* M w witMmrt

* M w witMmrt
ril
*
witMmrt iMwiw irwiiniWniiriniWtiiniiniW
i
HnU
QfaUege of JKgttculturp
At
Qlornell MniiieraHB
1924 001 674 682
The
tine
original of
tliis
book
is in
Cornell University Library.
There are no known copyright
restrictions in
the United States on the use of the
text.
http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924001674682
RECREATIONS IN BOTANY
BY
CAROLINE
A.
CREEVBY
ILLUSTRATED
NEW YORK
HAEPBK
&
BEOTHEKS PUBHSUBES
1893
X
Copyright, 1893, by
Hakpkr & Brothers.
All rights reserved.
TO
MT FRIEND
MAEGARET
E.
SANGSTER
THIS VOLUME
K» JLobrnols
KnacrtfteU
—
CONTENTS
I
INTRODUCTOBT
—
Botany an Out-door Sport
Pleasure of Knowing the Names of
Plants Dangerous and Criminal Classes Poison-Ivy PoisonSumae
Drosera Rotundifolia
Bladderworts
Parts of a
Flower
Page 1
—
—
—
—
—
—
II
THE botanist's TOOLS AND METHODS
—
—
Botany-box
A Perfect Specimen How to Analyze a Flower
Under- and Over-development of Species Variations of Color
Herbarium
—
—
18
.
III
FERTILIZATION OF PLANTS
—
of Plants the Exception
— Wind-lovers —
— Devices for Attraeting Insects — Examples of Flowers which Seek
Usefulness of Insects
to
Self-fertilization
the Rule
Insect-lovers
Cross-fer-
20
tilization
IV
ORCHIDS
The Taste for Orchids not a Passing Fancy
Epiphytal Orchids
—
— Earth-growing and
Difficulty of Collecting, Transporting
and
—
CONTENTS
VI
—
—
"Highly Special,
Growing Tropical Plants
Characteristics
Rare and
ized"
Cypripediums and Other Native Orchids
Page SO
Beautiful Species Found in Hot-houses
—
—
V
LEAVES
—
—
—
—
—
— Stomata—
of Leaves —Metastasis — Arrangement
on Stem — Devices for Protection of Leaves — Why Leaves Fall
Autumn — Carnivorous Plants
... 56
Variety and Beauty of Leaves Queries About Leaves Leaf Album Altered Leaves Cellular Tissue Arrangement of LeafOffices
cells
in
VI
PLANT MOVEMENTS
—
—
Motion of Seed When First Planted Circumnutation Movements
of Root-tip
Of Climbing Plants Sleeping Leaves
.81
—
—
.
.
VII
THE COMPOSITE
—
The Golden-rod for a National Flower Characteristics of ComDisk Flowers
Ray Flowers
Tubuliflorie
posite Flowers
Dwarf Dandelions Hawk- weeds Thistles RagLigulifloriB
weeds, and other Composites
94
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
VIII
PARASITIC PLANTS
The Woods
in
Autumn
Full of Interest, Because Every Plant
is
—Cancer-root, or Beech-drops — Indian-pipe— Color ot
Leaves and Stems of Parasites — Mistletoe — Cusouta — Boot-parPlants — Monocotyledons Non-parasitic
102
Fruiting
asitic
IX
AQUATIC PLANTS
— Eriocaulon Septangulare — A Wet-meadow
—Buttercups, Cardinal Flower, and Other Plants Growing in Wet Places — Finding a New Species
110
The "Trout-ponds"
Bouquet
—
CONTENTS
Vll
THK CONE-BEARERS
Seeds
—
•
—
—
—
Cedars of Lebanon Cones-^Naked
" Big Trees " of California
Pines
The Ging-
The Forest of White-pine
—
ko
Page 120
XI
FLOWERLESS PLANTS
—
—
—
Meaning of Cryptogam Cellular Arrangement Difference Between Lower Orders of Animal and
Vegetable Kingdoms Harmful Plants Vascular Cryptogams
181
Horse-tails and their Allies
They Grow Everywhere
—
—
—
XII
FERNS
—
Spores Distinguished from Seeds Two Eras in the Life of a
Fern The Prothallus—Sporophore Spores Sporangia Sori
143
Indusium How to Distinguish Ferns
—
—
—
—
—
—
XIII
mosses and liverworts
(brtophytes)
—
—
—
—
crospores —Interesting for Microscopic Study
Charm of Mosses Growth and Propagation The Protonema
Gemmae Peat -mosses Thallose and Leafy Liverworts Ma-
—
161
XIV
LICHENS
—
Lichens Perennial, not Parasitic Reindeer-moss
Manna Propagation Nomenclature
—
—
—Iceland-moss
160
—
OOITTENTS
VIU
XV
ALGuE
—
—
Roots and Leaves (or Fronds) of Algae Spores Large
Sea-weeds Edible Algse Colors and Distribution Red Snow
Page 165
Diatoms
Offices of
—
—
—
—
XVI
FUNGI
—
—
—
Harmful and Beneficent
Lowest Forms of Vegetable Life
Wholly Parasitic or Sacrophytic Reproduction Rapid Growth
and Short-lives Six Families Mushrooms Puff-balls Fungi
Attacking Cereals Potato-rot, Moulds, Ferments Bacilli and
—
Bacteria
—
— Antiseptics
—
—
—
—
173
XVII
PLANT ADAPTABILITY AND UTILITY
— Hardness — The Birch — High
—
—Cinchona—Palms—Cacti—TheMesquite 186
Migration of Plants
Altitude Plants
Flexibility
XVIII
SEEDS AND FRUITS
—
—
Dissemination of Seeds by Wind,
TJsurpations of Ovules
Water, and Animals Different Fruits in Botanical Language
The True Lover of Flowers
203
Ovules
Index
—
213
ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE
POISON. SDMAC
4
POISON- ITY
DROSKRA ROTUNDIFOLIA
5
T
FLOWERING STEM OP UTRICnLAEIA INPLATA
POLLEN -GRAINS
MAGNIFIED VIEWS OF THE PARTS CONCERNED IN THE OPERATION
OP EXTRACTING NECTARY FROM AND IN FERTILIZING ORCHID
.
FLOWER BY HAWK-MOTH
28
VANDA LOWII
35
CONSTRUCTION OF ORCHID
A GROUP OF NATIVE ORCHIDS
MASDEVALLIA DENISONIANA
37
45
48
49
•
.
.
.
LYCASTE
L^LIA FRISIANS
WATER-CARRYING DUCTS OF PLANTS
HIGHLY-MAGNIFIED SECTION OF LEAF
....
53
62
64
65
66
67
74
74
76
77
STOMATA
PIECE OP LIVERWORT LEAF CUT
BLUE-FLAG
LEAF OP VENUS'S PLT-TRAP
THE SAME CLOSED
DOWN THROUGH THE MOUTH
(dI0N.4;a)
....
.
...
PITCHER-PLANT IN BLOOM
LEAP OF THE SARRACENIA
NEPENTHES
DROSERA FILIFORMIS
MIMOSA
MIMOSA
LOCUST
LOCUST
'iS
80
AWAKE
ASLEEP
BRANCH AWAKE
BRANCH ASLEEP
LOCUST, MELILOT, LUPINE, OXALIS
9
21
.
—ASLEEP
....
.
86
87
88
89
.91
ILLUSTRATIONS
X
PAOE
9'?
PAPPUS OF DANDELION
RECEPTACLE OF DANDELION
MISTLETOE
98
105
CEDAR OP LEBANON
...
CEDAR-CONES
GROUP OP SEQUOIAS, OP ALL ABES
FIR HEMLOCK IRISH YEWS GINGKO
—
—
—
VEGETABLE
HYDROIDS (animal) GROWING ON A SHELL
ANIMAL .
EQUISETUM SPORES WITH ELATERS
—
.
...
...
TRKE-FERN
A FEEN
FERTILE PERN, OF COMMON BRAKE, WITH SPORANGIA
.
.
.
GEMM^
.
MARCHANTIA
ANEURIS PINGUIS
FRUIT OF LIVERWORTS
.
THE COMMON CUP-LICHEN, MODERATELY MAGNIFIED
SEA- WEED, MAGNIFIED,
.
.
....
SHOWING SPORE-SACS
GULP- WEED
COMMON SEA-WEED
SEAWEED
ZYGNEMA
MOULD
FUNGI GROWING ON A DEAD OAK-LEAP
GKAPE-PUNGUS
PALMS OP THE MIDDLE AMAZON
.
CACTI
CACTUS
.
SAMARA
FEATHERY-TAILED ACHENE OP ANEMONE
PINEAPPLE
15lf
158
161
166
167
168
169
170
173
177
175, 183
193
.
.
.
-
122
123
125
129
134
135
136
137
144
146
148
154
156
197
201
204
207
208
GLOSSARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS
—A
AcheTie, or Akene.
small, dry, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit.
Adventitious. Accidental. Applied
tn buds springing from anasual
—
Anemophilous.
— Wind-loving.
plied to flowers fertilized
wind, as pines.
Apby the
— Hbe
part of the stamen
which contains the pollen, usually consisting of two cells,
which open, when' the pollen is
ripe, by a slit.
Without petals, as the
Apetalous
Anther.
anemone.
Axil—The upper angle
tion of stem
at the junc-
and branch.
—The stem;
the part around
which other organs are attached.
Axis.
Bracta.—lbe small leaves at the base
of or upon the flower-stem.
Calyx.-Tbe
outer flower -leaves,
usually green.
Capsule. The diy, dehiscent frnit of
a compound pistil, as in poppy.
Caudiele. ^The stalk of the pollen-
—
—
mass
in orchids.
Caulicle.—A little stem. The radicle
of seeds.
Cellulose. The substance of which
cell-walls is composed.
Chlorophyl (written also with two
Leaf-green. A soft granuI's)
lar substance found in green
parts of a plant exposed to light,
whose office is to convert crude
sap into vegetable material.
—
—
Closed fertilization.
Applied to inconspicuous blossoms which are self - fertilized
before the bud opens, as in stemless violets.
Such plants bear
other, more conspicuous blossoms, which are often unfruitful.
Circinate.
Rolled from the tip
Cleistoga/mous.
—
downward, as
in the
fern fronds.
Column. ^The body formed
—
union of stamens and
young
by the
pistils in
orchids.
—
—
The flower-leaves standing
next within and above the calyx.
Corymb. A cluster of flowers, flat or
convex at the top, blossoming
Corolla.
first at
the circumference, last
at the centre.
—
Splitting open of capDehiscent.
sules into regular valves for the
discharge of seeds. Dehiscent
fruits contain
more than oneseed.
—Having two cotyledons or seed-leaves.
Dimorphous. — Two formed.
ApDicotyledonotis.
-
plied to plants like the partridge-berry, in which high anthers and low stigmas are found
in one flower, and high stigmas
and low anthers in another.
The visiting insect carries pollen from high or low anthers in
one flower to corresponding stig-
mas
in others.
Disk.—The central part of composites, as distinguished from rayflowers.
GLOSSARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS
Drupe
—A
stone -fniit.
Chemes,
pluniB,<etc,, are drupes.
by inside
growth and elongation of the
apex. Palms, grasses, lilies, etc.,
are examples
The wood is
made up of separate threads
irregularly
scattered
through the
whole of the stem.
i^ndofire?iows.^Iucreasmg
.Entornophilous.
—Insect-loving.
Ap-
plied to plants which are fertilized by visits of insects.
i^jpAyfes.— Air-plants. Plants fastened upon other plants, but
nourished by the air only.
Exogenous. Increasing by growth
—
in lings around a central pith.
The wood-bundles are wedge-
shaped, radiating from the ceutre.
The whole is covered by
bark. Maples, and most of our
trees, are exogens.
—
Mon^cotyledonoits.
Embryo containing one cotyledon.
Such
plants are endogenous, and the
leaves are parallel-veined.
Monopetalous.—CovoWa united into
one piece, like campanula'
Gamopetalous is a more modern
term for the bell-corolla.
The
Node.— Joint.
part of the stem
bearing a leaf or branch.
—
pistil bear—Unfertilized seeds.
Ovary. The part of the
ing ovules.
Ovules.
Palmate
(leaves) are
tip of
borne ou the
common
a
stalk
—
e.g.^
horse-chestnut.
Panicle.— A compound flower cluster,
irregularly
grasses,
branching —
lilies-of-the-valley
are
examples.
Pappu8.~The calyx of composites
Filament—The
—
stamen-stalk, bearthistle- and dandelion-down.
ing the anther.
Pa/renchyma. The soft cellular tisi^ioret— Diminutive of flower. Apsue of plants.
plied to the small flowers of Pedicel.— The stalk of each individcomposites.
ual flower of a cluster of flowers.
Fronds.—The leaves of ferns, algse, Peduncle.
The naked stalk of a
liverworts, etc
flower. The stalk on which a
cluster of flowers is borne is the
Glabrou8.Smooth ; that is, without
common peduncle.
hairs or bristles.
Per/ect.—AB applied to flowers, havGymnosperms.
Naked- seeded,
ing both stamens and pistils.
cone- bearing plants, as pines Perianth The floral envelopes takand hemlocks.
en collectively.
Petal.— A division ofthe corolla.
Haiifiiorza.—Sucker-like rootlets of Petiole—The foot-stalk of a leaf.
—
—
—
Pinnate (leaves) are compound
leaves, in which the leaflets are
arranged on a common stalk,
which answers to the midrib of
a simple leaf. Locust and ash
Labellvm Lip. A name given to
are examples.
the single large petal of orchids. Placenta. The seed-bearing part of
dodder and poison-ivy.
Indusiuyn.—The scale-like covering
ofthe fruit of ferns.
—
—
the ovary.
Metastasis.—The process by which
plants convert one form of vegetable matter into another.
Phmiule.—The bud
just above the
cotyledons of a germinating
plant
—
GLOSSARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS
Poifmia.— Pollen-masses of orchids.
PolypetaUms. Distiuct petals. Ge-
—
raninms are polypetalous.
Prothall'US.—Tbe
first
product of a
fern-spore.
Protonema
(PI.
swering, in mosses, to tlie prothallus of ferns.
Protoplasm. The living contents of
—
cells.
Pj/xia.—A pod opening by a
lid.
—
"A flower -cluster, with
one-flowered pedicels arranged
along the sides of a general peduncle." Gray.
Receptacle, The tip of the flowerstall:, upon
which the floral
parts are regularly arranged.
RMiome A root-stalk; a creeping
stem or branch.
Raceme.
—
Sepals.
—^Divisions of the calyx.
—
Sitting; of a leaf or flower,
destitnte of stalk.
Sessile.
Silique.
flowers. Indian turnip and calla
are examples.
Sporangia Spore cases of ferns.
Stigma.—The loose, spongy part of
the
protouemata).—An-
— Capsule
of the mustard
family.
Sori— The fruit-dots of ferns.
Spadise.—Ji. fleshy spike or head of
Xlll
pistil,
which receives the
pollen.
Sttpe.
— Stalk
of ferns and mush-
rooms.
—
The appendages which
grow on opposite sides of a leaf
Stipiiles
Sometimes united, they sheathe
the stem, as in the buckwheat
family.
Style.—'The stalk of the pistil (when
it has any) bearing the stigma.
Symmetrical. When the number of
all the parts of a flower is simi-
—
lar
{6.
g., five
sepals, five petals,
flve or ten stamens, five pistils,
or five divisions of a simple pistil) the flower is symmetrical.
—
A
rAaZias.
Leaf -like.
cellular,
thread-like expansion, erect,
spherical, or of any form, taking
the place of stem and leaves in
the lowest orders of plants, and
giving the name thallophytes,
or thallogeus to such plants.
RECREATIONS IN BOTANY
I
INTRODUCTOEY
—
Botany an Out-door Sport
Pleasure of Knowing the Namea of
Plants Dangerous and Criminal Classes Poison Ivy Poison
Sumac
Drosera Rotundifolia
Bladderworts
Parts of a,
Flower
—
—
An
—
—
—
—
old game, called golfing, has been revived in
England, and
attracting considerable attention.
is
consists in knocking a ball into holes over a
Obstructions, such as fences, ditch-
three-mile course.
es,
and even ponds,
" golfist "
is
lie in
the one
holes with the fewest
cessfully,
It
two or
the way, and the successful
who sends
number
his ball into
of hits.
all
of the
Ladies play suc-
and acquire muscle thereby and the habit of
rapid walking.
It is
but one of the numerous devices, with croquet
and lawn-tennis, for keeping young people out-of-doors
and making them
athletic.
The pursuit of botany ought to be ranked as an outdoor sport.
game
1
in
While not possessing the
which
skill
wins,
it
is
attraction of a
yet more nearly allied
BOTANY AS A BECKBATION
2
to hunting
door study.
many
and fishing than to piano-playing or any inIt furnishes an impulse to and interest in
by forest and stream.
a tramp
when one has made
that
its favor, too,
It
has this in
his " bag," or
" string," no timid bird or helpless fish has been sacri-
and no pain has been inflicted to give the botaHis delight when he comes upon a
a holiday.
ficed,
nist
rare find, a beautiful fern or orchid,
that of the
mad
who
who wins
rider
patient angler
is
fully equal to
" the brush," or the
takes the biggest
fish.
I shall never forget the beautiful sight which
re-
climb up steep, pathless rocks
warded a desperate
through a tangle of bushes, to where a broad,
was covered with the prickly-pear cactus in
level spot
full
bloom.
There they lay, the great yellow beauties, drinking in
the sunlight
—a scene
I
had supposed possible only on
the Western prairies.
It surely is
names
no mean ambition to wish to know the
of things
we
An
see.
litico-economic subjects,
recently, " It is a great
intelligent writer
who
is
on po-
fond of riding, said
drawback on
my
pleasure in
the parks and in the country that I don't
know
the
plants and flowers which I see."
There are two ways of finding out such things.
ask some one
is to
'
the other
is
and " trace " it in
method may be likened
to analyze the flower,
the Manual one's
to the "
who
pony "
self.
The
first
style of translating a foreign language.
Independent investigation always wins
ward
;
One
knows (not always easy), and
its
own
never more so than in the study of plants.
re-
Be-
INTKODUCTORY
who
sides the joy of success, one
the question, "
among
What
can always answer
becomes quite an
is it ?"
oracle
and gets credit for having taken
his friends,
more trouble than
is
is actually the case.
For (and this
one of the points I wish to emphasize) botany is the
easiest of all the sciences,
and can be engaged
in with-
out a teacher.
and a shame that country people, who
Is it not a sin
live
among
the year round
the lavishments of nature,
them ? The farmer's wife
good for tea but there is a curious little pimpernel growing in her garden which shuts
its petals on the approach of bad weather, and which
are as a rule so indifferent to
knows
that catnip is
;
The farmer knows
she has never seen.
the wild-carrot
for a useless weed, the corn-flower for a yellow daisy,
but he does not
know
that the dwarf
the trees of the road-side,
One, a
less the shrubs.
practical,
sumac {^Rhus
much
shrewd man, told
copallina)
me
was the poison-
sumac.
For more than seventy years he had lived in
northern
New
nocent bush.
Jersey, and been afraid to touch this in-
Two
of the six species of
sumac
are to
be ranked among the dangerous and criminal classes of
plants,
and should be studied
Like other
evils,
in order to
gorgeous autumn dress
;
but the cloven hoof can be
seen after reference to the Manual.
wood, or elder, or sumac, as
tall
be avoided.
they are seductive, especially in their
it
shrub growing in swamps.
The poison-dog-
is variously called, is
Its
bark
is
grayish
;
a
its
leaf-stems are red.
The
poison-ivy, a vine with three leaflets (often mis-
BOTANY AS A RKCRKATION
taken for the Virginia creeper, whicli has
five leaflets),
frequents road-sides, and clusters about fence-posts and
trunks of trees. Many farmers don't " bother " with it,
POISON - SUMAC
but
let it
grow, a constant menace to barefooted boys
and ignorant pedestrians.
omous
species are axillary
;
The blossoms
that is, grow
of these venin the angle
POISON ITT
INTRODUCTORY
formed by the stem and the branch.
7
The
berries are
If
you
find a
red berries,
it is
as safe to handle as a buttercup.
white.
The
sumac with terminal flowers and
lover of curious things will be amply rewarded
by a study of
flowers.
mon weeds become
habits of
Under the microscope even com-
interesting,
some plants
is like
and a discovery of the
a peep into Wonderland.
Pluck the small round-leaved sundew [Drosera
tundi/olia).
at the base.
formed into numberless
els.
bristles tipped with purple jew-
among
these ruby
like tentacles,
and entan-
Small, sorry insects are caught
glands, which close over
gle them,
ro-
The hairy and sticky leaves grow in a tuft
Under the microscope the hairs are trans-
them
and imprison them with purple threads.
side the glands an extraordinary activity is aroused.
DKOSERA KOTCNDIFOLIA
In-
A
BOTANr AS A RECREATION
8
akin to the gastric juice of our stomachs,
This inis digesting and assimilating the insect food.
flower
responding
modest
nocent-looking plant, with its
reddish
fluid,
only to sunshine,
is
upon
carnivorous, and thrives
ani-
mal food.
Hardly less wonderful are the bladderworts which
grow in the neighboring pond. The plants float upon
the surface of the water by means of countless little
bags
full of air,
there in
soil.
bladders
till
When
with
air
in order that the flower
is
it
and grows
the flowering time arrives, the
(who can
plant upwards, dragging
While
The
joined to the seaweed-like leaves.
ripe seed falls to the bottom, takes root,
it,
tell
roots and
may
how
all,
buoy the
?),
to the surface,
breathe air and sunshine.
not claimed that botany, like Greek or
mathematics, can produce mental brawn, yet
it
certainly
does cultivate close observation, prolonged attention to
minutiae, a habit of comparison
—
ing
all
and deductive, reason-
mental qualities worth possessing.
There are a few fundamental facts which should be
The end
generally known.
of a plant's existence
not to make pretty flowers, but to reproduce
stamens and
pistils
itself.
is
Its
serving this purpose, every effort of
put forth to perfect them and bring them
the plant
is
together
and the flower-leaves are only covers and pro-
;
tectors of these delicate
and important organs.
Some-
times, as in the lizard' s-tail, the flower-leaves are wanting,
and the flowers are composed only of stamens and
A single
pistil
tre of the flower.
pistils.
occupies the place of honor, the cen-
Pea and bean pods
are examples of
INFLATA
FLOWERING STEM OF UTEIOOLAKIA
H
INTRODUCTORY
simple
pistils.
merous
pistils
The buttercup and anemone show nucrowded upon the end of the flower-stalk.
The parts of a pistil are the ovary, style, and stigma.
The ovary, at the base, holds the seeds in one or more
separate cells. The style, a threadlike hollow tube, connects the ovary with the stigma, which
is
a glutinous,
sponge-like surface, adapted to the reception and absorption of pollen-grains.
When
the ovary
is
The
style is
ripened
it is
sometimes wanting.
called a fruit,
and not
only are the apple and plum such fruits, but the feathery-tailed achenia of the lovely virgin's-bower, the
tard pod, and the
downy seed
the botanist, fruits.
mus-
of the dandelion are, to
Dehiscent fruits
scatter their seeds without help.
split
Fleshy
open and
fruits, as ap-
and dry fruits, as nuts, must either decay or be
opened by animals eating them. Easpberries and blackples,
berries are clusters of distinct fruits.
is
The strawberry
a fleshy receptacle with the fruits lying outside.
Stamens surround the
flower.
when found in the same
grow in separate flowers,
Every one knows the full
pistil
Often, however, they
even upon different plants.
and graceful staminate flowers of the early meadow-rue,
and the compact, hard, pistillate flowers, growing perhaps several feet away.
Insects and winds, in such
cases, act as pollen-carriers.
A
stamen has a filament, or stem, and anther, con-
taining the pollen-grains in one or two
lily
cells.
A water-
presents a beautiful study of petals passing into
stamens.
mens and
It
may have suggested
pistils are
the theory that sta-
but changed flower-leaves.
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
12
In orchids there
celled anther.
is
but one stamen, with one two-
The stigma
than
divides the
and
cells,
is
common
Orchids are more
closely fastened to them.
supposed, and can be found in fields and old
is
orchards as well as in deep woods.
stately flower
There
no more
is
than the white-fringed orchis, or more ex-
more
The family is
quisitely beautiful than the purple arethusa, or
curious than the steraless lady's-slipper.
found
in all its rich variety only in the tropics,
they are often fragrant.
hundred
species.
The calyx and
corolla stand
stamens and
pistils.
and
The calyx may
with
petals.
it
where
In Java alone there are three
may be
cling to the ovary,
and grow
In the huckleberry the top of the
to final fruit.
edible calyx
under and outside of the
Their separate divisions are sepals
seen in
around the
five little points
In the apple and pear
centre of the berry.
it is
the dry,
chip-like part terminating the core.
Apetalous flowers show the corolla wanting.
lyx then expands into petal-like leaves.
Such
The
ca-
sepals,
taking the place of petals, are the six spreading leaves
of a
lily.
Bracts, green or colored, are often crowded
under the flower.
The monarda (wild-bergamot) has
beautiful purplish and yellowish bracts covered with soft
velvety bloom.
The
scarlet painted-cup
and upper leaves of a bright red
With
has both bracts
color.
the knowledge of very few botanical terms,
possible to begin practical
sis of flowers.
How
this
ject of the next chapter.
work
in the study
may be done
will
it is
and analy-
be the sub-
—
II
THE BOTANIST'S TOOLS AND METHODS
—
—
—
Botany-box
A Perfect Specimen How to Analyze a Flower
Under- and Over-development of Species Variations of Color
—
Herbarium
Plucked
flowers will keep fresh for several days,
shut up in a dark, moist place.
nished by the botany-box,
made
row, japanned within to keep
is
about two
of one
flat side,
the box
carried
and
The
dollars.
and
may be worn
ride,
it
rusting.
A strap
whole
attached to
it
may be
should accompany every walk
and flowers should be placed
If a sprinkle
if
fur-
Its cost
lid is large, nearly the
over the shoulder, or
It
is
of tin, long and nar-
from
closes tightly.
by a handle.
gathered.
Such a place
in it as
soon as
be added from a neighboring
brook, they will keep fresh for three or four days, and
can be examined at leisure.
A
beginner cannot take
too great pains to keep his specimens in good condition,
as he will understand after he has tried to analyze a
dried or wilted flower.
In procuring specimens, a jack-
knife or small trowel
necessary for digging up roots.
A
is
perfect specimen has roots, leaves, blossoms, and
fruit.
Fruit,
more or
found by searching.
less
advanced, can generally be
In any event, the botanist will
gather several specimens of the same kind, for he
f3,il
to find the type perfectly developed in one.
may
At
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
14
home now, pleasantly wearied witt our morning's wait,
we arrange a comfortable seat under the trees, with our
A
botany-box and Gray's. Manual within reach.
most important of
pencil, a sharp penknife, and,
call,
nobody knows us
since
a
Nobody
will
in our country retreat,
and
pocket-microscope, complete our
we look forward
leadall,
outfit.
to an afternoon of unalloyed pleasure.
Before exploring the
cool,
moist depths of the botany-
box, a beginner will best learn
how
to
taking something he knows, and tracing
go
to work,
by
backward.
it
The yellow wood-sorrel growing at your feet, whose
when eaten used to please your childish taste,
sour leaves
will do.
It is easy,
because perfect and symmetrical.
Composites such as the daisies and dandelions, wildcarrots,
and other members of the parsley family, are
Leave them for
not easy.
On
of the wood-sorrel.
is five.
five
There are
stamens.
that
They
later study.
page 109 of the Manual
it
has
of the flower
and twice
five sepals, petals, styles,
Cut across the
five
an accurate description
is
The numerical plan
cells.
The
five-lobed pod,
and see
leaves, too, are described.
are alternate, with obcordate leaflets, which "close
and droop
They
at nightfall."
also close
and droop
soon after being picked, as you learn by looking at the
"'one in
your hand.
Look out the meaning
and other strange terms
of obcordate
in the glossary joined to the
Manual, and refer to the cuts and paragraphs in the
" lessons " which
illustrate
them.
In
this
way
the
technical terms will be mastered almost without effort.
Turning now to the polypetalous divison of flowering
THE botanist's TOOLS AND METHODS
we
plants,
which the
15
shall easily trace the family, Geranaceos, to
A few such trials cannot fail
some fundamental facts, and prepare us for
sorrel belongs.
to teach us
attempting to analyze unknown flowers.
We
outset,
come across two long and hard words at the very
which should be understood, once for all. The
seed-leaves are called cotyledons, and
all plants which
from the seed with two such leaves are called
They are by far the greater number,
dicotyledonous.
start
and
in all of
them the stem-wood grows
in circles,
each year outside of another, during the plant's
one
life,
the centre being pith (or hollow in the case of some
annuals), the whole covered with bark.
is called
The stem
exogenous.
of an
Indian-corn, has no such growth.
Such growth
iris,
or stalk of
The wood runs up
and down in threads or bundles of threads, with
tissue between.
cellular
This endogenous manner of growth be-
longs to plants which start from the seed with one
name to the second great
Our sorrel belongs to the first
cotyledon, giving the
class,
jwojiocotyledonous.
class,
and
is
^o^ypetalous, because
and divided.
more or
If,
as in
all
less united, the plant
alous division
;
and
it
is
the petals are present
the primrose, the petals are
belongs to the Moreopet-
apetalous
if,
as in the wood-
anemone, they are wanting altogether.
HOW
Make
TO STUDY PLANTS
constant use of the microscope.
magnifying about
fifteen times, is the
A pocket-lens,
one most used,
BOTANY AS A BECBBATION
16
and can be bought for one dollar and a
is
to
Nothing
half.
more ruinous to the eyesight than the attempt
count stamens and ovary cells with the unaided
eyes.
Consider
first
the root.
a cluster of rootlets
?
Cut and divided, or
and shape
outline
it
Hold them up
bulbous, a root-stalk, or
Are they
Next, the leaves.
whorled
Is
?
alternate, opposite, or
entire
What
is
their
and scan them for
light
?
?
to the light,
or dark dots, such as you will find in the Saint-John's-
Next look
worts.
at a cross-section of a bud.
Do
the
leaves just touch one another on their edges, or do they
overlap, like shingles
?
Take a flower and gently remove the sepals, observing
whether they come oil entire or are joined to the ovary.
Remove
the petals one by one, and see
If the
are attached.
number
of the petals,
" numerous."
squeeze out the seeds.
empty
cells,
placentae.
You
Wipe
are
can the better count the
the knife blade, to prevent rusting.
until
anybody knows about
Manual.
They
you have,
thumb and finger
largest
and see how the seeds are joined to the
Study the flower and plant
that
the stamens
do not count them.
Cut an ovary, the
and with a gentle pressure of
across,
if
stamens are more than twice the
You
will
it
yon know everything
before you open the
then have gained
much more than
the name, and the data for determining that.
One summer's study will make
the student so familiar
with the characteristics of the great families that he
THE BOTANISTS TOOLS AND METHODS
will
know
a milk-weed, or an evening-primrose, or a
mint, or healli, as soon as he sees
When
17
it.
the plant has been traced, draw lines around
the description in the botany, and write in the margin
when and where
the plant was found.
ride or picnic is thus,
by pleasant
Some walk or
made
association,
historic.
Do
in the
not be puzzled or discouraged
if
botany and your plant
some unimportant
particular.
Dry
soil
differ in
may produce an
an over-development of the species.
the description
under-, rich soil
I
have found the
Joe-Pye-weed (Eupatorium purpureum) with opposite
leaves, differing
which
is,
from the usual manner of growth,
two to six in a whorl.
as the botany says,
Mr. Gray has been charged with color blindness, because he does not accurately distinguish shades of red.
Crimson
viper's
-
tints
with him are "purplish."
He
says of the
bugloss (Uchium vulgare) that the corolla
" reddish-purple, changing to brilliant blue."
is
In fact,
the younger flower is blue, changing with age to red.
Such inaccuracies should not disturb the student.
learns,
He
on the whole, to admire the marvellous thor-
oughness with which Mr. Gray's work has been done,
and to regard the great botanist with the
affection
one
gives to a personal friend.
The herbarium
good
botanist.
is
We
one summer will be
a necessity
if
one would become a
forget so easily, that the results of
lost before the next, unless
we can
sometimes refer to our " collection."
Newspapers are good enough for pressing.
Procure
BOTANY AS A EECREATION
18
several, and tear them into sheets of uniform size.
you take the flower right from the box, its leaves will
flat,
and
will
almost arrange themselves.
Place several
thicknesses of newspaper between the plants
under and over with
flat
If
lie
;
cover
boards about two feet long, and
A separate
press under a trunk or equally heavy weight.
press for small and delicate flowers can be
magazines under a pile of books.
made
of old
These must be looked
at oftener than those in the big press, but every
day
until the juic6s of the plants are dried, all the specimens
should be transferred to clean and dry newspapers.
The
plants which retain their color best are those which
are thoroughly dried in the shortest time.
take twenty-four hours, and
even more.
This
may seem
if
They may
"fleshy," a week, or
a crude
way
of drying
specimens, but for a traveller, living in trunks, away
from home,
it is
practicable,
and therefore commendable.
Let the pages for the herbarium be of uniform
and
At any
quality.
printing-office white
size
or Manila
paper, cut into half-sheets, can be obtained.
The
ap-
16f inches by 11^. Disregarding the
fractions, 17 by 12 is a very convenient size.
For
proved
size is
strictly scientific purposes,
able on each page.
is
But
one specimen only
is allow-
for purposes of comparison,
it
more species upon the same
Fasten the stem and branches with short narrow
useful to lay two or even
page.
When
gummed
strips of paper.
flat, tie it
with a needle and double thread on the under-
side.
Upon
the stem will not
lie
the right-hand lower corner write in ink
the botanical (genus and species) and
common names
THE BOTANISTS TOOLS AND METHODS
of the flower, with the time and place of
and other
bits of information.
color of the blossom, as
Red and yellow
turns
it
its
19
gathering,
Especially note the
may have changed
in drying.
flowers retain their color best; white
brown or black
;
blue and pink turn white.
Place the species belonging to one genus inside of
These " genus covers "
covers of thick Manila paper.
should be labelled and grouped again in a portfolio or
box under " Families." The private collector will then
doubtless find his house too small.
It certainly will
not easily offer a closet or case large enough and suit-
To
able for his botanical collection.
however, everything
All this
and
it is
of work.
;
may seem
but
it
the enthusiast,
is possible.
like taking a
pays.
It possesses
It is the
good deal of
trouble,
most fascinating kind
over needlework the distinct ad-
vantage of taking the student out-of-doors for
The
hours at a time.
the results of his summer's
pride.
of
And
mine did
work with a pardonable
admiring friends will say, perhaps, as one
:
Why, how busy you must have been
"
like
light
2
many
collector cannot fail to exhibit
a pretty picture those ferns
and looked
at
from the back
are,
!"
!
And how
held up to the
Ill
FERTILIZATION OF PLANTS
—
of Plants the Exception
— Wind-lovers —
— Devices for Attracting Insects — Examples of Flowers which seek
tJsefulness of Insects
Self-fertilization
the Rule
to
Insect-lovers
Cross-fer-
tilization
No
one ever questioned the wisdom wbich covers the
earth with flowers.
would be
Without them our
fields
and
forests
as desolate as are the sides of the Jungfrau.
But we
accustomed to regard insects with no
are
They
such fondness.
sting and bite us,
mate
house-
keeping a burden, destroy the garden plants, come
vast
swarms over the
plagues,
till
we
thiTik of
in
days of Egypt's
prairies, as in the
them only with a
fierce desire
to destroy every insect that ever lived.
Fortunately they have a usefulness
none the
less
there were no insects,
how
Think,
if
mourn
for their toothsome grubs
pillars.
fruit,
And
and
in
all
their
own, and
because unconsciously exercised.
real
the birds would
and
fat green cater-
the flowers would produce almost no
a
little
time the vegetable world,
all
that
springs from seed, would cease to exist.
Geologists
know
that dicotyledonous plants did not
occur in large numbers
evolved.
till
nectar-seeking insects were
For the curious fact
is
that the greater
num-
FERTILIZATION OF PLANTS
21
ber of flowers are fertilized by the aid of insects, and
do not wish to
fertilize
themselves
— in
pains to prevent a union between their
We
first
the fruit,
pollen
itself
tate great
organs.
have seen that the object of a plant's existence,
from the
of
fact,
own
is
appearance of the plumule to the ripening
is
to
reproduce
ready, and the stigma
can do no more.
itself.
But when the
is receptive,
the flower
Outside agents are invoked,
and wonderful are the adaptations of the flower for
purpose
—that of securing foreign
this
interference.
Birds are such agents, especially humming-birds, but
the most important are winds and insects.
Let us recall a few facts about pollen-grains and
their office.
dust,
and
They
are
minute powdery grains of yellow
are carried about separately or in masses.
FOLLEN- GRAINS
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
22
The
anther-cells
free the pollen
and
open variously, by
when
rife.
The
After the pollen
elastic.
slits
or holes, setting
filament is then firm
is liberated,
the statnen
A pollen-grain falling
becomes limp, and soon withers.
upon the glutinous, moist, spongy surface of the stigma
bursts
its
outer coat,
its inner, sensitive
coat contract-
ing and elongating into a delicate tube, which pushes
down
the hollow style, borrowing nourishment as
goes.
When
;
and now a globule of
science stops.
atom, and
grown
The
embryo
sac, is
absorbed into
living matter is formed.
of the full-
perhaps the beginning of a spreading
How
forest tree.
Here
Creator's finger seems to touch this
becomes energized, a miniature
it
plant,
it
reaches the ovule (the unfertilized seed),
enters, penetrates the
it
it
it
clumsy man's most delicate mechan-
isms seem when we stand in the presence of the mystery of vegetable life
It
is
essential
!
that the pollen and stigma of like
species be brought together in order to produce
Hybrids are formed by the crossing of
different
fruit.
though
nearly allied species, and are not reproductive.
Self-fertilization takes place
sometimes in the closed
bud, and receives the name cleistogamous (hidden
tilization).
foliata), the
jewelweed (Impatiens), and wood-violets
are cleistogamous.
Not every one knows
produce two kinds of blossoms
we
fer-
The Venus' s-looking-glass (Specularia per-
—those
that violets
in spring,
which
know. and love, and others without petals, in
summer, which are fertilized in the unopened bud. You
must pull aside the leaves to find the summer blossoms
all
FERTILIZATION OF PLANTS
and their pods
more
are mucli
There
is
autumn.
Tliese concealed blossoms
fruitful than those of spring.
a delicate
common
very
in
23
little
plant with an ugly name,
in woods, climbing over everything, pro-
ducing small pea-like blossoms.
It is the
hog-peanut
Near the base, almost under
[Amphicarpcea monoica).
the earth, are apetalous blossoms producing pods which
ripen one large seed.
There
mous
and
is
fifty
grains
less violet
economy in the pollen of cleistogaThe jewelweed has about two hundred
great
flowers.
of-
pollen in a single flower
foreign agent, since so
;
the stem-
In flowers fertilized by a
one hundred.
much
pollen
nature has granted a lavish supply.
is to
be wasted,
In a single flower
of peony there have been found three and a half millions of pollen-grains.
Sprengel (1750-1816) discovered that flowers containing both stamens and pistils
fertilize
do not necessarily
The theory obtained no
themselves.
notice,
except for ridicule, until that great naturalist, Charles
Darwin,
declared
the actual
of
tilization,"
that
seed
that
truth,
views
Sprengel's
that
" nature
and takes every means
produced from
abhors
to
short
fell
self
prevent
-
fer-
and
it,
cross-fertilization (that
is,
pollen of one flower united to stigma of another) will
give rise to plants often twice as large and strong as
grown from self-fertilized seed.
Of Professor Darwin it was said that " he was
plants
by gentle persuasion
which
bafiles smaller
able
to penetrate that reserve of nature
"
"
men."
The
gentle persuasion
24
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
was hard, systematic work born of wonderful
He
siasm.
His book on orchids, a
animal and vegetable world.
fascinating
himself,
entliu-
rose early, to watch the awakening of the
book
for
any one to read (even, as he says
woman may
" a
understand
it !"),
was the
product of eleven years of minute, careful experiment.
With
delicate
instruments he introduced
plants to stigmas.
Each seed had an
pollen
of
individuality to
His pots were protected by glass covers from
him.
any possible contact with other
and greenhouses were
was watching.
filled
His discoveries kept him from sleeping,
And
they were so wonderful.
entific
All his shelves
plants.
with the plants which he
yet, like all really sci-
men, he was as modest as a
child,
and
after the
publication of a paper or book, would await with anxiety
own Dr. Asa Gray,
when the theory was
the verdict of such friends as our
leaping into an ecstasy of delight
received and approved.
Plants which are fertilized by winds are termed windlovers (anemophilous).
The wind
as a bearer of pollen
must not be confounded with the wind as a disseminator.
Many plants, as the dandelion and milkweed, are
fertilized
blown
by
insects,
but their feathery-tailed seeds are
in every direction
plantains,
by the wind. Grasses, sedges,
and
catkin -bearing trees (except willows),
cone-bearing trees are wind-lovers.
dull
Such flowers are
The pollen is
when the pine forests
in color, without odor or nectar.
light, dry,
and abundant.
are filled with
It is
flying pollen that they are especially
prized as sanitaria.
FERTILIZATION OF PLANTS
The
sects
insect-lovers (entomophilous)
25
must
attract in-
therefore are showy, fragrant, nectariferous.
It
is not for us that the lily hangs out its
handsome bells,
;
and the azalea and columbine waft
They hope
to lure the houey-bee
their delicate odors.
and
butterfly.
They
seek to detain the pretty-winged moth, with brighter
eyes and keener scent than ours, and they offer in ex-
change for a service so needful, a feast of ambrosia
fit
for the gods.
The
irregularities of flowers like the mints, figworts,
and orchids are now seen to have design. There
one large petal for the insect to stand upon, a tube
into which the insect must thrust its proboscis, while
pulses,
is
its body comes in contact with stamens and pistils.
The opening towards the nectar and the standing-place
of an irregular flower invariably facilitate the rubbing
of -the insect's body, or proboscis, or head, against pollen, so that
when
it
leaves that flower
yellow grains for the
pistil in
it is
dusted with
the next flower which
it
visits.
A few
fl'owers
examples
that of insects
and
will
show
the special adaptations of
for preventing self-fertilization
and
;
pistils of the
first,
and securing
cases in which the anthers
same flower mature
Manifestly the design of nature
is
at different times.
that these should not
be united.
In the chocolate
stigma
brown flower of scrophularia the
is first receptive,
of the corolla.
and projects over the under
lip
down deep
in
The stamens
are then
the corolla tube, the anthers closed.
Later, perhaps the
—
26
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
next day, the stamens have come up and forward, the
anther-cells lie
open and discharge their
now
is
the stigma
An
dry.
past
its
usefulness,
it
But
pollen.
hangs limp and
insect, if it visits this flower, will carry the
whose stigma
pollen to an earlier opening flower
is re-
ceptive.
The Epilobium angustifolium (one
of the fireweeds)
and Sahbatia, among the gentians, are examples of the
stamens maturing before the
While the anthers
pistil.
of Sahbatia are discharging pollen, the pistil
and twisted to one
side.
When
bent
is
the anthers have finished
their work, then the pistil rises, straightens itself,
throws out branches whose inner surface
and
a recep-
Pollen must be brought from an earlier
tive condition.
opening flower for this tardy
pistil.
gracilis is a lovely rose-pink flower,
along the
is in
New
The Sabbatia
growing
in profusion
Jersey coast.
In some of the Compositas the anthers close in a tube
around the
it
is
style
and deposit pollen-grains upon
low down.
pollen with
The
but the stigma
it,
while
is still
above, out of reach.
The
lovely campanula has a similar method.
pollen is discharged in the closed
bud upon the backs
of the three or five stigmas.
When
the stamens
The
branches.
lies just
The bee
its
are
Its
withered.
own polhn —so
beneath, but none of
pistil
the flower opens,
pistil
near,
it is
will carry this pollen to
bring to this
upon
it
It elongates gradually, carrying the
destined for
its
far
itself.
another flower, and
other pollen which
legs or body.
spreads
and yet so
it
has caught
FERTILIZATION OP PLANTS
The mountain-laurel hides the heads
in
little
An
pockets (or bosses).
of the stamens
insect
They spring up
jostles the stamens.
27
alighting
the pollen
;
flies
through chinks in the tops of the anthers, and the
sect is covered with the yellow grains.
Some
flowers, like
wistaria,
hairs just below the stigma,
have a
fine fringe of
which can have no other
purpose than to intercept pollen from their
mens, and prevent
it
in-
from lodging
In
there.
own
all
sta-
flowers
of the pea family the insect's weight depresses the keel
(the part of the flower enclosing the stamens
until the anthers
and
They
and stigma protrude.
pistil)
are thus
brought against the insect's abdomen.
In orchids and milkweeds the pollen
distinct grains, but in
The stigma
elastic threads.
a broad, glutinous surface.
are the
two
cells of
(pollinia) are
is
is
carried, not in
masses held to a central stem by
of an orchid
(usually)
is
Variously adherent to
a single stamen.
it
The pollen-masses
terminated by a buttonlike gland, which
kept sticky by wonderful processes.
When
an insect
two
away
inserts its proboscis into a flower of Habenaria, its
eyes rest upon the sticky glands.
When
it
flies
the viscid disks adhering to each eye are dragged out
with the pollen-masses and carried to the next blossom,
where they are deposited upon the stigma.
Insects are
sometimes seen with two or three viscid disks attached
to each eye.
Dimorphism
is
a term applied to plants having two
stamens.
The partridge-vine
some flowers with long stamens
lengths of pistils and
{Mitchella repens) has
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
28
and short
long
pistils,
pistils.
and others with short stamens and
The long
pistils
must be
fertilized
by the
long stamens to produce good results, and the short
MAGNIFIED VIEWS OF THE PARTS CONCERNED IN THE OPERATION OF
EXTRACTING NECTARY FROM AND IN FERTILIZING
ORCHID FLOWER BY HAWK-MOTH
A.
Opening of flower, showing aperture of nectary and stigma immediately
B. Polabove, with a pollen-pouch on each side. n. Nectary, p. Pouch.
len-masses removed, showing their position in pouches, d. d. Viscid disks.
C. Head of hawk-moth, showing viscid disk clasping tonguo, and one fastened to the eye, and being withdrawn from pouch, n. Nectary, p. Pouch.
D. Horizontal position immediately assumed by the tiny club.
d. Disk.
T. Appearance of tongue of moth after exploring several flowers.
FERTILIZATION OP PLANTS
pistils
by the short stamens.
The
29
pollen-grains of the
long stamens are larger than those of the short.
are
There
long-styled and short-styled varieties of oxalis.
When
growing by themselves, they are
When
sterile.
planted together, they produce seed.
The Lythrum salicaria is a remarkable trimorphic
flower.
Each flower contains stamens of two difiEerent
lengths, with its pistil.
be found
mens.
In three different flowers will
and long
short, middle-sized,
Each
pistil
must be
styles
and
fertilized with pollen
sta-
from
stamens of corresponding length.
Professor Darwin once wrote to Dr.
am
stark, staring
almost
prove what
mad
Asa Gray
over lythrum.
I fully believe, it is
:
"
I
If I can
a grand case of trimor-
phism, with three different pollens and three stigmas.
I
have fertilized above ninety flowers, trying
all
the
eighteen distinct crosses which are possible within the
this
one species.
have a look at
some of your
limits of
me some
seed, do."
For the love of Heaven,
species,
and
if
you can get
IV
ORCHIDS
— Earth-growing and
and
Growing Tropical Plants — Characteristics — " Highly Specialized" — Cypripediums and Other Native Orchids — Rare and
Tlie Taste for Orchids not a Passing
Epiphytal Orchids
—
Fancy
Difficulty of Collecting, Transporting
Beautiful Species Found in Hot-houses
The
fascination which orchids possess for us, unlike
the tulip craze of a couple of centuries ago,
The
tulip at best is a
form or perfume.
been growing for
gaudy
The
flower, with
taste for orchids,
fifty years, is
is rational.
no grace of
which has
not a passing fashion,
No
since the orchids are worthy of admiration.
flower combines so
much
that
is
beautiful
and
other
interest-
In color they are deep and pure, delicately shaded
ing.
and boldly marked.
The ever-varying forms
of the per-
ianth are curious, sometimes to the verge of grotesque.
Many
of
them exhale powerful
odors.
Moreover, when
considered from a botanist's point of view, in their
structure,
life,
and
modes
of growth, the renewal of their plant
their habitations, this family of
plants
must
stand pre-eminent over every other.
Their introduction into the greenhouses of Europe
is
from the beginning of our century.
not recent.
It dates
The first real
success in their domestication was achieved,
ORCHIDS
31
by Mr. Cattley, whose
name has been given to the large and splendid genus
His method was perfectly simple.
of Cattleya.
It
after a long series of failures,
was
to imitate the soil, temperature, moisture
—
the
all
conditions of growth of the plants in their native coun-
Soon
try.
were sent to the East and West
collectors
Indies at great expense.
many, Russia, and,
lielgium, Switzerland, Ger-
last of
all,
France, imported
new
and choice specimens, and erected large houses for
To-day there are houses without num-
their reception.
ber, in charge of
business
it is
men
whose sole
and " grow " orchids. Two of
of great experience,
to import
the largest in this country
may be
visited
— one
at
North
Easton, near Boston, the collection of Frederic L. Ames;
the other at Short Hills,
New
Jersey, in the
States Nurseries" of Messrs. Pitcher
By
size of
&
cultivation, as in other plants, the
blossoms can be increased.
ent species wonderful
which bring fancy
By
"United
Manda.
number and
crossing differ-
hybrid varieties are obtained,
prices,
sums which threaten
to rival
the golden guineas sunk in the ancient pots of Dutch
tulips.
From $500
to
$1000 are charged
brid plants which are mateless.
Like "
for
some hy-
artist's proofs,"
they are valuable because rare.
On
fill
the other hand, one with moderate means
may
his small greenhouse and delight his aesthetic soul
with a few delicate Vandas, gorgeous Cattleyas, lovely
Dendrobicerns and
painting would
gardening.
Lselias, all for less
cost.
Since
it
They
than one rare
oil-
are not suited to parlor
takes some years (from two to
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
32
from
eigtt) to develop a plant
varieties are desired, they are
its
seed, unless hybrid
propagated by separating
their bulbs.
As
a table ornament and for ladies' evening wear,
the orchid
is
the most durable of flowers.
wilt nor drop its petals.
of an evening, and
if
It
does not
the end
It is perfectly fresh at
then placed in water, will keep
its
beauty for three or four weeks.
Orchids are of two kinds, air-growing and earth-growing plants.
The former, called epiphytes, are not necThey fasten themselves to other
essarily parasitical.
nourishment from the
plants, but extract their
air
by
means of roots covered with a white spongy substance.
These are swellings of the stems
are
—pseudo-bulbs, as they
called— filled with nutritive matter.
worm
of the flower world
branches of
trees, living
These Ariels
their threadlike roots around
and decaying
;
or they cling to
bare rocks, throwing out curiously marked leaves, and
long, slender, swinging scapes, with gorgeous, bizarre
blossoms clustered upon them like butterflies
;
or one
flower, a thing of beauty, will be lightly poised at the
end of a wire-like
tropical countries
Brazil, the
petiole.
—
The
in Mexico, in
thickets of
air plants
abound
in
the moist forests of
the Orinoco, the valleys and
mountain-sides of the Andes.
Humboldt
said that one
was too short to study the orchids of the Peruvian
Andes alone. Java supplies three hundred species. In
life
Ceylon, Assam, Madagascar, and now, says Stanley, in
the forests of central Africa, wherever the climate
warm and
moist, there they flourish.
They
is
are the
ORCHIDS
" weeds of the tropics."
33
There
however, species,
are,
even of the epiphytes, which seek a colder climate.
They
climb the mountain-sides, ten to fourteen thousand feet
In Nepaul they are found in the cloud and
high.
shower
and
belt,
America as
terrestrial orchids
abound in British
A desert
far north as Alaska.
atmosphere
alone seems to forbid their growth.
After blossoming, a season of rest
is
required corre-
A
sponding to the dry season of the tropics.
temperature and less water afEord this
lower
The most
rest.
successful florists have three different rooms, ranging
from hot and moist to dry and
and
the varying conditions
plants.
The
cool
room
cool, in order to suit
different species of their
faces the north, and
by whitened glass from the sun's direct
The
collecting
is
protected
rays.
and transporting of these plants is
Those which grow upon
often attended with difficulty.
the ground, or
But
upon low branches, are
in order to obtain sunlight
easily secured.
they often swing their
glorious blossoms at the very top of tall trees, which to
climb would be impossible, even
Venomous
serpents
branches.
Near the
may
if it
were not dangerous.
lurk in the crotches of the
flowers, in order to subsist
their nectar, a colony of ants
may have made
upon
its nest.
Their powerful mandibles take hold of a man's flesh
and
inflict
a
wound more
painful than bees' stings.
secure the plant the tree
is
as hard as iron.
At
must be
the
first
felled,
To
and the wood
blow the ants hasten
The wood-cutter
will ply
his last blows with the energy of agony, while
swarms
down
3
to punish the intruder.
BOTANY AS A EECREATION
34
When
of ants bite his legs.
at length the tree lies
prostrate, the branch, with
its
must be separated from the
tree.
lasso, it
must be dragged
contiguous ants' nest,
Then, by means of a
to a neighboring stream,
and
submerged for hours before the prize can be claimed.
If the roots
do not penetrate deep, the bark alone
may be removed with
the plant.
Often the most rav-
ishing species chooses an airy perch upon a perpendicular rock, over a cataract,
risk his life to
secure
and the
it.
collector dare not
Orchids love such spots,
where they can perpetually bathe in falling mist.
Experience has proved that
tropical orchids,
salt air is
very hurtful to the
and they are best transported
in close
wooden boxes, whose seams have been hermetically sealed
with tar, or better still, in glass cases. They are packed
with moss, and carefully separated from each other.
The same insects the red spider, wood-louse, small
—
ants, the mealy-bug, etc.
destructive to orchids.
cockroach.
plants, are
This insect feeds upon the tender roots and
and does much damage
flower stems,
One
—which attack other
Perhaps their worst enemy is the
in a single night.
of the earliest orchids to attract attention was the
" Espiritu Santo," the
Holy
G-host plant of Mexico.
It
simulates very perfectly a white dove sitting in the sweetest of nests, its
head sunk upon
its breast.
It
was
re-
garded with reverence by the devout natives, who made
the sign of the cross as they approached
can lover sent
It
it
it.
The Mexi-
to his lady as a pledge of his affection.
does not need a vivid imagination to see
insects,
shells,
even miniature animals, in the fantastic arrange-
ments of these flowThere are
ers.
ards,
liz-
and
spiders,
huraming- birds.
so
are
Butterflies
cleverly imitated
that the
insects
hover around them
as if to claim kinship.
Most of the orchids
Western world
of the
grow
with
straight,
stiff,
Those on
erect stems.
the Eastern hemisphere
are pendulous,
to cling
to
and love
the under
side of a branch.
They
are painted with every
shade of
crim-
scarlet,
son, pink, purple, lavender,
brown, yellow, and white.
many
orchids
is
Blue
The perfume
orchids are rare.
of
so strong as to be-
tray their presence before the eye
has discovered them.
The United
States orchids east of
the Mississippi are, with one exception (a species of
epidendrum found
upon the Magnolia glauca in the
Southern States ) earth - growing
,
TANPA lOWIl
BOTANY AS A EECEEATION
36
odorless, but they are
to the botanist,
all
and
dull
curious and full of interest
whose pride and delight
it
have
is to
Espeof specimens in his herbarium.
he finds one marked " rare " in the botany, how
a complete
cially if
by comparison
are
Their flowers
plants.
list
lovingly does he dig
it
up by
its
bulbous root, and press
and refer to it afterwards
There are now known to be several thousand species
of orchids, grouped under three or four hundred genera,
it,
and mount
it,
!
and these again are comprehended
of which
diese
— Ophrydeae,
—include
in seven tribes, four
Neottiefe, Arethusese,
Cypripe-
our Northern species, more than
fifty in
number.
The
characteristics of orchids can be understood even
by those who are not botanists. Like lilies, their floral
organs grow in threes. The perianth is composed of
three outer leaves, which are usually longer and narrower
than the others, and three within,
like.
One
all
colored and petal-
of the inner set assumes a different shape
from any of the others, and is termed the labellum, or
lip.
It is flat and broad, pocket or slipper shaped,
often produced below into a nectar-bearing spur.
has colors of
its
own,
By
lined or grooved.
way around,
it
is
is
It
fringed or variously dotted,
the twisting of the ovary half-
brought from the upper part of the
flower, opposite the flower stem, to the lower part, op-
posite the flower bract.
It
thus furnishes a more con-
venient standing-place for insects which assist in
its
fertilization.
There should be
six stamens, in
two rows, but
five
ORCHIDS
37
(four in Cypripediums) are suppressed.
three pistils are also wanting.
two
pistils as
The
pistil is
each side of the broad
ma, hidden in
gregated
of the
becomes a rostellum, or
little
The
of the stamen
lie
one on
stig-
lobes or
pollen
two
into
little
confluent with the stamen forming
The two anthers
the column.
pouches.
Two
botanists regard
united into one, making a broad stigmatic
surface, while the third
beak.
Some
is
ag-
or four
masses by waxy threads,
which terminate
or
caudicle,
and
button-like disk.
m
a stem
a
sticky,
The column
is
thus the consolidation of
all
the sexual organs, and at
once marks the orchid as
The long twisted
singular.
CONSTRUCTION OF ORCHID
ovary pod when cut
across
A. Centre
myriads of brown
exhibits
moved),
of flower (petals rep.
Pouches containing
two disks
pollen-clubs, with the
borne
upon
three parietal placentae
—that
seeds
dustlike
is,
upon the
sides of the pod.
Since the arrangement of the
column
is
guarding the opening to nectary, n,
to
B. Pollen-clubs isolated,
their position in pouch-
show
and their two glutinous
disks, d d.
The stigma of flower is indicated by the rough
es,
spot above opening to nectary.
puzzling to young
marks
exist, viz.,
the irregular
perianth, the labellum, the twisted ovary,
and especially
botanists, if the other
if
the stamens and pistil are not found separate, as in
other flowers, the plant
may be pronounced
All the orchids are perennials.
an orchid.
They do not hurry
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
38
their lives into
and
one brief slimmer, but, like the noble
mature slowly and live many
Burmese plant was estimated to be over a
stately forest trees,
A
years.
hundred years
old.
In one other respect they figure as aristocrats of the
vegetable world.
They
Except the aro-
are useless.
matic extract of vanilla, which
is
obtained from the
dried and pulverized bulbs of the vanilla orchid of Central
America, and a drug called saleb,
used, they have no utilitarian value.
less
of butterflies.
life
now but
Theirs
is
little
the aim-
Swinging from their lofty
among ferns and mosses, they toss
blossoms among the more sober medici-
heights, or nestled
their peerless
nal
and edible plants
in disdain of
any apology for their
existence save beauty.
In size they range from the tiny tway-blade, a few
inches high, to the gigantic oncidiums, whose golden
panicles measure ten feet in length.
Sobralias often
On
a single plant of
send up stalks fifteen feet high.
fifteen hundred blooms have been counted.
The expression "highly specialized," as applied to
orchids, means that their organs are shapei and ar-
oncidium
ranged with reference to special functions. This evident design with reference to an end has been partly ex-
The rich color and strong
perfume, the varying shapes of the perianth, are in fact
plained in a previous chapter.
so
many
sects.
devices for attracting and accommodating in-
Self-fertilization is
not desirable, in that
produces a weak offspring, likely to perish in the
struggles for existence
it
first
Cross-fertilization can only
be
ORCHIDS
by the
effected
visits of insects
39
consequently the invi-
;
and the entertainments furnished by
hostesses are most attractive to insect guests.
tations are urgent,
their
Flies
and bees
and moths the
fertilize
by the fragrant
tracted
the smaller orchids, butterflies
They
larger.
alight
on the labellum,
at-
Lines and grooves,
nectar.
called " pathfinders," guide the proboscis into the nec-
tariferous tube in such a
sect's
way
that
some part
of the in-
head or thorax must press against the anthers.
The viscid disks of the poUinia adhere to the insect.
In some cases a membrane is ruptured by the weight of
the insect bearing down the labellum, and the poUinia
are shot with tiny force against the eyes of the entering
moth.
If
time
is
necessary for the firm cementing of
means are found
the
disks',
The
feast is not set out
for detaining the guest.
and ready.
It is
hidden
at the
bottom of a long narrow tube, down which the insect
must
crawl,
and from which
More wonderful
still,
it
must emerge backward.
the coveted sweet
is
secreted
membrane
Orchis
spectabilis).
The
our own
between the inner lining and outer
tube (as in
must puncture and
insert
order to obtain the nectar.
its
of the
insect
proboscis into holes in
Many
pair's
of poUinia have
been found sticking to the proboscis of one butterfly,
and since the insect contrives at times to remove them
with
its
mandibles,
it
may be
inferred that they are
not regarded as wholly agreeable appendages.
After
being fastened to the insect's head, the pollinia droop
and diverge in such a manner as exactly to
come
in
fit
and
contact with the stigma of the next flower
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
40
by the unconscious insect agent. The broad
very porous and viscid, and the polleu-masses,
The tiny
part or entire, are held and absorbed.
visited
stigma
in
is
tubes of the pollen-grains press
down
into the ovary
and search out the dormant ovules, which are only
waiting for this magic touch to awaken into living
Sixty-two thousand seeds have been counted
energy.
on a single
and
plant,
it
must
that there
follows
be an enormous waste of seed, else the earth would
quickly become carpeted with orchids.
never receive the
flowers
not become
fertilized.
visits
of
How many
many
In fact,
insects,
and do
perish in their in-
fant struggles, in which only " the fittest survive,"
we
can never know.
Since visits of beetles are injurious, their
fat,
hard
bodies being likely to rend the delicate flower tissues,
they are not invited.
As
in the fable of the stork
the fox, the honey in long narrow vessels
ble to them,
Of our
and they seek
and more or
it lies flat,
it
and
is inaccessi-
therefore in flowers where
less exposed.
native terrestrial orchids,
among the earliest
The flowers of
are Cypripediums, or lady's-slippers.
this tribe
anther
;
have two stamens, each bearing a two-celled
and a third stamen becomes, in the language
of Dr. Gray, " a dilated, triangular, petal-like, but thickish body."
tahile,
The
There are
showy
the
lip is
-
slipper, is
Cypripedium
the
most
spec-
regal.
a rich pink, spotted with white, varying to
pure white.
Maine to
six species.
lady's
It
Illinois.
appears in June, in peat bogs, from
The Cypripedium acaule
(stemless)
:
ORCHIDS
is
found
icut,
places
"
it
woods of Connect-
earlier in the rich pine
still
Long
41
Island,
and
New
Elaine Goodale
Jersey.
on " rugged steeps "
her pretty lines about
in
The Indian moccasin"
"We
long with her to leave the beaten road,
The paths that cramp our
feet,
And follow upward by the tangled
By highways cool and sweet,
From dewy
wood,
glade to rugged steep."
Not only "upward," but down by the shore of a
England lake, you may seek for it, resting yourLook
self on the soft pine needles after your tramp.
New
behind that skunk-cabbage, where the brooklet runs,
where the lygodium ferns climb among mosses and
very leaves, and, ten chances to one,
sil-
you have a pink
beauty for your prize.
There are two yellow
lady's-slippers, fragrant,
with wavy leaves and petals.
They
in color.
often
The
smaller
grow together upon
is
knolls,
both
richer
under
birches and maples, on mountain -sides, or in pasturelands.
If
near them you chance to find one specimen
of C. arietinum (ram's -head lady's -slipper) you
congratulate yourself, for this
purplish pink,
its
is
"rare."
hairy lip white-veined.
far north as Montreal, both on hill
damp
-
sides
may
It is small,
It
grows as
and in low
ground.
A bit
of cotton inserted in the labellum of Cypripe-
diums before pressing helps
shape of the slipper.
to preserve the color
and
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
42
The Calypso
horealis
would seem from
shape to belong to this
tribe,
but
it
and
nias, calopogons, coral roots, arethusas,
third tribe
named
shoe are most delicate
little
low
— and
It is
others, the.
The Calypso
The colors of
after the Arethusa.
has but one stamen, with two anthers.
the
its slipperlike
forms with pogo-
—purple, pink, and
woolly hairs grow within like a
yel-
felt lining.
a small bog herb, but you would gladly pay the
penalty of wet feet could you but secure this
nymph
for your collection.
"
The tinta of purple and the texture fine.
The curves of beauty seen in every line,
With fringes exquisite of golden hue,
Perfect the wonders of the fairy shoe."
The Calopogon pulchellum and Pogonia ophioglosnames for beautiful orchids, often
soides are barbarous
found growing together
treacherous sphagnum.
in morasses covered with
Calopogon means " beautiful
beard," and the description in the botany reads, " Lip
as if hinged at the insertion, and beautifully bearded
towards the dilated summit with white, yellow, and purple club-shaped hairs."
Country people call it " grass
pink."
and the
Its peculiarity is that its
lip
stands in
its
ovary
normal position
is
in
not twisted,
the posterior
part of the flower.
A
rare plant of this tribe is the
or putty root, or
Adam and
Aplectrum hyemale,
growth is singuforms a small new bulb of solid
nutritive matter, which sends up from a cleft a large
lar.
Every year
it
Eve.
Its
ORCHIDS
oval evergreen leaf,
43
and the following summer a spike
of greenish-brown flowers.
It is this division of the
common name Adam and
bulb which suggests the
Eve.
growth
Similar in
precious.
ple,
is
Tipularia discolor, the
the
It is
very scarce, therefore doubly
The blossoms
are greenish, tinged with pur-
crane - fly orchid.
and the
lip is
provided with a "thread-like ascend-
ing spur " two or three times the length of the flower.
The
may
be root-para-
leaves, but simple
sheaths sur-
Corallorhizas, or coral roots,
They have no
sitic.
The
rounding the rather dull scape of blossoms.
bend and
thickish roots
twist, suggesting
bunches of
coral.
The queen
of this genus
is
the peerless Arethusa
bullosa, with her royal purple robe, the large
lips
fringed with light purple and yellow.
hanging
When
at
school in the pretty village of Norton, Massachusetts,
I
used to look forward eagerly to the time in early
June when, shoes and stockings
the
swamp some
off, I
might wade into
distance behind the seminary, and
secure these water-nymphs, numbers of which would
spring up and bloom in a single night.
Clumps of the
poison-sumac grew near, and the search had to be pursued with care.
This orchid, " rather scarce and local,"
may sometimes be found in cranberry patches; but
many botanists have never seen it growing.
The Orchis
spectahilis is
our one true orchis
others should be written with a
pears towards the last of May.
d
— orchid.
You must
;
the
This aplook for
it
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
44
on cool
hill-sides
name
flower, as its
from a tuberous
The
flowers.
column
;
and
in rich
implies.
woods.
It
and white
root, bearing pink, purple,
sepals
form a
hence one of
its
showy
a
It is
sends up a low stalk
sort of
canopy over the
common names,
" preacher-
in-the-pulpit."
The genus Habenaria
of our handsomest
or rein orchis includes
Here
species.
stately-fringed orchids
— the white
gloUis); the yellow [H. ciliaris),
are
many
grouped the
(Habenaria hlephari-
whose bright orange-
colored flowers, the lips copiously cut and fringed, are
very striking
;
the green
-
fringed
(IT. lacera)
These
purple-fringed (H. fimbriata).
all
and the
produce con-
spicuously handsome spikes of flowers, rather
late,
from
July to the last of August, in wet sandy places along
the sea -shore, or in bogs, or by the sides of lakes.
A
specimen
will
almost leap into your face when you
are searching for campanulas
love the water-side, and
trying to find another.
and other things that
you may then weary your
With myriads
such perfect contrivances for
fertilization, I
can never
account for the loneliness of these larger orchids.
is
life
and
of seeds
It
part of their aristocratic nature that they will not
become common.
Every one has found rosettes of thick white-veined
The markings resemble snake
and so they are called rattlesnake plantains. The
satiny leaves in woods.
skins,
bluish leaf belongs to Goodyera pubescens, and
tier
is
pret-
than the one-sided spike of dirty white flowers
which appears
in July
and August.
The Goodyera
A
GROtrp DP NATIVE ORCHIDS
—
;
ORCHIDS
repens
is
47
of smaller growth, and the pretty leaf
is
cov-
ered with a yellowish satin gloss.
The Spiranthes,
lady's - tresses, are
among our com-
monest orchids, growing numerously
by road-sides, in pastures and fields.
in old orchards,
By
the twisting
mount spirally around
almost of waxy thickness and a
of the ovary, the flowers
They
stem.
are
'the
dull
greenish-white in color.
The
Liparis, or twayblade, is a delicate, retiring little
plant,
found in cedar forests and under the mountain-
laurel
on rich
vines keep
it
hill -sides.
The pyrolas and partridge
company, and Dicksonia and Woodsia
nod to its purple petals.
These are a few only of our
ferns
A
terrestrial orchids.
complete description of the entire
list
would
fill
a
volume.
we would now behold the glory and beauty of the
we may visit one of our large houses
devoted to their cultivation when the plants are in full
bloom, say in February. As we enter, we are simply
The
bewildered by the magnificence of the scene.
If
epiphytal orchids,
colors are
beyond the power of paint-brush
to copy,
and the mingling of odors produces a delightful intoxiWe cannot tell which is the most ravishing
cation.
those large
waxy white
flowers, tinged with the faintest
blush of pink, drooping from their graceful stem
;
or
those royal purple beauties which seem to have bor-
rowed all the shades of the garden pansies, and touched
them up with still richer and deeper velvet hues; or
those large crimson queens, shading from light to dark
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
48
or, again,
those tiny
salmon flowers, pendent from a board,
and looking
like
bits of coral
among
sea-weeds.
Surely,
" Solomon, in
all
glory,
was not
rayed
like
bis
ar-
one of
these."
Then what
curiosities
floral
There
!
brown and
are
yel-
low spiders with
five
long legs; green
and brown
lizards
streaked with yel-
One, the Mas-
low.
elephanti-
devallia
ce])s,
has three long
outer
floral
leaves
with appendages,
which curve in such
a manner as to imitate the
trunk
tusks and
of
an
ele-
phant.
MASDETALLIA DENISONIANA
sight,
While
you
are
ravished
with
the
you hear with perfect calmness the attendant
ORCHIDS
say,
"This
51
the Cattleya hluntii, worth $1000; the
is
only one in the country."
If he had said $5000, it
would not have seemed extravagant. Such unattainable, such unapproachable beauty ought to be priceless,
as
it is
peerless.
The Odontoglossums comprise a very large and
handsome genus. They are evergreen, and many of
them, being imported from high lands in Mexico and
Central America, will be found in the " cool house."
One
of the noblest
rosy white, the
comes from an
is
whose flowers are
0. pescatorei,
lip partly yellow.
The
0. nebulosum
altitude of ten thousand feet.
The Angrmcum
sesquipedale is a striking importation
The
from Madagascar.
flowers are ivory white, waxy,
with a spur attached to the labelliim, from ten to
eighteen inches long.
In
its
native country
great size, covering whole trees, and
is
it
attains
an extraordinary
bloomer.
The genus Cattleya includes one hundred and sevenand many favorites. Most of them are
grown in pots half-filled with broken pieces of pots,
ty-five species
covered with peat or fern roots and moss.
ting material
secures
nourishment.
The
This pot-
ample drainage and
sufficient
plants are raised well above the rim
of the pots, and their roots can be seen twisting through
the
sphagnum moss.
The
foliage is often
handsome,
the leaves and pseudo-bulbs being unlike any of our
Northern orchids.
A
ada,
superb variety
The
is
Cattleya triance
plant often " sports "
—that
from
is,
New
Gran-
presents flowers
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
62
differing in color
and
fiowers of a
dark purple, but the type
ricli
I
size in different seasons.
be white sepals and petals, the
saw
said to
is
blushing, with a
lip
crimson throat.
The
flowers of
es across.
They
C
Mossice are from five to eight inch-
are a beautiful rose- purple,
streaked with yellow and purple.
lip is
in
flowers
this
genus
are
and the
Nearly
all
the
and pleasantly
strongly
scented.
Coelogyne cristata is a beautiful white orchid,
The
with yellow
hang from a
grow as
Six or eight flowers
lip.
drooping spike, and they say "
it is
as easy to
a verbena."
The Vandas have a deserved
and graceful. The name
is
are
and
The Vanda
tri-
from
means the sacred parasite of the oak.
color has a white perianth spotted
lip is
They
Sanscrit,
celebrity.
delicate
with purple, and the
a deep violet marked with white.
least fifteen well-defined varieties of
There are at
Vandas, some of
which bloom the year round.
The Vanda
leseens
ccerula
from the East Indies and V.
coeru-
from Burraah are famous as being the only
knowledged blue orchids.
The
first
the lip deeper in color than the petals
is
;
a large blue apron-like spot upon the
rare.
baskets
They, with
made
of
many
wooden
the second has
lip.
other kinds, are
slats
ac-
entirely blue,
Both
grown
are
in
fastened together with
copper wires, leaving large spaces, and are suspended
from the
ceiling of a
The Vanda mavis
warm and moist
is
from J^va,
house.
Its leaves
look like
ORCHIDS
55
the leaves of cornstalks growing close together, clasp-
ing a thick stem, long, narrow, and drooping.
flowers are a light lavender,
on the
The
and there are darker spots
lip.
It is
simply impossible to enumerate even the well-
known
species of greenhouse orchids, and time fails us
also to take a passing glaijce at the
with
its
hundreds of
Cypripedium house,
varieties of small and_ large lady's-
slippers, manifesting endless combinations of color
and
markings, and ranging in value from a few dollars to
hundreds.
Efforts in the hybridization of these plants
have met with marked success.
Patience and judi-
cious fostering care on the part of those
who
love their
plants with almost parental fondness seem to be
warded
with rare races of plants, a
worth a fortune to their possessor.
re-
few of which are
V
LEAVES
— Queries About Leaves —Leaf Al—Altered Leaves —Cellular Tissue—Arrangement of Leafof Leaves—Metastasis —Arrangement
—Stomata—
on Stem — Devices for Protection of Leaves — Why Leaves Fall
in Autumn — Carnivorous Plants
Variety and Beauty of Leaves
bum
Office^
cells
Thet who
live in the perpetual
green of the tropics,
where the leaves decay and are replaced imperceptibly
by a constant renewal of the
two most delightful seasons
its
pale green
and bronze
tints,
gorgeous reds and yellows.
we would not choose
it all
plant's activities, miss our
—the budding spring with
and the autumn with its
is the summer,
Beautiful as
the year round.
ing-time of nature, town and city
social instincts are
breath of spring
and our
But when the first
and a faint shimmer of green
most
is felt,
In the rest-
life attract us,
alive.
spreads over the shrubs and trees of the parks, then the
country and
tract us.
its
An
miracles of
new growth
irresistibly at-
unrest pervades our city homes, and
desire nothing so
much
as to close the shutters
leave the homes, seeking for a grove
we
and
where we may
swing our hammocks, where the birds and flowers and
lightly
moving branches may afiord us companionship
and entertainment.
Have we
ever thought
how much
of the pleasure of
LEAVES
country
51
due to the trees and
life is
only because they fan and shade
their leaves
us,
•are beautiful with an endless variety of shape
they gratify our aesthetic fancies.
walk one
oak
will see the
cate,
;
and
size,
In a single short
leaves, stiff
hornbeam, deeply furrowed
Not
?
but because they
and hard
the
;
the aspen, snaall and deli-
hung upon a stem flattened contrary to their own
and therefore shaking as if with palsy the
planes,
;
spreading horse-chestnut
cut maple and poplar
—
;
all
the dark green, handsomely
combined
into
heavy or
light
masses of waving green.
goes almost without saying that we ought to know
It
common
trees,
functions and purposes of leaves.
If a
the names of our most
microscope go into our trunk as
outfit,
we
shall
and the general
good botany and
part of the summer's
need no other teacher than our own ob-
servation.
Certain queries about leaves will naturally arise the
moment we pluck and
look at them with reference
What
exploring their secrets.
they necessary to the
cial
functions
Why
?
than the lower
?
tree's life
is
Why,
?
are they?
What
if
are their spe-
covered with dust, will they
?
?
?
to-
are
the upper side a darker green
Why does drouth or lack of sunlight
Why do they fall in autumn To
yellow
die
Why
turn
them
we
They
answer,
must peep into the wonder-chambers of nature.
are hidden and small, but the microscope, the great revealer, will disclose movements, chemical transformations, wonderful adaptations of means to ends, that we
have never dreamed
of.
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
58
Every child may know the common facts about the
The terms used
exterior of a leaf.
in describing its
shape and outline are not arbitrary, but those which are
naturally suggested.
Let the children make a leaf autograph book.
pressed leaf fastened upon a page
complete description of the
Under a
may be
written a
height of tree or shrub,
and smoothness of bark, where found, and when.
color
A
leaf,
Noth-
profit.
ing can better combine pleasure with
parallel-veined leaf indicates that the plant is en-
dogenous, like the
netted-veined
er-veined,
leaf,
lily,
and
corn, grasses,
where the veins
all
is
either feath-
spring from the mid-rib,
or palmately veined, where they spring from a
point,
and radiate
A
plantains.
according to the shape,
common
like the spread fingers of the
hand.
In general outline they are narrow and long, vary-
ing to round.
The terms
linear, lance -shaped, ob-
long, elliptical, ovate, orbicular,
mean
in botany just
what they do as plain English adjectives.
When
the
base narrows, put the syllable " ob " before the term,
signifying inverse
;
as oblanceolate, obovate.
base has projecting lobes or ears, call
halberd, or shield shaped.
The apex
is
blunt, truncate (as in the tulip-tree), etc.
it
If the
heart, arrow,
tapering, acute,
The edges
are
entire, serrate (like teeth of a saw), dentate (toothed),
crenate (scalloped), wavy, smooth.
how
are
When
lobed, write
deeply, as lobed, parted, cleft, or divided.
little
leaves
Suppose the
scribe.
The
when
Leaflets
the division extend to the petiole.
leaf of
a sugar-maple be chosen to de-
descriptions
would run somewhat as
fol-
—
LEAVES
69
— opposite. Petiole
—none. Lobed—palmately. DiVeins—netted, palmately.
Outline
Arrangement on stem
lows:
rather long.
visions
— 3-5.
serrate.
-r-
Stipules
Base
— truncate.
Size of
Let the description continue
under this tree
;"
or,
tree'
"
:
—
We
large.
held a picnic
" I saw a squirrel or a bird's-nest
on this tree."
Nothing
will cultivate the faculty of observation in
children like the leaf album, and useful knowledge
is in
such ways pleasantly acquired.
What
is
a leaf
?
Shall
we
say, in semi-scientific lan-
guage, a green expansion borne upon a stem produced at
regular intervals along the branch
a chestnut leaf
;
?
This will describe
but since, botanically considered, there
—
root, stem, and leaves
other things besides the " green expansions " must be
are but three parts to a plant
leaves.
In some
Flowers and fruits are altered leaves.
plants, as in Castilleia (scarlet painted-cup), the gradual
change of foliage leaves into sepals and petals can be
traced.
stamens.
In the water-lily the petals gradually become
There are " monstrous flowers " found almost
every season in which the
fruit,
berry, pear,
ties,
pistil,
instead of forming
grows into a small leafy branch.
Roses, straw-
and cherry blossoms exhibit such
enough to sustain the
are forms of leaves.
peculiari-
botanist's view that pistils
The pod
rally suggests a folded leaf.
of a pea or bean natu-
The
layers of an onion
bulb and the meat of a nut are leaves fattened with
nourishment stored thus for the plant's use.
Stems and
up starch as
The sweet-
roots also store
well as leaves.
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
60
potato
is
a root, but the Irish potato
stem, and
its
sometimes
leaves,
is
sometimes altered branches or stems.
Their place must determine
this.
If
they appear on
the joints or " nodes," they are leaves
axils
— that
is,
with the stem
a thickened
Tendrils and spines are
eyes are buds.
;
if in
the leaf
the upper point of contact of the leaf
— they are branches.
in the fall contains, in
some
The
leaf
trees, all the
bud formed
nodes and
leaves of the branch which is to
grow the following
The length of stem between the nodes depends largely upon cultivation.
The internodes of
summer.
the apple-tree in the orchard are
much
those of the crab-tree in the pasture.
are protected
scales,
from the
which are
off in spring.
This
by strong thick
and which fall
determinate growth, and
frost of winter
forms of
also
longer than
All such buds
is
called
leaves,
the branches of such trees and shrubs often attain their
full
length in a few weeks' time, beginning in midsum-
mer
to
form the next year's buds.
Indeterminate growth
is like
that of the honey-locust
and sumac, the raspberry shoots and perennial herbs.
These grow until arrested by the cold of autumn, and
form no
axillary
buds for the next season.
In such
the upper parts of the branches generally die down,,
and new growth the next spring takes place from the
lower axillary buds.
The upper leaves on
and
at length spines
a barberry branch
prickles are elongations of
tial
part of a leaf
is
become spiny,
Thorns and
epidermal cells. The essen-
pure and simple.
the blade, which presents a broad
LEAVES
61
The
surface to the air and sunlight.
times wanting, and the leaf becomes
two opposite
petiole is some-
Sometimes
meet and envelop the entire
cup-shaped bases. Such are the upper
sessile.
sessile leaves
stem with their
The
leaves of the trumpet-honeysuckle.
petiole
may
expand and become bladelike.
The
pair of leafy appendages found at the base of
They assume
quince and clover leaves are the stipules.
varied forms,
tulip-tree
and they
and
are often wanting altogether.
In the
and magnolia the stipules are the bud
fall off
when no
longer needed.
scales,
In the locust
they are thorns, in the pea they are broad and
leaflike,
buckwheat they clasp the stem like sheaths.
is impossible to understand what a leaf does
in the
It
the tree, unless
we know something about
for
cellular tissue
and the formation of plant material by the plant
itself.
Boots, stems, and leaves are aggregations of
cells.
These
cells, at
plants,
become
first
simple, as in the lower orders of
in plants of higher orders " differentiat-
ed," and assume various shapes and sizes.
By
simple
pressure against each other, they become flattened and
many-sided.
Cellular tissue, with spaces for the circu-
lation of air, is called
parenchyma
;
and
this comprises
the greater part of plants surrounding other forms of
tissue.
The tough framework
threads united into bundles
of a tree is
— long drawn-out
made
cells
of
whose
These " fibrovascular
become hardened.
bundles " run through the main stem and leaf petiole,
walls have
forming the framework of the
leaf,
support and hold together the softer
the veins which
cell tissues,
If
a
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
62
horse-chestnut leaf be broken
ofi,
be
dot-like scars will
seen upon the trunk where the threads have been severed.
Vessels or ducts necessary for the freer conduct
of water
from the roots are
cells
joined lengthwise, with
These, by an uneven de-
their division walls absorbed.
posit of cellulose (the
material of which cells
are made), are dotted
or
marked with rings
Cells are
or spirals.
more crowded and
compact in the newer
than in the older parts
WATER CARRYING DUCTS OF PLANTS
of a tree.
lar
Intercellu-
spaces
air are necessary for the plant's existence.
filled
with
These
air
must so connect that there shall be uninterrupted communication from leaves to root.
galleries
A living cell contains a
a dark spot, the nucleus.
with plant
but
who
life.
whitish, almost colorless fluid,
Within, not always in the centre,
called protoplasm.
We may see it
shall say
times, protoplasm
what
is
is
Here we stand face to face
it is
?
through the microscope,
Magnified
five
hundred
resolved into fine threads, which
beaded with minute dots, constantly, restlessly
moving up and down. They move not only in their
are seen
own
cells.
cells,
but pass through thin walls into adjacent
In defunct
cells there is
no movement of the
protoplasm, and in an exogenous tree the greater part
is " dead-wood."
LEAVES
Says Dr. Asa Gray
:
"
The
plant
63
is
a composite being
or community, lasting, in the case of a tree, through an
and often immense number of generations.
indefinite
These are successively produced, enjoy a term of existence, and perish in their turn.
Life passes onward
continually from the
older to the newer parts, and
death follows with equal steps, at a narrow interval."
A
ring of living cells surrounding the dead heart of
the tree
the
is
medium
next year this ring
formed.
Were
it
is
The
for the circulation of sap.
dead, and a new, living ring
not that storms destroy forest
is
trees,
theoretically they should live forever.
Let us
leaf,
now examine
find the cells
up
leaf cells.
Cutting through a
and looking at the edge through a microscope, we
on the upper side closely packed, standing
(so to speak) in rows.
The lower
down,
cells lie
Being
and are more loosely thrown together.
filled
with grains of chlorophyl (leaf-green), a more solid
green
is
formed on the upper
covered with the transparent
the veins and veinlets
The whole
side.
cells of
leaf is
the epidermis, and
—the woody part —ramify through
them.
In order to throw open the air-galleries of the plant
to the air,
hundreds and thousands of
little
doors, or
mouths, are found, especially upon the lower side of the
leaf.
ally,
They
are the stomata (singular, stomate)
the breathing-pores of the plant.
If
;
liter-
we think
of
them as mouths, they are protected by a pair of lips
(curved cells), which open or shut at pleasure. Through
these stomata not only air but moisture
is
breathed in
BOTANY AS A RECEEATION
64
and
In wet atmospheres the "guardian cells" are
out.
wide open
seasons,
;
in times of drouth, shut.
within the plant, the thirsty
isfied
would
Thus, in dry
by preventing the escape of the water already
and
life is
prolonged,
little cells
are partially sat-
when otherwise
the plants
die.
The number
of these stomata is marvellous.
In a
square inch of an apple-leaf there are from twenty to a
hundred thousand.
The
fuzz, or
bloom, so often found
HIGHLY MAGNIFIED SECTION OF LEAP,
Showing longitudinal arrangement of upper
cells,
and stomata on lower
surface
on the under side of the
leaf, is
a forest of fine hairs,
designed to protect the stomata by warding
other foreign particles.
We
now
see
off
why
dust and
the lower
LEAVES
leaves of our begonias
65
and other garden plants should
be washed after a hard shower.
The stomata are choked
rain, and when neither
the leaf, it must die.
The
with earth spattered up by the
air
nor moisture can enter
stomata do not like direct sunlight, so they seek the
under part of the
lies
leaf.
In aquatic plants, where the leaf
upon the water, they are found upon the upper
Some
leaves which
hang
vertically, their
side.
edges upward,
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
66
famous compass-plant of the prairies, have
them equally upon both sides, and then the two sides
of the leaf are the same hue of green.
The leaves, then, are the lungs and stomach of a
as in the
The
plant.
plant lives on air and water.
PIECE OF LIVERWORT LEAF CDT
We, and
all
DOWN THROUGH THE MOUTH
on plants, either directly or indirectly.
animals, live
Their tissues supply the flesh and muscles, and even the
greater part of the bones of animals.
is
inorganic—
^that is,
water and
air
And
—they
as plant food
(the plants)
form the connecting link between the other two kingdoms.
The moisture soaked up by
such as
Water
iron,
roots contains minerals,
sulphur, magnesium, and
phosphorus.
by capillary attraction,
The constant
a pump.
rises in the plant, partly
partly as water is raised in
evaporation from the stomata of the leaves sends a
through the succession of
more
to
fill
the plant
is
crustations
cells
the tiny vacuums.
call
down to the roots for
The water exhaled from
pure, leaving the minerals deposited like in-
upon the
cell walls
or as crystals.
Some
LEAVES
67
plants contain large numbers of crystals of different
shapes whose use
scarcely understood.
is
The amount
of water transpired from a plant of considerable leaf
is surprisingly large.
By experiment it has been
found that a sunflower, three and one-half feet high, on
surface
a
warm
day, transpired one pound fourteen ounces of
water in twelve hours.
The minerals abstracted from the soil and deposited
when the plant is burned.
They form about seven per cent, of leaves, and two per
in the plant turn to ashes
cent, of stems.
The
principal food of plants
bonic acid from the
soil.
air,
Animals throw
this out
BLTTE
1 1,
ing
it
to the
air.
lips
;
h
is
carbon, taken as car-
and dissolved
h,
-
from
in water
from the
their lungs, supply-
FLAO
hollow of the mouth
To them
it is
poisonous, and
its ac-
cumulation, which in time would be fatal to animal
is
life,
prevented by this simple but wonderful provision, by
which the vegetable world requires carbon out of which
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
68
Here the chlorophyl grains of
most im-
to build its fabrics.
leaves (and other green parts) perform their
In sunlight they become chemical
portant function.
agents, separating the carbonic acid into its
two
ele-
ments, oxygen and carbon, setting free the former, retaining and
mating use
the morning the
Sunlight
of the latter.
lutely necessary for this work.
With
formed
gen and oxygen
first
is
abso-
rays of
laboratories begin their labors,
little
and cease when the darkness comes.
walls) is
the
Cellulose (cell
of carbon, with the addition of hydro-
—that
is,
compound (taken from
water.
air
Nitrogen added to this
and rich
soils)
forms proto-
plasm, and from these two, cellulose and protoplasm,
we have the basis of all vegetable and animal tissues.
The process by which a plant converts earth, air, and
water into its own tissue is called assimilation. Animals cannot assimilate. They digest; that is, convert
organic materials into parts of their own bodies.
The plant by a further process known only to itself,
called
metastasis,
sugar, etc.,
glutens, oils, etc.
—opium,
can
change cellulose into starch,
and protaplasm into albumenoids, such as
Thus we obtain many valuable drugs
aconite, cinchona, strychnine, etc.
found in certain seeds,
like the castor-oil
Oils are
and
flaxseed,
—
or in the fruit, as olive-oil.
The grains
pease, rice, potato tubers, etc.
—are so many deposits of
corn, beans,
gluten or starcb laid up for the use of the young seedling.
maple,
Sugar from beets, the sugar-cane, and sugarall
merce, are
such staples of food and articles of com-
made
principally
by the
leaf
chlorophyl
LEAVES
grains,
and these
difierent products are interchangeable
at the plant's will.
and
69
Thus sugar can be made
into sjarch,
vice versa.
The arrangement of leaves on the stem is governed
by certain inexorable rules. In general they are either
opposite or alternate.
Leaves are opposite when each
node bears two, a half of the stem's circumference separating them.
The second
at right angles to the
the
first,
first,
pair will then be above
and
the third pair directly over
the fourth over the second, and so on.
In the alternate arrangement the third leaf stands
above the
first,
the fourth above the second,
each second leaf
by
is
separated from
its
etc.,
and
nearest neighbor
half the circumference.
One
of the
most common arrangements
the apple and cherry trees, and
by the
fraction
|^.
That
is,
line will
sixth leaf
is
is
that in
represented
two-fifths of the circum-
ference separates each leaf from
and a
may be
it
its
nearest neighbor,
go twice around the stem before the
found above the
first,
the seventh above
the second, and so on.
Whorled
are
where
leaves, like those of the
three, five, or a larger
common
galium,
number of
leaves
springing from the same node divide the stem equally
between them.
Pine and larch needles grow in a cluster or fascicle
from the same node, which is regarded as a shortened
branch.
Much
is
done by Mother Nature to insure the pro-
tection of her delicate leaf children.
The
fine
fuzzy
BOTANV AS A RECREATION
70
growth of hairs on the under side of many leaves has
been spoken of as keeping dust and foreign particles
from entering the stomata.
Many
leaves
and tender, are clothed with woolly
ofE
when
when
hairs,
in bud,
which drop
By
the leaf becomes older and stronger.
a
thick growth of hairs, leaves are protected from the
Most plants which appear
ravages of insects.
spring, in advance of the ants
as
and
might be expected, smooth or glabrous.
leaves keep cattle
in early
larvae of beetles, are,
Spines on
from browsing upon them.
Sir John
Lubbock says that the upper leaves of the holly, which
grow beyond the reach of cattle, are almost destitute
of spines.
The smoothness of evergreens is their protection, enabling them to shed snow easily, otherwise
they might be broken down by the weight of snow
masses.
The same
leaves arc tough
and leathery,
order the better to stand the wear and tear of
seven, or sometimes ten years of
It
almost seems as
class,
if
nettles
six,
in
or
life.
and
thistles,
the soldier
were designed as protectors of a whole neighbor-
hood of defenceless
plants.
A
daisy
may grow quite
One of the
safely near a thistle or under a bramble.
wickedest plants
When
is
the cat-brier, of the smilax family.
one of these matted, prickly vines has planted
itself directly across
your pathway
it is
better to
go
around, nor seek for treasures which can only be obtained by passing through the thorny branches.
The
stinging-nettle [Urtir.a dioica), like
European importations,
grant.
The
plant (as
all
is
some other
a very undesirable immi-
the species of Urtica)
is
cov-
LEAVES
erfed
with
fine
71
hollow hairs, at the base of which are
glands secreting a poisonous
The point
fluid.
hairs is as sharp as a bee's sting,
of the
and penetrates the
skin upon the slightest pressure of the hand,
when
the poison from the gland below flows upward into the
blood, often producing very serious consequences.
nettle loves the rich soil of old barn-yards,
The
and gen-
erally indicates large quantities of nitrogen in the soil.
The Lamium album, a
member
of
the Mint family, resembles the Urtica so closely in
its
perfectly harmless
foliage that botanists will seldom venture to pluck
less it
its
be in flower, when
it,
un-
corolla indicates
its liplike
true character.
Do
most
tree
done.
leaves best
easily
fit
their
own
This can be
trees?
answered by placing a branch from one
among
Ash
leaves of
the
leaves have
chestnuts, maples
among
This has been
another.
been placed among horse-
They
hickories.
will leave
Nature
is
economical, and knowing that the good of the tree
is
great spaces unoccupied, or else overlap.
best subserved by the presentation of the greatest possible area of chlorophyl grains to the air
and
light, it
wonderful how, with reference to this end, she has
adapted to one another the leaves, branches, and trunk
is
of every tree.
It is
one of the evidences of design on
the part of an intelligent Creator.
It is generally
supposed that leaves
This
because they die of old age.
view.
If
we break oS a
soon wither, but not drop
fall in
is
the
autumn
not a correct
leafy branch, the leaves will
ofE.
In
fact,
they will cling to
BOTANY AS A EECEEATION
72
when they
the dried branch with greater tenacity than
were green and
or twist
them
alive,
off.
requiring some force to wrench
In tropical climates they remain
much longer than in temperate countries, and
their fall, when it does take place, is not just before
the cold season, but during the hot, dry season.
Many
of our own trees, as oaks and hornbeams, retain their
leaves dried and withered till the pressure of the new
green
distending bud in spring displaces them.
As
in
man, the seeds of his decay are born with him,
so in the leaf-bud there
may
be discovered the rudi-
ments of a very delicate layer of
at right
cells,
whose plane
angles to the plane of the leaf.
time comes, this upright growth of
When
cells enlarges,
ing from above downward, cutting through the
fibres of the
"
I
ter,
stem
At every
like a knife -blade.
gust,
how
is
the
push-
woody
Thereafter,
the dead leaves
fall
!"
have said that the food of plants is air and waand that by assimilation the plant converts inor-
ganic substances into organic, the leaves, by means of
their chlorophyl grains, acting as the principal agents
in this work.
the same
known
way
Besides,
some
leaves actually digest in
The remarkable plants
by means of glands upon the
as our stomachs.
as carnivorous,
surface of their leaves, exude an acid ferment
upon
liv-
ing insects, bits of raw beef, the boiled white of an
egg, etc., which dissolves such animal food, after which
it is
absorbed into plant tissues.
The most ingenious devices
are presented
by such
LEAVES
plants for alluring
73
•
and entrapping
their prey.
Bright-
colored and often large blossoms, red and white veins
in the leaves, honey-paths leading into the traps, entice
and
insects as the lamplight does a moth,
rarely does
an insect yield to the temptations and enter the trap
so neatly baited without paying the forfeit of
Dry and hard
parts of orthopterous
insects drop around the roots
has long been
known
its life.
and coleopterous
and form manure.
It
that fungi live on decaying ani-
mal and vegetable matter, and that
steal the juices of other plants.
parasitic
plants
Such possess no
chlo-
rophyl grains, and are red, yellow, brown, gray, or white,
but never green.
some green
ually
They do not
assimilate.
But that
upon animal food, actwas deemed a romantic
plants should thrive
preying upon insects,
story until the appearance of Darwin's
tivorous plants, in 1875.
fully
book on
insec-
His experiments were so
conducted as to leave no doubt of their
care-
scientific
accuracy, and since then a host of observers has been
attracted to follow in the
thusiastic workers is Mrs.
same
Mary
line.
Among
Treat,
whose observa-
the en-
tions
upon Florida species of Drosera, Dionaea, Utricu-
laria,
Pinguicula, and Darlingtonia, transplanted to tubs
and basins of water
in her study,
and observed night
and day, form most entertaining reading.
ests of her studies she
and cheironomus,
in order that she
enter the bladders of Utricularia.
with
flies,
(Venus's
In the inter-
procured eggs of the mosquito
might see the
She
filled
larvae
her rooms
and watched them entrapped by the Dion sea
fly-trap).
She took cheerfully the
stiiigs of
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
1i
yellow-jackets and bites of
flies.
The small hours of
the morning often found her at her post, forgetful of
One of her experiences is so sinthe passage of time.
gular
Harper
p. 186.
(Home
worth quoting.
it is
&
Brothers.
Studies in Nature,
1885.)
fully test the strength
and
power of the plant, I one day placed the tip of
my
" That
I
might the more
,\\\\\[h
^
little
finger in the
t'-aP
(Venus's
trap), resolving
fly-
to
become a self-made
for
prisoner
hours at
least.
five
I
took an easy-chair
LEAF OK TENQS'S FLY-TRAP (dION^A)
and
let
my
arm
rest
and
upon the
edge of the pot, and
upon the
table
niy hand
with plenty of read-
ing
-
matter before
should
hinder me from
me, what
THE SAME CLOSED
keeping my
solve
fifteen
about
minutes
my
I
finger,
was surprised
at the
?
re-
In less than
amount
of pressure
and for more than an hour the pressure
seemed slightly to increase but by this time my arm began to pain me. Here is a problem for the psychologist.
;
Was
it
the knowledge of
my being
held fast that Caused
LEAVES
Surely I have kept quiet longer than this with-
the pain ?
In less than two hours
out discomfort.
my
to take
15
finger
from the
I
was obliged
plant, defeated in so simple
an experiment, and heartily ashamed that I could not
my
better control
nerves.
The slimy
secretion
had
commenced oozing
slightly
the trap, and
could have kept the position for
five hours, I
I
if
presume
copious, the plant not
it
from the inner surface of
would have been much more
knowing but that
I
was as good
to eat as a bug."
All the carnivorous plants love
growing
This
wet places, either
water or in marshes or upon wet rocks.
in
necessary, in order that they
is
abundant moisture which
is
may
obtain that
requisite to their glandular
secretion.
The
Utricularias, or bladderworts, float in stagnant
water, where there
The
larvae.
is
plenty of animalcules and insect
finely cut leaves bear
one-tenth of an
inch in length,
little
bladders about
which seem
to serve the
double purpose of floating the plant at its time of flowering,
and of stomachs for the digestion of animal
The
food.
ed with
orifice of the bladder, or utricle, is provid-
six or seven
to entangle
unwary
ventures either
utricle, it is
waving
larvsB
its tail
sucked
bristles.
swimming
These may serve
near.
or head into the
If the larva
mouth
of the
in so quickly that the eye cannot
The mouth then shuts like a valve,
and the creature cannot escape. The secretory glands
at once begin to pour their fluid upon the prisoner,
follow the motion.
which seems almost instantly
and incapable of
paralyzed
motion.
If a larva
half-
is
caught within the trap, only
without
that part
can con-
tinue to wriggle for a short
A
time.
species
terrestrial
bears bladders upon a creep-
ing underground rhizome,and
are found
these
to contain
the remains of small earth-
worms.
A near relative to the bladderworts
is
the genus Pin-
guicula, or butterworts.
They
grow upon damp rocks. The
leaves grow in a cluster
around the flower scape. The
edges of the leaves curve
ward, and are
fold
till
a
upon the sticky
alights
face
When
glands.
viscid
of
the leaf,
its
fly
sur-
edges
more and more inward,
and wholly
they touch
cover
the
In a short
fly.
time the insect
is
dissolved
and absorbed, when the
opens,
PJTCHER-PLANT JN BIOOJI
in-
dotted with
ready
for
leaf
another.
Spiral threads along the mid-
LEAVES
and
rib
is
lateral veins enable the leaf to curve
Our only
curve.
11
P. vulgaris.
species,
The
leaves feel greasy to the touch;
hence the name, from pinguis
Of pitcher - plants there
(fat).
are
pitchers are transformed leaves,
water, in
many
all
varieties.
The
cup-shaped, holding
which insects are drowned, the upper parts
provided with downward -pointing
ing the
and un-
and that but seldom found,
insect
stifE hairs,
The
from crawling back.
prevent-
secretory
glands are usually near the base of the receptacle.
In Sarracenia the leaf apex forms an overhanging
which partly excludes
the leaf
is
entire
lid,
edge of
a cord or broad wing,
besmeared with
which both
insects.
Along the
rain.
a
attracts
sweetish
and
fluid
intoxicates
Flies try to stand
on their
heads after having sipped this honey
;
ner.
ants behave in an excited man-
All crawl up the leaf, pause a
minute upon the rim of the pitcher,
them tumble
they
lie
to the bottom, where
in heaps, too
many
for the
plant to digest before their bodies
become putrid. Then a foul smell
comes from the leaf. The process
of absorption of this decaying mass
continues, so
may
be
that
the
JIACEKIA
Sarracenia
likened to the buzzards and vultures of the
animal world, the carrion - eaters.
like
LEAF OP THE SAK-
Even
large insects
cockroaches and hornets are found drowned in this
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
78
One species, Sarracenia purown swamps, generally with
terrible vegetable trap.
purea,
is
found
in
our
the pitchers half full of water.
The Darlingtonia
is
a twisted long and narrow tube,
covered with an inflated hood, with two forked append-
The edges of
fish's tail.
hood and mouth of the pitcher are
covered with the honey bait.
In Nepenthes the petiole becomes
ages like a
the
broad and
leaf-like,
tendril-like
leaf
as
swamps
then tapers into a
body, which supports the true
This
Indies, China,
Malay Archipelago.
the
found in
a pitcher.
of the East
is
It
and
produces
long and short pitchers, the latter growNEPENTHEs
jpg
jjg^j. ^|jg
ground and attracting crawl-
ing things, the former
flying insects.
swung higher
for
Small birds even are entrapped by this
fiercest of plants,
and a row of incurved hooks around
the opening prevents the escape of even the largest
It is said that
prey.
of
some of these
a black ant perforates the stalks
and tunnels upward as
leaves,
far as
the bases of the pitchers, in order to feed upon those
insects that
may drop down.
The cephalotus presents both ordinary forms
leaves
and short broad pitchers provided with
In Guiana the heliamphora
of the pitchers a delicate
ers grows.
The
This plant
is
found.
In the midst
nodding spike of pink
is
common
tree-pines, Tillandsias, of
of
lids.
with our
flow-
florists.
South and Central Amer-
'
LEAVES
ica
and the West
79
Indies, liave leaves dilated at the base,
forming cups capable of lidding rain-water.
These
cups of water would be a great boon to thirsty
travel-
not for the insects drowned therein.
They
lers
were
it
are only a variation of the pitcher-plant.
A
,
species of
bladderwort grows in the small pool formed by these
cup-shaped leaf bases, and
imal food.
It
is
in turn nourished
new
nearest leaf of Tillandsia, there forming a
Even
by
an-
sends out long runners which seek the
different trees are
sometimes connected
plant.
in this
way.
The Drosera and Dionsea
are well
upon a
leaf of
bending over
it,
sundew
is
alighting
fly
clutched by the long hairs
pouring their juices upon
and absorbing the insect's soft parts.
is
By means
known.
of glands at the end of sensitive hairs a
it,
When
digesting
the
work
done, the glands straighten, and are ready for more
victims.
After digesting a limited
number
of insects,
the leaves of Drosera seem to lose their power of further action, turn yellow, and die,
root
coming up
new
In Dionffia the blade -like petiole
The
leaves
is
not sensitive.
leaf itself is like a half-open book.
alight
upon
from the
to continue the work.
either face, the
two parts of the
If
an insect
leaf spring
together like a book shutting, and spikes growing along
the edges interlock and hold the insect a prisoner.
Very small
insects
do sometimes escape.
It has been ascertained that
thrive best
all
when fed upon animal
this class of plants
food.
Of
the fed
plants the average weight of their seed to that of the
unfed
as 157 to 100; tlic
is
number
of seeds
to 100; the
er-stalks
their
plant
100;
230
weight as
An
insect- eating
we
therefore,
is
li flow-
105 to
as
total
100.
to
240
as
is
number
jrjay
say, twice as vigorous wlicn
fed upon insects as one of
the same species that
It is
is
not.
a singular retaliation
of the vegetable woild
upon
natural enemies, the in-
its
sects, whose larvc'c feast
young
the
of our forests
And
it
is
upon
and twigs
leaves
and orchards.
a poor return for
the services rendered by the
seekers after lioney and pollen,
and
which help
spread
to fertilize
the
seeds
countless
numbers
species.
It
if
seem
as
the
in-
plants
as
does
we must regard
sect-destroying
monsters
of
the
of
of plant
vegetable
world, tilings with perverted
natures, the exception to
that
is
ing in plant
DROSKRA riLInjRMIS
all
luvely and interestlife.
VI
PLANT MOVEMENTS
—
—
Motion of Seed When First Planted Circumnutation Movements
of Root-tip
Of Climbing Plants Sleeping Leaves
—
All
is
living things have the
motionless because
it is
—
power of motion.
Plants and animals, being alive, possess in
ability,
move.
A rock
a dead, inert piece of matter.
common
the
impelled and guided by some inward power, to
Not
Many lower
all
and can only
movements
animals can move from place to place.
orders, like sponges, are fixed to one spot,
of
some plants
diflBoult to believe
intelligence.
nourishment to themselves.
attract
In
movement seems
are so remarkable that
The
it is
they are not guided by a sort of
many
free
of the lower grades of plants
and voluntary.
The boat-shaped
desmids and diatoms jerk themselves over considerable
distances. The cilia (hair-like processes) of some mosses
move about in water. OsciJIaria are curious one-celled
plants which, under the microscope, look and wriggle
angle -worms.
like
They
are filled with protoplasm,
that mysterious something in which lies the life of
both animals and plants.
As soon
as a living seed touches the ground, or is
buried beneath the
6
soil,
the plant
germ
struggles in-
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
82
tensely to free itself from its prison within the hard,
dry seed
coats.
dormant, and motion
Life, hitherto
Nature has endowed her tiny child with many
begin.
wonderful provisions for the hard battle which
The
fight for very existence.
sun,
earth are friends and supporters
Earthworms, destructive
insects,
air,
the
of
has to
it
moisture, and
seed.
little
burrowing animals,
drought, cold, and hard impenetrable soil are fges against
which the baby plant
will
hardly prevail.
and persistently pushes
cessful seed patiently
The
suc-
its
way,
overcomes obstacles, appropriates suitable nourishment,
grows, blossoms, bears
life,
whether
it
fruit,
and
fulfils
the plan of
its
be a tiny portulaca seed or the winged
samara of the haughty maple.
Many more
than conquer in the struggle.
The strongest and most
seeds perish
favorably situated are those that survive.
Suppose we try to follow a young seed in its efforts
The part which first "feels the thrill of life"
to grow.
is
the tip of the radicle, or root.
This
is
a wonderful
organ, on which at the start everything depends.
Darwin
calls it
a cap of hard
the brain of the plant.
cells, it
Mr.
Protected by
pushes towards the centre of the
upon by the attraction of gravitaInstead, however, of going straight down, it feels
earth, possibly acted
tion.
around in an
irregular, circular
to find the softest,
most
movement, as
friable soil.
If
you
if
trying
are push-
ing your finger into the ground, see
how much easier
when moving the finger around while pressing
downward than when pushing straight and steadily in
it
is
one direction.
Sometimes the
circuit traversed
by the
PLANT MOVEMENTS
narrow
an
83
Sometimes
it is
almost like movement back and forth on a straight
line.
radicle tip is
The movement
is
prefixes circum,
"
nodding
—
its
all
like
ellipse.
called nutation, or nodding.
Darwin
making the word " circum nutation,"
All growing parts of the plant
around."
stem, leaves, flowers, as well as roots
stant nutation,
in turn,
"bowing"
making longer
to
all
to the inherited habit of
the plant, this revolving motion
from right to
left,
or
in con-
or shorter ellipses, with greater
According
or less regularity.
— are
points of the compass
is,
on the outward curve,
from north to west, south,
east,
(when not disturbed by
wind) revolving the same way or the motion is in the
opposite direction, from left, on the outward curve, to
and north again,
its
all
parts
;
right.
all
This
will
be perceived when we remember that
pease and beans, grape-vines, and other climbers
twine in the same direction.
This twining
is
but an
exaggerated circumnutation.
To go back
it
to our root-tip.
In
right angles to its former course.
stone,
What
its
Immediately the
strikes a stone.
It
downward course
tip is
turned at
does not like the
and dodges, assuming a horizontal direction.
from keeping on in this newly
shall hinder it
acquired direction
beyond the stone
?
?
Does it know when it has passed
Not exactly but the part of the
root just behind the tip knows.
;
It
hugs the hard thing
and curves over the edge of the
stone, pointing the tip of the root once more in a perIs there anything more marvelpendicular direction.
which the
tip hates,
lous than this divergent action of the root-tip and the
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
84
part directly, say half an inch, behind
if
almost as
It is
?
two brains dwelt in the plant.
Secondary
roots,
developed from the primary, tend
obliquely, not straight,
would
lie
downward,
else
all
the roots
Tertiary roots, developed
bunched together.
from secondary, spread horizontally outward, and thus
the combined roots use all the soil within their reach.
All these movements of roots are determined by themExternal influences, as a moist
selves.
light penetrating the ground,
ments of the
produce
sensitive tip, causing
the moist soil and
away from the
it
soil,
still
to
or a ray of
other move-
bend towards
light.
Almost simultaneously with the starting of the radicle
which carries the
for the earth, the caulicle or stem
two leaves
first
one leaf
(or
in
impulse from within prompting
arches
its
back
in order to
monocotyledons) has an
it
to seek for light.
the opposing mass of earth above.
The two
legs of
the arch gradually elongate, the middle of the arch
cumnutating
through the
straightens,
soil.
and the cotyledons are brought into an
of a
The
man
illustration of Darwin's, often
over
whom
a load of hay has
quoted,
is
fallen.
In order to extricate himself, he will
his
will
push with his back upward
he has broken through the hay, when he
body and stand
A
first
get
hands and knees, and with a wriggling motion
from side to side
his
cir-
upward until it breaks
Then, and not before, the stem
pushing
and
upright position.
upon
It
push with more force against
will
till
draw up
erect.
seed never makes a mistake by sending
its
roots
PLAUT MOVfiMKNTS
upward through the soil and its
One or the other or both may have
the seed before they are rightly
are often noticed.
me
A lady, in
made no
85
downward.
caulicle
wind quite around
started, and such curves
to
most respects
intelligent,
how one
planted
vegetable seeds, with the exception of melons.
These,
told
that
she said,
if
statement
about
difference
planted upsidedown, would be killed.
is
who
people,
it
The
one of many made by really observing
ignorant of the
are yet
plant
true,
If
life.
simplest facts
there would
be no ex-
planation
possible,
any more than of the statement
made and
believed
by many farmers,
is
not planted in the
last quarter
that corn which
of the
moon
will
be
attacked with blight.
I have said that the habit of circumnutating can be
best observed in climbing plants.
Such, by means of a
curving of the stem, or of tendrils, or of leaf-stems,
coil
around supports, and tightening, draw the entire
plant upward.
The morning-glory
revolves from east,
through north to west, and south to north again
;
or
short coils, the older
The young stem makes
ones longer. But the tip of the
young growing stem
is
from right outwardly to
left.
ever stretching out and feeling
for something around which to
coil.
Often such stem-
tips are hooked, the better to hold against the
their supports.
When
wind
.to
the plant climbs by means of
tendrils or leaf-stems, these describe large circles in the
air until
the
support
is
clasped.
It is
said that in
the tendrils of the passion-flower this circular move-
ment can be seen with the naked
eye, as easily as the
BOTANY AS A EECREATION
86
movement
Some
of the second-hand of a watch.
plants
have a difierent and peculiar means of taking hold of
upright supports.
By means
numerous
of
poison
the
stem,
rootlets
from the
springing
-
ivy
clings to rocks, fences,
the bark of trees,
etc.
The Virginia - creeper
puts out tendrils which
spread their tips against
a
surface in
flat
little
suckers
adhesive
or
disks.
When we
speak of
spontaneous leaf move-
ments we enter
into the
us,
fai-
How many
ry - land.
of
verily
domain of
when
children,
delighted to touch the
leaflets of the sensitive-
plant
MIMOSA AWAKE
and
from us
like frightened things
surprise to us
now
?
to find other
(Mimosa pudica)
see
It is
them shrink
something of a
common
plants, like
Cassia nietitans, the partridge-pea, and sensitive joint-
vetch behave in
much
the same manner.
Oxalidae close quickly after being plucked.
Species of
Some
ferns
will not wait to
be brought homo before they fold their
pinnas together.
Successfully to press such plants they
—
PLANT MOVEMENTS
must be
87
between the pages of a magazine as soon
laid
as they are picked,
and then, with
stiff
covers, they can
be firmly bound with a strap and taken home.
Some
plant leaves close
an approaching shower.
position
different
stem
the sky
Most leaves
of sleeping leaves.
a
when
is
darkened by
These come under the category
sleep
—
^that is,
assume
upon the
Could we see
at nightfall.
the vegetable world at night,
it
would present many surprises.
All of these sleeping movements
seem
end in view
to have one
namely, the protection of the upper and more sensitive surface
of the leaf, in order to prevent
excessive radiation of moisture,
and consequent injury from cold.
Plants whose leaves are pinned
down
will
in their
suffer
diurnal position
severely
frosty
in
nights, while those which
allowed to assume
ing
position
jury.
will
their
take
are
sleep-
no
in-
In the sleeping position
the leaf usually presents
its
edge
to the zenith, instead of its
surface, twisting
and turning
.MIMOSA ASLEEP
flat
its
peduncle in order to accomplish this
result.
A pair of
leaflets will shut together, folding the upper surfaces
inward.
In a species of acacia each
leaflet
of a pair
BOTANT AS A RECREATION
88
bends towards
its
mate, and
overlapping one another.
is
thus quite
lost,
and the
all
drop towards the apex,
to leaves
The resemblance
hung with
tree loots as if "
little
dangling bits of
string."
In
the two
clovers
lateral leaflets fold to-
wards each
drooping
other,
slightly,
and
the middle leaflet turns
backward and
a
box
falls like
cover over the
-
edges of the other two.
The
of
leaves
sweet-
clover (meliloius) twist
through an angle of 90
degrees,
so
edges of
all
that
the
three are
turned towards the zenith,
LOOUST BRANCH AWAKE
the
upper
faces of the
two
sur-
out-
side leaflets facing in-
ward, one twisting to the right, the other to the
The
pease, beans, lupines,
left.
desmodiums, and others of
the pulse family present conspicuous examples of sleep-
ing leaves.
Most remarkable of
all is
gyrans, a native of India, found in
known
as the telegraph-plant.
the
Desmodium
greenhouses and
Each large
leaflet is at-
tended by two very small, perhaps interrupted, growths
of leaves; for this species probably ranks
midway
be-
PLANT MOVEMENTS
89
tween the one - leafed and three-leaved desmodiums.
The
large leaflet droops at night,
The small
stem.
and
lies close to
lateral leaflets are affected
the
more by
changes of temperature than by darkness. At a rather
high temperature, say from 70° to 80° Fahr., they move
up and down with little
these movements occur
They seem
are slow.
and fun, since
to
jerks.
Sometimes several of
in a minute,
jump about
and again they
for pure mischief
cannot
it
be perceived that any
done to the
good
is
plant
by these move-
ments.
Instances
movements
of sleep
of plants
might be
indefinitely
multiplied,
and the bot-
—anybody,
— may
by
anist
in fact
visit
the
plants in his
ity
night
shrubs and small
own
vicin-
with the keen en-
joyment which attends
the discovery of
truths.
new
As morning
dawns the sleeping
leaves
is,
wake up
resume
— that
their
lOCnST BRANCH ASLEEP
day
position, reversing the twisting process of the evening
before.
Says Darwin, whose exhaustive experiments
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
90
have reduced the subject of plant movements to a
science: "Excluding a few genera not seen
selves,
few
about which
we
are in doubt,
others, the leaflets of
by our-
and excluding a
which rotate
at night
and do
not rise or sink much, there are thirty-seven genera in
which the leaves or
moving
leaflets rise, often
at the
same time towards the apex or towards the base of the
leaf, and thirty-two genera in which they sink at night."
The
cotyledons, as well as
many
flower petals, sleep
The purpose of the latter is, of
protect the stamens and pistils from frost.
The cause of the sleeping movements of
at night.
course, to
leaves, as
well as the nutation of all the plant's parts, is an alter-
by
away
nate growth of opposite sides of the stem, preceded
a swelling of the cells, bending the leaf or leaflet
from the more turgid
tive leaves
cells.
In addition, highly sensi-
have a joint or cushion at their base, called
It consists of a mass of nearly colorless
somewhat convex in outline, whose growth has
ceased. These cells become turgid more quickly upon
a pulvinus.
cells,
one side than the other, causing a movement in the
opposite direction.
sensitiva,
lets
Two-thirds of the petiole of Oxalis
and the whole of the short stems of the
leaf-
of the sensitive-plant, are converted into pulvini.
Further than this the botanist cannot go.
the swelling of the cells?
movements
What makes
Is it certain properties or
of protoplasm, or does the
power
lie in
the
Whatever the answer may be, it is one of
those things that " we know not now."
The movements of stamens and pistils have reference
cell walls
?
LOCUST, MELILOT, LUPINE, OSALIS
— ASLEKP
PLANT MOVEMENTS
The
to their fertilization.
lie
ly
six
93
stamens of the barberry
curved under the arched petals.
Touch them
light-
with a needle-point and they spring suddenly tow-
ards the
brushing
pistil,
Some
with their anthers.
it
composite flowers possess sensitive stamens.
chiccory the anthers are
them
causes
to straighten
the style of the
curved outward.
and bring
In the
A
touch
their pollen along
In portulaca the stamens spring
pistil.
outward when touched.
Among
the spontaneous movements of plants must
be included the bursting of pods, already referred
to,
by which seeds are scattered in every direction.
The movements of insectivorous leaves have also been
described.
The movement of the sundew leaf when it
upon
closes over the hapless fly caught
bristles
can be plainly seen.
its
gland-tipped
In cases like these the
sects have a tardy revenge, in that the digestive
of the leaf are soon exhausted.
after a
In the sundew, at
perhaps of the
yellow and dies,
effect of
high
least,
become
a warning example
few repetitions of the process, the
rigid, the leaf turns
in-
powers
bristles
living.
Dr. Asa Gray closes a brief cliapter on the move-
ments of plants with these words
:
"
That plants should
execute movements in order to accomplish the ends of
their existence is less surprising now,
when
it is
that the living substance of plants and animals
tially the
take of a
scale,
same
;
that the beings of both
common
life,
is
known
essen-
kingdoms
par-
to which, as they rise in the
other and higher endowments are successively
superadded."
—
VII
THE COMPOSITE
—Characteristics of Com—Dwarf Dandelions—Hawk-weeds—Thistles—Rag-
The Golden-rod
for a National
posite Flowers
LigulifloriE
Flower
— Disk Flowers — Ray Flowers — TubulifloraB
weeds, and other Composites
Among
er is our
the candidates for our country's national flow-
American golden-rod.
many admirable
early in August,
so
is
It certainly
it
defies
autumn
a type of those dauntless
possesses
Beginning to bloom
characteristics.
frosts
and storms, and
men and women whose
courage and perseverance laid the foundations of our
It is a democratic flower.
Not only the
woods and meadows, but deserted ploughed-up ground,
dry and dusty soil, spring into beauty with this covering
republic.
of golden blossoms.
It
adorns the poor man's garden
or the rich man's hedge.
concealing so
much
that
is
We
arid
are grateful to
it
for
and uninteresting.
There are forty-two species of golden-rod mentioned
in Gray's Manual, divided into the Virgaurea, all
whose
heads of flowers are borne upon short stems, and the
Euthamia, with sessile heads. There are but two of the
latter,
and they are
easily distinguished
by
their flat
corymbose heads and very narrow leaves. Around Sag
Harbor, on the eastern end of Long Island, both species
THE COMPOSIT^E
of the Euthamia
and
grow
95
in great profusion,
delicate, again tall
sometimes low
and showy.
Not every one knows that there is a white golden-rod.
The Solidago concolor is often taken for an aster. The
cream-tinted flowers grow in clusters in the leaf-axils,
along a simple, rarely branched stem.
A yellow
variety
with rather larger heads grows in the same way.
All
the others have mostly terminal blossoms in long or
one-sided or twisted, contracted and
short panicles,
stubby, or spread out into great yellow fans.
The sweet golden-rod (Solidago
its
odora) gives out from
crushed leaves the scent of anise.
unusually large plant of this species
mantic
spot at the
of the
came across an
head of Sterling Lake,
the hills in Rockland County,
One
I
growing in a
tallest is
or eight feet high.
New
well
ro-
up among
York.
the Solidago sempervirens, seven
Its
blossoms are large and hand-
some, although the racemes are rather smaller than
those of Nemoralis and Juncea.
The
leaves of golden-rod present every variety.
They
have one or three strong nerves, are smooth or rough,
entire or serrate, clustered thickly or scattered along the
stem.
Side by side with these yellow beauties spring up the
regal
asters.
thickly in
The golden
New Jersey
and Cape Cod,
is
aster
[Chrysopsis), found
pine-barrens, on Nantucket Island,
not a true aster.
Neither
is
the pretty
white -topped aster (Seriocarpus), growing in thickets
and woods. The real aster is a perennial herb (except
two species which are annuals) whose rays are white,
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
96
The disk is deep yellow, sometimes
grow in corymbs, racemes, or panpurple.
The
drive
up and down New England
An
autumn
icles.
purple, or blue.
flowers
where the road-sides are massed with the soft white
and purple bloom of asters, touched with splashes of
hills,
golden-rod, presents a picture not to be surpassed, even
by the luxuriance
of tropical growth.
The
driver is
wearied with constant petitions to stop, and the wagon
floor is piled
high with gorgeous plunder, designed for
The purple
home adornment.
asters,
upon being gath-
ered, should have their stems immediately covered with
wet moss,
Both
many
else
they will wilt beyond recovery.
of these queens of the autumn, together with
of our
summer and
a
few of our spring
belong to the great family of Compositse.
largest of the families of flowering plants,
one-tenth of
all
the
are indigenous to
known
timent of the nation demands
They
since
it
family
are the
If,
which
therefore, the sen-
floral expression, it
were
should be drawn from this family.
compound
flowers of early botanists,
was long ago recognized that members of this
the daisy, for example
were not simple flow-
—
ers, like
and contains
species, one-eighth of
North America.
fitting that the choice
flowers,
It is the
—
a hawthorn, with petals and sepals surrounding
stamens and
a calyx
is
pistils.
That which resembles the parts of
an involucre of bracts. What seem to be
petals are rays.
The
central disk is a
vidual flowers (in the daisy
each having
its
own
(rarely three or four),
some two to
group of
five
indi-
hundred),
tiny calyx, corolla, five stamens
and
pistil
with divided stigma.
THE COMPOSITE
97
Separate one of the disk-florets of the daisy, and place
under a strong
it
ovary,
The calyx
glass.
which contains a
joined to the
is
single, hard, dry seed, without
albumen, called an achene.
The calyx
in our daisy is
cut ofi abruptly just above the ovary, but in
the CompositsB
various
many
of
prolonged into
So we may know
shapes.
the cichory by
is
it
its
cup - shaped top
;
the sunflower by two rabbit - shaped
ears
the sneeze
;
ears, or scales;
by
-
weed by
such
five
the ugly sow-thistle
a tuft of soft hairs, a true fairy
dust-brush
brush
;
lifted
blazing-star
a dandelion by the
up on a long handle
by each
dust;
the
bristle feathered.
All such developments of the calyx-
top are called pappus, and
its
deter-
mination greatly aids in assigning the
plant to
its
PAPPUS OF DANDELION
proper genus.
Often a single bract grows outside of the calyx, called
chaff.
The
corolla in our daisy floret is tubular, with five
points at the summit.
The stamens,
five in
thers into a tube.
number, are united by their an-
They stand upon
their filaments,
this ring is tipped with five sterile points.
cells
open
inside,
and discharge
unripe but growing
carries the pollen
pistil.
As
upward with
their pollen
and
anther-
upon an
the pistil protrudes,
it, till it
of the visiting insect, which bears
7
The
it
is
it
within reach
to another ripe
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
98
pistil.
halves of the stigma curve on opposite
The two
sides of the flower like
two tiny hooks.
So much for the disk flowers, and they are borne
upon a
paratively
it
may
present a
the receptacle
is
or conical surface, com-
flat
smooth or deeply honey-combed.
The marginal
rays of the daisy are spread-out petals,
each enclosing one
corollas,
When
flattened receptacle.
laid bare,
and
stamens nor
They
pistil.
some flowers
in
The
pistils.
are called strap-shaped
are neutral, with neither
daisy, then, has both kinds of
flowers, disk
and ray, the
weed), a
tall,
flower, has
latter fertile
The Vernonia
but imperfect.
(iron-
handsome, bright purple
no ray flowers, but heads
These, and in
of tubular corollas.
eighty genera out of the family
the larger part
— comprise
floras division, in
the Tubuli-
which there are no
The
strap-shaped corollas in the disk.
LigulifloriB, or
Cichory
sixteen genera, have
no tubular
RECEPTACLE OF
DANDELION
corollas
no centre or
corollas,
in all the
perfect.
tribe,
numbering
no ray flowers and
but strap - shaped
flowers which
In these there
is,
arc
of course
The common dandelion and
disk.
all
—much
pretty
blue cichory will be recognized as belonging to this division.
There
is
a third division, Labiatiflorse, in which
the corollas are two-lipped, like mints.
few species found
in
most of them grow
New
in
But, besides a
Mexico, Arizona, and Texas,
South America.
:
COMPOSITE
TIIK
The
99
leaves of Compositas agree only in one respect
they are without stipules.
and are
filled
Among
The stems
are often hollow,
with watery, or milky, or resinous juice.
the Liguliflorse, a small cousin of the dande-
lion, is the
dwarf dandelion
daintiest of tassels,
from
(^Krigia).
It
hangs, the
delicate stems, with root-leaves
One may find this plant in the cleft of some
hobnobbing with the purple stems of that hairfern, Asplenium trichomanes, under the drip of wet
finely cut.
tall
like
rock,
mosses, and near a small bitter cress.
The hawk-weeds (Hieracium) belong to this division.
Many of these are coarse and showy plants. One of
them, the rattlesnake - weed [H. venosum), has leaves
colored underneath with a beautiful rose
-
purple, the
purple veins showing through on the upper surface.
The flowers are yellow, in a loose corymb, and stem
and midrib are hairy.
A tall road-side weed is wild-lettuce [Latuca Canadensis).
It
is,
perhaps, nine feet high, with pale yellow
heads of flowers in panicles.
The
There
thistles
is
and burdocks belong to the
yellowish prickles upon the leaves.
and the
Tubuliflorae.
a yellow thistle found along the coast, with
tallest thistle is
The
least bristling
Cnicus altissimus, ten feet high.
The pasture thistle is occasionally found white. The
Canada thistle, along with the common white -weed
daisy and the cone flower (Rudbeckia hirta), are special
plagues to the farmer.
They
are the
most impudent
and pertinacious of weeds, excepting, perhaps, the ubiquitous wild-carrot, and only the most untiring vigilance
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
100
will
prevent them from maintaining complete ascend-
ency over the
soil.
There are about twenty species of wild -sunflowers,
known by
easily
the two -eared
pappus.
They
are
branching herbs with wide rays, and are often mistaken
for yellow daisies.
One
of the prettiest spring flowers
The stems
tain.
The
of a light heliotrope color.
seen
it
is
Robin's plan-
are hairy, the rays are fine, numerous,
very abundant, set
ofE
by
place where I have
tall
buttercups,
is in
a
large old-fashioned apple orchard.
The
plantain-leaved everlasting (^Antennaria plantag-
inifolia) is
one of our
earliest spring flowers.
and stem are cottony, and the involucre
mens and
pistils are
is
The
leaves
white.
Sta-
borne on different plants, an excep-
tion (though uot the only one) to the rule of Compositse.
With
antennaria, saxifrages, cinque-foil, columbine, and
wild-strawberry blossoms,
and top of a
flat
many
a bit of pasture-land
rock are converted into veritable gar-
dens.
The miserable rag-weeds are grouped in the genus
A fitter name would be one which a
little girl called them (a child who saw with poetical
called Ambrosia.
feeling
said, "
The
common
things)
they hold their
sterile
and
fertile
ile
;
because," she
green candles so straight."
flowers of rag- weeds
different heads upon- the
hidden
" Candelabra
:
little
same
at the bases of the
grow
in
plant, the fertile almost
long spikes of greenish,
ster-
flowers.
Thoroughworts are an important branch of the Com-
THE COMPOSIT-E
Most conspicuous of ttese
positsB.
whicli towers twelve feet in its
bathes low,
swampy meadows
101
the Joe-Pye-weed,
is
loftiest
moods.
It
in a rich purple, flow-
ering with blue and white vervain and the dark-hued
Vernonia
be known by
Hence
stem.
The
The white
summer.
late in
our grandmothers for
its
its
may
opposite leaves uniting around the
name
its
boneset, dear to
mild, uninebriating tea,
— Eupatorium perfoliatum.
blue mist flower of
New
Jersey
is
a lovely
mem-
More common, one of the prettiest
our woods is the white snakeroot (B. ager-
ber of this genus.
dwellers in
atoides).
It
displays clear,
close
\%hite,
corymbs of
flowers and fanciful leaves, thin and dark green, long
and sharply serrate. I have a
pleasant recollection of a " green and white luncheon "
petioled, very deeply
given in a cottage overlooking a picturesque lake, in
which the white snakeroot formed the only
Upon
ration.
the table
and bouquets of
it,
lay at each plate.
was massed
tied with white
Large bowls,
floral
deco-
in a large centre,
and green ribbons,
filled
with the same
were in the room, and vases in the windows.
flower,
For
it
floral
decorations in August, what could be more
effective than climbing
hemp-weed (^Mikania
the only climbing Composite
or three yard lengths.
?
It
scandens),
can be pulled in two
Its clusters of
pinkish blossoms,
among heart-shaped leaves, make it a striking
It may be found beside streams,
and elegant vine.
twining among bushes, in full bloom in August.
nestled
VIII
PABASITIC PLANTS
The Woods
in
Full of Interest, Because Every Plant
Autumn
is
—Cancer-root, or Beech-drops — Indian-pipe — Color of
Leaves and Stems of Parasites — Mistletoe — Cuscuta — Root-parPlants — Monocotyledons Non-parasitic
Fruiting
asitic
The
of
all
leafy
month
of June
may
claim the rarest day
the year, but for gorgeous, sensuous beauty the
bright days of autumn stand without a
tumn sunshine
may walk
is
in the
The
rival.
glorious and not too dazzling.
woods without
au-
One
fear of mosquitoes.
The wind,
instead of burning, cools the forehead, while
the eye
simply bewildered by the brilliant coloring
is
The undergrowth
of the foliage.
is
aflame,
branches of oak and maple are crimsoning.
stem and
leaflets of
the wild-vine.
tive in red
and the
The
scarlet
the Virginia-creeper mingle with
Even the venomous sumach
is
seduc-
and yellow beauty, and paints the swamps
with masses of rich color.
To
the botanist in his walks there
est in the fact that the
is
a peculiar inter-
vegetable world
is
fruiting.
Every plant now proudly displays that for which
spread
its
showy
petals in spring,
and wafted
grance to the passing insect in summer.
it
its fra-
Wild -rose
hips nod to the scarlet berries of the Solomon's -seal
and the gay
fruit of Indian -turnip.
Red and purple
PARASITIC PLANTS
103
berries and ripened pods play at hide-and-seek behind
tall
fronds of fern, great fans of golden-rod, and masses
of white and purple asters.
It
ber,
was on such an afternoon
on a
among
hill-side
in the
waning Septem-
the chestnut-trees, that
I first
found the parasitic singular plant called cancer -root,
They grow,
or beech -drops {Epiphagus virginiana).
tallest,
about a foot high, bear scales in place of
leaves, are
purplish in color, and have two kinds of
the
blossoms.
Those higher up with tubular
the larger, and are
fertile
Below
sterile.
corollas are
are the less showy,
blossoms, with minute petals, which the ripen-
ing pod pushes
leaves at
off.
The
once betrays
lack of green in stem and
the unworthy secret of this
not on earth,
and water, so
plant.
It lives,
offered,
but on food manufactured by another.
vegetable thief, a parasite.
is either lazy
or vicious.
air,
By any
freely
It is
code of morals,
a
it
those
It thrusts its roots into
of beech or chestnut trees, sucks their juices,
and leads
would seem an unwholesome,
existence.
an unnatural,
It
it
The beech-
flowers and fruits like other plants.
drops belong to the broom-rape family,
all
whose mem-
bers are root-parasitic, and destitute of green foliage.
The one-flowered
species,
is
growing
cancer-root
in small
is
perhaps a more familiar
clumps everywhere.
Its
underground, and from that a low, naked scape
bearing a tubular, five-divided corolla.
flower are brown, and the corolla
a yellowish beard.
is
The stem and
fringed inside with
Another broom-rape
root (^ConophoUs Americana), found
stem
arises,
is
among
the squawfallen
oak
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
104
leaves.
a thick, scaly stem, half a foot high,
It is
with a cone-like flower, yellowish or brown.
tanical
name denotes
150 species,
One grows on
Another
is
on roots of trees and shrubs.
parasitic
all
of
roots
The bo-
This family contains
cone-scales.
the
furze,
hemp and
destructive to
two feet high.
tobacco.
In the woods, and not far from the beech -drops, a
bunch
of Indian -pipe or corpse -plant grew.
botany
it is
a
name taken from
the bending of the flower at the sum-
mit of the stem.
It is
look at or handle, and
plucked.
It is
and bear seed
it
not a pleasant thing either to
quickly turns black after being
suggestive of
no other flowering
only at
In the
a monotropa, meaning turned to one side,
plant,
at all
first parasitic,
in death, as almost
life
and that
it
should blossom
seems anomalous.
It is, in fact,
afterwards saprophytic, subsisting
on decomposing vegetable mould. There are ten known
species of monotropa found in our
The
ern latitudes.
other mentioned in Gray's Manual.
may
own and more
pine-sap (hypopithys)
is
north-
the only
The name pine-sap
indicate its resinous fragrance, or
its habitat,
the
pine woods.
The
lack of green color
and of leaves proper
in
these and similar plants indicates that they obtain their
food already assimilated by other plants.
therefore, no
of their own.
The
not perform the
sitic plants are
food.
They
have,
need of chlorophyl or digestive organs
scales are abortive leaves,
office
of true
leaves.
and do
Some
para-
green, and they assimilate part of their
Such a family
is
the Loranthacese, to which mis-
PARASITIC PLANTS
tletoes
They may be
belong.
planted in the
As
soil.
out rootlets which
in tbe
their stems
cling
to
some
bark, enter its vascular tissues, and
attached as
if
forest trees
105
first
tree, penetrate
become
they were scions of the host.
—
its
as firmly
Fruit and
apple, pear,
elm, maple, etc.
— are
tacked by
mistletoes.
the
instance
grow they throw
at-
The Lombardy poplar
alone
seems to be exempt.
The
mistletoe so largely sold at
Christmas -time in England
is
supplied principally from
the apple -orchards of Nor-
mandy.
The
species
is
an
evergreen-bush, thickly cov-
ered with light green spat-
upon
The clustered
yellow flowers come out in
ulate leaves in pairs
the
stem.
February or March, and the
whitish fruit ripens late the
next autumn.
The
berries
MISTLETOE
are filled with a viscid pulp,
from which bird-lime
rived.
By a
de-
curious sort of fatality, birds are tbe prop-
agators of the seed.
sticky bills
is
— (Viscum Album)
They
and wipe
their
trees, leaving a
seed
eat the berries
upon the branches of
or two to germinate in the bark.
tures slowly, seldom dying
till
The
mistletoe ma-
the host plant dies.
It
BOTANY AS A EECEBATION
106
does not greatly interfere with the prosperity of the
which
trees
it
Should a branch upon which
attacks.
has fastened decay,
it will
it
throw out adventitious shoots
some other part of the tree, and renew its hold.
The mistletoe growing upon the oak was esteemed sato
cred by the ancient Druids,
who
a golden hook, and dropped
it
by a
priest dressed in white.
God
for prosperity, after which
sacrificed
toe
The
first
and tan means twig.
in
leaves.
New
ing trees.
were
bulls
may have
when the
There
is
reference
berries are ripe,
an American species
Jersey and south, with larger and thicker
It is
slender and
two white
In Anglo-Saxon mistle-
syllable
to the fog of the late autumn,
found
Prayers were offered to
under the mistletoe.
misteltan.
is
cut off a branch with
into a white sheet held
the phoradendron.
brown
Its
Still
another, very
or yellowish, creeps over cone-bear-
name, arcenthobium, means "life of the
juniper."
A very
common
plant
may be found
climbing around
low shrubbery called gold-thread or golden-hair.
is
It
the wholly parasitic dodder [Cuscuta), a sub-order
of the convolvulus family,
and thus akin to the morn-
The
ing-glory and sweet -potato.
vicious character of
this plant is evident
from
yledons, the seed
a coiled thread wrapped in albu-
men.
It is
is
first
its
soil,
looking, even
neighbor, nodding as
let it join
and
lifts
its
leaves of any other plant.
then innocent enough
Once
Instead of cot-
infancy.
dropped into the
above, like the
towards
its
hands,
its
if
when
it
head
It is
bends
in friendly greeting.
grasp cannot be shaken
off.
PARASITIC PLANTS
Greedy suckers
will spring
from
tlie
lO'?
golden stem, bury
themselves deep in the tissues of the host, and draw into
themselves the sap, the life-blood, which
another's.
thrown
its
host
off.
—
Then the part near the soil
The dodder inflicts double
often, in fact, causing its death
by right
and is
injury upon
is
dies,
— by twining
tightly about its stems, crushing its tender bark,
and
interfering with the proper development of leaves.
I
have seen blackberry -bushes, the jewel -weed, alders,
golden-rods, meadow-sweets, almost anything and everything,
wrapped
in a wild tangle of dodder.
Through
the glass the yellow stems, fat and greasy, look like
caterpillars,
One
and the suckers easily resemble the
species is very injurious to
One
stroys clover -fields.
twists
its
feet.
and another de-
flax,
stems into ropes,
and bears flowers encircled with curly
bracts.
The sucker -like roots of parasitic plants are called
They are clusters of hair-like roots, devoid
haustoria.
It is by means
of root-caps, thickened at their ends.
of such haustoria that the poison-ivy clings to
its
sup-
ports.
A large
order, containing twenty-four species,^ mostly
tropical, is the Cytinacese.
sile flower, or, as in
A scaly stem bears a single ses-
the case of Rafflesia Arnoldi, a single
flower seems to burst from the bark of the host plant.
This giant flower is found in Sumatra, on a species of
Vitis.
like a
First a
knob
is seen,
head of cabbage.
measures nine feet
which grows and opens
When
fully
grown,
around, and weighs
After a few days a strong putrid smell
is
fifteen
it
often
pounds.
emitted, which
!
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
108
Scarcely a
attracts insects, to assist in its fertilization.
would think, for a herbarium
desirable specimen, one
Many
beautiful plants are root-parasitic,
which give
no external evidence of such a character.
Thus, the
handsome foxgloves and gay purple gerardias are more
Does this
or less parasitic on roots of small shrubs.
fact explain why foxgloves, flowers and all, turn black
when
dried
Certainly a concealed parasitism
?
the open
repulsive than
makes.
There
is less
which the cuscuta
display
no more beautiful flower than the
is
slender gerardia, dotting the fields with
or the seaside-gerardias, as I found
end of Long Island, growing
in
its
purple bells,
them near the eastern
masses of rose
color.
There are other genera of the figwort family which
are suspected of being parasitic.
Haustoria are often
found upon the roots of melampyrum and pedicularis.
The melampyrum,
woods.
It is
a
or
cow - wheat, frequents
stiff plant,
branched and
all
our
leafy, the up-
per leaves toothed at the base, those nearest the flower
scarcely distinguishable
from the greenish, yellowish
corolla.
Pedicularis, the wood-betony,
is
mint.
It bears a spike of yellow
and
leaves are deeply
its
often mistaken for a
and purple
and irregularly
flowers,
cut.
The eyebright (Euphrasia),
grasses,
parasitic on roots of
and the yellow -rattle (Rhinanthus), are less
known.
Both
rior.
All
found in northern
and along the shores of Lake Supe-
are Alpine flowers,
New Hampshire
attempts to
cultivate
unless artificial food be provided.
such plants will
fail
PARASITIC PLANTS
109
All the parasites, except a few algse and the fungi,
are either monopetalous or apetalous,
the dicotyledonous division.
to be non-parasitic.
Many
and belong to
All monocotyledons seem
parasites
grow
indifferently
on one or another host, while some are confined to but
one tree or shrub.
The
parasitic
well known.
and hurtful nature of many fungi
The near approach
is
of the practical sci-
ence of medicine to that of botany has been empha-
by the coming of Asiatic cholera to our very door.
The words "bacilli" and "bacteria" have a familiar
sound. While it does seem as if the vegetable and ansized
imal world could dispense with hurtful parasites and
be none the worse
off,
yet
we
set aside the utilitarian theory
are not quite ready to
and declare that they
At any rate, they form an interesting
study, whose pursuit may well become one of
have no use.
subject of
the recreations
of the botanist.
A
few
fungi will be given in a separate chapter.
facts about
IX
AQUATIC PLANTS
—
—
Eriocaulon Septangulare
"Trout-ponds"
A Wet-meadow
Bouquet Buttercups, Cardinal Flower, and Other Plants Grow-
Tlie
—
ing in
Wet
—Finding a New Species
Places
By making a slight detour on the road from BridgeLampton to Sag Harbor, one may leave the sandy road,
and find shade, coolness, and a hospitable welcome at
the " Trout-ponds."
The owner of this place and his
wife have taken advantage of the natural beauty of the
spot,
and touched
it
up with
wild-flowers, moss, stumps,
stones, rustic bridges, climbing plants, baskets of trail-
ing vines, ferns, shrubs, and great trees.
Most of the
and the water were originally there, but the work
of adornment has been done con amore and with taste.
trees
It
was here that
I
noticed unfamiliar white dots on
the surface of one of the ponds.
diminutive onion-blossoms.
daisy, but in the
worts.
My
The
Manual they are
species
They looked like
name was waterknown only as pipe-
local
had a seven -angled flower -scape,
and bore the name of Eriocaulon septangulare.
The
family of pipeworts belongs mostly to the tropics, but
is
represented here by three genera.
They grow,
all
but one or two species, in water, side by side with
graceful confervje.
The roots
are fibrous, easily pulled
AQUATIC PLANTS
111
out of the soft mud.
Tlie leaves are radical, linear,
composed of
whose walls can be seen with
soft cells
The small
the unaided eye.
flowers are collected in
The
close heads with woolly bracts.
contain
stamens, the outer,
form a tight
pistils,
button, one-tenth of an inch in diam-
little
They cannot bjoom under
eter.
water, and
quently will stretch their necks, six feet
They
reach the surface.
little
plants, well
aquatics.
still
central flowers
and together they
are curious
if
conse-
necessary, to
and interesting
worthy of our attention, as are most
The borders of running streams, or ponds of
or swampy meadows, are the botanist's
water,
hunting-grounds.
ered in one wet
variety
and
Here
is
meadow
a bouquet which I have gath-
in
mid-summer, and which, for
delicacy, cannot be rivalled
:
blue forget-
me-nots, yellow and white buttercups, water-cress, the
marsh-pennywort, northern starwort, seed-box, swamploosestrife,
marsh
-
bellflower, water -avens, pimpernel,
bugle-weed, galium, Scutellaria, marsh-speedwell
farther up, on drier ground, the field
Turk's-cap and yellow (Canadense)
(CEnothera frubticosa).
flowers,
The
while
;
was radiant with
lilies,
and sundrops
small aquatics are retiring
and love to hide behind moss-clumps and
weeds, and they need
tall
coaxing to show themselves.
The plants of dark, dank swamps are larger, and grow
more boldly, since they have less to fear, their surroundings being their protection.
The
true forge1>me-not [Myosotis palustris)
appointing in our country, because
it is
to drop its yellow -eyed blue petals
is
dis-
in such a hurry
and form
fruit.
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
112
Consequently, only a few topmost blossoms are found
on a long panicle of pods. The European species is
and more leisurely, and is the flower, probably,
larger
which has inspired poetic
Many
buttercups are
whole family
is
fervor.
aquatics.
The name
Ranunculus, the Latin for
of the
little
frog,
and was applied by Pliny. The common water- crowIts leaves grow under water,
foot is white and small.
their finely-cut divisions floating like sea-weeds, and,
like
them, collapsing when taken out.
Such leaves
found on many aquatics, and they present a larger
face to the water than undivided leaves.
A
cies is the stifE water-crowfoot, the leaves of
tain their
form out of water.
The
are
sur-
rarer spe-
which
re-
largest is the yellow
water-crowfoot, whose petals are equal in size to those
of our
common
prettiest is
roots
land species, the bulbosus.
One
of the
the creeping spearwort, which sends out
from the
joints of its thread-like stems.
The
leaves of the seaside-crowfoot are heart-shaped, and
it
throws out runners for the propagation of new plants.
Nearly
soil.
all
of our indigenous buttercups prefer wet
The common
terrestrial species
from Europe, and on account of
are not
liked
passed by, and
left to
juices
by
cattle.
ripen seed.
are immigrants
their acrid, blistering
They
are
therefore
This immunity from
one of the commonest means of destruction enables
them to gain ground rapidly in their adopted country,
and they are becoming a noxious weed. When cut
with hay and dried the harmful character of the leaves
and stems disappears.
!
113
AQUATIC PLANTS
One
of the prettiest of leaves belongs to the marsh-
pennywort (^ycirocoiy^e).
ney-shaped,
The blossoms,
ivy.
It is
clustered
crenately-lobed, kid-
Some
and glossy.
thin,
in the
call
it
water-
leaf -axils, are
minute, and, moreover, they belong to that exasperating
family of Parsleys which must be studied with a strong
microscope, since
by the
it is
fruit
(two small dry car-
pels in each flower) that the species is determined.
There are other aquatics besides the pennywort in this
family, some, as
the
water
-
parsnips, very poisonous.
The poison-hemlock (Conium) furnished the fatal cup
which Socrates was condemned to drink.
The marsh St. Johnswort is one of the prettiest of
the family, and the only one which bears pink blossoms.
All the rest are yellow.
by
their
The
They may be known,
besides,
dark or light dotted leaves and red pods.
rural farmer says that a white-nosed horse cannot
eat the
common
Johnswort without having a sore
St.
nose, but that a horse with a nose of any other color
is
not unpleasantly afEected
The water-avens
Its flowers
pistils,
ripe,
whose
and
is
a near relative of the strawberry.
have several feathered, hooked, and jointed
remain attached to the seeds when
styles
float
them
wind
in the
far
from the parent
plant.
In the purple water-avens the calyx and corolla are
purple.
high.
It
is
a plant
The lower
stem three-lobed.
fruit.
stiff
leaves are
The
and rather
much
tall,
two feet
divided, those on the
flowers nod, but straighten in
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
114
The marsh-bellflower (^Campanula asparinoides) and
(G. trifidum) eacli have weak stems with
hooks turning backward, making a rough stem. They
galium
are not quite so savage as the arrov^-leaved tear-thumb,
a buckwheat (^Polygonum sagittatum) whose stem -angles are
saws, and leave a painful scratch
veritable
on the careless hand which gathers
flower
there on the slender stems,
bell
The
it.
bell-
and
white, exceedingly delicate, scattered here
is
the
of
mountains.
whorls of four or
much
like the blue hare-
The galium has
six, \yith
leaves
in
a small white corolla of
three or four petals.
Two
of our wet-
bugle-weed and
meadow bouquet
are mints
Scutellaria, or skull-cap.
the Mint family
is
The
— the
fruit of
four naked nutlets, which can be
seen lying snugly in their calyx bed, with the style of
the pistil standing in the centre.
skull-cap, is covered
which
shaped
is
like a
the corolla of a snap-dragon
Two
is it
If
?
lip.
if
much the larger
The flowers
wet-place bouquet.
Why
the
lid of
It will
open
like
pressed in from the
species [S. lateriflora and S. galericulata),
the latter with
poetry
fruit, in
hood with a raised crown, and
which shuts down on the lower
sides.
This
by a curious calyx, the upper
flowers, belong to our
are blue.
that the cardinal-flower has not crept into
Burns could wax eloquent over that " wee,
modest, crimson - tipped flower," the mountain
-
daisy,
one would suppose some lover of flowers would immortalize in
cardinal
song this regal creature of the river-banks, the
-
flower.
It
is
not chary of
its
flowers, but
AQUATIC PLANTS
blooms a whole great panicle
rich red
all
The
at
all
once, with such
they are almost dazzling to
velvety petals
look into.
115
cardinal -flower is a Lobelia, and, like
of its family, has an irregular, monopetalous corolla,
split
down upon
through this
The
the upper side.
split,
and
pistil
protrudes
rubbed against by the pollen-
is
laden insect coming from another flower.
perhaps,
is its
Near by,
cousin, the great blue lobelia, three or
four feet high.
a coarser and more plebeian
It is
plant, not so neatly
and compactly
built,
but
is
showy,
with corollas one inch long.
A
taken for a
the stem.
of
its
sea- weed,
It is
often be seen growing on
running water.
in shallow
with
its
may
be
the river-weed, the only representative
The arrow-shaped
aquatics.
with such leaves
gittaria.
ration.
leaf
seems
:
the blue pickerel-weed and the Sag-
The first is a showy flower of ephemeral duThe ovary contains
The anthers are blue.
cells,
two of which are empty
Sagittaria
the quality of the water which
it
be a favorite with
to
There are two very common plants
hanging ovule grows.
seen
It
forked leaves sheathing
family in our country.
some
three
may
dull green plant
loose stones
;
in the third a single
is
not particular as to
it
inhabits.
growing luxuriantly beside the
I have
railroad, in stag-
nant pools which were originally made by digging out
the sides and throwing the dirt into the middle to elevate the track.
true
Some
of the species are destitute of
leaf -blades, possessing
called phyllodia.
only
Such apparent
expanded petioles
leaf-blades stand with
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
116
their edges instead of their flat surfaces looking up-
ward and downward.
The water
root -leaves
-
[Alisma planiago) has broad
plantain
with
prominent
The small white
plantain.
panicles
fruit the
the
like
ribs,
common
flowers are borne in loose
upon branches whorled around the stem. In
many ovaries are arranged in a ring upon a
flattened receptacle,
much
like the
Mallow family.
Speaking of mallows, we must not omit a mention
of that
showy flower which
August turns the
in
salt-
marshes around Newark into gardens of rosy bloom.
It is the
rich
Hibiscus Moscheutos, beautiful for
color,
and free bloom.
Confectionery
from the mucilaginous roots of marsh-mallow
officinalis),
its
is
size,
made
{^Althcea
a perennial also inhabiting salt or brackish
marshes.
Sweet-flag, arum,
Arum
family.
If
and skunk - cabbage belong to the
one should hunt for the large coarse
leaves of the skunk-cabbage late in
puzzled to find no trace of them.
fall,
he would be
Instead there would
be an ugly, foul-smelling oval mass of seeds, as large as
a lemon, enclosed in the fleshy spadix, whose coat
black and rough.
This
to a thick curved stem,
next year's
and
leaf.
evil
-looking fruit
and near by
When
first
I
is
attached
the beginning of
is
saw
is
this
black mass,
had pulled it apart with a pair of sticks, I
thought I had discovered a new and wicked fungus.
Bur-reeds and cat-tails are so common as to need no
until I
description.
The ordinary
cat -tails,
which form a
large part of the luggage of home-returning city board-
AQDATIC PLANTS
have
ers
and broad
flat
117
A
leaves,
smaller and rarer
species produces narrow leaves, and a looser spike of
hairy fruit.
The Pond -weed
the
common
To
a member.
a rather large family, of which
is
eel-grass
which grows
in salt-water
find the flowers of eel-grass,
pull ofi one of the long grass-like leaves
which
it
sheathes.
and
Like
from the stem,
and stamens, without
sessile, in alternate
this, in
wanting,
stamens and
peri-
rows.
the fact that
all
floral
envelopes are
the lizard's - tail, a marsh perennial.
is
is
There, growing on one side of a
linear spadix, are the pistils
anth,
bays
you must
pistils are white,
and make a
Its
pretty, long,
nodding spike, over which shake the protruding hairy
filaments of the pistils.
The
Iris
family, with its equitant
leaves, is
represented by cultivated than wild flowers.
and
gladioli
belong here
white flower-de-luces.
;
also
the blue, yellow, and
The wild -iris, with
light-blue flowers, is deservedly a favorite.
six species,
They
two of which are common about
slender blue -flag (Z Virginica).
A
The
pretty
New
York.
and the
leaves of the
wider than grass leaves.
very striking and pretty
member
of this family
the Pardanthus, a Chinese importation.
it
its
There are
are the larger blue -flag (/. versicolor),
latter are scarcely
better
Crocuses
on road-sides wet with springs.
I
is
have found
The name means
leopard -flower, suggested by the red and yellow
lily-
From
the
like perianth,
mottled with purple spots.
resemblance of the fruit
—numerous black seeds
cover-
;
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
118
ing a central column
name
—
to a blackberry, the
common
is blackberry-lily.
Among
marsh - rosemary
the
plants
sea-side
favorite for winter vases.
bears lavender
It
-
a
is
colored
blossoms, loosely spiked on one side of bushy woody-
The
stemmed branches.
brown and
corolla remains,
scarious, after the plant is plucked
This chapter shall end, as
it
and dried.
began, with reference to
Long Island.
I was spending a
when a friend told me of a lovely pink
the flora of eastern
vacation there,
flower (sometimes white) found in one locality only.
" I don't
tell
everybody about
"people would soon pull
exterminate
it.
It
fashioned moss-pink.
and seen
it
in
it
it,"
my
said
low, something like
is
For ten years
only in that one
friend
such quantities as to
field,
I
the old-
have been here,
which
covers like
it
a carpet."
An
afternoon was set aside for a ride to this place.
Past quaint old windmills and graveyards, along the
almost historic road to Southampton we drove, with the
sight and sound of the sea ever growing nearer.
length
we turned from the main road and took
At
a lonely
way, crossing one of the arms of the ocean, stopping
behind a sand-dune which hid the view but not the
grand sound of the
surf.
There was the
with low - growing dainty blossoms.
It
field,
pink
might have
been an acre, covered so thickly we could scarcely walk
without stepping on them.
like,
and yet unlike, the
Jersey coast.
The
The
taller
latter,
flower was a Sabbatia,
one
common on
the
perhaps twenty inches
New
tall, is
AQUATIC PLANTS
a slenderer annual with
Long
119
The
more branching stems.
Island species, the tallest of which reached five
had thick stems. The centrp of the pink corolla
was yellow, and the blossom, spread flat open on the
end of its stalk, had a peculiar frank and confiding
inches,
look.
face.
Some
My
flowers, like people, look
you
fall in
the
friend's flower is probably a variety of either
Sabbatia gracilis or
S. stellaris
species) of the Gentian family.
recognition as a separate species.
the virtuous feeling that
we were
(two nearly- related
It
almost deserves
We went home
with
possible discoverers, a
satisfaction that could hardly have
been more unal-
loyed had we stumbled across a gold-mine.
X
THE CONE-BEARERS
Cedars
—Cones—Naked
— " Big Trees " of—Californiaof—Lebanon
Pines — The Gingko
The Forest of While-pine
Seeds
Few
spots on earth are more attractive than forests
of white-pine.
Before the lumber-pirate, with his keen
scent for pine planks, had discovered the spot, a grove
bank of a
of these majestic trees stood on the
many hours
my early Connecticut home.
have spent
there comforted and delighted.
Glimpses
of the lake shone through the trees.
and
pictu-
I
resque lake in
straight, their
trunks
nearly
These rose
tall
branchless below,
weaving their top branches together so that the sunlight
was almost forbidden to
enter.
Some
stray
beams
upon a noisy brook that was always hurrying
.The sounds
It was a lonely place.
to reach the lake.
were those of far-away birds, the brook, and the stir of
did
fall
the pine-needles.
Is
it
because the needles are so
many
and the pine grove is an orchestra of harps,
that the wind playing on them produces a sound so different from the sighing of beech or oak or maple leaves ?
tiny strings,
The music
of the pines
is
the
most exquisitely tuneful
and mournful which the varied voices of nature express.
THE CONB-BEAREBS
121
Near the brook grew the large leaves of wild-turnip
and skunk -cabbage. Jack-in-the-pulpits shook tbeir
saucy heads, and here and there, elegant and
stately,
A
further
stood the "stemless" pink lady's -slipper.
search revealed in shy corners the small yellow lady'sslipper,
I
an orchid not so
have found nowhere
fringed ends of
its
rare,
else.
fruit,
but which, as
The " Hartford
it
happens,
fern," with
ran rank over the place, and
dark blue violets nestled in
its
The yellow
making a soft carmight covet.
twinings.
fallen pine-needles lay inches deep,
pet which the finest hotel parlors
It
was always clean
in
my grove. The low shrubbery,
brambles, and such things, which
litter
the
common
woods, were cleaned out, one might fancy, by fairy
house - keepers.
Little spiders
and ants were indeed
busy around the trunks of the trees, but except the
ferns and small green leaves shining through the gold-
en needles, there was no plebeian growth, nothing to
soil
your dress as you
ground.
sweet.
And
The
sat,
upon the
was resinous, spicy,
or lay full length
then the smell
!
It
royal poet of Israel likened the smell of
the garments of his beloved to "the smell of Lebanon."
Was
it
not a delicate compliment
?
The fragrance sug-
gested was from those cousins of the pines, the mighty
" cedars of Lebanon," some of which are still standing.
grove, distinctively called " Solomon's grove,"
num-
bers about four hundred trees, several of which
may
One
date from that king's time.
The most
of
them
are of
more recent growth. The missionary Rev. Henry H.
Jessup found by actual exploration " eleven distinct
122
BOTANY AS A RECREATION'
Mount Lebanon, two
groves of cedar on
great size, and numbering thousands of
trunk of this cedar rises sometimes many
of
them of
The
trees."
feet without
CEDAE OF LEBANON
branches, and then sends out long, crooked, horizontal
branches, thickly leaved at the
ends.
The cone
is
smooth and tapering.
The pines and
apetalous
division
their allies
of
form a sub-class of the
flowering plants.
The
flowers
—
THE CONE -BEARERS
bear
little
123
resemblance to ordinary flowers, being com-
posed of two sorts of catkins, one bearing stamens, the
other not pistils or closed ovaries, bnt naked seeds protected
by
These
scales.
are the cones.
scales, at first soft,
then hard,
Because the seeds are naked, and the
upon them from slits in the anthers
of style and stigma, this class of
botanical language Gymnospermse
pollen falls directly
without the
plants
is
medium
called in
naked-seeded.
bricated, like
The
scales of the cones are spirally im-
shingles on a roof, around the central
CEPAR- CONES
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
124
Eacli scale bears one or
axis.
near
The
base.
its
two seeds on tte inside
catkins of stamens
grow around
bases of newly forming branches just above the cones.
When
the anthers are ruptured, the wind blows the
abundant pollen everywhere through the
it
falling
upon the cones
just below.
forest, part of
As soon
as the
seeds are fertilized, the protecting scales close upon each
When
other.
ripe the scales fall away, and the seeds,
with part of the scale
-
lining attached as a wing, are
away by the wind. This is really a
very simple process, and would indicate that the cone-
torn off and blown
bearers are lower in rank than the flowering plants,
which produce more complicated stamens and
This
is true,
and large areas of pines and
firs
pistils-
covered
the earth before the advent of a violet or primrose.
Our
familiar species
pitch,
scrub,
etc.),
larches, arbor -vitae,
yews
many
include
spruces,
firs,
pines
The junipers and
The former bear what
and cypresses.
are not true cone-bearers.
resemble blue berries, and the latter red.
crescence
is
A
tiny ex-
appears upon the end of a stem.
first
the naked ovule, and after
disk
(yellow,
hemlocks, balsams,
produced
it
at its base
scales), gradually thickening,
veloping the seed.
At
It is
has been fertilized a small
(really a coalescence of
growing upward and en-
length this envelope closes quite
over the seed, as the fleshy part of a cherry surrounds
the
pit.
The cones
and
scale
of true cone-bearers vary greatly in size
prettiness.
That of the pitch-pine
tipped with a repellent
is
bristle, as
coarse, each
becomes the
GROUP OF
SEQLroiAS, OF ALL
AGES
THE CONE -BEARERS
fruit of so
gaunt and grim a
1^7
The spruce-hemlock
tree.
bears tiny cones, hanging like bells on the ends of
its
branches.
The
sequoias, the
largest
known, singularly
trees
enough, bear cones as small as apples, and round in
shape.
There are more than twenty groves of these
California " big trees," those of the Mariposa and Yo-
semite regions being the most famous.
The
largest,
"the prostrate monarch," fell probably 150 years
ago, and is 400 feet long, with a trunk diameter, incalled
cluding the bark, of 40 feet.
known
Next
These
trees are too well
to need description.
in size to the sequoias are the sugar or giant
pines of California.
They
rise to
a height of 200 feet,
with a thickness of 20 or 30 feet in the trunk.
cones are 18 inches long and four in diameter.
The
Indians
pounded and baked.
up on the Sierras, grow
the red-cedars to an enormous height.
Seeds from the
eat the seeds
Along the
cones of
all
Pacific coast, high
these California trees are being planted in
the Eastern States, in our city parks, and in England,
where there
will
is
is
now
a craze for cone-bearing trees.
be interesting to note the
It
result.
Our most important as well as most beautiful species
the white-pine.
The slender leaves grow five in a
cluster.
Those of other pines are
The needles
color.
The
of
in pairs or threes.
the white-pine are
trunks,
smooth for
a bluish-green in
pines,
rise
branches from 120 to 160 feet in height.
without
But, alas!
the beautiful straight planks, almost free from resin,
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
128
which these trunks
and our country
tempt the commercial axe,
being denuded of its famous
afford,
is fast
pines.
The
finest pine of the
Southern States
pine, also a tree of large growth.
after for flooring
The trunks
the Georgia
much sought
and ship-building.
all
these trees are
more or
less resin-
Tar, turpentine, and similar products are obtained
ous.
The process
from them.
when
of
is
It is
it
is
ruinous to the tree, which,
ceases to produce resin, is cut
Pieces of bark are torn
or trough
is
down
down
for timber.
the trunk, and a groove
cut across the wound, into which the
gum
flows.
Since
many
pines love sandy
soils,
they are useful in
The Pinus
planted on the Bay of Biscay
holding together drift-sands.
pinaster has
been largely
in order that
its far
-
reaching, interlacing roots
dunes in place.
Its peculiar
curving upward, enables
Many
it
hold the sand
also,
the branches
to withstand the sea gales.
species take kindly to transplanting, and
are familiar in our parks with
evergreens.
The gingko
so singular a tree, with
it
would seem
the gymnosperms.
Its
we
European and Australian
Norway spruces and pines
is
striated leaves,
among
may
shape
its
to belong
seed
is,
are favorites.
broad, leathery,
anywhere but
however, naked,
developed terminally upon small peduncles, like the
yews,
among which
Nearly
all
it is classified.
are evergreens,
shading to the forests
in
and form a beautiful dark
any season.
In spring,
when
the young branchlets appear on the tips of the dark
THE CONE-BEAEERS
129
green bonghs, no trees can boast of more beauty than
the hemlocks, spruces,
Travellers
wio have
firs,
and cedars.
famous gardens in Europe
by cutting and training, this
assume fantastic shapes of tow-
visited
recall with pleasure hovf,
class of trees is
made
ers, arches, bridges,
to
statues, ruined castles, etc.
The
possibilities of evergreens in this direction arc begin-
ning to be understood by Americans,
are learning
seek for
it
'
how
to cultivate beauty at
abroad.
.Jrv^.'j«*si^
HUSH YKWS
9
many
home
of
whom
as well as
C
Horse-tails.
Ferns.
Adder's-tongues.
Club-mosses, or
("Vascular C, or
Acrogens, or
.;
Pteriodophytes
Lycopodiums.
Selaginellaj, including
Isoetes or Quillworts.
MarsileaceEE.
AzoUa.
Cryptogams
'
Cellular C.
or
Musci f rondosi,
or mosses
Jungermanniacese,
proper.
or Scale-mosses.
Marchanti-
I
LBryophytes
Hepaticse
acea!
RicciaceiE
"
(
Alg».
Thallophytes < Lichens.
( Fungi.
thallose.
XI
FLOWERLESS PLANTS
.
They Grow Everywhere
—
—
Meaning of Cryptogam Cellular Arrangement Difference Between Lower Orders of Animal and
Vegetable Kingdoms Harmful Plants Vascular Cryptogams
Horse-tails and their Allies
—
—
—
The
est
—
which bear no true flowers form the largsome respects the most interesting part of
plants
and
in
the vegetable kingdom.
To
the lover of the microscope
They grow
they afEord an unfailing pleasure.
every-
where, in city and country, in wet and dry places, in the
hottest and the coldest climates,
and possess this admany of them can
vantage over our garden plants, that
be studied in winter. First in order of existence, they
prepared the way, by making moulds and soil, for higher
orders of plants to grow.
life
of
man
They
also
made
the present
possible by creating great beds of peat and
coal for his use.
Even now, when the
vast forest trees
of the coal measures have dwindled to rush-like and
trailing representatives, this
useful.
is
They
lowly order of plants
cover bare rocks with verdure.
No
is
place
so bleak, so exposed, so visited with storms and tem-
pests that a
moss or lichen cannot grow
there.
Within
a thousand feet of the snow-line, on the fearful peaks
of the Himalayas and Andes, where no foot of
ever has been
or ever will tread,
where
it is
man
ever lonely,
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
132
save as the wild condor or eagle looks
there
some
upon
it
;
even
of these humble plants grow, cause rocks to
soil, and do their assigned part in the
economy of nature. By the interlacing of their
numerous roots they form a spongy soil which retains
crumble, form
vast
moisture and prevents inundations.
Mr. Ruskin says of the mosses and lichens
worm
fading as motionless, the
autumn wastes
Strong
not.
blanch in heat nor pine in
constanthearted,
is
in
frost.
frets
them
:
"
Un-
and the
not,
lowliness, they neither
To them, slow-fingered,
intrusted the weaving of the dark,
eternal tapestries of the hills; to them, slow-pencilled,
iris
dyed, the tender framing of their endless imagery.
Sharing the
share also
stillness of the
its
endurance
;
unimpassioned rock, they
and while the winds of
de-
parting spring scatter the white hawthorn blossoms like
drifted snow, and
the drooping of
summer duns
its
mountains, the silver lichen spot
stone,
and the gathering orange
yonder western peak
meadow
among the
in the parched
cowslip gold, far above,
rests, starlike,
stain
on the
upon the edge
reflects the sunset of a
of
thousand
years."
The term Cryptogamic was employed by Linnaeus,
meaning hidden flowers that is, if there were in these
;
plants organs answering to stamens and pistils, he was
unable to find them.
Since then, they have been found
but the very lowest orders, but the name, and its
English equivalent, "flowerless plants," is still retained;
in all
for the answering organs are truly hidden,
and their union
produces singular, for a long time unsuspected,
results.
FLOWERLESa PLANTS
133
would seem as
It
plants, the
behavior.
if the lower down we go among
more mysterious and complicated is their
Even when studied under powerful micro-
scopes,
it is difficult
story.
One thing
to grasp in detail their
apparent at
is
first
study,
wonderful
and that
is,
that the cellular arrangement is simpler, presenting none
of those " differentiated " cells which appear even in
the seed-embryo of the higher plant.
In the vascular division of Cryptogams there
is
a
framework of wood, formed of hardened cell-walls in
the cellular division, no such tough framework exists,
;
only a mass of cellular tissue, one
cell
adjoining another.
In such plants the sap does not circulate, but water
The protoplasm
passes freely through the cell-walls.
which
lines the cell-walls is like the
higher plants, and
from
air, soil,
is
protoplasm of the
manner
assimilated in the same
and water.
Since protoplasm forms the
tissues of animals as well as of plants, including the
lower orders of both,
it is
not surprising that the bound-
ary line separating the two kingdoms should be blurred
and
difficult to define.
There are plants that look
animals, and animals that look like plants.
like
Take the
anemone (animal) and the mesembryanthemum
Who can tell, from their out(vegetable) as examples.
sea
-
ward appearance, where each belongs
?
have no heads, nor legs, nor even stomachs.
eted to one
spot.
Many
animals
They
are riv-
Many vegetables are furnished with
cilia
which enable them to swim freely about, to sport and
caper, roll over and over, with every appearance of creatures at play.
Many have no
leaves, nor roots,
nor even
BOTA-Nr AS A KECREATION
134
green
cells.
How, then,
are
we
to
know where to assign
these lower orders of beings which approach so near
each other ? Except in the case of parasitic plants, there
VEGETABLE
is
one sure
test.
If the creature lives
on
assimilating the gases found therein,
since animals always feed
it
air
and water,
is
vegetable,
upon other animals
or plants.
For a long time the lowest orders of parasitic
plants,
such as those rod-like bodies called bacteria, were considered animal in their nature.
They
constitute the
great class of harmful plants which M. Pasteur and others
have patiently studied.
Through the extended
re-
FLOWEELESS PLANTS
135
searches of suet men, whose works and their results
we know many things for a cerknow many more, where once
The business of these
all was doubt and mystery.
The fungi, ferplants is to disintegrate and destroy.
ments, moulds, mi-
read like fairy
tainty,
and are
tales,
likely to
crobes, cause blight on
fruit, disease
and death
among animals and men.
After death they reduce
our bodies to decay.
Theirs
is
the mission to
bring back " dust to
dust."
Thus
disinte-
grated, animal life
be-
comes nourishment for
other plant life, which in
turn supports living animals.
Nothing
is lost.
Life and death are sy-
IIYDKOIDS (animal)
GKOWING ON A
SHELL
nonymous with change.
They follow each other
in an endless circle,
and
there
is
nothing
unchangeable but the soul of man.
The presence
of
wood among
the softer cellular
tis-
sues indicates that our plant belongs to the first great
This includes, accorddivision, Vascular Cryptogams.
ing to their rank, Equisetums, Filices or ferns, Adder'stongues, Lycopods or club-mosses, Selaginelto, includ-
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
136
ing Isoetes or quillworts, Marsileas, and the
Azolla.
Unlike mosses, most of these plants attain some size,
and stand erect, and need a tough framework to hold
them
firm.
They
are also called Pteriodophytes,
They
ing fern plants.
are Acrogens, a
mean-
word which
means that they grow by constant additions to their tips,
As
the diameters not enlarging.
the living tip
this is
is left
by
itself to
the
first
form a new
growth
dies,
plantlet,
and
one way of propagation.
Highest in rank are the horse-tails or scouring-rushes.
The
botanical
termination
name
of this family
is
Equisetacese.
acece cuts a large figure in botanical
The
nomen-
ip^
After separating
clature.
it
from most words, they
are
comparatively pronounceable, and indeed recognizable.
Remains of
coal-beds.
immense
among
horse-tails
With
twenty feet high are found in
Selaginellas forty or fifty feet high,
Sigillarias,
and large
ferns, these plants are
the oldest in the earth's history, and are found
in the upper beds of the
upper Silurian rocks,
in the
kqijISKtum— proKES ivinr klatkus
FLOWERLESS PLANTS
lower old red sandstone, in the
139
and
oolitic,
in the coal
formations.
In the coal era especially, from Arctic to
Antarctic Ocean, they covered the whole earth with
rant
forests.
Forming successive generations of
tan-
gled growth in great dismal swamps, these gigantic
and ferns were prostrated one after another, covmud and pressed by sea sand, till peat and
coal beds were stored away for the earth's latest era,
trees
ered with
when man should run
steamships by their
The stem
his factories, his railroads
and
aid.
of an Equisetum
is
made up
of hollow
reeds, jointed, grooved, each joint furnished with up-
right teeth, which clasp the stem like a sheath.
dren like to pull these sections apart, and see
neatly they
fit
into each other.
radiate branches
cuticle of the
which look
From some
how
of the joints
like finely-cut leaves.
stem contains numerous
Chil-
The
fine bits of silica,
which made some of them useful for scouring purposes
before the manufacture of sapolio.
stem the fructification
is
borne.
At the top of the
Several shield-shaped
bodies containing spore -cases are attached by short
stalks to the stem, like a cone.
When
ripe the spore-
cases split open and the spores escape.
from seeds
rise at
in that they are single cells,
Spores differ
and do not give
once to the succeeding fruitrbearing plant.
Fall-
ing upon the ground, a spore germinates a minute cellular expansion, called the prothallus.
Elaters, four hair-
formed by the
splitting of the outer coat,
are attached to the spores,
and are very susceptible to
moist they coil around
like bodies,
changes of moisture.
When
—
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
140
the spore
which
The
tions,
We
when dry they
;
starts the spore
horse-tails
and
its
spore-case.
their allies have
all
two genera-
one the prothallus, the other the spore-producing.
have about a dozen
twenty-five species.
Sweden
in
open, often with a jerk,
fly
from
The
it is
all
there are
E, maximum,
They
for fodder for horses.
The
banks of streams or marshes.
and when
In
varieties.
largest,
root
is
all
is
used
frequent
a root-stock,
They
cut gives rise to separate plants.
are therefore very difficult to exterminate.
Ferns, next in rank, will be the subject of a separate
chapter.
The Adder's-tongue family has two
representatives
Botrychium, or moonwort, and true Adder's-tongue.
They
common, found
are fern-like plants, not
woods, unlike ferns in that the
The
are not circinate, but erect.
spikes or panicles.
The
to find.
The spores
fruitage
;
is
borne on
is
developed under-
it is
therefore difiBcult
prothallus
ground, and has no green color
in rich
appearing fronds
first
are copious, yellow in color.
The
roots often bear starchy tubers.
Lycopods, or clttb-mosses, are those most used for
Christmas decorations.
Every one knows the ground-
pine and the running-pine.
The creeping stem sends up
The fer-
short branches, covered with scale-like leaves.
tile
stalks bear the
cones.
The
spore-bearing leaves arranged in
spore-cases are found at the base of the
leaves, as in conifers.
clam-shell,
The
cases split around like a
and drop the spores, which germinate an un-
derground prothallus of considerable
size.
FLOWERLESS PLANTS
One
141
of the Scotch coal-beds
entirely of the spores
is found to consist almost
and spore-cases of some Lycopod.
There are one hundred species (nine with us), some of
which delight in great heat, and some in cold. In New
Zealand they grow as large as small shrubs. They affect
bleak and exposed situations and many a rock or bare
;
hill-side
owes
its
tiniest species
Our
beauty to the humble Lycopod.
conservatories offer
pods and
The
grows in bogs with the Sphagnum moss.
Selaginellas.
some choice species of LycoThey make beautiful basket-
which even orchids need not blush to associate
Sometimes in a florist's the resurrection -plant
from Mexico may be seen. In the dry season this clubplants,
with.
moss rolls itself up into a dry ball, and is blown about
by the winds over the arid plains. Placed in water it
turn green, and spread out
will revive,
branches like
The spore-powder
If
you rub
it
of club-mosses cannot be wetted.
over your hand and thrust your hand into
water, no moisture can touch your skin.
son the powder-is used to cover
flammable, and
lightning.
in
is
It also
Selaginellaj
pills.
For this
It is
rea-
highly
used in theatres to produce
in-
artificial
makes a beautiful blue dye.
differ from the club-mosses
and Isoetes
one important particular.
spores, small
withertu
its
arbor-vitit?.
and
large.
The
They bear two kinds
latter,
of
macrospores, pro-
duce the prothallus which bears archegonia.
The
for-
mer, microspores, very numerous, send out the antherozoids which fertilize the archegonia, and develop the
second generation of the plant
life.
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
14 2
The most common
Selaginella is
^S".
rupestris,
not
over three inches high, running over dry rocks, grayish-
We have
green in color, looking like a moss.
only three
species.
The
it
Isoetes are so unlike Selaginellae in appearance,
seems strange that they should be classed together.
The common name
is
They
quill worts.
are aquatic,
often entirely under vpater.
They
leaves are thick at the base,
and taper sharply.
lie
are grass-like.
The
They
one over the other, like the layers of a corm or bulb.
The spores
are
found in the bases of the
leaves, the
macrospores in the outside leaves, the microspores on
the inner.
The
Marsileaa and the
ed in mud,
and small
small,
spores.
but
AzoUa
little
are aquatic plants, root-
known.
They bear
large
Marsilea quadrifolia might be mis-
taken for a four-leaved clover.
AzoUa looks
like a creeping
moss or
liverwort.
reddisb in hue, very delicate and pretty.
is
our only species.
It is
A. caroliniana
XII
FERNS
—
Spores Distinguished from Seeds Two Eras
Fern The Prothallus Sporophore Spores
Indusiuin
How to Distinguisii Ferns
—
—
—
—
Flowering
plants,
produce seeds.
pistils,
and contains within
in the
Life of a
—Sporangia—Sori
by the union of stamens and
The seed is the fertilized ovule,
itself, in
of the parent plant.
—
embryo, the exact likeness
This embryo, whether
it
be the
tiny dust of the mustard - seed or the large squash and
melon seeds, is composed of a stem, from the upper
part of which the bud springs
from the lower, the
root and one or two cotyledons.
The office of the cot;
yledons
This
is
is
to
provide nourishment for the plantlet.
and furnishes the starch and
called albumen,
meal of our cereal grains.
contains globules of
oil,
In some seeds the albumen
in others mucilage.
It is only within fifty years that spores
distinguished from seeds.
gle, cells.
They
have been
are simple, often sin-
The mystery connected with them gave
rise
to the superstition that the possessor of fernseed might
at will
"
become
We
Long
invisible.
have the
Shakespeare says,
receit of fernseed
;
we w^lke
invisible."
ago, in the carboniferous era, there were gigan-
tic ferns.
The
hot, moist,
marshy
forests
produced no
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
144
color or fragrance, only masses of green cryptogams
cone-bearing plants,
and stems
their fronds
the tree
-
fern
Australia and
Zealand
all
together at length laying
to
form our
coal-beds.
and
down
Perhaps
of
New
a sur-
is
vivor of that age.
some-
reaches
It
times
the
height
of eighty feet, and
produces broad
waving fronds,
the sum-
only at
These drop
mit.
off
year by year,
scars
leaving
the
ferns
are
on
Our
trunk.
small,
stems
mostly rootstocks, creeping
underground or
and
their
are
else over rocks
As
trees.
TKEE-FEKN
and
in the tree-fern, the
new
leaf is always at
the end of the stem, and dies annually.
time
is
Considerable
required to develop the leaves of some ferns.
In
one species {Aspidium filix-mas) they are two years in
forming before they
The
ferns
varieties,
we
unroll.
love best are the
small and delicate
with their wonderful forms of foliage.
The
—
FERNS
maidenhair dipping
145
its tresses in
the brook, the tangles
of shield-fern, Dicksonias, Woodsias, bordering the forest paths, standing late in
autumn, white and
fairy-like',
these are favorites with every one, unless perhaps those
to
whom
they are common.
Said a country farmer to his wife, after taking a party of city girls to drive " They said oh and ah and
:
went just wild over
!
!
—what do you think —a passel of
?
!"
brakes
The
leaf of a fern is a frond.
Its divisions are pinnse,
and subdivisions pinnules.
There are two eras in a fern's
frond which we
see,
upon
dust-like spores
part of
its life,
sporophore.
and
is
its
The
life.
(if fertile)
graceful
bears brown
back, represents the second
called the spore-bearing period
Previous to
cause so small,
The spore
and which
this,
and almost
invisible be-
the oophore, or germ-bearing plant.
is
upon a moist
falls
surface, like a flower-pot
or the wall of a greenhouse, and, by an expansion of
its
inner coat, produces a minute thing called a prothallus.
It is
green and membraneous, irregularly heart-shaped,
held fast by
little
root-hairs.
If the
green mould upon
the surface of the greenhouse pots be studied with a
microscope, one
may
be fortunate enough to discover
some of these prothalli developing the fern plantlet.
Near the notch of the prothallus, underneath it, soon
appear pistillidia, or archegonia, and antheridia. The
former are the organs to be fertilized, and are bottleshaped depressions in a thickened part of the prothallus,
each containing a nucleus or central
cell.
The
an-
DOTANY AS A RECEEATION
146
theridia are cellular excrescences,
which when swollen
with moisture burst, and set free, not pollen-grains, but
spirally-twisted self-moving bodies covered with hairs,
which
travel freely over a
penetrate the pistillidia.
er plants
wet surface,
till
Sometimes they
and produce hybrid
fern§,
they find and
travel to oth-
From
this gtrange
FERNS
union, which, after
mystery, the
thallus,
A
first
all
that has been learned, remains a
fern-leaf is developed
having performed
leaf
which
147
;
and the pro-
its office, dies.
unrolls, as
do most
fern-leaves, is circi-
The stem, or stipe, of the frond is variously colored brown or purple or black. It is frequently covered with soft silky brown chaff, adding greatly to its
nate.
—
beauty.
I
have found the Aspidium marginale with
velvety chaff an inch long.
The
spores are borne on the backs of fertile fronds,
end or on the side of the
at the
sules,
ness,
They
fertile vein.
collected in spore-cases, or sporangia.
are
These arc cap-
mostly stalked, made of walls one
cell in thick-
The
ring contracts
surrounded by a ring of
cells.
in drying, causing a rupture of the spore-case
tering of the spores.
True ferns open by a
Others are
the sporangium.
slit
and
slit
vertically, or
scat-
across
broken
into equal valves.
The sporangia
ters, called sori,
are collected in dots or lines or clus-
along the veins or margins of the
fertile
occupy the entire space,
crowding out the interspaces of the leaf, forming a continuous spike of fruitage. This is true of the sensitive-
fronds.
Sometimes the
sori
fern {Onoclea sensibilis) and moonworts (the botrychia).
The name of the latter is derived from a Greek word
meaning a bunch
The
sori are
of grapes.
sometimes naked, but more often are
indusium.
covered with part of the leaf called the
the lobe of
pedatum)
{Adianium
maidenhair
the
In
in^usiunJ.
the froncl is folded bac^warcls to form the
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
148
In the
common
brake (Pieris aquilina) the continuous
sporangia are covered with a very narrow reflexed edge
Generally the indusium
of the entire frond.
the epidermis, raised from the leaf, or
The Polypodium vulgare
is
a
it
stiff,
is
a part of
may be
a scale.
handsome fern
with large naked yellow fruit-dots on the upper pinnae
They can
of the fertile frond.
be studied easily with the aid
of the botany -glass,
and the
es-
caping spores can be seen.
In the Asplenia the fruit-dots
are long, covered
by indusia
at-
tached to the upper side of the
In one of these, the
veins.
Asplenium Filix fcemina, the
.
indusium crosses the vein and
assumes a horseshoe shape.
The Aspidia may be
recog-
nized by round fruit-dots, cov-
ered by an indusium fixed in
the centre and open
all
around,
or fixed on one side and kid-
ney
-
shaped.
The Dicksonias
have cup-shaped indusia.
One
ing
-
curious fern
leaf
phyllus),
(
is
the walk-
Camptosorus
rhizo-
whose slender frond
FERTILE FERN, OF COMMON
BRAKE, WITH SPORANGIA
tapers into a kind of runner,
which drops
to a
new
to
plant.
the earth, takes root, and gives rise
The indusia
are
mostly in pairs,
PERNS
forming crooked
]
49
uneven lengths, giving the
lines of
frond a singularly marked appearance.
fertile
There are two beautiful rock-ferns, with dark shiny
growing together. The delicate
stipes (asplenia), often
grow
leaves
in
where a
little
take root
in.
One
tufts,
in
of the smallest ferns
is
the Schizea pusilla.
fronds, scarcely an inch
sterile
and upon surfaces
enough for them to
crevices,
earth has lodged,
blades of grass.
The
tall,
fertile are three or
height, bearing about five pairs of
taining large ovoid sporangia.
four inches in
crowded
Owing
pinnae, con-
to its small size,
one must look sharply through the pine barrens of
Jersey to find
Many
New
it.
places are rich in
cut's hilly
Its
are like twisted
towns
I
fern's.
In one of Connecti-
have found twelve species.
New
Jersey boasts many, as do our rich woods everywhere.
Some
of the finest
and rank,
fit
grow along the Alleghanies, high
associates of the noble hemlocks in
whose
shade they luxuriate.
It is
quite as easy to study ferns as flowers.
The
student's microscope will answer every purpose for de-
termining the shape and position of
classification of the fern depends.
of ferns
is
sori,
And
on which the
the collection
an occupation possessing peculiar fascina-
and beauty of the pressed
and mounted specimens. Fortunately the craze for trimming picture-frames and filling winter-vases with dried
tion,
owing
to the perfectness
ferns and grasses has almost passed away, but not until
the graceful " Hartford fern," the
Lygodium palma-
150
turn,
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
has been nearly exterminated by thoughtless young
people,
it
who
pulled
in quantities,
City.
it is
it
up by the roots. Boys gathered
it on the streets of New York
and sold
From being abundant in Connecticut
now marked in the botany " rare."
pine-woods,
—
XIII
MOSSES AND LIVERWORTS
(BRYOPHYTES)
—
—
—
—
crospores — Interesting for Microscopic Study
Charm of Mosses Growth and Propagation The Protonema
GemmiE Peat -mosses Thallose and Leafy Liverworts Ma-
The second
great division of flowerless plants
of cellular cryptogams, or Bryophytes, a
mosses.
small,
woody frame
In these the
many
of
'
—
them
invisible to the
is
is
that
name meaning
Being
wanting.
naked eye, they do
not need a fibrous skeleton, and they are composed of
The mosses
cellular tissue alone.
division,
the
constitute one sub-
and include leaf-mosses (^Musci frondosi) and
hepatic
-
mosses
(
hepaticce
)
.
the second subdivision, including
Thallophytes form
algas,
lichens,
and
fungi.
It is difficult to define the
Whether
it
charm of these
little
plants.
consists in their delicate tints of red, gray,
brown, and green, whether in the graceful festoonery
with which they cover unsightly objects, stone
-
walls,
old ruins, bare rocks, whether in the fine pencillings of
their tiny leaves or their associations with the
beautiful spots in the woods, certain
it
is
most
that mosses
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
152
possess an attraction for us
from that of
over their beds of plush
and small ferns
To
we
;
sit
We
tread lightly
;
we
in miniature landscapes for
house
trailing vines is a
the vase of roses.
the botanist, mosses are a source of unfailing in-
Their manner of growth and propagation
terest.
different
from anything we have yet studied.
are sexual bodies, but the plant
them
own, very different
down among them
The moss-basket with
decorations.
rival to
their
and arrange them with partridgeberry
love to gather
vines
all
trees or flowers or ferns.
for
its
is
is
There
not dependent upon
new growths.
the scale of plant
life,
The lower we descend in
the more bountifully do we see
that Nature has provided for the preservation of her
humble
offspring, so that if
one means
fails to
continue
may be substituted.
there may be seen arising from
the species, another
In early spring
a bed
of moss, myriads of hair-like reddish stalks, each bearing
at its
apex a
cup, or urn, covered with a pointed
little
cap like the children's soldier-caps.
spores,
ripening, not only
lid,
or
by rows of
by both.
at the
Thus
by the
cap, but also
by a
it is
close-fitting
teeth, very susceptible to moisture, or
shielded, the
little
moss-plant
storm which uproots the forest giant.
lowliness
safe
may
In
When
are ripe, off goes the cap,
;
very
the spores, four in each
now
quite useless.
hygrometric teeth are even in number, and are
multiple of 4
laugh
its
from the lightning's shock and the
hurricane's overthrow.
cell,
The cnp contains
and they are protected from rain while they are
8, 16, 32,
or 64.
The
4, or
a
In sunshine they open,
MOSSBS AND LIVERWORTS
153
and dampness causes them to close.
By breathing
upon a moss capsule, one may see the teeth close.
Then if held in sunshine, or near a fire, they will ex-
When
pand with a perceptible motion.
ripe, the
teeth and lid open, or
and the capsule
turns,
is
the spores are
away, the stalk
fall
tipped upsidedown.
In germinating, the spores, like those of lycopods
and
ferns,
do not produce the moss-plant
directly, but
a finely-branched, vegetative, and nutritive proembryo,
or protonema.
It
looks like a searweed.
the ground, to which
it
the basal cells of the protonemata, the
are formed.
the
to stamens).
From
new moss-plants
may
grow, the product of one
of one of these stems (in
sphagnum upon the
appear upon some
flower - pistils)
spreads over
summit
Several
Upon
spore.
It
adheres by small roots.
sides),
looking like leafy buds,
stems, archegoriia
(answering to
upon others, antheridia (corresponding
Every cell of the antheridia contains one
;
antherozoid furnished with a pair of freely
whips.
-
moving
These, swimming in water, find the flask-shaped
archegonia, the neck of which
and descend
to the
mucilaginous, enter
is
ovum -cell, which, being
fertilized,
gives rise to the hair-like stalk, producing the spore-
bearing capsule with the pointed cap.
are called hair or urn mosses.
moist places, and hold dew or rain
is
Such mosses
Since they grow in
like a sponge, there
always water present for the whip-like bodies to swim
about
in.
Other methods of propagation are from the
each one of which
may
rootlets,
give rise to a separate proto-
BOTANY AS A BE CREATION
154
In some mosses the protoncraa
ncraa and moss-buds.
never seems to die, but generates new plants every year.
There are also gemmae, which look under the micro-
They
scope like " silver-tinted nests."
are store-houses
of nutritive material,
and can give
rise to
protonemata,
or
di-
moss -buds.
rectly to
no wonder that
It is
mosses are so ubiqui-
and recovef^so
tous,
readily
from
injuries,
such as the cropping
of grass
GEMM^
Any
es to
-
eating ani-
mals.
one who wish-
watch the progress of moss-plants from the spore
can toss some of the spores from a ripened capsule,
called the sporogonium,
upon a dish of wet sand, and
see the growth of the protonema as
it
spreads over the
sand.
The
peat-mosses, sphagna, are formed by successive
generations of living stems, the older dying and supply-
A peat-bed
ing nourishment to the newer.
made
some
love.
in
this
trees fall
:
In a hollow
and decay, forming a
They begin
masses produce
all
manner
to grow,
little
and
by the
probably
the hills
soil
which mosses
in their spongelike
bogs, which in the end are fatal to
indigenous trees or shrubs.
are covered
is
among
These decay,
ever-rising generations of
fall,
and
sphagnum.
MOSSES AND LIVERWORTS)
155
Peat - bogs form a tenth part of Ireland, and occupy
Dried in masses, peat forms
large areas in Scotland.
the cheapest fuel in existence, and
has been the great-
it
est friend of the Irish peasantry.
The common hair-moss is found in every wood. It
may be known from its having a lid to cover the capsules, besides thirty-two or sixty-four
hygrometric teeth.
HEPATIC^
A
still
humbler order of plants
surface,
and being
is
that of the liver-
They do not cover
worts, or hepaticse.
large extents of
in our latitude small, are likely to
be
overlooked by the amateur botanist, or mistaken for
lichens.
down
In moist shady dells, where the water trickles
rocks, they can generally be found.
The Rev. Hugh Macmillan says, in
: " The greatest number
of Vegetation
his First
Forms
of species occurs
in the tropics,
and nowhere do they luxuriate so much
as in the dark
woods
grow
of
New
Zealand.
in the bleakest spots in the world,
found even
at a higher altitude
Some
of
them
and are to be
than the urn-mosses, on
the great mountain ranges of the globe.
They form
the faintest tint of green on the edge of glaciers, and
on the bare, storm -seamed ridges of the Alps and
Andes, where not a tuft of moss or trace of other vegetation can be found."
The
vegetative
body
is either
a
flat cellular
expansion,
a thallus, or a branching stem, with small leaves like
scales overlapping or underlapping one another.
Thus
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
156
they are divided into tballose and leafy liverworts.
The
latter are better
known
as scale-mosses.
The order
comprises thirty-one genera, under the families Jungermanniae, Marchantise, and Ricciae.
The
latter
two
are
MARCHANTIA
The Jiingermannife include
thallose.
mosses.
into
four valves, which,
the sign of plus
elaters, called
which
all
the
{
+
when spread open, look
like
Mixed with the spores
are
).
macrospores
—
yellow filamentary bodies,
and uncoil and writhe and twist
many worms. The first time one sees them
field
scale-
In the scale-mosses the spore - capsule splits
coil
of the microscope one
is
filled
like
so
in the
with astonish-
MOSSES AND LIVEKWORTS
They
ment.
roll
157
over and over, push against each
other, so like animals
and so unlike plants
it
seems
impossible to relegate them to the unconscious vegetable
Their
world.
ofiBce is to
push the spores out of
The
cups and help to disseminate them.
are similar in
their
sexual bodies
growth and operation to those of mosses,
already described.
The
leaves of nearly
all
liverworts are double, with
an under and upper surface.
rootlets,
each a single tubular
From the under spring
cell
;
from the upper, in
depressions, or on stalks, or sessile, are produced the
or/ans of fructification.
ANEUKIS PINGHIS
158
A
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
curious genus,
riella,
found
is
Sardinia and
in
Algiers on banks of streams, growing two or three inches
high, with the thallus
wound
around the stem.
spirally
In the male plant antheridia are produced on the edge
of this wing
in the female the arche-
;
gonia grow in clusters along the stem.
unique, a very remarkable form of
It is
vegetable
life.
The Marchantia polymorpha is one of
the commonest of thai lose liverworts,
forming
damp
houses.
long,
large
pots or
green
dull
on
patches
on the walls of green-
Its fronds are
about three inches
and on them appear small mush-
room-like bodies, bearing antheridia on
the upper, archegonia on the under sides.
FRUIT OF
LIVERWORTS
These are the
like those of
also, as in
Gemmae
inflorescences.
mosses are produced, and
mosses, separate plants grow from individual
rootlets.
The scale-mosses under a microscope loot
or curiously-shaped reptiles.
like lizards
There are many
varieties,
with different forms of inflorescence.
Riccia natans, or crystalwort,
is
an aquatic species.
Numerous air-chambers appear on the upper
thallus,
which help
which the
it
fertilizing bodies are
immersed.
side of the thallus is furnished with a
scales,
from which,
if
side of the
to float on stagnant water,
the plant finds
the water evaporate^ or drairjed
ofE,
and
in
The under
row of purple
itself
over mud,
rootlets spring
an4
MOSSES AND LIVERWORTS
fasten the plant to the earth.
Thus
it
159
can adapt
itself
to quite different conditions of growth.
These plants owe their name to their having been
formerly considered a cure for
liver complaints.
Where
they are plentiful, after a shower they sometimes emit
a strong
They
musk -like
odor, like the smell of moist earth.
are of no use, but for microscopic study of cellu-
lar tissue are invaluable.
Many
foreign species can be
cultivated along with ferns in a moist cold-frame, and
doubtless will in time find great favor for the same
reasons which
tint
make
—
ferns popular
their delicacy of
and form, their graceful and unique growth.
—
XIV
LICHENS
Lichens Perennial, not Parasitic
Manna
This
is
—Reindeer-moss—Iceland-moss
—Propagation—Nomenclature
The murmuring pines and the
the forest primeval.
hemlocks
Bearded with moss, and
in
garments green, indistinct in the
twilight.
Stand like Druids of
eld,
with voices sad -and prophetic.
Stand like harpers hoar, with beards that rest on their bosoms.
—Longfellow
A LESS
Ititroduciion to " Mvangeline."
poetic nature than our Longfellow's could see
the resemblance of
many
with a long gray beard.
venerable
sombre
:
it
older the tree, the
looks, with its gathering
lichens.
The
man*
a forest tree to an old
The
more
investiture
of
colder the climate, the thicker
the lichens grow, as animals of arctic countries are
dressed iu
warm
The north and most exposed
number of lichens,
fur.
side of the tree gathers the greatest
and the knowledge of
lost in a pathless
this fact has helped to guide
wood when
men
there were no stars to
direct them.
for
two
or three years rapidly, they then cease to hurry,
and
Lichens alone are really perennial.
some have been known
Growing
to be forty -five years old
when
LICHENS
161
they were just beginning to
and ancient rocks.
fruit.
They cover bowlders
They creep over tombstones, ob-
literating the figures carved centuries ago.
Indeed,
it
supposed that the "primeval" trees arc not older
than their humble clinging companions. Who can
is
tell
how long
the
"lichen-stain" has
decorated the bare
peaks of lofty
mountains, the
rocks otherwise
utterly bleak
and
devoid of vegetation?
Lichens have
two
lives,
nately
THE COMMON CUP -LICHEN, MODERATELY
MAGNIFIED
and repose.
it
alter-
of activity
When
rains, they spread
out their leathery
aprons or their coral-like branches and grow and thrive.
When
the drought comes, they shrivel up, not to die,
but patiently to wait
till
the glad rain comes again.
After being pressed half a century, their spores will
swell in water
and grow.
Their rootlets serve only to attach them, and
securely this
pull
them
off
is
without breaking their fronds.
are not parasitic, except sometimes
upon each
and they do good rather than harm.
11
how
done any one knows who has tried to
They
other,
The cinchona-
a
BOTANY AS A RKCREATIOjST
162
tree
which
covered with lichens
is
is
rather improved
in its medicinal qualities, while fungi fastened
the same bark will deprive
of
it
virtue.
all
upon
In the
desert lichens quickly cover the bleaching bones of
They
animals.
to
the
inches thick
increase in luxuriance
regions,
arctic
over the ground.
all
from the tropics
where they grow often many
They
are an indi-
cation of clean and healthful conditions of atmosphere,
very few growing in the smoke or impure air of our
crowded
cities.
The famous reindeer-moss [Cladonia
rangiferina)
covers the soil of whole pine forests in Lapland, and
forms the principal food of the Laplander's greatest
friend, the reindeer.
If the forests
happen
to be burnt
The sight of reindeer
these creamy moss patches is as
down, the lichen soon reappears.
feeding in one of
much
a picture of pastoral content as that of cows in a
When
meadow.
the snow covers the cladonia so that
the reindeer cannot dig
it
out, there is a
growing on the pine-trees
black hair-like
The owners
moss which
—the
support
will
of the reindeer cut
poor substitute
Alectoria jubata
down
life
trees in order to
Indians
bring this food within their animals' reach.
steep
it in water,
insipid
It is
and
and make
it
into
distasteful to the white
black cakes,
flat
man.
a lichen, the tripe de roche, which
men
much
better than leather,
in arctic
It is
poor
and produces
grip-
expeditions are forced sometimes to eat.
food, not
—
for a time.
ing pains.
There
is
an edible lichen which makes a nourishing
LICHENS
103
blanc-mango and a drink useful
plaints
—the
in
pulmonary com-
Iceland-moss (^Cetraria islandica).
the Esquimau's principal vegetable food, and
It is
is
very
nutritious, containing forty-seven per cent, of lichenine
or starch.
It grows on lava fields to a very large size
and is collected and dried by the ton for
in Iceland,
winter use.
The Usnea
florida,
growing upon rocts,
is
a favorite
food for goats.
It is
supposed that the manna eaten by the
in their passage through the wilderness
found
in
Israelites
was a lichen
Eastern countries, the Lecanora esculenta.
Showers of
this
are torn
from
its
native place
by the
wind, and are carried for miles, in Persia and Russia.
Sheep are very fond of
in size
from a
pin's
It is grayish-white,
varying
head to a pea or nut, and
will fall
it.
in such quantities as to cover the
ground three or four
inches deep.
As dyes,
make
lichens have a commercial value.
They
beautiful blues, purples, and dark reds.
Wolves were
at one time successfully poisoned in
Russia and Norway by a species of lichen mixed with
powdered
glass.
Oxalic acid
is
made
in
France with one species.
drugs, however, they have at present no use.
As
Bird-
them and decorate twigs, making miniafor the birds in rooms or large cages. The
fanciers gather
ture forests
great use of lichens, however,
is to
disintegrate rocks,
reduce their surface to powder, and form soil for highFor this purpose
er orders of plants to grow upon.
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
164
they are one of nature's most persistent and effective
They
agencies.
are propagated in various ways.
gonidia, a layer of green cells in the thallus,
The
under a transparent cover called the hypha, divide
each one into two, and form
upon the lower
parasitic
Upon
new
They
plants.
are
strata of the thallus.
the margins of a thallus
still
different organs
of reproduction are found, pycnides, simple filaments,
with rounded -bodies at their ends. These are a kind of
In order to give an idea of the nomenclature
spore.
with which a lichenist must be familiar,
description of
some
we quote
the
of the genera as given in the Nylan-
derian classification, from the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Tribe
Sirosiphei, of Family 1, Ephebacei,
1,
be known
:
variously connate.
Apothecia biatorine or lecideine.
Spermagones with sterigmata
Tribe 23
scription
:
may thus
" Thallus filamentose, fruticulose, gonimia
may be
or anthrosterigmata."
recognized from the following de-
" Thallus variously crustaceous, pulverulent,
evanescent, or none proper, with the gonidium stratum
consisting of gonidia (rarely chrysogonidia, rarely gonimia).
Apothecia lecideine (or biatorine).
Sperma-
gones with simple or simplish sterigmata."
Most of us
will doubtless
a lichen, and to
know
sionally taking a
of
its
it
be content to
call
a lichen
from a moss or fungus, occa-
peep through our microscope
at
some
wonderful organs with the more wonderful names.
XV
—Spores —Large
—Edible Algae—Colors and Distribution —Bed Snow
OfBceg of Roots and Leaves (or Fronds) of Algae
Sea-weeds
— Diatoms
Thallophytes form the second
division of Bryo-
ptytes, including algsB, lichens, and fungi, mosses and
liverworts being the
Although low
first.
many
in the scale
them have the most intimate
connection with our domestic life and with our agricultural success.
A practical knowledge of their structure
of vegetable
life,
and habits has
Algse
to
of
do with the very well-being of the
—sea-weeds—have organs
leaves.
The
roots, however,
similar to roots
race.
and
do not extract nourish-
ment from the soil. They adhere to some fixed place,
and allow the plant to sway its fronds in the water with
The leaves are cell-expansions, often
greater freedom.
single cells distorted in several directions.
The spores have
and are
cilia,
a tendency to divide into four parts,
called tetraspores.
either in pairs or
all
They
are provided with
around their ball-shaped bod-
which send them tumbling about till they find a
Each cell
firm place whereon to establish themselves.
plantlets
by
new
propagating
two
seems capable of
ies,
division.
Another remarkable means of propagation
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
166
is
by "conjugation."
Two
cells approacli
each other.
At
length the
Each bulges out towards the
other.
swellings touch, unite, burst the partition
between them,
and form a tube through which the contents
cell
From
pass into the other.
of one
this union a vigorous
plant is formed, which,
division, gives rise to
Many of the
by
cell-
many more.
algae are
immense
growths. The macrocystis is
found from three hundred to
seven hundred feet long.
The
tree
sea -weed, Lessonia fusces-
cens,
may have
a stem ten feet
long, twelve inches in circumfer-
ence, with fronds
feet long.
two to three
algaj grow
Sometimes
in great patches or
the famous
tinted green or red with such
algae.
SEA
-
WEED MAGNIFIED,
SHOWING SPORE-SACS
Their
stems
twist
great cables hundreds
of
into
feet
They are found in air
waters, from the polar regions
long.
to the tropics, on icebergs,
and in boiling springs.
as
and the
For miles the water
Gulf-weed.
is
meadows,
Sargasso
on snow,
in freezing water,
The desmids and diatoms
are
the smallest, visible only under powerful microscopes.
The gulf-weed,
Atlantic,
so familiar to travellers crossing the
seems always
sea-grape,
floating, never fixed.
from the resemblance of
its air-sacs
It is called
to berries.
GULF-WEED
(Sai'gassum Baccifernm)
Many
The dnise of the Scotch and
Swede are made from alg83. The Chisupposed to make soup of certain species of
algse are edible.
the tangle of the
nese are
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
168
jelly-like algse.
Many
of these plants are single
cells,
held together by masses of gelatinous matter.
They
red,
are divided, according to their color, into brown,
and green sea-weeds.
The brown
warm
love the
waters of the equatorial
regions, the red inhabit
mainly
zones,
the
and
thrive best
waters
temperate
green
the
in the cold
which
six
the
lap
icebergs. There are
some
thousand species of
marine
Those
algae.
which grow
in fresh
wa-
ters are called confervse.
The great
lakes of North
America are said
COMMON SEA-WEED
to have
known as " frogs'found upon stagnant ponds. Under the micro-
There
spittle,''
is
a green scum-like growth,
scope this resolves
filaments, each
itself into
thousands of slender green
one a hollow tube, containing grains
floating in mucilaginous matter.
These and similar
or-
ganisms, which we are apt to associate with malaria and
in fact, not the cause, but simply the indica-
filth, are,
tions of
unwholesome conditions, which they do
best to remove.
They
their
assimilate the decaying organic
matter which these places contain, and are themselves
food for animalcules, which swarm among them.
zygnemas
are
The
composed of long tubes joined together
;
ALG^
169
by sliort ones, all marked with beautiful
spirals or crosses,
They are large confervas, and
great numbers fifteen thousand feet up the
or other regular figures.
are found in
Himalayas, in the cold springs which
rise
from the
glaciers.
The famous red-snow
(^Protococcus nivalis) is a mi-
nute red alga, consisting of
•j-jiVo-
eter.
little
granules from -^^-^ to
of an inch in diamIt is a cell contain-
ing starch and nitrogen
in other
words, protoplasm.
This substance occurs not
only on snow and
ice,
but
in hot -house water -tanks,
on rocks within reach of
the ocean's spray, and on
decayed leaves and mosses.
An
allied alga is the
Pamella cruenta, deep red
in color,
found upon
stale
bread and meat, or upon
musty walls of houses.
The
color, blood-red,
has
often terrified ignorant and
superstitious
people,
who
thought the heavens rained
blood, or the sacramental
omi-
sea-weed
was
nous of divine vengeance for sins. More than one poor
creature has been burned, charged with being a witch,
host
bleeding,
170
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
for no better reason than that red algaj, resembling spots
of blood, have been found in her dwelling.
A most graceful thing is
on stones in
little
the batrachospermum, found
streams everywhere.
brown,
It is
yellow, or purple, with pretty
fern-like fronds.
It
may
plunged into boiling or
water
ing
be
freez-
without apparent
injury.
One
species is found only
in wells.
The
smallest of
all algae
soft cellular tissues with
cious
They
shells.
are
are
sili-
the
diatoms, which abound in water
and moist
From two
atmosphere.
to twenty thousand
placed alongside will measure
an inch.
When
lantic cable
ZYONEMA
was
the
laid,
first
At-
the dredg-
ing-machine brought up myriads of these atoms, the deli-
cate striae of
whose
shells
were marvellously beautiful.
They were long thought to be animalcules.
an eminent German microscopist, so
Ehrenberg,
classified
them
;
but their mode of reproduction, by cell-division and by
them to the vegetable kingdom.
Sometimes they accumulate on larger sea-weeds, or they
cover submerged twigs like a brown fur.
Mollusks and
other small creatures feed upon them.
They are of
conjugation, assigns
ALGJE
every
iVl
shape, round, square?, oblong, crescent, always
regular,
composed of soft tissue, covered by two siliThe smaller half fits inside the larger, as
cious shells.
a box slides under its
by a projecting rim.
Each
cover.
When
half is surrounded
the cells are ready to di-
new rims form within, on the side opposite the
At length the enveloping ring bursts, and
the two halves separate, each a complete new individual.
It is computed that one billion descendants may arise
vide,
old ones.
from a single individual
When
in a month's time.
these organisms die, their hard shells
fall to
the bottom of the water, and the ocean-beds, as well as
many beds
of lakes, are covered with them, often to a
great depth.
Eichmond
There they harden into solid rock.
there
and several miles
is
a
famous
der.
The
in extent.
the manufacture of dynamite
Near
deposit, forty feet deep
;
material
is
used in
also as a polishing
pow-
Fossil diatoms of the tertiary age are similar in
every respect to those found to-day.
Dust-storms of
diatoms are produced by the wind laden with these
They give the chrome color of the Yellow Sea.
Hot ashes from volcanoes contain them, and in moist
atoms.
atmosphere nearly everywhere they abound.
It is
a
curious fact that the spectrum of the soft contents of
diatoms
is
identical with that of chlorophyl
— another
proof that they are vegetables.
One thing must impress every
forms of both animal and plant
observer of the lower
life
;
that
is,
the tre-
mendous debt we owe to the microscope. By the aid
of its mighty vision new worlds are constantly revealed
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
112
not only the starry heavens, brought nearer
to US.
It is
by the
telescope,
which claim our attention and make
us marvel at the vastness of creation, but just as
the minute things, a hundred of whicb
than a grain of sand.
The
much
are no bigger
perfection of these tiny or-
ganisms, their exquisite adaptation to their conditions
of
life,
the purposes they serve in that realm of nature
where there
is
room
is
no waste of energy, no
loss,
where there
for every created thing, and provision for
maintenance
—
est admiration
all
its
these wonderful facts excite our high-
and arouse
in us a little of that scientific
enthusiasm which tempts others to spend years in the
study of microscopic objects.
Men
are
more and more
unlocking the storehouse of nature's secrets, and judged
by the beneficent
are as
of
new
results of their labors,
such pursuits
worthy of encouragement as are the discoveries
planets and the central sun of our solar system.
XVI
FUNGI
—
—
—
—
Lowest Forms of Vegetable Life
Harmful and Beneficent
Wholly Parasitic or Sacrophytic Reproduction Rapid Growth
and Short-lives Six Families Mushrooms Puff-balls Fungi
Attacking Cereals Potato-rot, Moulds, Ferments Bacilli and
—
Bacteria
The
—
—
—Antiseptics
lowest forms of vegetable
life
—
—
are foand under
the third subdivision of Thallophytes
— fungi.
They
many harmful
include
as
—
well
growths.
as
beneficent
It is
a fungus
which causes our bread
to
rise.
Yeast
is
the
spawn, moistened flour
the favorable
soil.
Plant-
ed within the dough,
it
takes but a few hours
for the
to ramify
yeast-fungus
and multiply
hundredfold.
During the process car-
itself a
bonic
acid
which
rises to the sur-
is
moulu
formed,
face in the form of bubbles, and escapes into the
If arrested at the right
moment by
air.
baking, the fungus
BOTANY AS A KECREATION
174
and sweet.
is killed,
and the bread
long,
the fungus begins to fructify, the bread
till
Fermentation
sour.
is light
If left too
induced by a fungus.
is
one of these plants which turns cider to vinegar
the " mother," and
may be found
in
is
It is
it is
;
any unstrained
vin-
egar in the form of a yellowish cloudy substance at the
bottom of the
A
vessel.
fungus spots and spoils our ink.
It is a bad
fungus which ruins our carelessly prepared cans of
fruit, which gathers on jellies, and is one of the first
symptoms
of
decay in
stale
meats and vegetables.
Sugar and saccharine matter furnish a favorable
soil for
We call such plants mould or
rust.
A crust of bread in a damp-
the ferment -fungus.
blight,
place
is
mildew or
soon covered with blue mould. Under a micro-
scope this looks like a forest of tiny ferns with branching stems, a fine spore dust moving over
all.
The
green mould of cheese, the mother of vinegar, and the
yeast-plant,
when much magnified, assume unmistakable
The spores of such plants abound in
vegetable forms.
the atmosphere, hovering over us like birds of prey,
waiting for a soil of dead or decaying organic matter,
upon it, and absorb it into their own growths.
The unwary house -keeper, the careless farmer, alike
to pounce
have reason to dread the ubiquitous, harmful fungi.
This class of plants
That
is,
they
live
ing their juices,
revel in that
is
wholly parasitic or sacrophytic.
upon living animals and plants, suckand eventually killing them or they
which
;
is
dead and decaying.
the ghastly corpse plants, the
life
They
out of death.
are
GIUPE-FUNGUS
One has
often seen, after a rain, the lawn, or the base
and roots of an old
lar
tree, or the
neighborhood of a
cel-
window, covered with toadstools, the growth of a
single night.
In such cases the presence of impure
conditions of soil and atmosphere
is
indicated,
dormant spores of fungi needed but moisture
them
to germinate.
Let
it
and the
to cause
be understood, the mush-
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
176
rooms themselves are not the cause of the impurity of
the soil, any more than hyenas and vultures are the
cause of pollution. The carrion-feeders, both animal
and vegetable, do their best to remove putrefying
matter.
They
are nature's scavengers,
and we could
not do vfithout them, disgusting as their
seem
office
may
to us.
Organs of reproduction are found even
The
order of plants.
usual
in this low
manner of propagation
is
by " conjugation," already described. Spores do not
They produce a " spawn,"
give rise directly to fungi.
smaller,
and consisting of numerous filamentary
bodies.
These are so minute as to be able to enter the stomata
of leaves, the rootlets of grains and grasses, the pores
of the skin of animals, etc.
duced movable,
Zoospores are also pro-
like animalcules.
These may be hidden
in a pair of cotyledons, to develop later
the growing plant.
potato-plant, pass
'
through the stem into the tubers
below-ground, from which they extract
leaving nothing but a black rot in
so minute,
plants,
cell
and prey upon
Zoospores enter the leaves of the
all
its place.
the starch,
They
are
they can occupy intercellular spaces of
and from there penetrate cells and extract the
own growth inside the stem. In
contents for their
recalling the terrible sufferings of the Irish
who have
been the victims of potato famines, can we deny that
the fungi have an intimate connection with the very
life
of the
human
Propagation
cell
is
race
?
mostly
cfiEected
by
cell division,
each
becoming two, and so the parent of myriads
of
in
FUNGI
Fortunately certain conditions of air and
offspring.
soil
unfavorable
are
Were
to
these
destructive
parasites.
otherwise, grains, grasses, and fruits would
it
always succumb to their destroyers, and man's work in
the ground would be in vain.
As
it is,
Scientific
men
are
now
may
the fungi
be very destructive one season and inactive the
next.
giving great attention to the
fungi which destroy vines, grains,
etc.,
and
it
may be
that remedies will be discovered enabling the farmer to
wage
successful warfare against these tiny but powerful
enemies.
The
autumn
tints
of fungi
are
sombre.
They seem,
like
flowers, to presage the winter of decay to all
rUNGI GROWINO ON A DEAD OAK -LEAF
that live.
and decay.
rapidly where leaves fall
stood the storms of cenhave
Trees which
Mushrooms grow
BOTAKY AS A RECREATION
178
when once they
turies,
mass of greasy,
One
of the
are laid low, are covered with
which reduce them
parasitical growths,
in time to a
black dust.
filthy
most remarkable facts about fungi
rapidity both of their growth and decay.
storm
is
pretty sure to fetch
stump or heap of manure.
the
is
A summer
them from every
rotten
In a single night great
pufE-balls are formed.
Some of these rapidly growing species develop
much energy as to lift large stones out of place.
such instances no new
As
merely elongate.
formed.
The old ones
a rule, those which
grow so quickly
cells are
perish in a few hours or days.
vitality for
The Taher cibarium
in young beech
like a pineapple,
it is
The
spores retain their
months.
ground
side
so
In
is
a puff-ball formed under-
or oak woods.
looks a
little
being covered with excrescences.
In-
brown
white, with
It
grainings, which are the re-
productive parts.
It is the truffle of
the Continent, and
is
Great Britain and
esteemed a table delicacy.
are trained to hunt for them.
Dogs
Pigs are very fond of
them, and dig several inches into the ground for them.
From the spawn
appear
first
ally rise
upon a thick
brella-shaped top.
a thin
veil
covers
ruptured, and
stalk.
of
mushrooms and kindred fungi
tubercles, small
Next,
stalk
This
it,
is
round bodies, which gradu-
and expand into a
the pileus, or cap.
flat
um-
At
first
which; as the pileus expands,
is
remains as a ragged ring around the
on
the under
surface,
centre to circumference, appear
radiating from
brown or pink, purple
—
:
FUNGI
or white, gills or lamellae.
prodaces spores.
179
This
is
the
hymeneum, and
consists of long narrow cells
It
—
from each of which originate four small filamentary spores, variously colored, in motion. Some of
basidia
the basidia are flask-shaped, and contain no spores.
There are
six families of fungi,
beginning with the
highest
1.
2.
3.
4.
Hymenomycetes
— naked fungi.
— covered or stomach-like fungi.
Coniomycetes — dust fungi.
Hyphomycetes— web-like fungi.
Gasteromycetes
5.
Physomycetes.
6.
Ascomycetes.
To the first family mushrooms and toad-stools belong.
The edible fungi are constantly gaining in favor.
There are a great many wild species
in
America,
es-
War
the
pecially in the Soufh. In the time of the Civil
Confederate soldiers found them an excellent substitute
Near New^ York, great numbers are
for meat.
vated in
cellars, or else in
perhaps, the most profitable of
all
in the markets.
long shelves, two or three rows deep, eight inches
of solid
is
are,
vegetables to raise,
judging by the high prices demanded
On
culti-
They
long dark sheds.
manure are thrown.
worked well
chased in
flat,
Sod covers this, which
The spawn is pur-
into the manure.
dirt-brown cakes an inch thick.
broken into bits
and planted
in furrows.
It
This
is
spreads
and gives rise to a thick growth of
two or three days' time become
of
a teacup. About every three
top
the
as large as
through the
soil,
tiny globules, which in
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
180
montlis
tlie
spawn exhausts
shelves must be cleared and
is
having extracted
itself,
substances from
the nitrogenous
new
the
soil
soil,
all
and the
This
prepared.
the principal expense in their cultivation, and the
trouble
is slight.
They
If
allowed to stand long after being
mushrooms
become tough and leathery.
bought mainly by the large restaurants of our
and are usually served broiled with beefsteak, or
gathered,
are
cities,
A small white
stewed and covered with a cream gravy.
caterpillar,
much
the pileus, and
worm, burrows
like a chestnut
is
into
doubtless often broiled and eaten
with the mushroom, since
its
presence
is
not easily dis-
coverable from the outside.
Of
the wild mushrooms, the safest
way
is to let
alone, since a mistake in applying the tests
There are
fatal.
tests,
however, as that
all
them
might be
species whose
stems on being pressed change from yellow to blue, or
which have red stems or
poisonous.
If
gills,
are to be
shunned as
they can be easily skinned, and are pink
underneath, they are said to be safe for cooking and
eating.
Such are found
plentifully
on damp days along
the coast.
Many
The
agaric.
when
of the noxious species produce intoxication.
convicts of Siberia use for this purpose the
It is rolled
its effects
into balls
are similar to those produced
by opium.
If a light dose is taken, the person is affected as
halation of laughing-gas.
or dance.
He
fly-
and swallowed whole,
by
in-
will talk excitedly, or sing,
If a straw is placed in his path,
several feet high in stepping over
it,
he
will
jump
and thus afford no
FUNGI
181
end of amusement to his friends and lookers-on. If too
is taken, convulsions and death follow.
strong a dose
The common
of
one who has eaten
puff-ball deprives
power of motion, while
all
it
his consciousness remains,
thus producing a sort of terrible trance resembling
death.
Species sold in Paris markets are grown in catacombs.
and truffles belong to the second family,
which contains both poisonous and edible species.
Puff-balls
To
the third class belong those injurious fungi, smut,
bunt, rust, etc., which affect our cereals.
Smut attacks corn. Every one has noticed in a cornsome heads swollen, gray or black. This is the
field
fungus parasite Ustilago carbo.
eased
is
converts grains of
ear of corn thus dis-
capable of disseminating myriads of spores.
Wheat
Grass
It
One
corn into foul, greasy dust.
is
is
invested
by
Tilletia caries.
subject to Puccinia graminis, an orange-col-
ored powder on the leaves in spots of rust.
Ergot attacks
ure of a crop.
rye,
It is
and may cause the complete
the fungus Claviceps purpurea.
grain swells, curves, turns
first violet color,
If the affected rye is retained
grains,
The
then black.
and ground with the good
and bread made from the polluted
the effects upon the
fail-
The
human system
flour is eaten,
are very distressing.
potato-rot is a fungus (Feronospora infestans) of
the fourth order.
Nearly
all
spinach, carrots, turnips, beets
same or a nearly
vegetables
— tomatoes,
—may be attacked by the
allied fungus.
Zoospores enter the
stomata of leaves, pass into the roots, and there work
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
182
destruction.
Under this order of the web-like fungi, so
named because the spores appear as if covered with a
whitish web, come also the moulds and mildews.
Moulds are
Blue mould
blue, green, or yellow.
tacks oranges.
When
at-
they are ready to decay, a dark
spot forms on the outside, greasy and velvety to the
Under the microscope the rind
touch.
of an orange
thus affected presents a view of numbers of stalked
spores, or spores linked
together in chainlike rows.
Orange groves sometimes suffer from the black mildew,
which attacks leaves and stops up the stomata. The
mulberry
-
tree
liable
is
to
from
attacks
the
same
fungus.
The
grape, both fruit and vine,
covered with one of
is
the web-like moulds, which has caused in some years
the failure of the entire crop in the south of France and
Italy,
causing great distress
M. Pasteur
gestions
first
among
the vintage growers.
discovered this fungus, and by his sug-
mnch has been done
to restore the vineyards to
a healthy condition.
The ferment-mould
and the
vinegars,
like.
inhabits liquids
The
— wines,
story is told
.of
placed his cask of wine in a cellar to age.
afterwards,
it
when he attempted
to
open the cellar-door
was blocked by great growths of fungus.
was
literally filled
in the
was
This
is
The
cellar
with the fungus, which had revelled
wine leaking from the cask.
lifted
ciders,
man who
Some time
a
The empty cask
on top of the fungoid growth to the
the famous fungus found in the
ceiling.
London docks,
swinging and waving like gigantic cobwebs.
FUNGI
Of
the fifth class the fungus that forms over our pre-
serves and jellies
To
183
is
an example.
the sixth class belong the very lowest plants.
Among them
are bacilli
and
bacteria, rod-like bodies,
which increase by subdivision, and cause our most fatal
cholera, yellow and typhoid fevers, consumpdiseases
tion, diphtheria, cancer, the festering and gangrene of
—
GKAPE-FUNGUS
BOTANY AS A RECEKATION
184
wounds, as well as the most destructive diseases
domestic animals, hogs, sheep, cows, and chickens.
Many
and
species which attack caterpillars,
The
them.
There are
fungi prey upon other fungi.
parasite extracts
the creature dies its
house-fly
may
body
is
all
of
also
destroy
finally
when
The
seasons when
the juices, and
but an empty
often be seen, especially in
shell.
some epidemic of disease is prevailing, fastened to a
window-pane, dead, surrounded by a white cobweby
fungus. Under the microscope the spores may be seen
escaping from minute plant growths. The silk-worm is
attacked by a fungus which is often very destructive.
One-third of the flowerless plants belong to the fun-
gus family.
It
has been thought that their growth was
spontaneous, since they appear in substances through
the exterior of which
it
would seem impossible for the
minutest spore to penetrate, as in the centre of a cheese
and inside
of an egg, inside of a fruit,
the stomach and intestines of man.
It
and even within
has been proved
by careful experiment that the spores do in every case
precede the plant. They were in the cheese-curds before the cheese
was pressed.
The
shell'vof
an egg
is
not
impervious to spores, and they exist in the saliva of the
mouth, and around teeth which are suffered to decay.
Dampness
left in
is
appear on the
cellar-walls, or
which we build our houses.
wood
The boots
favorable to their development.
the closet will be covered with mildew.
to disintegrate
Spots
even on the timber with
Dry-rot
may
cause hard-
and become black dust.
The
lep-
rosy in houses, against which some of Moses's regula-
FUNGI
185
tions were directed,
was probably a fungus growth, the
same which is found in the East to-day, and for which
there is no known remedy save the destruction of the
house.
Many moulds
luxuriate in poisonous liquids, as arsen-
and opium.
Antiseptics destroy them, and a knowl-
ics
edge of the antiseptic treatment of wounds, the careful
disinfection of hands and tools, is
of
is
now
as
much
a part
good surgery as is the skilful use of the knife. Salt
an antiseptic, and should be plentifully used in manur-
Powdered sulphur on the leaves of plants
The combination of sulphur
with the oxygen of the air makes sulphuric acid, a poiing crops.
'
kills
the fungus spores.
son fatal to the spores.
As
a destroyer of insects which are hurtful to crops,
the fungus
to cultivate
may become
the farmer's useful
the spawn and make
form, and then
how
ally.
How
into a transferable
to infect insects with the spawn,
and introduce them into a
insects,
it
field infested
with the same
are problems which may be solved in the near
future, since competent scientific
just such questions.
men
are
working upon
XVII
PLANT ADAPTABILITY AND UTILITY
—
— Hardness — The Birch — High
—Cinchona—Palms— —The Mesquite
Migration of Plants
Altitude Plants
Man
Flexibility
Cacti
and animals can
If too cold or hot, too
can
yet,
change their abode.
Plants cannot migrate unassisted,
another.
flee to
at will
moist or dry in one country, they
through the agencies of man, animals, and storms,
are often borne far from their native
up
valleys,
homes into warmer
new continents,
colder heights, over. seas into
and are deposited
amid strange
at last
soils
and
cli-
mates.
Can they survive these
perhaps most, do perish.
tenacity of
cold,
made
life,
large
take on
violent
Many,
changes?
Others develop remarkable
new forms,
and luxuriant by
are dwarfed
must, to creep upon the ground, or send up
tall
develop unwonted hardiness, or become more
There
is
it.
to the
holding
and bright
stiff
May not
regions,
stems,
frail.
a sunflower [Helianthus autumnale) which out-
lasts all the others,,
bravely
by
heat, learn, if they
its
till
its
golden notched rays
winter's icy touch
where they developed a hardiness
genus
?
is
upon
ancestors have been forced to live in cold
really foreign
PLANT ADAPTABILITY AND UTILITY
A
in
187
cowslip and primrose were once alike.
wet and
tall
Planted
had to stretch its stem in
and became a plant bearing
grass, the one
order to reach the sunlight,
blossoms on a
and slender scape. The other in
more exposed places, remained short
tall
shorter grass, in
and stocky.
It
because of such
is
vegetables
—
parsnips,
flexibility
that our
common
carrots, turnips, potatoes
been 4educed from wild and even poisonous
—have
roots.
So
the fruits, apples,' plums, cherries, strawberries, blackberries, etc., existed once only in their wild
The development
state.
is
of plant varieties
a fascinating occupation.
theme
of Darwin's and
It is impossible,
to elaborate such a
in a short paper,
results
others'
within every one's reach.
I
dwarfed
and species
however,
even
if
the
researches were not
have simply brought
to-
gether a few facts to illustrate the flexibility of plant
nature,
and how
adaptation
is
numerous instances
in
this
power of
of service to animals, so that arctic plants
best serve the needs of arctic inhabitants, and tropical
vegetation best suits hot, often dry, countries.
It is difficult to
consists.
say in what the hardiness of plants
Why, when
a purple and white aster grow
side by side, does the white
"
The
of tissue, for
first
first
succumb
to the frost
?
one is taken, the other left." It cannot be density
some
of the
in spring, while
it
most
delicate flowers appear
is yet cold,
summits marvel
and such are found
Travellers on Alpine
in the region of perpetual snow.
at the apparently fragile beauty of these
snow-line plants.
Such a flower
is
the Gentiana nivalis,
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
1B»
one inch
tall,
blooming, a companion of mosses and
where sturdy trees cannot venture.
licliens,
The trees whose wood is heaviest inhabit warm zones.
The tree found farthest north is the birch. Snow falls
through without breaking the light foliage, and
pervious bark, a non-conductor of heat, protects
its
it
im-
from
A stunted fir and pine reach latitude 72°,
and next come the aspen and mountain-ash. The birch
the cold.
is
an invaluable tree
Asiatic Siberia.
in the
Out of
The bark
25,000,000 pairs a year.
and
jars for holding liquids,
with curious patterns.
leather.
in early
— some
which the peasants stamp
It is
used
in
tanning Russiacarriages.
It
The peasants draw the sweet sap
spring and make a fermented liquor.
A less
and tough.
and one not confined to
questionable use, perhaps,
the use of birch twigs as a means of youthful
is
discipline.
In spite of
rod
the
is still
schools
country of
also furnishes boxes
The wood makes furniture and
is flexible
Russia,
inhospitable
bark shoes are made
its
all
emblem
advanced methods, the birch-
of authority in rural district
—a supposed invaluable aid
to early intellectual
progress.
The presence
of plant
live
of animals always indicates
The
life.
arctic
some form
dog and reindeer could not
without the moss, which constitutes their food or
bedding.
The
pulsive animal.
like rabbits
not catch
arctic
glutton
It subsists
and deer, and being
its
prey were
it
is
a singular and
re-
upon swift-footed creatures,
itself
slow-footed, could
not for trees.
Creeping with
slow and silent tread out upon a branch,
it
remains
PLANT ADAPTABILITY AND UTILITY
189
quiet and concealed
till it can drop upon some unwary
animal passing underneath. Then it thrusts its claws
into the neck,
falls in
and sucks the blood
till
the poor victim
a death-swoon.
The midnight sun
of Norway makes it possible to
and potatoes as high as latitude 70°.
Parsnips, carrots, cabbages, and barley find their limit
turnips
raise
The grasses necessary for cattle do not grow
The fox-grass {Alopecurus alpinus) is the
at 66°.
above 60°.
most hardy and northern.
Our old geography
pictures of fur-enwrapped Lap-
landers, apparently always riding on sledges
reindeer,
On
make us think
the contrary, their short
The
beautiful white
upon
their ponds.
are abundant,
drawn by
of theirs as a flowerless country.
summer
and the yellow
of bloom.
is full
water-lilies
grow
Saxifrages and other spring flowers
and many edible berries have time to
ripen.
Our
blue hepatica grows along the Gulf of Bothnia,
with anemones.
Birches and dwarf willows are the prin-
cipal trees.
The heather
countries.
Germany,
It
in
is
little
large
plant, a native of cold
sandy
flats
which whortleberries grow.
whole acres with
plains
a cosey
covers
its
of
northern
Reddening
tiny pink blossoms, covering bare
and bleat moors, the modest heather always
seems to me to stand for that
virtue of
which we say
The cranberry
is
:
quiet, unostentatious
" It hath done what
a plant of
smaller the farther northit grows.
it
could."
cold bogs, although
190
BOTANV AS A RECREATION
The
ash, oak,
and beech grow on the European At-
lantic coast as far north as 63°.
seaboard
all
On
own
our
colder
such trees reach their northern limit at
lower latitudes.
European
as
it is
visitors notice the furze, or gorse, or whin,
variously called.
hairy stem, bristling
all
It is
take the place of leaves.
is
a bright saffron- yellow.
a crackling sound.
an evergreen shrub with
over with spines, which mostly
Some
spring and late autumn.
The papilionaceous blossom
The pods often burst with
species flower twice: in early
A procumbent
on the Continent, especially in Denmark
species,
(
found
Ulex nanus),
has smaller blossoms and smoother stems.
The
furze
has a habit of springing* up in hedges, and from
its
spiny, impenetrable
character adds
much
the
to
strength of any fence.
Strangely enough, this thorny
plant
fodder for sheep and
is
as
serviceable
cattle.
Sheep crop the young tender branches from below, and
find shelter under the clustered bushes
cold.
Cows
eating
it
from storms and
give rich, untainted milk.
The
farmers used to bruise and pound the spines with a
heavy mallet, but now there are machines especially
constructed to prepare, by cutting into small pieces,
the branches gathered fresh every day.
Drought does
not discourage this hardy, serviceable bush
to
welcome poor
soil
Wherever man goes
sociable plant
purse.
Still
is
the
;
it
seems
and cold weather.
certain plants follow.
common
another
is
One such
mustard, the shepherd's-
the stinging -nettle.
Up
on
high mountains, around the peasants' cottages, these
PLANT ADAPTABILITr AND UTILITY
humble plants grow, seemingly
191
On
self-transplanted.
the sides of the colossal Kunchain-Junga (that highest
of the world's
peaks)
several villages
are
scattered.
Half-way up, attendant upon these villages, barley,
millet, strawberries, and currants grow.
Upon Mount
Dunkia, in Thibet, at a height of 23,400
arenaria
This
is
feet,
the
and small Woodsia ferns have been gathered.
probably the greatest altitude which a flower
can attain.
A saxifrage has been found on the top of Mount 'Chimborazo, 15,770 feet high, beyond the limit of perpetual
snow.
The Alpine rose (Rhododendron
in the
herbariums of Swiss
weiss,
are
it
nivale) is
With
tourists.
prefers steep mountain-sides to valleys.
rhododendrons of
all sizes
— from
found
the edel-
There
one trailing in
melting snow to the R. argentum, 40 feet high, with
—found among the Himalayas
great silvery leaves
oak and chestnut
On
at the
belt.
this giant range of Asia's
Himalayas grass and
shepherd' s-purse do not grow higher than 12,200
feet.
At 22,000 feet mosses disappear.
As a rule, the slowly -growing
take years to mature
hot-blooded annual
plants — those which
—are the hardy ones. The hasty,
lies
sprawling, black and dead, upon
the ground after one brief season's
life.
There
is
something almost sublime in the patience and reserve
In the fall it forms
of, for example, a horse-chestnut.
the next year's buds, wraps
and rocks them to sleep
outward sign of
life
them
all
for the soft
in thick
gummy
coats,
winter, waiting without
warm
breath of spring.
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
192
The Cincliona is a mountain-tree indigenous in the
Andes of Peru, at altitudes of from five to six thousand
There are
feet.
thirty-six species,
used as a fever specific
ful
way
is
was
of procuring the bark
the trees, felling them
As
branches.
in order
1838
early as
plant the Cinchona.
from which the bark
The former waste-
obtained.
it
clean ofE
to get at the upper
efforts
now
It is
to strip
were made to trans-
grown
successfully
large plantations in India, Ceylon, South Burraah,
The twigs from one
Mauritius.
and the main tree
cut,
Cinchona
is
On
to
two years old are
The name
undisturbed.
that of the Countess of Chinchon, wife of
the Governor of Peru,
bark of this
is left
in
and
who was
tree, as prescribed
cured of a fever by the
by a Jesuit
priest.
the plains about the Caspian Sea (the Tartarian
steppes) milfoil and
wormwood grow
several feet high.
Thistles overtop and shade the low houses of the peasants.
off,
In
fall
the
down
of the thistle -blooms is blown
and, collecting in white fluffy masses,
is
whirled by
They
the wind across the steppes in big balls.
garded with superstition by the peasants, who
"wind
witches."
refer to this not
make them
Two
The
are re-
call
them
verse in Psalms Ixxxiii. 13,
may
my
God,
uncommon
Oriental sight
:
"
like a wheel; as the stubble before the wind."
families of plants are especially adapted to pe-
—
soil
palms and cacti.
and hickory of tropical
countries.
They supply not only fuel and lumber, but
clothing, fibre, pa^er, starch, sugar, oil, wax, wine, and
culiar conditions of climate
and
Palms
are the oak, chestnut,
food.
In some species dense thickets of canes grow
PLANT ADAPTABILITY AND UTILITY
195
from an underground stem, or the stem, too weak to
support
itself,
climbs by means of stout booked prickles
can raise its own foliage into the sunThe fibrous material which covers many trunks
palms makes strong cordage. It is the thread-like
up
tall trees, till it
light.
of
tissue of the leaf-stalks after the softer parts have de-
Palms which have
cayed.
to withstand severe shocks of
wind often send out roots from
for a firmer support.
their trunks
which serve
The blossoms, hanging in
graceful
sprays amid the long pendant leaves, are very beautiful.
They
are monoecious, both kinds in one tree, and the
staminate and pistillate ^re often produced in different
Wind and
years.
insects are the agents of fertilization.
times, in a high wind, a palm-tree is almost hidden
At
in a mist of pollen.
The tallest palms are the cabbage (Areca oleraeea) and
wax (^Ceroxylon), from 160 to 200 feet high. The leaves
of the beautiful Jagua palm are 16 or 17 feet in length,
and
curl
under at the
tips, like
plumes.
The cyathea, or tree-fern, resembles a palm.
in
dark forests in the West
rays,
and thrives on foul
Indies.
air,
It
It
grows
shuns the sun's
near stagnant water.
It
seems like a relic of the long-buried coal-fields, resurrected, dazzled
and blinded by the glare of our modern
epochs.
The Florida moss belongs to the order £romeliacece.
The moss, when steeped or buried till the outside rots
off,
becomes a dark, coarse
used for stuffing cushions.
fibre, like horse-hair,
To
and
is
the same order belong
the Tillandsias, whose airy blossoms are
among
the
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
196
most beautiful sights of our Carolina
forests.
The
channels of their leaves hold considerable water.
The yucca
is
a familiar sight upon our prairies.
The
spike of creamy blossoms grows from the heart of the
ravelled leaves, six feet
300 blossoms.
from
its
Such a spike may bear
tall.
The Mexican
make a soap
Though prefer-
half-breeds
bruised roots called " aniole."
ring sandy
soil, this
plant bears transplanting very well,
and thrives in our eastern gardens.
The
cacti are
animals
— the
among
plants
what the camel
With
plants of the desert.
is
among
their strong
leathery skins provided with few stomata for evaporation,
and
their fleshy, succulent leaves, they live almost
without moisture in the arid regions of Central America,
Mexico,,
and Texas.
They grow upon
lava,
almost upon
bare rocks, in great heat, where no other vegetation
can
exist.
Goats
live
on them.
Cattle rip
them open
with their horns, or kick them with their hoofs, laming
themselves in their attempts to get at the cool watery
substance within.
make
The
fruits of
delicious cooling drinks.
many
are edible, and
The stems
are round
or square, fluted or ribbed, provided at short intervals
with clusters of
of which
fine or coarse prickles,
new buds
start.
Mexicans with toothpicks,
from one
plant,
from the centre
The Visnago provides
fifty
the
thousand being taken
which may weigh a
ton.
Our only Eastern species is the Opuntia, or pricklypear cactus, whose bright yellow blossoms are familiar
to all who have climbed the highlands of New York or
New Jersey. The fruit is a juicy, pleasant-tasting (when
PLANT ADAPTABILITY AND UTILITY
199'
ripe) pear-shaped body, with a scar at the top,
which the calyx has
fruit is
stands.
from
In Southern Europe this
fallen.
much esteemed, and is sold upon the streetOne of this genus furnishes food for the cochIn
ineal insect.
New
Mexico
of the people's industries.
grown and tended
its cultivation
forms one
Fifty thousand plants are
in a single plantation, three crops of
the insect being gathered in the course of a year.
The melon-cactus
an oval body, one or two feet
is
high, producing on the
which form red
crevices,
berries.
and look very
singular.
One, the giant-cactus
height.
New
It is
summit rosy-colored blossoms,
These plants spring from rock
(^Cereus giganteus), attains great
a native of the most desolate regions of
Mexico, and grows
to be absolutely
branchless stem,
no
among rocks, where
It
soil.
there seems
sends a straight, often
fifty or sixty feet
high.
If there are
branches they grow at right angles to the stem, then
bend abruptly upward and grow
The
parallel with the stem.
flowers, three or four inches across, are of a rich
cream
color,
and spring from yellow cushions near the
summit, furnished with large and small thorns.
the fruit is ripe the outside bursts,
back
like flower-petals.
embedded
roll
Inside are small black seeds
in a reddish pulp,
gos Indians gather and
When
and the pieces
which the Pinos and Papa-
make
into a rich preserve.
The
fruit is gathered by a forked stick fastened to a long
This is a sombre plant of slow growth, living
pole.
hundred years. It forms a striking feature of
a landscape where dcsotation reigns supreme a treeseveral
—
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
200
1
gaunt
arms
poles,
not
upward,
Stretching
region.
flowerless
grassless,
less,
lonely,
erect,
their
telegraph-
like
even swaying in the wind, these
-tveird
plants are yet wonderful illustrations of plant adaptability
ure,
and the generous bounty of what we
call nat-
which touches with green even the most outcast
places.
The creeping
cereus flowers at night only.
has a
It
bright orange calyx, and delicate white petals, fourteen
inches across.
Among
tions of
It is
a native of Honduras.
the plants most flexible to changing condi-
and climate
soil
(Prosopis glandulosa).
the mesquite of
is
Texas
low wind-beaten shrub,
It is a
with delicate feathery leaves, so beautiful that
were rare
it
if
it
would stand side by side with gorgeous
palms and rare tree-ferns in our botanical gardens.
Like many another good thing,
cheap.
fields
So, in Texas, the
it
with maledictions on
leaves,
it
itself
too
out of their
enormous and tenacious
its
growth above ground.
roots, so disproportioned to its
These
has made
ranchmen grub
roots, however, together with the tenuity of its
enable
it
to hold
own
its
against the
storms, those awful " northers " of Texas.
passes through the shrub, bends
it
with wild caresses,
but cannot break the sturdy, yielding thing.
quite protects the scant grass
and protects
itself
rudest
The wind
The mes-
from the burning sun,
from too hungry
cattle
by
its
bristling thorns, while, in partnership with the grasses,
it
takes care of the cattle.
wonderful story begins.
And
(I quote
here
is
where the
from the note-book
PLANT ADAPTABILITY AND UTILITY
of a friend
who has kindly
lent it to
201
me
for this
purpose.)
"In years of drought—not uncommon in Texas—
the grasses are burned to deadness, and the
cattle
when
might
starve, the
little
mesquite bushes hold out a
bounteous crop of a sort of bean, very rich
ment, ample to carry the
bad time
;
cattle
and the curious part
in nutri-
through an otherwise
is
that the mesquite
never produces those beans at any other time.
As
if
with a housewifely eye that nothing be wasted, nature
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
202
Las placed the mesquite blossoms on sucli delicate
stems that when there are spring rains the blossoms are
beaten
off,
and the
tree stores
up its strength to produce
a double crop when the dry season comes around again.
It is
ready for the bees, too, in time of drought, spread-
ing a feast for them, which serves as well as the flowers
which might have been, producing a gum that
thing desirable as a factor for honey
;
is
every-
while in the years
when
the prairie flowers are plenty, the frugal mesquite
keeps
its
stock of sweetness well stored out of sight."
The note-book adds that San Antonio is paved with
blocks made from mesquite roots, and that these blockpavements are hard and durable, while " the
fire
that
comes out of those old gnarled and earth-stained roots,
laid in one of those wide open fireplaces of the South,
is
enough
to
make one a
Parsee."
—
XVIII
SEEDS AND FRUITS
Ovules
—^Usurpations of Ovules— Dissemination of Seeds
—
Water, and Animals Different Fruits
The True Lover of Flowers
The
tilized
in Botanical
ovule is that part of a flower which
becomes a
seed.
wall of the ovary,
It is
by Wind,
Language
when
and assumes various
positions, at-
tached to the bottom, top, or side of the cavity.
or several
may
fill
the
cell.
fer-
a projection of the inner
Considering the
One
pistil as
a folded leaf, the ovules, and of course the seeds, are
upon the enlarged margins of the
Pods and capsules, if cut across,
and viewed through the microscope, show the placentae
generally formed
leaf, called placentae.
with their seeds attached.
To determine whether
sev-
have united to produce a compound pistil,
or whether a single ovary-cell may be divided by false
Usually, as has been
partitions, is not always easy.
eral leaves
said, the ovules are
borne upon the leaf margins which
But sometimes, as in the
cell.
project into the ovary
common
water-lily, the
whole interior surface
is
covered
with seeds.
In some of our
among
the
common
ovules occur.
nuts, singular usurpations
For example, the acorn, a
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
204
single fruit,
was
originally a three - celled ovary with
two ovules in each cell. One ovule only matures and
becomes an acorn, while two cells and five ovules are
overmastered and absorbed by the one successful nut.
If all the ovules of a chestnut matured, there
twelve or fourteen in place of one.
The
would be
birch, elm,
horse-chestnut, and buckeye present like examples of
Often, indeed, the nut expanding obliter-
usurpation.
ates even cell divisions.
Many
devices are sought
secure wide dissemination.
rier of light seeds,
are
by the matured fruits to
The wind is the chief car-
and seeds of maple, ash, and birch
furnished with wings by which they are easily
lifted
and
floated
upon
These veiny, gos-
air currents.
samer-like growths are terminal,
or they surround the seed.
They
are beautiful illustrations of the
ingenuity by which plants often
accomplish
all
know
their
winged from
litter
SAMARA
our
Such a
objects.
We
the twin maple seeds,
the
apex, which
sidewalks in spring.
fruit is called a samara.
Another method of disseminais by the clinging of seeds to the coats of animals.
Such seeds are rough, or have hooks, or burs, or long
tion
hairs.
My
earliest connection
with a " sewing society "
was secured by walking purposely through
" stick - tights," as the
fruits of
little girls
clusters of
called the bur -like
desmodiums, and by picking them
off
my
dress
SEEDS AND FRUITS
205
and apron afterwards, seated demurely upon the mossy
tree.
Little did we children dream
that in our play we were fulfilling destiny.
We were
trunk of a fallen
animals acting as disseminators.
It is
by means of
bristles, or fine hairs, or scales, that
the seeds of some compositse are carried so
far,
and
members of the family made so ubiquitous.
The fine down at the end of a milk-weed or epilobium seed is a coma. It is this part of the cottonThe
seed which gives this plant its commercial value.
bur-marigold has barbed, arrow-like lances, which adhere to anything rough.
plant,
Bur-grass, a
common
Martynia
has stout savage spines.
is
water-
a plant of
South America, whose seed-vessels have large horny
tails of cattle roaming
hooks, which attach them to the
through the pampas.
Water
is
logical era
a fruit-carrying agent.
In fact, in that geo-
earth was
covered with lakes,
wh^n the
marshes and bogs,
drift material
it
which
ponds, countless
was the
germinating
The cocoa-nut palms appear
miles
shells,
medium.
sole
In the
collects along the shores of our
seeds
in
may
islands
be
found.
hundreds of
apart, because the tiny, boat -like cocoanut
with kernels enclosed, voyage safely over the
ocean waves, and are tossed up at
last
on distant
shores.
There are other small seeds which have a way of
own. They are coated with short hairs, which,
when moistened, burst and throw out long thread-like,
their
mucilaginous spiral^
These extend
in every direction,
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
206
and when
Such seeds
rains fix the seed to the soil.
it
and
are those of salvias
senecios.
In botanical language, fruit and seed are not quite
The
synonymous.
go
to form
entire pistil, or several pistils,
Other parts of the flower
fruit.
may
—the
re-
—may enter into an
ceptacle, calyx,
and even the bracts
edible
In hawthorn, apple, quince, pear, both
fruit.
calyx and receptacle adhere to the
Such
juicy and fleshy.
an apple
is its
ripened
In a strawberry
ceptacle, with
upon
its
its
mouth,
The
— dry, small
core of
fleshy re-
seeds, scattered
Turn the strawberry inside
out,
Petals and stamens are borne
and
Cherries, plums,
and
upon
fruits along its inner surface.
and peaches are stone-fruits or
In these the outer coat of the seed-vessel be-
drupes.
comes succulent, the inner hardens into a
almond
and become
we have an enlarged and
rose-hip.
pistils
pistil,
pomes.
pistil.
the akenes
surface.
you have a
fruits are
is
stone.
An
like a cherry, except that the outer coat re-
The huckleberry is not a
The edible part of the
huckleberry is the calyx grown fleshy, whose five points
may be seen above. The true seeds are enclosed in
mains dry and
juiceless.
true berry, but a tomato
is
!
hard coats, and are in fact drupes, scattered regularly
within the succulent calyx.
berries, currants,
For a berry
is
Grapes, cranberries, goose-
and even bananas, are true
a fleshy or juicy seed-vessel.
and lemons are berries with leathery
rinds.
berries.
Oranges
Melons,
squashes, cucumbers, and gourds have hard rinds, and
are classified as
pepo or gourd
fruits.
In these the
SEEDS AND FRUITS
207
edible, fleshy part is either the calyx transformed, or,
the
in
watermelon, the placentae
grown pulpy and
juicy.
A
nut is a hard, one-celled, one-seeded fruit. The
acorn - saucer, chestnut -bur, and the leafy covering of
a hazel-nut are a sort of involucre, termed a cupule.
Walnuts are something between stone-fruits and
Grains of wheat and kernels of corn are
fruits whose seed completely fills the seedcell,
nuts.
surrounded by a very thin covering.
The
fruit of buttercups
and anemones
are akenes, the latter feathery-tailed.
All these fruits are simple, that
duced from a single
pistil.
is,
When
pro-
several
we have
pistils are clustered together,
ag-
gregate fruits like the blackberry and raspberry.
In the former the separate fruits
grow on a
fleshy receptacle
ter the receptacle is
;
in
the
lat-
dry and separate from
the clustered fruits.
FEATHEKYTAILED
The wintergreen - berry is made of a
calyx grown fleshy, entirely surrounding
AKENE OF
ANEMONE
the five-celled fruity in imitation of a red
berry.
of the
The top of the calyx
way up the berry.
is easily
seen two-thirds
Partridge-berry and the fruit of twin-honeysuckle
are the union of
two blossoms into one
thus joined together, the product of
the mulberry.
fruit.
many
Several
flowers,
The blackberry and mulberry
make
are there-
fore very different in structure, the one (mulberry) being
BOTANY AS A RECREATION
208
many flowers, the other
many pistils in one flower.
(blackberry) the
the union of
union of
A pineapple utilizes and blends into one juicy mass
around the stem -axis many flowers with their bracts
and
A
all
their parts.
fig is
an inverted mulberry, that
is, it is
a multi-
tude of flowers concealed in a hollow flower -stalk,
PIXE - APPLE
which becomes pulpy and edible. The fruit of a
seems to have been preceded by no blossom.
Pine-cones are multiple
fruits.
except that the scales are thin and
When
fruits are
they are pods.
side only.
A
is
are like them,
flexible, like bracts.'
open themselves,
dry, and crack
follicle
a pod opening on one
Larkspur, columbine, milk-weed, and marsh-
marigold are examples.
the
Hops
fig
name Leguminosae
The pea-pod
is
is
a legume, and
applied to the pea family.
SEEDS AND FRUITS
209
Sometimes the pod is scalloped along the edges and
joined between the seeds, like desmodiums.
The two or more pistils of St. Johnswort coalesce
into a capsule which splits down at maturity into as
many
pieces as there are carpels.
Portulaca and purslane hold their seeds in
little
cups
from which the top may be removed like a lid. This
kind of pod is a pyxis.
The fruit of mustard is a silique in which a partition
runs lengthwise through the middle of the pod, bearing
seeds upon both sides.
It is not necessary for
pippin that
we
sweeter because
structure.
We
call it
our enjoyment of a
Newtown
a pome, nor does a rose smell
we know something
may gather a nosegay
of its botanical
of spring flowers
and take pleasure in its evanescent beauty without
knowing to what family the claytonia and hepatica belong.
Nevertheless, the truer lover of flowers must be the
botanist, rather than the ignorant girl
—
to whom
who
any flower
is
pulls daisies
a posy, to be
wear at her belt
plucked and thrown away, instead of one of the most
wonderful of the works of God, illustrating, from seed
as do the
to fruit, divine thought and plan, as much
to
starry suns in their everlasting orbits.
The mutual dependence upon each other of plants
the sister
and animals is a potent reason for studying
in a desert.
kingdom. Neither man nor plant could live
each
By the most subtle, marvellous devices, by living
u
—
BOTAifY AS A RECREATION
210
upon the other's refuse, an accumulation of conditions
which would be finally fatal to each is prevented.
The
object of the foregoing chapters has been, not a
on Botany, but to show how com-
scientific treatise
and easy
paratively simple
it is,
As
to
stated in the introductory chapter,
tion, a
is
and what a pleasure
it is,
— a great deal —about
know something
summer amusement,
earnestly
it is
plants.
as a recrea-
that the pursuit of botany
recommended.
When Agassiz was fifty years old, the anniversary
was celebrated by our poet Longfellow in beautiful
lines.
His conception
is
that in the very eady life of
the great naturalist
" Nature, the old nurse, took
The
child
Saying,
'
upon her knee.
Here
is
a story-book
Thy Father hath
written for thee.
" ' Come, wander with me,' she said,
'Into regions yet untrod;
And
read what
is
still
unread
In the manuscript of God.'
"And he
wandered away and away
With Nature, the dear old nurse,
Who sang to him night and day
The rhymes of the universe.
"And when
Or
the
his heart
way seemed
began to
long.
fail,
She would sing a more wonderful song,
Or
tell
a more marvellous
tale.''
SEEDS AND FRUITS
We,
too,
old nurse."
persevering,
211
may
-wander away with " Nature, the dear
The " story-book " is not sealed from any
Whether we regard
reverent student.
plants as commissioned to
fill
the earth with beauty
and gladness, whether to meet the wants of
insects,
or the food of animals, they certainly testify of the
One and all, the
and the smallest of them reveal His perfect
Creator's love and infinite wisdom.
largest
thoughts.
INDEX
(In the following index nearly all plants are referred to
by their
common
names)
Acacia (locust), 88
Adam and Eve, 42
Adder's-tongue, 140
Aggregate fruits, 207
Bracts, 12
Bugle- weed, 114
Burdock, 99
Bur-reed, 116
Buttercups, 112
Algae, 166
Alpine rose, 191
Angraecum, 61
Antheridia, 146
Apetalous flowers, 12
Arrangement of
leaves, 69
Arrow-leaved tear-thumb, 114
Arum family, 116
Aspidia, 148
Asplenia, 148
Asters, 96
Azolla, 142
B
Bacilli,
183
Bacteria, 183
Barberry, 93
Batrachospermum, 170
Beech-drops, 103
Birch, 188
Bladderworts, 8, 15
Blazing star, 97
Blue lobelia, 116
Botany-box, 13
196
Galopogon, 42
Cacti,
Calypso, 42
Calyx, 12
Campanula, 26
Cardinal-flower, 114
Cat-brier, 70
Cat-tails,
116
Cattleya, 31, 51
Cedars of Lebanon, 121
Cellular tissue, 61
Cephalotus, 76
Cichory, 97
Cinchona, 192
Climbiug hemp-weed, 101
Clover, 88
Club-mosses, 140
Compound flower, 96
Coral-root, 43
Corolla, 12
Crane-fly orchis,
Creeping cereus,
Gyathea, 195
43
200
INDEX
214
Hawk-weed, 99
D
Heather, 189
Heliamphora, 78
Herbarium, 17
Hibiscus, 116
Hog-peanut, 22
Holy Ghost plant, 34
Horse-chestnut, 191
Horse-tails, 136
Dandelion, 97
Darlingtonia, 78
Desmodiam gyrans, 88
Diatoms, 170
Dicotyledons, 15
Dionaea, 79
Dodder, 106
Drosera, 79
Dwarf dandelion, 99
E
Iceland-moss, 163
Indian-pipe, 104
Eel-grass, 117
Insect-lovers,
Epiphytes, 32
Ergot, 117
Eyebright, 108
F
Ferment, 182
Ferns, 143
Fire-weed, 26
168
Furze, 190
G
Galium, 114
Gentiana nivalis, 187
Georgia pine, 118
Gerardia, 64
Giant cactus, 199
Giant pines, 127
Gingko, 138
Glutton, 188
Golden-rod, 94
Guardian
Jack-in-the-pulpit, 121
-
Florida-moss, 195
Fly-agaric, 180
Forget-me-not, 111
Fox-glove, 108
Frog's-spittle,
cells,
25
Isoetes, 141
64
Gulf-weed, 166
Jewel-weed, 22
Joe-Pye-weed, 17, 101
Juniper, 124
Lady's-slipper,
Lady's-tresses,
40
47
Larger blue-flag, 117
Leaf autograph-book, 58
Lichens, 160
Liverworts, 155
Lizard's-tail, 8, 117
Lythrum, 29
M
Macrocystis, 166
Maidenliair-fem, 147
Manna, 163
Marchantia, 156, 158
Marsh-bellflower, 1 14
Marshmallow, 116
Marsh-pennywort, 43
Habenaria, 27
Hartford fern, 121, 149
Marsh
St.
John'swort, 113
Marsileas, 142-
INDEX
Masdevallia, 48
Meadow-rue, 11
215
Poison-sumac, 3
Melampyrum, 108
Pomes, 206
Pond- weed, 117
Melon-cactus, 199
Mesquite, 200
Potato-rot, 181
Protonema, 153
Mimosa,
86, 87
Mist-flower, 101
Puff-balls, 178,
181
Putty-root, 40
Mistletoe, 106
Monarda, 12
Moon wort, 140
Mosses, 161
Moulds, 182
Quillworts, 142
R
Mountain-laurel 27
Mushrooms, 179
EafBesia Arnold!, 107
Rag- weed, 100
Ram's-head
N
Nepenthes, 78
Red-snow, 169
Reindeer-moss, 162
Reid-orchis, 44
Resurrection-flower, 141
Riccia natans, 158
Odontoglossum, 61
Opuntia, 196
Orchids, 30
"
how
fertilized,
lady's-slipper,
Rattlesnake-plantain, 44
Riella,
27
Ovules, 203
Oxalis, 29
168
River- weed, 116
Robin's-plantain, 100
Root-tip, 83
Sabbatia, 26, 118
Palms, 192, 195
Pardanthus, 117
Partridge-vine, 27
Parts of a flower, 8, 11, 12
Peat-beds, 164
Peony, 23
Pickerel- weed, 115
Pileus, 178,
Pimpernel, 3
Pinguicula, 76
Pinus pinaster, 128
Pipewort, 110
Pistil,
11
Placentae, 203
Plantain-leaved everlasting, 100
Poison-ivy, 3, 4
Sagittaria, 115
Samara, 204
Sargasso, 166
Sarracenia, 77
Saxifrage, 191
Scarlet painted-cup, 12, 59
Schizea pusilla, 149
Scrophularia, 25
Sensitive-plant, 86,
87
Sequoias, 127
Shepherd's-purse, 190
Showy
lady's-slipper,
Skull-cap, 114
Skunk-cabbage, 116
Slender blue-flag, 117
Sneeze-weed, 97
41
41
INDEX
216
Sow-thistle,
Viper's-bugloss, 17
Virginia-creeper, 85
91
Spores, 145
Stamens, 12
Stemless lady's-slipper, 40
Stinging-nettle, 10, 11
Stomata, 63, 64, 65
Sundew, 1
Sunflower, 97, 100
W
Water-avens, 113
"
lily, n, 59
"
plantain, 116
White golden-rod, 95
99
Thoroughwort, 101
Tillandsia, IS, 19
Tree-fern, 144
Tree sea-weed, 166
Tway-blade, 47
Thistle,
"
"
"
pine, 127
snake-root, 101
weed, 99
Wild bergamot, 12
'.'
lettuce,
99
Wind-lovers, 24
Wistaria, 27
Wood-sorrel, 14
U
Utricularia, 9
Yeast, 173
Yellow-rattle, 108
Vanda, 62
Yew, 124
Vanda
Yucca, 196
Venus's fly-trap, 74
Yenus's looking-glass, 22
Vernonia, 98
Zoospore, 176
Lowii, 35
Vanilla orchid, 38
Violets,
Zygnema, 168
22
THE END
\\x^
v;\-\V,-\>,'^N'ivS:oS^-:-\*v\\\W.vv\\^>S^^^^
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Related manuals

Download PDF

advertisement