Part 15 - cd3wd415.zip - Offline

Part 15 - cd3wd415.zip - Offline
MICROFICHE
REFERENCE
LIBRARY
A project of Volunteers in Asia
Sheep Health Handbook
by Thomas R. Thedford
Published by:
Winrock International
-Route 3
Morrilton,
Arkansas
USA
72110
Available from:
same as above
Reproduced by permission.
Reproduction of this microfiche document in any
form is subject to the samerestrictions as those
of the original document.
Sheep Health
Handbook
A Field Guide for Producers
with Limited Veterinary
Services
bY
Thomas
R. Thedford,
DVM
A WINROCK INTERNATIONAL
lniormational
Printed
Services Publication
in Collaboration
with
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
@1983 by Winrock
International
This
handbook was prepared
and published
under
Matching Grant Agreement No. PDC-0182-G-SS-1086-00
with 'the United
States
Agency for International
Development
(USAID), Office
of Private
and Voluntary Cooperation.
About the Author
Dr. Thomas R. Thedford
is Extension
Veterinarian
and Professor
of Veterinary
Medicine
and Surgery at
the College of Veterinary
Medicine,
Oklahoma State
University.
During his N-year
career in research,
teaching,
and extension,
Dr. Thedford has published
a wealth of scientf:‘ic
and applied
information
on
veterinary
medici ce and
animal
diseases
and
health.
professional
assignLong- and short-term
and Lh2 Caribbean
have contributed
ments in Africa
to his knowledge
and experience
in diagnosis
and
treatment
of tropical
animal diseases.
In 1982,
Dr. Thzzdford accepted a one-year
leave irom Oklahoma State University
to assume leadership
in the
preparation
of various
training
materials
and aids
at Winrock International,
including:
Manuals
Goat Health Handbook: A Field Guide for
ducers uith Limited Vezerinarg Services
Slide
Pro-
Presentations
Paz*asites oj' Small Huminants
Bhetonyue in Sheep
Epididymitis
in Hams
Sore Mouth in Goats and Sheep
Abscesses in Goats and Sheep
These publications
are
International.
Technical
vices, Route 3, Morrilton,
available
from:
and Informational
AR 72110, USA
i
Winrock
Ser-
Preface
The world's
sheep population
reached an es'.imated 1,132 million
in 1982.
Approximateiy
634
million
head, 56% of the total
population,
are
found in developing
countries
primarily
in small,
crop/livestock
farms and in-livestock
herds kept by
pastoralists.
Sheep products
contribute
substantially
to the well-being
of millions
of families
:'.iving in developing
countries
as annual production
of sheep meat,
milk,
wool and skins in these countries
amounts to 2.7, 4.3, 0.54 and 0.55 million
tons,
metric
respectively.
Production
of these
commodities
varies
in importance
from one developing region to another,
so does the contribution
of
sheep to the total
regional
supply
of meat and
milk.
In North Africa
and the Middle East,
for
example,
sheep provide
nearly
one-third
of the
Zotal meat supply.
Other developing
regions where
sheep contribute
substantially
to the meat supply
include
the Indian
subcontinent
and Central
and
Southern Africa.
Although
an important
sheep are
economic
resource
in many developing
countries,
major gaps
in definition
of polfcy
issues
regarding
sheep
production
improvement/development
programs
still
exist
at local,
regional
and international
levels.
Also, evidence of neglect
in applied
research
and
dissemination
of information
is reflected
in gaps
in knowledge and adapted technologies
necessary
to
improve productivity
of sheep at the sma!l
farmer/
producer level.
Production
constraints
related
to
sheep nutrition,
health,
breeding,
management and
product
marketing
have
been identified,
but have
yet to be addressed and coordinated
action taken to
remove them.
Disease is a major factor
responsible
for low productivity
of sheep in the humid and subhumid tropics.
High mortality,
poor growth,
loss
of weight,
failure
and other
condireproductive
tions
caused by disease
can change an otherwise
into
a
profitable
sheep
production
activity
the
for
marginal
or
situation
unprofitable
producer.
ii
Winrock
International,
in
its
efforts
to
improve productivity
of small ruminant
(sheep and
goats) production
systems in deveLaping
countries
has committed
substantial
institutional
resource;
to the dissemination
of information
and to the
provision
of technical
and training
services
in
this
specialized
area of livestock
production.
This handbook is one of a series
of informational
and training
materials
prepared
in the area of
sheep diseases
and health.
The handbook
is
intended
for use in countries
or localities
where
there is limited
or no access to veterinarians.
It
is specifically
designed
to assist
agricultural
development workers and extension
personnel
in the
execution
of sheep production
improvement
programs
and producer training
activities.
Andres Martinez,
Ph.D.
Winrock International
c
iii
Acknowledgments
This effort
could not have been successful
without
the assistance
of many people.
I wish to
thank the staff
of Winrock International
for their
support,
understanding,
and interest
in this
endeavor.
Speciai
thanks are extended to those involved in ed.iting,
Jim Bemis and Essie Raun; layout
and proofing,
Barbara Scott and Venetta Vaughn; art
Shirley
Zimmerwork, Suzanne Spears: and typing,
Galloway,
Tammie Chism,
man, Darlene
and Jamie
Whittington.
I wish to thank my colleagues
in the College
of Veterinary
Medicine at Oklahoma State University
for their
assistance
in editing
and suggestions.
Especially
I want to thank Dr. A. Alan Kocan for
his assistance
in the parasitology
section,
Dr.
George Burrows for assistance
in the therapy area,
and Dr. Eric I. Williams
for his sharp editorial
eye and general assistance
as to content and clarity.
Also, I wish to thank Mrs. JoAnn Lunsford
for
reading
the manuscript
for clarity
and for keeping
it nontechnical
enough to be well understood
by lay
people.
Lastly,
none of this could have been possible
without
the assistance,
understanding,
patience,
and love of my family.
My greatest
thanks and love
go to my wife,
Nancy, and my daughters,
Becky and
Miriam.
My final
comment goes to you, the reader and
handbook will
assist
you in
user.
I hope this
developing
a more productive
world animal agriculture with healthier
animals.
This is my goal.
Thomas R. Thedford,
iv
DVM.
Contents
About
the Author
Page
ii
Preface...................
Acknowledgments
i
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
............
Using this Bandbook.
Normal Sheep Physiological
Data ......
Examining the Sheep for Disease Symptoms.
...........
Examination
Checklist
Diagnostic
Guides to Diseases and
Symptoms, An Example for Using the
...................
Guides
Nervous System. ..............
Diarrhea
and Loss of Appetite,
Young
........
Animals (Under 4 Months).
Diarrhea
and Loss of Appetite,
Older
Animals (Over 4 Months) .........
Blood Loss and Paleness of Mucous
Membranes ................
Hard Breathing,
Fevtr,
and Poor Appetite.
........
Lameness and Poor Appetite.
Inability
to Stand. ............
Scabs or Scales on Skin ..........
Abscesses or Infected
Spots on the Skin
i .....
..........
and Body.
Itching
and Hair Loss ...........
...........
Spontaneous Abortion.
Failure
to Lamb or Malformed Lambs. ....
.........
Chronic Wasting Diseases.
Conditions
of the Eye ...........
Carcass of Diseased Animal (No More Than
6 to 8 Hours After Death) ........
Causes, Treatments,
Bacterial
Diseases:
...............
and Prevention
Anthrax ..................
................
Brucellosis
...........
Caseous Lymphadenitis
V
iv
.
6
7
9
10
.
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
20
21
22
23
24
24
25
27
--Page
Causes, Treatments,
Bacterial
Diseases:
and Prevention
(cont.)
............
Chlamydial
Abortion
..............
Colibacillosis.
...........
Contagious Agalactia.
...............
Enterotoxemia
.........
Follicular
Conjunctivitis
FootRot ..................
Johne's Disease ..............
................
Listeriosis
Malignant
Edema ..............
.................
Mastitis.
................
Meliodosis.
Pneumonia .................
...............
Polyarthritis
.............
Ram Epididymitis.
...............
Salmonellosis
..............
Streptotricosis
Tetanus ..................
.................
iribriosis
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
Causes, Treatments,
Viral
Diseases:
...............
and Prevention
................
Bluetongue.
..............
Border Disease.
Contagious Ecthyma. ............
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). .......
Nairobi
Sheep Disease ...........
........
Peste Des Petits
Ruminants.
Progressive
Pneumonia ...........
Rabies ...................
Rift Valley Fever .............
Scrapie ..................
Sheep/Goat Pox. ...............
............
Wesselbron Disease.
Metabolic
Diseases:
Causes, Treatments,
................
and Prevention
Acidosis/Indigestion/Impaction/Choke.
Allergies/Insect
Stings ..........
Vf
48
48
49
50
51
52
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
...
60
60
61
Page
Causes, Treatments,
Metabolic
Diseases:
and Prevention
(cont.)
Bloat..........;
. . . . . . . .
Colostrum Deprivation
e . . . . . . . . . .
Grass Tetany.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Milk Fever. . . . ,
. . . . . . . . . . .
Physical
Injury/Wounds/Burns/Fractures.
. .
Polioencephalomalacia.
. . . . . . . . . . .
Pregnancy Toxemia . . . . . .
. . . . . .
62
64
65
65
66
68
68
Parasitic
Diseases:
Causes, Treatments,
...............
and Prevention
..............
Blood Parasites
..............
Anaplasmosis.
...............
Babesiosis.
...............
Heartwater.
.............
Trypanosomiasis
............
Internal
Parasites
...............
Coccidiosis
Flukes or Flatworms ...........
Stomach and Intestine
Roundwcrms. ....
Tapeworms ................
Whipworms ................
Lungworms ................
..............
Toxoplasmosis
............
External
Parasites
Lice ...................
Mange ..................
Ringworm. ................
and Other Pests ......
Ticks,
Flies,
71
71
71
72
72
73
75
75
76
76
78
81
81
81
83
83
83
84
85
l
l
Therapy . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . .
Drug Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Figure Dosage of Drugs . . . . .
Approximate
Weights and Measures
. . .
Treatment for Scours or Diarrhea
. . .
Grain Overload Formula
. . . . . . . .
Foot Bath Mixtures
. . . . . . . . . .
Drugs for Controlling
Internal
Parasites.
Antibiotics
and How to Use Them . . . .
Other Common Drugs. . . . . . . . . . .
vii
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. .
87
87
88
89
89
91
91
93
95
96
Techniques
. . . . . , . . . . . .
Sterilizing
Instruments,
and Needles . . . . .
Syringes,
Injection
Sites . . o . . . - . .
Equipment and Procedures for Giving
Medicine by Mouth . . . . . . .
Castration.
. . . . . . . . . . .
Docking . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Foot Trimming
. . . . . . . . . .
Lancing (Opening) Abscessts
. . .
Collection
of a Urine Sample. . .
Rectal and (or) Vaginal Prolapse
. . . . .
97
. . a . .
. . . . .
97
97
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . . . 99
. . . . 101.
. . . . 102
104
. . . . 104
. . . . 105
. . . . 106
.
l
.
Birth
and the Newborn ............
Birth Stages, Procedures,
............
and Complications
..........
Problems with Delivery
..........
The Breech Presentation
Elbow Lock. ................
...........
Removal of Afterbirth
.
107
107
110
112
113
113
Appendix
I.
II.
III.
IV.
Map of World Regions Where No
Incidence
of Specific
Diseases
Has Been Reported.
. . . . . . . . . .
115
Other Sources of Information
on
Diseases of Sheep . . . . . . . . . .
116
Glossary
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
117
. . . . . . . . . . . . . o . .
123
Index
viii
Using This Handbook
You are
urged to seek the assistance
of a
veterinarian
and the use of a diagnostic
laboratory
whenever possible.
This guide has been designed to
assist
with
sheep health
care problems
in areas
that have limited
veterinary
services.
The basic
aim is simple:
you should be able to recognize
a
sick sheep in the early stages of the disease process.
If a sick sheep does not die within
the
usually
recover without
first
3 to 5 days, it will
treatment.
While it is sick,
however, it does not
gain weight or produce milk,
and the disease
can
spread to many other animals.
Thus, even if death
losses are low, the producer's
economic losses may
be high.
These losses can be decreased considerearly
diagnosis
ably
through
and treatment.
A
rapid recovery
reduces the chance of the disease
spreading to other animals,
as do isolation,
vaccination,
and other preventive
measures.
1; is hoped
that
you will
use this
guide
as part
of a
care
systematic
diagnosis
and heal tb
process,
rather than for reference
only.
Remember that diagnosis
and treatment
are extremely
complex tasks.
Diseases vary greatly
in
severity,
both from disease
to disease and within
various
forms of the same disease.
An observed
condition
may have more than one cause.
This makes
it difficult
to determine
a diagnosis
solely
from
the symptoms.
The information
in this guide will
not allow you to make a specific
diagnosis
in most
cases.
However, it can help you to identify
symptoms and narrow the range of diseases
for treatment.
The handbook is divided
into five major sections:
1.
The Diagnostic
Guides will
help you to easily
identify
a small number of diseases
that are
the most probable
causes of the symptoms that
you have observed.
The detailed
Disease
Descriptions
will
allow
2.
you to reduce the number of potential
diseases
provide
appropriate
treatment,
even further,
and take preventive
measures to avoid further
spread of the disease.
the treatment
of sheep diseases.
It provide?
information
on dosage and administration.
In
addition,
this section
includes
some formulas
that are useful in treating
sick sheep.
4.
Techniques of treatment
are described
and illustrated.
This section
covers such techniques as the sterilization
of instruments
and
oral
administration
of medicine,
and techniques of normal health
care such as castration and foot trimming.
5.
The section
on Birth and the Newborn describes
the procedures
for both normal and difficult
deliveries,
with
illustrations.
It
also
covers pre- and post-delivery
care.
In addition
to the main text,
the Appendices
include
a map showing regions of the world where no
incidents
of specific
diseases
have been reported.
This will
assist
you in determining
a reasonable
diagnosis.
contain a list
of
Also, the Appendices
other sources of information
on diseases of sheep,
a glossary
and an index.
Normal
Sheep Physiological
Data
Temperature:
39.5C * .5C (103F)
Heart rate:
70 to 80 per minute,
faster
for lambs.
Respiration
rate:
15 to 19 per minute,
faster
for
lambs.
Rumen movements:
1 to 1.5 per minute.
Onset of heat (estrus):
7 to 12 months, depending
on nutritional
condition.
Length of heat (estrus):
30 to 36 hours
14 to 19 days--average
Heat cycle (estrous
cycle):
16.5 days.
Most wool breeds show estrus only in fall.
Tropical
breeds will breed all year.
Length of gestation:
144 to 151 days--average
146
days.
Temperature
Subnormal
Conversions
C
38.0
38.5
F
100.4
101.3
2
..,
_I
C
39.0
39.5
40.0
Normal*
Slight
Fever
High Fever
104.9
105.8
40.5
41 .o
106.7
107.6
or higher
41.5
42 .O
F = (C x 9/5) + 32
C = (F - 32) x 5/9
* The body temperature
is related
to stress,
exercise,
and the environmental
temperature.
If
sheep are excited,
severely
exercised,
or the day
is very hot or humid, let the animal calm down
and retake the temperature.
Examining
the Sheep for
Disease
Symptoms
You should
observe
all
animals
at
least
daily.
Look for sheep that show such symptoms as
lagging
behind the flock,
poor appetite,
diarrhea,
limping,
breathing
hard or fast,
grunting,
grinding
of teeth,
or other unusual behavior.
If you spot
any of these signs,
you will
want to make a more
detailed
examination.
Examination
1.
2.
Checklist.
(Take written
notes)
Look at the undisturbed
animal
from a distance.
Note the general condition
and age of
the sheep.
Can it
stand?
Does it
walk
normally?
Can it see?
Is it bumping into
objects?
Does it exhibit
signs of pain?
Is
it bloated?
Are there swollen
areas?
Count
respirations
per minute (one count equals a
complete in-and-out
movement of air).
Approach the sheep.
It should be held by an
assistant
by the neck and body and rolled
into
a sitting
position.
Do not chase the sheep or
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
handle it
roughly
as this
will
cause false
temperature,
pulse, and respiration
readings.
To take the sheep's
temperature,
shake the
thermometer
down, insert
it into
the sheep's
rectum,
and leave it for 3 minutes.
Compare
the sick sheep's temperature
to normal sheep
physiological
data (above).
Place your fist,
palm, or fingertips
on the
left
flank and feel for rumen movements.
Also
note if the sheep reacts
as if in pain.
If
the rumen feels
slushy or water-filled,
this
should be noted.
Place fingertips
on both sides of lower rib
cage and feel
for the heart
rate.
Count
heartbeats
for 1 minute.
The pulse may also
be taken by feeling
the big artery
on the inside of the rear leg and above the hock.
Roll back the eyelids
and lips of the mouth to
observe color
of mucous membranes.
Pink is
normal,
except when dark skin colors
extend
into the mouth.
The color
of the inside
of
the lips
of the vulva also may serve as an
indicator
of paleness.
Feel over the sheep's body to locate swellings
and/or signs of pain.
Check for blindness.
Move a hand toward the
eye, but do not fan the air because a blind
sheep will
blink if it feels air movement.
If
the hand is moved straight
toward the eye,
blinking
will
occur only when the sheep can
see.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Note any unusual sounds.
Wheezing or coughing
could indicate
a respiratory
problem.
Grindor grunting
indicate
general
body
ing teeth
pain, either
in the chest or abdomen.
Check all body openings
to see if the sheep '
has diarrhea,
excessive
salivation,
a runny
nose (note whether the discharge
is clear or
cloudy),
and crusty or runny eyes.
When examining
a lactating
ewe, always check
the udder.
Look for clots
or bloody milk.
Feel for hard knots, heat, or signs of a painful udder.
To detect
abnormal sounds of the abdomen and
chest areas of a sheep, a stethoscope
should
4
be used.
If one is unavailable,
place your
ear against
the sheep's chest or abdomen and
listen.
Having made notes of the abnormal signs that
you have observed,
you can turn to the Diagnostic
Guides that follow
this section.
Check your notes
against
these Guides.
The symptoms that you have
noted will
probably
fit
closely
with some of the
general
symptoms described
by the Guides.
You
should now have reduced the number of possible
diseases.
To narrow the number even further,
read the
detailed
description
of each disease that you have
identified
as a possible
cause.
5
Diagnostic Guides to Diseases and Symptoms
An Example
for
Using
the Guides
The sheep is a 2-year-old
ewe.
The body
temperature
is 41C (106~).
The ewe is limping
on
the right
foreleg,
lagging
behind the flock,
and
not eating well.
She is drinking
water.
No joli.nts
are obviously
swollen.
The heart
rate is 80 per
minute and the respiration
rate is 18 times per
minute.
The lame foot is found to be badly overgrown on the sidewall
and very smelly.
Therefore,
the major symptoms include
a lame right
foreleg,
poor appetite
but drinking
water,
fever,
but respiration
and heart beat are in high normal range, and
sidewall
of hoof is overgrown and smelly.
Now turn to the Diagnostic
Guides.
Guide 6
deals with
lameness and poor appetite.
Reading
down the Guide, we can pick out specific
diseases
that seem to fit
the observed symptoms.
For this
example, we can use:
brucellosis,
foot and mouth
disease,
and foot rot.
In the Diseases section,
we find more specific
descriptions
of the symptoms and diseases.
We can
begin to eliminate
some of the possible
causes.
Brucellosis:
Sheep with this disease have an
abortion
as the primary
symptom and usually
have
good appetite.
Can be eliminated.
Fcot and Mouth Disease:
If small blisters
or
erosions
are not detected
on the dental
pad or
between the toes, then this too could be eliminated
as possible
cause.
Foot Rot:
Fits
most
symptoms.
Rotten
smelling
sidewall
of hoof
indicates
that
this
disease is the most likely
cause of the illness.
The next step is to turn to the table on drugs
(Therapy)
to select
one for the treatment
of foot
rot.
Final
Note:
professional
Always
seek
veterinary
help
if
available;
symptoms of many
diseases are very much alike and require
laboratory
tests,
postmortem
examinations,
and mDre trailing
than we can provide
in this handbook.
Also read
the complete description
of the disease.
It could
be important
to human health.
6
.
:
Diaqnostic
Guide
1:
Nervous
System
Symptoms
Head
pressing
Circling
Other
Sometimes
Sometime6
Usually
affect6
animal6 less
than 1 year old.
Very depressed.
Head pulled back. Grinds teeth.
Usually
fatal.
No
Yes
Yes
Fever.
Twitching
eyelids.
Tongue out.
Very depressed.
Affects
all ages. Few die if
treated.
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Fever.
Drooping ear.
Tongue
out.
May abort if nervous
symptom6 develop.
Usually
fatal.
39
No
NO
No
41
Yes
No
Sometime6
Disease
Causative
agent
Page
Convulsions
Blindness
Entrrotoxemia
B
31
Yes
Usually
Heartwater
P
72
Yes, after
1 or 2 days
Listeriosis
B
35
Mcliodosis
B
Polyarthritis
B
R = bacterial;
V = viral;
M = metabolic;
P = parasitic.
not
No
Sometime6
signs
Jerking,
trembling
All ages affected.
movements.
