datasheet for R1LV0108E Series by Renesas Electronics Corporation

datasheet for R1LV0108E Series by Renesas Electronics Corporation
R1LV0108E Series
1Mb Advanced LPSRAM (128k word x 8bit)
R10DS0049EJ0200
Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
Description
The R1LV0108E Series is a family of low voltage 1-Mbit static RAMs organized as 131,072-word by 8-bit, fabricated
by Renesas’s high-performance 0.15um CMOS and TFT technologies. The R1LV0108E Series has realized higher
density, higher performance and low power consumption. The R1LV0108E Series is suitable for memory applications
where a simple interfacing, battery operating and battery backup are the important design objectives. It has been
packaged in 32-pin SOP,32-pin TSOP and 32-pin sTSOP.
Features
Single 2.7~3.6V power supply
Small stand-by current: 1µA (3.0V, typical)
No clocks, No refresh
All inputs and outputs are TTL compatible.
Easy memory expansion by CS1# and CS2
Common Data I/O
Three-state outputs: OR-tie Capability
OE# prevents data contention on the I/O bus
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
Page 1 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Ordering Information
Orderable Part Name
Access
time
R1LV0108ESP-5SR#B0
Temperature
Range
Package
Shipping
Container
Quantity
Tube
Max. 25pcs/Tube
Max. 225pcs/Inner Bag
Max. 900pcs/Inner Box
Embossed
tape
1000pcs/Reel
Tray
Max. 234pcs/Tray
Max. 1872pcs/Inner Box
Embossed
tape
1000pcs/Reel
Tray
Max. 156pcs/Tray
Max. 1248pcs/Inner Box
Embossed
tape
1000pcs/Reel
0 ~ +70°C
55 ns
R1LV0108ESP-5SI#B0
-40 ~ +85°C
R1LV0108ESP-7SR#B0
0 ~ +70°C
70 ns
R1LV0108ESP-7SI#B0
-40 ~ +85°C
R1LV0108ESP-5SR#S0
0 ~ +70°C
55 ns
R1LV0108ESP-5SI#S0
-40 ~ +85°C
R1LV0108ESP-7SR#S0
0 ~ +70°C
525-mil 32-pin
plastic SOP
PRSP0032DA-A
(32P2M-A)
70 ns
R1LV0108ESP-7SI#S0
-40 ~ +85°C
R1LV0108ESA-5SR#B0
0 ~ +70°C
55 ns
R1LV0108ESA-5SI#B0
-40 ~ +85°C
R1LV0108ESA-7SR#B0
0 ~ +70°C
70 ns
R1LV0108ESA-7SI#B0
-40 ~ +85°C
R1LV0108ESA-5SR#S0
8mm×13.4mm 32-pin
plastic sTSOP
(normal-bend type)
0 ~ +70°C
55 ns
R1LV0108ESA-5SI#S0
-40 ~ +85°C
R1LV0108ESA-7SR#S0
0 ~ +70°C
PTSA0032KB-A
(32P3K-B)
70 ns
R1LV0108ESA-7SI#S0
-40 ~ +85°C
R1LV0108ESF-5SR#B0
0 ~ +70°C
55 ns
R1LV0108ESF-5SI#B0
-40 ~ +85°C
R1LV0108ESF-7SR#B0
0 ~ +70°C
70 ns
R1LV0108ESF-7SI#B0
-40 ~ +85°C
R1LV0108ESF-5SR#S0
8mm×20mm 32-pin
plastic TSOP
(normal-bend type)
0 ~ +70°C
55 ns
R1LV0108ESF-5SI#S0
-40 ~ +85°C
R1LV0108ESF-7SR#S0
0 ~ +70°C
PTSA0032KA-A
(32P3H-E)
70 ns
R1LV0108ESF-7SI#S0
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
-40 ~ +85°C
Page 2 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Pin Arrangement
