if you must power the flow meter
by battery. You should keep the bubble rate at one to two bubbles
per second, regardless of bubble line size.
3.5.4 Teflon Line Connector
The Teflon bubble line attaches to the flow meter with the
Bubble Line fitting on the side of the case and the silicone rubber
tubing connector. The tubing connector is a short length of 0.109
inch (0.20 cm) ID, 0.192 inch (0.49 cm) OD silicone tubing
attached to a barbed fitting on the case.
The 1/8" OD bubble line simply slips inside the silicone tubing,
forming a reliable union you can make and unmake without
tools. This type of tubing connector is superior to a ferrule or
compression type tubing fitting for this application due to its
simplicity of use (no tools required), its lack of small parts you
can easily lose or misplace (ferrules and nuts), and its long term
reliability when used with the semi-rigid bubble line Teflon
tubing.
3.5.5 Attaching the Teflon
Bubble Line
To attach the Teflon bubble line, first slip the 2 inch (5.1 cm)
length of 1/4" (0.63 cm) ID vinyl tube included in the instrument
accessory package over the end of the bubble line. Grasp the silicone tube to stiffen it and insert the end of the bubble line into
the silicone tube.
3-11
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
Slip the short length of vinyl tube over the union and force in
onto the shoulder of the barbed fitting. The purpose of the short
length of vinyl tube is to support the union, preventing fatigue or
kinking of the silicone tube.
To remove the bubble line from the tubing connector, first pull
the vinyl tube off of the barbed fitting and slip it down the bubble
line. Grasp the end of the silicone tube and then pull the bubble
line straight out of the silicone tube.
Several replacement lengths of the silicone tubing are included
in the instrument accessory package. Install them on the unit by
simply forcing the end of the tube over the barbed tubing connector.
Note
Avoid placing too much tension on the silicone tube where it
attaches to the barbed fitting. Try to direct the Teflon tube
straight away from the fitting rather than at a sharp angle. This
will reduce the likelihood that the tubing will tear and leak
around the fitting.
3.5.6 Attaching the Vinyl
Bubble Line
The vinyl bubble line attaches directly to the barbed fitting.
Remove the silicone tube and slip the 1/8" (0.32 cm) tubing over
the fitting.
3.5.7 Installing the Bubble
Line
Install the bubble line at the recommended level measuring point
in the primary device or other open channel flow situation. If you
don't know where this is and you are using a manufactured
primary device, consult the manufacturer.
If you are not using a fabricated device, consult the Isco Open
Channel Flow Measurement Handbook for suggestions. Many different devices are discussed there. Proper location of the bubble
line outlet is necessary for accurate measurement. Normally, you
place the bubble line in the flow stream so the end is positioned
at a right angle to the flow.
You do not need to locate the outlet of the bubble line precisely at
the “zero” liquid level of the weir or flume. The Parameter to
Adjust program step of the 4230 allows you to locate the outlet
end of the bubble line anywhere within ten feet (3 m) above or
below the actual zero level of the primary device. Then you calibrate the displayed level using the Parameter to Adjust step in
the program.
3-12
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
Flow Meter
Case
¼” ID
Vinyl Tube
Silicone
Tube
TM
Teflon
Bubble Line
Barbed
Fitting
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
TM
A. 1/”
Bubble Line
8 OD x 1/
16” ID Teflon
Flow Meter
Case
Vinyl Bubble
Line Tubing
Barbed Fitting
(With Silicone
Tube Removed)
TM
B. 1/”
Bubble Line
4 OD x 1/”
8 ID Teflon
Figure 3-3 Attaching the Bubble Line to the 4230
3-13
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
Note
The 4230 cannot accurately measure liquid levels that are
even with or below the bubble line outlet.
If you need to measure the liquid level down to the actual
“zero” level of the primary device, Teledyne Isco recommends
placing the bubble line outlet at least 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5.1
cm) below the primary device zero level to avoid measurement
failures when the liquid level is even with the outlet. Since the
flow meter can display negative measurements, you can compensate when you set the level in the flow meter.
If the outlet is above the zero
level, the flow meter cannot
measure this head range.
Bubble
Line
Vertical location of outlet end of bubble line ranges
from ½" (1.3 cm) above. To 6" below the zero level.
(The preferred location is at least 1" to 2" [2.5 to 5 cm]
below the zero level.)
Attach bubble line to the side of
the flow stream.
Flow
Bubble line
Zero Liquid Level
of Weir or Flume
Distance as Prescribed for
Primary Device
Side View
End View
Figure 3-4 Positioning the Bubble Line in the Flow Stream
3.5.8 High-Velocity Flow
Streams
3-14
The normal position of the bubble line in the flow stream is at a
right angle to the flow. However, studies have indicated that at
relatively high flow stream velocities (greater than five feet per
second [1.5 meters per second]), this location may lead to a measured level lower than actual. This negative level offset is due to
localized areas of low pressure near the bubble line outlet; the
size of the offset depends upon the velocity of the flow stream and
the configuration of the flow stream channel. You can, of course,
adjust the level at the flow meter to compensate for the error.
However, this is only effective if the flow rate and velocity are
essentially constant. If the flow rate drops and the velocity
decreases, the level adjustment you made earlier will be incorrect
for the new, lower velocity and flow rate.
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
The best way to overcome this problem is to completely isolate
the bubble line from the flow stream velocity by placing it in a
stilling well, as described below. If this is not possible, you can
perhaps create a cavity in the bottom of the channel, and locate
the outlet of the bubble line in the depression, again isolating it
from the flow stream velocity.
In flow streams carrying large amounts of solids, however, this
may cause problems because of silt collecting in the depression,
restricting the bubble line. A third alternative is to put a 90
degree bend in the end of the bubble line, forming a horizontal
leg approximately two inches (5 cm) long, and orienting this horizontal leg downstream, parallel with the flow. Tests have shown
that this orientation of the bubble line minimizes the effect of
flow stream velocity.
3.5.9 Stilling Wells
If the installation includes a stilling well in the primary measuring device, you should probably install the bubble line in the
stilling well. Attach the line securely to the stilling well, using
stainless steel and/or plastic mounting hardware.
For details on the construction and use of stilling wells, refer to
Section VI, Section 93, of the Water Measurement Manual, published by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau
of Reclamation (1967). Not all stilling wells are suitable for
bubble line installation. If the well is subject to silting or buildup
of foreign material, you should probably avoid it and mount the
bubble line in the flow stream proper.
3.5.10 Flume Bubble Line
Fittings
The large variety of primary measuring devices and installations
makes comprehensive bubble line installation instructions
impractical. However, valid general observations on bubble line
installation can be made. Flumes can be specified to include a
bubbler fitting. In new construction, this is highly recommended.
It may even be possible to modify an existing installation to
include a permanent bubbler fitting.
3.5.11 Bubble Line
Extensions
For some applications, metallic bubble line extensions may be
helpful. Teledyne Isco offers both stainless steel and copper
bubble line extensions. The stainless steel tube may be easier to
install in the flow stream than the plastic bubble line because of
its relative rigidity. Two different extensions are available to
match the two standard bubble lines.
The extension for the Teflon bubble line includes a silicone
rubber tubing connector, and the tubing installation is as
described above. The vinyl bubble line attaches by simply
slipping the vinyl tube over the end of the extension. Some people
have found that the use of a copper extension to the bubble line is
advantageous in applications where algae tends to grow in the
bubble line.
3-15
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
The copper salts released by the tubing are algicidal agents that
tend to inhibit the growth of algae. However, the copper tubing
may not be compatible with the flow stream, so use it with
caution. Attach the copper bubble line extensions to the bubble
line in the same way as the stainless steel extensions.
Stainless
Steel
Extension
TM
Silicone
Tube
Stainless
Steel
Extension
Teflon Bubble
Line Tubing
Vinyl Bubble
Line Tubing
Figure 3-5 Installing the Stainless Steel Bubble Line Extension
3.5.12 Open Channel
Installation
If you do not use a stilling well, attach the bubble line to the side
of the flow channel or flume. Make the attachment so it causes a
minimum amount of disturbance to the flow stream. If possible,
cut a groove in the side of the channel, place the bubble line in
the groove, and then grout over the groove.
Alternatively, you can attach the bubble line to the side of the
channel, and then grout over the line to form smooth, sloped
lead-in and lead-out surfaces. However, if neither of these
methods is practical, you may simply attach the bubble line to
the side of the channel or the upstream side of a weir using
stainless steel and/or plastic mounting hardware.
In any case, always install the bubble line so it causes as little
disturbance to the flow stream as possible. This usually means
an installation on or adjacent to a channel wall where there is a
condition of stagnant flow. For temporary survey applications,
you can attach the bubble line with waterproof tape or other temporary means.
3.6 Flow Metering Inserts
Flow metering inserts are available for use with the 4230 Flow
Meter that you can temporarily install inside round pipe
sewers and flow streams to create a primary device inside the
pipe. These inserts are available to fit 6", 8", 10", and 12" pipes
and install from street level.
Teledyne Isco does not recommend using these inserts for
permanent installation due to the likelihood of eventual
clogging. For long-term operation, use of the Bubbler Tube
Retainer Assembly, with an appropriate Isco Mounting Ring, is a
preferable alternative to the Flow Metering Inserts, as there is
3-16
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
no restriction to flow. Moreover, with the Universal Mounting
Ring, pipe sizes of as much as 72” in diameter can be accommodated.
Round
Orifice
Handle
Flow
Bubbler
Rubber Bladder
Air Line
Figure 3-6 Flow Metering Insert
The insert consists of a metal collar surrounded by an inflatable
rubber bladder. A removable metal plate, formed with a V-notch
opening, attaches to the upstream side of the insert. Each insert
also contains a bubble line for a 4230. The rubber bladder,
inflated by a removable, foot-powered pump, holds the insert
securely in place after you install it inside the pipe.
The metal plate, attached to the insert, forms a V-notch weir
inside the pipe. If you remove this V-notch plate from the insert,
an off-center round opening appears in the insert. This opening
is 60% of the nominal pipe size. If flow in the pipe exceeds 1/4 to
1/3 of full capacity, Teledyne Isco recommends you use the round
orifice rather than the V-notch plate.
CAUTION
The flow metering inserts create a restriction in the flow stream
and a corresponding head loss. Use them with care in flow
streams with suspended solids, or high grease content, such
as sanitary sewers.
The inserts may cause clogging, requiring maintenance.
Where this is could be a problem, we suggest using the Bubbler Tube Retainer with an Isco Mounting Ring instead.
The inserts are anodized aluminum and are corrosion-resistant.
However, you should avoid using them in flows with agents
capable of attacking either the aluminum (strong alkalies) or the
rubber bladder (certain organic solvents).
3-17
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
3.7 The Bubbler Tube
Retainer Assembly
For situations where the Flow Metering Inserts are not an ideal
solution, Teledyne Isco offers the Bubbler Tube Retainer
Assembly for installation inside round pipe. This system uses a
bubbler tube attached to a snap-on probe carrier similar to those
used for the other probes (see Section 4).
Figure 3-7 Bubbler Tube Retainer Assembly
The carrier snaps onto the mounting tabs of a stainless steel
ring. The ring itself fits inside the pipe. Teledyne Isco offers two
systems: one that attaches to an Isco Mounting Ring for pipes
with diameters 15 inches or less. For pipe sizes from 18” to 72” in
diameter, Teledyne Isco offers the Universal Mounting Ring.
These rings are designed to accommodate various Isco submerged probes, all installed with the same easy snap-on carriers.
Detailed information on the installation of probes, etc. on rings
inside round pipes is provided at the end of Section 4.
3.8 Connection to a
Sampler
The following sections describe connecting the 4230 to Teledyne
Isco and non-Isco samplers.
One of the uses of the 4230 Flow Meter is to control a sampler in
a flow-paced sampling mode. Flow-paced sampling means that
the flow meter signals the sampler to take a sample after a
certain volume of flow has passed through the flow stream,
rather than after a particular period of time. In this mode, the
sampler and flow meter are able to compensate for varying flow
rates.
You can use the 4230 Flow Meter with most Isco samplers and
with most other manufacturers' samplers as well.
An optional 25-foot (7.6 m) long connect cable is available to
connect the flow meter to the sampler. Attach the 6-pin female
connector on the cable to the Sampler connector on the side of the
flow meter. (This is the second connector from the top.) Attach
the connector on the other end of the cable to the Flow Meter connector on the sampler. This also connects the flow meter to the
3-18
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
sampler's power supply, and the sampler will be able to receive
flow-proportional signals from the flow meter. Refer to the
sampler manual for further details.
Note
The flow meter-to-sampler connect cable has been changed. It
now has six wires. You must use the new cable if you want to
take advantage of the programming “sampler enabling” feature. Earlier cables will not allow this feature to work. Pin “F” is
not connected; you can verify this pin with an ohmmeter or
continuity checker. A “new” cable will show continuity (zero
ohms) between the two “F” pins; an old” cable will show open.
3.8.1 Connection to Other
Isco Equipment
Teledyne Isco manufactures a variety of useful accessories for
use with the 4230 Flow Meter. Among these options are:
modems, parameter sensors, the alarm relay box, the rain gauge,
a 4-20 mA output device, software, and a mechanical totalizer.
These and other options, along with details about their use, are
all described in Section 4.
3-19
4230 Flow Meter
Section 3 Installation
3-20
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
This section describes accessories and companion equipment
available for use with the 4230 flow meter. There are two groups
of equipment. One group can be used with any 4200 series flow
meter. The other group is equipment for a specific type of level
sensing and can only be used with the 4230 flow meter. This
section covers the accessories usable with any 4200 series flow
meter. Application-specific options are covered in the Installation
sections of each type of flow meter.
Teledyne Isco offers the following options for use with all 4200
series flow meters:
• 4200T Modem
• Internal and external 4-20 mA (Analog) Outputs
• 674 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge
• Flowlink® Software (used with the modem or a laptop
computer)
• Parameter Probes - Temperature, pH (acidity/alkalinity)
and D.O. (dissolved oxygen)
• Mechanical Totalizer
• High-Low Alarm Relay Box
• YSI 600 Multi-Parameter Sonde
The 4-20 mA Output Interface, alarm box, rain gauge, parameter
probes are options you can field-install any time. The modems
require factory modification to the flow meter, and you should
specify these options when you order. If you want to add any of
these later, you will need to return the flow meter to the factory.
4.1 4200T Modem
The 4200T Modem is a circuit board installed inside the flow
meter that transmits flow meter data over standard telephone
lines. The modem also makes it possible for the flow meter to
receive data from compatible equipment at the other end of the
phone line. Modems allow digital equipment to talk and listen to
other remotely-located digital equipment over telephone lines.
4.1.1 How it Works
The analog phone system cannot transmit digital signals
through repeaters; digital machines cannot communicate
directly over phone lines. Modems convert the data into tones
and transmit them over phone lines. The equipment on the other
end of the line answers with tones through its modem. The first
modem converts these tones back to digital data and interprets
it. The 4200T Modem is full duplex and works in the auto-answer
4-1
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
mode. It operates at 300/1200/2400 baud. This modem has
speech and tone capabilities and comes with a connect cable to
attach to the telephone line.
Note
The modem is disabled when an interrogator cable is connected to the flow meter’s interrogator port. It cannot receive
incoming calls, and the alarm dialout will be rendered inoperable, while this cable is connected. Disconnect the interrogator cable in order to use the 4200T Modem.
4.1.2 Modem and Flowlink
Software
The 4200T Modem communicates with Teledyne Isco's Flowlink
data storage and acquisition software, setting up the flow meter
to collect blocks of data. Flowlink allows storage and interpretation of flow meter data. Other Flowlink software packages can
write reports with this collected data.
4.1.3 Connection to a Line
The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) governs communications over telephone lines. Your local telephone company
will provide you with the line between the flow meter and the
computer. Call them for connection information. The FCC
requires the following information be published for connecting
the modem to the phone line.
Note
“This equipment complies with part 68 of the FCC rules.
On the case of this equipment is a label that contains,
among other information, the FCC registration number
and ringer equivalence number for this equipment. If
requested, this information must be provided to the telephone company.”
“This equipment uses the following USOC jacks: USOC
RJ11C.
“The REN is used to determine the quantity of devices
that may be connected to the telephone line. Excessive
REN's on the telephone line may result in the devices not
ringing in response to an incoming call. In most, but not
all areas, the sum of REN's should not exceed five (5.0). To
be certain of the number of devices that may be connected to the line, as determined by the total REN's, contact the telephone company to determine the maximum
REN for the calling area.
“If this equipment causes harm to the telephone network,
the telephone company will notify you in advance that
temporary discontinuance of service may be required. If
advance notice isn't practical, the telephone company will
notify the customer as soon as possible. Also, you will be
advised of your right to file a complaint with the FCC if
you believe it is necessary.
“The telephone company may make changes in its facilities, equipment, operations, or procedures that could
affect the operation of the equipment. If this happens, the
telephone company will provide advance notice in order
4-2
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
for you to make the necessary modifications in order to
maintain uninterrupted service.
“If trouble is experienced with this equipment, please contact the Teledyne Isco Customer Service Department,
(800) 228-4373 or, outside the U.S.A., call (402) 464-0231,
4700 Superior St., Lincoln Nebraska, 68504-1398, for
repair and (or) warranty information. If the trouble is causing harm to the telephone network, the telephone company may request you remove the equipment from the
network until the problem is resolved.
“The following repairs can be done by the customer:
None.
“This equipment cannot be used on telephone company-provided coin service. Connection to Party Line Service is subject to state tariffs.
“When programming and/or making test calls to emergency numbers:
“Remain on the line and briefly explain to the dispatcher
the reason for making the call.”
“Perform such activities in the off-peak hours, such as the
early morning or late evenings.”
4.1.4 Types of Service
The 4200T Modem is compatible with standard telephone lines
and comes with a 12 foot cable. The cable connects the flow
meter's Modem connector to a standard telephone jack, type
USOC RJ11C, supplied by the phone company. You must mount
the flow meter within 12 feet of this jack.
We are required by the FCC to provide the following notice:
Note
“This equipment generates and uses radio frequency
energy and if not installed and used properly, in strict
accordance with the manufacturer's directions, may
cause interference with radio and television reception.
There is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. If this equipment does cause interference to radio or television reception, which can be
determined by turning equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or
more of the following measures.”
•Reorient the receiving antenna on the television.
•Relocate the unit with respect to the receiver.
•Plug the unit into a different outlet so the
unit and receiver are on different branch circuits.
•If necessary, consult the manufacturer or an
experienced radio-television technician for
additional suggestions.
4-3
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
You may find the following booklet, prepared by the FCC,
helpful: How to Identify and Resolve Radio-TV Interference
Problems. This book is available from the U.S. Government
P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Wa s h i n g t o n , D. C. 2 0 4 0 2 , S t o c k N o .
004-00-00345-4.
4.2 Connections to
External Serial Device
Teledyne Isco offers two serial outputs from 4200 series flow
meters. There is a software-enabled output that is transmitted
on the RAIN GAUGE connector. This signal also appears on the
INTERROGATOR connector. This feature lets the flow meter
transmit the most recent values for all currently enabled ports as
ASCII text. You can select the baud rate and the frequency of
transmission. You can then write a simple program to retrieve
this data periodically, or you can do it interactively using a terminal program. This option (SERIAL OUTPUT) is discussed in
detail in Section 2.7.2.
Teledyne Isco still offers the older 300 baud output for the Model
2312 Plotter (no longer sold) also on the RAIN GAUGE connector.
This port provides ASCII level and flow rate data for remote
transmission to any ASCII-compatible equipment. Every 15
seconds the flow meter transmits a line of data which includes
level, units of level measurement, percentage of maximum flow
rate, maximum flow rate, a total flow value, units of flow, sample
number, bottle number, text, time, and date.
If you are using the flow meter with an Isco sampler, the data
line also includes an indication of a sampling event.
You can transmit this data line to a computer, or to a locally-connected (within 250 feet) device capable of interpreting serial
data, such as a video display terminal or a printer. The specifications for this serial data output are as follows: 300 baud, 7 data
bits, 2 stop bits, even parity. The printed (or displayed) line contains 110 characters and will appear similar to the following:
+01.409F 100.00% 2.500+0 CFS
DEGREE V-NOTCH WEIR
000 0 90 04 04 02 31 48
0001533+0 CF
00 00 90
The last two characters (not displayed) are a `CR' (carriage
return) and a ‘LF' (line feed). The large gaps between some of the
words indicate extra character spaces which are not used in this
particular text, but which are available for use if needed.
Note
1. You cannot use both serial outputs at the same time. You
must select one or the other.
2. The serial output is paralleled with the Interrogator Port and
the Internal Modem. Use of either the Interrogator Port or the
Internal Modem will cause non-standard data to be transmitted.
4-4
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
4.3 4 to 20 mA (Analog)
Outputs
These outputs provide connection between a 4230 Flow Meter
and non-Isco process-control equipment, such as chlorinators, or
any other type of equipment that you can control with a 4-20 milliampere current loop. Analog outputs convert digital information from the flow meter to a variable analog output current
ranging from 4 to 20 milliamperes. When a condition measured
by the flow meter is converted into an analog output, 4 mA
becomes the 0% or baseline for the condition, while 20 mA
becomes the 100% or full-scale of the condition. Teledyne Isco
offers two different arrangements for providing the 4-20 mA
outputs. One is an external box that converts the signals from
the flow meter to a 4-20 mA current loop. The other is an internal
circuit board containing three separate analog output circuits on
the same board.
The 4 to 20 mA current is an industrial standard current loop for
process control equipment that must respond to changing conditions by varying output rates.
4.3.1 External 4-20 mA
Output Interface
The external 4-20 mA Output Interface has its own case and
AC power supply. Commercial power (120 VAC) must be
available for this device. Battery operation (12 VDC) is not feasible due to voltage and current demands. It comes with a line
cord, connectors, and two interconnect cables. One cable has
6-pin M/S connectors on both ends. This cable connects the input
of the 4-20 mA Output Interface to the flow meter Interrogator
connector. The other cable has a three-pin plug on it that connects to the output connector of the 4-20 mA Output Interface.
