Apple | Xserve Up Mac OS X Server | System information | Apple Xserve Up Mac OS X Server System information

Apple Xserve Up Mac OS X Server System information
Mac OS X Server
Getting Started
For Version 10.5 Leopard
K Apple Inc.
© 2007 Apple Inc. All rights reserved.
The owner or authorized user of a valid copy of
Mac OS X Server software may reproduce this
publication for the purpose of learning to use such
software. No part of this publication may be reproduced
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information in this manual is accurate. Apple Inc. is not
responsible for printing or clerical errors.
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034-4192-A/2007-09-01
Contents
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Chapter 1: Introducing Mac OS X Server
What’s New in Leopard Server
Simple Setup
Server Preferences and Server Status
iCal Server
Group Services with Wikis and Blogs
Directory
Podcast Producer
Spotlight Server
UNIX Compliance
64-Bit Computing
Server Configurations
Leopard Server in Action
Leopard Server in a Workgroup
Services
Applications and Utilities
Advanced Tools and Applications
3
4
31
32
34
36
37
Chapter 2: Installing Mac OS X Server
What You Need to Install Leopard Server
Installing Locally
Preparing an Administrator Computer
Installing Remotely
41
42
43
44
44
Chapter 3: Setting Up Mac OS X Server
Setting Up a Server Locally
Keeping Your Server Secure
Protecting the System Administrator (root) Account
Setting Up a Server Remotely
47
47
49
51
51
52
53
54
Chapter 4: Managing Your Server
Using Server Preferences
Using the Server Status Widget
Finding Settings in Server Preferences
Connecting Server Preferences to a Remote Server
Closing a Server Preferences Connection
Backing Up and Restoring the Server
Keeping Leopard Server Up to Date
55
56
58
60
62
Chapter 5: Managing Users
About User Accounts
About Administrator Accounts
Adding a User Account
Importing Users
Contents
63
65
66
68
69
70
71
73
74
75
76
Importing Groups of Users Automatically
Deleting a User Account
Changing a User’s Account Settings
Changing a User’s Contact Info
Controlling a User’s Access to Services
Changing a User’s Group Membership
Changing a User’s Name or Password
Changing a User’s Picture
Customizing the Welcome Email
Customizing the Server Invitation Email
Customizing the Group Invitation Email
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90
Chapter 6: Managing Users’ Computers
Setting Up Leopard Users’ Macs Automatically
Setting Up Services for New Leopard Users
Setting Up Leopard Users with an Invitation Email
Setting Up a Mac by Using Directory Utility
Setting Up Users’ Computers Manually
Setting Up a Mac User’s VPN Connection
Setting Up a User’s VPN Connection Manually
Working with Directory Information on Leopard Users’ Macs
93
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97
Chapter 7: Managing Groups
Creating a New Group
Deleting a Group
Adding or Removing Members of a Group
Contents
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6
99
101
102
102
103
103
105
106
Adding or Removing External Members of a Group
Changing Group Settings
Changing a Group’s Name
Setting Up a Group File Sharing Folder
Setting Up a Group Mailing List
Setting Up a Group Wiki Website
Setting Up a Group Calendar
Setting Up a Group Mailing List Archive
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Chapter 8: Customizing Services
Managing File Sharing Service
About File Sharing Service
Adding a Shared Folder
Removing a Shared Folder
Controlling Access to a Shared Folder
Finding a Server’s File Sharing Address
Managing iCal Service
About iCal Service
Managing iChat Service
About iChat Service
Making All Users Buddies
Chatting with Users of Google Talk and Other XMPP Services
Saving and Archiving Instant Messages
Managing Mail Service
About Mail Service
Contents
117
Specifying a Mail Relay Server
118
About Junk Mail and Virus Filtering
118
Scanning for Incoming Junk Mail and Viruses
119 Managing Web Services
120
About Web Services
121
Finding the Server’s Website Address
121
Hosting a Conventional Website
122
Setting Up Group Wiki Service
123
Setting Up Webmail Service
123
Setting Up User Blogs
124 Managing VPN Service
124
About VPN Service
125
Changing the VPN Shared Secret
126
Creating a VPN Configuration File
127
Changing the IP Address Range for VPN
129
Providing VPN Service Through an Internet Router
130 Customizing Services Using Advanced Applications
131 Chapter 9: Managing Server Information
131 Managing Server Information
132 Changing the Serial Number or Site License Details
132
Changing the Notification Settings
133
Changing Your Server’s Name
134
Changing Your Server’s IP Address
Contents
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135
136
137
138
141
Connecting to a Directory Server
Changing Firewall Settings
About the Firewall
Checking Server Logs
Monitoring Server Graphs
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144
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147
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148
Chapter 10: Learning More
Using Onscreen Help
Mac OS X Server Administration Guides
Viewing PDF Guides Onscreen
Printing PDF Guides
Getting Documentation Updates
Getting Additional Information
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152
Appendix A: Preparing Disks for Installing Mac OS X Server
Erasing with the Installer
Erasing with Server Assistant
Erasing with Disk Utility
Partitioning a Hard Disk
Creating a RAID Set
153 Appendix B: Configuring an Internet Router
153 Configuring Port Mapping on an AirPort Extreme Base Station
155 Manually Configuring Port Mapping on an Internet Router
157 Index
8
Contents
1
Introducing Mac OS X Server
1
Mac OS X Server has everything you need to provide
standards-based workgroup and Internet services, making it
ideal for education, small businesses, and large enterprises.
Mac OS X Server version 10.5 Leopard blends a mature, stable UNIX foundation with
open standards and Macintosh ease of use. It provides an extensive array of services
that support Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX client computers over a network.
With Leopard Server, small organizations and workgroups without an IT department
can take full advantage of the benefits of a server. Even a nontechnical user can set up
and manage Leopard Server for a group. Other users in the group can automatically
configure their Macs to get services from Leopard Server. Leopard Server has advanced
configuration options and management tools for IT professionals as well.
9
What’s New in Leopard Server
Mac OS X Server v10.5 Leopard offers major enhancements in several key areas:
 Simple setup
 Server Preferences and Server Status
 iCal Server
 Group services with wikis and blogs
 Directory application
 Podcast Producer
 Spotlight Server
 UNIX compliance and 64-bit computing
Leopard Server also has significant performance and scalability improvements for key
services, such as file sharing and mail services, compared to earlier versions.
If you’re an experienced server administrator and want to set up an enterprise server or
have other advanced needs, you’ll find enhancements to file sharing services, web
technologies, media streaming, instant messaging, mail service, directory and network
authentication, system imaging, and client management. Server Admin, Workgroup
Manager, and System Image Utility are all improved. For more information, see Server
Administration and the other advanced administration guides described in “Mac OS X
Server Administration Guides” on page 144.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Simple Setup
Using Mac OS X Server is easier than ever. Server Assistant eliminates the complexities
of configuring a server. It walks you through the setup process and the configuration
of essential services. It automatically configures your AirPort Extreme Base Station
(802.11n) and runs a built-in network health check to verify local network and Internet
connectivity. In a few clicks, Leopard Server readies file sharing, email, group websites,
instant messaging, personal calendars, and remote access.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
11
Users can quickly and easily set up Macs with Mac OS X Leopard to get services from
the server. They click a button in an invitation email or open the Directory Utility
application to open an assistant that connects to the server and sets up applications to
use its services. In no time, Mail, iChat, iCal, and a VPN network connection are all ready
to use. iChat users see other users in their iChat buddy lists. Mail users are ready to
send email to anyone in their group. Address Book, Directory, and Mail are ready to
look up shared contact information in the server’s directory. A printer connected to the
server’s USB port is automatically available to users.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Server Preferences and Server Status
Leopard Server is even easier to keep running. Need to change something? With Server
Preferences, you can quickly manage users, groups, services, and system information.
You can use Server Preferences on the server, or use it on another Mac to manage your
server over the network.
Find the setting you
need without knowing
its exact location
To monitor server performance and services, you can check graphs and statistics with
the Server Status Dashboard widget. Server Status works over the network, so you can
keep an eye on the server from another Mac.
Monitor processor,
network, or disk usage
Check service status
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
13
iCal Server
iCal Server makes it easy to share calendars, schedule meetings, and coordinate events
within a workgroup, a small business, or a large organization. Colleagues can check
each other’s availability, propose and accept meetings, book conference rooms, reserve
projectors, and more. iCal Server sends meeting invitations with agendas or to-do lists,
and tabulates replies.
iCal Server integrates with leading calendar applications including iCal 3 in Leopard
and third-party calendar applications that support the standard CalDAV protocol.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Group Services with Wikis and Blogs
Leopard Server includes a wiki service that makes it easy for groups to create and
distribute information through their own shared intranet websites. All members of a
group can easily view, search, and edit wiki content in their web browsers. By using
included templates, or by creating their own, they can add, delete, edit, and format
content naturally—without knowing markup codes or special syntax. With a few clicks,
they can attach files and images, publish to podcasts, assign keywords, and link to
other wiki pages or other websites. They can also review the wiki’s complete history of
changes and revert pages to a previous version. In addition, they can view and
contribute to shared calendars, blogs, and mailing list archives.
Each user can have a blog, which provides an easy way to keep colleagues up to date
with projects, the files they’re working on, and pictures or podcasts. A personal blog is
the perfect place to put information for your group, or just for your own reference.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
15
Directory
The Directory application gives users access to shared information about people,
groups, locations, and resources within the organization. Users can share contacts, add
groups, set up group services, and manage their own contact information.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Podcast Producer
A video camera, a Mac, and Leopard Server are all you need to produce podcasts of
lectures, training, or any other audio and video projects. Podcast Producer automates
video and audio capture, encoding, and delivery.
The Podcast Capture application installed on every Mac with Leopard allows users to
record high-quality audio and video from a FireWire camera, USB microphone, iSight,
or other supported device attached to a local or remote Mac. Podcast Capture
automatically sends the completed recording to Podcast Producer on Leopard Server,
which encodes and publishes the recording based on your workflow selection in
Podcast Capture. Podcast Producer can add effects such as watermarks, titles, and
introductory video, and then publish the podcast to a webpage, blog, iTunes, iTunes U,
QuickTime streaming server, an iPod, Apple TV, iPhone, or other mobile phone. Leopard
Server’s mail service can even notify you when the job has completed.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
17
In addition to recording audio and video, you can use Podcast Capture to record screen
activity (for example a Keynote presentation) along with audio from a local or remote
source. You can also use Podcast Capture to share QuickTime movies with others.
Anyone with an Internet connection and authorization to use Podcast Capture can
start the whole process. Simply log in to Podcast Capture, make a few selections, and
click a button to start recording. Click another button to stop recording, enter a title
and description, and click a button to start the podcast publishing process. Podcast
Producer takes care of the rest.
Podcast Producer automatically uses your server’s Xgrid 2 service for high performance
podcast encoding. Xgrid distributes encoding jobs across the network to Macs that
have Leopard set up to share their spare processing power. You can accommodate
more podcasts by adding Macs, and Xgrid scales automatically.
Spotlight Server
Spotlight simplifies finding content on a Mac, and Leopard Server extends Spotlight
searching to the network. Spotlight Server lets Mac users quickly and easily find
documents, files, and other content stored on your server. It works the way people
think, by searching the content on mounted network volumes, not just looking at file
names. There is no need to remember what someone else named a particular shared
document, project, or file. Use Quick Look to view, play, and read found files without
opening them.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Content indexing happens automatically and transparently on the server. No
configuration of the server or users’ Macs is necessary.
For security, Spotlight Server works with the file access controls and permissions of
Mac OS X Server. A user’s search lists only items to which the user has access, ensuring
that secrets stay secret. So everyone in a group can store files on the server. Group
members can easily find shared files, but outsiders can’t find them.
UNIX Compliance
Leopard Server is an Open Brand UNIX 03 Registered Product, conforming to the SUSv3
and POSIX 1003.1 specifications for the C API, Shell Utilities, and Threads. Leopard
Server can compile and run all your UNIX 03-compliant code, so it can be deployed in
environments that demand full conformance. Mac OS X Server also provides full
compatibility with your server and application software.
64-Bit Computing
For the first time in Leopard Server, key server software components take advantage of
64-bit computing to achieve higher performance and processing power and to work
with larger data sets. Leopard Server runs 64-bit applications alongside 32-bit
applications, optimized for each.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
19
Server Configurations
Leopard Server offers several options for setting up your server to suit your
circumstances. The table on the next page lists some reasons for choosing each of the
following configurations:
 Standard: A simplified configuration ideal for the first server or only server in a small
organization
 Workgroup: An easy-to-use setup ideal for a workgroup in an organization with an
existing directory server
 Advanced: A flexible configuration ideal for advanced, highly customized
deployments
You can change a standard configuration to a workgroup configuration by connecting
the server to a directory server in your organization. Conversely, you can change from
workgroup to a standard configuration by disconnecting the server from the directory
server. You can also convert to advanced from standard or workgroup (but not the
reverse, except by reinstalling Leopard Server). For information about changing
configurations, see “Connecting to a Directory Server” on page 135 and Server
Administration (described in “Mac OS X Server Administration Guides” on page 144).
20
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Reasons to choose
Standard
Set up the first server or only server for a small
organization
%
Have all services set up automatically
%
Workgroup
Have only selected services set up automatically
%
Use existing user accounts from your organization’s
directory server
%
Use one simple application, Server Preferences, to
manage essential settings for user accounts, groups,
and services
%
%
Have Leopard users’ Macs automatically set up to use
the server
%
%
Need no server administration experience
%
%
Advanced
Completely control hundreds of service configuration
settings for multiple servers
%
Manage user accounts, home folders, and preferences
for hundreds or thousands of users, groups, and
computers
%
Set up network home folders and mobile user
accounts
%
Use powerful applications, such as Server Admin and
Workgroup Manager, or command-line tools, to
configure services and manage clients
%
Save setup data for automatic setup of multiple servers
%
Upgrade existing servers
%
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
21
Leopard Server in Action
The following illustration shows a standard configuration of Mac OS X Server in a small
organization. The server connects to a local network together with some users’
computers. Other users’ computers connect to the local network wirelessly through an
AirPort Extreme Base Station. The AirPort Extreme connects to the Internet through a
DSL modem or cable modem and shares the Internet connection with the server and
users’ computers. The server and users’ computers get their network addresses from
the AirPort Extreme’s DHCP server. They get DNS name service from the Internet
service provider (ISP).
The server provides user and group accounts, shared folders, shared calendars, instant
messaging, and a wiki website with blogs. The ISP doesn’t provide enough email
addresses for everyone in the organization, so the server provides email addresses and
mail service.
Some users may check their email while away, but they don’t have portable computers
to take home or on the road. They can log in to the server’s webmail service from their
home computers or any borrowed computer with a web browser.
Other users have their portable computers and home computers set up to connect to
the server’s VPN via the Internet. This gives them secure remote access, while working
at home or traveling, to all the services that the server provides on the local network.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
DSL or
cable modem
The Internet
ISP’s DNS
server
AirPort
Extreme
VPN
Mac OS X
computer
Mac OS X
Server
Mac OS X computers
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
23
Leopard Server in a Workgroup
The next illustration depicts a workgroup configuration of Mac OS X Server that serves
a department in a large organization. This organization has an IT group that provides
DHCP service for assigning network addresses, DNS name service, mail service, Internet
access, and a VPN.
Everyone in the department already has a user account provided by the organization’s
Open Directory server, so these user accounts have been imported to the workgroup
server. This means everyone simply uses the user name and password they already
know to authenticate for services provided by the workgroup server. Those services
were automatically set up to use the Kerberos authentication of the Open Directory
server, allowing users to log in once per session for all workgroup services.
The workgroup server provides calendar and instant messaging services that work with
the users’ Mac OS X iCal and iChat applications. The workgroup server also provides
shared folders and wiki websites for groups within the department. Some
departmental groups include participants from outside the department. A group’s
external members use their existing user accounts to access the group’s shared folder,
calendar, wiki, and blog.
The department has some Windows users, who use Internet Explorer and Safari to
access their group’s wiki, calendar, and blog. Shared folders appear as mapped drives in
their Network Places. They have also set up their PCs to use the workgroup server’s
Jabber instant messaging.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Organization
Organization-wide servers
The Internet
The intranet
Workgroup
AirPort
Extreme
Mac OS X
server
Windows computers
Mac OS X
administrator computer
Mac OS X computers
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
25
Services
Leopard Server provides the services and system features shown in the following table.
Services and system information are set up automatically for a standard or workgroup
configuration, using information you provide during the initial server setup.
After setting up a standard or workgroup configuration, you can change service and
system settings. You can turn off services that you don’t need, perhaps because you
already have them. For example, a standard configuration doesn’t need to provide mail
service if you want to use the mail service provided by an Internet service provider. If
no one needs to access your server from home or while traveling, you can turn off VPN
service.
