************************************************************************** USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA ...

************************************************************************** USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA    ...
**************************************************************************
USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA
UFGS-33 46 16 (April 2008)
Change 1 - 11/14
-------------------------Preparing Activity: USACE
Superseding
UFGS-33 46 16 (July 2006)
UNIFIED FACILITIES GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
References are in agreement with UMRL dated January 2016
**************************************************************************
SECTION TABLE OF CONTENTS
DIVISION 33 - UTILITIES
SECTION 33 46 16
SUBDRAINAGE SYSTEM
04/08
PART 1
GENERAL
1.1
MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
1.1.1
Pipe Subdrains
1.1.2
Blind or French Drains
1.1.3
Manholes
1.1.4
Flushing and Observation Risers
1.1.5
Filter Fabric
1.2
REFERENCES
1.3
SUBMITTALS
1.4
DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING
1.4.1
Delivery and Storage
1.4.2
Handling
PART 2
PRODUCTS
2.1
PIPE FOR SUBDRAINS
2.1.1
Concrete
2.1.2
Clay and Perforated Clay
2.1.2.1
Clay
2.1.2.2
Perforated Clay
2.1.3
Perforated Concrete
2.1.4
Perforated Corrugated Steel
2.1.5
Perforated Corrugated Steel, Fully Bitumin. Coated
2.1.6
Drain Tile
2.1.7
Porous Concrete
2.1.8
Perforated Corrugated Aluminum Alloy
2.1.9
Perforated Corrugated Aluminum Alloy, Fully Bitumin. Coated
2.1.10
Precoated Corrugated Steel
2.1.11
Plastic
2.1.11.1
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS)
2.1.11.2
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Fittings
2.1.11.3
Corrugated Polyethylene (PE) and Fittings
2.1.11.4
Pipe Perforations
2.1.11.4.1
Circular Perforations in Plastic Pipe
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 1
2.1.11.4.2
Slotted Perforations in Plastic Pipe
2.2
FILTER FABRIC
2.3
SUBDRAIN FILTER AND BEDDING MATERIAL
2.4
DRAINAGE STRUCTURES
2.4.1
Concrete
2.4.2
Mortar
2.4.3
Manholes and Appurtenances
2.4.3.1
Precast Reinforced Concrete Manhole Risers and Tops
2.4.3.2
Precast Concrete Segmental Blocks
2.4.3.3
Precast Concrete Manhole Bases
2.4.3.4
Brick
2.4.3.5
Prefabricated Corrugated Metal
2.4.3.6
Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polyester (FRP)
2.4.3.7
Frames and Covers or Gratings
2.4.3.8
Steel Ladder
PART 3
EXECUTION
3.1
EXCAVATION AND BEDDING FOR SUBDRAIN SYSTEMS
3.2
MANHOLES AND FLUSHING AND OBSERVATION RISERS
3.2.1
Manholes
3.2.2
Flushing and Observation Risers
3.3
INSTALLATION OF FILTER FABRIC AND PIPE FOR SUBDRAINS
3.3.1
Installation of Filter Fabric
3.3.1.1
Overlaps on Perforated or Slotted Pipes
3.3.1.2
Installation on Open-Joint Pipe
3.3.1.3
Trench Lining and Overlaps
3.3.2
Installation of Pipe for Subdrains
3.3.2.1
Pipelaying
3.3.2.2
Jointings
3.3.2.2.1
Nonperforated Concrete and Clay Pipe
3.3.2.2.2
Perforated Concrete and Clay Pipe
3.3.2.2.3
Perforated Corrugated Metal Pipe or Bituminous Coated,
Perforated Corrugated Metal Pipe
3.3.2.2.4
Drain Tile
3.3.2.2.5
Porous Concrete Pipe
3.3.2.2.6
Perforated Asbestos-Cement Pipe
3.3.2.2.7
Bituminous Coated or Uncoated Semicircular Steel Pipe
3.3.2.2.8
Bituminous Coated or Uncoated Corrugated Aluminum Pipe
3.3.2.2.9
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS)
3.3.2.2.10
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe
3.3.2.2.11
Perforated Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe
3.4
INSTALLATION OF AND BACKFILLING FOR BLIND OR FRENCH DRAINS
3.5
INSTALLATION OF FILTER MATERIAL AND BACKFILLING FOR SUBDRAINS
3.6
TESTS
3.6.1
Pipe Test
3.6.2
JP-4 Fuel Resistance Test
-- End of Section Table of Contents --
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 2
**************************************************************************
USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA
UFGS-33 46 16 (April 2008)
Change 1 - 11/14
-------------------------Preparing Activity: USACE
Superseding
UFGS-33 46 16 (July 2006)
UNIFIED FACILITIES GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
References are in agreement with UMRL dated January 2016
**************************************************************************
SECTION 33 46 16
SUBDRAINAGE SYSTEM
04/08
**************************************************************************
NOTE: This guide specification covers the
requirements for subdrainage systems for drainage of
water from under the ground.
Adhere to UFC 1-300-02 Unified Facilities Guide
Specifications (UFGS) Format Standard when editing
this guide specification or preparing new project
specification sections. Edit this guide
specification for project specific requirements by
adding, deleting, or revising text. For bracketed
items, choose applicable items(s) or insert
appropriate information.
Remove information and requirements not required in
respective project, whether or not brackets are
present.
Comments, suggestions and recommended changes for
this guide specification are welcome and should be
submitted as a Criteria Change Request (CCR).
**************************************************************************
PART 1
1.1
GENERAL
MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
**************************************************************************
NOTE: When filter fabric is not used in the
drainage system, the requirement for filter fabric
will be deleted from this specification.
The paragraph as written contemplates taking bids on
a unit-price basis. When it is determined that a
lump sum contract may be more advisable, the
paragraph will be deleted.
**************************************************************************
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 3
1.1.1
Pipe Subdrains
The length of pipe installed will be measured from end to end along the
centerlines without any deduction for the diameter of the manholes. Pipe
will be paid for according to the number of linear meters feet of subdrains
placed in the accepted work. Payment for bedding and filter materials,
except filter fabric, will be included in the payment for the pipe subdrain
system.
1.1.2
Blind or French Drains
Blind or french drains will be paid for by the linear meter footand
measured from end to end along the centerlines of the completed drains.