This cable ends in three pigtailed wires you connect to the
equipment you want to control with the 4-20 mA Output
Interface.
Table 4-1 4-20 mA Output Interface:
Technical Specifications
Power
120 VAC 1/8 Amp.
Output Connector
3-pin male plug
Pin A: + current out
Pin B: – current out
Pin C: not used
Output Accuracy
At 72° F (22°C)
±0.25% of full-scale
Full Oper. Range
±0.5% of full scale
Operating Range
0° to 140°F (–18° to 60°C)
Resolution
0.1% of full-scale
4-5
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Table 4-1 4-20 mA Output Interface:
Technical Specifications (Continued)
Input Connector
6-pin male M/S
Pin B: – pulse input
Pin F: + pulse input
Pins A, C, D, E: NC
Isolation
Output current optically isolated from flow meter.
Fusing
1
Adjustments/
Calibration
Factory-calibrated; when used
within range, no adjustment
needed,
Maximum Distance
1,500 ft. (457.3 m) using 18
AWG wire.
/4 Amp. internal on AC line.
Figure 4-1 4-20 mA Output Interface
4.3.2 Internal Analog Output
Board
4-6
For those needing more than one analog output, Teledyne Isco
offers the Multiple Analog Output Board, which is installed
inside the flow meter. This board provides three isolated analog
outputs. The board is compatible with the existing external 4-20
mA output box (60-1784-039). A flow meter can use either the
internal board, the external box, or both, for a maximum number
of four analog outputs.
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Note
If your flow meter has both the multiple analog output board
and the external analog converter, the internal ports will be
designated Analog Outputs 1, 2, and 3. The external converter
will be designated either “External” or “Analog Output 0.”
The Multiple Analog Output Board consumes a minimum of 16
mA per output; consequently, the flow meter should be
AC-powered. If you must use battery power, you should consider
the following to extend battery life:
• Use a Solar Panel Battery Charger
• Use a larger battery: either a commercial
deep-cycle/marine type, or an Isco 35 Ampere-hour
lead-acid battery.
• Order and use only one analog output.
• Flow meter program choices also affect power
consumption. Use “minimum” settings, if possible. (See
Section 1 Table 1-5 and Section 5.)
The outputs from the analog output board are electrically isolated from the flow meter and from each other by internal
DC-DC converters. The board uses the opening for the modem
connector for its outputs. Normally, a flow meter will not need
both the analog and modem boards. If your installation does,
however, you should contact the factory.
The analog board terminates in a 6-pin male M/S connector on
the flow meter case. Flow meters built with the analog board
option are also supplied with an output cable. This cable connects to the wiring that runs to the equipment controlled by the
4-20 mA current loop and to the 6-pin M/S connector on the flow
meter. The cable has a 6-pin female M/S connector and is provided with stripped pigtail ends for convenient wiring.
Table 4-2 Multiple Analog Output Board: Technical
Specifications (each circuit)
Temperature (operating)
0 to 140° F (–18 to 60° C)
Output Accuracy
±0.5% of full-scale
Resolution
0.1% of full-scale (0-20 mA)
Electrical Isolation
Isolated from each other and from the
flow meter.
Calibration
Factory-calibrated; no further adjustments necessary.
Maximum output distance
1500 feet (457.3 m) using 18 AWG wire.
Current Range (per loop)
0 to 20 mA
Maximum Load (per loop)
750 ohms
4-7
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Table 4-2 Multiple Analog Output Board: Technical
Specifications (each circuit) (Continued)
Analog Output 1 Terminations
Pin A
(Red wire –)
Pin C
(White wire +)
Analog Output 2 Terminations
Pin D
(Brown wire –)
Pin F
(Blue wire +)
Analog Output 3 Terminations
Pin E
(Black wire –)
Pin B
(Green wire +)
Note: If you must strip the cable further back to facilitate
wiring, you will expose an orange, yellow, and purple wire.
You may disregard these wires, as they are not connected
in this application.
4.4 Tipping Bucket Rain
Gauge
A Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge is available from Teledyne Isco for
use with 4200 Series Flow Meters. The rain gauge connects to
the flow meter by a cable terminated in an M/S connector. This
connector plugs into the Rain Gauge connector on the case. A
Y-connect cable is available that allows use of both the rain gauge
and a YSI 600 Multi-Parameter Sonde at the same time. You can
connect extra cable (user-supplied) between the rain gauge and
the factory-supplied cable as long as you do not exceed a
maximum total length of 1,000 feet. Use 18 AWG wire or larger.
Do not cut the M/S connector from the cable. The rain gauge is
factory-calibrated to provide a contact closure to the flow meter
for every hundredth of an inch (0.01") [or 0.1 mm] of rainfall.
Software in the flow meter stores this information in memory
and prints the accumulated data as a text line on the printer
chart. It also allows the printout to be expressed in metric. You
may, if you wish, provide a rain gauge of your own choice, but to
ensure compatibility with the flow meter's operating environment, it must conform to the following specifications:
• It must provide an isolated, dry contact closure.
• It must be a normally open contact configuration.
• It must close for 100 ms (–25 ms +150 ms) with less than
2 ms contact bounce.
• It must provide a contact closure for every 0.01" (or 0.1
mm) of rainfall
A cable assembly is available to connect a user-supplied rain
gauge to the flow meter. Further information about the rain
gauge is available from the factory or its manual.
4-8
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Figure 4-2 674 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge
4.5 Isco Flowlink Software
Teledyne Isco offers a proprietary software system for data acquisition, storage, retrieval, and analysis. This software system,
Flowlink, contains programs that allow 4200 series flow meters
to store blocks of level and other data readings in the flow
meter's memory. You retrieve this stored data with either a
laptop computer or central computer connected to the flow meter
by modem. You can use other programs in the package to process
the retrieved data for further analysis. In addition to storing
data, this software makes it possible to divide part of the flow
meter's memory into partitions. These partitions may be formatted in “rollover” or “slate” mode of data storage. You can also
set up the flow meter to store data as a result of some sort of
“triggering” event, such as level rising to a predetermined point,
the passage of a predetermined time interval, or the occurrence
of a storm event, such as rainfall.
Consult the factory. A detailed explanation of the Flowlink
Software is beyond the scope of this manual. Information on
Flowlink Software is available from its manual or from the
factory.
4.6 High-Low Alarm Relay
Box
Teledyne Isco offers a control box that monitors flow rate data
available from any 3000 or 4200 Series Flow Meter. Alarm relays
trip when the flow rate exceeds or falls below pre-selected limits.
High and low set points are user-set and range from 0% to 99% in
1% increments. Output from the unit is the switching of form C
(SPDT) relay contacts. The unit has 2 relays; one for high alarm
and the other for low. The availability of form C contacts (both
4-9
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
NO [normally open] and NC [normally closed] contacts) means
you can switch loads either on or off. Relay contacts are rated 3
Amperes at 24 volts AC or DC. The alarm box operates on 12
VDC supplied from the flow meter. Current consumption in
standby condition is approximately 10 mA. In alarm, current
increases to 190 mA. You can connect as many as four alarm
boxes to a flow meter, if the flow meter is powered from the AC
line.
Note
1. Do not use the alarm box if your flow meter has a modem or
uses Flowlink software (through either a modem or laptop
computer).
2. Use the alarm box with caution in battery-powered installations, as it will significantly increase power consumption.
In standby condition, an alarm box consumes about one
ampere-hour of battery capacity in four days (or reduces capacity
approximately 25%). In alarm condition, one alarm box will completely discharge a fresh (4 Ah) battery in 21 hours. Teledyne
Isco recommends using only one alarm box in a battery- powered
installation, and you can expect to change the battery more
often.
4.6.1 Installation
The High-Low Alarm Relay Box is enclosed in a high-strength
plastic box. Mount the unit with corrosion-resistant hardware
through the two holes in the stainless steel mounting plate
attached to the case. Two threaded holes in the case allow the use
of either 1/2 " conduit fittings or compression bushings. While the
alarm box is suitable for use in damp locations, do not install it
where there is any possibility of submersion. Where temperatures are expected to fall below freezing, Teledyne Isco recommends installation of the alarm box indoors or in a heated
location, as the manufacturer of the microprocessor does not
specify its operation below 32° F (0° C).
WARNING
Hazard of electric shock! Use the relay contacts for low
voltage (24 V) pilot duty only. Do not wire 120 VAC or higher
voltages to the relay contacts.
4.6.2 Wiring to a 4200 Series
Flow Meter
4-10
Connecting the High-Low Alarm Relay Box to a 4200 Series Flow
Meter requires a cable and an M/S connector. A special cable, 25
feet long, is available from Teledyne Isco. On one end of the cable
is a 4-pin, male M/S connector. Plug this connector into the Rain
Gauge connector on the flow meter. The other end of the cable
has three stripped wires. Attach them to the alarm box according
to the instructions in the alarm box manual.
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
4.7 Parameter Sensing
4.7.1 Installation of
Parameter Probes
BLACK
+12 VDC
GREEN
–12 VDC
WHITE
DATA
All Isco 4200 Series Flow Meters have the capability of displaying, recording, and (if Flowlink software is used) storing data
provided from parameter sensors. The parameter sensors that
are available from Teledyne Isco for use with 4200 Series Flow
Meters are for temperature measurement, dissolved oxygen
(D.O.) and pH (indicating the acidity or alkalinity of a solution),
and the YSI 600 Multi-Parameter Sonde. See Section 4.11 for
information on the YSI 600 Sonde. This section covers the Isco
pH, D.O., and temperature sensors.
All three parameter probes, as well as other Isco probes such as
the submerged probe level sensor and area-velocity probe,
require complete submersion in the flow stream for proper operation. Dry operation can damage the pH and D.O. probes. The
YSI Sonde (only) may be suspended vertically in the stream.
Teledyne Isco offers a series of rings that provide mounting for
all probes in round pipes.
• Each probe snap-mounts to a specialized sensor carrier.
• The sensor carrier then attaches to the rings or
mounting straps.
• The probe cable is carefully routed out of the stream.
• Only the temperature probe can connect directly to the
flow meter's parameter probe connector.
• The pH and D.O. probes both connect to parameter
modules (amplifiers). The pH probe connects to the 201
pH Module and the D.O. probe connects to the 270 D.O.
Module. The modules are not interchangeable.
Note
The 270 D.O. module has been discontinued. Probes, service
kits, and accessories are still available to maintain existing field
units.
Isco flow meters are built with one parameter sensing port. You
must select temperature, D.O. with temperature, or pH with temperature. If you want to change probes later, you can, but you will
need to change certain aspects of the flow meter's program.
Selection of either pH or D.O. in step 1 of the program (where
units of measure are defined) will lock out any mention of the
other probe in the menus for the rest of the program.
The Parameter Modules themselves plug into the Parameter
Probe connector on the flow meter.
4-11
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Note
The pH and D.O. probes require continuous submersion after
installation, or they will lose sensitivity. Prolonged dehydration of the sensor bulb may damage or even ruin the pH
probe.
4.7.2 Temperature Probe
4.8 pH Probe
The temperature probe is the simplest of the three, consisting of
a thermistor inside a metal housing. The thermistor changes
resistance with an increase or decrease in temperature. The flow
meter converts this resistance change to a temperature reading
and displays it, in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit, as chosen by
menu selection during programming.
The pH probe measures the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous
solution by determining the relative quantity of dissociated
hydrogen ions, H + (actually H 3 O + ) in the solution. A larger
quantity of H+ ions indicates acidity, while a smaller quantity of
H+ ions indicates alkalinity. The H in pH stands for Hydrogen
and the p stands for power.
The normal scale for pH runs from 0 to 14, with 0 being most
acidic and 14 being most alkaline. Distilled water at 25° C is
neutral at 7, based on the fact that the dissociation constant
(number of H+ and OH– [hydroxyl] ions present) for pure water
at that temperature is 10-7.
Figure 4-3 Temperature Probe
A dissociation constant is a number that indicates the amount of
ionic dissociation occurring for a given substance after it is dissolved in aqueous solution. Dissociation constants vary widely
for substances depending on the nature of the chemical bonds
within the substance.
4-12
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Figure 4-4 pH Probe With Protective Cap
Each number on the pH scale between 7 and 0 equals a tenfold
increase in H + ion. Each number between 7 and 14 equals a
tenfold decrease of H+ ion. pH measurements of wastewater are
commonly made to monitor the effect of treatment chemicals
added to raise or lower the pH.
Water that has been used for various industrial processes may
deviate substantially from 7. Chemicals are often added to the
water to bring the pH close to that of neutral water, which is 7.
For example, if the effluent has a concentration of heavy metal
ions, they must be removed before discharge. Raising the pH of
solutions containing transition-metal ions will cause them to precipitate, where they can easily be removed as sludge. The
resultant solution will be high in pH and will require acid to neutralize it.
4.8.1 How the pH Probe
Works
The pH probe is a combination of two electrochemical half-cells.
Together they provide a low-voltage signal that corresponds to
the hydrogen-ion concentration of a solution. If you look at the
pH probe, you will see a glass bulb on one end. This is called the
glass mono electrode. The glass is of special composition and sensitive only to hydrogen ions. It is exposed to the solution to be
measured. The specific sensitivity to hydrogen ions prevents
interference from other ions that may be present in the solution.
The glass membrane produces an electrical potential proportional to hydrogen ion activity.
The other electrode, called the reference electrode, completes the
circuit between the glass electrode and the solution.
The Isco pH probe combines both electrodes in a single housing
and also contains an amplifier to reduce the extremely high
impedance of the circuit. This improves the reaction of the probe
to stray capacitance and reduces interference caused by electrical
noise in the vicinity. pH measurement is affected significantly by
temperature, like any other chemical reaction. Consequently,
temperature compensation is provided in the flow meter. The
Isco pH probe has a built-in temperature sensor that is exposed
for faster response.
4-13
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
The pH probe connects to a 201 module that plugs into the
Parameter Port on the flow meter. The probe has a 25 ft. (7.6 m)
cable. For greater distances, contact the factory. The maximum
distance between the module and the flow meter is 1,000 ft.
(304.8 m).
Note
Do not connect a Isco pH probe and temperature probe to the
201 module at the same time. The “Temperature Probe” input
on the 201 module is for use ONLY with non-Isco pH probes
that do not have built-in temperature sensing. The Isco pH
probe contains its own integral temperature sensor, which, if
connected in parallel with a separate temperature probe, will
cause erroneous readings.
When the ion-selective electrode and the reference electrode are
connected to a high-impedance voltmeter and submerged in
solution, ions move to the surface of the membrane. The electrical charge on the ions creates a potential difference across the
barrier between the solution and the membrane. This potential,
or voltage difference, is proportional to the activity of the ions in
solution.
The potential, when read by a sensitive voltmeter, translates into
a reading of pH. With an Isco flow meter, the voltage is sent first
to a preamplifier inside the probe to reduce the impedance of the
circuit and improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and then on to the
201 module to allow greater operating distance from the flow
meter. The flow meter determines the pH value and displays it.
4.8.2 pH Probe Calibration
The 4230 provides a two- or three-point calibration for the pH
probes with commercially-prepared calibrated buffer solutions.
Calibrations of 4 and 7, 7 and 10 and 4, 7, and 10 are all possible.
For accurate readings you must clean and re-calibrate the probe
on a regular basis. How often you need to do this depends on the
condition of your flow stream.
Flow streams with a high grease content will coat the sensing
surfaces of the probe quickly, clogging them and slowing the
response time or stopping it altogether. Installation in very
greasy flow streams is not recommended.
Note
For pH probe calibration, Teledyne Isco recommends that you
use a glass container for the buffer solutions to ensure that the
following conditions are met:
The probe must be properly submerged in solution, and there
must be no air trapped under the probe membrane, or the
reading may become incorrect and/or erratic.
Do not touch the probe until after you have performed step 6.
1. To calibrate the pH probe with the flow meter, first go to
program Step 1 PROGRAM, SETUP and select PROGRAM.
4-14
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
2. Step through the units of measure with the Enter key
until you reach the menu that says pH UNITS - NOT
MEASURED, pH. Select pH. You must do this in step 1 or
the pH menu will not appear later.
3. Now go to step 3. PARAMETER TO ADJUST - NONE,
LEVEL, pH. (Other selections may appear.) Select pH. If
the pH menu does not appear in step 3, go back to step 1 to
make sure you have turned it on. Then the pH selection of
calibrations will appear.
4. Place the pH probe in the appropriate buffer solution until
the stainless steel body is one inch beneath the surface.
5. If you select 4 & 7, the following will appear. Calibration
with the other menu options (7 & 10 or 4, 7, & 10) is essentially the same as shown below. For the other menus, see
Section 2.
RINSE PROBE AND PLACE IN 4.0 pH SOLUTION
PRESS ENTER WHEN STABLE: X.XX pH
6. Wait for the reading to stabilize (this may take from 30 seconds up to 5 minutes). When the probe has stabilized,
press Enter and the following display will appear:
RINSE PROBE AND PLACE IN 7.0 pH SOLUTION
PRESS ENTER WHEN STABLE: X.XX pH
When you have entered this second value, the pH probe
calibration is complete. You can then install the probe in
the flow stream.
Note
An asterisk (*) may occasionally appear next to the pH reading
for approximately 30 seconds, during which time the most
recent reading will be displayed. This may be normal flow
meter operation due to other internal functions, or could indicate pH fluctuation in the stream.
4.8.3 pH Probe Installation
Guidelines
Installation of the pH probe is similar to the submerged level
sensor, other parameter probes, and the area-velocity sensor.
• Install the probe only in streams that have continuous
flow. The sensing end of the probe must always remain
wet.
• For proper operation, there must also be enough flow to
submerge the sensing end of the probe completely.
If flow in the stream is intermittent (dry for periods of time), the
pH sensing bulb will dry out and its response time will slow. This
is a problem in situations where pH changes rapidly. If the probe
is dry long enough, it will first lose sensitivity, then be slow to
respond, and finally be ruined. Never let the sensing end of
the probe dry out completely.
4-15
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
• Installation in streams with high grease content will
result in poor performance and require frequent
cleaning and recalibration.
Greasy substances, being nonconductors of electricity,
weaken the electrical potentials formed between the
glass mono-electrode and the solution, slowing or
halting the response altogether.
• The pH Sensor operates satisfactorily mounted either
horizontally or vertically in the stream. However—
· Horizontal mounting is more secure, and presents
less of an barrier to trap debris.
· Simple suspension of the probe is not recommended,
particularly in streams of high velocity, or those that
carry debris.
If you mount the pH probe vertically, mount it securely. Do not
just hang it from the top of the pipe by its cable. Suspending the
probe in the stream is not stable.
For horizontal mounting, the probe fastens to a sensor carrier
that snap-fits to an Isco mounting ring. The mounting rings fit
various diameters of round pipes 15" diameter and smaller. For
larger pipes, use the Isco Universal Mounting Ring. For installation details, refer to the instruction sheet supplied with the
mounting ring.
The mounting rings are held in place by the outward force of
spring pressure in the smaller sizes and by a screw arrangement
in the larger sizes. After mounting the probe in the ring or strap,
route the cable out of the stream so it will not trap debris that
could clog the sewer.
Mount the pH Module within 25 feet of the probe, but in a
location higher than the highest anticipated level for the flow
stream. The amplifier box is sealed and will withstand temporary submersion, but this should be avoided.
4-16
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Figure 4-5 201 pH Module
Note
When installing the pH probe and its sensor carrier, make sure
the mounting slots on the carrier are completely pressed into
the mating tabs on the ring. The probe relies on a full engagement between tabs and slots for secure mounting. If the slots
are loose against the tabs, the probe may be swept away by
the force of the stream.
• Always mount the probe in an easily-accessible location,
because you will need to service it (cleaning) from time
to time.
Also, you will eventually need to replace it. You can
mount the probe facing either upstream or downstream,
but Teledyne Isco recommends facing upstream, as
there is a stop on the sensor carrier that is not effective
when the probe is facing downstream.
• Remember to unscrew the rubber guard cap from the
sensing end of the probe when you install it, or the probe
will be unable to sense the flow stream.
The guard cap is to protect the probe during shipment
and storage and to keep the glass membrane and liquid
junction from drying out. If you remove the probe for
any reason, clean it and replace the cap after filling with
4.0 buffer solution. Never store the probe dry or
without the cap in place.
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Section 4 Optional Equipment
The Isco amplifier box extends the allowable distance between
the probe and the flow meter. The probe has a 25-foot cable, so
you must mount the amplifier within this distance. The
maximum distance between the amplifier box and the flow meter
is 1,000 feet.
Table 4-3 pH Probe Technical Specifications
Description: Submersible, horizontal-mounting
probe with combination-type electrodes. Porous
Teflon® liquid junction to resist fouling and
coating. Steam-sterilized glass hemi-bulb for
long- term stability.
Size
6" long × 3/4 NPT.
Body Material
Stainless Steel
pH Range
0 to 14 pH units.
Temperature
32° to 176° F (0° to 80° C).
pH Accuracy
±0.1 pH units over the full range.
pH Electrode Junctions
Type II Double porous junction
Temperature Compensation: Done by software inside the
flow meter. The pH Probe contains an integral temperature
sensor.
All pH probes are consumable items, meaning that they
will eventually fail and have to be replaced.
During the life of the probe, you will have to clean and recalibrate it periodically. Grease and debris will interfere with the
probe's ability to measure pH accurately. Grease, particularly,
will coat the end of the probe. Because grease is an insulator, it
will keep the ions from reaching the glass membrane and porous
liquid junction, thus failing to create a voltage potential.
You can consider the pH probe at its end-of-life when you can no
longer calibrate it (after cleaning) to ±0.2 pH with the standard
buffers of 4, 7, and/or 10. Another indication of end-of-life is when
the probe calibrates satisfactorily, but takes too long to stabilize
(more than 10 minutes). Such a probe could not possibly respond
to rapidly-changing pH. If your situation requires fast response,
you might consider end-of-life to be when stabilization time
reaches five minutes.