NC
A16
A14
A12
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
DQ0
DQ1
DQ2
GND
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
1
32
Vcc
2
31
A15
3
30
CS2
4
29
WE#
5
28
A13
6
27
A8
7
26
A9
25
A11
9
24
OE#
10
23
A10
11
22
CS1#
12
21
DQ7
13
20
DQ6
14
19
DQ5
15
18
DQ4
16
17
DQ3
8
32-pin SOP
A11
1
32
OE#
A9
2
31
A10
A8
3
30
CS1#
A13
4
29
DQ7
WE#
5
28
DQ6
CS2
6
27
DQ5
A15
7
26
DQ4
Vcc
8
25
DQ3
NC
9
24
GND
A16
10
23
DQ2
A14
11
22
DQ1
A12
12
21
DQ0
A7
13
20
A0
A6
14
19
A1
A5
15
18
A2
A4
16
17
A3
A11
1
32
OE#
A9
2
31
A10
A8
3
30
CS1#
A13
4
29
DQ7
WE#
5
28
DQ6
CS2
6
27
DQ5
A15
7
26
DQ4
Vcc
8
25
DQ3
NC
9
24
GND
A16
10
23
DQ2
A14
11
22
DQ1
A12
12
21
DQ0
A7
13
20
A0
A6
14
19
A1
A5
15
18
A2
A4
16
17
A3
32-pin sTSOP
32-pin TSOP
(normal-bend)
Page 3 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Pin Description
Pin name
Vcc
Vss
A0 to A16
DQ0 to DQ7
CS1#
CS2
WE#
OE#
NC
Function
Power supply
Ground
Address input
Data input/output
Chip select 1
Chip select 2
Write enable
Output enable
Non connection
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
Page 4 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Block Diagram
A0
A1
ADDRESS
ROW
MEMORY ARRAY
BUFFER
DECODER
128k-word x8-bit
A16
DQ0
DQ
DQ1
BUFFER
SENSE / WRITE AMPLIFIER
DQ7
COLUMN DECODER
CLOCK
GENERATOR
WE#
Vcc
Vss
CS1#
CS2
OE#
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
Page 5 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Operation Table
CS1#
CS2
WE#
OE#
DQ0~7
Operation
X
L
X
X
High-Z
Stand-by
H
X
X
X
High-Z
Stand-by
L
H
L
X
Din
Write
L
H
H
L
Dout
Read
L
H
H
H
High-Z
Output disable
Note 1.
H: VIH L:VIL
X: VIH or VIL
Absolute Maximum
Parameter
Power supply voltage relative to Vss
Terminal voltage on any pin relative to Vss
Power dissipation
Operation temperature
Storage temperature range
Storage temperature range under bias
Note
Symbol
Vcc
VT
PT
Topr*3
Value
-0.3 to +4.6
-0.3*1 to Vcc+0.3*2
0.7
R Ver.
0 to +70
I Ver.
Tstg
Tbias*3
-40 to +85
-65 to 150
unit
V
V
W
°C
°C
R Ver.
0 to +70
I Ver.
-40 to +85
°C
1. –3.0V for pulse ≤ 30ns (full width at half maximum)
2. Maximum voltage is +4.6V.
3. Ambient temperature range depends on R/I-version. Please see table on page 1.
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
Page 6 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
DC Operating Conditions
Parameter
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Vcc
2.7
3.0
3.6
V
Supply voltage
Note
Vss
0
0
0
V
Input high voltage
VIH
2.0
-
Vcc+0.3
V
Input low voltage
VIL
-0.3
-
0.6
V
1
0
-
+70
°C
2
-40
-
+85
°C
2
Ambient temperature range
Note
R Ver.
Ta
I Ver.