1.1.3
Manholes
Manholes to be paid for will be the number of manholes completed with base,
rungs or ladders, frames, and covers or gratings (where specified)
constructed in the accepted work.
1.1.4
Flushing and Observation Risers
Flushing and observation risers to be paid for will be the number of
flushing and observation risers completed with frames and covers (where
specified) constructed in the accepted work.
1.1.5
Filter Fabric
Filter fabric shall be measured for payment by the square [meter yard] [
meter foot] in place. Overlapped joints and seams shall be measured as a
single layer of cloth.
1.2
REFERENCES
**************************************************************************
NOTE: This paragraph is used to list the
publications cited in the text of the guide
specification. The publications are referred to in
the text by basic designation only and listed in
this paragraph by organization, designation, date,
and title.
Use the Reference Wizard's Check Reference feature
when you add a RID outside of the Section's
Reference Article to automatically place the
reference in the Reference Article. Also use the
Reference Wizard's Check Reference feature to update
the issue dates.
References not used in the text will automatically
be deleted from this section of the project
specification when you choose to reconcile
references in the publish print process.
**************************************************************************
The publications listed below form a part of this specification to the
extent referenced. The publications are referred to within the text by the
basic designation only.
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 4
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS
(AASHTO)
AASHTO M 190
(2004; R 2012) Standard Specification for
Bituminous Coated Corrugated Metal Culvert
Pipe and Pipe Arches
AASHTO M 252
(2009; R 2012) Standard Specification for
Corrugated Polyethylene Drainage Pipe
AASHTO M 294
(2015) Standard Specification for
Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe, 300- to
1500-mm Diameter
ASTM INTERNATIONAL (ASTM)
ASTM A123/A123M
(2013) Standard Specification for Zinc
(Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and
Steel Products
ASTM A227/A227M
(2006; R 2011) Standard Specification for
Steel Wire, Cold-Drawn for Mechanical
Springs
ASTM A229/A229M
(2012) Standard Specification for Steel
Wire, Oil-Tempered for Mechanical Springs
ASTM A27/A27M
(2013) Standard Specification for Steel
Castings, Carbon, for General Application
ASTM A47/A47M
(1999; R 2014) Standard Specification for
Ferritic Malleable Iron Castings
ASTM A48/A48M
(2003; R 2012) Standard Specification for
Gray Iron Castings
ASTM A760/A760M
(2015) Standard Specification for
Corrugated Steel Pipe, Metallic-Coated for
Sewers and Drains
ASTM A762/A762M
(20015) Standard Specification for
Corrugated Steel Pipe, Polymer Precoated
for Sewers and Drains
ASTM B745/B745M
(2015) Standard Specification for
Corrugated Aluminum Pipe for Sewers and
Drains
ASTM C139
(2014) Standard Specification for Concrete
Masonry Units for Construction of Catch
Basins and Manholes
ASTM C14
(2015) Standard Specification for Concrete
Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe
ASTM C14M
(2014) Standard Specification for Concrete
Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe
(Metric)
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 5
Sewer Pipe and Fittings
ASTM D3034
(20115) Standard Specification for Type
PSM Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe
and Fittings
ASTM D3212
(2007; R 2013) Standard Specification for
Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipes
Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals
ASTM D3753
(2012; E 2013) Glass-Fiber-Reinforced
Polyester Manholes and Wetwells
ASTM D422
(1963; R 2007; E 2014; E 2014)
Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
ASTM D4632/D4632M
(2015a) Grab Breaking Load and Elongation
of Geotextiles
ASTM F667/F667M
(2015) Standard Specification for 3
through 24 in. Corrugated Polyethylene
Pipe and Fittings
ASTM F758
(2014) Smooth-Wall Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
(PVC) Plastic Underdrain Systems for
Highway, Airport, and Similar Drainage
ASTM F949
(2015) Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC)
Corrugated Sewer Pipe with a Smooth
Interior and Fittings
1.3
SUBMITTALS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Review submittal description (SD) definitions
in Section 01 33 00 SUBMITTAL PROCEDURES and edit
the following list to reflect only the submittals
required for the project.
The Guide Specification technical editors have
designated those items that require Government
approval, due to their complexity or criticality,
with a "G." Generally, other submittal items can be
reviewed by the Contractor's Quality Control
System. Only add a “G” to an item, if the submittal
is sufficiently important or complex in context of
the project.
For submittals requiring Government approval on Army
projects, a code of up to three characters within
the submittal tags may be used following the "G"
designation to indicate the approving authority.
Codes for Army projects using the Resident
Management System (RMS) are: "AE" for
Architect-Engineer; "DO" for District Office
(Engineering Division or other organization in the
District Office); "AO" for Area Office; "RO" for
Resident Office; and "PO" for Project Office. Codes
following the "G" typically are not used for Navy,
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 7
Sewer Pipe and Fittings
ASTM D3034
(20115) Standard Specification for Type
PSM Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe
and Fittings
ASTM D3212
(2007; R 2013) Standard Specification for
Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipes
Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals
ASTM D3753
(2012; E 2013) Glass-Fiber-Reinforced
Polyester Manholes and Wetwells
ASTM D422
(1963; R 2007; E 2014; E 2014)
Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
ASTM D4632/D4632M
(2015a) Grab Breaking Load and Elongation
of Geotextiles
ASTM F667/F667M
(2015) Standard Specification for 3
through 24 in. Corrugated Polyethylene
Pipe and Fittings
ASTM F758
(2014) Smooth-Wall Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
(PVC) Plastic Underdrain Systems for
Highway, Airport, and Similar Drainage
ASTM F949
(2015) Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC)
Corrugated Sewer Pipe with a Smooth
Interior and Fittings
1.3
SUBMITTALS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Review submittal description (SD) definitions
in Section 01 33 00 SUBMITTAL PROCEDURES and edit
the following list to reflect only the submittals
required for the project.
The Guide Specification technical editors have
designated those items that require Government
approval, due to their complexity or criticality,
with a "G." Generally, other submittal items can be
reviewed by the Contractor's Quality Control
System. Only add a “G” to an item, if the submittal
is sufficiently important or complex in context of
the project.
For submittals requiring Government approval on Army
projects, a code of up to three characters within
the submittal tags may be used following the "G"
designation to indicate the approving authority.