A workgroup configuration may not need to provide mail or VPN service if your
organization provides them. For information about service and system settings, see
Chapter 4, “Managing Your Server,” Chapter 8, “Customizing Services,” and Chapter 9,
“Managing Server Information.”
If you select an advanced configuration during initial setup, services are not set up
automatically. You use advanced administration applications such as Server Admin and
Workgroup Manager, or command-line tools, to configure advanced settings for the
services you need the server to provide. For information about an advanced
configuration, see Server Administration and the other advanced administration guides
described in “Mac OS X Server Administration Guides” on page 144.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Service
Standard
Workgroup
Advanced
File sharing (AFP and SMB protocols)
Included
Optional
Optional
File sharing (FTP and NFS protocols)
Not used
Not used
Optional
Printer sharing (directly connected USB or FireWire
printer)
Automatic
Automatic
Not used
Print
Not used
Not used
Optional
iCal (calendar sharing, event scheduling)
Included
Optional
Optional
iChat (instant messaging)
Included
Optional
Optional
Mail with spam and virus filtering
Included
Optional
Optional
Web (wikis, blogs, webmail)
Included
Optional
Optional
VPN (secure remote access)
Optional
Optional
Optional
Internet gateway (NAT, DNS)
Optional
Optional
Optional
Time Machine backup of server
Optional
Optional
Not used
Open Directory (user accounts and other data)
Automatic
Automatic
Optional
Application firewall
Optional
Optional
Not used
IP firewall with optional adaptive firewall
Not used
Not used
Optional
Podcast Producer
Not used
Not used
Optional
Comprehensive user and workgroup management
Not used
Not used
Optional
Xgrid (computational clustering)
Not used
Not used
Optional
DHCP, DNS, NAT
Automatic
Automatic
Optional
RADIUS
Not used
Not used
Optional
NetBoot and NetInstall (system imaging)
Not used
Not used
Optional
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
27
Service
Standard
Workgroup
Advanced
Spotlight (searching)
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
QuickTime Streaming
Not used
Not used
Optional
Software update
Not used
Not used
Optional
Remote management
Included
Included
Included
Remote login (SSH)
Included
Included
Included
Applications and Utilities
After setting up Leopard Server, you can change service settings and perform other
server administration tasks using the applications described below. You can also use
the Directory application, which is designed for users who aren’t administrators to
manage shared information in the server’s directory. It’s installed on all Macs with
Leopard as well as on your server. For information about using the Directory
application or Directory Utility, open it and then use the Help menu. For information
about using the other applications, see other chapters in this book.
Applications for standard and workgroup server administrators
28
Directory
(in /Applications/Utilities/)
Gives users access to shared information about people,
groups, locations, and resources. Users can share
contacts, add groups set up group services, and
manage their own contact information.
Directory Utility
(in /Applications/Utilities/)
Connect your server to a directory server in your
organization.
Server Assistant
(in /Applications/Server/)
Install or set up Mac OS X Server on a remote
computer.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Applications for standard and workgroup server administrators
Server Preferences
(in /Applications/Server/)
Manage users and groups, customize services and
system information, and monitor server activity.
Server Status widget for Dashboard
Monitor server activity from any Mac with Leopard.
Advanced Tools and Applications
If you set up an advanced configuration of Leopard Server, you administer it using the
applications and tools listed below. For more information, see Server Administration and
the other advanced administration guides described in “Mac OS X Server
Administration Guides” on page 144.
Important: If you have administrative applications and tools from Mac OS X Server
version 10.4 Tiger or earlier, do not use them with Leopard Server.
Applications and tools for advanced server administrators
Directory Utility
(in /Applications/Utilities/)
Connect the server to a directory server in your
organization.
Podcast Capture
(in /Applications/Utilities/)
Lets users record high-quality audio and video from a
local or remote camera, capture screen activity, or
upload QuickTime files into Podcast Producer for
encoding and distribution.
QuickTime Broadcaster
(in /Applications/)
Captures live audio and video and works seamlessly
with QuickTime Streaming Server for high-quality
network broadcasting.
RAID Admin
(in /Applications/Server/)
Set up and monitor Xserve RAID hardware.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
29
Applications and tools for advanced server administrators
30
Server Admin
(in /Applications/Server/)
Set up services, manage file share points, change
service setup, and customize server settings. Monitor
server activity and view detailed service logs.
Server Assistant
(in /Applications/Server/)
Install or set up Mac OS X Server on a remote
computer.
Server Monitor
(in /Applications/Server/)
Remotely monitor and manage one or more Xserve
systems.
System Image Utility
(in /Applications/Server/)
Create and customize NetBoot and NetInstall images
for Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server computers.
Workgroup Manager
(in /Applications/Server/)
Manage users, groups, computers, and computer
groups in advanced server deployments. Manage
preferences for Mac OS X users.
Xgrid Admin
(in /Applications/Server/)
Remotely manage clusters and monitor the activity of
controllers, agents, and the status of jobs on the grid.
Command-line tools
Use UNIX tools to install and set up server software,
administer services, manage users, and so forth.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
2
Installing Mac OS X Server
2
Use the Installer to install Leopard Server locally, or use
Server Assistant to install remotely.
To get started you need to:
 Make sure the target server meets system requirements
 Connect the target server to your Ethernet network
 Use the Installation & Setup Worksheet to collect information you’ll need (it’s in the
Documentation folder on the Mac OS X Server Install Disc)
 Install Mac OS X Server version 10.5 Leopard using one of these methods:
 Install locally if the target server has a display that you can use conveniently
 Install remotely if the target server is inconveniently located or doesn’t have a
display
For information about installing Leopard Server on multiple servers, performing
automated installations, and other advanced installation methods, see Server
Administration. For information about upgrading or migrating to Leopard Server from
an earlier version of Mac OS X Server, see Upgrading and Migrating. These advanced
guides are described in “Mac OS X Server Administration Guides” on page 144.
31
What You Need to Install Leopard Server
To install Leopard Server, you need a Macintosh desktop computer or server with:
 An Intel processor or PowerPC G5 or G4 (867 MHz or faster) processor
 At least 1 gigabyte (GB) of random access memory (RAM)
 At least 20 gigabytes (GB) of disk space available
 An active connection to a secure Ethernet network
A standard or workgroup server needs significantly more disk space—such as a high
capacity external hard drive—if you want to back up the server using Time Machine.
(Time Machine backup of server data isn’t supported for an advanced server.)
A built-in DVD drive is convenient but you can attach an external FireWire DVD drive or
a Mac that has a DVD drive and is operating in target disk mode instead.
A display is optional. You can install and administer Mac OS X Server on a computer
that has no display by using an administrator computer. For information, see
“Preparing an Administrator Computer” on page 36.
Some encoding operations require a compatible graphics card.
Your server doesn’t need to be located where someone has constant access to it. When
you need to perform administrative tasks, you can use any Mac that you’ve set up as an
administrator computer.
Unless you have a site license, you need a unique serial number for each server. You
must use a Mac OS X Server v10.5 Leopard serial number, which begins with XSVR-105.
32
Chapter 2 Installing Mac OS X Server
Installing Mac OS X Server Securely
When you start up a computer from the Mac OS X Server Install Disc, SSH remote login
service and VNC screen sharing service start automatically in order to make remote
installation possible.
Important: Make sure the network is secure before you install or reinstall Mac OS X
Server, because SSH and VNC give others access to the computer over the network.
For example, set up your local network so that only users you trust can access it. Avoid
having Ethernet jacks in public places. If you have an AirPort Base Station or other
wireless access point, configure it to use WEP-2 authentication with a strong
password. Consider making the wireless network name private. Also, try to keep the
hardware serial number confidential, because it’s used as the password for remote
installation and setup.
Chapter 2 Installing Mac OS X Server
33
Installing Locally
You can install Mac OS X Server directly onto the target server by starting up the server
from the Mac OS X Server Install Disc. The Installer application guides you through the
interactive installation process. The target server must have a display attached so you
can interact with the Installer.
Installer
application
Target server
You can perform:
 A new installation of Mac OS X Server on a disk that doesn’t already have Mac OS X
Server or Mac OS X installed
 A clean installation, which installs Mac OS X Server after erasing and formatting a
target disk
To install Mac OS X Server locally:
1 If you’re planning to erase or partition the target disk, make sure you have a backup of
the disk.
2 Make sure the computer has an active connection to a secure Ethernet network.
This network connection is needed to set up the server’s Open Directory domain.
3 Start up the computer, log in if necessary, and insert the Mac OS X Server Install Disc into
the DVD drive.
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Chapter 2 Installing Mac OS X Server
4 Open the Install Mac OS X Server application and click the Restart button.
The application is in the Mac OS X Server Install Disc window.
If you see an Install button instead of a Restart button in the lower-right corner of the
application window, click Install and proceed through the Installer panes by following
the onscreen instructions (skip steps 5 through 8 below). When installation is complete,
restart the server. Server Assistant opens so you can set up the server. For information,
see Chapter 3, “Setting Up Mac OS X Server.”
5 After the computer restarts, choose the language you want to use on the server, and
then click the arrow button.
6 Proceed through the Installer panes by following the onscreen instructions.
7 When the Select a Destination pane appears, select a target disk or volume (partition)
and make sure it’s in the expected state.
If you need to erase the target disk, click Options, select Erase and Install, choose a
format, and click OK.
You can instead choose Utilities > Disk Utility to erase the target disk using a less
common format, partition the server’s hard disk, or create a RAID set.
For more information, see Appendix A, “Preparing Disks for Installing Mac OS X Server.”
8 After installation is complete, the computer restarts and Server Assistant opens so you
can set up the server.
For information, see Chapter 3, “Setting Up Mac OS X Server.”
Chapter 2 Installing Mac OS X Server
35
Preparing an Administrator Computer
You can use an administrator computer to install Mac OS X Server on another
computer over the network. As illustrated below, you start up the server using the
Mac OS X Server Install Disc and use Server Assistant application the administrator
computer to perform remote installation. The target server doesn’t need a display.
Server
Assistant
Administrator
computer
Target server
with DVD drive
You can also use an administrator computer to set up and manage Mac OS X Server
remotely. For information, see “Setting Up a Server Remotely” on page 44 and
“Connecting Server Preferences to a Remote Server” on page 51.
You make a Mac OS X computer into an administrator computer by installing server
administration software on it. If you have another server with Leopard Server already
set up, you can use it as an administrator computer as well.
36
Chapter 2 Installing Mac OS X Server
To set up an administrator computer:
1 Make sure the Mac OS X computer has Mac OS X version 10.5 Leopard installed.
2 Insert the Administration Tools disc.
3 Open the Installers folder.
4 Double-click ServerAdministrationSoftware.mpkg to open the Installer, and then follow
the onscreen instructions.
Installing Remotely
Using Server Assistant on an administrator computer, you can install Mac OS X Server
on another computer over the network. The computer you’re installing on doesn’t need
a display, but it does need a DVD drive for the Mac OS X Server Install Disc. If the
computer doesn’t have a built-in DVD drive, you can attach an external FireWire DVD
drive or a Mac that has a DVD drive and is operating in target disk mode.
You can perform:
 A new installation of Mac OS X Server on a disk that doesn’t already have Mac OS X
Server or Mac OS X installed.
 A clean installation, which installs Mac OS X Server after erasing and formatting a
target disk.
Chapter 2 Installing Mac OS X Server
37
To install Mac OS X Server remotely:
1 If you’re planning to erase the target disk or partition, make sure you have a backup of
it, and optionally use Disk Utility to prepare the target disk.
If you only need to erase the target disk using the most common format, Mac OS
Extended (Journaled), you don’t need to use Disk Utility. With Disk Utility, you can erase
the target disk using other formats, partition the server’s hard disk, or create a RAID set.
For information about using Disk Utility for these tasks, see Appendix A, “Preparing
Disks for Installing Mac OS X Server.”
2 Start up the target server with the Mac OS X Server Install Disc.
If the target server has a built-in DVD drive, insert the disc and then restart the
computer while holding down the C key on the keyboard. Release the C key when you
see the Apple logo.
If the target server has an external FireWire DVD drive, restart the computer while
holding down the Option key, select the icon representing the Mac OS X Server Install
Disc, and then click the Arrow button.
3 On an administrator computer, open Server Assistant, select “Install Mac OS X Server on
a remote computer,” and click Continue.
Server Assistant is located in /Applications/Server/. You can use Server Assistant
without an administrator account.
4 In the Destination pane, identify the target server and select it in the list.
You can identify a server by its IP address, DNS name, or MAC address (also called the
Ethernet address or hardware address).
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Chapter 2 Installing Mac OS X Server
For servers that Server Assistant finds on the local network (IP subnet), the IP address
may be assigned automatically by a DHCP server on the network. If no DHCP server
exists, the target server uses a 169.254.xxx.xxx address unique among servers on the
local network. Later, when you set up the server, you can change the IP address.
If the server you want isn’t listed, you can click Refresh List to have Server Assistant look
again for servers that are ready for installation on your local network. If the server you
want is on a different local network, choose “Server at IP Address” from the “Install to”
pop-up menu, and enter an IP address in IPv4 format (for example, 192.0.2.200). You
can also choose “Server at DNS Name” and enter the server’s DNS name.
5 When prompted for a password, type the first 8 characters of the server’s built-in
hardware serial number.
To find the serial number, look for a label on the server. Match the capitalization of the
serial number when you type it.
For a computer that has no built-in hardware serial number, use 12345678 as the
password.
6 Proceed through the Install Language, Important Info, and Software License panes,
following the onscreen instructions.
For information about settings in a Server Assistant pane, click the Help button in the
pane.
7 In the Volumes pane, select a target disk or partition, make sure it’s in the expected
state, and click Continue.
For information about the disk status icons, click the Help button in the Volumes pane.
Chapter 2 Installing Mac OS X Server
39
8 If the volume you selected already has Mac OS X Server or Mac OS X installed, select an
available option and then click OK.
The options may include:
 Erase using Mac OS X Extended (Journaled) format, then install: Completely erases the
destination volume before installing a new copy of Mac OS X Server.
 Upgrade Mac OS X Server: This option is available only if the target volume has the
latest update of Mac OS X Server v10.4 Tiger or has Mac OS X Server v10.3.9 Panther.
You can upgrade this volume to an advanced configuration of Leopard Server
without erasing the destination volume. For information, see Upgrading and
Migrating (described in “Mac OS X Server Administration Guides” on page 144).
9 After installation is complete, the target server restarts and you can continue using
Server Assistant to set up the server remotely.
For information, see Chapter 3, “Setting Up Mac OS X Server.”
Instead of using Server Assistant on an administrator computer, you can remotely
control installation by using screen sharing on a Mac with Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard or
with Apple Remote Desktop (which you can purchase separately) on another Mac. For
more information, see Server Administration (described in “Mac OS X Server
Administration Guides” on page 144).
40
Chapter 2 Installing Mac OS X Server
3
Setting Up Mac OS X Server
3
Server Assistant leads you through setting up your server
for the first time.
Server Assistant opens automatically when you:
 Finish installing Mac OS X Server version 10.5 Leopard
 Start up a new server with Leopard Server preinstalled
You can use Server Assistant:
 Locally on the server
 Remotely on an administrator computer to set up the server over the network
For information about interactively setting up multiple servers or automatically setting
up an advanced configuration, see Server Administration (described in “Mac OS X Server
Administration Guides” on page 144).
41
Setting Up a Server Locally
You can set up a new server or a computer with Mac OS X Server newly installed by
using the server’s keyboard, mouse, and display.
To set up a server locally:
1 Prepare for setup by filling out a printed copy of the Installation & Setup Worksheet.
The Installation & Setup Worksheet is located on the Mac OS X Server Install Disc in the
Documentation folder.
2 If you have DHCP or DNS service provided by your ISP, Internet router, or other servers
on your network, make sure they are set up for your new server and are running.
3 If you want to set up your server as an Internet gateway, so the server shares an
Internet connection with other computers on your network, make sure of the
following:
 One Ethernet port, or interface, connects to your DSL modem, cable modem, or other
Internet source. The Internet interface must have a public IP address (not a private IP
address like 10.0.1.1 or 192.168.1.1).
 Another Ethernet port connects to your local network.
During setup, you specify which port connects to the Internet. For example, if the
server’s built-in Ethernet port connects to the Internet, you would specify it as the
Internet port. If your server has more than two Ethernet ports, you select at least one of
them as a local network port.
4 If the server is off, turn it on.
When the server starts up, Server Assistant opens automatically.
5 Proceed through the Server Assistant panes, following the onscreen instructions and
entering the information you’ve recorded on the Installation & Setup Worksheet.
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Chapter 3 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
For information about settings in a Server Assistant pane, click the Help button in the
pane.
When server setup is complete, you can:
 Take a few additional steps to keep your server secure. For information, see “Keeping
Your Server Secure” and “Protecting the System Administrator (root) Account,” next.