1. –3.0V for pulse ≤ 30ns (full width at half maximum)
2. Ambient temperature range depends on R/I-version. Please see table on page 1.
DC Characteristics
Parameter
Input leakage current
Output leakage current
Average operating current
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
| ILI |
-
-
1
μA
| ILO |
-
-
1
μA
ICC1
-
15
25
mA
ICC2
-
2
5
mA
ISB
-
-
0.33
mA
-
1*1
2
μA
~+25°C
-
-
3
μA
~+40°C
-
-
8
μA
~+70°C
-
-
10
μA
~+85°C
VOH
2.4
-
-
V
IOH = -0.5mA
VOH2
Vcc
- 0.5
-
-
V
IOH = -0.05mA
VOL
-
-
0.4
V
IOL = 2mA
Standby current
Standby current
Test conditions
Vin = Vss to Vcc
CS1# =VIH or CS2 =VIL or
OE# =VIH,
VI/O =Vss to Vcc
Min. cycle, duty =100%, II/O = 0mA
CS1# =VIL, CS2 =VIH, Others = VIH/VIL
Cycle =1μs, duty =100%, II/O = 0mA
CS1# ≤ 0.2V, CS2 ≥ Vcc-0.2V,
VIH ≥ Vcc-0.2V, VIL ≤ 0.2V
“CS2 =VIL“ or
“CS2 = VIH and CS1# =VIH”,
Others = Vss to Vcc
ISB1
Output high voltage
Output low voltage
Note
Vin = Vss to Vcc
(1) CS2 ≤ 0.2 or
(2) CS1# ≥ Vcc-0.2V,
CS2 ≥ Vcc-0.2V
1. Typical parameter indicates the value for the center of distribution at 3.0V (Ta= 25ºC), and not 100% tested.
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
Page 7 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Capacitance
(Vcc = 2.7V ~ 3.6V, f = 1MHz, Ta = 0 ~ +70°C / -40 ~ +85°C
Parameter
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Test conditions
Input capacitance
C in
8
pF
Vin =0V
Input / output capacitance
C I/O
10
pF
VI/O =0V
Note 1. This parameter is sampled and not 100% tested.
2. Ambient temperature range depends on R/I-version. Please see table on page 1.
*2
)
Note
1
1
AC Characteristics
Test Conditions (Vcc = 2.7V ~ 3.6V, Ta = 0 ~ +70°C / -40 ~ +85°C*1)
Input pulse levels: VIL = 0.4V, VIH = 2.2V
Input rise and fall time: 5ns
Input and output timing reference level: 1.5V
Output load: See figures (Including scope and jig)
1.5V
RL = 500 ohm
DQ
CL = 30 pF
Note
1. Ambient temperature range depends on R/I-version. Please see table on page 1.
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
Page 8 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Read Cycle
Parameter
Read cycle time
Address access time
Chip select access time
Output enable to output valid
Output hold from address change
Chip select to output in low-Z
Output enable to output in low-Z
Chip deselect to output in high-Z
Output disable to output in high-Z
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
R1LV0108E**-5S*
R1LV0108E**-7S*
tACS1
Min.
55
-
Max.
55
55
Min.
70
-
Max.
70
70
tACS2
tOE
tOH
tCLZ1
5
5
55
30
-
10
10
70
35
-
ns
ns
ns
ns
2,3
tCLZ2
tOLZ
tCHZ1
5
5
0
20
10
5
0
25
ns
ns
ns
2,3
2,3
1,2,3
tCHZ2
tOHZ
0
0
20
20
0
0
25
25
ns
ns
1,2,3
1,2,3
Symbol
tRC
tAA
Unit
Note
ns
ns
ns
Page 9 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Write Cycle
Parameter
Write cycle time
Address valid to end of write
Chip select to end of write
Write pulse width
Address setup time
Write recovery time
Data to write time overlap
Data hold from write time
Output enable from end of write
Output disable to output in high-Z
Write to output in high-Z
Note
Symbol
tWC
tAW
tCW
tWP
tAS
tWR
tDW
tDH
tOW
tOHZ
tWHZ
R1LV0108E**-5S*
R1LV0108E**-7S*
Min.
55
50
50
45
0
0
25
0
5
0
0
Min.
70
55
55
50
0
0
30
0
5
0
0
Max.
20
20
Max.