Codes for Army projects using the Resident
Management System (RMS) are: "AE" for
Architect-Engineer; "DO" for District Office
(Engineering Division or other organization in the
District Office); "AO" for Area Office; "RO" for
Resident Office; and "PO" for Project Office. Codes
following the "G" typically are not used for Navy,
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 7
Air Force, and NASA projects.
An "S" following a submittal item indicates that the
submittal is required for the Sustainability
Notebook to fulfill federally mandated sustainable
requirements in accordance with Section 01 33 29
SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING.
Choose the first bracketed item for Navy, Air Force
and NASA projects, or choose the second bracketed
item for Army projects.
**************************************************************************
Government approval is required for submittals with a "G" designation;
submittals not having a "G" designation are for [Contractor Quality Control
approval.] [information only. When used, a designation following the "G"
designation identifies the office that will review the submittal for the
Government.] Submittals with an "S" are for inclusion in the
Sustainability Notebook, in conformance to Section 01 33 29 SUSTAINABILITY
REPORTING. Submit the following in accordance with Section 01 33 00
SUBMITTAL PROCEDURES:
SD-04 Samples
Filter Fabric
Pipe for Subdrains
SD-07 Certificates
Filter Fabric
Pipe for Subdrains
1.4
1.4.1
DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING
Delivery and Storage
**************************************************************************
NOTE: This time restriction applies to pipe
containing normal quantities of ultraviolet (UV)
inhibitors such as carbon black or titanium dioxide,
in geographic areas receiving normal UV exposure.
Delays in installation longer than 6 months, from
time of manufacturer to time of installation, may be
allowed when the Contractor can show that the pipe
has been covered or stored indoors for the duration
of the additional delay.
**************************************************************************
Inspect materials delivered to site for damage; unload, and store with
minimum handling. Do not store materials directly on the ground. The
inside of pipes and fittings shall be free of dirt and debris. Keep,
during shipment and storage, filter fabric wrapped in burlap or similar
heavy duty protective covering. The storage area shall protect the fabric
from mud, soil, dust, and debris. Filter fabric materials that are not to
be installed immediately shall not be stored in direct sunlight. Install
plastic pipe within 6 months from the date of manufacture unless otherwise
approved.
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 8
1.4.2
Handling
Handle materials in such a manner as to ensure delivery to the trench in
sound undamaged condition. Pipe shall be carried and not dragged to the
trench.
PART 2
2.1
PRODUCTS
PIPE FOR SUBDRAINS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: The type or types of pipe to be used will be
indicated on the drawings. Where a Contractor's
option is to be permitted, the types that are
acceptable will be included in the specification.
Designers' instructions, including required strength
of pipe, are in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5320-5D.
In specifying pipe for subdrains, pipe of comparable
strength for the various sizes and kinds of pipe
will be specified.
Perforation and slot sizing is based on embedment
gradation, flow requirements, and structural
considerations. The embedment material gradation is
in turn based on the gradation of the surrounding
soil. In order to minimize the migration of fines
into the coarser material while maintaining adequate
permeability, the following criteria should be met:
All soils (except clays without a sand or silt
fraction):
(15 percent size of drainage or filter material)/(85
percent size of material to be drained)
= 5 (max)
(50 percent size of drainage or filter material)/(50
percent size of material to be drained)
= 25 (max)
(15 percent size of drainage or filter material)/(85
percent size of material to be drained)
= 5 (max)
(15 percent size of drainage or filter material =
0.4 (max)
All Soils
(15 percent size of drainage or filter material)/(15
percent size of material to be drained)
= 5 (min)
(50 percent size of drainage or filter
material)/(slot width) = 1.2 (min)
(50 percent size of drainage or filter
material)/(hole diameter) = 1.0 (min)
**************************************************************************
Submit samples of pipe, and pipe fittings, before starting the work.
for subdrains shall be of the types and sizes indicated. Submit
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 9
Pipe
certifications from the manufacturers attesting that materials meet
specification requirements. Certificates are required for drain pipe,
drain tile, and fittings.
2.1.1
Concrete
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Type II cement normally will be specified,
but Type V cement will be specified when the soils
contain more than 0.2 percent water-soluable sulfate
as SO4 or the water contains more than 1,000 parts
per million sulfates. Type I cement may be
permitted when the water-soluable sulfates in the
soil are less than 0.1 percent and the sulfates in
the water are less than 150 parts per million.
**************************************************************************
Class 1, 2, or 3 as indicated and conform to ASTM C14MASTM C14 using
ASTM C150/C150M portland cement Type [II][V].
2.1.2
2.1.2.1
Clay and Perforated Clay
Clay
Clay pipe shall be either standard or extra strength as indicated and shall
conform to ASTM C700.
2.1.2.2
Perforated Clay
Perforated clay pipe shall be either standard or extra strength as
indicated and shall conform to ASTM C700. Plain-end pipe conforming to the
strength and perforation requirements of ASTM C700 will also be acceptable
if provided with spring wire clips of approved type to maintain a taut but
elastic joint between the sections of pipe when laid. Clips shall be
constructed of not smaller than No. 9 hard-drawn or oil-tempered steel wire
conforming to ASTM A227/A227M or ASTM A229/A229M, and shall be coated with
an approved rust preventive coating. Wire clips shall withstand 25 cycles
of alternate loading and unloading using a stressing force of 556 N 125
pounds. The permanent set resulting from this test shall be less than 5
percent, based on the original length of the fastener. Compression joints
conforming to ASTM C425 will also be acceptable.
2.1.3
Perforated Concrete
Conform to ASTM C444M ASTM C444, Type [I][II] perforations and to ASTM C14M
ASTM C14, Class 1, 2, or 3 as indicated.
2.1.4
Perforated Corrugated Steel
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Corrugated steel pipe may be installed in
soils with a pH range of 6.0 to 8.0 provided the
resistivity is greater than 2,000 ohm-cm. A
bituminous coating should be used when soil or
ground-water conditions are at or near these limits.