4.8.4 Storage and
Maintenance of pH
Probes
If you remove the pH probe from operation, be careful to keep the
glass sensor bulb wet. Always store the probe with the rubber
cover screwed completely over the threaded end of the sensor.
Exposure to air causes the glass membrane on the sensor bulb to
dry out. This makes it very slow to respond in solution. Prolonged or repeated dehydration of the bulb may ruin the probe.
The pH sensitive glass can become “conditioned” to its environment, especially when it is continuously exposed to high pH
(10 and above) solutions. The glass does have a memory and will
respond slowly when exposed to a lower pH solution after having
been in a high pH solution for any significant period of time.
4-18
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Storage of a pH probe in a 4.0 buffer solution is recommended as
this has a regenerative effect on the glass and does not put a
memory on it. Tap water will work if 4.0 buffer solution is not
available. Deionized water is good for quick rinses to clean the
element, but not for prolonged storage of an electrode. Continuous exposure of the ion-sensitive membrane to a wetted, but
deionized water solution will improperly condition the membrane.
The reference electrode is also adversely affected when allowed
to dry out. Salt crystals from the electrolyte or precipitates of the
solution measured will form salt bridges either within or on the
surfaces of the liquid junction, causing the reference to be less
conductive and resulting in a higher reference impedance.
This condition will typically worsen until the unit no longer functions. Soaking the reference electrode in a 4.0 pH solution, or tap
water if the buffer is not readily available, may bring the reference back to life. Boiling the electrode in 4.0 buffer solution or
tap water could revive the electrode in more severe situations. If
none of these works, it may be necessary to replace the probe.
4.9 The Dissolved Oxygen
(D.O.) Probe
This probe measures the amount of oxygen dissolved in a stream
or waterway. Oxygen dissolved in water is necessary for many
forms of life that dwell in lakes and streams. Inadequate supplies
of dissolved oxygen will cause fish and other aquatic life that
depend on them as a food source to die off or be sharply diminished in numbers.
The measurement of dissolved oxygen content is of interest to
those monitoring the condition of lakes and streams. Fish must
have a certain minimum concentration of dissolved oxygen to
thrive, typically 4 to 6 mg/l.
Various types of pollution can cause the amount of oxygen dissolved in water to drop sharply, placing the aquatic life forms at
serious risk. The D.O. Probe measures the amount of oxygen dissolved in water in a range from 0 to 20 mg/l. Note that the flow
meter can display D.O. in either mg/l (milligrams per liter) or
ppm (parts per million) depending on your choice in programming.
Note
The 270 D.O. module has been discontinued. Probes, service
kits, and accessories are still available to mainain existing field
units.
4-19
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Figure 4-6 D.O. (Dissolved Oxygen) Probe
For successful use of the D.O. Probe, please read and consider the
following:
• The D.O. Probe requires constantly moving water.
The probe consumes oxygen during operation; this will
deplete the oxygen available from stagnant or stratified
waters, resulting in an inaccurate reading. Do not
install it in a stilling well or in any location where water
movement is intermittent or very low. As a guideline, a
minimum velocity of one foot per second is suggested.
• Frequent maintenance is necessary when the probe is
installed in flows with high grease or solids content.
Tests conducted by Teledyne Isco with probes installed
in various waste streams have indicated that greases
and solids quickly coat the probe's membrane, making it
impossible for oxygen to enter the reaction chamber.
This will result in an abnormally low reading, or no
reading at all.
Cleaning the membrane is generally not effective, as it
tends to drive the solids further into the pores. It is
generally necessary to replace both the electrolyte and
the diaphragm to get an accurate reading. In such
severe cases of fouling it may be necessary to change the
diaphragm very frequently, even as often as every other
day.
4.9.1 How the D.O. Probe
Works
A thin permeable membrane stretched over the sensor isolates
the electrodes from the environment, but allows gases to enter.
When a polarizing voltage is applied across the sensor, oxygen
that has passed through the membrane reacts at the cathode,
causing a current to flow. The membrane passes oxygen at a rate
proportional to the pressure difference across it. Since oxygen is
rapidly consumed at the cathode, it can be assumed that the
oxygen pressure inside the membrane is zero. Hence, the force
causing the oxygen to diffuse through the membrane is propor-
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
tional to the absolute pressure of oxygen outside the membrane.
As the oxygen partial pressure varies, both the oxygen diffusion
through the membrane and the probe current change proportionally.
4.9.2 Probe Preparation
The following describes how to prepare a new probe for use, or
how to change membranes on an existing probe. First, unscrew
the sensor guard; remove the O-ring and membrane, then thoroughly rinse the sensor with distilled water. Prepare the KCl
electrolyte according to the directions on the bottle. Use distilled water only. You install the membranes by hand. The
probe is shipped with a small folder containing several
replacement membranes. To install a new membrane, follow
these steps:
1. Secure the probe body so it is in an upright position. You
can use a vise, adjustable wrench, or locking pliers, etc.,
whatever is satisfactory. Do not apply too much force to the
probe body, or you will crack it.
2. Fill the cavity around the silver anode with electrolyte. The
liquid should be free of bubbles and should completely
cover the tip of the sensor. Fill the cavity to the point where
any more electrolyte would spill over.
3. Lightly lay the membrane across the top of the probe. If
you do this carefully, there will be no bubbles under the
membrane.
Note
Handle the membrane material with care, touching it at the
ends only.
4. Place the O-ring on top of the membrane, generally conforming to the circumference edge of the probe.
5. Place the thumb and index finger from both hands opposite
each other on the O-ring at equal distances.
6. Roll the O-ring down over the end of the probe, being careful not to touch the membrane surface.
7. Trim off excess membrane with scissors or a sharp knife.
Check to see that the stainless steel rod (thermistor) protruding below the liquid cup is not covered by extra membrane.
Note
There must be no bubbles under the membrane and no
creases in it for the probe to function correctly.
8. Shake any excess KCl solution from the probe. Reinstall
the sensor guard. Keep the sensor in a humid environment
when not in use and between measurements. The plastic
bottle that was placed over the end of the sensor when it
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
was shipped is ideal for this purpose. Place a piece of moist
tissue inside the bottle, and slide the bottle over the probe.
4.9.3 Membrane
Thicknesses
Teledyne Isco supplies a 2 mil (.002") thick membrane for use
with the D.O. probe. This membrane is recommended for
long-term monitoring situations only, typical of our users' applications. Use only this thickness of membrane with D.O. probes
connected to Isco flow meters. Do not use other thicknesses of
membranes as the Parameter Module used with the probe is calibrated only for the 2-mil membrane, and cannot be recalibrated
in the field. Use of other membrane thicknesses will result in
inaccuracy.
4.9.4 Probe Installation
The D.O. probe attaches to a sensor carrier bracket that snaps
into an Isco mounting ring. Use the specific size mounting ring
for pipes less than 15" in diameter, and the Scissors Ring for pipe
sizes greater than 15" diameter. Refer to the instruction sheet
supplied with the mounting ring.
Note
When installing the D.O. probe and its sensor carrier bracket,
make sure the mounting slots on the sensor carrier are completely pressed into the mating tabs on the ring. The probe
relies on a full engagement between tabs and slots for secure
mounting. If the slots are loose against the tabs, the probe may
be swept away by the force of the stream.
4.9.5 Probe Operation and
Precautions
The following factors determine the life of the D.O. probe and the
frequency of service.
• Membrane life depends on use. Membranes will last
longer if installed properly and treated with care during
use. Contents of the flow stream are also important, as
some substances will foul the membrane very quickly.
Erratic readings will result from loose, wrinkled or
fouled membranes, or from large bubbles in the
electrolyte reservoir. If erratic readings or evidence of
membrane damage occur, you should replace the
membrane and the KCl electrolyte.
• In environments where the membrane becomes rapidly
coated with oxygen-consuming or oxygen-evolving
organisms, erroneous readings may occur. Chlorine,
sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide can affect
readings by reacting like oxygen at the probe. If your
readings seem unreasonable, you may need to perform
analysis to determine whether these gases are the
cause. Long-term use, as for monitoring, can magnify
the effect of these factors in some applications.
• Avoid any environment containing substances that may
attack any of the probe's materials. Some of these
substances are concentrated acids, caustics, and strong
solvents. The probe materials that come into contact
with the sample include FEP Teflon, acrylic plastic, ABS
4-22
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
plastic, EPR rubber, stainless steel, epoxy, polyetherimide, and the polyurethane cable covering.
• For correct probe operation, the gold cathode must
always be bright. If it is tarnished (which can result
from contact with certain gases) or plated with silver
(which can result from extended use with a loose or
wrinkled membrane), you need to restore its surface.
You can return it to Teledyne Isco or clean it yourself
with a probe reconditioning kit. (This kit is available
from Teledyne Isco.) Never use chemicals or any
abrasive not supplied with this kit. It is also possible for
the silver anode to become contaminated, which will
prevent successful calibration. Try soaking the probe
overnight in a 3% ammonia solution; then rinse with
deionized water, recharge with electrolyte, and install a
new membrane. If you are still unable to recalibrate the
probe after several hours, return the probe to Teledyne
Isco for service.
• If the sensor O-ring is worn or loose, you should replace
it. The probe comes with a kit of O-rings and
replacement membranes. Additional replacement
O-rings are available from Teledyne Isco in an O-ring
replacement pack.
• If the probe will not be in constant use, you should store
it in the plastic bottle provided in shipping. To keep the
electrolyte from drying out, place a small piece of moist
towel or sponge in the bottle and insert the probe into
the open end. If you need service for your D.O. probe,
Teledyne Isco recommends returning the unit for evaluation. In addition to servicing the probe, we can also
provide advice on product applications, and you can also
purchase other accessories for use with the D.O. probe.
Use only 2-mil membranes with D.O. probes connected
to Isco flow meters.
Table 4-4 D.O. Probe Technical Specifications
Cathode
Gold
Anode
Silver
Membrane
FEP Teflon; 2 mil standard
Electrolyte
Half-saturated KCl (Potassium Chloride)
Temp. Range
0° to +45° C
Polarizing
Voltage
Probe Current in Air at
30o C
Probe Current in Nitrogen at 30o C
0.8 Volts (Nominal)
19 microamps (nominal)
0.15 microamps or less
4-23
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Table 4-4 D.O. Probe Technical Specifications
Connection
12 ft. (3.2 m) cable with 5-pin male M/S
connector
Response time Typical response for dissolved oxygen, using supplied membranes, is 90% in 20 seconds. Response at low dissolved oxygen levels is
typically 90% in 60 seconds.
Figure 4-7 D.O. Parameter Module
You must use the Isco Model 270 D.O. Module box between the
probe and flow meter; this extends the distance between the
probe and the flow meter to 1,000 feet.)
Note
The 270 D.O. Module has been discontinued. Probes, service
kits, and accessories are still available to maintain existing field
units.
4.9.6 Calibrating the D.O.
Probe with a Flow
Meter
Prepare the probe as described above if this has not already been
done (fill the probe cavity with electrolyte and seat the membrane).
Note
You must use the Isco Temperature Probe with the D.O. Probe
to provide temperature compensation.
Wrap both the D.O. Probe and Temperature Probe in a damp
cloth. Wait ten minutes for it to stabilize, then proceed.
Go to step 1 on the flow meter. Select PROGRAM, then step
through the units of measure with Enter until you reach the
menu for pH measurement. Select NOT MEASURED. Then D.O.
UNITS will appear. Select either MG/L or PPM. Exit the
program and re-enter going to step 3.
4-24
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
You must select measurement of D.O. in step 1 or the D.O. menu
will not appear in step 3. If you cannot get the D.O. menu to
appear in step 3, recheck your selections in step 1. Remember
that you must select NOT MEASURED for pH in step 1 or D.O.
will not appear on the menu for the rest of the program.
PARAMETER TO ADJUST
• NONE • • LEVEL • • D.O. •
Select D.O. The following will appear:
D.O. CALIBRATION
•D.O STANDARD••ABS BAROMETRIC PRESSURE••
Altitude is just off the screen. You can select D.O. STANDARD if
this calibration medium is available to you. Do not select ABS
(absolute) BAROMETRIC PRESSURE unless you are at sea
level or know how to correct for this value. The barometric
pressure provided from the Weather Bureau is corrected for
altitude. Select ALTITUDE.
ALTITUDE UNITS OF MEASURE
• FT • • M •
Then:
ENTER ALTITUDE
ALTITUDE = XXXXX FEET (or meters)
Enter the altitude for your location. This is critical to the probe's
accuracy. The following display will then appear:
WRAP D.O. PROBE IN MOIST CLOTH
PRESS ENTER WHEN STABLE: X.XXX MG/L
The reading is in milligrams of oxygen per liter. If you chose PPM
in program step 1 for D.O. units, the reading would be in parts
per million.
4-25
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
4.10 Installation of
Parameter Probes in
Round Pipes
4.10.1 Spring Rings
Consult your Isco Mounting Rings instruction manual for
detailed hardware information.
The following sections describe sensor installation using the two
options available for mounting sensors in pipes or round-bottomed flow streams. For pipes up to 15" (38.1 cm) in diameter,
stainless steel self-expanding mounting rings (Spring
Rings) are available. For pipes larger than 15" in diameter,
Teledyne Isco offers the Scissors Rings (Universal Mounting
Rings).
To install a spring ring, you compress the ring, slip it inside the
pipe, and then allow it to spring out to contact the inside
diameter of the pipe. The inherent outward spring force of the
ring firmly secures it in place. A typical self-expanding mounting
ring (with a probe mounted on it) is shown in Figure 4-8.
These mounting rings are available for use in pipes with inside
diameters of 6" (15.2 cm), 8" (20.3 cm), 10" (25.4 cm), 12" (30.5
cm), and 15" (38.1 cm). The Isco part numbers for the various size
mounting rings available are listed in Appendix A. These part
numbers include not only the ring, but also the miscellaneous
hardware necessary to mount the sensor on the ring.
CAUTION
Always wear leather gloves when handling the rings (either
type). The metal is finished, but there is still a possibility of cutting your hands on the edges.
Compress ring into gap to install in pipe, then...
...outward force of ring against pipe wall holds
ring in place inside pipe.
Figure 4-8 Sensor Installed on a Spring Ring
4-26
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Completing the assembly
To complete the sensor-spring ring assembly procedure, attach
the sensor cable to the downstream edge of the ring. Follow the
cable routing shown in Figure 4-8. Other routing directions may
affect measurement accuracy. The cable can actually create a
stilling well downstream from the sensor, causing the level to
read low. Use the self-locking plastic ties supplied with the ring.
Install the ring in the pipe by compressing it. Press inward on
both sides and slide the ring into the pipe.
Route the sensor cable out of the stream and secure it in position
by placing the ties through the holes in the mounting ring and
then locking them around the cable, as shown. To prevent debris
from catching on the cable, it is important to attach the cable to
the mounting ring so it offers as little resistance to the flow as
possible.
The spring ring may need anchoring. Under conditions of high
velocity (greater than 5 feet per second or 1.5 meters per second),
the ring may not have sufficient outward spring force to
maintain a tight fit inside the pipe. The ring may start to lift off
the bottom of the pipe in a waving fashion, or may even be
carried downstream.
This problem is more prevalent in the larger diameter pipes (10”,
12”, and 15", and in pipes with smooth inside surfaces, such as
plastic pipes). If any of these conditions are present, or if
movement of the mounting ring is detected or suspected, you
must anchor the ring in place. You can do this by setting screws
through the ring into the pipe, or by other appropriate means. If
there is a problem with the smaller diameter rings, it may be sufficient to simply increase the outward spring force of the ring by
bending it into a less round configuration.
4.10.2 Scissors Rings
For pipes larger than 15" in diameter, Teledyne Isco offers the
adjustable Scissors Ring (also known as the Universal Mounting
Ring). This device consists of two or more metal strips that lock
together with tabs to form a single assembly. There is a base
section where the sensors are mounted, one or more extension
sections (usually), and a scissors section at the top that expands
the entire assembly and tightens it inside the pipe. The scissors
mechanism includes a long screw that increases the width as it is
tightened.
The assembled rings fit pipe diameters from 16" to 80". Secure
the unit in place by tightening the scissors mechanism with a 5/8"
socket wrench or other suitable tool. Ring sections are .040" thick
half-hard 301 stainless steel sheet. All other parts are also
stainless steel, except for the plastic cable ties in the hardware
kit.
Each extension, 1, 2, 3, and 4, adds 9.0", 21.5", 31.5", or 41.5",
respectively, to the circumference of the ring. Used alone, the
base section fits pipe that is approximately 16" to 18" in
diameter. The 9.0" (the smallest) extension exists so that in
larger pipe sizes, where large variations in circumference can
4-27
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
occur, you can use one or two of these extensions to take up or
remove slack, to bring the scissors mechanism into a position
where it can be effectively tightened.
Mounting ring kits are available for different pipe sizes. A kit is
also available for partial pipe applications (see your Mounting
Rings manual). For a listing of part numbers and ordering information, see Appendix A.
To prevent debris from catching on the cable, it is important to
attach the cable to the mounting ring so it offers as little resistance to the flow as possible. Attach the sensor cable to the downstream edge of the ring, using the self-locking plastic ties
supplied with the ring. Place the ties through the holes in the
edge of the mounting ring and then lock them around the cable.
Scissors Assembly
Extensions
Base Section
Tightening the scissors assembly expands the ring to
press firmly against the pipe wall, securing the ring.
Figure 4-9 Scissors Ring Adjustment
4.11 YSI 600 Multiple
Parameter Sonde
The YSI 600 Sonde is a multi-purpose, water quality measurement and data collection system. It is intended for use in
research, assessment, and regulatory compliance. The YSI 600
Sonde can measure the following water qualities:
• Dissolved Oxygen
• Conductivity
• pH
• Salinity
• Total Dissolved Solids
• Temperature
The YSI 600 is ideal for profiling and monitoring water conditions in industrial and wastewater effluents, lakes, rivers, wetlands, estuaries, coastal waters, and monitoring wells. It can be
left unattended for weeks at a time with measurement param-
4-28
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
eters sampled at your selected interval, and data transmitted to
the flow meter. You can use the YSI 600 as deep as 200 feet below
the surface, or in as little as a few inches of water. The fast sensor
response of the YSI 600 makes it ideal for vertical profiling. Its
small size means it can fit inside two-inch diameter monitoring
wells.
A “Rapid Pulse Dissolved Oxygen Sensor” eliminates the need for
stirring, providing accurate results without an expensive and
bulky stirrer. Because no stirring is required, no supplemental
power supply or battery is needed, and sensor drift caused by
passive fouling is minimized.
The YSI 600 communicates with any 4200 Series flow meter
equipped with suitable hardware and software. Earlier model
4200 flow meters can be factory-modified to work with the YSI
Sonde. Data can be exported through Flowlink for further processing.
The YSI 600 is available with a cable 25 feet long that connects
to the flow meter. The cables are waterproof at the sonde and can
be used in lab or field.
Cover removed
to show sensors.
pH sensor
Temperature
pH reference
D.O. sensor
Conductivity
(Inside)
End view, facing sensors
Figure 4-10 YSI 600 Multiple Sensor Sonde
Information about programming the flow meter to use the YSI
600 is found in Section 2 of this manual. Information about the
YSI 600 Sonde is found in the YSI manual.
Table 4-5 YSI 600 Technical Specifications
Operating Environment
Medium
Fresh, Sea, or Polluted Water
Temperature
–5° to +45° C
Storage Temp
–40° to +60°C
Depth
0 to 200 Feet (0 to 61 meters)
4-29
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Table 4-5 YSI 600 Technical Specifications (Continued)
Dimensions
Diameter
1.6 Inches (4.06 cm)
Length
14 Inches (35.6 cm)
Weight
4.9 Pounds (2.22 kg)
Miscellaneous
Materials
PVC, Stainless Steel
Computer Interface
RS-232C, SDI-12
Power
12VDC, Externally supplied
System Requirements
Connects to modified 9-pin Rain Gauge Terminal on any 4200
Series Flow Meter. Operation of Rain Gauge with YSI 600 is
still possible with a special Y-connect cable. Modification of
older 4200 Series Flow Meters is possible with changes in connectors and boards. Consult Factory.
Temperature
Sensor Type
Thermistor
Range
–5° to +45° C
Accuracy
± 0.4° C
Resolution
0.1° C
Dissolved Oxygen % Saturation
Sensor Type
Rapid Pulse - Polarographic
Range
0 to 200 % Air Saturation
Accuracy
± 2% Air Saturation
Resolution
0.1% Air Saturation
Dissolved Oxygen mg/L
Sensor Type
Calculated from % air saturation, temperature, and
salinity
Range
0 to 20 mg./L
Accuracy
± 0.2 mg./L
Resolution
0.01 mg./L
pH Salinity
Sensor Type
Glass Combination Electrode
Range
2 to 14 pH Units
Accuracy*
± 0.2 Units
Resolution
0.01 Units
pH Salinity
4-30
Sensor Type
Calculated from conductivity and temperature
Range
0 to 70 ppt
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
Table 4-5 YSI 600 Technical Specifications (Continued)
Accuracy
± 0.2 ppt
Resolution
0.1 ppt
Conductivity*
Sensor Type
Four-Electrode Cell
Range
0 to 100 mS/cm
Accuracy
± (1% of reading + 0.001 mS/cm)
Resolution
0.01 mS/cm or 1 μS/cm
*Specific conductance (conductivity corrected to 25° C), resistivity, and total dissolved solids measurements are also provided.
These values are automatically calculated from conductivity
according to algorithms found in Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Wastewater (ed. 1989).
4.12 Mechanical Totalizer
A mechanical totalizer is available for the 4230 that consists of a
seven-digit, non-resettable mechanical counter mounted in the
front panel. It must be ordered with the flow meter. The totalizer
advances according to program selections for units of measure
and the maximum flow of the primary device used. The totalizer
is internally set to advance at 1⁄100 of the rate of the display
totalizer. Consequently, you must multiply the number shown on
the mechanical totalizer by 100 to determine the actual value for
total flow.
4-31
4230 Flow Meter
Section 4 Optional Equipment
4-32
4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
This section of the 4230 instruction manual provides routine
maintenance and servicing instructions. Included are sections on
cleaning the flow meter, reactivating the desiccators, maintaining the bubble line, servicing the internal printer, elementary troubleshooting, and servicing CMOS circuitry.
Teledyne Isco recommends that you become familiar with the
maintenance procedures presented here. While the 4230 is ruggedly built to withstand severe field conditions, it will function
best and remain most reliable if you follow these simple procedures.
5.1 Care of the Flow Meter
Case
If you close and latch the lid, and cap all the M/S connectors on
the side of the case tightly, you can clean the case by spraying it
with a hose or washing it with soapy water. Do not use a hose
with a nozzle or a high pressure hose-and-wand such as used at
car washes. Do not immerse the flow meter in a tank of water to
wash it. The flow meter will withstand accidental submersion in
water, if that should occur, but it is not intended for routine submersion.
5.1.1 Care of the Case Seal
From time to time you should inspect the case seal and clean it, if
necessary. The ridge around the edge of the case and the groove
on the cabinet door form a seal when the door is closed. Keep this
seal free of dirt, sand, etc. If it is not, clean it carefully with a
damp cloth. Also keep the rubber gasket in the lid clean. You can
clean it with a small brush and a damp cloth. If you do any
cleaning while the case is open, be careful not to let any dirt or
debris fall inside the flow meter assembly. It is best to work on
the flow meter with the case standing upright. If you do not
maintain the seals properly, they may leak, causing damage and
eventual failure of the components inside.
5.1.2 Preventing Moisture
Damage
To prevent moisture damage to the internal components, keep
the lid tightly latched at all times, except when it is necessary to
change the program or change the chart. Do not operate the flow
meter routinely with the case open. This will expose the internal
components to dirt and moisture; it will also saturate the desiccant canister inside the case very quickly. Inspect this canister
periodically and recharge it as necessary as described subsequently. It is also important to keep the external connectors clean
by keeping the mating connectors or the protective caps tightly
screwed down. Under severe operating conditions you can spray
the threads of the connectors with a cleaner/lubricant, such as Jif
(manufactured by GC Electronics), or WD-40 (manufactured by
the WD-40 Company) to prevent corrosion. Be careful not to
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
spray any of the terminals (pins or jacks) inside the connectors;
residue from the sprays could cause intermittent or failed connections.
5.2 Desiccators
5.2.1 Regenerating the
Internal Case
Desiccant
The 4230 has a reusable desiccant canister held by a steel clamp
on the inside of the case lid. There is also a tubular desiccant cartridge on the top of the case next to the connectors. The canister
contains silica gel that adsorbs moisture trapped inside the flow
meter's case when it is closed. This keeps the inside of the case
completely dry during shipment, storage and use. If you leave the
case open, the desiccant will quickly absorb moisture from the
surrounding air and will soon be saturated. It will no longer be
able to protect the flow meter. Both desiccators use a color indicator that changes from blue to pink or yellow when saturated.
The external desiccant cartridge vents the reference port of the
pressure transducer and the air intake port for the bubbler
system air pump.
Look at the desiccant canister each time you open the case. The
canister has a window on its side that appears blue or yellow
when the desiccant is dry. As the desiccant absorbs moisture, the
window will turn pink or green. When the window is pink or
green, you need to regenerate the desiccant, or replace it with the
spare canister provided in the flow meter accessory package.
Remove the canister from the flow meter by pulling outward on
the spring clamp, releasing its hold on the canister.
Remove the canister and heat it in a vented oven in a well-ventilated room at 300°F (150°C) for about three hours, or until the
blue or yellow color returns. Do not use a microwave oven;
the metal case of the canister could cause arcing. After cooling,
reinstall the canister in the flow meter. Make sure the window on
the side of the canister remains visible.
Figure 5-1 Location of the Case Desiccating Canister
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5.2.2 Regenerating the
External Desiccant
Cartridge
Teledyne Isco uses two types of silica gel:
• One chemical looks like small beads or pellets that are
blue-black when dry, pale pink to transparent when
saturated.
• The other chemical looks like coarse sand, yellow when
dry, dark green when saturated.
Regenerate desiccant by heating at 212° - 350° F (100° - 175°C).
MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) for silica gel chemicals are
provided at the back of this manual.
To regenerate the desiccant cartridge:
1. Snap it out of its bracket.
2. Pull the silicone tubing from the end of the cartridge.
3. Remove one of the end caps from the cartridge by twisting
and pour the saturated desiccant into a metal, ceramic, or
other heat-resistant container.
4. Identify the desiccant and heat it at the proper temperature two to three hours, or until the blue or yellow color
returns.
5. Do not try to regenerate the desiccant inside the cartridge;
the cartridge is plastic and will melt.
6. Refill the cartridge with the regenerated desiccant (or with
the extra desiccant provided in the accessory package.
7. Replace the end caps. If you have difficulty removing or
replacing the end caps, you can coat the O-rings with a
small amount of silicone oil. (Do not use any other type of
oil; it may attack the plastic.)
Notice the filters in the end caps; they keep small pieces of the
desiccant material from falling out of the cartridge. Clean these
filters from time to time using ordinary dish soap and water, and
allow to dry.
CAUTION
There have been reports of irritating fumes coming from the
desiccant during regeneration. While our attempts to duplicate
the problem have been unsuccessful, we still urge you to use
caution.
• Use a vented oven in a well-ventilated room.
• Do not remain in the room while the regeneration is
taking place.
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Regeneration of the desiccators is extremely important.
While it is true that the equipment may run for some time with
saturated desiccators, the operating environment of many installations places the units at risk. Please consider the following:
Note
Saturated desiccators let the flow meter draw moisture inside,
exposing both mechanical and electronic components. The air
in many installations contains fumes that will form acids in the
presence of moisture. These acids may corrode electrical components, particularly connectors and circuit boards.
Operation of the air pump in low temperature, high humidity
environments causes ice to form inside the pump. The ice
formed could jam the pump, ruining it.
Unseen damage caused by moisture will eventually ruin
the flow meter. For maximum equipment life and reliability,
inspect the desiccators regularly and regenerate them when
necessary.
5.3 Bubble Line
Maintenance
Periodically inspect the bubble line from the 4230 to make sure
that it has not become kinked, frayed, cut, nicked, or damaged in
any other way. If you find damage to the bubble line, replace it. A
leaking or obstructed line will cause inaccurate level readings
and lower battery life. (The pump must run more frequently.)
Look for a pump duty cycle value in the STATUS menu higher
than 20%. If you need to replace the bubble line, install a new
line the same way you installed the original. Generally, the new
line should be the same length and diameter as the old.
Note
If you replace the bubble line or if you change the outlet either
by cutting off the tip or by installing a bubble line extension, you
must recalibrate the level. You should also recheck the bubble
rate to make sure it has not changed.
5.3.1 Inspection of the
Bubble Line Outlet
Inspect the outlet of the bubble line regularly for any signs of
clogging. Sediment or debris from the flow stream and algae can
all clog the line. If the line is blocked, you can either clean it out,
or simply cut off the tip.
If clogging proves to be a recurring problem, you may want to use
a bubble line with a larger inside diameter. However, you will
usually find it preferable to increase the frequency of Purge to
increasing the size of the bubble line.
If you decide to change the bubble line size, consult the factory
for specific recommendations regarding the size of the line, connectors required, etc.
If algae growth is a problem, consider using a copper bubble line
extension. The copper salts formed on the line by the flow stream
are algicidal. Again, recheck the bubble rate and re-enter the
actual level measurement.
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Section 5 Maintenance and Service
5.3.2 Automatic Air Purge
The 4230 has an automatic purge feature to clear deposits from
the bubble line with a sharp burst of air from the pump. Purge is
intended to help keep the outlet of the bubble line open. The
program substep PURGE INTERVAL (in Setup) allows you to set
the time between purge cycles, from five minutes to one hour.
The Purge key on the keypad lets you manually purge the
bubble line anytime just by pressing the key. You don't have to
wait until the next programmed purge cycle occurs to purge the
line.
When you press Purge, the pump will start running inside the
flow meter. The pump will continue to run as long as you press
the button, and for a short while after you release it.
5.4 Maintenance of the
Printer
The internal printer needs little maintenance beyond changing
the chart roll and the ink ribbon.
Refer to the pictures provided for each section. Also refer to the
label inside the cabinet.
End Cap
Reroll Spool
Assembly
Supply Spool
Assembly
End Cap
Figure 5-2 Changing the Chart Paper
5.4.1 Changing the Paper
Roll
To change the chart paper you will need:
• new roll of paper
• a knife or a pair of scissors
• a small piece of tape
The printer will shut down when the paper runs out. The roll is
nearly empty when a 1-inch wide pink band appears on the left
side of the chart.
To change the roll:
1. Locate the handle on the left side of the take-up roll.
2. Pull straight out on this handle until the take-up roll slips
off the printer.
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
3. Remove the paper roll from the take-up spool by holding
the handle in one hand with your thumb pressed against
one of the slots in the white end cap.
4. Snap the white end cap free from the two black catches on
the end of the spool.
5. Pull the paper roll off the spool with your other hand.
6. Remove the feed spool by pulling on the handle extending
from the right side of the printer.
7. Snap off the other white end cap as described previously.
Save the white end caps; you will reuse them.
8. Remove the empty roll from the spool by holding the handle in one hand and pulling the roll from the spool with the
other.
Installing the New Roll of Paper
After you remove the empty roll:
1. Slide the new roll onto the feed spool so it unrolls from the
back side - facing away from you.
2. Line up the slots in the cardboard tube with the raised
guides on the spool.
3. Reattach the white end cap by wedging the two catches on
the end of the spool into the two slots on the white end cap.
4. Peel the paper back gently so it will unroll freely. Using the
knife or scissors, cut off the end of the roll if it is torn.
5. Fold the paper over on itself so the end is straight and
stiffer than a single layer of paper would be.
6. Unroll a few inches of the paper and set the roll on top of
the cabinet.
7. Use your fingers to feed the paper down the back of the
internal printer to where it touches the roller. Make sure
the paper gets past the lever for the paper sensing switch.
8. Press the Chart Advance key and hold it until the paper
comes through the printer mechanism.
Re threading the Paper
1. When the paper comes through, reinstall the feed spool
with the new roll on it by snapping it into the printer
assembly.
2. Run a few inches through the printer, using the Chart
Advance key; then unfold the end.
3. Put the cardboard tube from the empty roll on the take-up
spindle and reattach the white end cap by wedging the
catches on the end of the spool into the two slots on the
white end cap.
4. Use the piece of tape to attach the end of the new paper to
the cardboard tube from the old roll.
5. Roll some of the paper onto the spool so that it will wind
clockwise, facing away from you. Then reinstall the
take-up roll into the top of the printer.
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
6. Be careful to push it all the way back in, so that the
take-up gear on the end of the spool assembly will reengage.
7. When the take-up spool is back in place, again push the
Paper Reroll key; this will remove any slackness in the
paper.
5.4.2 Ink Ribbon
Replacement
Ribbon life will vary greatly from one installation to another
depending on how often the printer has to print. When the characters on the chart become difficult to read, you should replace
the ribbon. If possible, try to replace the ribbon at the same time
you change the paper roll, as it is easier to replace the ribbon
when the roll of paper is out of the way.
Spool
Detecting Lever
Spool Shaft
Print Head
Figure 5-3 Ink Ribbon Replacement
To replace the ribbon:
1. Turn the unit off.
If there is paper in the unit, remove the take-up spool and
unroll enough paper to get it out of the way, so you can
clearly see the two ribbon spools. Each spool has a ribbon-detecting lever pressing against the ribbon. Note the
direction the ribbon leaves the left spool and how it winds
onto the right spool.
2. Grasp one of the spools and rotate it slightly, loosening the
ribbon.
3. Lift gently until the spool comes free from its shaft. Do the
same with the other spool.
4. Lift the chart and take-up spool out of the way and remove
the ink ribbon from the printer mechanism, noting how it
threads through the unit.
5. Thread the new ink ribbon through the printer mechanism.
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
6. Locate the three small pins on each spool of the ink ribbon
and turn the spools so the pins face the gears on the two
ribbon shafts.
7. Replace the two spools on their respective shafts, pushing
the detector levers out of the way so the spools will easily
re-engage their gears.
8. Gently rotate each spool to tighten the ink ribbon. Reinstall the paper take-up roll if necessary.
5.4.3 Do Not Lubricate or
Disassemble
You do not need to oil the printer mechanism. As long as you
keep the lid closed, keep the inside of the cabinet clean, and do
not abuse the printer in any way, it should function normally.
Teledyne Isco recommends you make no attempt to oil or disassemble the mechanism if it malfunctions.
Oil attracts dirt; some oils can become gummy over time and may
cause parts to bind or stick. Do not attempt to disassemble the
printer mechanism, as you may bend or distort the frame or component parts. This will certainly cause malfunction.
Do not force any part of the mechanism with tools or probes. If
you disassemble the flow meter, do not lift the chassis from the
case by holding on to any part of the printer. The internal printer
contains no user-serviceable parts other than the paper and the
ribbon. If the printer needs service, Teledyne Isco recommends
you return the flow meter to the factory.
5.5 Servicing And
Troubleshooting
The remainder of this section provides servicing information and
a general troubleshooting guide. This information will help you
decide whether to attempt to repair the flow meter yourself or
return it to the factory.
Included are sections on removing the flow meter chassis, fuse
replacement, and an explanation of the components of the
bubbler system. There are also general comments on servicing
electronic equipment with special consideration of CMOS circuitry.
5.5.1 Disassembling the
Flow Meter
You can remove the flow meter chassis from the cabinet for
inspection and servicing. Unscrew the four screws, two at the top,
and two at the bottom, that hold the flow meter chassis in the
cabinet. You can then lift the chassis out by inserting the thumb
or index finger from each hand into the upper right and lower left
corners of the opening for the internal printer.
Do not try to lift the flow meter out of its case by holding on to
any part of the printer mechanism. This could bend or distort
part of the printer, possibly damaging it. Once the chassis has
cleared the case, you can hold onto the edges with both hands
and lift it free of the case.
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
Figure 5-4 Lifting the Flow Meter from the Case
Note
If you disassemble the flow meter for servicing, you will also
remove the aluminum chassis covers to access the circuitry.
Always replace these covers when repairs have been completed. The covers protect the circuit boards and also reduce
signal emissions that could interfere with the operation of
nearby electronic equipment. For the same reason, do not
remove any of the ferrite beads or alter the wiring harnesses
inside the cabinet in any way.
5.5.2 Fuse Replacement
With the flow meter chassis out of the cabinet, you can locate and
change fuses. The fuses are located on the printed circuit board
directly behind the keypad. There is an aluminum cover over this
board. Remove the cover by pressing against its surface with the
palm of your hand and then pulling downward on it with your
fingers. A plastic catch under the cover holds it in place. The
fuses are labeled F1, F2, and F3. The proper size for each of
these fuses is:
F1 - 5 amp., fast blow
F2 - 5 amp., fast blow
F3 - 21/2 amp., fast blow
Always replace a blown fuse with one of the same value. Using a
larger value of fuse could cause serious damage to the flow meter
or to its power supply. Replace the protective cover, making sure
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
the two ears on top of the cover slide into the mating slots on the
chassis. There should be a noticeable snap when the plastic catch
re-engages the cover.
Figure 5-5 Location of the Three Fuses
5.5.3 Display Warnings
The LCD will show various warnings and error messages to warn
of problems in the program, or difficulties inside the flow meter.
Some messages request routine maintenance; others point out
programming errors; still others indicate serious internal difficulties.
Following are typical warning messages displayed by the LCD:
CHECK PRINTER FUSE
PRINTER JAMMED
PAPER OUT
5.6 System Reset
If the flow meter does not appear to be operating normally, you
can try to restart the processor by turning the unit off, waiting a
few minutes, and then turning the unit back on. If that does not
work, you can (software) reset the system by pressing both the 4
and Exit Program keys at the same time while the unit is powering up.
Pressing 4 and Exit Program only works when the unit is powering up; it has no effect when the unit is running.
Note
Pressing 4 and Exit Program when powering up will cause
most programmed entries to be lost. Accumulated data stored
in the 4230 will also be lost.
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Section 5 Maintenance and Service
The flow meter will revert to the program originally entered at
the factory. If this operation is performed, it will be necessary for
you to reprogram the unit to meet the specifications of your
installation. For this reason, it may be a good idea to keep a
record of how you programmed the unit. The Print Program
feature will do that for you.
Pressing 4 and Exit Program may leave some values programmed into the flow meter's computer. If you want to remove
all programmed entries, press 1 and Clear Entry when the flow
meter is powering up.
The following messages describe serious internal problems, indicating service is required:
ROM CHECKSUM ERROR - or FOUND BAD RAM - CALL CUSTOMER SERVICE
If these messages appear, the Teledyne Isco Technical Repair
Department should be called for instructions at (800) 775-2695 or
(402) 464-0231.
CAUTION
Do not attempt to disassemble or repair the 4230 Flow Meter
(other than changing fuses) unless you are skilled in the evaluation and repair of microprocessor-based circuitry. Teledyne
Isco recommends no attempt be made to disassemble or
repair the printer mechanism or display module.
5.7 Operation of the
Bubbler System
5.7.1 Internal Air Pump
This system produces the pressurized air supply for the bubbler,
regulates the rate of air to the bubbler tube, measures the
pressure in the bubbler tube, does purge, drift compensation, and
other functions.
A small, high-efficiency pump generates the pressurized air
supply for the bubbler. The suction side of the pump connects to
the outside of the case through the pump inlet port barbed hose
connector. This vent is separate from the other components to
prevent interference from the pumping cycles. The exhaust side
of the pump connects to the air supply tank, which is pressurized
by the pump.
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
Figure 5-6 4230 Bubbler System Pressure Control
A fixed set-point pressure switch monitors air pressure in the
tank. The reference side of this differential pressure switch connects to the bubble line. When the pressure in the tank falls
below 3.5 psig above the water pressure being measured, the
pressure switch turns the pump on for a fixed period of time.
Thus, the system maintains pressure in the tank at approximately 3.5 psig above the current water pressure.
5.7.2 Air Output to Bubble
Line
The output from the air supply tank leads to the bubble line
tubing connector on the side of the case. The bubble line attaches
to the flow meter through this connector. The pressurized air in
the tank can take two possible paths to the bubble line. The
normal route is through the Bubble Rate Adjust valve. This
adjustable, fine-metering valve controls the rate of air escaping
from the bubble line, establishing the bubble rate. The
adjustment knob of this valve is on the outside of the flow meter
case, allowing external adjustment of the bubble rate.
5.7.3 Purge
The other path air can take to reach the bubble line is through
the bypass Purge valve. Purge is an electrically-operated valve.
When this valve turns on, air bypasses the Bubble Rate Adjust
valve and discharges directly into the bubble line. This valve also
opens momentarily to release bursts of air when the pressure
transducer detects a rapidly rising liquid level.
The flow meter normally operates with a battery-saving low
bubble rate, but these air bursts allow fast response to a sharply
rising liquid level. This quick-response feature is called Super
Bubble.
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
AIR PUMP
HYDROPHOBIC FILTER
CHECK VALVE
PRESSURE SENSOR
PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
BUBBLE RATE
ADJUST VALVE
BUBBLE
LINE
AIR TANK
PURGE/SUPER
BUBBLE VALVE
AUTOMATIC DRIFT
COMPENSATION VALVE
Figure 5-7 Schematic Diagram of the Bubbler System
While the purge valve pulses for short cycles to produce the
Super Bubble, it also opens to produce longer discharges of air at
intervals selected from the program, or you can operate it manually through the use of the manual Purge switch on the keypad.
The purpose of the purge feature is to clear deposits from the
bubble line that build up over time and could eventually cause
clogging.
5.7.4 Pressure Transducer
A temperature-compensated solid-state pressure transducer
measures the air pressure in the bubble line. The pressure is proportional to the level. The pressure transducer connects to the
bubble line through the automatic drift compensation valve. The
reference side of this transducer vents to the outside of the case
through the external desiccator. The microprocessor converts the
output from this transducer into level and flow rate.
5.7.5 Automatic Drift
Compensation Valve
This valve, located directly across both ports of the pressure
transducer, turns on at power-up and from time to time after that
to tie the input and reference ports of the transducer together to
compensate for any drift that might occur. The software determines how often this valve turns on.
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
5.8 Preliminary
Troubleshooting Steps
CAUTION
Do not attempt to disassemble or repair the 4230 Flow Meter
(other than changing fuses) unless you are skilled in the evaluation and repair of microprocessor-based circuitry. Teledyne
Isco recommends no attempt be made to disassemble or
repair the printer mechanism or display module.
The electronic circuitry of the 4230 is solid-state and its reliability is high. If the unit should fail to operate properly, the
problem is most likely a mechanical failure. Items such as a
broken or intermittent connection in the power cable or wiring
harness or (rarely) poor electrical connection through keypad
switches should be suspected.
5.8.1 If Serious Problems
Occur
If you suspect an electronic problem, Teledyne Isco strongly recommends that you call the Teledyne Isco Technical Repair
Department. (800) 775-2965 or (402) 464-0231 outside the
U.S.A. The service department will advise you on how to return
the 4230 to the factory for servicing.
The Technical Repair Department has trained technicians and
specially-designed equipment necessary for timely, efficient
repair of the 4230 Flow Meter. If you still wish to attempt
repairs, the Technical Repair Department is available to provide
additional advice and information on servicing.
5.8.2 Processor
When attempting to isolate problems within the unit, you should
assume that the CPU and memory are working properly until
attempts to find problems in the peripheral circuitry have been
exhausted.
This is for two reasons: First, the likelihood of failure is far
greater on transistor drive circuits (heavier currents are handled
here), than on the CPU or memory. Second, it is doubtful that the
repair facility would have the time or equipment to do worthwhile troubleshooting (beyond exchanging components) on the
CPU or memory.
When the unit does not work, do not automatically assume the
CPU is at fault. Following are suggested areas to check before
attempting to service the CPU and associated circuitry. Telephone consultation with Teledyne Isco Technical Service is
strongly recommended. Look for the following:
1. First verify that the problem is in the flow meter and not
caused by the bubble line, power supply, or any other
equipment connected to the flow meter.
The flow meter could be all right and will appear not to
work because of a clogged or leaking tube or other component; check these first.
2. Check to see if any fuses are blown
3. Check the battery or power supply.
Proper voltage to the unit should be from 10.5 to 14.5 VDC.
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4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
If the unit is powered from the AC supply, make sure the
branch circuit is delivering at least 110 VAC to the power
supply cord.
4. Check the wiring harnesses, connectors, and solder joints.
Under normal conditions, these should stay in good condition. However, abuse or operation of the unit with the door
open or the desiccator saturated could cause corrosion of
the connectors in certain atmospheres.
5. Look for physical damage.
Burnt or broken components, overly hot components, stuck
or inoperative switches, or the evidence of water damage,
again brought about by neglect or abuse, may be apparent
if you look closely.
6. Look for shorted or open diodes and transistors, especially
driver transistors.
7. Check the voltage regulators.
The output voltage from the regulators should be within
5% of their rated value. Check to see that rated voltages
are available at various places on the boards.
8. Look for excessive current draw from some or all the circuitry.
This will usually be accompanied by an unusual amount of
heat coming from some component or group of components,
and the voltage on the power rails may be depressed.
9. Make sure the air pump and associated circuitry are functioning correctly.
Check both the electronic and pneumatic circuits. A leaky
piece of tubing will seriously affect accuracy.
10. Check to see that the crystal oscillator is operating and at
the proper frequency.
11. Check the reset circuitry to see that it is working properly.
5.9 Precautions for
Servicing CMOS
Circuitry
Most of the circuitry in the 4230 Flow Meter is made up of CMOS
components. Because of the oxide gate structure of these devices,
they are extremely susceptible to destruction caused by the discharge of static electricity through their inputs.
Many of the driver transistors in the 4230 are power MOS
devices; they are just as susceptible to static damage as CMOS
ICs are. Because of this risk, certain precautions must be taken
when working on these circuits.
5.9.1 Hazard of Static
Electricity
The voltage levels present from static buildup due to walking
over carpeted floors, movement of woolen or synthetic clothes
over chair seats, workbenches, etc., are high enough to destroy
CMOS circuitry when performing repair work.
Ideally, all tools, soldering irons, etc., should be grounded, and
work should be conducted on a grounded metal workbench, with
grounding straps worn on the wrists of personnel. It is recognized that in most field repair situations, such precautions are
impractical. However, certain extreme hazards must be avoided.
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4230 Flow Meter
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• Never perform any work in a room with a carpeted floor.
• Always roll up your sleeves so that your arms are in
contact with the working surface.
• Avoid using a work surface made of an extremely good
insulator.
Plastic or glass are good insulators and should be
avoided. A metal surface is best; a wood surface is
acceptable. Conductive grounding mats are available for
work stations and are worthwhile if much repair is to be
done.
• The degree of hazard depends on the level of humidity.
Be particularly careful if the work area is extremely dry,
or if the work is being done in the winter, when indoor
forced heating and outdoor low temperatures cause the
relative humidity level to be very low.
• Keep yourself grounded when handling disassembled
equipment.
When arriving at the work area, after a unit has been
opened for repair, make an effort to always be touching
the metal chassis before touching any of the circuit
components.
• Be especially careful handling the CMOS integrated
circuits when they are removed from the rest of the
circuitry.
Simply being connected to the rest of the circuitry
provides some protection. Most of the circuitry is
well-protected from damage caused by static discharge
when the unit is powered up. However, an IC should
never be replaced when the unit is turned on.
• Individual CMOS semiconductors and built-up printed
circuit boards should always be transported in
conductive packaging.
Foil is satisfactory; metallized plastic bags are also
available and work well. Ordinary plastic bags and pink
poly are not satisfactory unless the legs or leads are also
stuck into a block of black conductive foam. If
replacement components that are purchased do not
come in marked, protective packaging, do not use them.
They may already be destroyed.
• Once assembled and soldered, printed circuit boards are
easily damaged by improper repair procedures.
Do not attempt to remove components, particularly ICs,
from printed circuit boards unless skilled at this
procedure. A defective component may be located,
changed, and the unit still not work, if excessive heat or
pressure has broken the foil traces or pulled the cores
from holes on the board.
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5.10 Using FLASH UPDATE
Teledyne Isco manufactures a number of instruments - 4100
Series Flow Loggers, 4200 Series Flow Meters, and 6700 Series
Samplers - that use circuitry based on FLASH EPROMs. Unlike
earlier EPROMs that require UV erasure and were not easily
field replaced, the FLASH EPROM lets you upgrade the software
in the instrument without opening the unit or returning it to the
factory. You can now update the software with a disk from
Teledyne Isco, an IBM®-compatible personal computer and a
connect cable.
The disk contains UPDATE, a program specifically for flash
memories, and a set of software files to update the FLASH
EPROM.
Each disk is labeled with:
• The instrument series number
• The software revision number for each instrument in
the series
• The part number of the disk
5.10.1 Getting Started
The following instructions assume that:
• You have had some experience using the computer.
• You have a Computer Connect Cable. If you do not have
the cable, order it from your sales representative or the
factory. For more detailed information about hardware
requirements, see Table 5-1 on page 5-20.
• You are familiar with Microsoft® Windows®. FLASH
UPDATE uses the standard Windows user-interface for
mouse and keyboard commands. If you are unfamiliar
with DOS or Windows, please read your DOS or
Windows user manuals.
5.10.2 Before Running FLASH
UPDATE
The windows in FLASH UPDATE contain all the instructions
you need to update the instrument. However, there are a few
things to consider before running the program.
• Updating your instrument erases the data stored
in its memory. This includes all readings and most of
the program settings. FLASH UPDATE replaces most
program settings with factory settings. Before running
the program, collect the data and record your program
settings. Then, after updating the software, reprogram
the instrument.
• If you have Flowlink, Teledyne Isco strongly
recommends using it to update 4200 Series Flow
Meters. Flowlink lets you collect the data stored in the
instrument before updating the software. It also leaves
the program settings in the instrument unchanged,
eliminating the need to reprogram them. Then Flowlink
updates the software, it uses the update files on the
FLASH UPDATE disk and disregards the FLASH
UPDATE program. Refer to the Flowlink Help files for
5-17
4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
more information. Use FLASH UPDATE only if you do
not have Flowlink available.
• The instructions in the following section, Running
FLASH UPDATE, assume you are running the program
from the update disk. However, you may prefer to copy
the disk’s contents to your hard disk. Before copying the
disk, create a new directory for the FLASH UPDATE
program and the update files. The program and the
update files must be in the same directory. Furthermore,
that directory must be the current directory when you
run the program.
If you receive several update disks over time, copy the update
files and the program when copying the contents of a disk. This
ensures that you have a current version of FLASH UPDATE as
well as the new update files. Depending on your selection in the
preferences window, you may see the window in the margin (left)
listing all files in the directory. This window appears only when
the directory or disk contains more than one version of the
update files and the Preferences option for Show Update File is
“All Update Files.” (See About Preferences.)
5.10.3 Running FLASH
UPDATE
1. Connect the Computer Connect Cable to your computer’s
serial port and the instrument’s interrogator connector
(marked with the Interrogator icon).
2. Insert the update disk in the floppy disk drive.
3. Change the DOS prompt to the floppy disk letter prefix.
4. At the DOS command line, type: FLASHLD. The first window in FLASH UPDATE will be the Introduction window.
Read it carefully before continuing.
Interrogator Icon
5.10.4 About Preferences
FLASH UPDATE has a set of factory settings that appear in
Figure 5-10. Change them when your computer requires different settings.
To change preference settings:
1. Click Cancel in the Introduction window.
2. Select Preferences from the Options menu. The notes in
Figure 5-10 explain the selections in the window. When you
have selected your preferences, select OK.
Select Update Software from the Options menu, and follow the
instructions in each window.
5-18
4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
This window
appears only when the directory or disk contains more than one version
of the update files and the Preferences option for Show Update File is “all
Update Files.” It lists the update files in the directory. The first four numbers in the file name are the instrument’s model number. The numbers
following the “V” are the software version. If several versions appear in
the window, select the version with the highest number unless otherwise
instructed by Teledyne Isco Technical Service.
Figure 5-8 Update File Menu
Options Menu
Figure 5-9 Options Menu
Select the COM port that corresponds
to the serial port used for the Computer
Connect Cable.
Select Newest Version to see only the
most recent update files in a directory.
Select All Update Files to see all update
files.
Select the color scheme that best
matches your monitor.
Figure 5-10 Preferences Window
5-19
4230 Flow Meter
Section 5 Maintenance and Service
Table 5-1 Minimum DOS and Computer Hardware Requirements
DOS
DOS 3.3 or later versions
DOS 5.0 or later versions recommended.
Microsoft Windows not required.
CPU
80286, 80386, 80486
IBM PC or compatible. 80386 or 80486 recommended.
(Must operate at 19,200 baud when communicating through
the serial port.)
640 kilobytes RAM (Random
Access Memory), minimum
Serial port
Keyboard
Any compatible keyboard
Hard disk
Not required.
Floppy disk
31/2-inch floppy drive
(1.44 mega bytes)
At least one floppy disk drive.
Monitor
LCD, Gray Scale, Color, or
Monochrome
IBM CGA, EGA, or VGA compatible.
Mouse
Microsoft®-compatible
mouse
Optional. Mouse recommended.
Cabling
Isco Computer Connect
Cable
(9-pin: part #60-2544-044)
For connecting the computer to flow meters,
flow loggers, or samplers.
(25-pin: part #60-2544-040)
5-20
For connecting the computer to Isco flow
meters, flow loggers,
or samplers.
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix A Accessories and Replacement Parts
A.1 Replacement Parts
The following section contains illustrations and corresponding
tables of 4230 Flow Meter replacement parts. A list of accessories
and optional equipment can be found at the end of this section.
Replacement parts can be purchased by contacting Teledyne
Isco’s Customer Service Department.
Teledyne Isco, Inc.
Customer Service Department
P.O. Box 82531
Lincoln, NE 68501 USA
Phone: (800) 228-4373
(402) 464-0231
FAX:(402) 465-3022
E-mail:IscoInfo@teledyne.com
A-1
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix A Accessories and Replacement Parts
A-2
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix A Accessories and Replacement Parts
A-3
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix A Accessories and Replacement Parts
A-4
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix A Accessories and Replacement Parts
DRAWING NO: 60-3233-144
REVISION: F
SHEET 4 of 6
EFFECTIVE DATE: 05196
REPLACEMENT PARTS LIST
ITEM
NUMBER
PART
NUMBER
1
60-1704-017
CARRYING HANDLE ASSEMBLY
2
60-3213-255
WALL MOUNT
3
109-0605-01
DRAW LATCH ASSEMBLY, SMALL
4
60-3233-139
EXTERNAL DESICCANT TUBE
5
231-0197-04
SELF SEALING SCREW 10-32 X ¼
6
60-3213-310
CONNECTOR PROTECTOR CAP, SMALL
7
60-3213-308
CONNECTOR CAP GASKET, SMALL
8
60-3113-024
CONNECTOR PROTECTOR CAP, MEDIUM
9
60-3113-032
CONNECTOR CAP GASKET, MEDIUM
10
60-3213-311
CONNECTOR PROTECTOR CAP, LARGE
11
60-3213-309
CONNECTOR CAP GASKET, LARGE
12
60-9003-291
CONNECTOR CAP STRAP
13
209-0090-07
METERING VALVE
14
60-3233-033
BUBBLE RATE ADJUSTMENT VALVE GASKET
15
60-3233-021
HOSE BARB
16
60-3233-014
AIR FITTING
17
202-1000-10
O RING .240 ID X .070 CROSS SECTION
18
60-3233-015
FITTING NUT
19
60-3233-121
CONNECTOR LABEL
20
60-3234-067
CASE BOTTOM SUB ASSEMBLY, GRAY
21
099-0012-00
DESICCANT DRI-CAN CANNISTER
22
60-3233-106
DESICCANT CAN HOLDER
23
60-3213-060
PRINTER LABEL
24
60-3213-261
DOOR GASKET
25
60-3214-141
CASE LATCH ASSEMBLY
26
60-3113-034
LATCH PIN
27
66-4230-006
REPLACEMENT LID
28
60-3213-259
WINDOW
29
60-3213-260
4200 CASE LID GASKET
Notes:
1.
2.
DESCRIPTION
For current prices and quotations on parts, contact the Isco Customer Service Department.
This list is subject to change without notice.
A-5
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix A Accessories and Replacement Parts
DRAWING NO: 60-3233-144
REVISION: F
SHEET 5 of 6
EFFECTIVE DATE: 05196
REPLACEMENT PARTS LIST
ITEM
NUMBER
PART
NUMBER
30
60-3233-099
HINGE PIN
31
60-9004-282
DESICCANT CARTRIDGE ASSEMBLY
32
142-2004-00
SPRING CLIP
33
60-3214-120
12VDC/SAMPLER WIRING ASSEMBLY
34
202-4001-14
O RING .612 ID X .103 CROSS SECTION
35
202-4001-18
O RING .862 ID X .103 CROSS SECTION
36
60-3214-140
RAIN GAUGE WIRING ASSEMBLY
37
60-3214-122
INTERROGATOR WIRING ASSEMBLY
38
60-9003-031
CONNECTOR HOLE PLUG
39
60-3214-125
PARAMETER WIRING ASSEMBLY
40
202-4001-20
O RING .987 ID X .103 CROSS SECTION
41
60-3234-022
SUPPLY SPOOL ASSEMBLY
42
60-3213-229
SPOOL END CAP
43
60-3234-023
REROLL SPOOL ASSEMBLY
44
60-2313-005
PRINTER PAPER CORE
45
239-0416-32
SHEET EDGE FASTENER, 6-32
46
60-3214-139
CHART DRIVE MOTOR ASSEMBLY
47
60-3214-159
PRINTER SUB ASSEMBLY
48
60-3214-093
BACKLIT LCD MODULE ASSEMBLY
49
109-0609-00
CABINET CATCH, WHITE
50
60-3214-098
CIRCUIT BOARD ASSEMBLY, KEYBOARD
51
60-3234-052
CIRCUIT BOARD ASSEMBLY, 4230 AMPLIFIER
52
60-3239-002
KIT, 4230 CPU REPLACEMENT
53
60-3223-009
BULKHEAD NUT
54
202-1000-14
O RING .489 ID X .070 CROSS SECTION
55
60-3223-010
BULKHEAD FITTING
56
209-0166-65
ELBOW, 1/8 NPT TO ¼” ID, NYLON
57
306-1000-00
MICRO-DIAPHRAGM PUMP, 12VDC
58
60-3234-060
CIRCUIT BOARD ASSEMBLY, 4230 SENSOR
Notes:
1.
2.
A-6
DESCRIPTION
For current prices and quotations on parts, contact the Isco Customer Service Department.
This list is subject to change without notice.
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix A Accessories and Replacement Parts
DRAWING NO: 60-3233-144
REVISION: F
SHEET 6 of 6
EFFECTIVE DATE: 05196
REPLACEMENT PARTS LIST
ITEM
NUMBER
PART
NUMBER
59
410-9099-06
PRESSURE SENSOR, 2 PORT DIFFERENTIAL
60
209-0095-04
SOLENOID VALVE 12VDC
61
299-0015-08
BOTTLE, 8 OZ, WITH CAP, NALGENE
62
209-0093-03
HYDROPHOBIC FILTER, UNIDIRECTIONAL
63
209-0096-12
CHECK VALVE, .5 PSI, .125 TUBING
64
142-2003-00
COMPONENT CLIP, ¾”
65
60-3233-120
CASE TOP LABEL
Notes:
1.
2.
DESCRIPTION
For current prices and quotations on parts, contact the Isco Customer Service Department.
This list is subject to change without notice.
A-7
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix A Accessories and Replacement Parts
A.2 Accessories
The following section lists optional equipment and accessories for
the 4230 flow meter.
Model 4230 Basic Unit, 68-4230-001
Includes:
Bubble Line 1/16" ID × 25’ Teflon.............................................................................................. 60-1873-051
Stainless Steel Bubble Tube .................................................................................................... 60-1704-018
4230 Flow Meter....................................................................................................................... 60-3234-048
Accessory Package .................................................................................................................... 60-3234-050
Instruction Manual .................................................................................................................. 60-3234-051
Pocket Guide ............................................................................................................................. 60-3233-102
Caution Tag .............................................................................................................................. 60-3003-256
Dri-Can Desiccant .................................................................................................................... 099-0012-00
Flow Data Handbook................................................................................................................ 60-3003-041
Basic Unit with Vinyl Bubble Line, 68-4230-002
Includes:
Bubble Line 1/8" ID × 50’ Vinyl................................................................................................. 60-1873-044
Stainless Steel Bubble Tube .................................................................................................... 60-1873-043
4230 Flow Meter....................................................................................................................... 60-3234-048
4230 Flow Meter Only.............................................................................................................. 60-3234-049
4230 Accessories
4230 Flow Meter Instruction Manual ..................................................................................... 60-3234-051
4230 Flow Meter Pocket Guide................................................................................................ 60-3233-102
Bubble Line, 1/16" ID × 25’ Teflon............................................................................................. 60-1873-051
Bubble Line, 1/8" ID × 50’ Vinyl................................................................................................ 60-1873-044
Bubble Line, 1/8" ID × 100’ Vinyl.............................................................................................. 68-1700-003
4’ Stainless Steel Bubble Tubes (attach to bubble line outlet)
(For use with the 1/16" ID Teflon Bubble Line) ............................................................. 60-1704-018
(For use with the 1/8" ID Vinyl Bubble Line) ................................................................ 60-1873-043
Supplemental Desiccant Cartridge ......................................................................................... 60-3244-059
Reference Port Tubing 10’ ×1/4" ID Vinyl................................................................................. 60-2703-111
Reference Port Tubing 25’ × 1/4" ID Vinyl................................................................................ 60-2703-112
Bubbler Tube Retainer Assembly (includes carrier and stainless bubble outlet)
(Allows installation in round pipes with Isco Mounting Rings, 1/8" ID Vinyl only)... 60-3204-007
6" Flow Metering Insert with Pump and Poles (handle extensions) ..................................... 68-3230-005
8" Flow Metering Insert with Pump and Poles....................................................................... 68-3230-006
10" Flow Metering Insert with Pump and Poles..................................................................... 68-3230-007
12" Flow Metering Insert with Pump and Poles..................................................................... 68-3230-008
6" Flow Metering Insert ........................................................................................................... 60-3234-031
8" Flow Metering Insert ........................................................................................................... 60-3234-032
10" Flow Metering Insert ......................................................................................................... 60-3234-033
A-8
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix A Accessories and Replacement Parts
12" Flow Metering Insert ......................................................................................................... 60-3234-034
Flow Metering Insert Pump Assembly.................................................................................... 60-3234-024
Pole Section Assembly.............................................................................................................. 60-2814-046
Flow Poke Pump Conversion Package..................................................................................... 60-3234-043
Flow Poke Insert Conversion Package .................................................................................... 68-3230-011
Flow Metering Insert Instruction Manual.............................................................................. 60-3234-064
Other
High-Low Alarm Relay Box ..................................................................................................... 60-3404-028
4-20 mA Output Interface........................................................................................................ 60-1784-039
674 Rain Gauge (0.01") ............................................................................................................ 60-3284-001
Chart Roller .............................................................................................................................. 60-3004-156
Spreader Bar............................................................................................................................. 60-3004-110
pH Probe and 201 pH Module (25 ft. cable standard) (Includes
probe, built-in temperature sensor) .......................................................................................... 68-4200-002
pH Probe only ........................................................................................................................... 60-9004-126
D.O. Probe only ......................................................................................................................... 472-0000-00
D.O. Membrane Kit (Includes 30, 0.002” membranes,
electrolyte, sanding tool and disks) .......................................................................................... 479-0020-02
O-Ring Kit for D. O. Probe ....................................................................................................... 479-0020-00
Temperature Probe only........................................................................................................... 60-3214-130
Isco Sampler to Flow Meter Connect Cable - 25 ft. ................................................................ 60-3004-107
External 12VDC Source Connect Cable- 6 ft. ......................................................................... 60-1394-023
YSI 600 Sonde with pH, D.O., conductivity, temperature sensors, and 25 ft. cable ............. 68-0600-111
Note: Item 68-0600-111 includes a YSI-to-Isco 4200/6700 adapter cable, calibration/transport cup, 1#
stainless steel nose weight, and YSI instruction manual. Many other configurations of the YSI 600
Sonde are available without either the pH and/or D.O. sensors, or supplied with 50, 100, or 200 ft.
cables. Also available is a low ionic strength pH sensor for use in streams with very low conductivity
(10μS/cm or less). Call the factory for more information.
YSI 600 Accessories
D.O. Sensor Maintenance Supplies
D.O. Probe membrane and electrolyte kit (30 membranes, 30 mL KCl soln., 2 O-rings)..... 60-0603-205
D.O. Probe reconditioning kit (Instructions and sanding disks)............................................ 60-0603-206
Calibration Solutions – Conductivity Sensor – 1 Quart
1 mS/cm..................................................................................................................................... 60-0603-207
10 mS/cm................................................................................................................................... 60-0603-208
100 mS/cm................................................................................................................................. 60-0603-209
Calibration Solutions – Boxes of 8, 1-Pint Containers
1 mS/cm..................................................................................................................................... 60-0603-210
10 mS/cm................................................................................................................................... 60-0603-211
50 mS/cm................................................................................................................................... 60-0603-212
A-9
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix A Accessories and Replacement Parts
Miscellaneous – for use with the YSI Sonde
Calibration/Transport Bottle Kit............................................................................................. 60-0603-216
Carrying Case for YSI 600, cables, accessories, tools ............................................................. 60-0603-217
YSI 600 Instruction Manual .................................................................................................... 60-0603-218
YSI 600 to Isco 4200/6700 Adapter Cable ............................................................................... 60-0604-001
YSI 600 and Isco 674 Rain Gauge Y-Connect Cable............................................................... 60-0604-002
(This cable allows use of the YSI 600 Sonde and the Isco 674 Rain Gauge at the same time.)
Use the following with Isco Mounting Rings in Round Pipe Installations
Probe Carrier for Temperature probe ..................................................................................... 60-3204-010
Probe Carrier for pH probe with internal temperature sensor.............................................. 60-3208-001
Probe Carrier for D.O. probe and separate Temperature probe ............................................ 60-3204-006
Spring Rings
Probe Mounting Ring for 6" pipe ............................................................................................. 60-3200-007
Probe Mounting Ring for 8" pipe ............................................................................................. 60-3200-008
Probe Mounting Ring for 10" pipe ........................................................................................... 60-3200-009
Probe Mounting Ring for 12" pipe ........................................................................................... 60-3200-010
Probe Mounting Ring for 15" pipe ........................................................................................... 60-3200-011
Scissors Ring
(for Pipes 16" diameter and larger)
Base Section (with tabs for mounting up to five probes)........................................................ 60-3004-171
Scissors Assembly..................................................................................................................... 60-3004-170
Extension 1 (9.0") ..................................................................................................................... 60-3004-172
Extension 2 (21.5") ................................................................................................................... 60-3004-173
Extension 3 (31.5") ................................................................................................................... 60-3004-174
Extension 4 (41.5") ................................................................................................................... 60-3004-175
Note that Scissors Ring Assemblies will require a base and scissors section for all sizes. Sizes from 21"
to 80" will also require two or more extension sections.
A-10
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix B Programming Worksheets
Use this form to make a hard copy of the program you use in your
4230. Most program steps can be completed in the shop without
the flow meter being installed or at the job site. However, please
note the following:
• Do not attempt to fill out this sheet without first
studying the manual, especially Section 2 Programming.
This section describes the program in detail and offers
reasons you might choose one option over another. This
is particularly so for those using the flow meter for the
first time. Keep this chart as a record. For steps where a
space is not provided on the sheet, underline or circle
your choices.
• Some of the menus shown on this sheet may not appear
on your flow meter. The reason is that you must make
choices from the first step forward that will prevent you
from choosing other options later on. Options can appear
at several points of the program. However, menus
pertaining to the options not chosen early on will not
appear later. An example is the alarm dial-out feature.
This step requires your flow meter to have the optional
modem. If you do not have the modem, no menus
concerning dialout will appear.
• If, after filling out this chart, you cannot make some
menus appear that you need, recheck your early steps to
see that you have not accidentally locked yourself out of
a path by an incorrect early selection.
• If you only need to program the flow meter once, you can
write on this sheet. If you are doing temporary surveys,
or expect the program to change, make copies of these
sheets and write on the copies.
B.1 Setup
1. Select Option: Program, Setup. First, choose Setup and
work through the following menus.
2. Year/ Month/ Day/ Hour/ Min___________________
3. Site I.D. _______ (Any three-digit number)
4. Measurement Setup: Level Reading Interval, Minimum
Depth, D.O./pH Reading Interval
5. Purge Interval: 5 min, 10 Min,
15 Min, 30 Min, 1 Hour__________
6. Super Bubble Mode: On, Off___________________
7. D.O./ph Reading Interval: Continuous, 15 Sec, 30 Sec,
1Min, 2 Min, 5 Min
B-1
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix B Programming Worksheets
8. YSI 600 Reading Interval: Continuous, 15 Sec, 30 Sec,
1Min, 2 Min, 5 Min
9. Level Enable/Alarm: Hysteresis ________Feet (Or Meters)
10. Flow Rate Enable/Alarm Hysteresis _______Units______
11. Temperature Enable/Alarm Hysteresis ______Deg. F (C)
12. pH Enable/Alarm Hysteresis ________pH units.
13. D.O. Enable/Alarm Hysteresis ________ppm.
14. YSI-pH Enable/Alarm Hysteresis ________pH units.
15. YSI-D.O. Enable/Alarm Hysteresis ________ppm/mg./L
16. YSI-Conductivity Enable /Alarm Hysteresis_______mS/cm
17. YSI-Temperature Enable/Alarm Hysteresis______Deg.
18. Optional Outputs: 4-20 Ma Output, Serial Output, Alarm
Box, Mechanical Totalizer
19. Report Setup, Report A: Flow, D.O./pH, YSI 600, Sample
History, Flow Meter History
20. Level In Report: Yes, No
21. Flow Rate In Report: Yes, No
22. Rainfall In Report: Yes, No
23. pH or D.O. In Report: Yes, No
24. Temperature In Report: Yes, No
25. YSI 600 Data in Report: Yes, No
26. Sample History In Report: Yes, No
27. Flow Meter History In Report: Yes, No
28. Report Setup, Report B: Flow, D.O./pH, YSI 600, Sample
History, Flow Meter History
29. Level In Report: Yes, No
30. Flow Rate In Report: Yes, No
31. Rainfall In Report: Yes, No
32. pH or D.O. In Report: Yes, No
33. Temperature In Report: Yes, No
34. YSI 600 Data in Report: Yes, No
35. Sample History In Report: Yes, No
36. Setup Options: Status, Report Setup, LCD Backlight
37. LCD Backlight Mode: Time-out, Continuous, Off
38. Language: English, French, German, Spanish
39. Program Lock: On, Off
40. Select Option: Program, Setup. This time, select Program
and do the following (Program Section)
41. Units Of Level Measure: Ft., In, M, mm, Not Measured
42. Flow Rate Units of Measure: GPS, GPM, GPH, MGD, CFS,
CFM, CFH, CFD, LPS, M3S, M3M, M3H, M3D, AFD
43. Totalized Volume Units: GAL, MGAL, CF, L, M3, AF
B-2
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix B Programming Worksheets
44. Rain Gauge: Inches, MM, Not Measured
45. pH Units Of Measure: pH, Not Measured
46. D. O. Units: MG/L, PPM, Not Measured
47. Temperature Units: Deg F, Deg. C, (Not Measured)
48. YSI-pH Units Of Measure: pH, Not Measured
49. YSI-D.O. Units: MG/L, PPM, Not Measured
50. YSI-Conductivity Parameter: Specific Conductivity, Salinity, Conductivity, T.D. S.
________Units________Coeff._______
51. YSI-Temperature: Deg F, Deg. C, (Not Measured)
B.2 Flow Conversion:
Level-to-Flow Rate
1. Flow Conversion Type: Weir/flume, Equation, Manning,
Data Points,
2. Type Of Device: Weir, Flume
3. Select Type Of Weir: V-notch, Rectangular, Cipolletti
4. Select V-notch Weir Angle (In Degrees): 22.5, 30, 45, 60, 90,
120,
5. End Contractions On Rectangular Weir: Yes, No
6. Rect. Weir With End Contractions: Enter Crest Length
___._____ Feet (or meters)
7. Cipolletti Weir: Enter Crest Length___._____Feet (or
meters)
8. Type Of Flume: Palmer-Bowlus, Parshall, Trapezoidal, H,
HS, HL, Leopold-Lagco
9. Palmer-Bowlus Size: 4", 6", 8", 9", 10", 12", 15", 18", 21",
24", 27", 30", 48"
10. Parshall Size: 1", 2", 3", 6", 9", 1.0', 1.5', 2.0', 3', 4', 5', 6', 8',
10', 12’'
11. Trapez. Size: LG 60 V, 2" 45 WSC, 45 SRCRC, XL 60
12. Flume Size:.5',.75', 1', 2', 2.5' 3', 4.5'
13. HS Flume Size: 0.4', 0.5', 0.6', 0.8', 1.0
14. HL Flume Size: 2.0', 2.5', 3.0', 3.5', 4.0
15. Leopold-Lagco Flume Size: 4", 6", 8", 10", 12", 15", 18", 21",
24”, 30”
16. Enter Equation Units: Q = ___.___H^___ + ___.___H^___
(Q = kHP1 + kHP2)
(Note that if your equation does not have a second term,
(kHP2), just enter 0 (zero) for it.)
17. Manning Types: Round Pipe, U-channel, Rectangular,
Trapezoid
18. Mann. Round Pipe: Slope = _.______Rough = _.______
19. Mann. Round Pipe: Diameter = _.___Feet (or meters)
20. Mann. U-channel: Slope = __.____Rough = __.____
21. Mann. U-channel: Width = __.____ Feet (or meters)
B-3
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix B Programming Worksheets
22. Mann. Rectangular: Slope = __.____ Rough = __.____
23. Mann. Rectangular: Width = __.____ Feet (or meters)
24. Mann. Trapezoid: Slope = __.____ Rough = __.____
25. Mann. Trapezoid: Top Width = __.____ Feet (or meters)
26. Mann. Trapez.: Bottom Width = __.____ Feet (or meters)
27. Select Data Set: One, Two, Three, Four, (None)
28. Level Units For Data Point Entry: Ft., In, M, Mm
29. Flow Rate Units: GPM, GPS, MGD, CFS, CFM, M3S, M3H,
M3D, LPS, CFD, GPH, AFD, CFH, CFM, M3M
30. Set __(1-4): (0) Points Entered: Add Point, (units)
31. Set 1 Data Point 1: Enter: __.____ (level units) __.____ (volume units)
32. Set __(1-4): __(1-50) Pointes Entered: (Use), Edit Point,
Add Point, Clear, Print_________________________
33. Set__(1-4) Data Point __(1-50) Enter: __.___(level units)
__.___(volume units)
Enter data points in the table below. If you have multiple data
point sets, photocopy this table.
Data Point Set
Level
Flow
Level
Flow
Level
Flow
Level
Flow
34. Flow Metering Inserts: Select Weir/Orifice Type: V-notch,
Round________________________________
35. Select Insert size: 6”, 8”, 10”, 12”___________________
Enter Maximum Head
36. Maximum Flow: ___._____ (units of measure)
B-4
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix B Programming Worksheets
B.3 Parameter to Adjust
1. Parameter To Adjust: None, Level, pH, D.O., YSI 600
2. (Job Site only) Enter Current Level: __.____ Ft (or M).
Note: Installations generally use either the Teledyne Isco
parameter probes or the YSI 600 Sonde, but not both. Use
the following menus for either the Teledyne Isco probes or
the YSI 600 Sonde. Steps 3, 4, and 5 can be used for both 2
and 3-point pH calibrations.
3. Rinse Probe And Place In 4.0 pH Solution: Press Enter
When Stable __.____ pH (job site only)
4. Rinse Probe And Place In 7.0 pH Solution: Press Enter
When Stable __.____ pH (job site only)
5. Rinse Probe And Place In 10.0 pH Solution: Press Enter
When Stable __.____ pH (job site only)
6. (YSI 600 D.O. Calibration only): D.O. Standard, Absolute
Barometric Pressure, Altitude
7. Altitude Units Of Measure: Ft., M (D.O. probe only)___ (job
site only)
8. (D.O. only) Enter Altitude: Altitude = _______ Feet (or
meters, at job site only)
9. Wrap D.O. Probe In Moist Cloth: Press Enter When Stable:
__.____ MG/L (at job site only)
10. Conductivity Calibration Units: Ms/cm, Ppt__________
11. Place Probe In ______Ms/cm. (or ppt) Press Enter When
Stable: _______Ms/cm (at job site only)
12. YSI 600 Dissolved Oxygen Calibration: D.O. Standard,
Absolute Barometric Pressure, Altitude
B.4 Reset Totalizer
1. Reset Totalizer: Yes, No
2. Enable Totalizer ______CF (or other units)_______
3. Reset Sampler Enable Totalizer: Yes, No
B.5 Sampler Pacing
1. Sampler Pacing: Disable, (Volume), (Flowlink), Conditional
2. Sampler Pacing: Enter Pacing Volume __.____ CF
3. Condition: Level, Flow Rate, Rainfall, D.O., pH, Temperature, YSI pH, YSI D.O., YSI Conductivity, YSI Temperature
4. Condition: Greater Than, Less Than, Rate Of Change
5. Select Operator: Done, Or, And
6. Condition True Pacing Interval: Pace Every _____ Minutes.
7. Condition False Pacing Interval: Pace Every _____ Minutes.
B.6 Sampler Enable
1. Sampler Enable Mode: Disable, Enable, Conditional,
(Storm), (Flowlink)
2. Level: Greater Than __.____ Feet (or meters)
3. Rainfall Amount: __.____ Inches (other units)
B-5
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix B Programming Worksheets
4. Rainfall Time Period: 15 Min, 30 Min, 1 Hr, 2 Hr, 4 Hr, 6
Hr, 8 Hr, 12 Hr, 24 Hr, 48 Hr, 72 Hr
5. Time Since Last Rainfall: Days: ______ (enter 1 to 7)
6. Condition: Level, Flow Rate, D.O., pH, Temperature, Rainfall, YSI pH, YSI D.O., YSI Conductivity, YSI Temperature
7. Level: Greater Than, Less Than, Rate Of Change
8. Level: Greater Than __.____ Feet (or meters)
9. Select Operator: Done, Or, And
10. Flow Rate: Greater Than, Less Than, Rate Of Change
11. When Enable Condition Is No Longer Met: Disable Sampler, Keep Enabled
12. Enable Currently Latched, Reset: No, Yes
13. Printer On/off With Enable: Yes, No
B.7 Alarm Dialout Mode
You must have a modem installed in the flow meter for
any of these menus to appear.
1. Alarm Dialout: Disable, Conditional, Storm, Flowlink
2. Level: Greater Than __.____ Feet.
3. Rainfall Amount: __.____ Inches (other units)
4. Rainfall Time Period: 15 Min, 30 Min, 1 Hr, 2 Hr, 4 Hr, 6
Hr, 8 Hr, 12 Hr, 24 Hr, 48 Hr, 72 Hr
5. Time Since Last Rainfall: Days: ______ (allowable 1-7)
6. Condition: Level, Flow Rate, D.O., pH, Temperature, Rainfall, YSI pH, YSI DO, YSI Conductivity, YSI Temperature
7. Condition: Greater Than, Less Than, Rate Of Change
8. Select Operator: Done, Or, And
9. Alarm Dial-out Numbers: Done, Num. 1, Num. 2, Num. 3,
Num. 4, Num. 5
10. First Phone Number:
11. Second Phone Number:
12. Third Phone Number:
13. Fourth Phone Number:
14. Fifth Phone Number:
15. Delay Between Dialouts:_______Minutes
16. Callback To Disable Alarm: Yes, No
B.8 Printer
1. Enter Printer Speed: Off, 1⁄2"/hr, 1"/hr, 2"/hr, 4"/hr
2. Input For Printer Line A: None, Level, Flow Rate, pH,
D.O., Temp, YSI pH, YSI D.O., YSI Cond., YSI Temp.
3. Printer Line A Bottom Scale: __.____ pH
4. Printer Line A Full Scale: __.____ Feet (or meters)
5. Input For Printer Line B: None, Level, Flow Rate, pH,
D.O., Temp, YSI pH, YSI D.O., YSI Cond., YSI Temp.
B-6
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix B Programming Worksheets
6. Input For Printer Line C: None, Level, Flow Rate, pH,
D.O., Temp, YSI pH, YSI D.O., YSI Cond., YSI Temp.
7. Plot Rainfall On Chart?: No, Yes
B.9 Reports/History
1. Report Generator A: On, Off, (Print)
2. Report A Duration To Be In: Hours, Days, Months
3. Enter Report A Duration: ______ Hours
4. Print Report A at Yr:_____Month:___Day:___Hr:___
Min:___
5. Report Generator B: On, Off, (Print)
6. Report B Duration To Be In: Hours, Days, Months
7. Enter Report B Duration: ____Hours
8. Print Report B at Yr:_____Month:___Day:___ Hr:___
Min:___
9. Print Flow Meter History: Yes, No
10. Print Flow Meter History: Print Since Last, Print All
NOTES
B-7
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix B Programming Worksheets
Additional table for Data Point Entry
Data Point Set #2.
Level
B-8
Flow
Level
Flow
Level
Flow
Level
Flow
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix C General Safety Procedures
In field installations of 4230 Flow Meters and associated
equipment, the safety of the personnel involved should be the
foremost consideration. The following sections provide safety procedures for working in and around manholes and sewers. the
first section offers general safety advice. The second section deals
with the special problem of hazardous gases found in sewers.
WARNING
The 4220 Flow Meter has not been approved for use in
hazardous locations as defined by the National Electrical
Code.
CAUTION
Before any flow meter is installed, the proper safety precautions must be taken. The following discussions of safety procedures are only general guidelines. Each situation in which you
install a flow meter varies. You must take into account the individual circumstances you are in. Additional safety considerations, other than those discussed here, may be required.
C.1 Practical Safety
Precautions
The following procedures are those used by Black & Veatch, a
respected consulting firm, and are published here by permission.
“Field personnel must keep safety uppermost in their minds at
all times. When working above ground, rules of common sense
and safety prevail. However, when entering manholes, strict
safety procedures must be observed. Failure to do so could jeopardize not only your own life, but also the lives of other crew
members.
“1. Hazards. There are many hazards connected with entering
manholes. Some of the most common hazards are:
“Adverse Atmosphere. The manhole may contain flammable or
poisonous gases or the atmosphere may be deficient in oxygen.
Forced ventilation may be necessary.
“Deteriorated Rungs. Manhole steps may be corroded and not
strong enough to support a man. It may be difficult to inspect the
rungs because of poor lighting.
“Traffic. Whenever manholes are located in the traveled way,
barricades and warning devices are essential to direct traffic
away from an open manhole.
“Falling Object. Items placed near the manhole opening may
fall and injure a worker in the manhole.
“Sharp Edges. Sharp edges of items in or near a manhole may
cause cuts or bruises.
C-1
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix C General Safety Procedures
“Lifting Injuries. Unless proper tools are used to remove
manhole covers, back injuries or injuries to hands or feet may
result.
“2. Planning. Advance planning should include arrangements
for test equipment, tools, ventilating equipment, protective
clothing, traffic warning devices, ladders, safety harness, and
adequate number of personnel. Hasty actions may result in
serious injuries. Time spent in the manhole should be kept to a
minimum.
“3. Adverse Atmosphere. [Refer to Table C-1, Hazardous
Gases, at the end of this appendix.] Before workers enter a
manhole, tests should be made for explosive atmosphere,
presence of hydrogen sulfide, and oxygen deficiency. Combustible
or toxic vapors may be heavier than air, so the tests on the atmosphere must be run at least 3/4 of the way down the manhole.
“Whenever adverse atmosphere is encountered, forced ventilation must be used to create safe conditions. After the ventilating equipment has been operated for a few minutes, the
atmosphere in the manhole should be retested before anyone
enters the manhole.
“When explosive conditions are encountered, the ventilating
blower should be placed upwind to prevent igniting any gas that
is emerging from the opening. When a gasoline engine blower is
used, it must be located so that exhaust fumes cannot enter the
manhole.
“If testing equipment is not available, the manhole should be
assumed to contain an unsafe atmosphere and forced ventilation
must be provided. It should never be assumed that a manhole is
safe just because there is no odor or the manhole has been
entered previously.
“4. Entering Manholes. Since the top of the manhole is usually
flush with the surrounding surface, there may not be anything
for the person who is entering the manhole to grab on to steady
himself. Persons who are entering manholes should not be permitted to carry anything in their hands as they enter the
manhole, to ensure that their hands will be free to hold on or
grab if they slip. A good method for entering a manhole is to sit
on the surface facing the manhole steps or ladder, with the feet in
the hole and the arms straddling the opening for support. As the
body slides forward and downward, the feet can engage a rung,
and the back can rest against the opposite side of the opening. If
there is any doubt about the soundness of the manhole steps, a
portable ladder should be used.
“A person should never enter a manhole unless he is wearing
personal safety equipment, including a safety harness and a hard
hat. Two persons should be stationed at the surface continuously
while anyone is working inside a manhole, to lift him out if he is
overcome or injured. One man cannot lift an unconscious man
out of a manhole. The persons stationed at the surface should
also function as guards to keep people and vehicles away from
C-2
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix C General Safety Procedures
the manhole opening. To avoid a serious injury, a person should
not be lifted out of a manhole by his arm unless it is a dire emergency.
“When more than one person must enter a manhole, the first
person should reach the bottom and step off the ladder before the
next one starts down. When two men climb at the same time, the
upper one can cause the lower one to fall by slipping or stepping
on his fingers.
“5. Traffic Protection. In addition to traffic cones, markers,
warning signs, and barricades, a vehicle or a heavy piece of
equipment should be placed between the working area and
oncoming traffic. Flashing warning signals should be used to
alert drivers and pedestrians. Orange safety vests should be
worn by personnel stationed at the surface when the manhole is
located in a vehicular traffic area.
“6. Falling Object. All loose items should be kept away from the
manhole opening. This applies to hand tools as well as stones,
gravel and other objects.
“7. Removing the Covers. Manhole covers should be removed
with a properly designed hook. Use of a pick ax, screwdriver, or
small pry bar may result in injury. A suitable tool can be made
from 3/4-inch round or hex stock. Two inches of one end should be
bent at a right angle and the other end should be formed into a
D-handle wide enough to accommodate both hands. Even with
this tool, care must be exercised to prevent the cover from being
dropped on the toes. The 2-inch projection should be inserted into
one of the holes in the cover, the handle grasped with both hands,
and the cover lifted by straightening the legs which have been
slightly bent at the knees.
“8. Other Precautions. Other precautions which should be
taken when entering a manhole are:
• Wear a hard hat.
• Wear coveralls or removable outer garment that can be
readily removed when the work is completed.
• Wear boots or nonsparking safety shoes.
• Wear rubberized or waterproof gloves.
• Wear a safety harness with a stout rope attached.
• Do not smoke.
• Avoid touching yourself above the collar until you have
cleaned your hands.
“9. Emergencies. Every member of the crew should be
instructed on procedures to be followed in cases of an emergency.
It is the duty of each crew chief to have a list of emergency phone
numbers, including the nearest hospital and ambulance service,
police precinct, fire station, and rescue or general emergency
number.
C-3
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix C General Safety Procedures
“10. Field Equipment. The following equipment will be
available for use:
Blowers
Gloves
Traffic cones
Breathing apparatus Hard Hats
Coveralls
Harnesses
First aid kits
Manhole irons
Emergency flashers
Pick axes
Flashlights
Rain slickers
Mirrors
Ropes
Gas detectors
Safety vests
Gas masks
Waders”
C.2 Lethal Atmospheres in
Sewers
The following is an article written by Dr. Richard D. Pomeroy,
and published in the October 1980 issue of Deeds & Data of the
WPCF. Dr. Pomeroy is particularly well known for his studies,
over a period of nearly 50 years, in the field of the control of
hydrogen sulfide and other odors in sewers and treatment plants.
He has personally worked in a great many functioning sewers. In
the earlier years he did so, he admits, with little knowledge of
the grave hazards to which he exposed himself.
“It is gratifying that the subject of hazards to people working in
sewers is receiving much more attention than in past years, and
good safety procedures are prescribed in various publications on
this subject. It is essential that people know and use correct procedures.
“It is less important to know just what the hazardous components of sewer atmospheres are, as safety precautions should in
general be broadly applicable, but there should be a reasonable
understanding of this subject. It is disturbing to see statements
in print that do not reflect true conditions.
“One of the most common errors is the assumption that people
have died from a lack of oxygen. The human body is able to
function very well with substantially reduced oxygen concentrations. No one worries about going to Santa Fe, New Mexico, (elev.
2,100 meters), where the partial pressure of oxygen is equal to
16.2% (a normal atmosphere is about 21%) oxygen. When first
going there, a person may experience a little ‘shortness of breath’
following exercise. People in good health are not afraid to drive
over the high passes in the Rocky Mountains. At Loveland Pass,
oxygen pressure is 13.2% of a normal atmosphere. At the top of
Mt. Whitney, oxygen is equal to 12.2%t. Many hikers go there,
and to higher peaks as well. After adequate acclimation, they
may climb to the top of Mt. Everest, where oxygen is equal to
only 6.7%.
“The lowest oxygen concentrations that I have observed in a
sewer atmosphere was 13 percent. It was in a sealed chamber,
near sea level, upstream from an inverted siphon on a metropolitan trunk. A man would be foolish to enter the chamber.
Without ventilation, he might die, but not from lack of oxygen.
C-4
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix C General Safety Procedures
“It seems unlikely that anyone has ever died in a sewer from suffocation, that is, a lack of oxygen. Deaths have often been
attributed to ‘asphyxiation.’ This is a word which, according to
the dictionary, is used to mean death from an atmosphere that
does not support life. The word has sometimes been misinterpreted as meaning suffocation, which is only one kind of asphyxiation.
“In nearly all cases of death in sewers, the real killer is hydrogen
sulfide. It is important that this fact be recognized. Many cities
diligently test for explosive gases, which is very important, and
they may measure the oxygen concentration which usually is
unimportant, but they rarely measure H2S. Death has occurred
where it is unlikely that there was any measurable reduction in
the oxygen concentration. Waste water containing 2 mg per liter
of dissolved sulfide, and at a pH of 7.0, can produce, in a chamber
with high turbulence, a concentration of 300 PPM H2S, in the air.
This is considered to be a lethal concentration. Many people have
died from H2S, not only in sewers and industries, but also from
swamps and from hot springs. In one resort area, at least five
persons died from H2S poisoning before the people were ready to
admit that H2S is not a therapeutic agent. Hardly a year passes
in the U.S. without a sewer fatality from H2S as well as deaths
elsewhere in the world.
“The presence of H 2 S in a sewer atmosphere is easily determined. A bellows-and-ampoule type of tester is very satisfactory
for the purpose, even though it is only crudely quantitative.
When using a tester of this type, do not bring the air to the
ampoule by way of a tube, as this may change the H2S concentration. Hang the ampoule in the air to be tested, with a suction
tube to the bulb or bellows.
“Lead acetate paper is very useful as a qualitative indicator. It
cannot be used to estimate the amount of sulfide, but it will
quickly turn black in an atmosphere containing only a tenth of a
lethal concentration.
“Electrodes or other similar electrical indicating devices for H2S
in air have been marketed. Some of them are known to be unreliable, and we know of none that have proved dependable. Do not
use one unless you check it at frequent intervals against air containing known H2S concentrations. A supposed safety device that
is unreliable is worse than none at all.
“Remember that the nose fails, too, when it comes to sensing
dangerous concentrations of H2S.
“Various other toxic gases have been mentioned in some publications. It is unlikely that any person has been asphyxiated in a
sewer by any of those other gases, except possibly chlorine. The
vapor of gasoline and other hydrocarbons is sometimes present in
amounts that could cause discomfort and illness, but under that
condition, the explosion hazard would be far more serious. The
explosimeter tests, as well as the sense of smell, would warn of
the danger. Pipelines in chemical plants might contain any
C-5
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix C General Safety Procedures
number of harmful vapors. They, too, are sensed by smell and
explosimeter tests if they get into the public sewer. Such occurrences are rare.
“The attempt to instill a sense of urgency about real hazards is
diluted if a man is told to give attention to a long list of things
that in fact are irrelevant.
“Be very careful to avoid high H2S concentrations, flammable
atmospheres, and hazards of physical injuries. Remember that
much H2S may be released by the stirring up of sludge in the
bottom of a structure. Obey your senses in respect to irritating
gases, such as chlorine (unconsciousness comes suddenly from
breathing too much). Be cautious about strange odors. Do not
determine percent oxygen in the air. There is a danger that the
result will influence a man's thinking about the seriousness of
the real hazards. Most important, use ample ventilation, and do
not enter a potentially hazardous structure except in a good
safety harness with two men at the top who can lift you out.”
C.3 Hazardous Gases
The following table contains information on the properties of
hazardous gases.
Table C-1 Hazardous Gases
Gas
Chemical
Formula
Common
Properties
Specific
Gravity
or Vapor
Density
Air =1
Physiological
Effect
Max
Safe 60
Min. Exposure
ppm
Max. Safe
8 Hour
Exposure
ppm
Explosive
Range (% by
vol. in air)
Limits
lower/upper
Likely
Location
of
Highest
Concentration
Most
Common
Sources
Simplest and
Cheapest
Safe Method
of Testing
Ammonia
NH3
Irritant and
poisonous. Colorless
with characteristic
odor.
0.60
Causes throat
and
eye irritation at
0.05%, coughing
at 0.17%. Short
exposure at
0.5%
to 1% fatal.
300
to
500
85
16
25
Near top.
Concentrates
in closed upper spaces
Sewers,
chemical
feed
rooms.
Detectable
odor at low
concentrations
Benzene
C6H6
Irritant, colorless
anesthetic
2.77
Slight symptoms
after several
hours
exposure at
0.16% to 0.32%.
2% rapidly
fatal.
3,000
to
5,000
25
1.3
7.1
At bottom.
Industrial
wastes,
varnish,
solvents.
Combustible
gas indicator
Carbon
Bisulfide
CS2
Nearly odorless
when pure, colorless, anesthetic.
Poisonous.
2.64
Very poisonous,
irritating, vomiting,
convulsions,
psychic disturbance.
—
15
1.3
At bottom
An insecticide
Combustible
gas indicator
C-6
44.0
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix C General Safety Procedures
Table C-1 Hazardous Gases (Continued)
Gas
Chemical
Formula
Common
Properties
Specific
Gravity
or Vapor
Density
Air =1
Physiological
Effect
Max
Safe 60
Min. Exposure
ppm
Max. Safe
8 Hour
Exposure
ppm
Explosive
Range (% by
vol. in air)
Limits
lower/upper
Likely
Location
of
Highest
Concentration
—
At bottom;
when heated
may stratify
at points
above bottom.
Products
of combustion,
sewer gas,
sludge.
Also issues
from carbonaceous
strata.
Oxygen
deficiency
indicator
—
Most
Common
Sources
Simplest and
Cheapest
Safe Method
of Testing
Carbon
Dioxide
CO2
Asphyxiant, Colorless, odorless.
When breathed
in large quantities, may cause
acid taste.
Non-flammable.
Not generally
present in dangerous amounts
unless an oxygen
deficiency exists.
1.53
Cannot be
endured at 10%
more than a
few minutes,
even if subject
is at rest and
oxygen content
is normal. Acts
on respiratory
nerves.
40,000
to
60,000
5,000
Carbon
Monoxide
CO
Chemical
asphyxiant. Colorless, odorless,
tasteless.
Flammable.
Poisonous.
0.97
Combines with
hemoglobin of
blood. Unconsciousness in
30 min. at 0.2%
to 0.25%. Fatal
in 4 hours at
0.1%. Headache in few
hours at 0.02%.
400
50
12.5 74.0
Near top, especially if present
with illuminating gas.
Manufactured gas,
flue gas,
products
of combustion,
motor
exhausts.
Fires of
almost any
kind.
CO ampoules.
Carbon
Tetra-Chl
oride
CCl4
Heavy, ethereal
odor.
5.3
Intestinal
upset, loss of
consciousness,
possible renal
damage, respiratory failure.
1,000
to
1,500
100
—
—
At bottom.
Industrial
wastes,
solvent,
cleaning
Detectable
odor
at low concentrations.
Chlorine
Cl2
Irritant. Yellow-green color.
Choking odor
detectable in very
low concentrations. Non-flammable.
2.49
Irritates respiratory tract.
Kills most animals in a very
short time at
0.1%.
4
1
—
—
At bottom.
Chlorine
cylinder
and feed
line leaks.
Detectable
odor at low
concentrations.
Formaldehyde
CH2O
Colorless, pungent suffocating
odor.
1.07
Irritating to the
nose.
—
10
7.0
73.0
Near bottom.
Incomplete combustion of
organics.
Common
air pollutant, fungicide.
Detectable
odor.
Gasoline
C5H12
to
C9H20
Volatile solvent.
Colorless. Odor
noticeable at
0.03%. Flammable.
3.0
to
4.0
Anesthetic
effects when
inhaled. Rapidly fatal at
2.4%. Dangerous for short
exposure at 1.1
to 2.2%.
4,000
to
7,000
1,000
1.3
6.0
At bottom.
Service
stations,
garages,
storage
tanks,
houses.
1. Combustible gas indicator.
2. Oxygen
deficiency
indicator.**
Hydrogen
H2
Simple asphyxiant. Colorless,
odorless, tasteless. Flammable
0.07
Acts mechanically to deprive
tissues of oxygen. Does not
support life.
—
—
4.0
74.0
At top.
Manufactured gas,
sludge
digestion
tank gas,
electrolysis of
water.
Rarely
from rock
strata.
Combustible
gas indicator.
Hydrogen
Cyanide
HCN
Faint odor of bitter almonds.
Colorless gas
0.93
Slight symptoms appear
upon exposure
to 0.002% to
0.004%. 0.3%
rapidly fatal.
—
10
6.0
40.0
Near top.
Insecticide and
rodenticide.
Detector tube
C-7
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix C General Safety Procedures
Table C-1 Hazardous Gases (Continued)
Gas
Gas
Hydrogen Sulfide
Methane
Chemical
Formula
Chemical
Formula
H2S
CH4
Common
Properties
Common
Properties
Specific
Gravity
or Vapor
Density
Air =1
Specific
Gravity or
Vapor
Density
Air = 1
Irritant and poisonous volatile
compound. Rotten egg odor in
small concentrations. Exposure
for 2 to 15 min. at
0.01% impairs
sense of smell.
Odor not evident
at high concentrations. Colorless. Flammable.
1.19
Simple asphyxiant.
Colorless, odorless, tasteless,
flammable.
0.55
Max
Safe 60
Min. Exposure
ppm
Max. Safe
8 Hour
Exposure
ppm
Max
Safe
60 Min.
Exposure
ppm
Max.
Safe
8 Hour
Exposure
ppm
Impairs sense
of smell, rapidly as concentration
increases.
Death in few
minutes at
0.2%. Exposure
to 0.07 to 0.1%
rapidly causes
acute poisoning. Paralyzes
respiratory
center.
200
to
300
20
Acts mechanically to deprive
tissues of oxygen. Does not
support life.
Probably no limit,
provided oxygen
percent-age is sufficient for life.
—
Physiological
Effect
Physiological
Effect*
Explosive
Range (% by
vol. in air)
Limits
lower/upper
Explosive Range
(% by vol.
in air.)
Limits
lower/upper
4.3
45.0
5.0
15.0
Likely
Location
of
Highest
Concentration
Likely
Location
of
Highest
Concentration
Most
Common
Sources
Most
Common
Sources
Simplest and
Cheapest
Safe Method
of Testing
Simplest and
Cheapest
Safe Method
of Testing
Near bottom,
but may be
above bottom if
air is heated and
highly humid.
Coal gas,
petroleum,
sewer gas.
Fumes
from blasting under
some conditions.
Sludge gas.
1. H2S
Ampoule.
At top, increasing to certain
depth.
Natural
gas, sludge
gas, manufactured
gas, sewer
gas. Strata
of sedimentary
origin. In
swamps or
marshes.
1. Combustible
gas indicator
2. 5% by weight
lead acetate
solution.
2. Oxygen deficiency indicator.
Nitrogen
N2
Simple asphyxiant. Colorless,
tasteless.
Non-flammable.
Principal constituent of air. (about
79%).
0.97
Physiologically
inert.
—
—
—
—
Near top, but
may be found
near bottom.
Sewer gas.
sludge gas.
Also issues
from some
rock strata.
Oxygen
deficiency
indicator.
Nitrogen
Oxides
NO
Colorless
1.04
50
10
—
—
Near bottom.
Colorless,
sweet odor.
1.53
Industrial
wastes.
Common
air pollutant.
NO2 detector
tube.
N2O
60 to 150 ppm
cause irritation
and coughing.
NO2
Reddish-brown.
Irritating odor.
Deadly poison
1.58
Oxygen
O2
Colorless, odorless, tasteless.
Supports combustion.
1.11
Normal air contains 20.8% of
O2. Man can tolerate down to
12%. Minimum
safe 8 hour
exposure, 14 to
16%. Below 10%,
dangerous to
life. Below 5 to
7% probably
fatal.
—
—
—
—
Variable at different levels.
Oxygen
depletion
from poor
ventilation and
absorption, or
chemical
consumption of
oxygen.
Oxygen deficiency indicator.
Ozone
O3
Irritant and poisonous. Strong
electrical odor.
Strong oxidizer.
Colorless. At 1
ppm, strong sulfur-like odor.
1.66
Max. naturally
occurring level
is 0.04 ppm.
0.05 ppm
causes irritation of eyes and
nose. 1 to 10
ppm causes
headache, nausea; can cause
coma. Symptoms similar to
radiation damage.
0.08
0.04
—
—
Near bottom.
Where
ozone is
used for
disinfection.
Detectable
odor
at 0.015 ppm.
Asphyxiant.
C-8
100 ppm dangerous.
200 ppm fatal.
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix C General Safety Procedures
Table C-1 Hazardous Gases (Continued)
Gas
Chemical
Formula
Common
Properties
Specific
Gravity
or Vapor
Density
Air =1
Physiological
Effect
Max
Safe 60
Min. Exposure
ppm
Max. Safe
8 Hour
Exposure
ppm
No data. Would
vary widely with composition.
Explosive
Range (% by
vol. in air)
Limits
lower/upper
Likely
Location
of
Highest
Concentration
5.3
Near top of
structure.
From
digestion
of sludge.
See components.
At bottom, can
combine with
water to form
sulfurous acid.
Industrial
waste,
combustion, common air
pollutant.
Detectable
taste and odor
at low concentration.
At bottom.
Solvent.
Combustible
gas indicator.
At bottom.
Solvent,
used in
paint.
1. Detectable
odor at low
concentration
s.
2.Combustible
gas indicator.
At bottom.
Solvent
Combustible
gas indicator.
Sludge
Gas
—***
Mostly a simple
asphyxiant. May
be practically
odorless, tasteless.
Variable
Will not support
life.
Sulfur
Dioxide
SO2
Colorless, pungent odor. Suffocating, corrosive,
poisonous,
non-flammable.
2.26
Inflammation of
the eyes. 400 to
500 ppm immediately fatal.
50
to
100
10
—
Toluene
C5H12
to
C9H20
Colorless, benzene-like odor.
3.14
At 200-500 ppm,
headache, nausea, bad taste,
lassitude.
200
100
1.27 7.0
Turpentine
C10H16
Colorless, Characteristic odor.
4.84
Eye irritation.
Headache, dizziness, nausea,
irritation of the
kidneys.
—
100
Xylene
C8H10
Colorless, flammable
3.66
Narcotic in high
concentrations.
less toxic than
benzene.
—
100
1.1
19.3
—
7.0
Most
Common
Sources
Simplest and
Cheapest
Safe Method
of Testing
* Percentages shown represent volume of gas in air.
** For concentration over 0.3%.
***Mostly methane and carbon dioxide with small amounts of hydrogen, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and oxygen; occasionally traces of carbon monoxide.
C-9
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix C General Safety Procedures
C-10
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix D Material Safety Data Sheets
D.1 Overview
This appendix provides Material Safety Data Sheets for the desiccant used by the 4230 Flow Meter.
Teledyne Isco cannot guarantee the accuracy of the data. Specific
questions regarding the use and handling of the products should
be directed to the manufacturer listed on the MSDS.
D-1
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix D Material Safety Data Sheets
Indicating Silica Gel
Material Safety Data Sheet
Identity (Trade Name as Used on Label)
Manufacturer
:
MSDS Number* :
MULTISORB TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
M75
(formerly Multiform Desiccants, Inc.)
Address:
CAS Number* :
325 Harlem Road
Buffalo, NY 14224
Phone Number (For Information):
716/824-8900
Emergency Phone
716/824-8900
Date Prepared:
July 6, 2000
G.E. McKedy
Prepared By* :
Number:
Section 1 - Material Identification and Information
Components - Chemical Name & Common Names
(Hazardous Components 1% or greater; Carcinogens 0.1% or
greater)
%*
OSHA
PEL
ACGIH
TLV
Silica Gel SiO2
98.0
Cobalt Chloride
>2.0
6mg/m
(total dust)
3
0.05mg/m
(TWA cobalt
metal dust &
fume)
3
OTHER LIMITS
RECOMMENDE
D
3
10mg/m
(total dust)
3
.05mg/m
(Cobalt, TWA)
Non-Hazardous Ingredients
TOTAL
100
Section 2 - Physical/Chemical Characteristics
Boiling
N/A
Point
Vapor Pressure
N/A
(mm Hg and Temperature
Vapor
N/A
Density
(Air =1)
Solubility
Insoluble, but will adsorb moisture.
in Water
Appearance
Purple crystals, no odor.
and Odor
Specific Gravity
(H20 = 1)
Melting
Point
Evaporation Rate
(__________=1)
Water
Reactive
2.1
N/A
N/A
Not reactive, but will adsorb moisture.
Section 3 - Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
Flash Point and
Auto-Ignition
Flammability Limits in
LEL
UEL
N/A
N/A
N/A
Methods Used
Temperature
Air % by Volume
Extinguisher
Dry chemical, carbon dioxide and foam can be used.
Media
Special Fire
Water will generate heat due to the silica gel which will adsorb water and liberate heat.
Fighting Procedures
Unusual Fire and
When exposed to water, the silica gel can get hot enough to reach the boiling point of water. Flooding with
Explosion Hazards
water will reduce the temperature to safe limits.
Section 4 - Reactivity Hazard Data
Conditions
STABILITY
Moisture and high humidity environments.
To Avoid
Stable
Unstable
Incompatibility
Water.
(Materials to Avoid)
Hazardous
Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water
Decomposition
Products
Conditions
HAZARDOUS POLYMERIZATION
None.
To Avoid
May Occur
*Optional
D-2
Indicating Silica Gel
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix D Material Safety Data Sheets
Page 2
Section 5 - Health Hazard Data
PRIMARY ROUTES
OF ENTRY
HEALTH HAZARDS
Inhalation
Ingestion
NTP
CARCINOGEN
LISTED IN
Skin Absorption
Not Hazardous
IARC Monograph
Acute
May cause eye, skin and mucous membrane irritation.
Chronic
Prolonged inhalation may cause lung damage.
OSHA
Not Listed
Signs and Symptoms
Drying and irritation.
of Exposure
Medical Conditions
Asthma.
Generally Aggravated by Exposure
EMERGENCY FIRST AID PROCEDURES - Seek medical assistance for further treatment, observation and support if necessary.
Eye Contact Flush with water for at least 15 minutes.
Skin
Wash affected area with soap and water.
Contact
Inhalation
Remove affected person to fresh air.
Ingestion
Drink at least 2 glasses of water.
Section 6 - Control and Protective Measures
Respiratory Protection Use NIOSH approved dust mask or respirator.
(Specify Type)
Protective
Eye Protection
Light cotton gloves.
Safety glasses.
Gloves
VENTILATION
Local Exhaust
Mechanical (General)
TO BE USED
Special
Other (Specify)
Other Protective
None.
Clothing and Equipment
Hygienic Work
Avoid raising dust. Avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing.
Practices
Section 7 - Precautions for Safe Handling and Use/Leak Procedures
Steps to be Taken if Material
Sweep or vacuum up and place the spilled material in a waste disposal container. Avoid raising dust.
Is
Spilled Or Released
Waste Disposal
Dispose in an approved landfill according to federal, state and local regulations.
Methods
Precautions to be
Cover promptly to avoid blowing dust. Wash after handling.
Taken
In Handling and
Storage
Other Precautions and/or Special
Keep in sealed containers away from moisture. The silica gel will readily adsorb moisture.
Hazards
*Optional
Indicating Silica Gel
D-3
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix D Material Safety Data Sheets
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
March 8, 2005
M163
Effective Date
MSDS Number
Section 1 – Product and Company Information
Product Name:
Silica gel, indicating, yellow
Product Use:
Grades:
Synonyms:
Desiccant, absorbent
Silica gel, indicating
Amorphous silica gel, SiO2, silicon dioxide (amorphous)
Company;
Street Address:
City, State, Zip, Country:
Multisorb Technologies, Inc.
325 Harlem Road
Buffalo, NY 14224-1893 USA
Telephone Number:
Fax Number:
Website / E-Mail :
(716) 824 8900 [USA] Monday - Friday (8:00 - 5:00 EDT)
(716) 824 4091 [USA]
multisorb.com
Section 2 – Composition / Information on Ingredients
Component Name
Synthetic amorphous silica gel (SiO2)
Phenolphthalein
CAS Number
% by Weight
112926-00-8
100
77-09-08
100 ppm
While this material is not classified, this MSDS contains valuable information critical to the safe handling
and proper use of this product. This MSDS should be retained and available for employees and other users
of this product.
Section 3 – Hazard Identification
Emergency Overview:
A yellow bead or granular material that poses little or no immediate hazard.
This material is not combustible.
Potential Health Effects:
Dust and or product may cause eye discomfort and irritation seen as tearing and reddening.
Eyes:
Skin:
The product dust may cause drying of the skin. Silica gel may get hot enough to burn skin
when it adsorbs moisture rapidly. Use an excess of water to cool the silica gel.
Ingestion:
Material is not toxic and will pass through the body normally.
Inhalation:
Slight irritation is possible but none is expected.
Medical Effects Generally Aggravated by Exposure:
Chronic Effects/Carcinogenity:
D-4
Respiratory ailments.
May cause eye, skin and mucous membrane irritation and drying.
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix D Material Safety Data Sheets
Section 4 – First Aid Measures
Eyes:
Rinse the eyes well with water while lifting the eye lids. If irritation persists, consult a
physician.
Skin:
Wash affected area with soap and water.
Ingestion:
Ingestion is unlikely, this material will pass through the body normally.
Inhalation:
Remove the affected person to fresh air and get medical attention if necessary.
Notes to Physician:
Not applicable
Section 5 – Fire Fighting Measures
Flammable Properties:
Not flammable
Flash Point:
Not applicable
Flammable Limits:
Method:
Not applicable
Not flammable
Lower Flammability Limit: Not applicable
Upper Flammability Limit:
Autoignition Temperature:
Not applicable
Hazardous Combustion Products:
Extinguishing Media:
Not applicable
Not applicable
Use extinguishing media that is appropriate for the surrounding fire. Silica gel is
not combustible.
Fire Fighting Instructions:
Not combustible
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
None
Section 6 – Accidental Release Measures
Spill:
Sweep or vacuum up and place the spilled material in a waste disposal container. Avoid raising dust.
Wash with soap and water after handling.
Section 7 – Handling and Storage
Handling:
Avoid raising dust and minimize the contact between worker and the material. Practice
good hygienic work practices.
Storage:
Store in a cool, dry location. Keep in sealed containers away from moisture. The silica gel
will readily adsorb moisture.
D-5
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix D Material Safety Data Sheets
Section 8 – Exposure Controls/Personal Protection
Use exhaust ventilation to keep the airborne concentrations below the exposure
limits.
Engineering Controls:
Respiratory Protection: Use NIOSH approved respirator when the air quality levels exceed the TLV's.
Skin Protection:
Light gloves will protect against abrasion and drying of the skin.
Eye Protection:
Safety glasses.
Component Name
Silica gel
Exposure Limits
OSHA
PEL
ACGIH
TLV
Other
Recommended
Limits
TWA 20 mppcf
(80 mg / m3 % SiO2)
TWA 10 mg / m3
NIOSH REL
TWA 6 mg / m3
IDLH 3000 mg / m3
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Phenolphthalein
Section 9 – Physical and Chemical Properties
Appearance:
Yellow beads or granules
Vapor Density:
Not applicable
Odor:
None
Boiling Point:
4046q F (2230q C)
Physical State:
Solid bead
Melting Point:
3110q F (1710q C)
PH:
Not applicable
Solubility:
Insoluble in water
Vapor Pressure:
Not applicable
Specific Gravity:
2.1
Section 10 – Stability and Reactivity
Stability:
Stable
Conditions to avoid:
Incompatibility:
Moisture and high humidity environments.
Water, fluorine, oxygen difluoride, chlorine trifluoride
Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Hazardous Polymerization:
D-6
None
Will not occur
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix D Material Safety Data Sheets
Section 11 – Toxicological Information
This product and its components are not listed on the NTP or OSHA Carcinogen lists.
Animal Toxicology Tests for DOT Hazard classification
( Tests Conducted on finely ground silica gel)
1 - hour LC50 (rat) > 2 mg / l
48 - hour oral LD50 (rat) est. > 31,600 mg / kg
48 - hour dermal LD50 (rabbit) est. > 2,000 mg / kg
Considered an ocular irritant
Human Toxicology Silica gel is a synthetic amorphous silica not to be confused with crystalline silica.
Epidemiological studies indicate low potential for adverse health effects. In the activated form, silica gel
acts as a desiccant and can cause a drying irritation of the mucous membranes and skin in cases of severe
exposure. Multisorb Technologies Inc. knows of no medical conditions that are abnormally aggravated by
exposure to silica gel. The primary route of entry is inhalation of dust.
Section 12 – Ecological Information
Not known to have any adverse effect on the aquatic environment. Silica gel is insoluble and non-toxic.
Section 13 – Disposal Information
Disposal Information If this product as supplied becomes a waste, it does not meet the criteria of a
hazardous waste as defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 40 CFR 261.
Materials of a hazardous nature that contact the product during normal use may be retained on the product.
The user of the product must identify the hazards associated with the retained material in order to assess the
waste disposal options. Dispose according to federal, state and local regulations.
Section 14 – Transportation Information
U.S. Department of Transportation Shipping Name:
Not classified as a hazardous material. Not regulated.
Section 15 – Regulatory Information (Not meant to be all inclusive - selected regulations represented)
TSCA Listed:
Yes
DSL/NDSL (Canadian) Listed:
Yes
OSHA:
TWA 20 mppcf (80 mg / m3 % SiO2) for Silica gel
NIOSH:
REL TWA 6 mg / m3 IDLH 3,000 mg / m3 for silica gel
Animal tests conducted in 1976 - 1978. 18 month exposure at 15 mg / m3 showed silica
deposition in respiratory macrophages and lymph nodes, minimum lung impairment, no silicosis.
ACGIH:
TLV - 10 mg / m3 for Silica gel
DOT:
Not classified as a hazardous material.
D-7
4230 Flow Meter
Appendix D Material Safety Data Sheets
HMIS – Hazardous Materials Identification System
HMIS Rating
Health
Flammability
Reactivity
0
0
0
0 - minimal hazard, 1 - slight hazard, 2 - moderate hazard, 3 - serious hazard, 4 - severe hazard
This MSDS was prepared by:
George E. Mckedy
Senior Applications Development Specialist
Multisorb Technologies, Inc.
This data and recommendations presented in this data sheet concerning the use of our product and the materials
contained therein are believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide.
However, the customer should determine the suitability of such materials for his purpose before adopting them on a
commercial scale. Since the use of our products is beyond our control, no guarantee, expressed or implied, is made and
no responsibility assumed for the use of this material or the results to be obtained therefrom. Information on this form
is furnished for the purpose of compliance with Government Health and Safety Regulations and shall not be used for
any other purposes. Moreover, the recommendations contained in this data sheet are not to be construed as a license to
operate under, or a recommendation to infringe, any existing patents, nor should they be confused with state, municipal
or insurance requirements, or with national safety codes.
D-8
4230 Flow Meter
Index
Numerics
H
4 to 20 mA Output Interface, 4-5
4-20 mA Output, 2-17, 2-37, 4-5
Hysteresis, 2-15
A
Accessories List, A-8
Alarm Box, 4-9
Analog Output, 2-17, 2-37, 4-5
External, 4-5
Internal, 4-6
B
Battery Life Expectancy, 1-10
Bubble Line, 3-10
Extensions, 3-15
Flume Fittings, 3-15
High-Velocity Flow Streams, 3-14
Open Channel Installation, 3-16
Stilling Wells, 3-15
Bubble Rate, 3-5
Bubbler System Operation, 5-11
Bubbler Tube Retainer Assembly, 3-18
C
CMOS Circuitry, 5-15
Compatible Equipment, 1-1
Current Draw, 1-11
D
Desiccant Canister, 3-1
Desiccant Cartridge, 3-1
Venting, 3-1
Display Functions, 2-1
F
FLASH Update, 5-17
Flow Conversion
Data Points, 2-35
Equation, 2-33
Flow Metering Inserts, 2-36
Flume, 2-32
Manning, 2-33
Weir, 2-31
Flow Metering Inserts, 3-16
Flowlink Software, 4-2, 4-9
I
Installation
Bubble Line, 3-12
Flow Meter, 3-9
Safety Considerations, 3-9
K
Keypad Functions, 2-2
M
Maintenance
Bubble Line, 5-4
Case, 5-1
CPU, 5-14
Desiccators, 5-2
Fuses, 5-9
Getting Help, 5-14
Printer
Ink Ribbon, 5-7
Paper Roll, 5-5
Servicing CMOS Circuitry, 5-15
System Reset, 5-10
Troubleshooting Steps, 5-14
Material Safety Data Sheets, D-1
Maximum Head, 2-37
Modem, 4-1
Mounting
Parameter Probes, 4-26
Mounting Rings
Universal Mounting Ring, 4-27
MSDS, D-1
O
Operating Principles, 1-2
Bubbler System, 1-3, 5-11
Drift Compensation, 1-3
Pressure Transducer, 1-3
Optional Equipment
4200T Modem, 4-1
Dissolved Oxygen Probe, 4-19
External Analog Output Interface, 4-5
Flowlink Software, 4-9
High-Low Alarm Relay Box, 4-9
Internal Analog Output Board, 4-6
Mechanical Totalizer, 4-31
Index-1
4230 Flow Meter
Index
pH Probe, 4-12
Rain Gauge, 4-8
Temperature Probe, 4-12
YSI 600 Sonde, 4-28
Optional Outputs
Analog, 2-17, 2-37, 4-5
Serial, 2-19, 4-4
P
Parameter Sensing, 4-11
Power Consumption, 1-9, 1-10
Bubble Rate, 3-6
Power Loss, 3-2
Power Sources, 3-2
AC Power Supplies, 3-4
Battery-Backed Power Pack, 3-4
High Capacity Power Pack, 3-4
External 12 V Battery, 3-5
Lead-Acid Battery, 3-4
Nickel-Cadmium Battery, 3-3
Sampler, 3-3
Program Steps - Description, 2-5
Programming, 2-3
Programming Steps
Step 1 - Operating Mode, 2-12
Step 2 - Flow Conversion, 2-31
Step 3 - Parameter to Adjust, 2-38
Step 4 - Reset Totalizer, 2-45
Step 5 - Sampler Pacing, 2-45
Step 6 - Sampler Enable, 2-47
Step 7 - Alarm Dialout, 2-51
Step 8 - Printer, 2-53
Step 9 - Reports/History, 2-55
Programming Worksheets, B-1
Purge Interval, 2-13
R
Rain Gauge, 4-8
Replacement Parts, A-1
Reports, 2-23
S
Safety, C-1
Hazardous Gases, C-6
Lethal Atmospheres in Sewers, C-4
Precautions, C-1
Sampler Connection, 3-18
Scissors Ring, 4-27
Serial Output, 2-19, 4-4
ASCII Codes, 2-20
Software
Flowlink, 4-2, 4-9
System Reset, 5-10
Updating, 5-17
Specifications, 1-4
Spring Rings, 4-26
Super Bubble, 3-8
Index-2
T
Technical Specifications, 1-4
Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, 4-8
Troubleshooting Steps, 5-14
Y
YSI 600 Sonde, 4-28
Calibration, 2-41
Compliance Statements
ℶ❐₼㦘㹡㦘⹂䓸德㒥⏒侯䤓⚜䱿♙⚺摞
Name and amount of Hazardous Substances or Elements in the product
᳝↦᳝ᆇ⠽䋼៪‫ܗ‬㋴
Hazardous Substances or Elements
捷ↅ⚜䱿
䪙
∲
䬝
݁Ӌ䫀
໮⒈㘨㣃
Component Name
(Pb)
(Hg)
(Cd)
(Cr(VI))
(PBB)
兎恾㨎
Circuit Boards
㣍䯉
'LVSOD\
㘴兎
:LULQJ
⺞枽䥧
.H\SDG
䦃㿐䟄㧉
'&0RWRU
㘴⯃
&RQQHFWRUV
໮⒈Ѡ㘨㣃
(PBDE)
X
O
O
O
O
O
X
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
X
O
O
O
O
O
X
O
X
O
O
O
X
O
O
O
X
O
O
O
ℶ❐₼㦘㹡㦘⹂䓸德㒥⏒侯䤓⚜䱿♙⚺摞᧶Name and amount of Hazardous Substances or Elements in
the product
O: 嫷䯉年㦘㹡㦘⹂䓸德⦷年捷ↅ㓏㦘⧖德㧟㠨₼䤓⚺摞⧖⦷ST/ 㪖⑕屓⸩䤓棟摞尐㻑ⅴₚᇭ
O: Represent the concentration of the hazardous substance in this component’s any homogeneous pieces is
lower than the ST/ standard limitation.
X᧶嫷䯉年㦘㹡㦘⹂䓸德咂⺠⦷年捷ↅ䤓㩟₏⧖德㧟㠨₼䤓⚺摞怔⒉ST/ 㪖⑕屓⸩䤓棟摞尐㻑ᇭ
(←₩♾⦷㷳⮓᧨㫈㗽⸭棔㍔⑄⺈ₙ嫷₼㓢“X” 䤓㔏㦾☮⥯扪嫛扪₏㷴広㢝ᇭ)
X: Represent the concentration of the hazardous substance in this component’s at least one homogeneous
piece is higher than the ST/ standard limitation.
(Manufacturer may give technical reasons to the “X”marks)
䘾≬∎䞷㦮䟀兞洛䫽⸩ᇭ
The Environmentally Friendly Use Period (EFUP) was determined through experience.
䞮ℶ㡴㦮嬺冥䪐⦷侊⒦⚆䪐₼ᇭⓜₘ⇜㟿ⷦ⃉䞮ℶ㄃(207 ⅲ嫷 2007 ㄃) ᇭ椞⚝䤓₏₹ⷦ㹜ⅲ嫷㦗↌᧶
A ⃉₏㦗᧨B ⃉ℛ㦗᧨䷘䷘ᇭ
The date of Manufacture is in code within the serial number. The first three numbers are the year of
manufacture (207 is year 2007) followed by a letter for the month. "A" is January, "B" is February and so on.
Table Hazmat 4200 Series F/M
60-3213-371 Rev.
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
Application of Council Directive:
89/336/EEC – The EMC Directive
73/23/EEC – The Low Voltage Directive
Teledyne Isco, Inc.
Manufacturer's Name:
Manufacturer's Address:
4700 Superior, Lincoln, Nebraska 68504 USA
Mailing Address: P.O. Box 82531, Lincoln, NE 68501
Laboratory Equipment for Light Industrial/Commercial Environments
Equipment Type/Environment:
Model 4230 Bubbler Flow Meter
Year of Issue:
fo
rm
ity
Trade Name/Model No:
2000
EN 50082-1 Generic Immunity for Commercial, Light Industrial
Environment
EN 61010-1 Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for
Measurement, Control, and Laboratory Use
Description
Electrostatic Discharge
IEC 801.3
Radiated RF Immunity
IEC 801.4
CISPR11/
EN 55011
Severity Applied
Level 2 - 4kV contact discharge
Level 3 - 8kV air discharge
D
ec
la
ra
t
Standard
IEC 801.2
io
n
of
C
on
Standards to which Conformity is Declared:
Performance Criteria
B
B
A
Electrical Fast Transient
Level 2 - 1kV on ac lines
B
RF Emissions
Group 1, Class A Industrial, Scientific,
and Medical Equipment
C
E
27 MHz to 500MHz
*Level 2 - 3 V/m
*Instrument is susceptible to 3V/m between 105 mHz and 500 mHz.
We, the undersigned, hereby declare that the design of the equipment specified above conforms to the
above Directive(s) and Standards as of January 1, 1997
William Foster
USA Representative
William Foster
Director of Engineering
Teledyne Isco, Inc.
4700 Superior Street
Lincoln, Nebraska 68504
Phone: (402) 464-0231
Fax: (402) 464-4543
60-3232-023
Rev. B
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
Application of Council Directive:
Manufacturer's Name:
Manufacturer's Address:
Description
Severity Applied
of
C
on
fo
r
Standard
m
ity
Equipment Type/Environment:
Trade Name/Model No:
Year of Issue:
Standards to which Conformity is Declared:
89/336/EEC – The EMC Directive
73/23/EEC – The Low Voltage Directive
Teledyne Isco, Inc.
4700 Superior, Lincoln, Nebraska 68504 USA
Mailing Address: P.O. Box 82531, Lincoln, NE 68501
Laboratory Equipment for Light Industrial/Commercial Environments
4200T Modem
2001
EN 55024-1998 EMC Requirements for Information Technology Equipment
EN 60950 Safety Requirements for Information Technology Equipment
FCC Part 68
Performance Criteria
Electrostatic Discharge
Level 2 - 4kV contact discharge
Level 3 - 8kV air discharge
B
B
EN61000-4-3
Radiated RF Immunity
80 MHz to 1000MHz 80% AM at 1kHz
Level 1 – 10V/m
A
EN61000-4-4
Electrical Fast Transient
EN61000-4-5
Surge on AC Lines
EN61000-4-6
Conducted RF on AC lines
EN61000-4-11
D
ec
la
ra
ti o
n
EN61000-4-2
B
2kV common mode,
1kV differential mode
B
150 kHz to 80 MHz,
3V rms, 80% modulated
B
Voltage Dips/Short Interruptions
0.5 cycle, each polarity/100%
B
EN 55022
RF Emissions
Group 1, Class A, Information Technology
Equipment
EN61000-3-2, 3-3
Harmonic, Flicker
C
E
Level 2 - 2kV on ac lines
We, the undersigned, hereby declare that the design of the equipment specified above conforms to the above Directive(s) and
Standards as of July 5, 2001.
William Foster
USA Representative
William Foster
Director of Engineering
Teledyne Isco, Inc.
4700 Superior Street
Lincoln, Nebraska 68504
Phone: (402) 464-0231
Fax: (402) 464-4543
60-3212-049
Rev. A
Warranty
Teledyne Isco One Year
Limited Factory Service Warranty *
Teledyne Isco warrants covered products
against failure due to faulty parts or
workmanship for a period of one year (365
days) from their shipping date, or from the
date of installation by an authorized Teledyne
Isco Service Engineer, as may be appropriate.
During the warranty period, repairs,
replacements, and labor shall be provided at
no charge. Teledyne Isco’s liability is strictly
limited to repair and/or replacement, at
Teledyne Isco’s sole discretion.
Failure of expendable items (e.g., charts,
ribbon, tubing, lamps, glassware, seals,
filters, fittings, and wetted parts of valves), or
from normal wear, accident, misuse,
corrosion, or lack of proper maintenance, is
not covered. Teledyne Isco assumes no
liability for any consequential damages.
This warranty does not cover loss, damage,
or defects resulting from transportation
between the customer’s facility and the repair
facility.
Teledyne Isco specifically disclaims any
warranty of merchantability or fitness for a
particular purpose.
This warranty applies only to products sold
under the Teledyne Isco trademark and is
made in lieu of any other warranty, written or
expressed.
No items may be returned for warranty
service without a return authorization number
issued from Teledyne Isco.
The warrantor is Teledyne Isco, Inc.
4700 Superior, Lincoln, NE 68504, U.S.A.
* This warranty applies to the USA and countries where Teledyne Isco Inc. does not have an authorized dealer. Customers in countries outside
the USA, where Teledyne Isco has an authorized dealer, should contact their Teledyne Isco dealer for warranty service.
In the event of instrument problems, always contact the Teledyne Isco Service Department, as problems can
often be diagnosed and corrected without requiring an on-site visit. In the U.S.A., contact Teledyne Isco Service
at the numbers listed below. International customers should contact their local Teledyne Isco agent or Teledyne
Isco International Customer Service.
Return Authorization
A return authorization number must be issued prior to shipping. Following authorization,
Teledyne Isco will pay for surface transportation (excluding packing/crating) both ways for 30
days from the beginning of the warranty period. After 30 days, expense for warranty shipments
will be the responsibility of the customer.
Shipping Address:
Mailing address:
Phone:
Fax:
Email:
February 1, 2006 P/N 60-1002-040 Rev C
Teledyne Isco, Inc. - Attention Repair Service
4700 Superior Street
Lincoln NE 68504 USA
Teledyne Isco, Inc.
PO Box 82531
Lincoln NE 68501 USA
Repair service: (800)775-2965 (lab instruments)
(800)228-4373 (samplers & flow meters)
Sales & General Information (800)228-4373 (USA & Canada)
(402) 465-3001
iscoservice@teledyne.com
Web site: www.isco.com
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