25
25
Unit
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
Note
5
4
6
7
2
1,2
1,2
1. tCHZ, tOHZ and tWHZ are defined as the time at which the outputs achieve the open circuit conditions and are not
referred to output voltage levels.
2. This parameter is sampled and not 100% tested.
3. At any given temperature and voltage condition, tHZ max is less than tLZ min both for a given device and from
device to device.
4. A write occurs during the overlap of a low CS1#, a high CS2, a low WE#.
A write begins at the latest transition among CS1# going low, CS2 going high and WE# going low.
A write ends at the earliest transition among CS1# going high, CS2 going low and WE# going high.
tWP is measured from the beginning of write to the end of write.
5. tCW is measured from the later of CS1# going low or CS2 going high to end of write.
6. tAS is measured the address valid to the beginning of write.
7. tWR is measured from the earliest of CS1# or WE# going high or CS2 going low to the end of write cycle.
8. Don’t apply inverted phase signal externally when DQ pin is output mode.
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
Page 10 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Timing Waveforms
Read Cycle
tRC
A0~16
tOH
tAA
tACS1
CS1#
tCLZ1
CS2
tCHZ1
tACS2
tCLZ2
WE#
tCHZ2
VIH
WE# = “H” level
tOE
OE#
tOLZ
tOHZ
High impedance
DQ0~7
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
Valid Data
Page 11 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Write Cycle (1) (WE# CLOCK)
tWC
A0~16
tCW
CS1#
tCW
CS2
tAW
tAS
tWP
tWR
WE#
OE#
tWHZ
tOLZ
tOHZ
DQ0~7
tOW
Valid Data
tDW
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
tDH
Page 12 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Write Cycle (2) (CS1#, CS2 CLOCK)
tWC
A0~16
tAW
tAS
tCW
tWR
tAS
tCW
tWR
CS1#
CS2
tWP
WE#
OE#
VIH
OE# = “H” level
tDW
DQ0~7
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
tDH
Valid Data
Page 13 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Low Vcc Data Retention Characteristics
Parameter
VCC for data retention
Symbol
VDR
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Test conditions*2
Unit
2.0
-
3.6
V
Vin ≥ 0V
(1) 0V ≤ CS2 ≤ 0.2V or
(2) CS1# ≥ Vcc-0.2V,
CS2 ≥ Vcc-0.2V
-
1*1
2
μA
~+25°C
Vcc=3.0V, Vin ≥ 0V
Data retention current
Chip deselect to data retention time
Operation recovery time
Note
-
-
3
μA
~+40°C
-
-
8
μA
~+70°C
-
-
10
μA
~+85°C
0
5
-
-
ns
ms
See retention waveform.
ICCDR
tCDR
tR
(1) 0V ≤ CS2 ≤ 0.2V or
(2) CS1# ≥ Vcc-0.2V,
CS2 ≥ Vcc-0.2V
1. Typical parameter indicates the value for the center of distribution at 3.0V (Ta= 25ºC), and not 100% tested.
2. CS2 controls address buffer, WE# buffer, CS1# buffer, OE# buffer and Din buffer. If CS2 controls data
retention mode, Vin levels (address, WE#, CS1#, OE#, DQ) can be in the high impedance state.
If CS1# controls data retention mode, CS2 must be CS2 ≥ Vcc-0.2V or 0V ≤ CS2 ≤ 0.2V. The other input
levels (address, WE# ,OE#, DQ) can be in the high impedance state.
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
Page 14 of 15
R1LV0108E Series
Low Vcc Data Retention Timing Waveforms
(1) CS1# Controlled
Vcc
tCDR
2.7V
2.7V
tR
VDR
2.2V
2.2V
CS1# ≥ Vcc - 0.2V
CS1#
(2) CS2 Controlled
Vcc
tCDR
CS2
2.7V
2.7V
tR
VDR
0.2V
0.2V
0V ≤ CS2 ≤ 0.2V
R10DS0049EJ0200 Rev.2.00
2011.01.14
Page 15 of 15
Revision History
R1LV0108E Series Data Sheet
Description
Rev.