**************************************************************************
Perforated corrugated steel pipe shall conform to ASTM A760/A760M, Type
III. Sheet thickness of pipe shall be as indicated.
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 10
2.1.5
Perforated Corrugated Steel, Fully Bitumin. Coated
Perforated corrugated steel pipe, fully bituminous coated, shall conform to
ASTM A760/A760M, Type III, with a coating conforming to AASHTO M 190, Type
A. Sheet thickness of pipe shall be as indicated.
2.1.6
Drain Tile
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Drain tile will not be used for general
airfield or heliport construction, drainage systems
for structures, or for drains crossing adjacent to
paved areas, and will be used only for subsoil
drainage for drill areas, parade grounds, athletic
fields, and other areas similarly used that are
subject to lightweight vehicle traffic only, and
where conditions justify its use. Special quality
of drain tile will be specified for tile laid in
soils that are markedly acid or that contain unusual
quantities of sulfates.
**************************************************************************
Clay drain tile shall conform to ASTM C4 standard, extra quality or heavy
duty as indicated. Concrete drain tile shall conform to ASTM C412M
ASTM C412 standard, extra, heavy duty extra, or special quality as
indicated.
2.1.7
Porous Concrete
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Type II cement normally will be specified,
but Type V cement will be specified when the soils
contain more than 0.2 percent water-soluable sulfate
as SO4 or the water contains more than 1,000 parts
per million sulfates. Type I cement may be
permitted when the water-soluable sulfates in the
soil are less than 0.1 percent and the sulfates in
the water are less than 150 parts per million.
**************************************************************************
Conform to ASTM C654M ASTM C654, standard or extra strength as indicated
and using ASTM C150/C150M portland cement Type [II][V].
2.1.8
Perforated Corrugated Aluminum Alloy
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Corrugated aluminum pipe without bituminous
coating may be installed in soil with pH range of
5.5 to 8.5 if the resistivity is greater than 500
ohm-cm or 5.0 to 9.0 where the resistivity is
greater than 1,500 ohm-cm. This type of pipe should
not be installed in material classified as OH or OL
according to the Unified Soil Classification System
as presented in ASTM D2487. Bare aluminum alloy
pipe has satisfactory corrosion resistance in clean
granular materials even when subjected to sea water.
**************************************************************************
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 11
Perforated corrugated aluminum alloy pipe shall conform to ASTM B745/B745M,
Type III, Class [1] [2]. Sheet thickness of pipe shall be as indicated.
2.1.9
Perforated Corrugated Aluminum Alloy, Fully Bitumin. Coated
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Corrugated aluminum pipe, fully bituminous
coated, may be considered in soils where the pH
range is 6.0 to 8.0 and resistivity is greater than
2,000 ohm-cm.
**************************************************************************
Perforated corrugated aluminum alloy pipe, fully bituminous coated shall
conform to ASTM B745/B745M, Type III, Class [1] [2] with a bituminous
coating conforming to AASHTO M 190, Type A.
2.1.10
Precoated Corrugated Steel
Precoated corrugated steel pipe shall conform to ASTM A762/A762M, Type III.
2.1.11
Plastic
Plastic pipe shall contain ultraviolet inhibitor to provide protection from
exposure to direct sunlight.
2.1.11.1
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS)
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) piping and fittings shall conform to
ASTM D2751, with maximum SDR of 35.
2.1.11.2
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Fittings
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe and fittings shall conform to [ASTM D3034,] [
ASTM F949,] [ASTM F758, Type PS 46].
2.1.11.3
Corrugated Polyethylene (PE) and Fittings
Use [ASTM F667/F667M for pipes 80 to 150 mm 3 to 6 inches in diameter,
inclusive, ASTM F667/F667M for pipes 200 to 600 mm 8 to 24 inches in
diameter] [AASHTO M 252 for pipes 80 to 250 mm 3 to 10 inches, AASHTO M 294
for pipes 300 to 600 mm 12 to 24 inches in diameter]. Fittings shall be
manufacturer's standard type and shall conform to the indicated
specification.
2.1.11.4
Pipe Perforations
Water inlet area shall be a minimum of 1,058.4 mm squared per linear meter
0.5 square inch per linear foot. Manufacturer's standard perforated pipe
which essentially meets these requirements may be substituted with prior
approval of the Contracting Officer.
2.1.11.4.1
Circular Perforations in Plastic Pipe
Circular holes shall be cleanly cut not more than 9.5 mm 3/8 inch or less
than 4.8 mm 3/16 inch in diameter and arranged in rows parallel to the
longitudinal axis of the pipe. Perforations shall be approximately 76.2 mm
3 inches center-to-center along rows. The rows shall be approximately 38.1
mm 1-1/2 inches apart and arranged in a staggered pattern so that all
perforations lie at the midpoint between perforations in adjacent rows.
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 12
The rows shall be spaced over not more than 155 degrees of circumference.
The spigot or tongue end of the pipe shall not be perforated for a length
equal to the depth of the socket, and perforations shall continue at
uniform spacing over the entire length of the pipe.
2.1.11.4.2
Slotted Perforations in Plastic Pipe
Circumferential slots shall be cleanly cut so as not to restrict the inflow
of water and uniformly spaced along the length and circumference of the
tubing. Width of slots shall not exceed 3.2 mm 1/8 inch nor be less than
0.8 mm 1/32 inch. The length of individual slots shall not exceed 31.75 mm
1-1/4 inches on 80 mm 3 inch diameter tubing, 10 percent of the tubing
inside nominal circumference on 100 to 200 mm 4 to 8 inch diameter tubing,
and 63.5 mm 2-1/2 inches on 250 mm 10 inch diameter tubing. Rows of slots
shall be symmetrically spaced so that they are fully contained in 2
quadrants of the pipe. Slots shall be centered in the valleys of the
corrugations of profile wall pipe.
2.2
FILTER FABRIC
**************************************************************************
NOTE: When filter fabric is not used in the
drainage system, the requirement for filter fabric
will be deleted from this specification. When
filter fabric is used in the drainage system it may
be specified either by referencing requirements in
Section 31 05 22 GEOTEXTILES USED AS FILTERS (first
set of brackets), or by specifying the requirements
in this paragraph (remaining brackets).
Design criteria for filter fabrics are based on the
equivalent opening size (AOS), percent open area
(POA), and filter fabric permeability (Kg). The EOS
is defined as the number of the US Standard Sieve
having openings closest in size to the largest
openings in the filter fabric. The AOS specified
should be based on the criteria described below. To
perform piping criteria computations, the AOS must
be expressed as the equivalent US standard sieve
opening in millimeters. The AOS can be used for
woven and nonwoven fabrics. Where a designer
desires to use "percent open area," the percent open
area should be based on the criteria below. The
percent open area should be used only for woven
fabrics. The permeability test can be used for
nonwoven and woven fabrics.