Few die.
Fever.
Enlarged navel stump
(if very young).
May be depressed with a poor appetite.
50% to 60% die.
Diagnostic
~-
Guide
Nervous
1:
System
(continued)
Symptom6
---
Causative
agent
Page
Convulsion6
Polioencephalomalacia
M
68
Rabies
V
Scrapie
Tetanus
Disease
Blindness
Head
pressing
Circling
Other signs
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No fever.
54
Yes
No
Maybe
Maybe
Fever.
May be very excited or
very depressed.
Strange bleat.
Chews on objects.
May be very
aggressive or dumb acting.
age6 are affected.
fatal.
V
56
No
No
No
No
Excited in early stages.
Severe itching.
Eats well.
Incubation
period will
run
from 1.5 to 5 years.
B
i5
Yes
No
Maybe
Usually
Young animals show
muscle tremors, grind teeth,
roll eyes, no appetite.
Respond well if treated.
a3
B = bacterial;
V = viral;
M
= metabolic;
P = parasitic.
not
Sawhorse appearance.
Excited
and stiff
when touched. Fever.
No appetite.
Usually
associated with a wound about 2
week6 old.
Guide
Diagnostic
2:
Diarrhea
and Loss
of Appetite,
Young
Animals
(Under
4 Months)
syJr*oms
Disease
Causative
agent
Dehydration
Pulse
rate
Respiratory
rate
Page
Coccidiosio
P
75
None
Normal
Normal
Diarrhea may be bloody.
Sudden death
may occur with or without diarrhea.
Colibacillosis
B
29
Severe
Normal
Normal
Dry mouth.
Stomach full of gas.
Usually fever.
High death loss
unless treated.
Colostrum deprivation
(Hypogammaglobinemia)
M
64
Some
Normal
Normal
Dry mouth. Fever.
May have swollen
enlarged navel stump, weakjoints,
ness.
Most die.
Enterotoxemia
B
31
None
Normal
Normal
Full
Internal
P
75-82
None
Increase
Increase
May have swelling
under chin, paleness, severe weakness.
Sudden
death may occur before diarrhea
develops.
B
43
Some
Normal
Slight
increase
Diarrhea may be bloody
mucous cast6 on it.
par.lsites
Salmonellosis
B = bacterial;
V = viral;
M = metabolic;
P = parasitic.
Other signs
stomach and fever,
usually.
or have
Guide 3:
Diagnostic
Diarrhea
and Loss
Older
of Appetite,
Animals
(Over
4 Months)
Symptoms
Dehydration
Pulse
rate
Resfiiratory
rate
60
Severe
Weak
Increased
Full stomach, watery contents.
Diarrhea
Very weak. May not be
(watery,
bad smell).
No rumen movement.
able to stand.
62
None
May
Labored
Full stomach with gas or froth.
develops after 24 hours.
Disease
Causative
agent
Page
Acidosis
M
Bloat
M
increase
signs
Diarrhea
Coccidiosia
P
75
None
Normal
Normal
Acute diarrhea usually
Severe straining.
Enterotoxemia
B
31
None
Normal
Normal
Full stomach and fever,
death common.
Internal
P
75-82
None
Increased
Increased
May have swelling
under chin, paleness,
severe weakness. Sudden death may occur
before diarrhea develops.
Nairobi sheep
disease
V
52
None
Normal
Increased
Fever.
Bright
Runny nose.
with some blood.
Abortion.
Peste des petits
ruminants (PPR)
V
5’2
None
/'Increased
Increased
Fever.
Rift
V
55
None/
RapId,
weak
Increased
Fever.
tion.
B
43
Yes
Rapid
Increased
High fever.
Bloody diarrhea
green diarrhea.
w
0
parasites
Valley
Salmonellosi6
B = bacterial;
c
Other
fever
V = viral;
M = metabolic;
/
P = parasitic.
with
signs
usually.
of blood.
Sudden
green diarrhea
Raw, red areas around mouth.
Sores on cheeks and tongue.
Abor
High death loss in young lambs.
or yellow
or
Diagnostic
Guide
4:
Blood
Loss
and Paleness
of Mucous
Membranes
Symptoms
Page
Red
urine
Yellow
membrane6
Pulse
Other signs
P
71
No
Yes
Rapid and weak
Slight
pation.
Anthrax
B
24
Yes
No
Rapid and weak
Milk may be bloody.
Bleeding from body
openings.
Death in 24 to 48 hours.
Babesiosis
P
72
Yes
No
Rapid and weak
Slight fever.
Poor appetite.
diarrhea,
dark red urine.
Coccidiosis
P
75
No
No
Usually
affected
Acute, bloody
straining.
diarrhea.
P
75-82
No
No
May be rapid
and weak
Good appetite
very severe.
(usually)
Diarrhea
P
73
No
No
May be rapid
and weak
Depressed appetite.
poor condition.
Causative
agett
Anaplasmosis
Disease
c
w
internal
parasites
Trypanosomiasis
B = bacterial;
V = viral;
M = metabolic;
P = parasitic.
not
fever.
Poor appetite.
Consti-
Bloody
Weak.
Severe
until
symptoms are
(usually).
Chronic
weight
loss,
DiagnOStiC
Guide
5:
Bard
Breathing,
Fever,
and Poor
Appetite
Symptoms
z
Disease
Causative
agent
Page
Anthrax
B
24
Pulse
rate
Nasal
discharge
Cough
Fast,
weak
Bloody
No
Increased
Nostril
plugged
Sometimes
Lame. Erosions in mouth and on tongue.
Red band at hoof line.
Abortion,
dummy, or
deformed lambs.
Other signs
Bleeding
from body openings.
Death within
24 to 48 hours.
Bluetongue
V
48
Internal
parasites
(primarily
lungworms)
P
75-82 Normal
Slight
Severe
Usually no fever
Poor condition.
Meliodosis
B
39
Fast
Thick,
crusty
Pus
No
Skin 6bSCeSSeS.
Peste des petits
ruminants (PPR)
V
52
Fast
Dry-clear
Sometimes
Raw areas in mouth.
Pneumonia (all
B, V, P
40
Fast
Runny,
clear
Yes
Tongue out.
Rapid exaggerated movements of
ribs, raspy sounds from lungs.
Grunting,
groaning,
and grinding
teeth from pain.
clear
Usually
not
Scab6 over body that
Develops pneumonia.
types)
t0’
Sheep/goat
pox
V
57
Normal
Runny,
t0
B = bacterial;
V = viral;
M = metabolic;
P = parasitic.
PUS
PUS
in uncomplicated
Develops
leave
cases.
pneumonia.
scar
(pit).
P
Diagnostic
Guide
6:
Lameness
and Poor
Appetite
Symptoms
e
W
Disease
Causative
agent
joints
Page swollen
Bluetongue
V
48
Brucellosis
B
Colostrun deprivation
(Hypogammaglobinemia)
Contagious
Age
Recovery
Other
No
6 months
or older
Most
High fever.
Erosion in mouth and on tongue.
Nasal discharge.
Red baud at hoof.
Abortions, dummy, or deformed lambs.
25
Sometimes
Adult,
age
Sometimes
Appetite good.
May see repeat breeding in
Aborewes and swollen testicles
in males.
tion.
M
64
Yes
up to 2
months
Not common,
80% die
Diarrhea.
B
30
Yes
Adult
lamb
With treatment
Severe mastitis
in adults.
Eye infection,
fever, and sore joints
in lambs.
V
51
Usually
not
MY age
Very slowly
Small blisters
and erosions between toes,
teats, and mouth.
Raw areas.
Fever.
Degree
of sickness varies with type of virus.
Foot rot
B
33
Usually
not
With treatment
Sole and sidewall
Foot swollen.
Bad odor.
rotten.
Mastitis
B
37
No
Adult
With treatment
Swollen,
Meliodosis
B
39
Yes
by
Usually
Skin abscesses.
Poiyarthritis
B
41
Sometimes
Young
Yes, in 2-4
weeks
May see eye problems.
abort.
agalactia
Foot and mouth
B = bacterial;
disease
V = viral;
M = metabolic;
P = parasitic.
any
and
female
age
signs
Large navel
hot,
painful
stump.
udder.
Pregnant
Fever.
appear
Fever.
ewes may
Diagnostic
Guide
7:
InabTlity
to
Stand
Symptoms
Causative
agent
Page
Colostrum deprivation
(Hypogammaglobinemia)
M
64
First
after
Grass tetany
M
65
Milk
M
M
Disease
fever
Pregnancy toxemi3
(Ketosis)
B = bacterial;
V = viral;
Age of animal and
time of occurence
Attitude
Other
Convulsion
or flat
on side, *Y jump
when touched
Fever.
May press head or circle.
Enlarged joints.
Large navel
stump.
6 months and
older (grazing
new growth,
lush grass)
May be aggressive
Trembling,
some bleating.
May
appear after fertilization
of
pasture with potash in cool, wet
No fever.
weather.
65
Adult (1 week
before and after
lambir.g)
Very pnssive,
head
on side, no control over uuscles
Subnormal temperatures.
May appear
as general muscular weakness and
trembling
before going down.
68
'Adult (3 weeks
before lambing)
Legs may be
stretched
behind
them
May
M = metabolic;
3 weeks
birth
P = parasitic.
signs
lose muscle control.
Poor
Most die unless they
appetite.
lamb. No fever.
Diagnostic
Guide 8:
Scabs or Scales
on Skin
Symptoms
Disease
Contagious
External
ecthyma
parasites
Causative
agent
Description
of lesion
and location
Page
V
50
P
83-66 Various symptoms due to specific
type of parasite
to help determine which is involved.
P
84
Rough circular
over the body
V
57
Scabs over body that
leave a scar (pit)
Scabs are more visible
in areas having short
hair.
No appetite,
depression.
Very sick.
B
44
Thick crusty scabs matted
in the hair over body
Yellow pus under scab--leaves
may bleed.
Other
Thickened areas on gums,
around south, or on
teats
signs
Depression,
fever, poor appetite.
Usually
affects
lambs.
Lambs may show symptoms on rear leg.
Affected
ewes commonly develop mastitis.
involved.
See text
on all
types
L
Ringworm
Sheep/goat
pox
Streptotricosis
(Dermatophilosis)
B = bacterial;
V = viral;
M = metabolic;
P = parasitic.
areas all
Sometimes occurs on udder.
No fever.
Normal appetite.
Diffuse
lesions may occur over the body.
raw, granular
(or no)
pit
that
Diagnostic
Guide 9:
Abscesses or Infected
Spots
on the
Skin and gody
Symptoms
Description
and
location
of lesion
Disease
Causative
agent
Page
Caseous lymphadenitis
B
27
Large knots and
abscesses located on
body at lymph nodes,
(see figure
13)
Fever (sometimes),
usually
May show chronic debilitating
(wasting).
?lalignant
B
36
Spots of
tion at
Swollen
streaks
spot.
Fever.
No appetite.
not treated.
Mastitis
B
37
Hot, hard, painful
udder; may be black
with dead tissue.
Consistency
of milk
changed.
Fever.
May show lameness.
appetite.
Meliodosis
B
39
Abscesses on body and
swollen joints
May appear as pneumonia.
Fever.
Poor appetite.
Coughing.
Staggering.
edema
B = bacterial;
V = viral;
M = metabolic;
severe infeca wound.
and sore.
Red
outward from
P = parasitic.
Other signs
in adults.
form
Very ill.
Fatal
if
May have poor
Diagnostic
Guide
i0:
Itching
and Bair
Loss
Symptoms
Disease
Allergies/insect
stings
Causative
agent
Page
Age
M
61
All
V
56
P
85
Death
Other
If animal dies, it is
usually
within
first
15 minutes.
Bumps over whole body.
Shock. Weakness. Trembling.
Thickened skin.
May not show
hair loss.
Affects
2 to 6
year old sheep
100% death
Normal appetite.
No fever.
Very poor condition.
Slow
death (6 months).
All
Screwworms and
severe infestations
can cause death.
ages
signs
4
Scrapie
Ticks,
flies,
B = bacterial;
and other
V = viral;
pests
M = metabolic;
P = parasitic.
ages
loss
Bloody areas.
Anemia.
Infections
where bitten.
Diagnostic
Iii
hide
11:
Spontaneous
Abortion
Symptoms
Other areas of
body involved
Disease
Causative
agent
When abortion
Page occurs
Bluetongue
v
48
Early.
First
50-100 days
Not common
Erosions on
tongue and mouth.
Lameness with
red ring at top
of hoof.
Deformed or dummy lsmbs at term.
Border disease
V
49
Final 50 days of
gestation
No
None
Lambs born with
straight
hair.
Swollen joints.
25
Final 50 days of
gestation
Rare
Joints sometimes
swollen
Slightly
28
Final 50 days of
gestation
Rare
None
May not keep up with flock.
Slightly
reduced appetite.
High percentage of flock will
abort.
Very low
percentage
Mouth,
teats
Ears drooped,
tongue out,
head press
Brucellosis
Chlamydial
(EAE)
abortion
Death in ewe
Foot and mouth disease
v
51
Early
Listeriosis
B
35
At any time (may
be only symptom)
Rare (when
abortion
occurs)
V
52
During
Rare
Nairobi
sheep disease
B = bacterial;
V = viral;
M = metabolic;
in disease
sickness
P = parasitic.
feet,
Other signs
reduced
excessive
Shaking.
appetite.
Increased
Fever.
No appetite.
pulse
rate.
appetite.
Circling.
Death
common when central
nervous
system Involved.
No
Fever.
No appetite.
Diagnostic
Guide
11:
Spontaneous
Causative
agent
Abortion
(cont.)
Symptoms
Other areas of
body involved
Page
When abortion
occurs
Death in ewe
V
55
During
About 20%
Sores on tongue
and cheeks
Fever.
No appetite.
Rapid
and weak pulse.
Mortality-90-100% in lambs under 1 week
old, 20% over 1 week old.
Salmonellosis
B
43
Final 50 days of
gestation
About 30%
Diarrhea,
intestinal
lesions
Fever.
Toxoplasmosis
P
81
Final 50 days of
gestation
Rare
None
None.
Trypanosomiasis
P
73
After symptoms
develop
Common
Weight loss.
Fast pulse.
Swelling
of
lower part of
body.
Blindness
and nervous
sometimes develop.
B
46
Final 50 days
of gestation
Rare
None
Recovered
V
58
l-2 weeks after
infection
15-20%
Fever.
yellow
Disease
Rift
Valley
fever
Vibriosis
Campgtobacter
Wesselbron
B = bacterial;
fetus
disease
V = viral;
M = metabolic;
sickness
P = parasitic.
Swollen
liver.
Other
signs
No appetite.
symptoms
ewes are immune.
Lambs turn yellow
fever and swollen
and have
lymph nodes.
Diagnostic
Guide
12:
Failure
to Lamb or Halforred
lambs
Symptoms
Abortion
occurs
Lamb
appearance
Other area6 of
body involved
48
Early.
First
50-100 days
Normal
Previous illness
in
ewe showing lameness
and erosions in the
mouth and on the
tongue.
El06t recover.
V
49
Common. Final
50 days of
gestation
Hair instead
of wool
If alive,
lamb has
large joints
and
shake6 uncontrollably.
Lamb6 are unthrifty
but
become normal if they
live.
B
42
Occasionally
Normal
Testicles
and epldidy61iS Of ram Swollen.
Extended lambing time.
Poor semen quality
in
ram6.
Causative
agent
Page
Bluetongue
V
Border disease
Ram epididymitis
tiruce 1la ovis
Disease
Other
eigns
-~~
B = bacterial;
V 5 viral.;
M = metabolic;
P = parasitic.
Di~oatic
Guide 13:
Chronic bsting
Dieeaees
Symptoms
Disease
Causative
agent
Page
Appetite
Diarrhea
Fever
Gaseous
B
27
Good
No
No
May see abscessed
lymph nodes.
Older sheep involved.
Usually only 1 or 2 in
flock.
Chronic internal
parasites
P
75-82
Depressed
Usually
No
Paleness of gums
and other tissues.
May see bl.ood or dark color
to feces.
Foot and mouth
disease
V
51
Very
depressed
Maybe
Yes
Many.
Animals will
slowly.
Johne's
B
34
Good
Intermittent
No
None
Only a few older
involved.
Meliodosis
B
i9
Poor
No
Slight
Abscesses on and
under the skin and
at lymph nodes.
Sometimes swollen
joints
or testicles.
Coughing and runny nose.
Progressive
pneumonia
V
53
Good
No
No
Muscular weakness.
Flared nostrils
and
rapid breathing.
Affects sheep at least
Slow to move.
2 years oid.
Cannot follow flock.
Eventually
dies.
Scrapie
V
56
Good
No
No
Wobbly gait early.
Unable to stand late
in disease.
Intense itching.
hair breakage.
tatal.
Trypanosomiasis
P
73
Poor
No
Yes
Anemia, Nervous
symptoms.
Abortion
females.
lymphadenitis
disease
B = bacterial;
V = viral;
H = metabolic;
P = parasitic.
Other areas of
body involved
See text.
Other signs
recover
sheep
Wool or
Always
in pregnant
Diagnostic
Guide
14:
Conditions
of
the
Eye
Symptoms
Causative
agent
Disease
E
Page
Cornea
blue
Fever
Light
sensitive
Other areas of
body involved
Other signs
Contagious
agalactia
B
30
Yes
Yes
Yes
Lameness
Mastitis.
Rapid recovery.
Watery eyes.
Follicular
conjunctivitis
B
32
Usually
Yes
Yes
May see lameness
and swollen joints.
Ewes may abort or have weak
lambs. Recovery in 2 weeks.
Watery eyes.
Peste des petit6
ruminant6
V
52
No
Yes
Yes
Raw areas in mouth
Very depressed.
Diarrhea and
collapse.
High percentage
die.
No
Ye6
Slight
Lumps or nodules
over body
Death rate high.
Arched back.
Poor appetite.
Watery eyes.
Sheep/goat
pox
B = bacterial;
V = viral;
H = metabolic;
P = parasitic.
Guide
DiBgUO6tiC
15:
Carcass
of Diseased
Animal
(No More Than
6 to 8 Eours
After
Death)
Stiffness
of limbs
Symptoms
Blood from
Gas under body openskin
ings
Membrane6
pale
Membrane6
yellow
Sudden
death
Yes
No
No
Yes
Maybe
No
Disease
Causative
agent
Page
Bloat
Anaplasmosis
P
71
Usually
Anthrax
B
24
Yes
No
Maybe
Yes
No
No
Yes
Bloat
M
62
Yes
Yes
Yes
Maybe
No
No
Yes
Enterotoxemia
B
31
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
Internal
parasites
P
75-82
Usually
Ye6
No
No
Yes
Maybe
No
edema
B
36
Usually
Yes
Yes
Maybe
No
No
Maybe
i"
68
Maybe
Yes
No
No
No
No
Maybe
Malignant
Polioencephalomalacia
B = bacterial;
V = viral;
M = metabolic;
not
not
P = parasitic.
Bacterial Direares
Causes, Tieatment and Prevention
Any disease caused by the invasion
of the body by
bacteria
is a bacterial
disease.
Bacteria
may
enter alone or following
insult
to tissue either
by
viral
infection,
trauma,
or stress.
Most will
respond to proper antibiotic
therapy.
Anthrax
(Splenic
Fever,
Charbon , Mil zbrand)
symptoma
Anthrax is marked by high fever,
41.5C (107F),
severe depression,
dark red to purple lining
of the
mouth and eyes,
and sometimes
bloody
diarrhea.
Breathing
is rapid and shallow;
heartbeat
is rapid
and weak.
The sheep has no appetite
and its milk
or urine
is red or blood-tinged.
The tongue,
throat,
flanks,
and area around the anus and vulva
show swelling
(edema).
In the dead animal,
it Is common to observe
blood seeping from the body openings and a lack of
stiffness
in the carcass.
If you suspect death by
anthrax,
do not open the carcass.
Rather,
you
should remove one of the animal’s
ears, place it in
a plastic
bag (cooled
if possible),
and take it
quickly
to a veterinarian
or a diagnostic
facility
for a diagnosis.
Microscopic
examination
of blood
from the ear can confirm
the diagnosis.
If the
carcass
is opened,
the blood does not clot
and
usually
the spleen is greatly
enlarged.
Cause/Transmission
The bacterium
B~~izlUs an*hPaCis changes from
an actively
growing vegetative
form in the body’ to
spores or inactive
forms when the organism comes in
contact with air.
When spores are swallowed by the
animal,
the organism changes back to the vegetative
form and starts
to grow.
The spores
are spread animal-to-animal
and
by animals
eating
feeds contaminated
by spores,
i.e.,
by grazing
on contaminated
ground,
drinking
contaminated
water,
or eating
unsterilized
animal
by-products
such as bone meal or poorly cooked meat
scraps.
The disease
in sheep is usually
peracute
24
(kills
form,
the animal
in 2 to 6 hours) or the acute
which kills
the animal in up to 48 hours,
Treatment
and Prevention
After
symptoms fully
develop,
treatment
is
usually
not effective.
If an outbreak is underway,
all other animals in the area should be treated
and
vaccinated.