Date
Page
1.00
2.00
2010.12.27
2011.01.14
2
Summary
First Edition issued
Ordering Information is revised
All trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Notice
1.
All information included in this document is current as of the date this document is issued. Such information, however, is subject to change without any prior notice. Before purchasing or using any Renesas
Electronics products listed herein, please confirm the latest product information with a Renesas Electronics sales office. Also, please pay regular and careful attention to additional and different information to
be disclosed by Renesas Electronics such as that disclosed through our website.
2.
Renesas Electronics does not assume any liability for infringement of patents, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights of third parties by or arising from the use of Renesas Electronics products or
technical information described in this document. No license, express, implied or otherwise, is granted hereby under any patents, copyrights or other intellectual property rights of Renesas Electronics or
others.
3.
You should not alter, modify, copy, or otherwise misappropriate any Renesas Electronics product, whether in whole or in part.
4.
Descriptions of circuits, software and other related information in this document are provided only to illustrate the operation of semiconductor products and application examples. You are fully responsible for
the incorporation of these circuits, software, and information in the design of your equipment. Renesas Electronics assumes no responsibility for any losses incurred by you or third parties arising from the
use of these circuits, software, or information.
5.
When exporting the products or technology described in this document, you should comply with the applicable export control laws and regulations and follow the procedures required by such laws and
regulations. You should not use Renesas Electronics products or the technology described in this document for any purpose relating to military applications or use by the military, including but not limited to
the development of weapons of mass destruction. Renesas Electronics products and technology may not be used for or incorporated into any products or systems whose manufacture, use, or sale is
prohibited under any applicable domestic or foreign laws or regulations.
6.
Renesas Electronics has used reasonable care in preparing the information included in this document, but Renesas Electronics does not warrant that such information is error free. Renesas Electronics
7.
Renesas Electronics products are classified according to the following three quality grades: "Standard", "High Quality", and "Specific". The recommended applications for each Renesas Electronics product
assumes no liability whatsoever for any damages incurred by you resulting from errors in or omissions from the information included herein.
depends on the product's quality grade, as indicated below. You must check the quality grade of each Renesas Electronics product before using it in a particular application. You may not use any Renesas
Electronics product for any application categorized as "Specific" without the prior written consent of Renesas Electronics. Further, you may not use any Renesas Electronics product for any application for
which it is not intended without the prior written consent of Renesas Electronics. Renesas Electronics shall not be in any way liable for any damages or losses incurred by you or third parties arising from the
use of any Renesas Electronics product for an application categorized as "Specific" or for which the product is not intended where you have failed to obtain the prior written consent of Renesas Electronics.
The quality grade of each Renesas Electronics product is "Standard" unless otherwise expressly specified in a Renesas Electronics data sheets or data books, etc.
"Standard":
Computers; office equipment; communications equipment; test and measurement equipment; audio and visual equipment; home electronic appliances; machine tools;
personal electronic equipment; and industrial robots.
"High Quality": Transportation equipment (automobiles, trains, ships, etc.); traffic control systems; anti-disaster systems; anti-crime systems; safety equipment; and medical equipment not specifically
designed for life support.
"Specific":
Aircraft; aerospace equipment; submersible repeaters; nuclear reactor control systems; medical equipment or systems for life support (e.g. artificial life support devices or systems), surgical
implantations, or healthcare intervention (e.g. excision, etc.), and any other applications or purposes that pose a direct threat to human life.
8.
You should use the Renesas Electronics products described in this document within the range specified by Renesas Electronics, especially with respect to the maximum rating, operating supply voltage
range, movement power voltage range, heat radiation characteristics, installation and other product characteristics. Renesas Electronics shall have no liability for malfunctions or damages arising out of the
use of Renesas Electronics products beyond such specified ranges.
9.
