Collision Avoidance through AIS
Automatic
Identification Systems
(AIS)
What is AIS?
An automated autonomous system
for the exchange of navigational
information between suitably equipped
vessels and shore stations using
distinct messages and operating on two
designated marine VHF channels.
AIS Reports
Port Info
Local Data
(Tides, Current,
Weather)
Administration
(Pilots, Berth
Assignments)
Ship to Ship
AIS Reports
VTS
Control
Center
DGPS
Corrections
AIS Reports
Port Info
Plus Aids To Navigation and SAR Aircraft
How did we get AIS?
International Maritime
Organization (IMO)
Maritime Safety Committee
ITU: International Telecommunications Union (UN)
Frequency Mgmt and ICT Performance Standards
IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission (non-Govt)
Standards such as IEC 61162 interfacing protocols and
AIS equipment standard
IHO: International Hydrographic Organization (Inter-Govt)
All matters related to hydrography incl. Chart standards
IALA: International Assoc. of Lighthouse Authorities (non-Govt)
Navigational Standards (Aids To Navigation – VTS - AIS!)
NMEA: National Marine Electronics Association
(non-Govt)
NMEA 0183 and NMEA 2000 protocols
RTCM: Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services
(non-Govt)
U.S. Radar Standards for UTVs, FCC EPIRB standards,
DGPS interface (SC104)
Why do we need AIS?
Creates a much improved situational
awareness for the Navigators by
overcoming the inherent limitations of
sight, VHF voice and radar for collision
avoidance – regardless of vessel size
How does AIS work?
The heart of the system is a
transmission protocol called Self
Organizing Time Division Multiple
Access (SOTDMA).
This protocol is what allows AIS to
be autonomous and continuously
operational.
SO-TDMA
60 Seconds
2250 Slots
A
AIS-1
AIS-2
A
B
B
B
26.67 ms
1 Slot = 256 Bits
C
C
C








C ...
A
A
...
Identity
Position
Speed over Ground
Course over Ground
Heading
Rate of Turn
Navigation Status
Time Stamp
Due to the anticipation of far more
non-regulated vessels than regulated
vessels, the Maritime Safety Committee
commissioned the technical
organizations to develop an alternative
system that we know as Class B.
Class A – Regulated Vessels
Uses the SOTDMA protocol
2- to 10-second Interval while Underway
3 Minutes while at Anchor
Supplemental Data at 6-minute Intervals
12.5 watt transmitter
Class B – non-Regulated Vessels
Uses a CSTDMA protocol which politely interweaves
with Class A transmissions
30-second Interval while Underway >2 knots
3 Minutes while at Anchor
Supplemental Data at 6-minute Intervals
2 watt transmitter
SOTDMA
60 Seconds
2250 Slots
A
AIS-1
AIS-2
A
B
B
B
26.67 ms
1 Slot = 256 Bits
C
C
C








C ...
A
A
...
Identity
Position
Speed over Ground
Course over Ground
Heading
Rate of Turn
Navigation Status
Time Stamp
AIS Nav Broadcasts
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Latitude (both Classes)
Longitude (both Classes)
Speed over Ground (both Classes)
Course over Ground (both Classes)
Position Accuracy (both Classes)
Time Stamp (both Classes)
MMSI Number (both Classes)
True Heading (A requirement - B only if available)
Rate of Turn (class A only)
Navigation Status (class A only)
DSC receiver fitted Y/N? (Class B only)
AIS Supplemental Broadcasts
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MMSI (both Classes)
Radio Call Sign (both Classes)
Name (both Classes)
Type of Ship/Cargo (both Classes)
Dimensions of Ship (both Classes)
Location of Reference Point (both Classes)
IMO Number (class A only)
Type of Position Fixing Device (class A only)
Draught of Ship (class A only)
Destination (class A only)
ETA at Destination (class A only)
Vendor ID (class B only)
Installations
SN Circular 227
Installation Considerations
VHF Antennas and cabling
GPS Antennas
Equipment Interfaces
Ship’s Power Sources
Pilot Plugs
A very important difference about VHF antennas
The AIS frequencies are on the high end of the VHF-FM
band (@ 162 mhz). Because of this, the standard marine
VHF antennas are not manufactured for optimum
performance at those frequencies.
Use the proper antenna for best performance
 VHF Antenna
 Possibly Integrated GPS
Antenna
. Main VHF
Antenna
 6’ Feet from Conductive
Objects
 Ideally 6’ Directly above
or below VHF
6'
Minimum
AIS VHF
Antenna
 Otherwise 30’ Horizontal
Separation
SN Circular 227
The IMO Safety Nav Circular 227 recommends the use
of RG-214 coax which is a double screened coax cable which
has better shielding capabilities (3% more).
As a matter
RG-58
RG-8 Mini
RG-8
RG-214
of comparison, here are the
@ 50 ft
3.0 db loss
@ 50 ft
2.3 db loss
@ 50 ft
1.2 db loss
@ 50 ft
1.2 db loss
four common types:
50% loss
40% loss
20% loss
20% loss
GPS Antennas
The suggested mounting is one which gives a
complete sky view from 5 degrees above the horizon
to 90 degrees (the zenith).
SN Circular 227
Interconnection Cabling
All interconnection cables used to interface NMEA 0183 inputs
from external GPS units, Gyrocompasses, Satellite Compasses,
Speed Logs, and the like should use shielded pair type cables.
DC voltage drops <3%
Class A units: ~5 A @ 24 vdc
10 awg for 50 ft
Class B units: ~2 A @ 12 vdc
14 awg for 25 ft
For Class A systems, the IMO recommendation SN Circ 227 is
that the unit should be connected to an Emergency Source.
For IMO vessels, this means the Emergency Generator to which all
the Communication and Navigation equipment is to be
connected to.
In addition, an Supplement to the Recommendation also
requests that the AIS be connected to a UPS to ensure that the
switchover from Main to Emergency does not shut the AIS down
Required for Class A – Ships on International Voyages
Pin
Signal
1
Transmit A
4
Transmit B
5
Receive A
6
Receive B
9
Shield
Configuration
Preferred
Data
Acceptable
NMEA 0183 Sentence Format
Reference Datum
DTM
Positioning System:
Time of Position, Latitude / Longitude, Position
Accuracy
GNS,
GLL
GGA, RMC
Speed over Ground (SOG)
VBW
VTG, OSD, RMC
Course over Ground (COG)
RMC
VTG, OSD
Heading
HDT
OSD
RAIM Indicator
GBS
Rate of Turn (ROT)
ROT
NMEA Input Sentences for Class A units
Vessel Data
Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) Number
Vessel Name
Vessel Type and Cargo Type
GPS Antenna Location/Reference Position/ Dimensions
IMO Number (Class A fittings)
Radio Call Sign (if assigned)
Distance (meters)
A
A
0 – 511 m
511 m = 511 m or Greater
B
0 – 511 m
511 m = 511 m or Greater
C
0 – 63 m
63 m = 63 m or Greater
D
0 – 63 m
63 m = 63 m or Greater
GPS/Reference
Location
B
C
D
As the final check of the system, make sure that
you have entered all the Static information
correctly.
USCG Alert # 05-10
“AIS is only as good as the information provided
and exchanged, therefore, users must ensure
their unit is always in effective operating
condition and broadcasting accurate information”
Confirm with another vessel or shore station
that they can receive your vessel’s info
correctly and that you are seeing others
as well before you leave the vessel.
Take the time to teach the Customer how to
operate the AIS and how to decipher what it is
telling the Navigator.
Don’t assume they will ‘figure it out’ – especially
when they get into the Voyage data fields
(destinations, cargo type, etc)
Remind them that it is an AID to navigation
www.nmea.org
www.navcen.uscg.gov
www.iala-aism.org
www.imo.org
www.panbo.com
United States Coast Guard
Office of Navigation Systems
Providing navigation
safety information for
America’s waterways
Jorge Arroyo
Program Analyst
U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters
Washington, DC
International Boat builders’
Exhibition and Conference (IBEX)
October 17th, 2011
Louisville, KY
Automatic Identification System (AIS)






U.S. AIS History
Regulations…Who? Where? When?
AIS Update
Application Specific Messaging
AIS @ www.navcen.uscg.gov
Questions & Answers
AIS History & Timeline
WRC’97
AIS1 Ch.87B
AIS2 Ch.88B
SOLAS
V/19.2.4
IMO
ITU-R M.1371-1
MSC 74 (69)
Technical
Performance
2002 IMO
Diplomatic
Conference
SOLAS
V/19.2.4
IEC 61993-2
Testing &
Certification
1990---------1994--------1997----1998----1999----2000----2001----2002---2003--2004
OPA
’90
ADSSE
ITU-R
M.825-3
National
Dialog
Group
105th
Congress
Marine Board
Ports &
Waterways
Study
VTS LMR
Public
Meeting
FCC
Notice
DA-02-1362
MTSA - 11/02
Interim - 7/03
Final - 10/03
Deadline - 1/04
What started the USCG on AIS?
In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act
which participation in VTS mandatory and
directed the USCG to seek ways to have
‘dependent surveillance’ of all tankers bound for
Valdez, Alaska.
To that end, in 1993 the USCG developed
Automated Dependent Surveillance Shipboard
Equipment (ADSSE), based on Digital Selective
Calling (DSC) protocol.
Congress supports/mandates AIS!
In 1997, Congress…stated that AIS
“technology should be the foundation of any
future VTS system” and that it “strongly
believes that this technology will
significantly improve navigational safety, not
just in select VTS target ports, but
throughout the navigable waters of the
U.S”, and, that we “continue working with
stakeholders…”
H.R. Rep. No. 236, 105th Cong., 1st Sess. (1997)
Industry endorses AIS!
In 1999, the National Dialog Group, comprised of the marine
private and public representatives, stated they:
“strongly endorse the widespread use of AIS
employing dGPS and onboard transponder
technologies…that national use of AIS technology on
the greatest number of vessels is essential both as a
foundation of a VTS system…improving navigation
safety…strongly urge the USCG to take the lead…in
developing equipment and procedural standards that
will promote universal use of AIS technology”, which
will “be less intrusive and distracting to the mariner
than will a voice-based control system…”
AIS Timeline
WRC’97
AIS1 Ch.87B
AIS2 Ch.88B
SOLAS
V/19.2.4
IMO
ITU-R M.1371-1
MSC 74 (69)
Technical
Performance
2002 IMO
Diplomatic
Conference
SOLAS
V/19.2.4
IEC 61993-2
Testing &
Certification
1990---------1994--------1997----1998----1999----2000----2001----2002---2003--2004
OPA
’90
ADSSE
ITU-R
M.825-3
National
Dialog
Group
105th
Congress
Marine Board
Ports &
Waterways
Study
VTS LMR
Public
Meeting
FCC
Notice
DA-02-1362
MTSA - 11/02
Interim - 7/03
Final - 10/03
Deadline - 1/04
Towards an AIS-based VTS
In an effort to facilitate vessel transits, enhance
good order, promote safe navigation, and improve
upon existing operating measures on the waterway.
The USCG proposed to establish a Vessel Traffic
Service on the Lower Mississippi River and transfer
certain vessel traffic management provisions on the
river.
By implementing a proposed transition to VTS in a
phased manner which would allow for the orderly
transition from existing regulations and practices to
operating procedures appropriate to an AIS-based
VTS.
• Ref: 65 FR 24616, Apr. 24, 2000
Mandated by Congress in 2002
•Marine Transportation & Security Act of 2002
Commercial self-propelled vessels 65 feet or
greater;
-
- Towing Vessels over 26 feet or greater and 600
hp or more;
- Passenger vessels as determined by USCG; and
- those the USCG deems necessary for safety.
AIS Carriage Regulations 33 CFR 164.46
The following must have a properly installed, operational, type-approved AIS
• On international voyage:
 Tankers, Passenger > 150 GT, all others > 300 GT
 Per SOLAS Regulation V/19.2.4
 Self-propelled commercial vessels > 65 feet
 Except fishing and small passenger vessels (<150 passengers)
• Within a VTS area:
 Self-propelled commercial vessel 65+ feet
 Except fishing & small passengers vessels
 Towing vessel > 26 feet and > 600 hp
 Vessel certificated to carry > 150 passengers
AIS Rulemaking




•
•
[Changes in Bold-type]
Estimated Expanded
AIS Population
Ships >65ft
10/23/03 current AIS requirement published (33 CFR 164.46)
Freight Ship
298
Industrial Ship
748
MODU
210
OSV
553
Research Vessel
97
School Ship
19
Tank Ship
122
Unclassified
385
Unknown
541
07/01/03-01/09/04, 3 meetings & comment period re: AIS expansion
10/31/05, agenda entry re: expansion of AIS to all navigable waters
12/16/08, NPRM published; 04/15/09, comment deadline
Proposed compliance date: NLT 7 month after Final Rule
(73 FR 78295)
AIS prices: Class A, $2,800-5,000; Class B, $700-1,500
• Installation cost will vary by display options & interfacing
Fishing >65ft
SOLAS requires interfacing to GPS, THD, ROT, back-up power
Potentially could effect 17,442 vessels/14,506 small biz’s, i.e.
•
•
2,973
•
Commercial self-propelled vessels of > 65 feet
•
No exclusions
•
Towing vessels > 26 feet and > 600 hp
•
Vessels with > 50 passengers (vice 150 for hire)
•
•
•
Hi-Speed vessels with > 12 passengers for hire
Certain dredges & floating plants, &
Vessel moving certain dangerous cargoes
5,520
Documented
4,571
Undocumented (est.)
949
Towing >26ft & >600hp
4,560
Passenger
3,235
>65ft
2,167
<65' but >50 pax
1,062
>30kts & >12 pax for hire
6
Dredges
35
Total (U.S.)
Foreign Flag >65ft
Total (All)
16,323
1,119
17,442
U.S. AIS Carriage Population
Vessel Service
Fishing Boat
SOLAS
IR 7/1/02
FR 11/23/03
NPRM 12/16/08
1
749
-
154
77
77
298
21
11
11
748
1
-
-
210
Offshore Supply Vessel
55
433
432
553
Passenger Vessel
81
576
171
3,235
Public/Research/School
10
18
16
116
102
15
15
122
Towboat/Tug
13
2,215
2,212
4,560
Dredge
-
-
-
Other
-
11
13
385
Unknown
-
16
16
541
Cargo Ship
Industrial Vessel
MODU
Tank Ship
Foreign
5,520
35
1,119
>65'<300GT
Totals
438
4,121
2,963
17,442
AIS Certification Standards Update
• IEC 61993-2 Class A published in 2001
-Edition 2 completed – publication 2012
• IEC 62287-1 Class B published in 2006
-Edition 2 published – 29 Oct 10
• IEC 62320-1 AIS base station published in 2007
• IEC 62320-2 AIS AtoN base station published in 2008
• IEC 61097-14 AIS SART published in 2009
-Their use became permissible 1/1/10
• IEC 62287-2 Class B SOTDMA
-Still in development – publication 2012
AIS SART – GMDSS Search and Rescue AIS Transmitter
NEW PRODUCT – Part of GMDSS from Jan. 2010:
- Alternative to traditional radar SART, for use in life boats / rafts
- Location is automatically shown on electronic chart / ECDIS
- Each AIS-SART has a unique code, unlike radar-SART & 121.5, thus
many in the same area will not overload the search system.
- Transmit 1 burst of 8 transmissions every minute, using SOTDMA
- 1 W ERP output / 96 hours operation
Key West Trials Aviation Results
160
140
20,000 ft
120
10000 ft
5000 ft
Detection Range in NM
100
1000 ft
80
60
40
20
0
406 EPIRB
121.5 Homer
Radar SART A
AIS EPIRB
AIS SART
AIS PLB
AIS SART on VESSEL
ITU-R M.1371 AIS Message Descriptions - Applications
ID#
1,2,3
Position Reports – autonomous (au), assigned (as), or interrogated (in)
A
U
A
S
I
N
x
x
x
Slots
1
4
Base Station Report – UTC/date, position, slot nr.
5
Class A Report - static and voyage related data
x
x
x
2
Binary Message – addressed, acknowledge or broadcast
x
x
x
5/2
SAR aircraft position report
x
x
x
1
UTC/Date - enquiry and response
x
x
1
Safety Text Message – addressed, acknowledge or broadcast
x
x
5/2
15
Interrogation – request for specific messages
x
x
1
16
Assignment Mode Command
17
Binary Message – DGNSS Correction
6,7,8
9
10,11
12,13,14
x
x
1
x
1
x
1
x
2
x
1
18,19
Class B Reports – position & extended
20
Data Link Management – reserve slots
21
ATON Report – position & status
22
Channel Management
23
Group Assignment
24
Class B-CS Static Data
25
Binary Message - single-slot
1
26
Binary Message - multi-slot (STDMA)
5
x
x
x
x
x
2
1
1
x
1
Application Specific Message Format
Meteorological & Hydrological Reporting
• Improves the overall safety & efficiency of
marine traffic
• Some in place since 2002
AIS can transfer data via binary messages…
• Provides a means to use other applications
• Encode application on the transmission side
• Decode application on the receive side
• Sent as either General or Addressed broadcast
• Addressed messages (MMSI-to-MMSI)
receives an acknowledgement that the binary
message was received
IMO SN/Circ.236
AIS BINARY
GUIDANCE
4-YR TRIAL
PERIOD
May 2004 - 2008
IMO SN/Circ.236 ASM’s
 Met/Hydrological*
 Dangerous cargo indication*
 Fairway closed*
 Tidal window*
 Extended ship static & voyage-related data*
 Number of persons on board**
 VTS-generated/synthetic targets**
IMO SN/Circ.289
AIS ASM
GUIDANCE
22 ASM’s
IMO SN/Circ.289 ASM’s
 Clearance time to enter port
 Marine traffic signal
 Berthing data
 Weather observation report from ship
 Area notice – broadcast & addressed
 Extended ship static and voyage-related data*
 Dangerous cargo indication*
 Environmental Data
 Route information – broadcast & addressed
 Text description – broadcast & addressed
 Meteorological and Hydrographic [sensor] data
 Tidal window
Future ASM developments…
•
•
International Assoc. of Marine Aids to Navigation & Lighthouse Authorities (IALA)
Guidelines & Recommendations

E-Navigation Committee, Portrayal Working Group

Maintaining an AIS ASM catalogue
Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM) Standards

Special Committee 121 - AIS ASM

Special Committee 129 - Navigation Portrayal

Special Committee 109 – Electronic Chart Systems
• U.S. Coast Guard

To expand our AIS ASM test beds to Louisville KY and with USACE LOMA effort

To expand mandatory AIS carriage to all U.S. waters

To require ECS and its integration with AIS (including ASM’s)

To provide NOAA PORTS via NAIS
www.e-navigation.nl/asm
Future ASM developments…
•
•
International Assoc. of Marine Aids to Navigation & Lighthouse Authorities (IALA)
Guidelines & Recommendations

E-Navigation Committee, Portrayal Working Group

Maintaining an AIS ASM catalogue
Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM) Standards

Special Committee 121 - AIS ASM

Special Committee 129 - Navigation Portrayal

Special Committee 109 – Electronic Chart Systems
• U.S. Coast Guard

To expand our AIS ASM test beds to Louisville KY and with USACE LOMA effort

To expand mandatory AIS carriage to all U.S. waters

To require ECS and its integration with AIS (including ASM’s)

To provide NOAA PORTS via NAIS
NOAA’s
Real-Time PORTS®
Locations
NOAA
P.O.R.T.S.
Physical
Oceanographic
Real-Time
System
AIS ASM NOAA PORTS Portrayal
Future ASM developments…
•
•
International Assoc. of Marine Aids to Navigation & Lighthouse Authorities (IALA)
Guidelines & Recommendations

E-Navigation Committee, Portrayal Working Group

Maintaining an AIS ASM catalogue
Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM) Standards

Special Committee 121 - AIS ASM

Special Committee 129 - Navigation Portrayal

Special Committee 109 – Electronic Chart Systems
• U.S. Coast Guard

To expand our AIS ASM test beds to Louisville KY and with USACE LOMA effort

To expand mandatory AIS carriage to all U.S. waters

To require ECS and its integration with AIS (including ASM’s)

To provide NOAA PORTS via NAIS
Meteorological & Hydrological Reporting
• Improves the overall safety & efficiency of
marine traffic
• Some in place since 2002
USACE RTCV
Real-time
Current - Velocity
System
Lock Order
•
•
Used by Saint
Lawrence
Seaway since
2002
Improves
efficiency,
lock
utilization,
mitigates
racing & wait
time
Area Notice
circle or point
(Geo-referenced Information)
rectangle
sector
polyline
polygon
associated text
Area Notice Descriptions
Anchorage Area: Anchorage closed
Anchorage Area: Anchorage open
Anchorage Area: Anchoring prohibited
Anchorage Area: Deep draft anchorage
Anchorage Area: Shallow draft anchorage
Anchorage Area: Vessel transfer operations
Cancellation – cancel area per Msg Linkage ID
Caution Area: Cluster of fishing vessels
Caution Area: Derelicts (drifting objects)
Caution Area: Divers down
Caution Area: Dredge operations
Caution Area: Fairway closed
Chart
Chart
Chart
Chart
Chart
Chart
Chart
Chart
Chart
Chart
Chart
Caution Area: Fishery – nets in water
Clearance granted – proceed to berth
Instruction: Do not proceed beyond this point/juncture
Caution
Caution
Caution
Caution
Distress Area: Person overboard
Distress Area: Pollution response area
Distress Area: SAR area
Distress Area: Vessel abandoning ship
Other – Define in associated text field
Proceed to this location – await instructions
Report from ship: Icing info
Report from ship: Miscellaneous information
Area: Harbour closed
Area: Marine event
Area: Marine mammals habitat
Area: Marine mammals in area – reduce speed
Feature: Bridge partially open
Feature: Channel obstruction
Feature: Reduced vertical clearance
Feature: Semi-submerged object
Feature: Shoal area
Feature: Shoal area due east
Feature: Shoal area due north
Feature: Shoal area due south
Feature: Shoal area due west
Feature: Submerged object
Feature: Sunken vessel
Environmental Caution Area: High wind
Environmental Caution Area: Storm front (line squall)
Environmental Caution Area: Storm warning
Information: Icebreaker waiting area
Information: Location of response units
Information: Pilot boarding position
Information: Places of refuge
Information: Position of icebreakers
Instruction: Await instructions prior to …
Instruction: Contact Port Administration here
Instruction: Contact VTS at this point/juncture
Caution Area: Marine mammals in area – report sightings Distress Area: Vessel collision
Restricted Area: Active military OPAREA
Caution Area: Marine mammals in area – stay clear
Restricted Area: Drifting Mines
Distress Area: Vessel disabled and adrift
Caution Area: Protected habitat – no fishing or anchoring Distress Area: Vessel fire/explosion
Restricted Area: Entry approval required prior to transit
Caution Area: Protected habitat – reduce speed
Caution Area: Protected habitat – stay clear
Caution Area: Risk (define in Associated text field)
Distress Area: Vessel flooding
Distress Area: Vessel grounding
Distress Area: Vessel listing/capsizing
Restricted Area: Entry prohibited
Restricted Area: Firing – danger area.
Restricted Area: Fishing prohibited
Caution Area: Seaplane operations
Distress Area: Vessel requests medical assistance
Restricted Area: No anchoring.
Caution Area: Survey operations
Caution Area: Swim area
Caution Area: Traffic congestion
Caution Area: Underwater operation
Caution Area: Underwater vehicle operation
Chart Feature: Bridge closed
Chart Feature: Bridge fully open
Distress Area: Vessel sinking
Distress Area: Vessel under assault
Environmental Caution Area: Heavy icing
Environmental Caution Area: Restricted visibility
Environmental Caution Area: Strong currents
Environmental Caution Area: Hazardous sea ice
Environmental Caution Area: High waves
Rouge or suspicious vessel
Route: Alternative route
Route: Recommended route
Route: Recommended route through ice
Security Alert – Level 1/2/3
Vessel requesting non-distress assistance
VTS active target
www.navcen.uscg.gov
www.navcen.uscg.gov
www.navcen.uscg.gov
AIS Class A & B
Comparison
Class A
Class B/CS
Transmit Power
2w
12.5w / 2w (low-power)
Reporting Rate
2 - 10 sec - speed and/or course dependent
30 sec. fixed
Communication
Protocol
SO-TDMA
Self-Organizing amongst Class A's
CS-TDMA
Carrier-Sense(s), polite to Class A’s
Frequency Range &
Bandwidth
156.025 -162.025 MHz @ 12/25 kHz
DSC Required
161.500 - 162.025 MHz @ 25 kHz
DSC & 12.5 kHz Optional
Position Source
External GNSS & Internal GPS
Internal GPS
Digital Interfaces
2 Input-Output Ports & Multiple Outputs
Optional
Display
Multiple Keyboard Display (MKD)
Optional
Safety Text
Messaging
Receive & Transmit
Transmit Optional & Pre-configured
Data
All
No Rate of Turn, Navigation Status,
Destination, ETA, Draft, IMO#
CG Type-Approvals
22 Models - 16 Manufacturers
8 Models - 8 Manufacturers
Approximate Cost
$2,800 - 4,000
$700 - 1,500
www.navcen.uscg.gov
www.navcen.uscg.gov
www.navcen.uscg.gov
www.navcen.uscg.gov
www.navcen.uscg.gov
www.navcen.uscg.gov
USCG
AIS
Report
Form
www.navcen.uscg.gov via ‘Contact Us’ tab
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