Vaccination
with
spore vaccine
is
usually
under the direction
of agriculture
department personnel.
Treatment is with tetracycline6
or
penicillin
in large doses for at least 5 days (see
Therapy).
Spread is prevented by burning or deeply burying the unopened carcass,
Only very strong disinfectants
will
kill
spores.
They are not killed
by
hot or cold weather or by drying
and can live
in
the soil for many years.
However, if the carcass
of an animal killed
by anthrax Is buried unopened,
rotting
and lack of oxygen will
prevent spore formation and kill
the organism.
Totally
burning
the
carcass
will
also destroy
the organism.
Vaccination
is recommended for animals
in areas where
anthrax reoccurs regularly,
Human Sealth
Concerne
Anthrax
is
a very
serious disease
of both
animals
and man.
A skin form known as malignant
carbuncle
or malignant
pustule
can ‘be very serious.
You may contract
the disease when handling
infected
animals
or fluids
or parts of dead animals.
An intestinal
form contracted
by eating
infected
meat is nearly always fatal
to humans, as
is a pneumonic form contracted
by breathing
spores
from handling
wool and hides of infected
dead animals.
Brucelloele
(Bang’s
Disease,
Malta
Fever,
Contagious
Abortion)
Symptoms
The primary
sign of brucellosis
infection
in
sheep is abortion
in the final
40-50 days of gestation.
Close association
with goats tends to extend
this disease to the sheep population.
A blood test
is the best method of diagnosing
brucellosis
in
sheep, and is usually
done by a veterinarian
or in
25
a diagnostic
laboratory.
traced to sheep or goats
humans.
Often
brucellosis
when symptoms are found
is
in
Cause/Transmission
Although there
are other species of BPuce~Za,
is normally
the most severe
one that affects
sheep. The disease
spreads when
sheep eat contaminated
feed
or lick
infected
material
from
the
reproductive
tract,
newborn
lambs, or around the external
reproductive
organs
of the infected
ewe.
The organism also is transmitted
to
humans
who handle
these
infected
materials,
drink
infected
raw milk,
eat infected
uncooked milk products,
or assist
with the birth
process of infected
ewes.
lhw3elZa
melitensis
Treatment and Prwention
No treatments
are effective.
Usual,recommendations
are that infected
ewes and their
lambs be
slaughtered
for meat.
The best prevention
is buying uninfected
animals.
In some countries
where
infection
is common, a vaccine
is used to control
spread of the disease.
Buman Health Concerns
Brucellosis
is a high
risk
disease.
You
should not drink
uncooked or unprocessed
milk
or
milk
products.
See the section
on Mastitis
for
milk
processing
procedures.
Do not handle
or
assist
in the birth
process of infected
female animals
without
protecting
your hands and arms with
rubber or plastic
gloves.
Wash with soap and water
after
assisting.
Slaughtering
or eating meat from
infected
animals is not dangerous if minimum sanitary measures are followed
and the meat is cooked.
Brucellosis
in humans should be suspected when
along
a recurrent
flu-like
syndrome is observed,
with high fevers and sweats that recur on a daily
especially
if the person has been drinking
basis,
milk
that
has
not been boiled
or pasteurized.
These symptoms are accompanied
by weakness
and
vague body aches and pains.
Improvement is noticed
in about 2 weeks, but symptoms recur a few days to
2 weeks later
for extended periods of time.
26
Caseous Lymphadenitis
(Pseudotuberculosis,
Abscesses)
Symptoms
Swollen,
abscessed lymph nodes occur most commonly under the jaw and ear, in front of the shoulder, high in the flank,
or above the udder, scrotum, or hock.
The nodes may feel warm, and may
swell to 3 to 5 cm (1.5 to 2 in.) or larger.
The
disease is seldom fatal,
unless it involves
a major
artery
or nerve around the head, or the lymph nodes
inside
the body.
The abscesses contain
a characteristic
cheesy, greenish
pus.
Diagnosis
is based
on the locations
of the abscesses,
the character
of
the pus, and microscopic
culture
examination,
if
available.
This is a very common disease in agriculturally
developed countries.
Cause/Transmission
Although
normally
contracted
when sheep eat
contaminated
feeds, it might also be contracted
via
breaks in the skin.
There is even some evidence
that
bacteria
can enter unbroken skin.
Treatment and Prevention
Abscesses are treated by surgical
lancing
(see
Techniques)
or total
removal
by a veterinarian.
Additional
treatment
by administration
of antibiotics,
usually
penicillin
or a tetracycline,
should
be continued
for 3 to 5 days.
Caseous lymphadenitis
is difficult
to prevent
due to the fact
that Corynebacterium
pseudotuberCUlOS?Za (Ouia) is a very common soil contaminant.
Spread can be slowed by carefully
lancing
abscesses
and washing the wound with 7% iodine.
All material
from
the abscess
should
be deeply
buried
or
burned.
All new animals,
especially
those
imported
from agriculturally
developed countries,
should be
held in isolation,
away from local
sheep, for at
least
30 days and preferably
90 days.
This gives
them a chance to develop symptoms of this and other
longer incubating
diseases before being mixed with
local sheep.
A killed
vaccine made from the organism of an infected
flock has been reported
to be a
successful
preventive.
27
Human Health Concerns
Humans should
protect
their
hande from the
pus as the organism
could cause skin infection.
Wash hands well after handling
infected
animals.
Chlamydial
(Enzootic
Abortion
Abortion
of Ewes)
Abortions
occur late in pregnancy (usually
one
of the first
three pregnancies).
Later deliveries
are normal.
Lambs may be carried
full
term but
delivered
stillborn
(sometimes
as
a mummified
fetus)
or in a weakened condition.
Retained afterbirth
is common after
abortions.
The ewe seldom
suffers
any aftereffect
unless she gets a uterine
infection
from a retained
fetus
or afterbirth.
Large numbers of ewes in newly
infected
flocks
abort.
Chlamydial
abortion
can be positively
diagnosed only by culture
of the aborted fetus or membranes or by a blood test done in a laboratory.
Cause/Transmission
The [email protected]
paittaoi
organism
is common in
sheep,
It is thought that females or offspring
may
become infected
by swallowing
the organism during
the lambing
season,
with
the
organism
delaying
growth in the ewe until
late in the following
pregnancy
l
Treatment
and Prevention
The use of tetracycline
drugs given intramuscularly
for 5 to 7 days has been reported
to help
decrease
the number of abortions
by reducing
the
spread of the organism to uninfected
sheep.
Feeding the oral tetracyclines
at 110 to 165 g/metric
ton or 110 to 165 mg/kg of feed has also helped
control
this
disease.
Those
fetuses
already
infected,
however, will
abort regardless
of treatment.
The best way to keep the disease
from
spreading
is to burn or bury the dead lamb and tissues from the birth
process and to isolate
aborting
ewes from
the rest
of the
flock.
In
some
countries,
a vaccine
has been developed that seems
to work quite well when given 1 month before breeding the ewes.
28
Human Health
Concerns
None
Colibacillosis
(s tours,
Diarrhea,
White
Scours,
Yellow
Scours)
Syllptoms
Severe depression,
weakness, and watery diarrhea are symptoms of colibacillosis.
Rapid dehydration
is evidenced
by skin that stays up when
pinched and by eyes that sink into the head.
Skin
is cold and clammy.
Many causes of scours in lambs
can have the same or similar
symptoms,
Lambs will
die quickly
unless
lost
fluids
and electrolytes
(body salts)
are rep1 aced.
Diagnosis
is based on
the symptoms and can be confirmed
by laboratory
culture
procedures.
Cause/Transmission
The bacterium
Eacherichia
COZi causes the disease in very young lambs (newborn to 2 weeks) and
is usually
related
to dirty
surroundings.
8.
COzi is very commonly found and some types of the
organism
are more likely
to cause disease
than
others.
Outbreaks
rapidly
worsen unless
strict
sanitation
procedures
are begun.
The organism is
taken in by mouth, usually
very soon after
birth.
Lack of adequate colostrum
usually
contributes
to
colibacillosis.
See the section
on care of the
newborn.
Treatment
and Prevention
You should 1) replace
fluid
loss,
2) correct
electrolyte
balance,
and 3) kill
the organism with
antibiotics.
Replace the milk
given to the lamb
with
any of the formulas
listed
in the Therapy
Section
under Treatment
for Scours.
The appropriate
amount is 10% of body weight,
needed for
daily
usage or maintenance,
plus the percentage
lost due to dehydration.
Start the lamb on an oral
antibiotic,
spectinomycin,
neomycin,
such
as
chloramphenicol,
tetracycline,
or a sulfa
drug at
about
S-10 mg/kg of body weight,
twice
daily.
Always follow
label directions
on drugs.
29
Lambs are born with
no immunity
and must
receive
colostrum
from their
mothers
to become
resistant
to disease.
Feeding the lambs well with
colostrum
before they are 2 hours old will
protect
them until
they are old enough to build
their
own
disease
defense
mechanism.
After
the first
12
hours of life,
the lambs' ability
to absorb these
antibodies
decreases
rapidly
and is gone by the
time they are 24 hours old.
Clean surroundings
also are important
to prevent this disease.
Lambs
should be born in clean or unused areas and kept
warm and dry,
but not necessarily
in a closed
building.
Buman Health
None
Concerns
Contagious
.
Agalactia
symptoms
Fever and loss of appetite
are seen in all
three types of contagious
agalactia.
Other symptoms may include:
(Type 1) acute mastitis
exhibited as a hot, painful
udder producing
a greenish,
cheesy,
pus-like
material
(chunks)
and a watery
fluid,
with the udder drying up in long&term cases;
(Type 2) a cloudy
cornea of the eye that
may
proceed
to an ulcer
and blindness,
although
complete recovery usually
occurs quickly;
and (Type
3) an arthritic
form with hot,
painful,
swollen
joints
that sometimes rupture
as abscesses,
where
the animal may not be able to stand if more than
one joint
is involved.
Diagnosis
is confirmed
by
laboratory
procedures
and blood tests.
Cause/Transmission
Contagious
agalactia
is a disease of sheep and
sgaZaC*ia.
The organism
goats caused by @icOpbSma
is found in milk,
urine,
feces,
and eye and nasal
fluids
for several
months after
infection.
Spreading may occur when an uninfected
sheep
contacts
these secretions.
Treatment
and Preventi on
Helpful
antibiotics
are tetracycline
sin given intramuscularly
(see Therapy
30
or tyloand Techni-
ques).
The death rate can reach 20% of the infected animals.
A vaccine is available
in some countries.
Human Health
None
Concerns
Enterotoxemia
(Type C: Struck, Lamb Dysentery)
(Type D: Pulpy Kidney Disease, Overeating
Disease)
symptoms
Symptoms include
star gazing (upward lift
of
the head), convulsions,
tooth grinding,
twitching,
and death within
a few hours.
Sometimes the sheep
will
have diarrhea,
which may or may not be blood
stained.
The rumen motility
will
stop.
Lambs are
often
found dead.
Postmortem
symptoms include
fluid
in the heart
sac, which usually
contains
a
clot
that looks like
chicken fat.
Blood free in
the intestine
is also sometimes seen.
A urine test
for sugar will
usually
be positive.
Urine
test
strips
used by diabetics
can serve for this test,
but complete diagnosis
should be made in a diagnostic laboratory.
Cause/Transmission
Types C (struck
and lamb dysentery),
and D
(pulpy
kidney
disease
and overeating
disease)
of
perftingens
are usue!
ly
the bacterium Clostr;dium
involved.
Type C seems to affect
the very young
and older
adult
animals,
with
Type D affecting
those from 3 to 4 weeks old to about 1 year.
The
organism lives in the soil and normally
is found in
the stomach and intestines
of sheep and goats.
The
disease is triggered
by changes in the 'normal rate
of passage of feed through the gut.
For example, a
change in the type of feed or overfilling
the
stomach
(such
as a lamb drinking
an excessive
amount of milk) may allow the organism to grow.
A
toxin is produced by the fast growing bacteria,
and
the absorption
of this toxin causes the symptoms of
the disease.
31
Treatment and Prevention
Treatment
of affected
animals
is not successful
unless
the specific
antitoxin
is available.
Intravenous
or subcutaneous
administration
of the
antitoxin
will
usuall;T reverse
the seizures.
Antibiotics
(penicillin)
will
usually
stop the growth
of the bacteria
but do not affect
the toxin
that
has already
been produced and absorbed.
If antitoxin is not available,
115 to 170 g (4 to 6 oz) of
powdered charcoal
and 15 to 30 g of baking soda
given by mouth may be helpful
(see Techniques).
Only well-fed
animals are affected
by enterotoxemia,
which can be prevented
easily.
Two doses
of the vaccine
(a toxoid)
should be given to the
ewe :
one dose at 4 weeks before
she lambs and
another
dose 2 weeks before
she lambs.
Lambs
should be vaccinated
after weaning with two doses,
2 weeks apart.
One booster shot each year thereafter will
protect
the ewe and her subsequent lambs
until
they are weaned (see Therapy).
Human Health
None
Concerns
Follicular
(Pinkeye,
Infectious
Conjunctivitis
Keratoconjunctivitis)
Symptoms
Follicular
conjunctivitis
is seen in young
sheep as a watering
to
is sensitive
eye that
light.
The tissues
around the eye are red and
appear granular.
The lamb may be blind
and the
cornea of the eye may turn blue or have an ulcer on
it.
Sometimes lambs show a lameness with
this
disease.
Usually
a high percentage
of lambs will
become infected
but very few die.
Recovery occurs
in 10 to 14 days.
conjunctivitis
is
The cause of follicular
tilamgdia
psittaci,
the same organism
that causes
polyarthritis
This
and
abortion.
chlamydial
disease is spread by direct
contact
among lambs and
by insects
feeding
on the secretions
(tears)
f,rom
the eye.
32
Treatment and Prevention
Most sheep will
recover
without
treatment
in
about 2 weeks.
Tetracyclines
or tylosin
given
intramuscularly
will
hasten
recovery
and reduce
spreading.
Isolation
of infected
animals
also
reduces chances that the infection
will
spread.
Human Health Concerns
Reported as rare
in humans.
Foot Rot
Symptoms
Lameness is the first
foot rot symptom.
The
sole and the sidewall
of the diseased
foot appear
ragged and rotten
and have an extremely
bad odor.
Cause/Transmission
Caused by the
bacterium
invasion
necroyhorus
of two bacteria,
and Fusiformis
nodosus,
fisOthe
disease
is usually
spread from infected
carrier
animals into the soil
and then to the uninfected
feet.
Sheep develop the condition
more readily
than
goats.
Wet soils
and filth
increase
the possibility of disease outbreaks.
Treatment and Prevention
Remove the dead,
rotten
foot
tissue
with
shears or a sharp knife
(see Techniques).
Trim
down until
healthy
tissue is found.
Some bleeding
will
occur.
This
is necessary
to remove the
diseased tissue.
Spraying the area with a solution
of chloramphenicol
or 10% formalin,
or forcing
the
animals to walk through a 10% formalin,
copper sulfate or zinc sulfate
foot bath can be beneficial
(see Therapy).
The foot bath should be placed so
that the sheep must pass through it as they go to
graze.
Do not place the bath where sheep are likely to drink from it.
The best method of prevention
is to remove
animals from dirty
and wet areas for about 4 weeks
so the organisms
in the soil
will
die out or decrease in number.
Regular
trimming
of the feet
will
also help prevent
this
and other foot problems.
Do not buy animals from infected
flocks.
.
Human Health
None
Concerns
Johne's
(Paratuberculosis,
?
Disease
Wasting
Disease)
symptoms
Johne's disease
is usually
seen in animals 3
to 5 years old.
Symptoms
include
progressive
loss
of weight,
rough hair coat, decreased milk production,
decreased
appetite,
and progressive
depression.
Diarrhea
will
develop within
the last
few
days before death.
seems
to trigger
the
Stress
disease
or make it progress
faster.
The organism
affects
the area where the small and large intestines join together
and interferes
with the ability
of the sheep to absorb nutrients
from the intestine.
Usually
only a few sheep in the flock
are
involved.
Cause/Transmission
The disease
caused by the bacterium
Mgcobac*Qrium johnei
is thought
to spread through
feed
contaminated
with
the organism
and should occur
before the sheep is 6 months oldThere is some
evidence that lambs can be born with the disease or
pick it up from the ewe's milk or fecal contamination on the udder.
Treatment
and Prevention
There is no effective
treatment.
Diagnosis
can be made in a laboratory
by finding
and growing
The IV Johnin test can be run in the
the organism.
field
but requires
some knowledge
of the procedure
and of how to make white blood cell counts.
As preventive
measures, you should buy healthy
animals
and remove infected
sheep from the flock.
Spread can be reduced by avoiding
stress
on the
animals.
An experimental
vaccine has been used in
This disease
is not
Iceland
with good results.
common in sheep.
Human Health
None
Concerns
34
(Listerellosis,
Eisteriosis
Circling
Disease)
symptoms
The abortion
form usually
shows no other sympby growing
the
toms. It can only be diagnosed
organism
from the aborted
fetus
in a laboratory.
The nervous or encephalatic
form has a rapid course
and causes death in 4 to 48 hours after
symptoms
Symptoms include
circling
in one direcappear.
high fever,
tion,
lack of appetite,
red tissues
around the eyes (maybe with blindness),
and depresAffected
animals may have a paralysis
of one
sion.
side of the face,
represented
by a drooping
ear,
drooping
eyelid,
and saliva
running
from
limp
Up to 20% of the sheep in a flock
may be
lips.
involved.
When near death,
the animal will
lie
down and may have fits.
Confirming
diagnosis
can
only be made in a diagnostic
laboratory.
Cause/Transmission
Listeriosis
is caused by the bacterium
LiS*@pia [email protected] and is commonly seen in cooler
climates.
The bacteria
are very hardy and are
found in soil,
silage,
manure, milk,
urine,
and
drainage
of the eyes and nose of infected
animals.
Listeriosis
is spread when sheep swallow,
inhale,
or get the bacteria
in their
eyes.
The route by
which it is spread can influence
the symptoms.
For
example,
swallowing
the organism
usually
causes
abortion,
whereas infection
through the eye or nose
usually
results
in the nervous form..
Treatment
and Prevention
There are no effective
treatments
for small
ruminants,
and they usually
die after
infection.
T,arge doses of penicillin
may help in some cases.
When an outbreak occurs, you should isolate
infected animals.
If silage
is being fed, discontinue
its use.
Human Health Concerns
Listeriosis
can
cause serious diseases
humans.
Be extremely
careful
when handling
sick
dead animals.
Do not eat any part or product
35
in
or
of
the sick or dead animal.
Wash hands and disinfect
clothes
and shoes.
Use all sanitary
measures posPregnant
sible.
women should
avoid
infected
animals.
Symptoms may range from a mild irritation
on the hands and arms from
assisting
in the
delivery
of a lamb to a severe blood poisoning
disease.
Encephalitis
and abortion
of pregnant
women may also be produced by listeriosis.
Maliguant
Edema
(Gas Gangrene)
Symptoms
A swollen
and infected
spot on the animal is
accompanied by high fever,
depression,
and a lack
If
the infection
is a castration
of appetite.
wound, the animal may walk stiffly.
The swollen
and infected
area will
spread rapidly.
The best
diagnosis
is obtained
by growing
bacteria
in the
laboratory.
Cause/Transmission
Although usually
caused by the bacterium CZostridium
septicum, other forms of Clostr<dium spp.
could possibly
cause the same kind of wound infection in sheep.
The disease starts
when a cut or
some other type of wound is contaminated
with the
bacteria.
The bacteria
grow and produce a poison
and tissues
around
the
that
kills
the muscles
Death of the animal can occur very
infection
site.
rapidly
or over 2 to 3 days depending on how much
tissue
is killed
and where the infection
is located.
Treatment
and Prevention
tetracycline,
or
with
penicillin,
Treatment
or sulfa
drug will
kill
the
most any antibiotic
bacteria
if started
very early in the disease (see
However, many animals
Therapy and Techniques).
infected
with malignant
edema die because of delay
in treatment.
is care and cleanliness
The best prevention
Any other injury
when castrating
or docking lambs.
should be carefully
cleaned and antibiotic
or sulfa
powder applied to the wound.
36
Human Health Concerns
Human wounds can become infected
with CZostridim
septicum.
Wash your hands very well
after
handling
infected
wounds and apply a small amount
of antibiotic
or sulfa
powder to any cuts
or
scratches
on your hands.
Mastitis
(Bluebag,
Gargot)
Symptoms
Regardless
of cause, the symptoms of all types
of mastitis
are heat,
and swelling
of the
pain,
udder,
Usually
you will
note some discoloration
of
the tissue
and abnormal milk.
The infected
udder
will
change in color from slightly
more pink to a
bright
red, or to a black and cold udder, indicating
gangrenous
mastitis.
Gangrenous
mastitis
usually
kills
the ewe and the udder is always
destroyed
even if she recovers.
The milk from an
infected
udder will
vary in color,
texture,
and
thickness
depending on the type of organism involved.
Milk may be almost normal in all respects,
or
may be watery
and pale,
dark yellow
and thick,
chunky and greenish,
or bloody.
Almost any combination can occur.
Lameness of a rear leg is a common
symptom of pasturella
mastitis
or bluebag.
This is
a gangrenous mastitis.
The California
Mastitis
Test (CMT) is commercially
available
in most countries
and has been
recommended as a good test for subclinical
mastiYou should
be cautious
in using
the CM‘
tis.
because many normal, healthy
sheep may show a milk
reaction
to this
test.
Very marked reactions
do
indicate
mastitis
problems,
however.
Laboratory
culture
or growth of the bacteria
causing the mastitis
is the best way to determine
the exact diagnosis.
Antibiotic
sensitivity
tests
also can be run to determine
the correct
antibiotics to use.
Cause/Transmission
Mastitis
is
gland
(udder
or
an inflammation
of
milk-giving
gland)
37
the mammary
of animals,
usually
caused
Corgnebacterium
by
bacteria.
spp.,
Staphlococcus
Streptococcus
spp.,
spp.,
or
coli-
forms cause over 95% of all cases.
Mastitis
is
usually
characterized
as clinical
when symptoms are
present
or
subclinical
when
symptoms
appear
periodically.
In the latter
case, the gland is
still
infected
during periods when no symptoms are
present.
The subclinical
type will
usually
reduce
total
milk production
by at least 25%. Transmission occurs from animal to animal or from soil
or
filth
on the teat ends.
Ewes that give large quantities
of milk and have only one lamb will
often
develop mastitis
due to incomplete
removal of the
milk and bacterial
growth in the remaining
milk.
Treatment
and Prevention
Several products
are almost universally
available for intramammary
infusion
(to be put into the
teat).
These products
are antibiotics
or a COW
bination
of antibiotics
in a 10 to 15 cc dose and
are packaged in a plastic
throwaway tube to inject
into the teat.
When using one of these products,
always wash the teat end with soap and water and
wipe with alcohol
before
sticking
the applicator
into the teat. You should not reuse applicators
or
divide
a dose between two teats (see Techniques).
Intravenous
and
antibiotic
intramuscular
injections
should
also be used in very serious
The udder should be milked
out at least
cases.
three times per day.
Bathing
the udder two or
three times per day in warm water also will
help to
reduce some of the pain and swelling.
Human Health Concerns
Although
sheep milk is not commonly used by
source of
humans, in some areas it is an important
Some of the bacteria
that cause mastitis
can
food.
Never use infected
milk
cause sickness in humans.
for human consumption,
especially
for babies.
Do
not use milk for human consumption
for at least
3
days after animals are treated with drugs.
All
milk
should
be pasteurized
or boiled
before being fed to babies or sick people.
To pasplace milk in a glass or stainless
steel
teurize,
38
container.
Rapidly heat the milk to 74C (165F) and
hold at that temperature
for 20 seconds while stirring.
Rapidly cool the milk to 15.5C (60F) and store
it at 4C to 7C (40F to 45F).
If refrigeration
is
not available,
boiled
milk (just
to a boil)
will
keep for about 1 day in a clean airtight
container.
Heating
to 83.86 (183F) very quickly
and
letting
it cool will
also keep milk fresh for about
a day.
(Whitmore's
Meliodosis
Disease, Human Glanders)
Symptoms
Symptoms of meliodosis
are slight
fever,
loss
of appetite,
depression,
labored
breathing,
coughJoints,
lymph nodes, and testiing , runny nose.
cles are sometimes swollen.
Occasionally
abscesses
will
form and drain.
Nervous symptoms sometimes
occur,
including
staggering,
jerky
movements,
or
paralysis.
Young animals are more commonly infectanimals
also develop
the disease.
ed, but older
Diagnosis
is made by observing
symptoms and growing
the bacteria
in the laboratory.
Some blood and
skin tests
have proved useful
in diagnosing
this
disease.
Cause/Transmission
Caused by the bacteri.um Pseudomonas pseudomazzei, meliodosis
is most commonly seen in Southeast Asia, but also occurs in most other areas of
the world.
Infection
is due to the contamination
of wounds with
soil
containing
the organism.
Spread from animal to animal or animal to man is
unlikely.
Treatment and Prevention
Older aniTreatment is usually
unsuccessful.
mals sometimes recover but may get sick again when
under stress.
If
you do decide
to treat,
use
tetracycline,
chloramphenicol,
or sulfa drugs (see
Therapy and Techniques).
No vaccine is available.
As a precaution,
healthy
animals
should be kept
away from areas where the disease has occurred.
39
Human Health Concerns
Although
unlikely,
human infection
may occur
as a result
of swallowing
the organism.
Parts or
products
from infected
animals
should not bti used
for human food unless the animal recovers completePneumonia
(Lung Sickness)
Symptoms
Symptoms are fever,
runny nose, dry or wet
cough, and changes in the rate and type of breathing (which may be shallow
or labored)
In severe
cases,
the sheep will
breathe
through
an open
mouth.
If the lungs are painful,
the sheep will
not want to move and may grunt when breathing.
Cause/Transmission
Pneumonia may be caused by many bacteria
and
viruses,
as well as parasites
(primarily
lungworms)
and allergic
reactions.
The broad term "pneumonia"
is used to describe
infectious
or noninfectious
causes of inflammation
of the lungs.
The disease
may be very acute (causing
sickness
and death in a
few hours) or chronic
(continuing
for years).
Pneumonia is usually
caused by organisms
in
the sheep's surroundings
and begins with some type
of stress.
Probably
the most common stress
for
sheep is that caused by poor or no ventilation
in
their
housing.
Air flow to keep humidity
low is
very important
in preventing
pneumonia.
If you see
moisture
condensing in the shelter
(small
beads of
water on the roof or pen) or smell ammonia, the
ventilation
is poor.
By opening an area near the
highest
part of the roof or along the side of the
barn, you can remove much of the moisture
by letting
the wet, hot air escape from the building.
than air,
and may
Gases, however, may be heavier
have to be ventilated
out through the bottom of the
shelter.
In most climates,
sheep require
only a
and adequate
shelter
from the rain,
a windbreak,
access to sunshine if they are to be stabled.
40
Treatment and Prevention
Treatment
consists
primarily
of good care,
warm, well-ventilated
(but not drafty)
quarters
in
an area where the animal can be handled gently
for
treatment.
Intravenous
or intramuscular
administration
of antibiotics
or sulfa drugs is necessary
(see Therapy and Techniques).
Fresh feed and water
should
be easily
available
to avoid unnecessary
movement.
Available
bacterial
vaccines
have not been
very successful.
Proper ventilation
and moisture
and gas control
are the most important
aspects in
preventing
pneumonia in sheep.
Buman Health
Rarely,
Concerns
if ever,
transmitted
from animals.
Polyarthritis
(Stiff
Lamb Disease)
Symptolcs
Polyarthritis
is seen in young lambs up to 6
or 8 months old.
The symptoms are fever
41C
(107F), poor appetite,
soreness,
pain, and lameness
in one or more legs with little
swelling
of the
affected
joint.
Most lambs will
also show signs of
follicular
conjunctivitis.
Lambs may not be able
to stand, will not eat, and lose weight.
Most will
recover after several weeks.
Cause/Transmission
Polyarthritis
is caused by Chlamgdta psittaei, the same organism
that
causes chlamydial
abortion
and follicular
conjunctivitis.
The organism is spread by direct
contact,
droplets
in the
air,
or by flies.
This disease appears to be an
extension
of follicular
conjunctivitis.
Treatment and Prevention
Treatment
for 5 to 7 days with
or tylosin
speeds recovery.
Isolate
lambs to reduce chance of spread.
Euman Health Concerns
Rare in humans.
41
tetracyclines
all affected
,
Ram Epididymitis
(Brucellosis
of Rams)
symptoms
In rams, epididymitis
appears as enlarged
and
hard testicles.
The epididymis
will
be lumpy,
and in some cases swollen
and hot.
hard,
Many
times
the first
indication
of infection
is
a
decreased or missed lamb crop or an extended period
of time in which lambs are born (an indica.tion
of
multiple
breedings
before
conception
occurred).
Most rams do not become completely
sterile
but
develop a reduced fertility
and spread the disease
to other rams.
Cause/Transmission
BrucQzla OVia is the most common cause of ram
epididymitis.
Other organisms,
however, may infect
of rams and show similar
the testicles
signs
(approximately
10% of the cases).
Sheep seem to be
the only animals commonly affected
by this organThe organism is spread from ram to ram by
ism.
swallowing
feed that has been contaminated
by urine
or semen.
Transmission
also may occur from rams
smelling
or licking
the reproductive
organs
of
infected
rams or ewes recently
bred by infected
rams.
It is thought
that ewes do not carry
the
infection
from one heat period to another.
Treatment
and Prevention
After the disease has developed,
any effort
at
treatment
is unsuccessful.
All
infected
rams
should be slaughtered.
Rams not showing symptoms
but that have been in contact
with infected
rams
should be isolated
from clean replacement
rams.
A
vaccine used at 6 to 8 weeks of age and repeated 4
to 8 weeks later
has been effective
in large
flocks.
In small flocks,
the best way to avoid the
disease
is by feeling
the ram’s testicles
before
purchase and rechecking
once or twice a year.
A
blood test
and/or semen evaluation
are also very
valuable
tests if veterinary
service
is available.
Always try to make sure that replacement
rams are
being bought from flocks
that
do not have this
disease.
Human Health
None
Concerns
(Bloody
Salmnellosis
Scours or Black
Scours)
symptoms
A symptom of salmonellosis
is blood-streaked
or black tar-like
diarrhea
in young lambs.
Sudden
death may occur before
diarrhea
develops.
The
lambs will
have a high
fever
and may pass a
material
with
the diarrhea
that
looks
like
the
stringy
lining
of the gut.
Abortion
in sheep due
to salmonellae
is fairly
common in the last 50 days
of gestation.
Diagnosis
is best made from growing the bacteria
in the laboratory.
reliable
However, fairly
diagnosis
can be made in a field
situation.
A
postmortem
examination
done by a veterinarian
is
very helpful
and highly
recommended.
Cause/Transmission
Various types of the [email protected] bacteria
cause
salmonellosis
in several species of animals.
These
bacteria
are very common in the environment
and are
spread by carrier
animals
that
usually
show no
symptoms of the disease.
They can be passed from
animal to animal
by contact
when the sheep eats
feed contaminated
by the bacteria.
Treatment
and Prevention
Treatment
with
tetracyclines,
neomycin,
chloramphenicol
or sulfas
by mouth will
be useful
most of the time (see Therapy
and Techniques).
.
Encourage the sheep to eat and drink
by offering
Keep the
fresh,
clean water and good fresh feed.
sick sheep as comfortable
as possible
and avoid
chilling.
To prevent salmonellosis,
isolate
infected animals,
clean up the area carefully,
including
changing soil
in small enclosures,
and be careful
not to buy animals
from flocks
with a history
of
43
bloody
scours.
Keep the sick
sheep away from
healthy
lambs after
their
recovery
and clean
the
premises well.
There are vaccines
available
for
specific
types of salmonellae.
They are helpful
if the type
is known.
Human Health Concerns
SaZmoneZZa a/@* also may infect
humans.
Careful personal
sanitation
(washing hands after
handling infected
animals)
is necessary to prevent contracting
this disease.
(Dermatophilosis,
Streptotricosis
Strawberry
Foot Rot,
Lumpywool)
Symptoms
Scabs that mat the hairs
together
form over
the body.
Extensive
face and mouth lesions
are
common in some tropical
areas.
Acute generalized
infection
can occur in as short a time as 2 weeks
or may take years.
Additional
symptoms are decreased milk production,
weight loss, and in severe
cases, death. When scabs are removed, the typical
form is a cone-shaped
scab with a concave bottom
and with a yellow
exudate under it.
The tissue
under the scab is red, granular
looking
and may
bleed.
During
the healing
the scab will
stage
separate
from the skin but mat in the hair.
Diagnosis is made from symptoms and laboratory
procedures.
Cause/Transmission
The organism is transmitted
by insects,
tick
or from contaminated
surroundings.
bites,
Heavy
rain or injury
to the skin can enable the organism
to penetrate
the skin.
Treatment and Prevention
A large dose of penicillin
(70,000 IU/kg)
and
halt
invasion
of the
streptomycin
(70 mg/kg) will
organism as will
Long-acting
tetracyclines.
Treatment with chloramphenicol
or shorter
acting
tetracyclines
may help if the organism is resistant
to
44
L
penicillin
niques).
reinfection
or streptomycin
(see Therapy and TechAdvanced cases do not respond well
and
is common. Prevention
is difficult.
Human Health
None
Concerns
Tetanus
(Lockjaw)
symptoms
Symptoms of tetanus
usually
appear 7 to 14
days after the organism enters the. body by way of a
wound and include
general stiffness
or hardness of
localized
muscle groups, such as those in the head
and neck.
The stiffness
and soreness progress
to
other parts of the body, and after 24 to 48 hours,
the complete body is stiff
or hard.
If the animal
can stand, the legs are straddled
out, the neck and
head are extended,
and the tail
is erect.
The
animal will
go into violent
stiff
spasms of the
muscles as a reaction
to any quick movement, blow
to the body, or sudden loud noise.
The nostrils
will
flare,
eyes open wide, and the third
eyelid or
membrane from the middle of the eye will
drop about
halfway across the eye. Body temperature
will
rise
drastically
when the muscle spasms start.
Cause/Transmission
Tetanus is caused by poisons produced by the
bacterium C~OStridium
tetani.
This
0rganis.m
is
very common in soil and in the manure of all animals and man. The disease is spread when bacteria
enter living
tissue,
which may occur in a puncture
wound or any type wound that may close up and seal
off.
The bacteria
grow and produce the toxin (poison) that causes the symptoms.
Treatment
and Prevention
Treatment
is usually
unsuccessful;
over 80% of
the infected
sheep will
die.
Large doses of penicillin
injected
into the muscles, plus sedatives
or
tranquilizers
and 100,000 to 200,000 IU of tetanus
antitoxin
are required
for treatment.
Treatment
usually
is not practical
for sheep.
45
a permanent form of prevention
is
Fortunately,
rather simple.
Two doses of tetanus
toxoid can be
given 30 days apart,
with a yearly
booster
shot.
This will
adequately
protect
adults
for at least
If a severe wound occurs,
give a booster
1 year.
at that time. Tetanus antitoxin
(1500 IU) can be
given to protect
animals
when a wound occurs but
this only protects
for about 30 days.
Very young
lambs, up to 3 weeks of age, can be protected
with
as little
as 150 to 300 IU of antitoxin
each.
This
procedure
should
be followed
when castration
is
done.
Human Health Concerns
The disease is not transmitted
from animals to
man, but humans can be infected.
If the premises
are contaminated,
immunization
of humans is usually
recommended.
Consult a physician.
Vibriosis
(Campylobacteriosis)
symptoms
Vibriosis
is the most common cause of abortion
in sheep, which occurs the last 50 days of gestation.
Those ewes exposed that do not abort will
usually
be immune the following
year as will
the
ewes that do abort.
Vibriosis
also causes weak or
stillborn
lambs, and occasionally
a ewe will
die
from the infection.
Cause/Transmission
is caused by CampyZobacter fetus
Vibriosis
subspecies intestina~is
of a sheep variety'.
It is
spread by carrier
sheep that do not usually
abort
but carry
the organism
in their
feces.
After
infection
has entered
a flock,
the aborting
ewes
spread the disease from the fluids
and fetuses that
are aborted.
The susceptible
ewe picks
up the
infection
by swallowing
the organism
in contaminated feed or water and by licking
aborted fetuses
and membranes.
Abortion
occurs
1 to 3 weeks
later.
Immunity from the disease lasts at least 2
years.
46
Treatment
and Prevention
Tetracyclines
IM for 3 to 5 days help control
this disease.
After
first
signs of an outbreak,
all ewes should be vaccinated.
Isolate
all ewes
that
have aborted
and bury or burn all
aborted
tissues
to.reduce
possibility
of spread.
Revaccination
before
each breeding
season thereafter
is
recomended.
Human Health
Concerns
None
47
Viral Diseases
Causes, Treatments and Prevention
A viral
disease is any disease caused by a virus.
The incubation
period
is quite
variable.
Some
viral
conditions
kill
animals outright
while others
serve
as
an
insult
to
tissue
thus
allowing
may
secondary
bacterial
growth.
Antibiotics
do not
control
viral
diseases.
At this time there are no
commercially
available
antiviral
products
for use
in animals.
Bluetongue
(Sore Muzzle)
Sylnptolns
Symptoms of bluetongue
are high fever,
swelling of the mouth and head, red mucous membranes of
the mouth that turn to shallow erosions
on the dental pad and tongue, salivation,
and nasal discharge
that changes to a pus-like
plug in the nostril.
Other symptoms are increased
shallow
respirations,
lameness accompanied by a red ring around the top
of the hoof (not visible
on black
skin),
lack of
appetite,
and generalized
weakness.
If infection
occurs
early
in pregnancy,
the ewe will
likely
abort or deliver
a lamb with deformed and twisted
legs and back, or the lamb may appear normal but
cannot stand and refuses
to nurse.
These lambs
lack proper brain development.
Cause/Transmission
is caused by a virus
that has 21
Bluetongue
different
types.
The disease is transmitted
by the
The disease,
in
bite of the gnat CuZicoides aypsome cases, is thought to be passed to the fetus in
the breeding process.
Treatment and Prevention
Bluetongue
virus
infection
doesn't
have a
Antibiotics
are used on acute
specific
treatment.
cases to try to prevent establishment
of bacterial
pneumonias that may cause death.
Prevention
by vaccination
is used in many
The vaccine
must be for the specific
countries.
type that is infecting
the animals since there is
48
no cross protection
among virus
types.
Protection
of the animals
late
in the evening
until
after
sunrise
will
keep the gnats from feeding
on the
chances of transmission.
sheep and reduce
If
possible,
avoid grazing sheep on wet lowlands where
the gnats
Vaccination
is
abound.
recommendedbefore
breeding
to eliminate
the possibility
of
damage to the fetus.
Human Health
None
Concerns
Border Disease
(Hairy Shaker Disease)
Symptoms
If a ewe has border
disease,
decomposed or
mummified lambs are aborted.
If the lamb is born
alive,
it may have excessive
hair or long straight
wool.
Lambs have shaky movements (are unable to
nurse),
abnormal joints,
and unthriftiness.
If the
lambs live
long enough,
the signs and symptoms
disappear.
Cause/Transmission
Border disease
is caused by the bovine viral
diarrhea
virus.
It can be spread by animal contact
with cattle
and between sheep and from contact with
the fluids
and tissues
from the birth process.
The
ewe picks up the virus
from 1) contaminated
feed
and water,
2) virus
particles
in the air,
and 3)
direct
contact
with
infected
animals.
Definite
diagnosis
requires
laboratory
isolation.
Treatment and Prevention
There is no treatment
for this viral
disease.
Good nursing
and individual
care may save some
lambs.
Border disease can be prevented by keeping
breeding
sheep away from cattle
and by isolating
aborting
ewes.
Aborted fetuses
and by-products
of
the birth
process must be destroyed
by burying
or
burning.
Human Health
None
Concerns
49
Contagious Xcthyma
(Sore Mouth, Orf)
Symptoms
Symptoms are thick)
scabby sores that occur on
the lips
and gums and may be seen on udders or
When
other areas that have little
hair or wool.
the lesions
appear on udders, they are painful
and
the ewe will
not allow the lambs to nurse.
As a
mastitis
often develops.
result,
Cause/Transmission
Contagious ecthyma is a viral
disease
The virus
is very hardy and
and goats.
for extended periods
away from the host.
the
disease
from surroundings
pick
up
mother's
udder by
spread
it
to their
Recovery from the disease gives an immunity
There is little
transfer
of
least 1 year.
from the ewe to the lamb by the colostrum.
of sheep
can live
Lambs
and may
nursing.
for at
immunity
Treatment and Prevention
Treatment is of little
value.
Softening
ointsheep are
ments may help. Always make sure affected
tasty
feeds are helpeating
and drinking.
Soft,
ful.
A vaccine
is available
and is very effecLambs should be vaccinated
within
1 month of
tive.
from
the
protection
birth
because
of
poor
colostrum.
Adults need not be vaccinated
again after
the
disease
is in the flock
and all
young have been
Continual
exposure to the disease will
vaccinated.
keep the adults immune or resistant
to sore mouth.
Burnan Health Concerns
This disease is contagious
to man. Ps,ople who
work with sheep and goats that have sore mouth, or
use the vaccine to protect
sheep and goats,
should
these animals
or the
wear gloves
when handling
vaccine.
50
(Aftosa,
Foot and Mouth Disease @MD)
Aphthous Fever, Epizootic
Aphthae)
symptoms
Symptoms of foot and mouth disease
in sheep
are usually
less severe than those seen in cattle.
Sheep symptoms include
dullness.
fever,
and small
blisters
in the mouth and on the tongue that break
and leave small erosions.
The most common site for
blisters
and erosions
in sheep is on the dental
pad.
Small blisters
also appear between the toes
and on the feet.
These areas turn pale and then
peel off,
leaving
erosions
and sores between the
toes.
The affected
animals
are very lame.
The
same type of blisters
and erosions
appear on the
teats.
Affected
animals will
not eat, and if the
feet are very sore, will
not stand.
Sometimes the
first
symptoms are sudden death in lambs and death
loss may run to 50%. Death of adults is very low,
usually
1% to 2%. Ministries
and Departments
of
Agriculture
require
that FMD be reported,
if suspected.
Diagnosis
is based on symptoms and laboratory confirmations.
The disease should be differentiated
from sheep pox, PPR, contagious
ecthyma,
lip and leg ulceration,
foot rot,
and bluetongue.
Only laboratory
diagnosis
can differentiate
FMD
from vesicular
stomatitis.
Cause/Transmrission
Foot and mouth disease is caused by a virus
that has seven types and over 60 subtypes.
It is
widespread
over much of the world.'
The disease is
spread by swallowing
the virus on feed or by inhaling or getting
virus
particles
in the eyes from
virus-laden
air.
Spread by recovered
carrier
cattle,
sheep, goats, and hogs, foot and mouth disease
can occur for a year or longer after
the symptoms ,
are gone.
There is some evidence the virus can be
spread through the air by winds.
The incubation
3 to 5 days.
period is usually
Treatment
and Prevention
Vaccination
There is no effective
treatment.
the
can be made as a preventive
measure against
type that occurs locally.
Some countries
use the
51
eradication
method--all
exposed and
are destroyed,
then burned, or buried.
Human Health
None
sick
animals
Concerns
Nairobi
Sheep Disease
Symptoms
This disease
is marked by high fever,
runny
green,
watery diarrhea
that may
nose, and bright
contain
blood and mucous flecks when the animal is
near
death.
The animals
have
poor
appetites,
Pregnant ewes frequently
weaken, and cannot rise.
abort.
Mortality
is very high in native
sheep;
breeds and crosses,
mortality
however, in imported
rarely
exceeds 40%.
Cause/Transmission
Nairobi
sheep disease is an infectious,
nonby the brown
contagious
viral
disease transmitted
apyendiculatus.
tick l&ipicephah.dS
This
disease
has been reported
only
in eastern
and central
It is transmitted
from sheep to sheep by
Africa.
the bite of the brown tick.
Treatment
and Prevention
Treatment
is of little
value and many native
sheep recover.
Those that
do
and native-cross
Sheep should be
recover
have a strong
immunity.
dipped or sprayed at weekly intervals
to control
A vaccine is being developed.
ticks.
Euman Health
None
Concerns
Peste Des Petits
Ruminants
(Pseudorinderpest
of Small Ruminants,
Peste of Sheep and Goats, Kata, PPR,
Stomatitis-Pneumoenteritis
Syndrome)
Symptoms
A sudden rise
in temperature,
up to 41C
(106F),
is seen in sheep that appear dull and restThey have a dull coat, a dry muzzle with a
less.
52
very little
appetite,
and reddenclear discharge,
There may be some red or raw
ing around the eyes.
areas in the mouth.
Diarrhea,
dehydration,
emaciaand collapse
sometimes occur.
tion,
Pneumonia may
develop as a complication.
Few sheep die from this
goats die within
8 to
disease though most infected
10 days.
Several other diseases have similar
symptoms,
thus,
laboratory
diagnosis
should
be made using
blood and culture
tests.
Sheep are less likely
to
develop the disease than goats.
Cause/Transmission
The disease is caused by a virus and has been
reported
only in West Africa.
It is transmitted
by
direct
contact
with
sick
animals
or with
areas
where sick animals
have been recently
kept.
All
tissues
and fluids
from sick animals
contain
the
virus
and are considered
infectious.
Cattle
exposed to the virus do not become sick but do become
Rinderpest
disease
immune to rinderpest.
(Note:
of cattle
has been reported
to cause a similar
set
of symptoms in sheep and goats; however, the symptoms are much less severe.)
Treatment and Prevention
There is no effective
treatment.
that will
protect
sheep and goats for
is available
in some areas.
Human Health
None
(Ovine
A vaccine
about 1 year
Concerns
Progressive
Pneumonia
Progressive
Pneumonia,, Maedi-Visna,
Lunger Disease)
Symptoms
Symptoms of progressive
pneumonia are severe
loss of weight while still
having a good appetite,
rapid
respiration
with flared
nostrils
even when
resting,
normal body temperature,
muscle weakness,
Seen in 2-year?
and decreased ability
to exercise.
old or older sheep.
53
Cause/Transmission
Progressive
pneumonia,
which is caused by a
"slow virus,"
is nearly
always fatal.
It takes
over 2 years
from contact
for
the disease
to
Transmission
probably
occurs when viral
develop.
particles
are inhaled.
Treatment and Prevention
There
is no treatment.
Prevention
removal of sick sheep from healthy
flocks.
Human Health
None
(Hydrophobia,
is
by
Concerns
Lyssa,
Rabies
Mad Dog, Le Rage, Tollwut)
Symptoms
You should
be extra
cautious
in diagnosing
rabies.
Symptoms include
confusion,
depression,
loss of milk
production,
and loss
of appetite.
Many infected
animals may chew on foreign
objects
such as wood or rocks.
They may not be able to
and saliva
or water will
drool from their
swallow,
mouth.
Eydrophobia
or "fear
of water..
is not a
symptom of rabies
in animals.
Infected
sheep may
or may not bleat,
if they do, it will
be
but,
unusually
low and off-key.
Also,
the eyes will
"stare"
from dilated
pupils.
Cause/Transmission
A virus-caused
disease
of all
warm-blooded
animals and man, rabies is distributed
over most of
the world,
except for those countries
where it has
been eradicated.
The virus is in the saliva of the
rabid
animal
and is most commonly transmitted
by
its
bite.
Rabies also
can be contracted
when
saliva
from an infected
animal enters an open wound
The virus
has been
(for
example,
when licked).
transmitted
to humans from bats in caves, probably
by breathing
small virus-laden
droplets.
The bite
of the vampire bat is a common method of transmission.
The incubation
period for rabies can be very
up
to
10
months
or so. It is usually
about 2
long 9
weeks.
54
Rabies is always fatal.
It is not commonly
seen in domesticated
animals
raised for food, and
in most cases they do not readily
transmit
it since
they do not normally
bite
for
self-protection.
However, it is very common for people to think the
sheep is choking
and stick
their
hands into
its
mouth.
Choking is very unlikely
in a sheep.
Diagnosis on symptoms alone is impossible
due to the
diseases
of
many similar
the
central
nervous
system.
Laboratory
diagnosis
is necessary.
Treatment
and Prevention
There is no effective
treatment
after
symptoms
develop.
Preventive
treatment
for humans is practiced
immediately
after
exposure.
This
is not
practical
in animals, which are usually
destroyed.
There are several vaccines
available
for animals.
These are especially
useful in South America
where vampire
bats are common and are primary
spreaders
of rabies.
Never use a, vaccine
on an
animal for which it is not specifically
intended.
Read the label.
Low egg passage. vaccines,
for
example, are fine for dogs but will
cause rabies in
cats, cattle,
horses, sheep, and goats.
Human Health Concerns
You can contract
rabies from animals and it is
100% fatal,
once symptoms develop.
When an animal
shows severe nervous signs or unusual
changes in
behavior,
either
aggressive
or passive,
always consider
rabies
a possibility
until
it can be ruled
out.
Do not make any assumptions
or take any
chances with this disease.
Remember, it is 100%
fatal
to humans.
If humans have been exposed,
always consult
a physician.
Rift
Valley
Fever
symptoms
High abortion
rate occurs in adults
and high
Sick anideath losses among very young animals.
mals show a rapid rise in temperature
and a rapid,
Sores sometimes
weak pulse.
Gait is unsteady.
Milk production
appear on the tongue and cheeks.
Death losses are extremely
high
rapidly
decreases.
55
for young lambs, kids,
calves,
sheep, cattle,
and goats surfer
loss.
and puppies.
Adult
a 10% to 20% death
Cause/Transmission
Sheep, goats,
cattle,
very young puppies,
and
humans are affected
by this virus-caused
disease,
transmitted
primarily
by mosquitoes.
Ticks
have
also been identified
as carriers.
The disease
is
seen primarily
on the African
continent,
usually
during the wet season.
Treatment
and Prevention
There is no effective
treatment.
Prevention
consists
of housing animals in insect-proof
buildings or moving them to highlands
away from insects.
A vaccine
is available;
however,
it is a
live-virus
vaccine
and will
cause abortions
in
pregnant animals and deformities
in the fetuses.
Human Health Concerns
Humans are infected
both by insects
and by
handling
animals
and tissues
affected
with
this
virus.
Meat from infected
animals
should not be
eaten.
In humans, the disease is not usually
fatal
but does cause a long, 7 to 10 day flu-like
disease
that is very debilitating
and painful.
A vaccine
is available
for use in humans.
Scrapie
Symptoms
Early
symptoms of scrapie
are nervousness,
slight
muscle
tremors,
dull.
hair
coat,
and a
slightly
wobbly gait
(especially
if the animal is
excited).
As the disease slowly
progresses,
itching begins, usually
at the top of the tail
and progresses
forward
over the body.
The animal will
rub, scratch,
bite,
or do anything
to scratch these
areas.
A high degree of pleasure
is derived
from
this scratching
and the animal will
lift
its head
and nibble with its lips and lick
its tongue, as if
enjoying
the scratching.
All the hair over these
itching
areas Is often rubbed from the body.
The
animal will
progressively
lose weight,
yet will
eat
56
until
a day or so before
dying.
About 1 week
before
death,
the animal
will
-lie
down and be
unable to rise.
You can usually
expect no more
than 1 to 2 animals in a flock
to be infected
at
any one time, but up to 50% will
eventually
become
Diagnosis
can be made from symptoms, but
infected.
confirmation
in a laboratory
is necessary.
Cause/Transmission
Scrapie,
a disease
primarily
of sheep and
occasionally
of goats, is caused by a slow virus or
viroid
(very small virus-like
particle).
The incubation period,
according
to most research,
is from
18 months to over 4 years.
As a result,
it is
usually
seen in animals
from 2 to 6 years old.
Death
losses
are 100% once signs develop.
From
initial
signs to death, 2 to 6 months will
pass.
The disease is thought to be spread by contact with
infected
animals and from mother to ofFspring.
Treatment and Prevention
There is no effective
treatment.
Several
countries
have eradication
programs for scrapie.
If
this
disease
is
suspected,
the Agriculture
Department
should
be contacted.
To
authorities
buy from healthy
herds and avoid
prevent
scrapie,
all. contacts tdith infected
sheep and goats.
Euman Health Goncerns
There is no known connection
at this time to
However, most countwo similar
human diseases.
tries
recommend that meat and products from infected animals
not be used for
human consumption,
because of this similarity.
Scrapie can be transmitted to some monkeys.
%
Sheep/Goat
POX
Symptoms
all
Sheep/goat
pox infects
severe in young animals.
Early
runny nose, red eyes, fever,
poor
ing with an arched back, and lack
numerous nodules
or 2 days later,
all over the body but are most
57
ages but is more
symptoms include
hair coat, standOne
of appetite.
(lumps) develop
visible
in areas
.
little
or no hair.
Most of these lumps
remains
for
3 to 4 weeks.
develop
a scab that
Removal of these scabs leaves a pit or pock mark.
The same type of eruption
will
develop inside
the
mouth and throughout
the body.
Sheep and goat pox
should be differentiated
from contagious
ecthyma.
In all
countries,
when this
disease
is susit
should
be
reported
to
the
Agriculture
pected,
The death rate can reach
Department
authorities.
80%, usually
from pneumonia.
with
Cause/Transmission
Common in the Middle
East, the Indian subcontinent,
and Africa,
this
virus-caused
disease
is
spread by small droplets
in the air and by contact
with sick animals.
Treatment and Prevention
Antibiotics
There is no effective
treatment.
A vaccine is available
may help prevent
pneumonia.
for use in problem areas.
Isolate
sick individuals
to help reduce spread of the disease.
Human Eealth
None
Concerns
Wesselbron
Disease
Symptoms
Young lambs exhibit
fever,
enlarged
lymph
nodes, may have yellow mucous membranes, and usualPregnant ewes abort after
ly die in 1 to 2 days.
Dead animals have
having a fever for 1 to 2 weeks.
a friable,
yellow liver.
Cause/Transmission
Wesselbron
disease
is caused by a virus
and
transmitted
from sheep to sheep by the bite
of
Definite
diagnosis
requires
laboratory
mosquitoes.
isolation
of the virus.
Treatment and Prevention
There is no treatment
for this or other‘ virai
Prevention
is accomplished
by reducing
diseases.
susceptible
and vaccinating
mosquito
populations
58
‘sheep before
breeding.
ewes may cause abortion.
Human Health Concerns
A flc-like
condition
this virus.
Vaccination
occurs
of
in
pregnant
humans
from
Metabolic Diseases
Causes, Treatments and Prevention
Metabolic
diseases are those that involve
the lack
of or unusual breakdown of physical
and chemical
processes in the body.
Acidosis/Indigestion/Impaction/Choke
Each of
these
conditions
is
related
to
feed-
ing.
Acidosis
occurs
when sheep overeat
easily
digested
feed with high levels
of starch or sugar,
including
grains,
grain by-products
(brewer’s
waste
or germ) , and vegetable
parts.
The pH of the rumen
will
change to an acid state,
usually
below 5. The
animal may bloat,
refuse
to eat,
develop
severe
diarrhea,
and become dehydrated
(eyes
sink into
head and skin loses elasticity).
Pain is exhibited
by grinding
of the teeth.
Rumen motility
will
stop
and the rumen will
feel watery.
The animal will
weaken, stagger,
and be unable to stand.
If not
treated,
the sheep usually
dies in 1 to 2 days.
Treatment
consists
of using
a stomach
tube to
administer
oil and a mixture
of charcoal
and sodium
bicarbonate
(see Techniques and Therapy).
Surgical
clean-out
of the rumen is required
in many cases,
only with aid of a veterinarian.
Indigestion
is usually
a mild
form of acidosis.
Symptoms include
lack of rumen motility,
and decreased milk
production.
loss of appetite,
Some charcoal-bicarbonate
mixture
and a mild laxasuch as milk of magnesia (45 to 60 ml) or
tive,
magnesium sulfate
(epsom salts,
15 to 30 g mixed in
100 to 200 cc of water),
will
usually
correct
the
problem when given by mouth or with a stomach tube
(see Techniques and Therapy).
Impaction,
which is uncommon in sheep, occurs
when poor quality
roughage is consumed faster
than
it is broken down by the digestive
process in the
the digestive
tract.
rumen and passed on through
Sudden changes in the type of feed will
slow passage of the material
through the rumen and can also
Correcting
rumen
cause impaction
or indigestion.
almost
always
requires
a surgical
proceimpaction
60
.
dure (rumenotomy)
and the services
of a veterinarian.
Choke is not common in sheep, unless they are
feeding
on vegetable
or fruit
waste.
If a stomach
tube is gently
passed down the throat,
the obstruction can usually
be pushed into the rumen.
If the
contact
a veterinarian
for
tube procedure
fails,
surgery.
Euman Health
None
Concerns
-
Allergies/Insect
Stings
Symptoms
Severe generalized
symptoms such as sudden
collapse,
coma, and death may appear from allerLess severe and more common
gies/insect
stings.
symptoms may include
respiratory
distress
(diffiheart
irregularities,
excessive
culty
breathing),
saliva
flow from the mouth or tears from the eyes,
mild to severe itching,
lumps (hives)
that appear
on the skin suddenly,
hair standing erect,
swelling
of tissues
with fluid
retention
(edema),
and red
areas on the skin. Common causes of allergies
are
injections,
to
the
skin,
and
feeds,
applications
insect bites.
Cause/Transmission
An allergy
is the animal's
reaction
to a
substance (usually
a protein)
with which it has had
previous
contact
and to which the body has develMany substances
can,
oped an immune sensitivity.
cause allergic
reactions,
with varying
degrees of
Some examples are pollens
or other plant
severity.
many drugs and biological
proteins,
insect
stings,
substances
such as antisera,
vaccines,
or antibiothe
allergic
reaction
is dose
Many
times
tics.
and
related:
small
doses cause small reactions
large
doses cause severe
shock or even death.
These reactions
can occur almost immediately
after
contact or up to 3 weeks later.
61
Treatnaent and Prevention
Immediately
remove the animal
from its
surroundings
because the allergen
usually
is nearby.
If the suspected allergen
was applied
to the skin,
wash the animal with
soap and water.
(Protect
yourself
from the suspected allergen.)
Do not wash the sheep in a river;
the allergen
could kill
fish or contaminate
a water supply.
If
the sheep is dying,
epinephrine
should immediately
be given
intravenously
or subcutaneously
(see
Therapy and Technique).
Doses of antihistamines
and corticosteroids
injected
or taken orally
usually produce a dramatic
response,
completely
reversing or greatly
reducing
the severity
of the sympTo prevent further
recurrence,
do not place
toms.
the animal in the same environment
or use the same
products.
Human Health
None
(Ruminal
Concerns
Tympany,
Bloat
Tympanities,
Hoven,
Meteorism)
symptoms
In addition
to pain,
discomfort,
and difficulty
in breathing,
the sheep has a full
left
flank,
jutting
up and out, that sounds like a drum
when thumped.
Sometimes the right
side also will
be enlarged,
and will
protrude
outward.
Rumen
movement usually
continues
until
the inside
of the
mouth and the area around the eye turn blue instead
of pink.
This change indicates
a lack of oxygen
and approaching
death.
Cause/Transmission
Basically,
bloat
stems from the sheep's
inability
to get rid of gas produced
in the first
This condicompartment of the stomach--the
rumen.
tion is nearly always an emergency.
The gas can be
free or mixed with the feed in the rumen (frothy
bloat).
If not relieved,
it will
cause extreme
discomfort
and death from reduced ability
to exchange oxygen in the blood.
62
especially
frothy
bloat,
can be caused
Bloat,
by feeding on legumes (especially
alfalfa
[lucerne]
or clovers)
and small grain
pastures
(wheat,
baroats, and rye).
Almost
any feed can cause
ley,
bloat
if the animal cannot belch gas away, as can
blockage
of the esophagus
(tube
from mouth to
stomach) by feed, froth,
or a foreign
object.
Treatment and Prevention
Swift treatment
is necessary.
Force the sheep
to stand and walk.
Tie a stick
or rope in the
mouth for the sheep to chew on.
This stimulates
saliva
and helps reduce bloat.
If the animal is in critical
condition,
pass
a rubber tube down the throat
(see Techniques)
into
the
rumen.
Use a tube no larger
than 1 to 2 cm
in diameter.
(l/2
to 314 in.)
To see if the tube
has reached the stomach,
place your ear to the
stomach area on the left
side of the sheep and blow
into the tube.
You should hear a bubbling
sound.
If
the accumulation
is a gas bloat,
relief
is
immediate.
If
it
is frothy
bloat,
relief
is
limited.
Pour or pump 100 to 200 cc (1 to 1.5
cups) of mineral
or vegetable
oil into the stomach
by way of the tube.
Sometimes
100 mg/kg of
Poloxalone
orally
will
help reduce frothy
bloat,
If no mineral or vegetable
oil is available,
unused
motor oil will
serve.
Do not use the motor oil
unless necessary.
Never use used motor oil.
As a last resort,
a large gauge needle,
trocar
and cannula,
or piece of hollow stick
(bamboo) can
be punched into the left
side of the sheep.
This
treatment
is considered
only
as a last
resort
because 60% to 80% of the animals so treated
die of
Pnfection
several
days later.
Best prevention
is
careful
attention
when flock is grazing legumes.
Hunmu Health
None
Concerns
63
Colostrum Deprivation
(Hypogammaglobinemia)
Symptoms
If a lamb does not obtain enough colostrum,
it
will
not have adequate disease protection.
Such
lambs will
probably
be sick most of their
lives.
If they live
through
the first
month or 6 weeks,
they will
probably
survive
because they can then
build
their
own immunities.
Many hypogammaglobinemic
lambs are stunted,
however,
and do not
mature properly.
Cause/Transmission
Newborn lambs have little
or no immunity
to
disease.
Antibodies
(disease protective
particles)
do not pass from the ewe to the lamb before birth.
As a result,
the ewe builds
a very high level
of
antibodies
in the udder, primarily
gamma globulin.
The ?..zmb is capable of absorbing
these protective
bodies through the stomach and intestinal
wall for
a short
time after
birth,
with
peak absorption
This ability
deduring its first
6 to 12 hours.
when
24
creases rapidly
over the next 12 hours;
hours old, the lamb can no longer absorb the antibodies. Because the ewe's first
milk,
called coloslevel,
it is very importrum, is high in antibody
tant for the lamb to nurse soon after
birth.
It
should
receive
about 10% of its
body weight
in
colostrum
the first
day of life.
This would amount
to nearly
236 ml (l/2
pint)
for the average-sized
lamb.
Treatment and Prevention
There is no effective
treatment
after the consometimes
help,
Blood transfusions
dition
occurs.
but these should be done by a veterinarian.
Prevenbe sure the lamb has adequate
tion
is simple:
If the lamb is
colostrum
before it is 6 hours old.
it
gently
by
applying
warm
weak and cold,
warm
Tubing techwater or warm towels
to its body.
niques using a small
rubber catheter
can and should
be used to place warm colostrum
into the stomach
(see Techniques).
Human Health
None
Concerns
64
(Grass
Grass Tetany
Hypomagnesemia
Staggers,
Tetany)
symptoms
A sheep suffering
from grass tetany
is first
nervous and trembling,
becomes progressively
weakdown and cannot stand.
Symptoms
er, and then lies
can resemble those of milk fever.
Cause/Transmission
Grass tetany
occurs when feed is low in magnesium content.
The symptoms appear when the level
of magnesium in the blood drops below a critical
level.
This usually
occurs when lush green grass
is the only feed or when pastures
are fertilized
with potash during
the wet, fast-growing
season.
Fast
Lush green grass may be low in magnesium.
passage of feed and other factors
may also limit
the uptake of magnesium by the animal.
Treatment
and Prevention
Treatment
consists
of IV administration
of
drugs containing
magnesium.
Usually
milk
fever
remedies
contain
enough magnesium to treat
this
It is best
condition
(see Therapy and Techniques).
prevented
by feeding some legume hay and grain and
by not allowing
high milk producers
to feed solely
Some dry straw-like
forage might
on lush grasses.
help reduce intake
of grass or slow the passage of
the grass through the digestive
tract.
Humau Health
None
Concerns
Milk Fever
(Parturient
Paresis,
Hypocalcemia,
Tetany)
Lambing Sickness, Transport
symptoms
the ewe walks with wobbly
With milk
fever,
She may be constipated
gait or with foot dragging.
Occasionally,
or too weak to deliver
her lambs.
the ewe will
not be able to stand and will
be deKeep the ewe's head slightly
elevated
and
pressed.
to one side so that if she vomits,
fluid
will
not
enter her lungs.
65
Laboratory
by a decreased
6 mg/lOO ml.
confirmation
of diagnosis
is
serum calcium level,
usually
shown
below
Cause/Transmission
The last few weeks of pregnancy and after
the
birth
of the lambs,
ewes require
more calcium.
Stress or fasting
can also upset this balance.
Any
factor
that causes an upset of this
balance may
start
hypocalcemiaY
Severe decrease
of dietary
calcium
or any process that decreases
utilization
of that available
in the blood is involved
in the
cause.
Treatment and Prevention
Treatment
consists
of a slow and cautious
IV dose of 25% calcium
borogluconate
solution;
usually
50 to 100 ml.
If the product
label
indicates, half of this dose may be given intravenously
half
subcutaneously
(SQ) to
(IV)
and the other
reduce likelihood
of heart stoppage from the intravenous calcium (see Therapy and Techniques).
The
response will
be slower but almost
as effective.
Extreme caution
should be used if intravenous
calcium is being given.
Feel the heart or listen
for
an increased
or severely
decreased rate while the
solution
is going into the ewe.
As a preventive
measure, avoid feeds very low
in calcium.
Severe stresses,
such as being transported long distances,
and any situation
where the
ewe is without
feed for an extended period of time,
will
also cause symptoms to develop.
Excessive
calcium
just
prior
to lambing
may initiate
milk
fever.
Human Health
None
Physical
Concerns
Injury/Wounds/Bums/Fractures
Sheep are often injured
in fights
with dogs,
with
a little
Usually,
and other sheep.
predators,
First,
bleeding
heal itself.
help, the animal will
This can normally
be done by
should be stopped.
Second, clean wounds with
applying
mild pressure.
66
mild soap and water.
Remove all dirt,
hair,
and
trash.
Be gentle so as not to cause renewed bleeding.
Next, apply an antibiotic
ointment,
cream, or
powder to the area.
Finally,
apply a bandage if
the damaged area is large.
Most wounds do not
require
bandaging.
Also clean and protect
burned areas with an
ointment.
Use a saline or salt solution
for cleaning and do not damage the burned area.
If no antibiotic
ointment
is available,
butter
or cream will
help.
If the wounds or burns are severe and large
areas of skin are destroyed,
the sheep probably
should be slaughtered.
Fractures
and dislocations
sometimes are seen
when sheep fight
or get tangled in fences, feeders,
or other
equipment.
Dislocations
of joints
are
seen as an abnormal angle of the long bones from a
joint.
These are usually
fixed
or difficult
to
move.
Sometimes the part farthest
from the body
can be pulled and it will
pop back into place.
If
this cannot be done, the animal should probably
be
slaughtered.
Fractures
are usually
of the long
bones.
Abnormal angle, loose movement, gritting
of
the fractured
ends or protrusion
of the bone ends
into soft tissue
or penetrating
the skin will
enable you to diagnose this condition.
If the bone
ends are in apposition
(together),
there
is no
penetration
of the skin, and if the animal is valuable enough, the fracture
may be cast and may heal
in 6 to 8 weeks.
Usually,
however, it is best to
slaughter
as soon as possible
after
the break
occurs.
In any of the above conditions,
always assess
the chance of survival
and ability
to return
to
useful service,
compared to the immediate value for
meat.
If the meat value equals
or exceeds the
chance for return
to service,
the best option
is
slaughter.
Human Health
None
Concerns
67
Polioencephalomalacia
Symptoms
The sheep shows sudden loss of appetite,
depression,
no fever,
and normal or slightly
reduced
rumen motility
with polioencephalomalacia.
Nervous
system signs are head pressing,
grinding
of teeth,
aimless
wandering,
blindness,
abnormal
eye movements, muscle tremors,
and overreaction
or jumping
when touched.
When the sheep is unable to stand,
the head usually
will
pull back.
Convulsions
and
death follow
in a few hours.
Cause/Transmission
Polioencephalomalacia
is a noninfectious
disease of fast-growing
lambs and young adult
sheep.
The actual cause of the disease is unknown but may
be due to molds on the feed that break down vitamin
Bl (thiamine)
in the animal.
It is usually
seen
in animals
on a high grain
ration
and sometimes
after a change in management practices.
Treatment and Prevention
Treatment
requires
thiamine
injections
of a
total
of 5 to 10 mg/kg, one-half
of the dosage
given IV and one-half
given IM (see Therapy and
Additional
half-doses
should be given
Techniques).
IM every 12 hours until
the animal has recovered.
If the sheep shows little
improvement
after
2 or 3
No prevenshould be considered.
days, slaughter
tive measures have been reported.
Human Health
None
Concerns
Pregnancy Toxemia
(Ketosis)
Symptoms
Ewes with
pregnancy
toxemia
are depressed,
weak, and have poor muscle control
and balance late
Later they lie down and are unable
in pregnancy.
After
to rise.
Death follows
within
a few days.
symptoms often resemble those of
lying
down, their
If treated
for milk fever,
they will
milk fever.
68
respond for a few hours in most cases and then
relapse.
This is because the products
sold for
milk fever contain 20% or more simple sugars, which
will
give temporary
improvement.
Early
in the
disease,
many ewes will
show a positive
test for
ketone bodies in the urine.
Such test
kits
are
often available
and easy to use.
Cause/Transmission
Pregnancy toxemia occurs only within
the last
few weeks or days of pregnancy.
It is usually
seen
when the ewe is carrying
two or more lambs, or when
the ewe is very fat.
This disease is caused by the
sudden extra demand for energy by the fast-growing
lambs in the pregnant
sheep.
Because the uterus
containing
lambs,
fluids,
the
and
membranes
requires
increasing
amounts of space inside
the
ewe 9 she has a decreasing
amount of space available
.
better
source
of energy
and cause less indigestion.
Oats are high in fiber
and are not as good as
corn or sorghum (mile).
The last 4 to 6 weeks of
pregnancy
the ewe will
require
.47 to .90 kg (1 to
2 lb) of good quality
grain
or grain
by-products
and grass
or good quality
hay.
If
she is very
or has a history
of having
three
to five
large,
lambs, this diet will
not be sufficient
and should
be increased
50% to 100%.
Protein
requirements
should also be balanced,
but protein
level
is not
related
to pregnancy toxemia.
Human Health
None
Concerns
Parasitic Diseases
Causes, Treatments and Preventisn
Blood Parasites
A parasitic
disease
is any disease
condition
caused
initially
or totally
by the presence and activities
of either
internal
or external
parasites.
This can
occur in or on most parts of the body.
Anaplasmosis
Symptoms
Anemia is the most common symptom.
animals
have poor appearance
and do not
reproduce
well.
Anemic
milk
or
Cause/Transmission
This
blood
parasitic
disease
of sheep and
goats is caused by the rickettsia
AnapZasma OV&.
The disease is usually
passed from animal to animal
by infected
ticks,
bloodsucking
flies,
and bloodcontaminated
needles
and surgical
instruments.
Infected
animals
that
show no symptoms
of the
disease
are carriers
of the organism.
The disease
is fairly
common in areas where anaplasmosis
occurs
in cattle.
Diagnosis
requires
a laboratory
examination
for the organism inside
the red blood cells.
Treatment
and Prevention
Tetracycline
drugs are recommended for prevention and treatment.
Suggested treatment
is based on
cattle-dosage
control
at 4 mg/kg IM every 30 days
using
the 200 mg/cc oxytetracycline,
or administered
orally
in feed at 20 to 30 mg per head per
'day on a continuing
basis.
Control
of flies
and
ticks
will
help,
as will
sanitation
of instruments
used for castration,
etc.
(see Therapy
and Techniques).
Severe stress
also tends to increase
the
risk of an anaplasmosis
outbreak.
Human Health
Concerns
None
71
Babesiosis
(Red Water)
Symptonfs
Sheep and goats usually
show no outward clinical signs
of Babes&3 infection.
There may be a
slight
anemia and slight
decreases
in milk production,
fertility,
or growth rate.
When such symptoms occur,
look
for
fever,
anemia,
YOU should
depression,
and sometimes
dark red urine.
Most
infected
sheep
recover
completely
in
a short
while.
Diagnosis
requires
a diagnostic
laboratory
examination
for
the L&&es&z organism
inside
red
blood cells.
Cause/Transmission
blood parasites,
Babe&a
t?ntasi
and Babeare thought
to cause babesiosis
in both
goats and sheep.
Transmission
is most likely
by
ticks
belonging
to the genus RhipicephaZus.
This
disease is most commonly seen in tropical
areas.
Two
sia
ovis,
Treatment
and Prevention
Administer
Acaprin
or diminazene
aceturate
(Berenil).
Control
and prevention
are based on
controlling
ticks
with dips or sprays (see Techniques).
Humau Health
Concerns
None
Heartwater
Sylnptom&i
Symptoms of heartwater
vary from a sudden onset of high fever,
convulsions,
and death in 24 to
48 hours to an acute stage showing fever,
re,luced
feed
intake,
depression,
breathing.
and rapid
24 to 48 hours,
After
the sheep will
show nervous
signs such as twitching
of the eyelids,
protruding
tongue,
walking
in circles,
or high stepping.
The
sheep may stand with
its
legs widespread
and' the
head lowered
as if
to brace itself.
As nervous
the animal
will
lie
down and
symptoms increase,
72
start
galloping
movements.
Death follows
within
1 week of the first
symptoms.
A subacute
form
sometimes occurs with mild fever,
slight
incoordination,
and recovery
or death in about 2 weeks.
Another
form is seen primarily
in wild
ruminants
and consists
only of a high fever for a short time.
When diagnosing
in the field,
look for
the
tick (Ambi?yomma hebraeum).
presence
of the "bent"
Postmortem
signs
of fluid
around
the heart
and
lungs also are helpful
in diagnosis.
Cause/Transmission
Heartwater
some Caribbean
Africa
and possibly
in
It
is caused by the
rickettsia
COlJdP’ia ruminantium.
The disease is not
contagious
from animal
to animal;
it
must pass
hebpaewn.
tick
AmbLyomma
through
tht
three-host
Once infected,
the tick
remains
infected
for life
but does not pass the infection
to its offspring.
Laboratory
tests
are necessary
to confirm
the
diagnosis.
Heartwater
has symptoms
similar
to
other
diseases
of the nervous
system,
including
tetanus
(lockjaw),
rabies,
trypanosomiasis,
piroplasmosis,
or poisoning
by some plants,
insecticides,
and lead.
Diagnosis
is difficult.
Treatment
is seen
countries.
in
and Prevention
Tetracyclines
administered
early
provide
good
recovery
and do not affect
the immunity
produced by
having
the disease.
Prevention
is difficult.
In
most places,
young animals are infected
artificially and then treated
to provide
immunity.
Sheep in
areas where the disease
is prevalent
remain immunized by continued
exposure (see Techniques).
Human Eealth
Concerns
None
Trypauosomiasis
symptoms
(Nagana,
I
Sannare)
are
primarily
Symptoms
of
trypanosomiasis
Some
anemia,
chronic
weakness,
and weight
loss.
10% to 15% of untreated
animals
eventually
die.
73
Blindness
and nervous
symptoms sometimes
develop.
Abortion
occurs in females.
Accelerated
pulse and
respiration
are seen with swelling
of lower parts
of the body and legs (edema).
Cause/Transmission
Trypanosomiasis
is caused by a blood parasite
of sheep and goats transmitted
by the bite
of a
fly
and
caused
by
Trypanosoma
brucei,
T.
tsetse
congolense,
and T. vivax.
Sheep and goats are not
severely
affected
by these diseases,
probably
because the tsetse fly seldom feeds on them.
Several
African
breeds appear to be trypanosome
tolerant.
This disease
is seen only where the tsetse
f!.y is
found in Africa.
Treatment
and Prevention
Treatment
and prevention
consist
of injections
of diminazene
aceturate
(Berenil)
and homidi.um compounds (Novidium
and Ethidium)
and controlling
the
tsetse
fly.
When crossbreeding
trypanosome-tolerant native
sheep with
exotic
breeds
to improve
production,
the lambs will
usually
be more susceptible
to trypanosomes
than their
native
parent;
but
they
will
be more tolerant
than
their
exotic
parent.
Euman Health
Concerns
Although
it
is not contagious
sheep.
can occur in man, trypanosomiasis
nor passed from infected
goats or
Pwasitic
Causes,
Diseases
freatments
and Prevention
Internal Parasites
Coccidiosis
Symptolns
The symptoms of coccidiosis
can vary from some
loss of appetite
and slight,
short-lived
diarrhea
to severe cases involving
great amounts of dark and
bloody
diarrhea,
straining,
loss
of weight
and
appetite,
dull
appearance,
with up to 15% mortalThe
Acute deaths
are seen in young lambs.
ity.
feces of sick.lambs
contain
many infective
stages
of the coccidia.
When an outbreak
begins,
only
good sanitation
and isolation
of sick animals
will
Sheep that
prevent
its spread through
the flock.
survive
through
a disease
outbreak
are usually
immune to future
problems.
Diagnosis
is based on history,
symptoms,
and
Presence
of coccidia
in
microscopic
examination.
the feces
of normal
lambs does not indicate
a
Do not treat
unless
symptoms
disease
situation.
are present.
Cause/Transmission
Coccidiosis
is
caused by a tiny
parasite,
that
lives
in the cells
of the
Eimeria
spp.,
The tiny
oocysts
containing
sheep's
intestines.
the infective
stages
are passed in the feces and
contracted
by other sheep through
contaminated
feed
and water.
The number of parasites
that invade the
intestine
determines
the severity
of the symptoms.
If the sheep is under severe stress,
the disease
and other
diseases
such as
becomes more severe,
The combination
of
pneumonia may be triggered.
coccidiosis
with another
disease
is usually
fatal.
The disease
is most often
seen when sheep are
crowded into
very unclean
quarters.
Coccidia
are
species
specific
and do not pass directly
to or
from other animals.
Treatment
eluding
and Prevention
Several
two
products
are
feed additives
75
used
and
in treatment,
i.na water additive.
However,
the best
treatment
for
the individual
sheep is a first
dose nf sulfa
drug at 200 mg/kg
body weight followed
by a half-dose
(100 mg/kg) for
4 days (see Therapy and Techniques).
Without
good
sanitation,
however,
treatments
are ineffective.
Keep lambs out of feed troughs,
and arrange
water
troughs
so that manure will
not enter
the water.
Reduce crowding
and stress,
and separate
the lambs
from the adult sheep.
Sheep that have been exposed
to low levels
of coccidia
or have been treated
and
recovered
develop a strong immunity.
Human Health
Concerns
None
Flukes
or P3atworms
Symptoms
Sheep with flukes
or flatworms
may show poor
production
and growth,
bottle
jaw,
swollen
and
painful
abdomen,
anemia,
and sometimes
sudden
death.
Diagnosis
is based on symptoms, identification of eggs under the microscope,
and postmortem
examination
of dead animals.
Cause/Transmission
Flatworms
are fairly
large and live in several
areas of the body.
The most common is the liver
fluke.
Figure
1 describes
the life
cycle of these
parasites.
See Therapy section
and table
1 (page
93) for control.
Human Health
Concerns
None
Stomach and Intestine
Roundworms
Symptonks
Anemia (paleness
around the eyes, inside
the
mouth, or inside the edge of the rectum or vagina)
is a prime symptom of stomach and intestine
roundYou
worms, along with blood loss and gut damage.
may also detect
swelling
under the jaw (bottle
jaw)
Diarrhea
may occur
but
or low on the abdomen.
before
diarrhea
can
sometimes
the
sheep
dies
develop.
loss of weight,
Other symptoms include
76
Metacercaria
develop into young flukes in stomach .
Penetrate wall of gut, go to liver and turn into ADULTS
Sheep or gosts eat plants
with Metacercaria
ADULT fluke in the bile duct of the
sheep or goat. Ldys eggs, passes
out of the bile duct into intestine.
1y
Eggs in
feces
Cercaria encyst
on vegetation and
change to Metacercaria
-4
-4
c
rs
*4p,
//?+A In water, eggs hatch
into Miracidia
that
Q penetrate
snail
*
In snail, Miracidia go through
several reproductive
stages,
eventually producing many cercaria
Figure
1.
Typical
Lkfe Cycle of the Liver
Fluke
and a marked decrease
in milk producpoor growth,
tion.
Normally
the parasites
require
about 3 weeks
to complete
their
life
cycle.
However,
if large
numbers of larvae
are inactive
and lying
in the
lining
of the stomach and intestines,
severe parasitism
can occur within
7 to 10 days after
deworming.
Diagnosis
is made on symptoms and identification
of worm eggs under a microscope.
Postmortem
examinations
of dead sheep also will
help establish
a diagnosis.
Most of the adult
worms are very
small and difficult
to observe in the stomach with
an untrained
eye.
Cause/Transmission
Young sheep are severely
affected
by these
bloodsucking
parasites.
Figure
2 shows the life
cycle of this type worm.
All of the many species
of these worms cause disease in a similar
way.
Treatment
and Prevention
Sheep should be treated
regularly
with drugs.
Always treat
before
the sheep are placed onto new
after
lambing,
pasture,
and before and after
spring
growth
or rainy
seasons.
See the section
on
Therapy
for a description
of useful
drugs.
The
best preventives
are a routine
worming program and
minimal
fecal
contamination
of
feed
and water
sources.
Human Health
Concerns
None
Tapeworms
These long,
flat,
white
worms live
in the
intestine
as adult
parasites
and pass very visible
segments out with the feces.
They seldom cause any
very
problem,
except
infect
when great
numbers
young lambs.
They
are easily
controlled
(see
page 93).
Adult
sheep usually
build
an
Therapy,
immunity
and no longer
harbor
many of the paraThe life
cycle is shown in figure
3.
sites.
Huppan Health
Concerns
None
78
.
3rd.stage
larvr,e in sheep or goats develop into 4th stage
Some develop into adults and lay eggs.
Others enter tissue as inactive larvae.
larvae.
Sheep or goats eat grass
with larvae on it
Eggs
pass out
in feces
00
Larvae move up on
ass leaves by way
moisture beads
*
00
@
@
w
1st stage
larvae
3rd stage
larvae
INFECTIVE
2nd stage
larvae
Figure
2,
Typical
Life
---=a
Cycle of Bloodsucking
Eggs hatch
Stomach and Intestine
Roundworms .'
Mite digested away from the larval
tapeworm in the sheep and goat’s stomach
Larvae develop into adult form
and attach to gut and feed
Sheep or goat eats the mite along
with roots of the forage.
4
u
Adult tapeworm lives in the
t%@
V$ intestine of the sheep or goat and
@
sheds egg-filled segments
called proglottids
k
80,
Eggs
@@0
00
hatch into larvae
while in the mite
Proglottids
break and
release many eggs
b
Eggs are eaten by a soil mite
that lives on the roots of plants
Figure
3.
Typical
Life
Cycle of the Tapeworm
I
Whipworms
Whipworms
may
be associated
with
severe
diarrhea.
They usually
do not cause a problem
except in very severe infections
and may then cause
prolapse
of the rectum.
These worms feed on the
content
of the cecum and have a life
cycle similar
to the bloodsucking
roundworms.
They are slow to
develop
in the host,
and eggs and larvae
are very
resistant
to environmental
conditions.
Symptoms of
unthriftiness
and
diarrhea
are
most
common.
Oxfendazole
and fenbendazole
are the best drugs for
these parasites
(see table 1, page 93).
Human Health
Concerns
None
Lungworms
Lungworms have a life
cycle
similar
to the
intestinal
roundworms.
These parasites
feed on
mucus in the lungs and cause irritation
and tissue
damage which
can predispose
to pneumonia.
The
symptoms are poor condition,
severe cough,
rapid
shallow
breathing
and no fever unless pneumonia has
developed.
Drugs
that
will
control
lungworms
include
cambendazole
and levamisole
(table
1, page
93).
Human Health
Concerns
None
Toxoplasrmsis
SyEptoms
Very rarely
does toxoplasmosis
cause any sickness in goats and sheep, except an occasional
abortion.
Grey spots on the placenta
of an aborted
or
stillborn
lamb are seen.
A few cases have been
reported
of children
becoming infected
after
drinking unpasteurized
or unboiled
milk
from goats or
sheep that carry
an internal
infection.
Diagnosis
is by laboratory
methods only.
81
.
Cause/Transmission
The coccidia-like
organism
first.
infects
cats‘
and can be passed to sheep if their
feed becomes
contaminated
by cat feces.
Other animals
and humans
may contract
the disease
through
raw infected
meat
or by contact
with infected
urine,
feces,
or other
excretions
and fluids
of the body, including
milk.
The disease probably
occurs worldwide.
Treatment
and Prevention
Some sulfa
drugs are used in humans,
mals are seldom treated.
Best prevention
safeguarding
feed supplies
from cat feces.
Human Health
but
is
aniby
Concerns
The risk
is not great
passed in unprocessed
milk.
82
for
humans
but
can be
Parasitic biseases
Causes, Treatments and Prsvr~tion
External Parasites
Lice
(Pediculosis)
sylmptoms
With rare exception,
lice
are external
parasites
that live
only on sheep, with the exception
of one or two that also live
on goats.
They are
very small;
only one species
can be seen by the
naked eye. The symptoms are paleness
and itching,
with
losses in growth
rate due to irritation
and
blood loss.
Diagnosis
is made from. the symptoms or
from seeing some of the lice.
Treatment
aud Prevention
Treatment
is easy.
Many good insecticides
are
available
to kill
lice
on sheep.
A dip is best.
Soak the sheep well.
Treat at least twice,
about 2
weeks apart,
so that newly hatched young lice
also
will
be killed.
Use insecticides
on lambs with
extreme caution,
as lambs are very sensitive.
Do
lice that infect
sheep live
not spray the premises;
Contact with an infected
sheep will
only on sheep.
reintroduce
the parasite.
Human Health
Concerns
None
Mange
(Scabies,
Scab,
Follicle
Mites)
The two most common mites infecting
sheep are
mite
scab mite ([email protected])
and the follicle
(Demodex) . The scab mite causes severe itching,
The follicle
loss of hair,
and scab formation.
mite causes small
lumps, usually
on the forequarters but possibly
over the entire
body.
the
Cause/Transmission
Mange is
transmitted
by contact
sheep.
83
with
infected
Treatment
and Prevention
Both types of mange are difficult
to control,
especially
the follicle
mite.
Use insecticides
thoroughly
and repeat at 2 week intervals
for 2 to
3 months.
Insecticides
should be used with caution
on lambs because of their
extreme sensitivity.
Human Health Concerns
Humans may develop
scab and follicle
mites.
However, they may be different
from those found on
animals.
Transmission
from animal to man is considered
rare.
symptoms
When ringworms
infect
an animal,
they tend to
extend outward from the infected
area in a circular
pattern.
The symptoms are rough,
scaly,
circular
areas where the hair or wool is missing
or broken.
The areas
most commonly infected
are the head,
ears, neck, and sometimes the body and udder.
The
condition
occurs
only
on the skin;
there
is no
sickness
or death loss.
Diagnosis
is made from the
symptoms.
Laboratory
confirmation
of the fungus
can be done but is extremely
slow.
Cause/Transmission
Ringworm
such organisms
soil.
infection
can live
is a skin
for long
fungus.
periods
Many
in the
Treatment
and Prevention
Treatment
for ringworm
is best done by scrubbing the scales on the skin with a stiff
brush or G
piece of dull metal or wood.
Apply 2% to 7% iodine
on the lesion,
2 to 3 times per week.
Be careful
when applying
iodine
around the sheep's
eyes.
Rubbing the spots with a paste of the dewormer thiabendazole,
made with the powder and a small amount
of water,
will
usually
get rid of the fungus and
will
not injure
the eyes. A suspension
of wettable
captan powder also works well.
The building
should
be cleaned well after
treatment
to prevent
reinfestation.
84
i
Human Health
Concerns
Wash your
hands
because many ringworms
infect
after
that
treating
affect
the
animals
animal
can also
man.
Ticks,
FlAes,
and Other Pests
Sheep are af2ected
by ticks,
flies,
and other
external
parasites,
including
blowfly
larvae
and
screwworms,
in many parts of the world.
If screwworms exist
in the area, avoid surgical
procedures
(docking
and castration)
during
the primary
season
for the pest.
If lambs are born during
this
time,
always treat
any area wfiere blood is found (navel
or reproductive
tract
of the ewe) with an insecticide or a repellent.
Many effective
products
are
readily
available
worldwide.
It is also very important
to control
ticks
because they transmit
other diseases.
Several good
dip and spray insecticides
are on the market worldwide.
Follow
the directions
carefully
for livestock usage or the recommendation
of local
livestock extension
personnel.
Lambs are very sensitive to insecticides,
so use with care.
Treatment
aud Prevention
A list
of insecticides
and mixing instructions
is not included
in this guide because of the extreme worldwide
variability
of products
available
and recommended.
However, the following
comments
and cautions
should be adequate.
1.
3-e
Any product
recommended for a cow should be
all
right
for a sheep.
Remember, a sheep's
weight
is approximately
one-tenth
of a cowls.
Use the same dilutions,
but reduce the total
dose according
to weight
if dose is based on
body weight.
Remember--wool
sheep should
be
treated
soon after
shearing
as a full
fleece
is very difficult
to penetrate
with
insecticide.
fiwa Y-c read and follow
the manufacturer's
recommendations
the container.
tainer
or
product.
and dilutions
If
available,
they are
refuse
85
as printed
not on the
to purchase
on
conthe
3.
4.
5.
6.
Keep all
insecticides
away from children
and
from containers
or utensils
that
will
hold
milk.
Keep insecticides
away from drinking
water
sources
and fish.
Do not rinse
cans in the
river.
Do not keep empty insecticide
containers-puncture,
bury, or bum them.
Wash your hands well
and any other
part
of
your body that was exposed to the insecticide.
Little
can be done to prevent
reinfestation
of
these pests other
than to confine
the sheep; however, that is usually
not a recommended procedure.
Hunkan Health
These
Concerns
parasites
affect
man.
Therapy
Drug Usage
All drugs should be treated
as potential
poiAntibiotics
can cause severe reactions
if
sons.
not used properly.
The following
recommendations
apply to all drugs,
regardless
of type.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Always read the
tions
carefully.
label
and follow
the
direc-
Administer
drugs
only
as
stated
on the label.
For example,
if the label states
"for
intramuscular
(IM) use only,"
never give the drug intravenously
(IV).
Out-of-date
drugs should be used only when no
others are available.
Do not mix drugs or give multiple
drugs unless
on the advice of a veterinarian.
Administer
drugs for the time recommended on
the label or by the veterinarian;
the organism
may develop resistance
to that drug.
Antibiotics
and sulfa
drugs should always be
given for at least 3 days or for 2 days after
symptoms disappear.
Keep all drugs stored in a cool place,
1.5C to
12.5C (35F to 55F), and out of sunlight.
Always use sterile
equipment
when injecting
drugs.
The chemical
names are used for drugs in this
guide because these are the names most likely
to be
found on the container
in most countries.
Trade
names vary greatly,
depending
on the country
and
the company marketing
the drug.
Any source of a
product
used in the prescribed
route of administration
(injection,
oral,
etc.)
and at the correct
dosage for that route of administration
will
usually give
satisfactory
The recommended
results.
drugs are suggestions
only and are assumed to be
the most likely
available
and the most generally
effective.
However, many other products
and treatwill
perform
equally
well.
Your
ment systems
veterinarian
can usually
give you the best advice
possible
based on knowledge of the local situation.
87
Remember, you are dealing
with a food animal.
It may be more beneficial
and economical
to salvage
the animal through
slaughter
than to treat
it with
expensive
drugs.
Make this
decision
before
any
drugs are given so as not to contaminate
the meat.
Make sure no human health
concerns
apply.
How to Figure
Liquid
Dosage of Drugs
dosage in ml =
Dose in mgikg
x animal's
Concentration
of drug
weight
in kg*
in mg/nil
OR
Powder dosage in g =
Dosage in
Concentration
mg/kg x animal's
of drug
in kg*
weight
in mg/g
,
*kg = pounds + 2.2
For example,
your sick sheep weighs about 40
You
want
to
give
it an intramuscular
dose of
kg.
oxytetracycline
hydrochloride.
Your chart shows the
Look on the bottle.
It
dose as 6 to 10 mg/kg.
The dose, 10
says the concentration
is 50 mg/ml.
mg/kg, would be calculated
as:
10 mg/kg x 40 kg
or
50 mg/ml
400 mg
50 mg/ml
=
8 ml
The dose for a 40 kg sheep at 10 mg/kg of a
solution
containing
50 mg/ml is 8 ml, given intramuscularly.
Always check th\ concentration
of the solution
For
strengths.
because it may come In different
example,
the tetracyclines
also come in a 100 and a
Use the same formula
200 mg/ml concentration.
regardless
of concentration
or whether
a liquid
or:
powder.
88
*
,
Approximate
Weights and Measures
1 teaspoon
= 5 milliliters
= 5 grams
1 tablespoon
= 3 teaspoons
= 15 milliliters
ounce = 15 grams
1 ounce
= 30 milliliters
1 cup
= 16 tablespoons
= 0.5
ounces = 250 milliliters
1 pint
= 2 cups = 16 ounces
= 500 milliliters
1 pound
= 2 cups = 16 ounces
= 454 grams
1 ml
= 1 cubic centimeter
drops = 1 gram
1 liter
= 1,000
1 kg
= 2.2 pounds = 1000 grams
= 60 grains
pint
(cc)
= 60 drops
= 0.5
= 8 fluid
= 15 to
16
milliliters
To make 750 ml of a 5% solution,
dissolve
5 g
in each 100 ml of volume.
For a 750-ml
liquor
bottle,
use 37.5 g of the powder.
Double the powder to make a 10% solution.
Treatment
for
Scours or Diarrhea
Check the following
signs to estimate
percentage of dehydration
in lambs based on body weight:
% Fluid Loss
0 to 5%
6%
10%
12%
Above 12%
per
The appropriate
day required
for
Signs
None
dry--skin
remains
Mouth
erect when pinched
Body cold--unable
to stand
Flat
on side--shock--near
death
Death
amount of
a dehydrated
89
replacement
fluid
lamb is the per-
.
centage of estimated
loss due to dehydration
plus
10% of the body weight,
which is the amount of
fluid needed for daily maintenance.
For example, a
4.5-kg (lo-lb)
lamb approaching
a 10% dehydration
factor
would need at least 500 ml of replacement
fluid
just
to replace
the amount lost.
In
addition,
the lamb normally
requires
about 10% of
its weight in fluids
each day; therefore
the lamb
in our example would require a total of 1 liter
per
day.
Fluid
Replacement
Solutions-for
Oral
Use
For mixing with these formulas,
it is best to
boil the water for at least 10 minutes,
although
regular water sources can be used when necessary.
Formula #l
1 package MGP canning pectin
10 g low sodium table salt
10 g baking soda
1 beef bouillon
cube dissolved
in 200 milliliters
of water
Add water until
you have mixed 2.5 liters
of
solution.
Use tube or bottle
to administer
by
mouth at a rate of 10% of lamb's body weight plus
the additional
percentage for fluid
loss (as estimated using chart above). Divide the total dosage
into 2 to 4 parts to be given as the only source of
food for 1 or 2 days* Use l/2 formula and l/2 milk
on the next day and on the following
day give 3/4
milk and l/4 formula.
Then give full
milk if the
lamb has improved.
Formula 82
10 g table salt
5 g baking soda
120 ml white corn syrup or honey
Add water to make 4.5 liters.
Give by mouth,
with a tube or bottle,
at a rate of 10% of body
weight plus percentage
estimated
for dehydration.
Divide into 2 to 4 doses per day as the only source
of food for 2 days.
On third day mix l/2 milk and
l/2 formula.
On fourth
day mix 3/4 milk and l/4
formula.
On fifth
day give milk only if recovered.
If you cannot find some of the above ingredients, this next solution
will help.
90
Formula #3
10 g salt
10 g baking soda
Add to 2.5 liters
of water.
Then, after
removing lamb from milk, figure
10% of body weight,
plus percentage estimated dehydration,
and administer orally
as one dose.
Then divide
the total
amount into 2 to 4 doses for the next 2 days and
gradually
return
lamb to full
milk as outlined
in
formulas
above.
If the lamb does not improve,
change the antibiotic
used and start the fluid program again in the same way.
Formula #4
Where coconuts
grow, the water from green
coconuts can be used as a sterile
fluid
for replacement purposes.
Saline
Solution
Put 1 g salt in 100 ml of water that has been
boiled for 10 minutes.
Can be administered
intravenously or to clean wounds.
Grain Overload Mixture
(for Rumen Acidosis)
125 g sodium bicarbonate
210 ml 12% formaldehyde
5 g magnesium oxide
10 g activated
charcoal
solution
Add water to bring contents
up to 500 ml.
Shake well beThis mixture will keep for 30 days.
fore using.
To use, take 10 ml per 45 kg (100 lb)
Give
of body weight and mix with 1 liter
of water.
as a drench or, preferably,
by stomach tube twice a
day. Also give 2 ml dipyrone per 45 kg body weight
IM.
Foot
(Solutions
Bath Mixtures
to Soak Infected
Feet)
Copper sulfate:
0.5 kg (500 g) of copper sulfate
(bluestone)
dissolved
in 25 liters
of water.
91
.
Zinc sulfate:
water.
Concentrated
zinc sulfate
1 part
zinc
sulfate
zinc sulfate
foot bath:
in 5 liters
of water.
to
9 parts
1 kg of
99%
To make a foot bath, soak old rags or wool in
the solution
and place them in a walk-through
trough 5 to 10 cm deep, 30 to 45 cm wide, and long
enough that the sheep cannot jump over it.
92
-
Table
1.
DNgs
for Controlling
D=M
Roundworms
*Albendazole
s-10
Internal
Larvae
IO-15
q/kg
S-10
5 mglkg
44-66
Lungworms
Tapeworms
mglkg
a
Flukes
Precautions
withdrawal
Coccidia
10-20
mgk
q/kg
5 mg/kg
Do not use in
safe to triple
Do not use
pregnancy.
20-25
q/kg
40 &kg
S-10
mg/kg
5 mg/kg
10 mgfkg
or more
Safe in
males.
Nebendazole
13.5
Levamisole
8 mglkg
mg/kg
13.5
mglkg
q/kg
SO w/kg
*Haloxon
Phenothiazine
12.5 g/l1
27 kg
25 g over
not
that
approved
all
for
dosages
are
27 kg
pregnancy--
in 1 st third
of
Do not overdose.
animals
common.
Safe
pregnant
animals.
Safe
in
pregnant
animals.
Safe
and goats
baaed
for
overdose
Safe in
and breeding
in
pregnant
OK use on milking
pregnant
animals.
posterior
paralysis.
Do not use last
third
of pregnancy-only fairly
effective.
Do not use on
lactating
ewes.
DO not overdose
or
use on debilitated
animals.
to
sheep
label
pregnant
animals-dose otherwise.
in
May cause
10 mgfkg
Worantel
of
Safe
Do not
sheep.
8 mgk
third
pregnant
Resistance
animals.
S-10
(always
check
information.)
Do not use 1st
75 mg/kg fatal.
m&kg
S-10 rug/kg
*Oxibendazole
and Coccidiostats)
5 mgk
5 mgk
25 s&kg
l Fenbendazole
Thiabendazole
(Anthelmintics
S-10
5 mglkg
*Cambendazole
aNote
Whipworms
n&g
*Oxfendazole
*Drugs
Parasites
.
on active
In
the
in
pregnant
animals.
U.S.
ingredients.
Dosages
are
per
kilogram
of
bodyweight
unless
otherwise
indicated.
Table
Drugs for Controlling
1.
Interoal
Larvae
Roundworms
D=w
*Amprol
Parasites
(Antheldntice
wtli pworms
and Coccidiostats)
Lungworms
Tapeworms
contimed
Flukes
a
lo-14
i urn
Precautions
withdrawal
Coccidia
r&kg
50 mg/kg
l Pyrantel
*Monensin
Sulfa
drugs
guanidine.
quinoxaline)
Give for 5 days to
term use may cause
deficiency.
One time drench.
Safe
25 s&kg
(dimidine,
methazine.
(always
check
Information.)
in
pregnant
toxic.
period.
200 ng/kg
Reduce
days.
dosage by l/2
Treat
for 3-5
*Decoquinate
200 ug/kg
*AvermectinS
aNote
not
that
In
feed.
In
salt.
.5 &kg
In
feed
7-10
approved
all
for
dosages
sheep
are
and goats
based
on active
Feed
drinking
for
in
the
r&kg
Prescription
Dosages
are
per
kilogram
of
body weight
unless
otherwise
on subsequent
days.
water
intake
28 days.
drug.
U.S.
ingredients.
Long
(Bl)
throughout
Also effective
against
parasites.
Dosage in
200 ug/kg
Nitrofurazone
*DN~s
1 g/44 kg
(20 g/ton)
4.5 g/44 kg
(90 g/ton)
for
animals.
Fairly
feeding
Make sure
normal.
*Lasalocid
21 days.
thiamine
.75 g/44 kg
(15 g/ton)
2
label
indicated.
external
micrograms.
is
Table
2.
Antibiotics
and How to Use Them
Route to
be given:
Antibiotic
Ampicillin
Amoxicillin
Chloramphenicol
Erythromycin
Penicillin
G-Procaine
G h benzathine
G h streptomycin
Neomycin
Spectinomycin
Sulfabromomethazine
Sulfachloropyridazine
Sulfadimethoxine
Sulfaethoxypyridazine
Sulfamethazine
(Sulfadimidine)
Other Sulfa drugs
Dose
Repeat dose:
IM or IV
orally
orally
IM or IV
IM
4-10 mg/kg
6-10 mg/kg
20-50 mg/kg
10 mg/kg
10-12 mg/kg (young)
2-5 mg/kg (adult)
every
every
every
every
daily
IM
IM
IM
orally
orally
orally
orally
orally
orally
orally
orally
30,000-40,000
units/kg
30,000-40,000
units/kg
30,000-40,000
units/kg
5-10 mg/kg
10 q/kg
130-200 mg/kg
65-95 mg/kg
55 m&kg
Reduce dose by l/2 on second day
200-400 mg/kg
200 mg/kg
Reduce dose by l/2 on second day
200 mg/kg
Reduce dose by l/2 on second day
daily
only once
every 12 hr
every 12 hr
every 12 hr
daily
daily
1st day
6-10 mgjkg
lo-20 mg/kg
daily
daily
2-4 mgikg
daily
orally
Tetracycline
group (all
Chlortetracycline
Oxytetracycline
Tetracycline
HCl
Tylosin
1
or IV
use same dose)
IV or IM
orally
IM
Antibiotics
should always be prescribed
by a veterinarian.
to 5 days at above dosages and times.
If no improvement
another antibiotic
should be used, if possible.
All antibiotics
is seen after
12 hr
12 hr
8 hr
12 hr
daily
1st day
every
12 hr
should be given 3
two days treatment,
Table
3.
OthS~-WP
-
to
be given:
orally
IV, SQ
ObllY
lJl or w
Ro\lte
Other
drugs
-
Aspirin
Calcium horoglucohate
Charcoal (activated)
Epinepherioe
l:lOw
(=I)
Repeat dose:
Dose
lo-z0
L d/kg
2-9 I&
2-4 3
Ig/hz
in
the first
45-60 rl
100-500 ml
20-40 units
Hilk of HaP%ia
Hineral
Oil
oxytocin
orallY
*hllY
Poloxalone
(bloat)
Sodium bicarbauate
Vitamin E - Seleuur
OhlIlY
ObllY
ry
Magnesium sulfate
(epsom salts)
Propylene
glPco1
*bllY
looIg/kg
ls-45 g in water
0-1 dkg
Selenium
1.36 IU/kg Vitamin
1-2 fdkg
**allY
200 91
Hethylene
Iodine 2%
Iodine 5%
Iodine 7%
W
or IIJ
blue lgqgd
or povder for
liquid
for minor mun&
liquid
for tinOr QKDIWI&
liquid
for dipping
navels
&nor
day
wound5
E
every 68 hr
once or Mce
as needed
as needed
(2-4 hr)
every 6-8 hr
as needed
as needed
(2-4 hr)
as needed
as needed
unceperm
axe per D
dailjr
every
12 hr
Techniques
Sterilizing
Inztrumentz,
Syringes,
and Needlez
Sterilize
all instruments
before using.