Although Renesas Electronics endeavors to improve the quality and reliability of its products, semiconductor products have specific characteristics such as the occurrence of failure at a certain rate and
malfunctions under certain use conditions. Further, Renesas Electronics products are not subject to radiation resistance design. Please be sure to implement safety measures to guard them against the
possibility of physical injury, and injury or damage caused by fire in the event of the failure of a Renesas Electronics product, such as safety design for hardware and software including but not limited to
redundancy, fire control and malfunction prevention, appropriate treatment for aging degradation or any other appropriate measures. Because the evaluation of microcomputer software alone is very difficult,
please evaluate the safety of the final products or system manufactured by you.
10. Please contact a Renesas Electronics sales office for details as to environmental matters such as the environmental compatibility of each Renesas Electronics product. Please use Renesas Electronics
products in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations that regulate the inclusion or use of controlled substances, including without limitation, the EU RoHS Directive. Renesas Electronics assumes
no liability for damages or losses occurring as a result of your noncompliance with applicable laws and regulations.
11. This document may not be reproduced or duplicated, in any form, in whole or in part, without prior written consent of Renesas Electronics.
12. Please contact a Renesas Electronics sales office if you have any questions regarding the information contained in this document or Renesas Electronics products, or if you have any other inquiries.
(Note 1)
"Renesas Electronics" as used in this document means Renesas Electronics Corporation and also includes its majority-owned subsidiaries.
(Note 2)
"Renesas Electronics product(s)" means any product developed or manufactured by or for Renesas Electronics.
http://www.renesas.com
SALES OFFICES
Refer to "http://www.renesas.com/" for the latest and detailed information.
Renesas Electronics America Inc.
2880 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara, CA 95050-2554, U.S.A.
Tel: +1-408-588-6000, Fax: +1-408-588-6130
Renesas Electronics Canada Limited
1101 Nicholson Road, Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 9C3, Canada
Tel: +1-905-898-5441, Fax: +1-905-898-3220
Renesas Electronics Europe Limited
Dukes Meadow, Millboard Road, Bourne End, Buckinghamshire, SL8 5FH, U.K
Tel: +44-1628-585-100, Fax: +44-1628-585-900
Renesas Electronics Europe GmbH
Arcadiastrasse 10, 40472 Düsseldorf, Germany
Tel: +49-211-65030, Fax: +49-211-6503-1327
Renesas Electronics (China) Co., Ltd.
7th Floor, Quantum Plaza, No.27 ZhiChunLu Haidian District, Beijing 100083, P.R.China
Tel: +86-10-8235-1155, Fax: +86-10-8235-7679
Renesas Electronics (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.
Unit 204, 205, AZIA Center, No.1233 Lujiazui Ring Rd., Pudong District, Shanghai 200120, China
Tel: +86-21-5877-1818, Fax: +86-21-6887-7858 / -7898
Renesas Electronics Hong Kong Limited
Unit 1601-1613, 16/F., Tower 2, Grand Century Place, 193 Prince Edward Road West, Mongkok, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Tel: +852-2886-9318, Fax: +852 2886-9022/9044
Renesas Electronics Taiwan Co., Ltd.
7F, No. 363 Fu Shing North Road Taipei, Taiwan
Tel: +886-2-8175-9600, Fax: +886 2-8175-9670
Renesas Electronics Singapore Pte. Ltd.
1 harbourFront Avenue, #06-10, keppel Bay Tower, Singapore 098632
Tel: +65-6213-0200, Fax: +65-6278-8001
Renesas Electronics Malaysia Sdn.Bhd.
Unit 906, Block B, Menara Amcorp, Amcorp Trade Centre, No. 18, Jln Persiaran Barat, 46050 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Tel: +60-3-7955-9390, Fax: +60-3-7955-9510
Renesas Electronics Korea Co., Ltd.
11F., Samik Lavied' or Bldg., 720-2 Yeoksam-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-080, Korea
Tel: +82-2-558-3737, Fax: +82-2-558-5141
© 2011 Renesas Electronics Corporation. All rights reserved.
Colophon 1.0
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement