White Paper 600V 650V 1200V CoolSiC™ Schottky Diodes Generation 5 SMPS Circuit Designs

White Paper 600V 650V 1200V CoolSiC™ Schottky Diodes Generation 5 SMPS Circuit Designs
thinQ!™ Silicon Carbide Schottky Diodes:
An SMPS Circuit Designer’s Dream Comes True!
Dr. Christian Miesner, Product Marketing Manager Silicon Carbide,
Dr. Roland Rupp, Project Manager Development Silicon Carbide,
Holger Kapels, Discrete Development Manager,
Michael Krach, Project Manager Silicon Carbide,
Dr. Ilia Zverev, Concept Engineering Manager
ABSTRACT
Infineon Technologies AG has introduced a brand-new family of nearly ideal semiconductor
rectifiers: the Silicon Carbide (SiC) Schottky diodes. This paper describes the basic properties of the
novel Silicon Carbide semiconductor material in relation to market requirements and application
benefits. Now commercially available, the SiC Schottky diodes display unique behavior with a
blocking voltage up to 600 Volts (V). The behavior is described here with special emphasis to the
ideal switching characteristics. These characteristics are enabled by the absence of reverse recovery
charge and current in these diodes. Finally, key applications of the SiC Schottky diodes are
described and system optimization options such as miniaturization and part count reduction are
indicated.
THE DRIVING MARKET FORCE FOR A
UNIPOLAR DIODE WITH HIGH
BLOCKING VOLTAGE
System miniaturization—the reduction of system
size and weight—is a significant trend in electronics. Miniaturization is primarily, but not exclusively, being driven by the increasing number of
portable applications. In most portable electronic
devices, the dimensions and weight of the power
supply make it the predominant part of the whole
system. For example, in a typical portable computer, the power supply accounts for more than
10% of the total weight of the system. As a result,
all manufacturers of Switch Mode Power Supplies
(SMPS) have defined roadmaps to increase the
power density in their products.
The two major approaches to implementing these
roadmaps are:
•
•
Reducing the size of passive components (by
increasing the switching frequency and/or
reducing the size of EMI filters through low
noise generation)
Reducing the power losses and the
corresponding cooling effort (heat sink and/or
fan)
To achieve these goals, the main semiconductor
power components must achieve a significant
reduction of switching power losses. For this
reason, unipolar semiconductors such as
MOSFETs and Schottky barrier diodes are
replacing bipolar devices. The beauty of unipolarity
is the absence of stored charge carriers and,
therefore, theoretically instantaneous switching
transients limited only by small parasitic capacitances.
Power MOSFETs, such as CoolMOS™ &
OptiMOS™, can be found with a wide range of
blocking voltage from 20 V to 1000 V. On the other
hand, today’s Schottky barrier diodes have a
maximum blocking voltage of 250 V due to the
characteristics of the Silicon (Si) or Gallium
Arsenide (GaAs) base material. The main reasons
for this limitation are:
•
•
•
Very high leakage currents, especially at higher
temperatures, because the reverse losses are
comparable to the forward losses
Strong increases in the area specific onresistance Ron,A with breakdown voltage Vbr2.5
Increases of the chip also increases the
reverse losses
The input stage of an off-line SMPS usually
requires devices rated in the range of 500 – 600 V.
Thus, a strong and unsatisfied need exists for
Schottky barrier diodes beyond the blocking
capabilities of established semiconductors such as
Si and GaAs.
page 1
Silicon Carbide devices belong to the so-called
wide bandgap semiconductors, so the voltage
range for Schottky diodes now can be extended to
more than 1000 V. This is possible because of
benefits specifically related to the SiC material:
•
increases from about 0.9 mΩcm2 at room temperature to 1.8 mΩcm2 at 150°C. This positive
temperature coefficient makes Schottky diodes well
suited to implementations in parallel—without the
risk of thermal runaway.
12
Forward Current [A]
SILICON CARBIDE SCHOTTKY
DIODES SATISFY MARKET
REQUIREMENTS
Low leakage currents are possible because the
metal semiconductor barrier is two times higher
than that of Si
Very attractive, specific on-resistance compared to Si and GaAs Schottky diodes is
possible because of tenfold breakdown field
strength (see Figure 1)
High current densities are possible and allow
very small die sizes, because the thermal
conductivity is more three times larger than that
of Si (i. e. comparable to copper)
•
8
6
4
2
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Forward Voltage [V]
3.5
4
1,E-04
Leakage Current [A]
•
T=25˚C
T=100˚C
T=150˚C
T=225˚C
10
Figure 1 shows the minimum specific on-resistance
of Schottky diodes based on different semiconductors versus the desired blocking voltage (only
drift region, substrate contribution to the resistivity
is neglected).
The ends of each line symbolize the usable voltage
range for the specific semiconductor.
T=25˚C
T=100˚C
T=150˚C
T=225˚C
1,E-05
1,E-06
1,E-07
SDP06S60
1,E-08
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Reverse Voltage [V]
Specific on Resistance [Ω cm²]
1,E-01
Fig. 2: 6A/600 V SiC Schottky Diode Temperature
1,E-02
Dependence of Forward and Reverse Characteristics
1,E-03
1,E-04
1,E-05
1,E-06
DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF SiC
SCHOTTKY DIODES CLOSER THAN
EVER TO IDEAL DIODE
Si
SiC
GaAs
10
100
1000
When switching off a Schottky diode, there is no
need to remove excess carriers from the n-region
as there is for pn diodes. Hence, there is no reverse
recovery current. Instead, only a displacement
current for charging the junction capacitance of the
diode can be observed. This is shown in Figure 3.
Up to very high frequencies, the current transient
depends solely on the external switching speed.
The charge transported by the displacement current
is very low compared to the reverse recovery
charge Qrr for pin diodes. Due to the different origin
of this charge, we have named it Capacitive Charge
Qc .
10000
Blocking Voltage [V]
Fig. 1: Comparison of On-Resistances and Blocking
Voltages
SiC ENHANCES SCHOTTKY DIODE
BENEFITS TO A WIDELY EXPANDED
VOLTAGE RANGE
SiC Schottky diodes offer a very low specific onresistance with high rated voltages. Figure 2
illustrates the typical forward and blocking
characteristics of 600 V SiC Schottky diodes up to
225 °C. Unlike Si and GaAs Schottky diodes, there
is only a moderate increase in leakage current with
increasing temperature. The area specific differential on-resistances of a 600 V SiC-Schottky diode
Figure 3 compares SiC Schottky Diodes to benchmark Si diodes: Si pin double diodes (2*300V serial
in one package) give better reverse current than
ultrafast Si pin benchmark diodes, but have much
higher forward voltage drop. The Capacitive Charge
Qc and the switching power losses of SiC Schottky
diodes are not merely ultra low compared to Silicon
page 2
ultra fast diodes. Losses in Si diodes depend
strongly on dI/dt, current level, and temperature;
but, in SiC diodes, they are more or less
independent on these boundary conditions. See
Figure 4. A dependence of Qc on these parameters
cannot be seen at the same scale as with a
benchmark Si diode. Again, this is due to the
capacitance-like behavior of this device in reverse
direction.
10
8
APPLICATIONS
Two application examples are discussed in this
paper. The focus is on efficiency and system
benefits derived from using a SiC diode instead of a
conventional semiconductor diode. The two
applications are:
•
T=125˚C, VDC=400 V
IF=6 A, di/dt=200 A/µs
6
values of the benchmark Silicon solution (IF: rated
forward current of the respective device).
•
4
I [A]
2
Power Factor Correction in SMPS
(Boost Converter)
0
Worldwide, rapidly increasing requirements for
power factor correction are driven by legal
requirements. Boost converters are usually used to
achieve active power factor correction. They can be
driven in Discontinuous Current Mode (DCM) and
Continuous Current Mode (CCM).
The DCM solution does not require an ultra fast
diode, but has the following drawbacks:
-2
-4
-6
SiC Schottky diode: SDB06S60
Si pin double diode (2*300 V)
Ultrafast Si pin diode
-8
-10
0.07
0.1
0.13
0.16
0.19
0.22
0.25
•
Time [µs]
•
•
Fig. 3: Switching Comparison of SiC and Benchmark
Si Diodes
Si pin double diode (2*300 V) @ 2*IF, 125˚C
Si pin double diode (2*300 V) @ IF, 125˚C
160
All circuit components must be oversized
because of the high peak currents
The system becomes unstable at light load
A complex EMI filtering system is necessary
The CCM solution does not have these
disadvantages. The circuit components do not need
to be oversized, system operation is stable also
under a light load, and the requirements on the EMI
filter are less rigid than in the DCM case. However,
the power losses in the MOSFET and in the diode
due to reverse recovery dramatically limit the
efficiency and switching frequency of a CCM boost
converter when a conventional or ultra fast Si pndiode is used. See Figure 5.
180
140
120
Q [nC]
Power Factor Correction in SMPS (Boost
Converter)
Secondary Side Rectification (Rectification of
the output voltage of an SMPS)
100
80
60
SiC diode 600 V @ 2*IF, 150˚C
SiC diode 600 V @ IF, 150˚C
40
20
0
0
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
di/dt [A/µs]
Fig. 4: Capacitive Reverse Charge QC of a 6A/600V
SiC Schottky Diode
Figure 4 shows the capacitive reverse charge QC of
a 6A/600V SiC Schottky diode under different
switching conditions. It is compared with the Qrr-
Because SiC Schottky diodes do not exhibit reverse
recovery behavior, the stress on the MOSFET will
be reduced due to very low current spike during the
turn-on transient. A less expensive MOSFET can
be chosen while simultaneously achieving higher
reliability of the entire system. The efficiency shows
a virtually independent behavior regarding
frequency due to very low total switching power
losses (Fig. 5), that are ideally suited to CCM.
Boost converters can therefore be operated at
much higher switching frequencies. The size
reductions of the boost inductors extend the horizon
in power density—with a correspondingly strong
impact on the inductor cost.
page 3
As shown in Figure 6, the filter has its maximum
impedance (i. e. highest damping efficiency) in the
frequency range from 300 kHz to more than 1MHz.
120%
100%
100%
24 mm
20%
0%
100
The main and higher harmonics of a boost
converter running at 300 – 500 kHz will be filtered
with the maximum efficiency and, therefore, the
increase of switching frequency to 300 – 500 kHz
does not create a need for additional EMI filtering;
whereas, the electrical noise can be even reduced.
The properties described above now give circuit
designers a new degree of freedom in optimizing
PFC applications by:
33%
39%
price
40%
price
60%
price
80%
300
500
Switching Frequency [kHz]
Efficiency
93%
91%
•
•
89%
87%
85%
SiC
Si double diode
Ultrafast Si
83%
81%
79%
•
•
•
•
CCM boost
POUT = 400 W, VIN = 85 VAC
SPP20N60C
77%
75%
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Increasing the switching frequency
Reducing the size of passive components like
inductors
Shrinking the size of semiconductor switches
Shrinking or avoiding heat sinks
Increasing the reliability
Increasing the power density
Products:
Chip/Package
600 V/6 A
600 V/4 A
400
Switching Frequency [kHz]
TO220-2-3
TO263
D-PAK
Fig. 5: Efficiency of a PFC boost converter and
inductor size/price vs. switching frequency
Does higher switching frequency create EMI
challenges? The EMI norm regulation begins at 150
kHz, so the main harmonic of the boost converter
can be well inside this range. One will suspect
complications achieving the EMI norm in case of
higher switching frequency. Figure 6 shows the
impedance of a typical current-compensated double
choke inductor depending on the frequency.
Z
Ω
105
Secondary Side Rectification
(Rectification of the output voltage of
an SMPS)
An SMPS with an output voltage of 48 V (e.g. for
Telecom applications) requires 250 – 300 V rated
rectifiers on the secondary side. The trend to higher
switching frequencies in the main converter is in
strong contrast with the poor dynamic properties of
the existing Si diodes on the secondary side. The
GaAs Schottky diodes used today are commercially
available up to a blocking voltage of 250 V.
Replacing the GaAs with SiC Schottky diodes is
now very attractive because:
•
104
•
•
maximum
inductor type A
103
inductor type B
Products:
Chip/Package
300 V/10 A
300 V/2x10 A
inductor type C
inductor type D
inductor type E
inductor type G
104
SiC Schottky diodes have low leakage currents
and only a small temperature dependence for
this leakage
Their higher blocking capability (300 V instead
of 250 V) improves the reliability
SiC diodes are a very cost-effective alternative
to GaAs diodes
105
inductor type F
106
TO220-2-3
TO263
107
f
[Hz]
Fig. 6: Filter impedance vs. Frequency
page 4
Ordering No. B112-H7804-X-X-7600
Printed in Germany
WS08015.
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