 Use Software Update to install any available Mac OS X Server updates. For
information, see “Keeping Leopard Server Up to Date” on page 54.
 Configure an AirPort Base Station or an Internet router so that users can access your
server over the Internet. For information, see Appendix B, “Configuring an Internet
Router.”
 Use Server Preferences to set up users and groups, customize services and system
information, and monitor server activity. You can also use the Server Status widget
with Dashboard to monitor your server. For information about these tasks, see
Chapters 4 through 9 or open Server Preferences and then use the Help menu.
Keeping Your Server Secure
For security, you should create a standard user account after completing server setup.
When you log in on the server, routinely use this standard account instead of an
administrator account. Then use your administrator account with each application that
requires administrator privileges. For example, use your administrator name and
password with Server Preferences when you need to manage users, groups, or services.
To create a standard user account, use the Accounts pane of System Preferences on the
server. For information, open System Preferences and then use the Help menu.
Chapter 3 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
43
Protecting the System Administrator (root) Account
The administrator password you enter during setup is also used for the server’s System
Administrator user account, whose short name is root. The System Administrator (root)
account can move or delete any file in the system, including system files not available
to a server administrator account or any other user account. You don’t need root user
privileges to administer your server.
Important: Protecting the root user password is very important, so it should not be the
same as another account’s password.
After setting up the server, you should change the password of the root user account.
For information about changing the root user’s password, open Directory Utility (in
/Applications/Utilities/) and then use the Help menu.
Setting Up a Server Remotely
If you have a new server or another computer with Mac OS X Server newly installed,
you can set it up over the network by using Server Assistant on an administrator
computer. The server you’re setting up doesn’t need a keyboard or display. For
information about administrator computers, see “Preparing an Administrator
Computer” on page 36.
To set up a remote server:
1 Prepare for setup by filling out a printed copy of the Installation & Setup Worksheet.
The Installation & Setup Worksheet is located on the Mac OS X Server Install Disc in the
Documentation folder.
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Chapter 3 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
2 If you have DHCP or DNS service provided by your ISP, Internet router, or other servers
on you network, make sure they are set up for your new server and are running.
3 If you want to set up your server as an Internet gateway, so the server shares an
Internet connection with other computers on your network, make sure of the
following:
 One Ethernet port, or interface, connects to your DSL modem, cable modem, or other
Internet source. The Internet interface must have a public IP address (not a private IP
address like 10.0.1.1 or 192.168.1.1).
 Another Ethernet port connects to your local network.
During setup, you specify which port connects to the Internet. For example, if the
server’s built-in Ethernet port connects to the Internet, you would specify it as the
Internet port. If your server has more than two Ethernet ports, you select at least one of
them as a local network port.
4 If the server is off, turn it on.
When the server starts up, Server Assistant opens automatically and waits for remote
setup to begin.
5 On an administrator computer, open Server Assistant, select “Set up a remote server,”
and click Continue.
Server Assistant is located in /Applications/Server/. You can use Server Assistant
without an administrator account on the local computer.
6 In the Destination pane, type the preset password in the Password column for the
server you want to set up, and then select the Apply checkbox.
Chapter 3 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
45
If the server isn’t listed, click Refresh List to have Server Assistant look again for servers
that are ready to set up on your local network (IP subnet). If the server you want is on a
different local network, click the Add (+) button and enter its IP address or DNS name.
The preset password consists of the first 8 characters of the computer’s built-in
hardware serial number, which is located on a label on the computer. Match the
capitalization of the serial number when you type it. For a computer that has no builtin hardware serial number, use 12345678 as the password.
7 Click Continue and proceed through the Server Assistant panes, following the onscreen
instructions and entering the information you’ve recorded on the Installation & Setup
Worksheet.
For information about settings in Server Assistant, click the Help button in any pane.
When server setup is complete, you can:
 Take a few steps to keep your server secure. For information, see “Keeping Your
Server Secure” on page 43 and “Protecting the System Administrator (root) Account”
on page 44.
 Use Software Update to install any available Mac OS X Server updates. For
information, see “Keeping Leopard Server Up to Date” on page 54.
 Configure an AirPort Base Station or an Internet router so that users can access your
server over the Internet. For information, see Appendix B, “Configuring an Internet
Router.”
 Use Server Preferences to set up users and groups, customize services and system
information, and monitor server activity. You can also use the Server Status widget
with Dashboard to monitor your server. For information about these tasks, see
Chapters 4 through 9 or open Server Preferences and then use the Help menu.
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Chapter 3 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
4
Managing Your Server
4
Use the Server Status widget, Server Preferences, Time
Machine, and Software Update to check status, change
settings, back up and restore, and update server software.
Check status with Server Preferences or the Server Status widget. Find and change
server settings with Server Preferences. Use Server Preferences and the Server Status
widget on the server itself or over the network from any Mac with Leopard. Set Time
Machine preferences to back up the server, and restore using the Time Machine
application or the Installer. Keep the server software current with Software Update.
Using Server Preferences
With Server Preferences, you can check the status of services and change their settings.
You use Server Preferences to manage various aspects of a standard or workgroup
configuration of Leopard Server, such as who can use its services, how its services are
configured, or what its status is.
47
When you open Server Preferences, individual preferences are grouped in the
categories described below.
 Accounts: Manage users and groups.
 Services: Customize settings for file sharing, iCal calendar service, iChat instant
messaging service, mail service, web services, and VPN remote access service.
 System: Check server information, service logs, graphs of server activity, and firewall
settings.
To manage a standard or workgroup server:
1 Open Server Preferences.
Server Preferences is located in /Applications/Server/.
2 If Server Preferences asks you for Server, User Name, and Password, enter the server’s
DNS name or IP address, the name of an administrator user account on the server, and
the password for the administrator account.
The account you created when you set up the server is an administrator account.
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Chapter 4 Managing Your Server
Using the Server Status Widget
You can use the Server Status widget to monitor the status of Mac OS X Server either
on the server itself or from another computer with Mac OS X Server or Mac OS X.
To use the Server Status widget:
1 Open Dashboard, click its Open (+) button, and then click or drag the Server Status
widget from the widget bar.
You can open Dashboard by clicking its icon in the Dock or pressing its keyboard
shortcut, which is usually the F12 key.
2 Enter the server’s DNS name or IP address, an administrator name and password, and
then click Done.
3 When the Server Status widget is connected to a server, it displays the server’s DNS
name and status information about the server and its services.
Monitor processor utilization, network load, or disk usage by clicking an icon below the
graph.
Change the processor or network graph’s time period to one hour, day, or week by
clicking the graph.
Chapter 4 Managing Your Server
49
If your server has more than one disk, you can see the status of each disk in turn by
clicking the disk usage graph.
Check the status indicator and current number of connections for the listed services. A
green indicator means the service is running.
Open the Server Preferences pane for a listed service by clicking the service in the
widget.
Connect to a different server by moving the mouse to the upper left corner of the
widget and clicking the small Info (i) button.
You can open another Server Status widget to see more than one aspect of a server’s
status at once or to monitor another server on the network.
The Server Status widget requires Mac OS X Server version 10.5 Leopard or Mac OS X
v10.5 Leopard.
For information about widgets and Dashboard, switch to the Finder and then use the
Help menu.
You can also see graphs of server activity using Server Preferences. For information, see
“Monitoring Server Graphs” on page 141.
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Chapter 4 Managing Your Server
Finding Settings in Server Preferences
Server Preferences contains dozens of settings you can change to customize your
computer. You can quickly search Server Preferences to find the specific setting you
want.
To find settings in Server Preferences:
1 Open Server Preferences.
2 In the search box, type a word or phrase that describes what you want to change. For
example, if you want to add members to a group, type “group members.”
As you type, you see possible matches to what you’re typing below the search box.
3 When you see what you’re looking for in the search results list, stop typing. One or
more preferences are spotlighted in the Server Preferences window.
4 Click the item in the list that matches what you want to change. In the pane that
opens, you can change the settings for that item.
Connecting Server Preferences to a Remote Server
You can connect Server Preferences to a server over the network and manage users,
groups, services, and system information remotely.
To manage a server remotely:
1 Open Server Preferences on an administrator computer and choose Connection > New
Connection.
For information about administrator computers, see “Preparing an Administrator
Computer” on page 36.
Chapter 4 Managing Your Server
51
2 Enter the remote server’s DNS name or IP address and the name and password of an
administrator account on the remote server.
When Server Preferences is connected to a remote server, the server’s name or IP
address is displayed in the title bar of the Server Preferences window.
To reconnect to a server you have connected to recently, choose Connection > Open
Recent Connection, and then choose the server you want.
You can connect Server Preferences to standard and workgroup configurations of
Leopard Server, but not to an advanced configuration of Leopard Server or an earlier
version of Mac OS X Server.
Closing a Server Preferences Connection
For security, you should close a Server Preferences window when you are not actively
using it to manage the server’s users, groups, services, or system information. Leaving a
server connection open on an unattended server makes it easier for an unauthorized
person to make changes to users, groups, or services.
Here are ways you can close a Server Preferences connection:
m Close the Server Preferences window.
m Choose Connection > Close.
m Quit Server Preferences.
If you close the only open Server Preferences window, Server Preferences quits
automatically.
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Chapter 4 Managing Your Server
Backing Up and Restoring the Server
You can back up server files automatically using Time Machine. It’s a comprehensive
backup solution for the system. It automatically makes a complete backup of all files on
the system to either a locally attached external hard drive or a remote network file
system. It also keeps track as files are created, updated, or deleted over time. Time
Machine backs up the changes and creates a history of the file system that you can
navigate by date. You can use its intuitive time-based visual browser to search back
through time to find and restore any files that were backed up.
You can set up a list of folders and disks that you want excluded from backup. Time
Machine automatically excludes temporary and cache files located in /tmp/, /Library/
Logs/, /Library/Caches/, and /Users/username/Library/Caches/.
You set backup options in the Time Machine pane of System Preferences. You use the
Time Machine application to restore files. You can also restore the entire system to a
previous state using the Installer. For information about backing up and restoring with
Time Machine or the Installer, open System Preferences and then use the Help menu.
Note: You can restore a standard or workgroup configuration from a Time Machine
backup, but may not be able to completely restore advanced settings changed with
Server Admin.
Chapter 4 Managing Your Server
53
Keeping Leopard Server Up to Date
When your server is connected to the Internet, Software Update can automatically get
the latest free Leopard Server version, security updates, and other enhancements from
Apple. Your server is set to check automatically for updates once a week, but you can
set it to check daily or monthly. You can also check now.
To check for updates or adjust automatic updating:
1 Open System Preferences.
2 Click the Software Update Icon and follow the onscreen instructions.
If your organization has another server with Mac OS X Server, your server may get
software updates from it rather than from Apple. An expert administrator can set up
Mac OS X Server to provide software update service by using Server Admin.
You can also download software updates directly from the Apple Downloads website:
www.apple.com/support/downloads
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Chapter 4 Managing Your Server
5
Managing Users
5
Create or import user accounts, change their settings,
or delete them in the Users pane of Server Preferences.
In the Users pane, you set up accounts for people who use the services that this server
provides, and you control which services they can access. You can update their contact
information and change their group memberships. You can also edit the email
messages that can be sent to new users. For information about the settings and
controls in this pane, click the Help button in the lower-right corner of the Server
Preferences window.
55
About User Accounts
User accounts on your server allow users to gain access to services provided by the
server. A user account contains the information needed to prove the user’s identity for
all services that require authentication. A user account also provides a centralized place
to store a user’s contact information and other data.
Each user account can provide an email address, iChat instant messaging address,
personal calendar, and VPN remote access to your server. Users can also be members
of groups, authorizing them to access group resources such as a shared group folder,
group website, and group calendar. Of course, if any of these services is turned off,
then users don’t have access to it.
You can add new user accounts in the Users pane of Server Preferences by:
 Creating new accounts
 Importing existing accounts, if your organization has a directory server and your
server is connected to it
You can import user accounts individually. You can also automatically import all user
accounts that are members of a group.
New user accounts you create are stored in your server’s directory. Imported user
accounts remain in your organization’s directory server. You can supplement imported
accounts with contact information, group membership information, and so forth. The
supplemental information is stored in your server’s directory. When someone uses an
imported user account, your server automatically combines the account information
stored in the directory server with supplemental account information stored in your
server’s directory.
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Chapter 5 Managing Users
You can use Server Preferences to edit user accounts created on your server. Users can
also edit their own accounts using the Directory application.
If your server has imported user accounts, you can use Server Preferences to edit an
account’s supplemental information in your server’s directory, but not the account
information in your organization’s directory. An administrator of that directory can edit
its account information using tools for the directory server.
Users who have administrator privileges on their own computers can create local user
accounts with the Accounts pane of System Preferences. These local user accounts are
stored on the user’s computer. Local user accounts have home folders on the computer
and can be used for logging in to the computer. Local user accounts can’t be used to
access the server over the network.
Because your server is also a Mac OS X computer, it has local accounts in addition to
server accounts and possibly imported accounts. Your server’s local accounts can be
used to log in to it, and a local account with administrator privileges can be used to
administer the server. For information about administrator privileges, see “About
Administrator Accounts,” next.
Chapter 5 Managing Users
57
The following table summarizes the key differences between server accounts, imported
accounts, and local accounts.
Account type
Stored in
Created by
Used for
Server accounts
Your server’s directory
You (a server
administrator), using
Server Preferences
Group membership,
contact information,
authenticating for
services
Imported accounts
Your organization’s
directory server, with
supplements in your
server’s directory
Directory server’s
administrator
Group membership,
contact information,
authenticating for
services
Local accounts
Each Mac OS X
computer
A user with an
administrator account
on the computer,
using Accounts
preferences
Home folders, logging
in to the computer
About Administrator Accounts
You need an administrator account on your server to create other user accounts,
create groups, change server settings, and perform other tasks using Server
Preferences. With an administrator account, you can also make changes to locked
preferences in System Preferences, install software on the server, and perform other
tasks that standard users can’t.
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Chapter 5 Managing Users
Your server has two administrator accounts after you finish the initial setup process
described in Chapter 3. The primary administrator account is the one whose name and
password you entered while setting up the server. The other administrator account also
has the password you entered, but its name is Local Administrator, and its short name
is localadmin. The table below summarizes their similarities and differences.
The primary administrator account is in your server’s directory together with other user
accounts you create using the Users pane of Server Preferences. You can use this
administrator account on the server itself, and you can use it to manage your server
over the network from another Mac.
The Local Administrator account is stored on the server, not in its directory, together
with any user accounts you might create using the Accounts pane of System
Preferences. You can use the Local Administrator account to log in on the server and
use Server Preferences on the server in the event of a malfunction that makes the other
administrator account unusable.
Primary administrator
Local administrator
Name and short name
Specified during setup
Local Administrator and
localadmin
Password
Specified during setup
Specified during setup
Stored in the server’s directory
Yes
No
Can be used from an
administrator computer
Yes
No
Chapter 5 Managing Users
59
When you create a new user account, you specify whether the user is an administrator
or a standard user. You can also make an imported user account a server administrator.
If you don’t want a user to be able to use Server Preferences or install software on the
server, don’t make the user an administrator.
To keep your computer secure, don’t share an administrator name and password with
anyone. Be sure to log out when you leave your computer, or set up a locked screen
saver using the Screen Saver pane and Security pane of System Preferences. If you
leave your computer while you’re logged in and the screen is unlocked, someone could
sit down at your computer while you’re away and make changes using your
administrator privileges.
For added security, routinely log in on the server using a standard user account. Use
your administrator name and password when you open Server Preferences or other
application that requires administrator privileges.
Never set an administrator to be automatically logged in when the server starts up. If
you do, someone can simply restart the server to gain access as an administrator.
Adding a User Account
You can add an individual user account for each person who uses the services provided
by your server. Your server gives each user account a separate email address, iChat
address, and personal calendar. User accounts can also have access to the server’s
shared files and shared websites, and they can use VPN to access the server remotely.
Availability of each service is subject to the service being turned on, and you can
separately control each user account’s access to services.
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Chapter 5 Managing Users
To add a new user account:
1 Click the Add (+) button in the Users pane of Server Preferences.
2 If you see a pop-up menu, choose one of the commands:
Import User From Directory: You can import users’ existing accounts from your
organization’s directory server. For information about doing this, see “Importing Users”
on page 62.
Create New User: You generally add new users from your organization’s directory server
if possible, but you can also create new user accounts in your server’s directory. To do
this, continue with step 3.
If you don’t see a pop-up menu when you click the Add (+) button, your server isn’t
connected to a directory server. Continue with step 3 to create a user account in your
server’s directory.
3 Enter the user’s name.
The name can be as long as 255 characters (from 255 Roman characters to as few as 85
Japanese characters). It can include spaces.
4 If you don’t want to use the short name generated automatically, type a new short
name. (Once the account is created, you won’t be able to change the short name.)