The AOS test is a means of evaluating the piping
resistance of a filter fabric, and the percent open
area test is intended to assure adequate flow
through the fabric and adequate resistance to
reduction in permeability over time (clogging). The
percent open area test is an indirect test which has
been shown to correlate with a woven fabric's long
term permeability. The permeability test measures
the ability of the filter fabric to pass water
without any soil on the fabric. This test does not
provide a direct measure of field performance of the
filter fabric.
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 13
12 feet. The ladder will be not less than 400 mm 16 inches in width, with
19.1 mm 3/4 inch diameter rungs spaced 304.8 mm 12 inches apart. The two
stringers shall be a minimum 9.5 mm 3/8 inch thick and 50.8 mm 2 inches
wide. Ladder shall be adequately anchored to the wall by means of steel
inserts spaced not more than 1.83 m 6 feet apart vertically, and shall be
so installed as to provide at least 152.4 mm 6 inches of space between the
wall and the rungs. Ladders and inserts shall be galvanized after
fabrication in conformance with ASTM A123/A123M. The wall along the line
of the ladder shall be vertical for its entire length.
PART 3
3.1
EXECUTION
EXCAVATION AND BEDDING FOR SUBDRAIN SYSTEMS
Trenching and excavation, including the removal of rock and unstable
material, shall be in accordance with Section 31 00 00 EARTHWORK. Bedding
material shall be placed in the trench as indicated or as required as
replacement materials used in those areas where unstable materials were
removed. Compaction of the bedding material shall be as specified for
cohesionless material in Section 31 00 00 EARTHWORK.
3.2
MANHOLES AND FLUSHING AND OBSERVATION RISERS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: The details indicating size, shape,
materials, thickness of various sections, the finish
required, and amounts or reinforcing, if any, for
inlets, catch basins, walls, headwalls, and manholes
will be shown in the drawings. Also, the shape,
size, thickness of sections, kind of materials, and
weight for frames, covers, and gratings for inlets,
catch basins, and manholes, as well as the amount of
waterway opening for inlet and catch basins will be
indicated in the drawings. The covers and gratings
will be designed to have ample strength for the
traffic conditions to which they may be subjected.
Fixed ladders or ladder rungs will be provided for
manholes 3.6 m 12 feet or deeper measured from top
of grate to invert of outlet pipe.
**************************************************************************
3.2.1
Manholes
Manholes shall be installed complete with frames and covers or gratings at
the locations and within the limits and sizes indicated. Manholes shall be
constructed of one of the materials specified for manholes in paragraph
DRAINAGE STRUCTURES. Joints shall be completely filled and shall be smooth
and free of surplus mortar or mastic on the inside of the structure. Brick
manholes shall be plastered with 12.7 mm 1/2 inch of mortar over the entire
outside surface of the walls. Brick for square or rectangular structures
shall be laid in stretcher courses with a header course every sixth
course. Brick for round structures shall be laid radially with every sixth
course laid as a stretcher course. Ladders shall be installed in manholes
as indicated. Base for manholes shall be either precast or cast-in-place
concrete.
3.2.2
Flushing and Observation Risers
Flushing and observation riser pipes with frames and covers shall be
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 19
installed at the locations indicated. Risers shall be constructed of
precast concrete, vitrified clay, or [galvanized] [bituminous coated]
corrugated metal pipe. Joining of riser pipes to the subdrain system shall
be as indicated.
3.3
INSTALLATION OF FILTER FABRIC AND PIPE FOR SUBDRAINS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Outlets for subsoil drains and for blind
drains, if possible, within reasonable costs, will
be designed so that severe rainstorms will neither
submerge the drains nor back up water into the
drains. Where outlets are not subject to backwater
or flooding, the outlets will be provided with
grates or heavy screens to prevent acts of vandalism
or entrance by rodents. If suitable outlets for
blind or french drains into pervious strata of
gravel or sand with a lower water table are not
obtainable, pipe outlets may be required. The open
joint or perforated pipe will extend into the filter
material of the blind or french drain a sufficient
distance to provide ample waterway openings for the
particular drain and will extend through the
impervious material, usually with closed joints, to
a suitable outlet. Outlets subject to flooding will
be provided with suitable and properly installed
check valves or flap gates. If outlet pipes are
necessary for blind or french drains, and are to be
paid for as a separate item, such requirement will
be clearly specified, giving the various kinds and
sizes of pipe required.
**************************************************************************
3.3.1
Installation of Filter Fabric
**************************************************************************
NOTE: When filter fabric is not used in the
drainage system, the requirement for filter fabric
will be deleted from this specification.
**************************************************************************
3.3.1.1
Overlaps on Perforated or Slotted Pipes
**************************************************************************
NOTE: When the permeability of the backfill
material is sufficient so that only a single-stage
filter is required between the backfill and
perforated pipe, filter fabric may be used for this
single-stage filter. In this case the filter fabric
should wrap the collector pipes, and permanent
devices to secure the fabric to the pipe are not
needed since the fabric will be held in place by the
backfill material once the installation is
completed. Filter fabric has been satisfactorily
secured to pipes with tape or string placed at about
300 mm 1 foot intervals along the overlap. The free
ends of the cloth have been folded and stapled.
Prefabricated filter fabric sheaths have also been
used successfully. The seams for such sheaths need
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 20
The thickness and gradation of the filter material
for use with pipe subdrains and blind or french
drains will be determined by soil conditions and
subsoil drainage requirements. Filter material will
be graded in accordance with the requirements of UFC
3-230-06A, as applicable. TABLE I includes the
requirements for each specific installation. The
filter material placed adjacent to perforated pipe
and open joints will be of a size that will prevent
the entrance of any of the filter material into the
drain. Graded (composite or layered) filters will
be used where specified, and cross sections will be
as indicated on the drawings. For pipe with
perforations, the filter material will extend from a
point not less than 150 mm 6 inches below the pipe
to a point up the sides of the pipe not less than 50
mm 2 inches above the horizontal centerline. For
bell-and-spigot or tongue-and-groove pipe laid as
specified in paragraph EXCAVATION AND BEDDING FOR
SUBDRAIN SYSTEMS, additional filter material not
less than 150 mm 6 inches thick and 300 mm 12 inches
wide will be placed entirely around the joints.
Sieve sizes and gradation requirement are inserted
in TABLE I using the applicable values from TABLE
II. Where site conditions require more than one
filter gradation, the drawings will indicate areas
of different gradation and the table expanded.
**************************************************************************
[Provide subdrain filter and bedding material meeting the requirments in
Section 32 11 10 DRAINAGE LAYER][Subdrain filter and bedding material must
be washed sand, sand and gravel, crushed stone, crushed stone screenings,
or slag composed of hard, tough, durable particles free from adherent
coatings. Filter material shall not contain corrosive agents, organic
matter, or soft, friable, thin, or elongated particles and shall be evenly
graded between the limits specified in TABLE I. TABLE II shows values that
can be used to complete TABLE I. Gradation curves will exhibit no abrupt
changes in slope denoting skip or gap grading. Filter materials shall be
clean and free from soil and foreign materials. Filter blankets found to
be dirty or otherwise contaminated shall be removed and replaced with
material meeting the specific requirements, at no additional cost to the
Government.
TABLE I.
Sieve Designation
[_____]
FILTER GRADATION
Percent by Weight Passing
Grdation A
Gradation B
Gradation C
[_____]
[_____]
[_____]
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 16
TABLE II
Type I
Gradation E 11
ASTM C33/C33M
Type II
Gradation 57
ASTM C33/C33M
Type III
Gradation [_____]
[_____]
ASTM D422 Sieve Size,
mm
Percent Passing
Percent Passing
Percent Passing
37.5 1-1/2 inch
--
100
[_____]
25.0 1 inch
--
90 - 100
[_____]
9.5 3/8 inch
100
25 - 60
[_____]
4.75 No. 4
95 - 100
5 - 40
[_____]
2.36 No. 8
--
0 - 20
[_____]
1.18 No. 16
45 - 80
--
[_____]
0.30 No. 50
10 - 30
--
[_____]
0.15 No. 100
0 - 10
--
[_____]
]
2.4
2.4.1
DRAINAGE STRUCTURES
Concrete
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Delete the last sentence when exposed-to-view
concrete surfaces will not be subjected to the
action of deicing chemicals. The required air
contents are for concrete that will be subjected to
freezing weather and the possible action of deicing
chemicals. In climates where freezing is not a
factor, but where air entrainment is used in local
commercial practice to improve the workability and
placability of concrete, concrete having air content
of 3 to 6 percent may be specified.
**************************************************************************
Except for precast concrete, reinforcement shall conform to the
requirements for [21] [_____] MPa [3,000] [_____] psi concrete in Section
03 30 00.00 10 CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE. The concrete mixtures shall have
air content, by volume of concrete, based on measurements made immediately
after discharge from the mixer of [5 to 7] [3 to 6] percent when
coarse-aggregate maximum size is 38.1 mm 1-1/2 inches or smaller. Air
content shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C231/C231M. The
concrete covering over steel reinforcing shall be not less than 25.4 mm 1
inch thick for covers and not less than 38.1 mm 1-1/2 inches thick for
walls and flooring. Concrete covering deposited directly against the
ground shall be at least 76.2 mm 3 inches thick between the steel and the
ground. Expansion-joint filler material shall conform to ASTM D1751 or
ASTM D1752. Exposed concrete surfaces, such as drainage structures that
form a continuation of concrete curbs and gutters, shall be given a
protective coating of linseed oil as specified in Section 32 16 13 CONCRETE
SIDEWALKS AND CURBS AND GUTTERS.
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 17
2.4.2
Mortar
Mortar for pipe joints and connections to other drainage structures shall
be composed of one part by volume of portland cement and two parts of sand.
The quantity of water in the mixture shall be sufficient to produce a stiff
workable mortar. Water shall be clean and free of injurious acids,
alkalies, and organic impurities. The mortar shall be used within 30
minutes from the time the ingredients are mixed with water.
2.4.3
2.4.3.1
Manholes and Appurtenances
Precast Reinforced Concrete Manhole Risers and Tops
Conform to ASTM C478M ASTM C478.
2.4.3.2
Precast Concrete Segmental Blocks
Precast concrete segmental blocks shall conform to ASTM C139 and shall be
not more than 203.2 mm 8 inches thick, not less than 203.2 mm 8 inches
long, and of such shape that the joints can be effectively sealed and
bonded with cement mortar.
2.4.3.3
Precast Concrete Manhole Bases
If precast concrete manhole bases are used, the bases shall conform to
ASTM C478MASTM C478 and shall be of such a design as to effect suitable
connection with influent and effluent lines and to provide a suitable base
structure for riser sections.
2.4.3.4
Brick
Brick shall conform to ASTM C62, Grade SW, or ASTM C55, Grade S-I or S-II.
Mortar for jointing and plastering shall consist of one part portland
cement and two parts fine sand. Lime may be added to the mortar in the
amount of not more than 25 percent by volume of cement.
2.4.3.5
Prefabricated Corrugated Metal
Steel manholes and risers shall be fabricated of at least [_____] gauge
galvanized [and bituminous coated] corrugated metal.
2.4.3.6
Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polyester (FRP)
FRP manholes shall conform to ASTM D3753.
2.4.3.7
Frames and Covers or Gratings
Frames and gratings, or frames and covers, except as otherwise permitted,
shall be of either cast iron with tensile strength test not less than
ASTM A48/A48M Class 25 or steel conforming to ASTM A27/A27M, Class 65-35.
Weight, shape, and size shall be as indicated. Frames and covers not
subjected to vehicular traffic or storage may be of malleable iron where
indicated. The malleable-iron frames and covers shall conform to
ASTM A47/A47M and shall be of the weight, shape, and size indicated.
2.4.3.8
Steel Ladder
A steel ladder shall be provided where the depth of a manhole exceeds 3.66 m
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 18
12 feet. The ladder will be not less than 400 mm 16 inches in width, with
19.1 mm 3/4 inch diameter rungs spaced 304.8 mm 12 inches apart. The two
stringers shall be a minimum 9.5 mm 3/8 inch thick and 50.8 mm 2 inches
wide. Ladder shall be adequately anchored to the wall by means of steel
inserts spaced not more than 1.83 m 6 feet apart vertically, and shall be
so installed as to provide at least 152.4 mm 6 inches of space between the
wall and the rungs. Ladders and inserts shall be galvanized after
fabrication in conformance with ASTM A123/A123M. The wall along the line
of the ladder shall be vertical for its entire length.
PART 3
3.1
EXECUTION
EXCAVATION AND BEDDING FOR SUBDRAIN SYSTEMS
Trenching and excavation, including the removal of rock and unstable
material, shall be in accordance with Section 31 00 00 EARTHWORK. Bedding
material shall be placed in the trench as indicated or as required as
replacement materials used in those areas where unstable materials were
removed. Compaction of the bedding material shall be as specified for
cohesionless material in Section 31 00 00 EARTHWORK.
3.2
MANHOLES AND FLUSHING AND OBSERVATION RISERS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: The details indicating size, shape,
materials, thickness of various sections, the finish
required, and amounts or reinforcing, if any, for
inlets, catch basins, walls, headwalls, and manholes
will be shown in the drawings. Also, the shape,
size, thickness of sections, kind of materials, and
weight for frames, covers, and gratings for inlets,
catch basins, and manholes, as well as the amount of
waterway opening for inlet and catch basins will be
indicated in the drawings. The covers and gratings
will be designed to have ample strength for the
traffic conditions to which they may be subjected.
Fixed ladders or ladder rungs will be provided for
manholes 3.6 m 12 feet or deeper measured from top
of grate to invert of outlet pipe.
**************************************************************************
3.2.1
Manholes
Manholes shall be installed complete with frames and covers or gratings at
the locations and within the limits and sizes indicated. Manholes shall be
constructed of one of the materials specified for manholes in paragraph
DRAINAGE STRUCTURES. Joints shall be completely filled and shall be smooth
and free of surplus mortar or mastic on the inside of the structure. Brick
manholes shall be plastered with 12.7 mm 1/2 inch of mortar over the entire
outside surface of the walls. Brick for square or rectangular structures
shall be laid in stretcher courses with a header course every sixth
course. Brick for round structures shall be laid radially with every sixth
course laid as a stretcher course. Ladders shall be installed in manholes
as indicated. Base for manholes shall be either precast or cast-in-place
concrete.
3.2.2
Flushing and Observation Risers
Flushing and observation riser pipes with frames and covers shall be
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 19
installed at the locations indicated. Risers shall be constructed of
precast concrete, vitrified clay, or [galvanized] [bituminous coated]
corrugated metal pipe. Joining of riser pipes to the subdrain system shall
be as indicated.
3.3
INSTALLATION OF FILTER FABRIC AND PIPE FOR SUBDRAINS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Outlets for subsoil drains and for blind
drains, if possible, within reasonable costs, will
be designed so that severe rainstorms will neither
submerge the drains nor back up water into the
drains. Where outlets are not subject to backwater
or flooding, the outlets will be provided with
grates or heavy screens to prevent acts of vandalism
or entrance by rodents. If suitable outlets for
blind or french drains into pervious strata of
gravel or sand with a lower water table are not
obtainable, pipe outlets may be required. The open
joint or perforated pipe will extend into the filter
material of the blind or french drain a sufficient
distance to provide ample waterway openings for the
particular drain and will extend through the
impervious material, usually with closed joints, to
a suitable outlet. Outlets subject to flooding will
be provided with suitable and properly installed
check valves or flap gates. If outlet pipes are
necessary for blind or french drains, and are to be
paid for as a separate item, such requirement will
be clearly specified, giving the various kinds and
sizes of pipe required.
**************************************************************************
3.3.1
Installation of Filter Fabric
**************************************************************************
NOTE: When filter fabric is not used in the
drainage system, the requirement for filter fabric
will be deleted from this specification.
**************************************************************************
3.3.1.1
Overlaps on Perforated or Slotted Pipes
**************************************************************************
NOTE: When the permeability of the backfill
material is sufficient so that only a single-stage
filter is required between the backfill and
perforated pipe, filter fabric may be used for this
single-stage filter. In this case the filter fabric
should wrap the collector pipes, and permanent
devices to secure the fabric to the pipe are not
needed since the fabric will be held in place by the
backfill material once the installation is
completed. Filter fabric has been satisfactorily
secured to pipes with tape or string placed at about
300 mm 1 foot intervals along the overlap. The free
ends of the cloth have been folded and stapled.
Prefabricated filter fabric sheaths have also been
used successfully. The seams for such sheaths need
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 20
not be sewn with a permanent type of thread. When a
two-stage filter is required, filter fabric may be
used in place of the finer filter material.
**************************************************************************
One layer of filter fabric shall be wrapped around perforated or slotted
collector pipes in such a manner that longitudinal overlaps of fabric are
in unperforated or unslotted quadrants of the pipes. The overlap shall be
at least 50 mm 2 inches. The fabric shall be secured to the pipe in such a
manner that backfill material will not infiltrate through any fabric
overlaps.
3.3.1.2
Installation on Open-Joint Pipe
One layer of filter fabric shall be wrapped around open joints. The
overlap should be at least 50 mm 2 inches. The fabric shall be secured to
the pipe in such a manner that backfill material will not infiltrate
through the overlap or the edges of the fabric to either side of the open
joint.
3.3.1.3
Trench Lining and Overlaps
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Overlaps of fabric used to line drainage
trenches should be from 150 to 300 mm 6 to 12 inches.
The strength properties of most filter fabrics
composed of plastic materials are adversely affected
by ultraviolet rays. Consequently, the fabric
should be exposed to sunlight as little as possible,
and preferably should be covered the same day as
installed. When filter fabric is used to separate
the filter material from the soil being drained, the
gradation ratios of filter material to protected
soil given in UFC 3-230-06A, do not apply; however,
the filter fabric must be sized to filter the
protected soil.
**************************************************************************
Trenches to be lined with filter fabric shall be graded to obtain smooth
side and bottom surfaces so that the fabric will not bridge cavities in the
soil or be damaged by projecting rock. The fabric shall be laid flat but
not stretched on the soil, and it shall be secured with anchor pins.
Overlaps shall be at least [_____] mm inches, and anchor pins shall be used
along the overlaps.
3.3.2
3.3.2.1
Installation of Pipe for Subdrains
Pipelaying
Each pipe shall be carefully inspected before it is laid. Any defective or
damaged pipe shall be rejected. No pipe shall be laid when the trench
conditions or weather is unsuitable for such work. Water shall be removed
from trenches by sump pumping or other approved methods. The pipe shall be
laid to the grades and alignment as indicated. The pipe shall be bedded to
the established gradeline. Perforations shall be centered on the bottom of
the pipe. Pipes of either the bell-and-spigot type or the
tongue-and-groove type shall be laid with the bell or groove ends upstream.
All pipes in place shall be approved before backfilling.
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 21
3.3.2.2
3.3.2.2.1
Jointings
Nonperforated Concrete and Clay Pipe
Lay pipe with 3.2 to 6.4 mm 1/8 to 1/4 inch opening between the ends of the
pipe or as required by spacing lugs constructed in the pipe. Mortar shall
be placed in the joint at three points and pressed firmly into place to
hold the pipe securely in line. The mortar shall be the full depth of the
bell or groove and approximately 25.4 1 inch in width, and shall be located
at the third points around the joint with the top point at the center of
the pipe. The inside of the pipe shall be free of excess mortar.
3.3.2.2.2
Perforated Concrete and Clay Pipe
Lay the pipe with closed joints with positive provision for centering each
section of the pipe in the bell or groove of the previously placed
section. Plain-end perforated clay pipe sections shall be securely
fastened together with spring wire clips furnished by the pipe manufacturer.
3.3.2.2.3
Perforated Corrugated Metal Pipe or Bituminous Coated, Perforated
Corrugated Metal Pipe
The sections of perforated corrugated metal pipe or bituminous coated,
perforated corrugated metal pipe shall be securely fastened together with
standard connecting bands furnished by the manufacturer of the pipe.
3.3.2.2.4
Drain Tile
Bed drain tile as provided for bell-and-spigot or tongue-and-groove types
of pipe and laid with open joints of approximately 3.2 mm 1/8 inch width
but not over 6.4 mm 1/4 inch width. Protect drain tile against the
entrance of filter material into the line by the use of filter fabric.
3.3.2.2.5
Porous Concrete Pipe
Install porous concrete pipe with mortar joints.
3.3.2.2.6
Perforated Asbestos-Cement Pipe
Couplings must be of the sleeve type suitable for holding the pipe firmly
in alignment without the use of sealing compounds or gaskets. Tapered
couplings will be acceptable.
3.3.2.2.7
Bituminous Coated or Uncoated Semicircular Steel Pipe
Coupling bands consist of an uncorrugated top and bottom section fabricated
to fit around two adjacent pieces of pipe. Bolt coupling bands together
with four bolts.
3.3.2.2.8
Bituminous Coated or Uncoated Corrugated Aluminum Pipe
If aluminum pipe is to be connected to dissimilar metal, insulate the
connection by bituminous coating or other nonconductive material. Securely
fasten standard joints between corrugated aluminum pipe with standard
connecting bands furnished by the manufacturer of the pipe.
3.3.2.2.9
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS)
Use solvent cement or elastomeric joints for ABS pipe in accordance with
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 22
ASTM D2751. Dimensions and tolerances shall be in accordance with TABLE II
of ASTM D2751.
3.3.2.2.10
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe
Joints must be in accordance with the requirements of ASTM D3034, ASTM D3212,
or ASTM F949.
3.3.2.2.11
Perforated Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe
Install perforated corrugated polyethylene drainage pipe in accordance with
the manufacturer's specifications and as specified herein. Do not install
a pipe with physical imperfections. No more than 5 percent stretch in a
section will be permitted.
3.4
INSTALLATION OF AND BACKFILLING FOR BLIND OR FRENCH DRAINS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Outlets for subsoil drains and for blind
drains, if possible, within reasonable costs, will
be designed so that severe rainstorms will neither
submerge the drains nor back up water into the
drains. Where outlets are not subject to backwater
or flooding, the outlets will be provided with
grates or heavy screens to prevent acts of vandalism
or entrance by rodents. If suitable outlets for
blind or french drains into pervious strata of
gravel or sand with a lower water table are not
obtainable, pipe outlets may be required. The open
joint or perforated pipe will extend into the filter
material of the blind or french drain a sufficient
distance to provide ample waterway openings for the
particular drain and will extend through the
impervious material, usually with closed joints, to
a suitable outlet. Outlets subject to flooding will
be provided with suitable and properly installed
check valves or flap gates. If outlet pipes are
necessary for blind or french drains, and are to be
paid for as a separate item, such requirement will
be clearly specified, giving the various kinds and
sizes of pipe required.
**************************************************************************
Filter material shall be placed as indicated and compacted as specified for
cohesionless materials in Section 31 00 00 EARTHWORK. Filter material
shall extend to a suitable outlet or to an outlet through a pipeline as
indicated. Overlying backfill material shall be placed and compacted as
specified in Section 31 00 00 EARTHWORK.
3.5
INSTALLATION OF FILTER MATERIAL AND BACKFILLING FOR SUBDRAINS
After pipe for subdrains has been laid, inspected, and approved, filter
material shall be placed around and over the pipe to the depth indicated.
The filter material shall be placed in layers not to exceed 200 mm 8 inches
thick, and each layer shall be [saturated by flooding] [thoroughly
compacted by mechanical tampers or rammers] to obtain the required
density. Compaction of filter material and the placement and compaction of
overlying backfill material shall be in accordance with the applicable
provisions specified in Section 31 00 00 EARTHWORK.
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 23
3.6
3.6.1
TESTS
Pipe Test
Strength tests of pipe shall conform to field service test requirements of
the Federal Specification, ASTM specification, or AASHTO specification
covering the product (paragraph PIPE FOR SUBDRAINS).
3.6.2
JP-4 Fuel Resistance Test
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Delete this paragraph when filter fabric will
not be exposed to JP-4 fuel.
**************************************************************************
Five unaged fabric samples, 97 to 107 mm by 147 to 157 mm 4 (plus or minus
0.2) by 6 (plus or minus 0.2) inches shall be immersed in JP-4 fuel at room
temperature for a period of 7 days. Each sample then shall be tested for
tensile strength and elongation in accordance with ASTM D4632/D4632M. The
strength of the fabric in any direction shall be no less than 85 percent of
the strength specified in paragraph FILTER FABRIC.
-- End of Section --
SECTION 33 46 16
Page 24
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