The short name typically is eight or fewer characters, but can be as long as 255 Roman
characters. Use only the characters a through z, A through Z, 0 through 9,
_ (underscore), or - (hyphen).
Note: If the user whose account you’re creating already has a Mac set up, try to use the
same short name for the user’s account on the server. Having the same short name will
facilitate logging in for services.
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5 Enter the user’s password in the Password and Verify fields.
You can use Password Assistant to help you choose a new password. Click the Key
button to the right of the Password field to see how secure the new password is.
6 Select “Allow user to administer this computer” if this user account needs to create
other user accounts, create groups, install software on the server, or change server
settings.
Importing Users
If your server is connected to your organization’s directory server, you can import users’
existing accounts. Your server gives each imported user account a separate iChat
address and personal calendar. Imported user accounts can also have access to the
server’s shared files and shared websites. If your server’s mail service and VPN service
are turned on, imported user accounts get email addresses and can use VPN to access
the server remotely. Access to each service is subject to the service being turned on,
and you can separately control each imported user account’s access to services.
To import a user account:
1 Before importing a user account, be sure the invitation email is worded to suit your
needs.
For information, see “Customizing the Server Invitation Email” on page 75.
2 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, click the Add (+) button and choose “Import
User From Directory” from the pop-up menu.
If you don’t see a pop-up menu when you click Add (+), your server isn’t connected to
a directory server in your organization. See “Connecting to a Directory Server” on
page 135.
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If your organization doesn’t have a directory server (apart from your server), you can
create new user accounts. For information about creating new user accounts, see
“Adding a User Account” on page 60.
3 Select a user account from the list of accounts on your organization’s directory server,
optionally select “Send imported users an email invitation,” and then click Import.
4 When you’re finished importing user accounts, click Done.
User accounts you import using this procedure are listed as “Imported” in the Users
pane.
Instead of importing user accounts individually using this procedure, you can import
user accounts automatically from groups. For information about how to do this, see the
next section.
Importing Groups of Users Automatically
If your server is connected to your organization’s directory server, you can import
groups of existing user accounts. If you import a group, your server automatically
imports user accounts for all group members. Your server periodically checks with your
organization’s directory server for changes in each imported group’s membership, and
automatically adds and removes imported user accounts as users are added to or
removed from an imported group.
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Your server gives each imported user account a separate iChat address and personal
calendar. Imported user accounts can also have access to the server’s shared files and
shared websites. If your server’s mail service and VPN service are turned on, imported
user accounts get email addresses and can use VPN to access the server remotely.
Access to each service is subject to the service being turned on, and you can separately
control each imported user account’s access to services.
To import user accounts automatically from groups:
1 Before importing user accounts from groups, be sure the invitation email is worded to
suit your needs.
For information, see “Customizing the Server Invitation Email” on page 75.
2 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, click the Action (gear) button and choose
“Import Users From Groups” from the pop-up menu.
If the Action pop-up menu doesn’t include this option, your server isn’t connected to a
directory server. See “Connecting to a Directory Server” on page 135.
If your organization doesn’t have a directory server (apart from your server), you can
create new user accounts. For information about creating new user accounts, see
“Adding a User Account” on page 60.
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3 Change the list on the right so it contains the groups whose members you want to
import automatically.
Add an available group by selecting it in the list on the left and clicking Add.
Remove a group to import by selecting it in the list on the right and clicking Remove.
4 Optionally select “Send new imported users an email invitation.”
5 When you’re satisfied with the list of groups to import, click Save.
User accounts that are imported automatically from groups are listed as “Automatic” in
the Users pane.
You can also import user accounts individually. For information about how to do this,
see “Importing Users” on page 62.
Deleting a User Account
You can use Server Preferences to delete user accounts that are no longer needed for
your server. Deleting a user account cancels its group memberships and stops it from
being an automatic iChat buddy. Deleting a user account also deletes the mail the user
has stored on the server and makes the user’s personal calendar inaccessible.
To delete a user account:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, select the user account you want to change in
the list on the left.
2 Click the Delete (–) button.
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Changing a User’s Account Settings
Change a user’s name, password, picture, or administrator privilege by clicking Account
in the Users pane of Server Preferences.
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To change account settings for a user:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, select the user account you want to change in
the list on the left.
2 Click Account, and then change any available setting, using the following information
as a guide:
Name: Enter the user’s name. It can be used with the password to authenticate for
services.
Short Name: This is an abbreviation of the user’s name. It’s used for the user’s email
and iChat addresses. It can also be used with the password to authenticate for services.
It can’t be changed after the account is created.
Reset Password: Click to reset the password. The password can’t be changed for a user
account that’s imported from a directory server.
Picture: Click to set the user’s picture by choosing a picture, taking a picture with an
attached camera, or applying a visual effect.
Allow user to administer this server: If selected, this user account can manage users,
groups, and services with Server Preferences.
If settings besides the short name are dimmed in the Account pane, you can’t change
them because they are stored the directory server that your server is connected to.
Users with Leopard can change their own account information using the Directory
application.
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Changing a User’s Contact Info
Change a user’s first and last names, address, email and chat addresses, website
address, and blog address by clicking Contact Info in the Users pane of Server
Preferences.
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To change contact information for a user:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, select the user account you want to change in
the list on the left.
2 Click Contact Info, and then change any available setting, using the following
information as a guide:
Name: The user’s first name and last name.
Address: The user’s postal address.
Contact: The user’s instant messaging addresses and email addresses.
 To add an address, click the Add (+) button.
 To remove an address, select it and click the Delete (–) button.
Website: The user’s personal website address, beginning with http://.
Weblog: The user’s personal blog address, beginning with http://.
If some settings in the Contact Info pane are dimmed, you can’t change them because
they are stored in the directory server that your server is connected to.
Users with Leopard can change their own contact info using the Directory application.
For information, see “Working with Directory Information on Leopard Users’ Macs” on
page 90.
Controlling a User’s Access to Services
Control a user’s access to individual services by clicking Services in the Users pane of
Server Preferences.
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To change service access settings for a user:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, select the user account you want to control in
the list on the left.
2 Click Services, and then select the services that you want to let the user access.
Deselect the services you don’t want the user to access.
Changing a User’s Group Membership
Make a user a member of a group or remove a user from a group by clicking Groups in
the Users pane.
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To change group membership for a user:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, select the user account you want to change in
the list on the left.
2 Click Groups, and then click Edit Membership.
3 Select the checkbox next to each group you want the user to be a member of. Deselect
the checkbox next to each group you don’t want the user to be a member of.
4 When you finish making changes, click Edit Membership again to display a static list of
groups that the user belongs to.
For information about adding, removing, or configuring groups, see Chapter 7,
“Managing Groups.”
Changing a User’s Name or Password
You can use Server Preferences to change the name or password for a standard user
account or an administrator account.
To change a user account’s name or password:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, select a standard or administrator user account
you want to change in the list on the left, and then click Account.
2 If you want to change the name, edit the Name field.
The name can be as long as 255 characters (from 255 Roman characters to as few as 85
Japanese characters). It can include spaces.
You can’t change a user account’s short name using Server Preferences.
3 If you want to change the password, click Reset Password, enter the new password in
the New Password and Verify fields, and click Change Password.
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You can use Password Assistant to help you choose a new password. Click the Key
button to the right of the New Password field to see how secure the new password is.
Users with Leopard can change their name and password using the Directory
application. Users can change their passwords when authenticating for file sharing.
If your server has imported user accounts, or user accounts imported automatically
from groups, their names or passwords can be changed by an administrator of the
directory server where the accounts are stored. If that directory server is a standard
configuration of Mac OS X Server and you are an administrator of it, you can connect
Server Preferences to it remotely and then make the changes. For information about
how to connect remotely, see “Connecting Server Preferences to a Remote Server” on
page 51.
If your server’s imported user accounts are stored on an advanced configuration of
Mac OS X Server, the directory administrator can use Workgroup Manager to change
the account name and password. For information about using Workgroup Manager,
open it and then use the Help menu.
To change the password or other attributes of the Local Administrator account, use the
Accounts pane of System Preferences after setting up the server. For information about
changing local accounts, open System Preferences and then use the Help menu.
To change the password of the System Administrator (root) account, use the Directory
Utility application after setting up the server. For information about using Directory
Utility, open it and then use the Help menu.
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Changing a User’s Picture
You can use Server Preferences to change the picture for a standard user account or an
administrator account. If your server has imported user accounts or user accounts
imported automatically from groups, you can change their pictures unless the pictures
were set on your organization’s directory server.
To change the picture for a user account:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, select a user account you want to change in
the list on the left, and then click Account.
2 To use an included picture, click the picture field and choose a picture from the pop-up
menu.
3 To edit the picture or use a one from a camera or a file, click the picture field, choose
Edit Picture from the pop-up menu, make changes to the picture as desired, and then
click Set or Cancel.
To choose a picture you’ve used recently, click Recent Pictures.
To move the picture, drag it up, down, or sideways.
To crop the picture, drag the slider.
To capture a new picture using a video camera attached to the computer, click the
Camera button.
To apply a visual effect, click the Visual Effects (grid) button, scroll through the available
effects, and select the effect you want.
To use a picture file, click Choose.
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Users with Leopard can change their own pictures using the Directory application. For
information, see “Working with Directory Information on Leopard Users’ Macs” on
page 90.
Customizing the Welcome Email
You can use Server Preferences to add your name, email address, and a personal
introduction to the standard email message that your server sends to tell new users
about its services. The standard message specifies the server’s DNS name and the
recipient’s email address, and it explains the services that the server provides. The
standard message also includes links to available file sharing and web services.
The server sends the email automatically when you add a new user account. However,
your server doesn’t send the email if its mail service is stopped when you add new user
accounts.
To customize the email sent to newly added user accounts:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, click the Action (gear) button and choose
“Email Message Settings” from the pop-up menu.
2 Enter the sender’s name and email address in the Admin Full Name and Admin Email
fields.
3 Optionally enter a personal message in the Welcome field.
You can use the message to introduce yourself, so recipients know the email is
genuine. Example: Hi, I’m the administrator for our server, myserver.example.com. If
you need help getting services from it, please don’t hesitate to send me an email or call
me at 310-555-4357. —Bill
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Users receive the welcome email when they start using their email accounts. They see
your name and message in a boxed section set apart from the standard message text
that the server generates.
Customizing the Server Invitation Email
You can use Server Preferences to add your name, email address, and a personal
introduction to the standard email message that your server can send to tell newly
imported users how to get its services. The standard message specifies the server’s DNS
name, and it explains the services that the server provides. Recipients who have
Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard can click a button in the email to automatically set up their
Macs to get services from your server. The standard message also includes links to
available file sharing and web services.
You can select an option to send the email when you import users or a group of users.
The server sends the invitation to email addresses that already exist in the imported
user accounts. The server doesn’t send the invitation to an imported user account that
doesn’t contain an email address.
To customize the email sent to newly imported user accounts:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, click the Action (gear) button and choose
“Email Message Settings” from the pop-up menu.
2 Enter the sender’s name and email address in the Admin Full Name and Admin Email
fields.
3 Optionally enter a personal message in the Invitation field.
If you don’t see an Invitation field, your server isn’t connected to a directory server. See
“Connecting to a Directory Server” on page 135.
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You can use the message to introduce yourself, so recipients know the email is
genuine. Example: Hi, I’m the administrator for our server, myserver.example.com. If
you need help setting up your computer to get services from it, please don’t hesitate to
send me an email or call me at 310-555-4357. —Bill
Recipients see your name and message in a boxed section set apart from the standard
message text that the server generates.
Customizing the Group Invitation Email
You can use Server Preferences to add your name, email address, and a personal
introduction to the standard email message that your server can send to tell new
external members of a group how to use the group’s services. The standard message
specifies the group name and the server’s DNS name, and it explains the services that
the server provides. The standard message also includes links to available file sharing
and group services.
You can select an option to send the email when you add users or groups from your
organization’s directory server as external members of a group on your server. The
server sends the invitation to email addresses that already exist in each new external
member’s user account. The server doesn’t sent the invitation to a new external
member whose user account doesn’t contain an email address.
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To customize the email sent to new external members of a group:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, click the Action (gear) button and choose
“Email Message Settings” from the pop-up menu.
2 Enter the sender’s name and email address in the Admin Full Name and Admin Email
fields.
3 Optionally enter a personal message in the Group Invitation field.
If you don’t see the Group Invitation field, your server isn’t connected to a directory
server. See “Connecting to a Directory Server” on page 135.
You can use the message to introduce yourself, so recipients know the email is
genuine. Example: Hi, I’m the administrator for the server myserver.example.com,
which provides services for the group. If you need help getting group services from the
server, please don’t hesitate to send me an email or call me at 310-555-4357. —Bill
Recipients see your name and message in a boxed section set apart from the standard
message text that the server generates.
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6
Managing Users’ Computers
6
Learn how to help users set up their computers to use the
services you server provides.
Users need to set up their computers to get services from your server. Users with
Mac OS X version 10.5 Leopard can have their computers set up automatically. Users
with earlier Mac OS X versions or Windows need to set up their computers manually.
Users whose Macs have Leopard and are connected to your server can use the
Directory application to share contacts, add groups, set up group services, and manage
their own contact information.
Setting Up Leopard Users’ Macs Automatically
Users who have Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard can automatically set up their Macs to get
services from your server. The procedure is different for three types of Leopard users, as
explained in the following table.
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Automatic setup for
Begins after users
For information, see
New users of Leopard (with a
new Mac or Leopard newly
installed) if your server is a
standard configuration
Complete the “Connect to
Mac OS X Server” pane during
Leopard setup
“Setting Up Services for New
Leopard Users,” next
Current users of Leopard
whose accounts you import
from a directory server
Click the button in the
invitation email they receive
“Setting Up Leopard Users
with an Invitation Email” on
page 84
Current users of Leopard
whose accounts you create on
the server
Open the Directory Utility
application (or after it opens
automatically)
“Setting Up a Mac by Using
Directory Utility” on page 85
After a user finishes one of the automatic setup procedures, the user is ready to access
services as shown in the table on the next page. (Of course, the user can only access
services that are turned on.)
The user’s local account is tied to the user’s server account, and the local account is
labeled “Managed” in the Accounts pane of System Preferences. Both accounts have
the same password.
 If the user’s server account is new, its password is changed to the password from the
user’s existing local account.
 If the user’s server account is imported from an existing account in a directory server,
this account’s password replaces the user’s local account password.
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If the user changes the password in the Accounts pane of System Preferences, the
server account password will change to match.
If a user’s accounts were created with different user names, the user can change the
long name of the local account by using the Accounts pane of System Preferences. The
user can also use the Directory application to change the long name of the server
account.
For information about local, server, and imported user accounts, see “About User
Accounts” on page 56.
Application
Is ready to access
Address Book
Other users’ contact information
Directory
User, group, and resource information
Finder
Shared folders
iCal
User’s personal calendar and group calendar
iChat
User’s Jabber account and buddy list
Mail
User’s email account and other users’ email addresses
Safari
Server website: http://myserver.example.com
Group wikis: http://myserver.example.com/groups
User blogs: http://myserver.example.com/users
Webmail: http://myserver.example.com/webmail
Network preferences
VPN connection
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Setting Up Services for New Leopard Users
During initial setup of a new Mac or a Mac with Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard newly
installed, the “Connect to Mac OS X Server” pane lets the user choose your server if it
has a standard configuration of Leopard Server and the user has an account on it. (A
server is a standard configuration if it doesn’t have imported user accounts and isn’t
connected to a directory server.)
User chooses your
server
User specifies an
account on your
server
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This pane appears only if the Mac detects a standard configuration of Leopard Server
on the network. This pane doesn’t allow a user to choose a workgroup configuration of
Leopard Server. (A server is a workgroup configuration if it’s connected to a directory
server. See “Connecting to a Directory Server” on page 136.)
If the user completes this pane:
 A local user account is created on the user’s Mac based on the specified account on
the server. Both accounts have the same long name, short name, and password.
 A home folder is set up on the user’s computer.
 The user’s computer is automatically connected to your server and configured to get
services from it. For information about how the computer gets services, see “Setting
Up Leopard Users’ Macs Automatically” on page 79.
The user may be unable to complete the “Connect to Mac OS X Server” pane for several
reasons. For example:
 The user may not know your server’s name or may not have a user account on the
server. In these cases, the user can skip the “Connect to Mac OS X Server” pane by
deselecting “Use the following Mac OS X Server.”
 The user’s Mac may not be connected to the network during initial setup. In this case,
the “Create Your Account” pane appears instead of the “Connect to Mac OS X Server”
pane, and the user creates a new account not based on a server account.
If the user doesn’t complete the “Connect to Mac OS X Server” pane for any reason, the
user can finish initial setup and then configure the Mac to get services from your
server. For information about how the user does this, see “Setting Up a Mac by Using
Directory Utility” on page 85.
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Setting Up Leopard Users with an Invitation Email
If some users already have Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard set up and you import their user
accounts from a directory server, you can have an email sent inviting them to join the
server. Leopard users can click a button in the invitation email to begin using an
assistant that connects their computers to the server and sets up their applications
to get its services. For information about the assistant, see “Setting Up a Mac by Using
Directory Utility,” next.
Note: To receive an invitation email, an imported user must have an email address
in the user’s account on the directory server. Only users with imported user accounts
receive the invitation email. Users with accounts you create on your server don’t
receive the invitation email. The next two sections describe how their computers
get set up.
When Leopard users click the button in the invitation email to use the assistant, it
checks the server for a user account with a long name or short name that matches the
local user account that’s currently logged in on the user’s computer. If the assistant
finds a match, it asks whether the user wants to tie the local account to the server
account. If the user agrees, the local account is changed to use the password from the
account on the server. The user’s home folder remains on the user’s computer.
The user chooses whether to have applications set up to get services from the server.
For information about how applications are set up, see “Setting Up Leopard Users’
Macs Automatically” on page 79.
For information about adding your name, email address, and a personal introduction to
the standard message text that the server generates for the invitation email, see
“Customizing the Server Invitation Email” on page 75.
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Setting Up a Mac by Using Directory Utility
If a Mac with Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard isn’t connected to a server yet, and Leopard
detects your server on the network, Directory Utility opens automatically. It displays an
assistant that connects the Mac to the server and sets up applications to use its
services. The user can also open Directory Utility manually, and it will display the
assistant if it detects your server.
While using the assistant:
 The user decides whether to set up the Mac to get services from your server. If
Directory Utility discovers more than one server that can provide services, it lists the
servers by computer name and IP address and the user has to know which server to
choose. The list includes only servers with a standard or workgroup configuration of
Leopard Server.
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 The user enters the name and password of the user account on the server and the
password of the local user account that’s currently logged in on the user’s computer.
The password of the server account changes to the password of the local account.
The user’s home folder remains on the user’s computer.
 The user chooses whether to have applications set up to get services from the server.
For information about how the applications get services, see “Setting Up Leopard
Users’ Macs Automatically” on page 79.
Setting Up Users’ Computers Manually
Users who have Mac OS X v10.4 Tiger or earlier, or who are running Windows, can get
services from your server by configuring their applications manually. They can use the
settings in the following table, replacing the italicized placeholders with your server’s
DNS name and the user’s short name.
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Application
Settings
Finder
(File sharing)
afp://myserver.example.com
smb://myserver.example.com
iChat
(XMPP instant messaging application)
Account type: Jabber
Server: myserver.example.com
Jabber ID: usershortname@myserver.example.com
Authentication: Kerberos v5 preferred
Port: 5223
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Application
Settings
Mail
(Email application)
Account type: IMAP or POP
Incoming mail server: myserver.example.com
Outgoing mail server: myserver.example.com
Email address: usershortname@myserver.example.com
Authentication: Kerberos v5 preferred
iCal
(CalDAV calendar application)
Subscribe to: http://myserver.example.com:8008/
principals/users/usershortname
If the calendar application supports SSL, subscribe to:
https://myserver.example.com:8443/principals/users/
usershortname
Safari
(Web browser)
Website: http://myserver.example.com
Group wikis: http://myserver.example.com/groups
User blogs: http://myserver.example.com/users
Webmail: http://myserver.example.com/webmail
Internet Connect
(VPN connection)
See “Setting Up a Mac User’s VPN Connection,” next,
or “Setting Up a User’s VPN Connection Manually” on
page 89
Setting Up a Mac User’s VPN Connection
You can use Server Preferences to generate a file that Mac users can open to create a
VPN configuration automatically. Then a user can make a VPN connection to the server
and its network via the Internet. The configuration file works with Mac OS X v10.3 or
later. For information about generating the configuration file, see page 126.
When you give Mac users a VPN configuration file you have generated, you can also
give them the following instructions for using it.
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Using a VPN Configuration File
If you got a VPN configuration file from the person who manages your server, and you
have Mac OS X version 10.3 or later, you can use the file to set up your computer for
making VPN connections to the server. The configuration file contains all the
information necessary to make a VPN connection to the server, except the name and
password of your user account on the server.
To import a VPN configuration from a file:
1 Open the file and select VPN (L2TP) if asked where to put the imported
configuration.
2 Enter your user account name in the Account Name field.
3 If the server administrator tells you to enter your user account password, enter it in
the Password field.
If you have Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard, click Authentication Settings to see the
Password field.
For security, the administrator may tell you not to enter your password now.
4 Quit the application, and save or apply your changes when prompted.
If you want to make a VPN connection from a network with a firewall, configure it to
allow traffic on UDP ports 500 and 4500, and on IP protocol 50.
If you didn’t enter your password before saving the VPN configuration, you’ll be asked
to enter it each time you make a VPN connection to the server.
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Setting Up a User’s VPN Connection Manually
Users may be unable to import VPN settings from a configuration file because they
don’t have the file or they have Windows computers, which can’t use the file. These
users can manually set up their computers for a VPN connection to your server. They
need to create a new VPN configuration and enter the following VPN connection
settings:
 VPN server or host: your server’s DNS name or public IP address
 VPN type: L2TP over IPSec
 Shared secret (key) for IPSec: shown in the VPN pane of Server Preferences when you
click Edit and select “Show shared secret”
 Account name: the short name of the user’s account on your server
 User password: the password of the user’s account on your server
Users who want to make a VPN connection from a computer or network with a firewall
need to configure the firewall to allow traffic on UDP ports 500 and 4500, and on IP
protocol 50.
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Working with Directory Information on Leopard Users’ Macs
Users who have Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard can use the Directory application to view
shared information about people, groups, locations, and resources. They can use
Directory to share contacts, add and remove groups, change group membership, set
up group services, and manage their own contact information.
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When users look up information about other people, they’ll see more than just contact
information. Directory can display the picture a person has provided, list public groups
the person belongs to, list the person’s manager and direct reports, and show a map
that pinpoints the person’s location.
Directory works together with several Mac OS X applications. Users can create shared
contacts from Address Book entries, click email addresses to send email using Mail, or
visit group wiki websites in Safari.
Directory shows users the records from your server’s directory. If your server is
connected to a directory server, Directory also shows its records.
Note: Changes that users make with Directory show up in Server Preferences. To see
the most recent changes made with Directory, you may need to choose View > Refresh
in Server Preferences.
For information about how to use Directory, open it and then use the Help menu.
Directory is located in /Applications/Utilities/.
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7
Managing Groups
7
Use the Groups pane to add or delete groups, see and
change group membership, or configure group services.
In the Groups pane, you create groups, set up group services such as wikis and blogs,
add and remove group members, and delete unneeded groups. For information about
the settings and controls in this pane, click the Help button in the lower-right corner of
the Server Preferences window.
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Creating a New Group
You can create a new group whenever some server users need their own mailing list,
shared group folder, wiki and blog, calendar, or mailing list archive. You select which of
those services each group has.
To create a new group:
1 Click the Add (+) button in the Groups pane of Server Preferences.
2 Enter a name for the group, optionally change the short name, and click Create Group.
The group name can be as long as 255 characters (from 255 Roman characters to as
few as 85 Japanese characters). It can include spaces.
Once the account is created, you won’t be able to change the short name. If you don’t
want to use the short name generated automatically, type a new short name.
The short name typically is eight or fewer characters, but can be as long as 255 Roman
characters. Use only the characters a through z, A through Z, 0 through 9,
_ (underscore), or - (hyphen).
3 Select the services you want this group to have.
File sharing folder: A shared group folder is set up, and group members can get files
from the shared group folder and put files in it. It’s named after the group’s short name
and located on the server’s startup disk at /Groups/.
Mailing list: A group email address is set up using the group short name, and group
members receive all mail sent to the group address.
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Wiki and blog: Group members can view and contribute to the group wiki using their
web browsers.
Web calendar: Group members can check the group calendar and add events to it
using their web browsers.
Mailing list web archive: Group members can read archived email sent to the group
email address.
4 Add users to the group by clicking Members, and add users and groups from your
organization’s directory server by clicking External Members.
For instructions, see “Adding or Removing Members of a Group” on page 97 and
“Adding or Removing External Members of a Group” on page 99.
If you don’t see an External Members tab (shown on page 99), your server isn’t
connected to a directory server. See “Connecting to a Directory Server” on page 135.
To access group services, group members must authenticate using their user account
name and password. Availability of group services is subject to file sharing service, iCal
service, web services, and mail service being turned on.
Users with Leopard can add groups using the Directory application. For information,
see “Working with Directory Information on Leopard Users’ Macs” on page 90.
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Deleting a Group
You can use Server Preferences to delete groups that are no longer needed.
To delete a group:
1 In the Groups pane of Server Preferences, select the group you want to delete in the
list on the left.
2 Click the Delete (–) button.
After you delete a group, the group’s shared folder and website folder remain on the
server’s startup disk. The shared folder is located at /Groups/, and the group website
folder is at /Library/Collaboration/Groups/. You can keep these folders or drag them to
the Trash.
Users with Leopard can remove groups using the Directory application. For
instructions, users can open Directory and then use the Help menu.
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Adding or Removing Members of a Group
In the Groups pane, you can add or remove group members who are users you have
created or imported in the Users pane. (To have imported users, your server must be
connected to a directory server.)
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To add or remove members of a group:
1 In the Groups pane of Server Preferences, select the group you want to edit in the list
on the left.
2 Click Members, and then click Edit Membership.
3 Select the checkbox next to each user you want to be a member of the group. Deselect
the checkbox next to each user you don’t want to be a member.
4 When you finish, click Edit Membership again to display a static list of group members.
Users with Leopard can add and remove group members using the Directory
application. For information, see “Working with Directory Information on Leopard
Users’ Macs” on page 90.
For information about adding, deleting, or configuring user accounts, see Chapter 5,
“Managing Users.”
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Adding or Removing External Members of a Group
If your server is connected to a directory server, your group members can include users
and group from the directory server. External members don’t have user accounts on
your server, but they can use the group’s wiki website. You use the Groups pane to add
or remove external group members.
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To add or remove external group members:
1 Before adding external group members, be sure the group invitation email is worded
to suit your needs.
For information, see “Customizing the Group Invitation Email” on page 76.
2 In the Groups pane of Server Preferences, select the group you want to change in the
list on the left, and click External Members.
If you don’t see an External Members tab, your server isn’t connected to a directory
server. See “Connecting to a Directory Server” on page 135.
3 To remove an external group member, select the member in the list on the right, and
then click the Delete (–) button below the list.
4 To add a group member, click the Add (+) button below the list of members.
5 Select a prospective member from the list, optionally select “Send added users an email
invitation,” and click Add to Group.
To search for a user or group, type the first part of the name in the search box.
To show or hide users and groups below a heading, click the triangle in the heading.
6 When you finish adding members, click Done.
For information about adding, deleting, or configuring user accounts, see Chapter 5,
“Managing Users.”
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Changing Group Settings
Change a group’s name or set up group services by clicking Groups in the Users pane
of Server Preferences. Group services include a shared group folder, group mailing list,
group website with wiki and blog, web calendar, and web mailing list archive. For
information about the settings and controls in this pane, click the Help button in the
lower-right corner of the Server Preferences window.
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Changing a Group’s Name
You can use Server Preferences to change the name of a group.
To change a group’s name:
1 In the Groups pane of Server Preferences, select the group you want to change in the
list on the left, and then click Group Settings.
2 Edit the Group Name field.
The name can be as long as 255 characters (from 255 Roman characters to as few as 85
Japanese characters). It can include spaces.
You can’t change a group’s short name using Server Preferences.
Setting Up a Group File Sharing Folder
You can use Server Preferences to set up a shared folder for a group. Group members
can get files from the shared group folder and put files in it. It’s named using the
group’s short name and is located on the server’s startup disk at /Groups/.
To set up a file sharing folder for a group:
1 In the Groups pane of Server Preferences, select a group in the list on the left or create
a new group, and then click Group Settings.
For information, see “Creating a New Group” on page 94.
2 Select “File sharing folder.”
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3 Click Show All, click File Sharing, and make sure file sharing service is on and access to
the Groups shared folder is turned on.
Group members authenticate using their user account name and password to access
the group’s shared folder.
Setting Up a Group Mailing List
You can use Server Preferences to set up a mailing list for a group. A group email
address is set up using the group’s short name. The server takes mail sent to that
address and delivers it to the email address of each member of the group.
To set up a mailing list for a group:
1 In the Groups pane of Server Preferences, select a group in the list on the left or create
a new group, and then click Group Settings.
2 Select “Mailing list.”
3 Click Show All and make sure mail service is on.
Setting Up a Group Wiki Website
You can use Server Preferences to set up a group website with wiki, blog, optional
calendar, and optional mailing list archive. Using their web browsers, group members
can view and contribute to the group wiki and blog, check the group calendar and add
events to it, and read archived email sent to the group email address.
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To set up a wiki website for a group:
1 In the Groups pane of Server Preferences, select a group in the list on the left or create
a new group, and then click Group Settings.
2 Select “Wiki and blog.”
3 Select “Web calendar” if you want the group website to include a shared calendar of
events.
4 Select “Mailing list web archive” and “Mailing list” if you want the group website to
include a group mailing list archive.
5 Click Show All, click Web, and make sure web service is on and the “Enable group wikis”
option is selected.
6 If you turned on the web calendar in step 3, click Show All and make sure iCal service is
on.
7 If you turned on the web mailing list web archive in step 4, click Show All and make
sure mail service is on.
You can open the group wiki website by clicking the link arrow next to “Wiki and blog.”
You can open the group web calendar by clicking the link arrow next to “Web
calendar.”
For information about using the wiki, blog, calendar, and mailing list archive, see the
built-in help on the group website.
Group members can view their website at:
http://serverDNSname/groups/groupshortname
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Replace the italicized placeholders with the server’s DNS name and the group short
name. The server’s DNS name is shown in the Information pane of Server Preferences.
Group members log in using their user account name and password to access the
group’s wiki, blog, web calendar, or web mailing list archive.
You can control access to group services by using the Directory application (located in
/Applications/Utilities/). For information about using Directory, open it and use the
Help menu.
Setting Up a Group Calendar
You can use Server Preferences to set up a group calendar as part of a group wiki
website. Users can check the group calendar and add events to it using their web
browsers.
To set up a web calendar for a group with a wiki website:
1 In the Groups pane of Server Preferences, click Group Settings and in the list on the
left, select a group that has a wiki website.
2 Select “Web calendar.”
3 Click Show All, click iCal, and make sure iCal service is on.
You can open the group web calendar by clicking the link arrow next to “Web
calendar.”
Group members can view their web calendar at:
http://serverDNSname/groups/groupshortname/calendar
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Replace the italicized placeholders with the server’s DNS name and the group short
name. The server’s DNS name is shown in the Information pane of Server Preferences.
Group members log in using their user account name and password to access the
group’s web calendar.
Setting Up a Group Mailing List Archive
You can use Server Preferences to set up a mailing list archive as part of a group wiki
website. This service lets users read archived email sent to the group email address,
using their web browsers.
To set up a mailing list web archive:
1 In the Groups pane of Server Preferences, click Group Settings and in the list on the
left, select a group that has a wiki website.
2 Select “Mailing list web archive” and “Mailing List.”
3 Click Show All, click Mail, and make sure mail service is on.
Group members can view their mailing list web archive at:
http://serverDNSname/groups/groupshortname/mailinglist
Replace the italicized placeholders with the server’s DNS name and the group short
name. The server’s DNS name is shown in the Information pane of Server Preferences.
Group members log in using their user account name and password to access the
group mailing list web archive.
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Customizing Services
8
Use Server Preferences to change settings for file sharing,
iCal, iChat, mail, web, and VPN services.
Managing File Sharing Service
Use the File Sharing pane to turn file sharing service on or off, or control access to
the Groups and Public shared folders. You can also add your own shared folders,
also known as share points, or delete them. For information about the settings and
controls in this pane, click the Help button in the lower-right corner of the Server
Preferences window.
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About File Sharing Service
Mac OS X Server file sharing service lets users access shared folders and store files on
the server. They can use Macintosh, Windows, or UNIX computers to access their files
and shared folders without special software, using native file protocols including AFP
and SMB. Windows users see Mac OS X Server file servers in their Network Places, just
like Windows file servers.
Adding a Shared Folder
You can add a shared folder for users to select when they connect to the server for file
sharing. Mac users see the shared folder as a shared disk in the Finder. Windows users
see the shared folder in Network Places. Shared folders are also called share points.
To add a shared folder:
1 If you want to share a folder that doesn’t exist yet, create it and name it in the Finder.
2 In the File Sharing pane of Server Preferences, click the Add (+) button, choose the
folder you want to share, and click Open.
If you’re using Server Preferences on the server, you can also drag a folder that you
want to share from a Finder window to the list in the File Sharing pane.
3 To allow users to access this shared folder without logging in, or change the list of
users who can access this shared folder, click Edit Permissions.
For instructions, see “Controlling Access to a Shared Folder” on page 109.
If you want to set up a group file sharing folder, use the Groups pane of Server
Preferences. Group file sharing folders are located in the /Groups/ shared folder. For
information, see “Setting Up a Group File Sharing Folder” on page 102.
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Removing a Shared Folder
You can use Server Preferences to remove shared folders that you no longer want
available for file sharing. When you remove a shared folder, the folder and its contents
remain on the server’s disk.
To remove a shared folder:
m In the File Sharing pane of Server Preferences, select the shared folder you want to
remove, and then click the Delete (–) button.
Controlling Access to a Shared Folder
You can enable or disable access to each shared folder listed in the File Sharing pane of
Server Preferences. You can specify which users have read and write access to each
shared folder and its contents: all users with accounts on your server or only users and
groups you select. You can also choose whether guest access is on or off for each
shared folder. Enabling access to a shared folder allows users to use the AFP and SMB
file sharing protocols to access the folder. Guests can access a shared folder without
logging in.
To change settings for a shared folder:
1 In the File Sharing pane of Server Preferences, locate the shared folder in the list.
2 To enable access to a shared folder, select its checkbox.
3 To give all users with accounts on your server read and write access to the shared
folder and its contents, click Edit Permissions and select “All Registered Users.”
4 To restrict read and write access to the shared folder and its contents, click Edit
Permissions, select “Only these Registered Users and groups,” and select the checkbox
next to each user and group you want to have read and write access.
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If you give a group read and write access, all users who are members have read and
write access even if their individual checkboxes are deselected.
5 To allow guest users to read the contents of a shared folder, click Edit Permissions and
select “Allow Guests read-only access.” Deselect this option to disallow guest access.
If you enable access to a shared folder, users can access it with the most common file
sharing protocols, AFP and SMB.
You can also change access permissions for a shared folder or any item in it by using
the Info window in the Finder. For information about setting permissions for folders
and files, switch to the Finder and then use the Help menu.
Finding a Server’s File Sharing Address
Users and optionally guests can connect to the server’s shared folders using the AFP or
SMB protocols at these addresses:
 smb://serverDNSname
 afp://serverDNSname
Replace the italicized placeholder with your server’s DNS name, which is shown in the
Information pane of Server Preferences.
To access shared folders that don’t have guest access enabled, users must log in using
the name and password of their user account on the server. After logging in, users
have access to the shared folder of each group they belong to. If guest access is
enabled for a shared folder, users can connect without logging in. For information, see
“Controlling Access to a Shared Folder” on page 109.
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Managing iCal Service
Use the iCal pane to turn iCal calendar service on or off, limit file attachment size, or
limit each user’s total calendar data.
To configure the iCal pane:
m Change any available setting, using the following information as a guide:
On/Off indicates the status of iCal service, and clicking the On/Off switch turns the
service on or off.
Limit each calendar event’s size to __ MB: Sets the maximum total size of an event, to-do
item, or other calendar object, including the total size of all attached files. If a user tries
to save a larger calendar object, the server sends an error message to the user’s
calendar application.
Limit each user’s total calendar size to __ MB: Limits how much disk space a user’s
events, to-do items, and other calendar data can use on the server. If a user exceeds
this limit, the server sends an error message to the user’s calendar application.
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About iCal Service
The calendar service for Mac OS X Server, iCal Server, makes it easy for users to share
calendars, schedule meetings, and coordinate events. Colleagues can quickly and easily
check each other’s availability, set up and propose meetings, book conference rooms,
reserve projectors, and more. iCal Server sends the invitations, which can include
information such as an agenda or to-do list, and tabulates replies.
A computer with Mac OS X version 10.5 Leopard can have its iCal application
automatically set up to use iCal Server. See “Setting Up Leopard Users’ Macs
Automatically” on page 79.
iCal server also works with other popular calendar applications that support the
standard CalDAV protocol.
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Managing iChat Service
Use the iChat pane to turn iChat instant messaging service on or off, make all users
buddies, enable chatting with other instant messaging systems, or set up logging and
archiving of all chats. For information about the settings and controls in this pane, click
the Help button in the lower-right corner of the Server Preferences window.
About iChat Service
iChat service provides secure instant messaging (IM) for Macintosh, Windows, and
Linux users. Team members can brainstorm solutions, make plans, exchange URLs, or
transfer files without worrying about outsiders intercepting confidential information.
iChat service provides text messaging between users or among multiple users. It also
facilitates direct connections between users for audio, video, and multiway audio and
video sessions.
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Users’ iChat account information is stored on the server. Users may access their
accounts from any Mac and see the same buddy lists, groups, and so forth.
A computer with Mac OS X version 10.5 Leopard can have its iChat application
automatically set up to use your server’s iChat service. See “Setting Up Leopard Users’
Macs Automatically” on page 79.
iChat service also works with Jabber-compatible instant messaging software available
for Windows, Linux, and even popular PDAs.
Making All Users Buddies
You can have the Jabber IDs (screen names) of all users with accounts on the server
automatically added to each user’s Jabber buddy list. Users see their Jabber buddy lists
in iChat (or other XMPP instant messaging application), and may add and remove
buddies.
To make all users Jabber buddies:
1 In the iChat pane of Server Preferences, select “Automatically make all users buddies.”
2 Restart iChat service by clicking On/Off twice.
Changes to iChat service settings take effect once iChat service is restarted.
If you deselect “Automatically make all users buddies,” users are not automatically
removed from each other’s buddy lists. Users can remove buddies that were
automatically added to their buddy lists.
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Chatting with Users of Google Talk and Other XMPP Services
You can allow users of the server to exchange instant messages with users of Google
Talk and other instant messaging systems that use the XMPP protocol.
To allow chatting via Google Talk and other XMPP services:
1 In the iChat pane of Server Preferences, select “Enable server-to-server
communication.”
2 Restart iChat service by clicking On/Off twice.
Changes to iChat service settings take effect once iChat service is restarted.
Saving and Archiving Instant Messages
You can have iChat service save a transcript of all instant messages in a text file. The
service compresses the transcript and saves an archive once a week. The latest
transcript and the compressed archives are in /var/jabberd/message_archives/.
To save and archive instant messages:
1 In the iChat pane of Server Preferences, select “Log and archive all chats.”
2 Restart iChat service by clicking On/Off twice.
Changes to iChat service settings take effect once iChat service is restarted.
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Managing Mail Service
Use the Mail pane to turn mail service on or off, edit the welcome message sent to new
users, specify a relay server for outgoing mail, or adjust junk mail and virus filtering. For
information about the settings and controls in this pane, click the Help button in the
lower-right corner of the Server Preferences window.
About Mail Service
Mail service lets users send and receive email on your local network and the Internet,
using any email application. Mail service can provide mailing lists for groups, and it
includes filters that protect users from junk mail and viruses.
Everyone with a user account gets an email address. A computer with Mac OS X
version 10.5 Leopard can have its Mail application automatically set up to use your
server’s mail service. See “Setting Up Leopard Users’ Macs Automatically” on page 79.
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Mail service also works with other popular mail applications that use standard email
protocols. Users can get mail using the IMAP or POP protocol and send it using the
SMTP protocol.
Specifying a Mail Relay Server
Your mail service can relay outgoing mail through another server, and that relay server
will forward the mail to its destination.
 If you use a commercial Internet service provider (ISP), it may stipulate that all
outgoing email be relayed through a designated server.
 If your organization provides your Internet service, your server may need to use a
relay server to deliver outgoing mail through a firewall. In this case, your organization
will designate a particular server for relaying mail through the firewall.
Important: Use a relay server only if your ISP or organization requires one. Relaying
mail through another server without permission may make your server appear to be a
mail service abuser.
To relay outgoing mail through another server:
1 In the Mail pane of Server Preferences, select “Relay outgoing mail through ISP.”
If this option is already selected, click the Edit button next to it.
A dialog appears for entering the relay server connection details.
2 Enter the relay server’s DNS name or IP address supplied by your ISP or organization.
3 If your ISP or organization also requires your server to authenticate before sending
mail, select “Enable SMTP relay authentication” and enter the user name and password
from your ISP or organization.
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About Junk Mail and Virus Filtering
Mail service can screen incoming mail before delivering it to check for viruses and junk
mail. Mac OS X Server uses SpamAssassin (spamassassin.apache.org) to analyze the text
of a message, and scores the probability of it being junk mail.
No junk mail filter is 100% accurate in identifying unwanted email. So Mac OS X Server
doesn’t delete junk mail. Instead it delivers the mail with “***JUNK MAIL***” added to
the subject. The recipient can decide if it’s really junk mail and deal with it accordingly.
Each message is analyzed and the word frequency statistics are saved. Mail messages
that have more of the same words as junk mail receive a higher score of probably
being junk mail.
Mac OS X Server uses ClamAV (www.clamav.net) to scan mail messages for viruses.
Email infected with a suspected virus is deleted, and a notice is sent to the notification
email address designated in the Information pane of Server Preferences. The server
automatically updates virus definitions once a day via the Internet.
Scanning for Incoming Junk Mail and Viruses
You can have mail service scan incoming messages for junk mail and viruses. Messages
containing known viruses are deleted. Messages suspected of being junk mail are
marked ***JUNK MAIL*** and delivered.
To have mail service scan for junk mail and viruses:
1 In the Mail pane of Server Preferences, select “Enable junk mail and virus filtering.”
2 Adjust the slider to set how tolerant the filter is of indications that an incoming
message is junk mail.
Aggressive: The junk mail filter tolerates few signs of being junk mail.
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Moderate: The junk mail filter tolerates some signs of being junk mail.
Cautious: The junk mail filter marks an incoming message as junk mail only if it
contains many signs of being junk mail.
Managing Web Services
Use the Web pane to turn web services on or off, change your website’s homepage
location, enable group wiki websites, or enable other web services. For information
about the settings and controls in this pane, click the Help button in the lower-right
corner of the Server Preferences window.
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About Web Services
Web services can host a conventional website or provide group websites with wikis,
blogs, optional calendars, and optional mailing list archives. Other web services provide
web access to email.
All members of a group can easily view, search, and edit wiki content right from their
web browsers. By using included templates or creating their own, they can add, delete,
edit, and format content naturally—without knowing markup codes or special syntax.
With a few clicks, or by dragging and dropping, they can attach files and images,
publish to podcasts, assign keywords, and link to other wiki pages or other websites.
They can also review the wiki’s complete history of changes and revert any page to a
previous version. They can also view and contribute to shared calendars, blogs, and
mailing lists.
Blogs give nontechnical users a way to keep their colleagues up-to-date with projects,
the files they’re working on, and pictures or podcasts. Users publish their own blogs,
with drag-and-drop ease, using a selection of built-in professional templates.
With webmail, users can receive and send mail from a web browser anywhere on the
Internet. They can access all their email as if they were using Mac OS X Mail or another
mail application on their computers.
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Finding the Server’s Website Address
The address of your server’s website is:
http://serverDNSname
Replace the italicized placeholder with your server’s DNS name, which is shown in the
Information pane of Server Preferences.
If your server website is a group wiki, visitors must log in using the name and password
of a group member.
Hosting a Conventional Website
Instead of using a group wiki website set up for you by Mac OS X Server, you can have
your server host a conventional website consisting of static HTML files. You create the
website using web development software of your choice, or have someone do it for
you, and copy the website files to your server.
To host a conventional website:
1 Make sure your website’s main page is named index.html or index.php.
2 Open the server’s website folder at /Library/WebServer/Documents/, and optionally
delete the placeholder files.
3 Copy your website files to the website folder.
4 In the Web pane of Server Preferences, choose Server Home Page from the Home Page
pop-up menu.
5 If web services are not on, click the On/Off switch in the Web pane.
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Setting Up Group Wiki Service
You can use the Web pane of Server Preferences to make all group wiki websites
available or unavailable on the network. When group wiki websites are available, each
group’s members can access the group wiki, blog, optional calendar, and optional
mailing list archive. You turn on and set options for each group’s wiki individually in the
Groups pane.
To enable wiki service for all groups:
1 In the Web pane of Server Preferences, select “Enable group wikis” and make sure web
service is on.
If web service isn’t on, click the On/Off switch.
2 If you want to visit the wiki page with links to all group wikis, click the link arrow next
to “Enable group wikis.”
3 If you want to set up a wiki for a new group or an existing group, click “Create a new
group with a wiki website.”
Clicking this link takes you to the Groups pane, where you can create a new group or
select an existing group and then set up the group’s wiki. For information about
creating groups and setting up group wikis, see “Creating a New Group” on page 94
and “Setting Up a Group Wiki Website” on page 103.
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Setting Up Webmail Service
You can use Server Preferences to turn webmail service on or off. This service lets all
server users access their mail using a web browser over the Internet.
To turn webmail service on or off:
m In the Web pane of Server Preferences, select or deselect “Webmail.”
If this option is selected, clicking the link arrow next to it opens the webmail website.
Users access your server’s webmail by appending /webmail to your server’s website
address. For example:
http://server.example.com/webmail
Setting Up User Blogs
You can use Server Preferences to turn the web service for user blogs on or off. This
service lets all server users create their own blogs using a web browser.
To turn user blogs on or off:
m In the Web pane of Server Preferences, select or deselect “User blogs.”
If this option is selected, clicking the link arrow next to it opens the user blogs website.
Users access their blogs by appending /users/shortname to your server’s website
address. For example:
http://server.example.com/users/rpatel
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Managing VPN Service
Use the VPN pane to turn VPN remote access service on or off, inspect or change the
VPN secret, set the IP address range for VPN users, or save a VPN configuration file for
Mac OS X users. For information about the settings and controls in this pane, click the
Help button in the lower-right corner of the Server Preferences window.
About VPN Service
VPN (virtual private network) service lets users connect to your network from home or
other remote locations over the Internet. Users make a secure VPN connection to
access workgroup services such as file sharing, mail, iChat, iCal, and web. VPN service
uses the L2TP protocol with a shared secret to ensure confidentiality, authentication,
and communications integrity.
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A secure shared secret is generated automatically when you set up your server. The
shared secret isn’t used to authenticate client computer users for a VPN connection.
Instead it allows the server to trust client computers that have the shared secret, and it
allows client computers to trust the server that has the secret.
Both server and client computers must have the shared secret. A computer with
Mac OS X version 10.5 Leopard can automatically get the shared secret and be set up
to make connections to the server’s VPN service. See “Setting Up Leopard Users’ Macs
Automatically” on page 79.
Other Mac and Windows computers can be configured in different ways to connect to
the VPN service. See “Setting Up a Mac User’s VPN Connection” on page 87 and
“Setting Up a User’s VPN Connection Manually” on page 89.
Changing the VPN Shared Secret
You can use Server Preferences to change the shared secret that the server and a client
computer use for authentication when making a VPN connection. Periodically
changing the shared secret improves VPN security, but is inconvenient because users
must also change the shared secret on computers they use for VPN connections.
To change the VPN shared secret:
1 In the VPN pane of Server Preferences, click Edit.
2 Select “Show shared secret” so you can read the secret, enter a new secret, and
click OK.
The shared secret should be at least 8, but preferably 12 or more characters including
letters, digits, and symbols, but without spaces. Initially the shared secret is 32 random
characters.
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You can use the Password Assistant to help you compose a new shared secret.
Temporarily switch to the Users pane, click Account, click Reset Password, click the
Key button to the right of the New Password field, and then click Cancel and go back
to the VPN pane. The Password Assistant remains open, and you can use it to generate
a new shared secret that you copy from the Suggestion field and paste into the Shared
Secret field.
After you change the secret here, all VPN users must make the same change in their
VPN configurations. For information about making this change, see “Setting Up a User’s
VPN Connection Manually” on page 89.
Creating a VPN Configuration File
You can use Server Preferences to generate a file that Mac users can open to create a
VPN configuration automatically. After creating the VPN configuration, a user can make
a VPN connection to the server and its network via the Internet. The configuration file
works with Mac OS X v10.3 or later.
To generate a VPN configuration file:
1 In the VPN pane of Server Preferences, click Save As, select a location for the VPN
configuration file, and click Save.
2 Distribute the saved configuration file to users who need to set up a VPN configuration
on their Macs.
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To set up a Mac, a user simply opens the VPN configuration file you generated.
Opening this file opens either the Network pane of System Preferences or Internet
Connect (depending on the Mac OS X version), and then imports a VPN configuration
with all information necessary to make a VPN connection except the name and
password of a user account on the server. If Internet Connect asks the user where to
put the imported configuration, the user should select VPN (L2TP). The user should not
select VPN (PPTP) or any other option.
When Network preferences or Internet Connect finishes importing the VPN
configuration, the user needs to enter an account name and can also enter a password,
and then save them as part of the VPN configuration upon quitting the application. If
the user saves both name and password as part of the VPN configuration, anyone
using that computer will then be able to log in automatically for a VPN connection to
your server.
For security, you can instruct users to enter their account name but leave the password
blank, and then quit the application (System Preferences or Internet Connect). If users
don’t save a password as part of the VPN configuration on their computers, they will be
asked to log in each time they make a VPN connection to your server.
For information you can give users instructing them how to use the VPN configuration
file, see “Setting Up a Mac User’s VPN Connection” on page 87.
Changing the IP Address Range for VPN
You can use Server Preferences to change the range of addresses you want the server
to reserve for assigning to remote computers when they make VPN connections to the
server. For example, you might make the range larger to make more IP addresses
available for VPN connections.
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Important: These are addresses on the server’s network, and they must not be used by
other computers or devices on the network. This range of addresses must not include
any static IP addresses in use on the network or overlap the range of IP addresses that
the DHCP server assigns.
To change the IP address range for VPN service:
1 In the VPN pane of Server Preferences, change the first IP address in the range, the last
IP address in the range, or both.
The range of addresses needs to be large enough for the maximum number of remote
computers that will have concurrent VPN connections. VPN service assigns an IP
address for the duration of a VPN connection, and reclaims the address assigned to a
remote computer that disconnects.
2 If you have an AirPort Base Station or other Internet router (gateway) that provides
DHCP service, you may need to adjust its IP address range so that the DHCP and VPN
address ranges don’t overlap.
For information about changing the settings of an Internet router, see its
documentation.
When a remote computer makes a VPN connection, the server assigns the remote
computer an unused IP address from the range of reserved addresses. This IP address
doesn’t replace the IP address that the remote computer is already using to connect to
the Internet. The remote computer keeps this IP address and any other IP addresses it’s
using, and adds the IP address assigned to it for VPN.
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Providing VPN Service Through an Internet Router
If your server provides VPN service through an AirPort Base Station or other Internet
router, and users’ computers need to make VPN connections through their own base
stations or Internet routers, your server must be on a different IP subnet than the VPN
users’ computers. In other words, your server’s IP address can’t begin with the same
three numbers as VPN users’ IP addresses, such as 10.0.1 or 192.168.1.
You can avoid this conflict by changing the third number of the IP address of all the
devices on your server’s local network—AirPort Base Station or other Internet router,
server, and other computers. Use a number between 2 and 254. For example, if your
server and other devices on its network have IP addresses that begin with “10.0.1,”
change them to begin with “10.0.2” or “10.0.100.” If their IP addresses begin with
“192.168.1,” you might change them to begin with “192.168.5” or “192.168.70.” You can
also use 172.16.0 through 172.31.255. In all cases, use subnet mask 255.255.255.0.
If your AirPort Base Station, other Internet router, or DHCP server assigns IP addresses
to computers on your network, change it to assign IP addresses that begin with the
same three numbers as the server’s IP address. If possible, make these changes before
setting up your server. You make these changes on an AirPort Base Station using
AirPort Utility (located in /Applications/Utilities/). For instructions, open AirPort Utility
and then use the Help menu. For information about configuring another kind of
Internet router or gateway, see its documentation.
For information about changing your server’s IP address, see “Changing Your Server’s IP
Address” on page 134.
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After changing the IP address of your AirPort Base Station or other Internet router,
change your server and other computers on its network to use the new address as
their router address. You make this change in the Network pane of System Preferences
on your server and other Macs. For information about changing the IP addresses of
other devices, see their documentation.
Customizing Services Using Advanced Applications
Although a standard or workgroup configuration of Leopard Server is best
administered using Server Preferences and the Server Status widget, you can also use
Server Admin, Workgroup Manager, and the other advanced applications and tools
listed in “Advanced Tools and Applications” on page 29. You can use the advanced
applications and tools to customize services by changing advanced options. You can
also turn on services that aren’t part of a standard or workgroup configuration, such as
QuickTime Streaming Server. For information about advanced services, options, and
applications, see Server Administration and the other advanced administration guides
described in “Mac OS X Server Administration Guides” on page 144.
Important: Before using Server Admin, Workgroup Manager, or other advanced tools
and applications to make changes to a standard or workgroup configuration, carefully
note current settings in case you need to revert to them. For example, you can make a
screen shot of each pane and dialog before changing settings in it. (For information
about screen shots, switch to the Finder and then use the Help menu.)
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9
Managing Server Information
9
Use Server Preferences to get general information,
check service logs, see graphs of server activity, and
change firewall settings.
Managing Server Information
Use the Information pane of Server Preferences to get information about your server,
including the hardware and software installed, network names and address, and serial
number. You can also change the server’s computer name and serial number. For
information about the settings and controls in this pane, click the Help button in the
lower-right corner of the Server Preferences window.
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Changing the Serial Number or Site License Details
You can use Server Preferences to change the Mac OS X Server software serial number
or site license information.
To change the software serial number or site license:
1 In the Information pane of Server Preferences, click the Edit button next to the Server
License information.
2 Enter a different serial number or edit the site license details as needed, and then click
Save.
Changing the Notification Settings
You can use Server Preferences to change the email address to which the server sends
messages about low disk space, software updates, and deleted email that was infected
with a virus. You can also turn each type of notifications on or off.
To change the notification email address:
1 In the Information pane of Server Preferences, click the Edit button on the Notifications
line.
2 Enter the desired email address in the Notifications Email field.
If you don’t want any notifications sent, leave the Notifications Email field blank.
3 Select the types of notifications you want the server to send, and then click Save.
Low disk space: Sends an email when a disk or partition has less than 5 percent free
space available.
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Software updates available: Sends an email when new software updates become
available for the server.
Virus detected in incoming email: Sends an email when the email virus filter detects a
virus.
Changing Your Server’s Name
You can use Server Preferences to change the server’s computer name. It identifies the
server to client computers that are browsing for network file servers, print queues, or
other network resources identified by computer name, rather than by DNS name.
To change the server’s computer name:
m In the Information pane of Server Preferences, edit the Computer Name field.
Specify a name that’s 63 Roman characters or fewer including spaces, and avoid using
=, :, or @. Mac OS X automatically converts the computer name to a form that’s valid
with SMB file sharing.
To change the server’s local hostname, use the Sharing pane of System Preferences on
the server. Other computers on the server’s local network (IP subnet) can use the
server’s local hostname to contact the server. If you change your server’s local
hostname, users of other computers may have to change their bookmarks or other
settings to use the server’s new local hostname. For information about using System
Preferences, open it and use the Help menu.
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The server’s DNS name can only be changed by the administrator of your DNS service.
You should avoid having the server’s DNS name changed, because changing it will
require users of its services to reconfigure their computers:
 Users with Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard will have to use Directory Utility to disconnect
their computers from the server, and then use Directory Utility to connect to the
server again.
 Users who have an earlier Mac OS X version, or who are running Windows, will have
to deal with changes to shared calendar subscriptions, iChat addresses, email
addresses, the server’s website address, group wiki addresses, and the server’s VPN
address.
Changing Your Server’s IP Address
The server’s IP address is one of the network connection settings in the Network pane
of System Preferences. For information about changing Network preferences, open
System Preferences on the server and use the Help menu.
Important: If your DNS service is provided by your ISP or another server on your
network, have your server’s DNS record changed to use the new IP address.
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Changing your server’s IP address may disrupt the connections of users’ computers
that have Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard. If this happens, users need to use Directory Utility to
disconnect their computers from the server, and then use Directory Utility to connect
to the server again.
Connecting to a Directory Server
If your organization has a directory server but you didn’t connect your server to it
during setup, you can connect your server to it now. Then you can import user
accounts from it for people in your workgroup. You can also give other user accounts in
the directory server access to the services of your workgroup by making them external
group members. For information, see “Importing Groups of Users Automatically” on
page 63 and “Adding or Removing External Members of a Group” on page 99.
You use the Directory Utility application (located in /Applications/Utilities/) to connect
to a directory server. For information about connecting to a directory server, open
Directory Utility and then use the Help menu.
Your server is considered a workgroup configuration if it’s connected to a directory
server.
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Changing Firewall Settings
Use the Firewall pane of Server Preferences to set up a firewall that protects your server
from users on other networks or the Internet. The firewall controls incoming
connections that originate outside your server’s local network (IP subnet). The firewall
can allow individual services to accept incoming connections from computers outside
your server’s local network, or restrict selected services to accept incoming connections
only from computers on your server’s local network. You can start the firewall and
select the services that restrict incoming connections. You can also stop the firewall to
allow incoming connections to all services from outside your server’s local network.
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To change firewall settings:
1 In the Firewall pane of Server Preferences, click the On/Off switch to turn the firewall
on or off.
Turn the firewall on if you want to control incoming connections for each listed service
separately.
Turn off the firewall to allow all services to accept incoming connections from outside
your server’s local network.
2 In the list of services, select a service’s checkbox if you want the service to accept
incoming connections only from the server’s local network.
Deselect a service’s checkbox if you want the service to accept incoming connections
from all networks including the Internet.
Settings in the list of services take effect only if the firewall is on.
About the Firewall
Mac OS X Server includes firewall software you can use to block unwanted network
communication with your server. This firewall is called an application firewall because it
accepts or denies an incoming connection based on the particular application, service,
or other software module that is trying to accept the connection. This firewall doesn’t
control outgoing network traffic. Settings in the Firewall pane of Server Preferences
control the same firewall as settings in the Firewall pane of the Security pane in System
Preferences.
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Mac OS X Server has another firewall that works differently. Called an IP firewall, it
accepts or denies incoming and outgoing traffic based on attributes of the traffic, such
as its destination port or originating IP address. The IP firewall can be used at the same
time as the application firewall. For information about the IP firewall, see Network
Services Administration (described in “Mac OS X Server Administration Guides” on
page 144).
Checking Server Logs
Use the Logs pane of Server Preferences to view the message logs kept by the
Mac OS X Server software components as they provide services. These logs include the
messages you see in alert dialogs, plus messages you won’t see anywhere else about
routine actions, warnings, and errors. If you’ve received an error message in a dialog, a
log may show additional detail about the issue.
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Log messages are rather technical and not very meaningful to the average user, but
they can help support technicians solve problems.
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Here are ways you can use the Logs pane:
m Choose a log from the View pop-up menu.
The log’s filename and its location on the server are shown above the contents of the
log.
m Show only log entries that contain a word or phrase by typing it in the Filter field at the
top of the window.
m Show all entries for the selected log by deleting the contents of the Filter field or
clicking the X button in the field.
You can also view the Mac OS X Server logs and other logs using Console (located in
/Applications/Utilities/) on the server. For example, you can use Console to view the
console.log file, which contains important messages from applications that are open
on the server. For information about using Console, open it and then use the Help
menu.
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Monitoring Server Graphs
Use the Graphs pane of Server Preferences to get a picture of server activity over time.
You can find out when the server is usually busy, whether it’s operating near capacity,
and when it’s likely to be least used.
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Here are ways you can use the Graphs pane:
m Choose a type of activity and a time period from the pop-up menus.
Processor Usage: Monitor the workload of the server’s processor or processors (also
called the central processing unit, or CPU).
Network Traffic: Track how much incoming and outgoing data the server transfers over
the network.
Disk Space: See how much space is used and available on each mounted disk or
volume (partition).
File Sharing Traffic: Track how much incoming and outgoing data the file sharing
services transfer over the network.
Web Traffic: Track how much incoming and outgoing data the web services transfer
over the network.
You can also monitor server activity using the Server Status widget on the server or on
another computer on the network. For information, see “Using the Server Status
Widget” on page 49.
If the server has a display, you can use Activity Monitor (located in /Applications/
Utilities/) on the server. Activity Monitor shows the processes and applications that are
currently open on the computer. You can also use Activity Monitor to monitor shortterm processor workload, disk activity, and network activity. For information about
using Activity Monitor, open it and then use the Help menu.
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10
Learning More
10
More information about using Mac OS X Server is available
from onscreen help, a suite of advanced guides, and the web.
Using Onscreen Help
You can get task instructions in the onscreen help system while you’re managing
Leopard Server. You can view help on a server or an administrator computer. (An
administrator computer is a Mac OS X computer with Leopard Server administration
software installed on it. For information, see “Preparing an Administrator Computer” on
page 36.)
To get help for a standard or workgroup configuration of Leopard Server:
m Open Server Preferences and then:
 Choose Help > Server Preferences to browse and search the help topics.
 Click a help button in Server Preferences.
 Use the Help menu to search for a task you want to perform.
The onscreen help for Server Preferences contains all the instructions from this book
for managing a standard or workgroup configuration of Leopard Server. Server
Preferences Help contains additional topics that focus more narrowly than the book on
specialized tasks.
143
To get help for an advanced configuration of Leopard Server:
m Open Server Admin or Workgroup Manager and then:
 Choose Help > Server Admin Help or Help > Workgroup Manager Help to browse
and search the help topics.
 Use the Help menu to search for a task you want to perform.
The help contains instructions taken from Server Administration and other advanced
administration guides described in “Mac OS X Server Administration Guides,” next.
To see the most current server help topics:
m Make sure the server or administrator computer is connected to the Internet while
you’re getting help.
Help Viewer automatically retrieves and caches the most current server help topics
from the Internet. When not connected to the Internet, Help Viewer displays cached
help topics.
Mac OS X Server Administration Guides
Getting Started covers installation and setup for standard and workgroup
configurations of Mac OS X Server. For advanced configurations, Server Administration
covers planning, installation, setup, and general server administration. A suite of
additional guides, listed below, covers advanced planning, setup, and management of
individual services. You can get these guides in PDF format from the Mac OS X Server
documentation website:
www.apple.com/server/documentation
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This guide...
tells you how to:
Getting Started and
Installation & Setup Worksheet
Install Mac OS X Server and set up a standard
or workgroup configuration.
Command-Line Administration
Install, set up, and manage Mac OS X Server
using UNIX command-line tools and
configuration files.
File Services Administration
Share selected server volumes or folders
among server clients using the AFP, NFS, FTP,
and SMB protocols.
iCal Service Administration
Set up and manage iCal shared calendar
service.
iChat Service Administration
Set up and manage iChat instant messaging
service.
Mac OS X Security Configuration
Make Mac OS X computers (clients) more
secure, as required by enterprise and
government customers.
Mac OS X Server Security Configuration
Make Mac OS X Server and the computer it’s
installed on more secure, as required by
enterprise and government customers.
Mail Service Administration
Set up and manage IMAP, POP, and SMTP mail
services on the server.
Network Services Administration
Set up, configure, and administer DHCP, DNS,
VPN, NTP, IP firewall, NAT, and RADIUS services
on the server.
Open Directory Administration
Set up and manage directory and
authentication services, and configure clients to
access directory services.
Chapter 10 Learning More
145
146
This guide...
tells you how to:
Podcast Producer Administration
Set up and manage Podcast Producer service to
record, process, and distribute podcasts.
Print Service Administration
Host shared printers and manage their
associated queues and print jobs.
QuickTime Streaming and Broadcasting
Administration
Capture and encode QuickTime content. Set up
and manage QuickTime streaming service to
deliver media streams live or on demand.
Server Administration
Perform advanced installation and setup of
server software, and manage options that apply
to multiple services or to the server as a whole.
System Imaging and Software Update
Administration
Use NetBoot, NetInstall, and Software Update
to automate the management of operating
system and other software used by client
computers.
Upgrading and Migrating
Use data and service settings from an earlier
version of Mac OS X Server or Windows NT.
User Management
Create and manage user accounts, groups, and
computers. Set up managed preferences for
Mac OS X clients.
Web Technologies Administration
Set up and manage web technologies,
including web, blog, webmail, wiki, MySQL,
PHP, Ruby on Rails, and WebDAV.
Xgrid Administration and High Performance
Computing
Set up and manage computational clusters of
Xserve systems and Mac computers.
Mac OS X Server Glossary
Learn about terms used for server and storage
products.
Chapter 10 Learning More
Viewing PDF Guides Onscreen
While reading the PDF version of a guide onscreen:
 Show bookmarks to see the guide’s outline, and click a bookmark to jump to the
corresponding section.
 Search for a word or phrase to see a list of places where it appears in the document.
Click a listed place to see the page where it occurs.
 Click a cross-reference to jump to the referenced section. Click a web link to visit the
website in your browser.
Printing PDF Guides
If you want to print a guide, you can take these steps to save paper and ink, and
improve readability:
 Save ink or toner by not printing the cover page.
 Save color ink on a color printer by looking in the panes of the Print dialog for an
option to print in grays or black and white.
 Reduce the bulk of the printed document and save paper by printing more than one
page per sheet of paper. In the Print dialog, choose Layout from the untitled pop-up
menu. If your printer supports two-sided (duplex) printing, select one of the TwoSided options. Otherwise, choose 2 from the Pages per Sheet pop-up menu, and
change Scale to 115% (155% for Getting Started).
 If you’re printing Getting Started from PDF, you may want to enlarge the CD-size
pages even if you don’t print two pages per sheet. Try changing Scale to 155%.
If you’re using Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier, the Scale setting is in the Page Setup dialog.
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147
Getting Documentation Updates
Periodically, Apple posts revised help pages and new editions of guides. Some revised
help pages update the latest editions of the guides.
 To view new onscreen help topics for a server application, make sure your server or
administrator computer is connected to the Internet and click “Latest help topics” or
“Staying current” in the main help page for the application.
 To download the latest guides in PDF format, go to the Mac OS X Server
documentation website:
www.apple.com/server/documentation
Getting Additional Information
For more information, consult these resources
Read Me documents (on the Mac OS X Server Install Disc and the Administration Tools disc)
Important updates and special information
Mac OS X Server website (www.apple.com/server/macosx)
Extensive product and technology information
Mac OS X Server Support website (www.apple.com/support/macosxserver)
Access to hundreds of articles from Apple’s support organization
Apple Discussions website (discussions.apple.com)
A way to share questions, knowledge, and advice with other administrators
Apple Mailing Lists website (www.lists.apple.com)
Subscribe to mailing lists so you can communicate with other administrators using email
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A
Preparing Disks for Installing
Mac OS X Server
A
Use the Installer, Server Assistant, or Disk Utility if you
need to erase a disk, partition it into multiple volumes,
or set up a RAID set.
Use this
To do this
When
Installer
Erase the target disk using a
common format
During local install
Server Assistant
Erase the target disk using the
most common format,
Mac OS X Extended
(Journaled)
During remote install
Disk Utility
Erase the target disk using less
common formats, partition the
whole disk into multiple
volumes, or set up a RAID set
During local install
Before remote install
149
For information about using Installer, Server Assistant, and Disk Utility during
installation, see Chapter 2, “Installing Mac OS X Server.” For information about
controlling Disk Utility remotely from another computer with Apple Remote Desktop
(which you can purchase separately) before installing remotely, see Server
Administration (described in “Mac OS X Server Administration Guides” on page 144).
WARNING: Before partitioning a disk, creating a RAID set, or erasing a disk or
partition on a server, preserve any user data you want to save by copying it to
another disk.
Erasing with the Installer
You can erase the target disk while using the Mac OS X Server Installer. When you
select the target disk in the Installer, you can also select an option to have the target
disk erased during installation. You have a choice of two disk formats:
 Mac OS Extended (Journaled) is recommended and is the most common format for a
Mac OS X Server startup volume.
 Mac OS Extended (Case-sensitive, Journaled) is worth considering if you are planning to
have your server host a conventional website with static web content instead of
group wiki websites. A case-sensitive volume can host static web content with a
more direct mapping between files and URLs.
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Important: Third-party software may not function properly when installed on a casesensitive volume due to an unforeseen capitalization mismatch. For example, an
application may have a folder named PlugIns, but some parts of the application may
refer to it as Plugins. This would work on a volume with the Mac OS Extended
(Journaled) format, but wouldn’t work on a volume with the Mac OS Extended (Casesensitive, Journaled) format.
Erasing with Server Assistant
If you’re using Server Assistant to install Mac OS X Server remotely, and the target disk
already has Mac OS X Server or Mac OS X installed, Server Assistant can erase the disk
using the Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format only.
Erasing with Disk Utility
For additional format choices, use the Installer’s Utilities menu to open the Disk Utility
application, and then use Disk Utility to erase the target disk. You can choose the
formats described on the previous page or choose the non-journaled variants of
them: Mac OS Extended and Mac OS Extended (Case-sensitive). Do not use the ZFS
format for a Mac OS X Server startup disk.
Earlier versions of Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server can also erase disks using the
UNIX File System (UFS) format. You should not use UFS format for a Mac OS X Server
startup disk.
Appendix A Preparing Disks for Installing Mac OS X Server
151
Partitioning a Hard Disk
Partitioning the hard disk creates a volume for server system software and one or more
additional volumes for data and other software. The minimum recommended size for
an installation partition is 20 GB. A larger volume is recommended for a standard or
workgroup configuration, because these configurations keep shared folders and group
websites on the startup volume together with the server software. Use Disk Utility to
partition a hard disk.
Creating a RAID Set
If you’re installing Leopard Server on a computer with multiple internal hard disk
drives, you can create a RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) set to optimize
storage capacity, improve performance, and increase reliability in case of a disk failure.
For example, a mirrored RAID set increases reliability by writing your data to two or
more disks at once. If one disk fails, your server automatically starts using one of the
other disks in the RAID set.
You use Disk Utility to set up a RAID set. You can set up RAID mirroring after installing
Mac OS X Server if you install on a disk that isn’t partitioned. To prevent data loss, you
should set up RAID mirroring as soon as possible. For information about setting up a
RAID set, open Disk Utility and then use the Help menu.
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B
Configuring an Internet Router
B
Configure an AirPort Base Station or an Internet router
to make your server’s services available on the Internet.
If you have an Internet router or gateway device that shares an Internet connection
among computers on your local network, it isolates your local network from the
Internet. Computers on the Internet can’t access services provided by your server
unless your router is configured to forward requests for each service to your server. This
process is called port forwarding or port mapping, because each service communicates
through an abstract, numbered communication port. These ports are not physical like
the Ethernet port on your computer.
Configuring Port Mapping on an AirPort Extreme Base Station
A standard or workgroup configuration of Mac OS X Server version 10.5 Leopard can
configure port mapping automatically on an AirPort Extreme Base Station (802.11n).
The server configures the AirPort Extreme to make the iChat, mail, web, and VPN
services available on the Internet. The server configures the AirPort Extreme separately
for each service when the service starts and stops.
153
The server can configure port mapping automatically on an AirPort Base Station that
has the default password (public). If the base station has a different password, you can
enter it while setting up the server locally, and the server will be able to configure port
mapping on the base station. If you set up your server remotely, it will be able to
configure port mapping automatically as long as your base station uses the default
password. However, the default password is fairly well known, and using it will
compromise the security of your wireless network.
Automatic configuration of an AirPort Base Station requires that the setting IPv6 Mode
be set to Tunnel in the AirPort Utility application (located in /Applications/Utilities/).
The AirPort Base Station must be set up to share an Internet connection with
computers connected to it by Ethernet.
Only standard and workgroup configurations of Leopard Server configure an AirPort
Base Station automatically. An advanced configuration of Leopard Server leaves port
mapping to the administrator.
Note: Users who have accounts on your server should make a VPN connection to your
server to get secure remote access to all services over the Internet. Setting up port
forwarding, whether automatically on an AirPort Extreme or manually as described
next, makes only some of your server’s services available on the Internet.
154
Appendix B Configuring an Internet Router
Manually Configuring Port Mapping on an Internet Router
You can manually configure port mapping on most Internet routers by using their
configuration software. Usually the configuration software consists of several
webpages. Using Safari, you go to the webpage with settings for port mapping or port
forwarding. In some cases, you can select standard services such as web or VPN and
specify that each be mapped to your server’s IP address. In other cases, you must enter
port numbers for services and enter your server’s IP address for each one.
The following table lists services and the corresponding ports for which you might
want to set up port mapping or forwarding. Some Internet routers may ask you to
specify TCP or UDP for each port, while other routers don’t. For specific information
about how to configure port forwarding on your Internet router, see its
documentation.
Service
Port
TCP or UDP
iChat service
iChat server-to-server
iChat file transfer proxy
5269
7777
TCP
TCP
Mail service
SMTP
25
TCP
Web service
HTTP
80
TCP
VPN service
ISAKMP/IKE
L2TP
PPTP
IKE NAT Traversal
500
170
1723
4500
UDP
UDP
TCP
UDP
Appendix B Configuring an Internet Router
155
A
access
folder 109
groups 95
root user 44
user 69, 71, 102
accounts
administrator 44, 58, 72
importing 62, 63, 72, 75
See also group accounts;
user accounts
Activity Monitor 142
administrator
accounts for 44, 58, 72
configuration 44, 59, 72
administrator computer 36, 51
advanced configuration
about 20, 26
applications 29
converting to 20
documentation 144
importing users from 72
services 26
AFP (Apple Filing Protocol)
service 110
Index
Index
AirPort Base Station
DHCP service of 128
port mapping 153
security 33
VPN through 129
antivirus tools. See virus
screening
Apple Filing Protocol service.
See AFP
Apple Remote Desktop 40, 150
applications 28, 29
See also individual
applications
archiving
group mailing lists 106
instant messages 115
arrays, disk. See RAID
authentication
group services 95
mail relay server 117
user 58
VPN 125
wireless network 33
See also passwords
automated installation 31
B
backup
before installing 150
restoring from 53
server 53
blogs 15, 120, 123
C
calendar 60
calendars. See iCal service
chat service. See iChat
CIFS (Common Internet File
System). See SMB
ClamAV 118
client computers
See users’ computers
Common Internet File System.
See SMB
computer name 133
configuration
about 20
administrator 44, 59, 72
AirPort Base Station 33, 128,
129, 153
Internet router 129, 155
157
port mapping 153
users 56
See also advanced
configuration; standard
configuration;
workgroup configuration
contact info, user 68
D
DHCP server 39, 128, 129
Directory application 81, 90
directory server
connecting to 135
group members 76, 100
importing groups 63
importing users 56, 62
Directory Utility 85, 134, 135
disk arrays. See RAID
disk mirroring. See mirroring,
disk
disks
erasing 150
formats 150, 151
partitioning 150, 152
target installation 34, 38
Disk Utility 151, 152
DNS (Domain Name System)
service 110, 134
DNS name 134
documentation 144, 147, 148
DVD drive 32
158
Index
E
email. See mail service;
messages
email addresses 56, 94, 132
Ethernet ports 42, 45
F
file sharing
about 108
access control 109
adding folder 108
Groups folder 102, 107
managing 107
Public folder 107
removing folder 109
server addresses 110
finding with Spotlight 18
firewall settings 88, 89, 136
formats, disk 150, 151
See also groups; user
accounts
groups
access control 95
calendar sharing 105
importing 63
mailing list 103, 106
membership 70, 97, 99
naming 102
settings 93, 101
shared folders 102, 107
wikis 103, 105, 106, 122
See also group accounts;
users
Groups folder 102, 107
H
hard disk. See disks
help, using 143
G
I
gateway, server as 42, 45
See also Internet router
graphs, server 49, 141
group accounts
adding 90, 94
deleting 90, 96
members 97, 99
naming 102
settings 101
iCal service
about 14, 112
attachment sizes 111
group calendar 105
managing 111
user data limitations 111
user setup 87
iChat service
about 113
archiving messages 115
buddy settings 113
Google Talk 115
managing 113
port mapping 155
saving messages 115
user setup 86
XMPP services 115
importing
groups 63
user accounts 62, 72, 75
installation
about 31
advanced 31
automated 31
backup before 150
clean 34, 37
information for 31
local 34
new 34, 37
physical location 32
preparation for 32, 36, 150
remote 37
security 33
server software 31, 34, 37
system requirements 32
target disk 34, 38
Installer 34, 53, 150
instant messaging. See iChat
service
interfaces, network
See ports, Ethernet
Internet router
DHCP service of 128
port mapping 155
VPN through 129
IP address
gateway 42, 45
remote server 39, 46
server’s, changing 134
VPN service 127, 128
ISP (Internet service
provider) 117, 134
J
junk mail screening 118
L
L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling
Protocol) 124
Layer Two Tunneling Protocol.
See L2TP
Leopard Server. See Mac OS X
Server
Leopard users
directory information 81, 90
server’s DNS name 134
server’s IP address 135
setting up 79, 82, 84, 85
Local Administrator
account 59, 72
local hostname 133
local server
installation 34
setup 42
logs, server 138
M
Mac OS X Server
about 10
installing 31
setting up 41
updating 54
mailing list 103, 106
mail service
about 116
group mailing list 103, 106
junk mail screening 118
managing 116
port mapping 155
relay server 117
user setup 87
virus screening 118, 132
webmail 123
messages
group invitation 76, 100
notifications 132
server invitation 75, 84
welcome 74
See also iChat service; mail
service
mirroring, disk 152
N
naming conventions
computer name 133
groups 102
Index
159
users 61, 71
network
firewall 136, 137
IP address 128, 134
security 33
VPN 124
notifications 132
L2TP 124
POP 117
SMB 110
SMTP 117
XMPP 115
Public folder 107
P
RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) 152
relay server, mail 117
remote servers
installation 37
Server Preferences 51, 52
Server Status 49
setup 44
requirements, system 32
restoring server 53
root user 44
router. See Internet router
passwords
administrator 44, 59, 72
root user 44
shared secret 126
user account 62, 71
permissions, file 109, 110
permissions, root 44
picture, user 73
Podcast Producer 17
port forwarding. See port
mapping
port mapping 153
ports, Ethernet 42, 45
ports, firewall 88, 89
preferences. See Server
Preferences; System
Preferences
printer sharing 12
protocols
AFP 110
CalDAV 112
IMAP 117
160
Index
R
S
searching with Spotlight 18
security
administrator 43, 60
AirPort Base Station 33
authentication 56, 95, 125
firewall settings 136
installation 33
root 44
shared secret 125
wireless network 33
See also access; passwords
serial number
hardware 33, 39
software 32, 132
Server Admin 53, 130
Server Assistant 36, 37, 41, 42,
44
Server Message Block. See SMB
Server Preferences
about 47
finding settings 51
using remotely 51, 52
servers
addresses 110, 121, 123
backup of 53
graphs 49, 141
information on 131
installation 31
IP address 134
logs 138
managing 47
names 133
physical location 32
restoring 53
serial number for 32, 33, 39,
132
setup 41
software 31
status monitoring 49
updating 54
See also directory server;
remote servers; services
Server Status widget 49
services
about 26
group 94
logs 138
managing 47
port mapping 153
status monitoring 49
user access control 69
See also individual services
setup, server
local 42
remote 44
See also configuration
shared folders
See file sharing
shared resources 90
See also file sharing
shared secret 125
share points. See file sharing
short name 61, 94
64-bit computing 19
SMB (Server Message Block)
protocol service 110
software. See Mac OS X Server
Software Update 54
spam. See junk mail screening
Spotlight 18
SSH 33
standard configuration
about 20, 22, 26
administrator password 44
applications 28
backing up server 53
documentation 143, 148
file sharing 107
firewall settings 136
graphs 49, 141
iCal service 111
iChat service 113
logs 138
mail service 116, 118
remote management 51, 52
restoring server 53
server information 49, 131
services included 26
settings 51
updating software 54
VPN service 87, 89, 124, 127
web services 119, 121
See also group accounts;
services; user accounts
System Preferences
computer security 60
local hostname 133
server’s IP address 134
Time Machine 53
user accounts 57, 58, 80
system requirements 32
T
Tiger users 86
Time Machine 53
U
UCE (unsolicited commercial
email). See junk mail
screening
UNIX 19
updating 54, 148
user accounts
about 56, 58
adding 60
deleting 65
group membership 70
importing 62, 72, 75
local 57
names 61, 71
passwords 62, 71
settings 66
standard 43, 60
Workgroup Manager 72
See also administrator;
group accounts; users
users
about 55
access control 69, 71, 102
authentication 56
blogs 15, 120, 123
contact info 68
iCal data limitations 111
Index
161
management of 79
messages to 74, 75, 76, 84,
100
naming 61, 71
picture 73
root 44
setup 56
Workgroup Manager 72
See also groups; user
accounts; users’
computers
users’ computers
connecting to server 79, 83,
84, 85
directory information 90
managing 79
setting up 79
shared secret 125
V
virtual private network. See VPN
virus screening 118, 132
VNC 33
volumes, installation 39
VPN (virtual private network)
about 124
configuration file 126
162
Index
firewall 88, 89
Internet router 129
IP addresses 127
managing 124
port mapping 155
shared secret 125
user connection 87, 89
W
weblogs. See blogs
webmail 123
web services
about 120
managing 119
port mapping 155
user blogs 120, 123
wikis 120, 122
websites
addresses 121, 123
hosting conventional 121
wiki 103, 105, 106, 120
wikis
about 15
group services 103
web services 120
workgroup configuration
about 20, 24, 26
administrator password 44
applications 28
backing up server 53
directory connection 135
documentation 143, 148
file sharing 107
firewall settings 136
graphs 49, 141
iCal service 111
iChat service 113
logs 138
mail service 116, 118
remote management 51, 52
restoring server 53
server information 49, 131
services included 26
settings 51
updating software 54
VPN service 87, 89, 124, 127
web services 119, 121
See also group accounts;
services; user accounts
Workgroup Manager 72, 130
X
XMPP messaging systems 115
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