Clean
instruments
with
eoap and water after using and before eterilization,
Scrub away all grease, blood,
and tissue,
then rinse with clean water.
To sterilize,
boll In clean water for 15 to 20 minutes,
Dry heat and steam can aleo be used,
Remove the
inetrumente
from the boiling
water and wrap in a
clean cloth to keep them clean until. used,
Wet
eteri:ization
in chlorohexadine
or one of the quaternary
ammonium dieinfectante
at the proper dilution
can be used for surgical
instrument8
just
prior
to use. Read label carefully.
Soak inetruments at least 20 minutes before using.
Do not use a#t eterilizetlon
for egrlngee and
needles.
Reeidue in the syringe
and needle from
the disinfectant
can cause irritation
to the animal
and can deactivate
some vaccines,
Boil syringes
and needles Instead,
Injectioa
Sites
The following
abbreviations
are for the corand the elte on the
responding
type of Injection
sheep as ehown in the illustration
(figure
4).
deep within
a
Intramuecular
(IM) - injected
major iTlU6Cle mase, such a8 that in the hind leg or
on the shoulder,
It ehould be given with an 18
2.5
to
4
cm
needle, pointed straight
into
gauge 9
the muscle.
Before injecting
the
drug,
alwaye
withdraw on the syringe plunger
to make sure you
have not hit a blood veegel,
If this
happens,
blood will
flow into the eyringe.
To correct,
simply replace the needle In the muscle,
under the skin,
Subcutaneous (SQ) - Injected
usually in the neck or behind the shoulder.
Usually a 1 to 2.5 cm needle is inserted
at an angle
through the skin.
So that
you do not stick
yourself, pick up the ekin with your fingers and insert
the needle through the skin while it is pointed
away from your fingers.
,
97
Intravenous
(IV) - injected
into
a vein,
usually
the jugular
or neck vein as in the illustration
(figure
4).
This procedure
takes some
skill
and practice.
Become thoroughly
familiar
with the method before attempting
to use it.
The
vein must be blocked with one hand near the shoulder to enlarge it and make it visible.
Usually a
4 cm, 18 gauge needle is used for IV injections.
All IV injections
should be given slowly,
using
only
products
specifically
approved
for
this
method.
The heart should be closely
monitored
as
heart stoppage may occur.
Figure
4.
Injection
Sites
- injected
within the milk gland,
into
the end of the teat
through
the natural
Always wash the teat end with soap and
opening.
water and wipe it with alcohol
before injection.
blunt,
teat infusion
needles or
Use only sterile,
mastitis
medicine applicators.
"throw-away"
Unclean material
entering
the teat will
cause mastiFigure 5 shows the structure
of the teat.
tis.
Intramamnary
98
\
Gland
Cf
Opening
Figure
5.
Teat Canal
f
in end of teat
Intr-ry
Injection
Equipment and Procedures
for
Giving Medicine by Mouth
Drenching - Most "u--y
chnan will
swallow liquids
placed into
the mouth if their
heads are held
slightly
upward.
A dose syringe or a .bottle with a
rubber hose attached
(figure
6) will
work well.
Place the end of the tube over the top of the
tongue.
Be careful not to injure
the inside of the
mouth.
Tasteless
liquids
such as mineral
oil
should be given by stomach tube or flavored
so that
the sheep will swallow them.
Slide hose over bottleneck
to use as a drench bottle
Figure
6. Bottle
Dose Syringe for giving liquid to sheep
with Rubber Bose
and Dose Syringe
Stomach Tube - This is used to carry liquids
(large
volumes) into
the stomach or to release
gas.* A 1 to 2 cm rubber or plastic
tube can be
used.
First pass the tube through a metal pipe to
clear the sheep’s jaw teeth and prevent
chewing
(figure
7).
A similar
piece of equipment ie a
small rubber tube, (i/l8 French catheter)
and 60 cc
syringe
(figure
8) , which can be used to place
colostrum into the stomach of a newborn l.gmb,
A
metal pipe to protect
the tube is not necessary for
newborns.
Metal Pipe
/(
Rubber Tube
Figure
7.
e
v
Trachea or \.“
Windpipe
A
Stomach Tube Technique
6Occ Plastic Syringe
and
15” Human Catheter
Size 918 French
Figure
8.
Syringe
100
and Catheter
Bolus or Pill
Administration
- A small balling gun (figure
9) Is used to give pills
or bolueee
to sheep. The small guns are passed into the mouth
over the hump on the tongue, and the plunger
is
gently pushed down taking care not to injure
the
Sheep will
of ten reject
bolusee, and they
mouth.
Be patient.
must be given again.
Pills
may also
be pushed over the back of the tongue with the
fingers,
but keep your fingers from between the jaw
teeth.
Do not overextend the head or the bolus may
go down the windpipe.
g=J+Jg??-?!??!/y=Jj
Figure
9.
Balling
Gun for Giving
Pills
to Sheep
Rusken Inoculation
- When a sheep has been sick
and has not eaten, the rumen or large stomach becomes sour and lacks the proper bacteria
to get
Many times
started in the digestion
process again.
the liquid
from the stomach of a normal sheep, or
one that has been recently
slaughtered,
can be
pumped or poured through a tube or drenched into
the rumen of the sick sheep.
This procedure will
help many sheep that do not want to eat but are
Following
the
otherwise
recovering
from sickness.
stomach tube or drenching technique,
use a quart or
more of liquid
from the rumen of a healthy sheep.
CastratIon
Male lambs not wanted for breeding,
or that
will not be slaughtered
for meat at an early age (4
to 6 months), should be castrated
before they are 1
The
lower
l/3
of
the
scrotum
(sack) is
month old.
Place -pressure on the testicles
above the
cut off.
cut area and force the testicles
out of the cut end
should then be grasped,
of the sack. Each testicle
pulled
out as far as possible,
and cut off.
A
sharp knife or scissors
can be used for this pro101
cess. Do not handle any tissue that remains in the
sheep as infection
is very likely
to occur.
Young lambs can be castrated
without
anesthesia.
However, if anesthesia
is desired,
consult
with a veterinarian.
Each lamb should receive 150
to 200 International
Units (IU) of tetanus
antitoxin (T.A.T.)
at time of castration.
If castration and docking are done at the same time, only
one dose of T.A.T.
is necessary.
An antibiotic
powder may be applied to the wound.
If screwworms
are a problem, always apply an insecticide
or a fly
repellent
to the wound.
Docking
The procedure of cutting
off lambs' tails
is
called docking.
This is practiced
on most woolproducing breeds to reduce fecal contamination
of
the fleece and to help reduce the likelihood
of fly
strike or wool maggots.
The lamb is held where the bottom of the tail
can be seen and the tail
is cut off where the 2
folds of skin join onto the tail
(figure
10).
Any
sharp, clean instrument
can b+ used to dock lambs
under 1 week of age, but it is better
if the
instrument
crushes the tissue some while cutting.
This controls
bleeding.
Any of the instruments
illustrated
in figure 11 work well for docking.
Figure
10.
Correct
Location
102
to Dock Tail
Castrating
and docking tool
ir
The Burdizzo castrator may be used
for tail docking as well as castration
Emasculator-may
be used for docking
as well as castration
.
Elastrator - for docking or castration
Figure
11.
Castration
and Docking
103
Instruments
Rubber bands called
Elastrators
may also be
150 IU T.A.T.
used, but to get the best results
should be given to each lamb.
After 3 to 5 days,
cut the dead end of the tail off below the band.
Foot
Trimming
The sidewall
and toes of sheep's feet sometimes become overgrown, especially
if the animal is
housed or not allowed to graze freely.
These overgrown sidewalls
should be trimmed as often
as
needed to keep the foat flat on the sole and toes
pointed
as shown.
The feet can be trimmed with
sheep foot
shears,
heavy scissors,
or a sharp
pocket knife.
'When trimming diseased foot tissue,
some bleeding may occur.
Wall
OVERGROWN
Trim to dotted line
Figure
12.
Proper
Lancing
PROPERLY
TRIMMED
Method of Trimming
(Opening)
Foot
Abscesses
lymphadenitis,
Abscesses,
usually
caseous
should be opened when they become ripe .or pointed
(when the abscess develops a soft center
or is
clean the
First,
slightly
raised in the center).
area to be opened with soap, water,
and alcohol.
Then stick
a needle into the enlarged area.
If
blood comes through the needle, stop, you may haire
Remove the needle and
gone through a blood vessel.
104
try another place.
If pus is released,
proceed on
to the next step. Make a small puncture with a very
sharp knife over the softest
point,
cutting
downward toward the ground so that the abscess will
Gather all the pus on a piece of paper or
drain.
cloth and burn or deeply bury the residue.
Wash
the abscess with water or alcohol,
then wash with
7% iodine.
Figure
13 indicates
the areas most
likely
to have abscesses.
Be very careful
when opening abscesses around
the head or above the udder; you can easily
cut
into a large blood vessel or sever a major nerve.
under ear or
behind jaw
Figure
13-
Collection
Lymph Node Locations
Abscesses Occur
of a Urine
Where
Sample
Have a small, clean container
ready for catching the urine.
Hold the sheep and,.pinch the nosMost sheep
trils
closed until
urination
occurs.
Do
not hold
will
urinate
in 30 seconds or less.
Procenostrils
closed for more than one, minute.
dure may be repeated as often as necessary until
sample is collected.
105
I
II
Rectal
and (or)
Vaginal
Prolapse
The rectum and/or
vagina may sometimes
be
ejected from the body by coughing, constipation,
or
difficulty
in delivering
lambs.
Very short tail
docking may contribute
to prolapsing.
The condition also may be inherited.
If the tissue is fresh
and undamaged, it may be washed, carefully
pushed
back into place, and stitched.
Any type of heavy
string
(soaked in alcohol
or disinfectant)
can be
14 and 15).
used for stitching
(figures
Most ewes
injured
in this way should probably be slaughtered
after the lambs are weaned. If the tissue is torn,
damaged, or has been outside
the body for some
time, slaughter
is recommended.
After reDlacing; stitch
around gnd tie bowknot
at top leaving room for
bowel movements.
Figure
14.
Prolapse
of
Rectum
After replacing, start stitch
at top, go l/4” deep under
the skin to bottom, out,
across and back up.
Figure
15.
Prolapse
106
of Vagina
Birth and the Newborn
Birth
Stages,
Procedures,
and Complications
Most ewes deliver
their lambs without
assistance after
about 146 days of pregnancy.
You
should know the normal delivery
time and procedure
so as not to interfere
with or injure the reproductive tract of the ewe (figure
16).
Many ewes that
do not rebreed may have been damaged at a previous
lambing, which is the result of poor human management.
The ewe should be in good physical
condition,
but not fat, at lambing time.
She should be full
bodied, muscles filled
out, and smooth over her
ribs and top line.
Proper feeding
is necessary
during the last 4 to 6 weeks before lambing to prevent pregnancy toxemia or ketosis.
Daily exercise
is also very important.
When delivery
time is due, a very clean place
should be available.
The ewe may be placed in this
area about 1 day before she is due, if due date is
known.
Do not keep her there much longer because
of the build up of filth.
Provide dry bedding to
absorb the fluids
that are produced during
the
birth
process.
Tf lambing occurs in the field
or
to enclose the ewe and her
pasture, it is-advisable
lambs in a 1.3 m x 1.6 m pen for 2 or 3 days to
ensure acceptance by the ewe and to keep the lambs
safe.
Besides the predator problem, other ewes may
steal lambs.
Phase I of the birth
process involves relaxation of the pelvis,
initial
contractions
of the
uterus,
and dilation
of the cervix,
which enlarges
the birth
canal and eases delivery.
During this
time, the udder will
become greatly
enlarged
and
the teats will fill.
This can occur several days
The vulva will
become
before time to deliver.
rolled
outward,
slightly
red, everted or slightly
and moist.
Usually the ewe will
have a depressed
appetite.
and paw the
She may appear restless
ground and bleat. This phase may require more than
Usually the "water bag" ruptures near the
1 day.
end of this ph,ose.
107
VULVA
Figure
16.
Normal Positions
the
Reproductive
Sheep
and Locations
Tract
of
of
the
Phase II is the actual delivery
of the lamb.
It starts with the entry of the lamb into the birth
canal.
With this entry pressure,
the ewe begins to
strain,
pushing with the abdominal muscles.
This
phase should never last more than 3 hours.
The
lamb is usually
delivered
within
1 to 1.5 hours.
Multiple
births follow 30 minutes to 1 hour apart.
As a good rule of thumb, if the lamb has not been
delivered
within 1.5 hours, you should examine the
ewe.
If delivery
cannot be made with assistance
within
2 hours from the start of true labor,
you
should seek veterinary
assistance.
You should
watch the ewe continuously
during this phase.
Lambs are delivered
in many different
postures
or positions,
two of which are absolutely
normal:
1) the anterior
position.
with the head lying on
the forefeet,
the chin resting
on or about the
knees, and the lamb's back up (figure
17); and 2)
the posterior
entry with both rear legs into the
birth
canal and the lamb's back toward the ewe's
back (figure
18).
Usually the posterior
position
takes a little
Abnormal
longer
for delivery.
positions
are discussed later.
108
Figure
Figure
17.
18.
Normal
Normal
Anterior
Presentation
Posterior
Prekmtatiou
a clean-up phase which, after a
normal delivery,
requires
up to 2 weeks.
It conof the afterbirth
(which
sists
of 1) delivery
usually
requires
a maximum of about 12 hours),
2)
reduction
of the uterus to normal size (which may
take up to 2 weeks),
and 3) emptying of extra
fluids
from the uterus.
Most fluids
are gone by
the time the afterbirth
or placenta
fails
out.
However, it is normal to have a slightly
bloody to
clear discharge
for up to 2 weeks after
lambing.
Problems that might occur in phase III are 1) retention
of the afterbirth
for longer than 24 hours,
2) a pus-like
discharge
occurring
within
2 to 3
lambing,
days after
or 3) a reddish
discharge
increasing
in volume, having a foul smell, or containing
pus.
If you see these symptoms, consult a
veterinarian
or, if not available,
begin use of
antibiotics
such as penicillin
or tetracycline.
Phase
III
is
Problems
With Delivery
Difficult
delivery
(dystocia)
can occur when
the lamb is not in one of the previously
described
normal positions
(figures
17 and 18), when the ewe
has a small or injured
pelvis,
or when a lamb is
very large.
Problems also occur if a lamb dies before birth;
usually the lamb's head is out of position (down or to one side).
A small, light
nylon
cord is very helpful
in correcting
head position.
When you encounter a problem delivery,
follow these
steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Wash the ewe's vulva and area around it with
mild soap and warm water.
Wash your hands and arms similarly.
Lather your hands well, using the mild soap as
a lubricant.
Very gently
enter the vagina
with your hand.
Feel and identify
the parts of the lamb that
are in the birth
canal. Make sure legs, head,
and body parts all belong to the same lamb.
Remember multiple
births
are common in sheep.
To deliver
a lamb in the forward position,
you
must have at least one front leg and the head
in the canal.
Ideally,
you should have both
‘110
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
front
legs and the head.
If you do not feel
both front legs, reach further
into the canal
to find the other leg and gently pull it into
place.
A gentle but firm pull
should bring
the lamb out.
If the delivery
is posterior,
both hind legs must be in the canal.
Check to
be sure that these are rear legs and not the
forelegs with the lamb's head to one side.
If
the toes point upward and the lamb's back is
upward, those are front legs.
If the back is
upward and the toes point downward, then they
are rear legs.
Also feel the hocks.
If they
point upward, you have the rear legs.
If some part of the lamb's body is not in
proper position,
you can very gently feel to
determine where it is located,
then carefully
position
it where it belongs.
A small cord is
helpful
to pull the legs or the head into position.
To be safe, it is a good idea to pull
only with your hands.
The strength
a person
has in his hands and arms is all the pressure
that can safely be applied to the sheep.
After the lamb's body parts are in position,
pull firmly
and gently to deliver
the lamb.
Make sure all membranes are cleared from the
nostrils
so that the lamb can breathe.
Sometimes tickling
the inside of the nose with a
small straw will
stimulate
the breathing
reflex.
If a lot of mucus is in the lamb's
nose, hold the lamb by the rear legs and swing
it carefully.
Do not attempt mouth-to-mouth
or mouth-to-nose
resuscitation
because of the
possibility
of disease transmission,
especially if brucellosis
is a problem in the area.
After the lamb is breathing
properly,
hold it
up and dip the navel stump in 5% or 7% iodine
to stop the entrance of bacteria.
In areas
where screwworms are a problem, it is advisable to also apply an insecticide
or insect
repellent.
Let the ewe lick
the lamb and dry it off.
Watch to see if it stands up and make sure it
nurses within 3 to 6 hours.
See the disease
section on hypogammaglobinemia.
111
the ewe, do not separate them until
the next
day to ensure adequate colostrum intake.
Keep
the lamb in a dry and draft-free
area with
sufficient
ventilation
to remove moisture and
gases.
The Breech
Presentation
Special problems are caused by the breech position
(figure
19).
The rump of the lamb is pushed
into the birth canal and its rear legs are pointed
forward.
In this case, all you will
feel is the
hindquarters
and tail
of the lamb.
Push the body
of the lamb forward until
your hand is able to
grasp its hock.
Raise the hock upward and outward
and with one or two fingers
try to rotate the foot
of the lamb toward the opposite side.
For example,
with the right
leg, rotate
the hock to the right
and push the foot to the left and bring it backward
until
it is straight
and out.
Repeat the same procedure, but raise the left hock up and to the left
while pushing the foot to the right
and then back.
Then, with both of the lamb's feet in the proper
posterior
position,
gently pull the lamb from the
ewe.
Figure
19,
Breech
Position
-
Elbow Lock
An additional
problem of delivery
in sheep is
the elbow lock (figure
20).
This is a fairly
common occurrence.
The elbows of the lamb are
slightly
bent and hang up on the pelvis.
Elbow
lock is indicated
when the lamb's nose and tips of
t?:e toes are protruding
the same amount from the
vulva.
Normally the nose should be about the level
of the knees.
It is easily
corrected
by pulling
gently on one foreleg while pushing the lamb's head
and other foreleg slightly
back into the ewe. This
should straighten
out the elbow and extend the leg
out where it belongs.
Repeat the procedure while
pulling
on the other foreleg,
Then pull both legs
at the same time to deliver
the lamb.
Figure
20.
Elbows
Removal
Hooked on Pelvis
Brim
of Afterbirth
If the ewe has not shed her afterbirth
within
24 hours after the lambing, grasp the tissue hangIf the tissue
ing from the vulva and pull gently.
113
does not pull loose, give the ewe an IM dose of an
antibiotic
(penicillin
or tetracycline).
Then wait
and try to remove the membranes the next day. Do
not put your hand into
the reproductive
tract
and do not pull hard encugh to tear the tissue.
With medication
and time,
the membranes can be
withdrawn.
Wear rubber or disposable
gloves,
if
possible.
Appendix I
MAP OF WDRLD REGIONS WERE NO INCIDENCE OF
SPECIFIC DISEASES HAS BEEN REPORTED
Accordlog
to the Animal
oi the llsted
dlsessea.
lteg1on
1
Llsterlosls
Ncllodosls
Screple
Vi brlosls
PegIon
2
Contello”s
&&!eIacrir
Nolrobl
Sheep Dieease
Rift
Vellev
Fever
Health
Yearbook,
1978-FA*WdO-OIE.
SCraple
folloulng
reglow
do not
report
any
lncldencc
Nearruarer
VibrlosIs
Peglcm 3
-Ca”ragloua Ag1ect1a
Hellodosls
Nalrobl
Sheep Disease
PPR
Rift
Valley
Fever In South &zerlcs
Sslmonelloels
SCraPle
legion
a
Seteoin
- Unlred
Stocee
and Canada
81~cello
melite~fiis
- United
States
Conteglo”s
Aglscria
Foot end Hooch Dieear-
and Canada
ffrar&ter
Hellodosls
Weirobl
Sheep Dleeese
PI’R
RlfL vs11ey
Fever
Sbeep/Gosr
POX
Trypenosodnals
uegion
5
AooDlaElBXle
Bluecongue
Brucc!la
ouie
[email protected]
Aga,.,ctin
Foot sod Mouth Discoac
land.
Scendlnavls.
Luxembourg,
SwlCrerl~nd.
Portugd
nearruarer
Hellodoele
Lbc
neg1on
5 (cont.)
Nal rob1 Sheep Dlseaae
PPR
Rsbles
- United
Kingdom
Rift
Vellev
Fever
Sheep/Coat
Pox
Trypanoeomiesls
Rcglon
6
Conraglous
A&slsctla
Lkm.xtophilus
congolensie
- UnIted
Ungdon.
IreNetherlend,,.
Bclglum.
Auatrla.
Spstn.
sod
Hellodosls
Hal rob1 Sheep Disease
Rift
Valley
Fever
TlYDanoeodssls
geg1o.. 7
fJ1uerongue
- complete
aree,exeept
lndla
fJws.~lln
ouio
- complete
aree except
Nepal
lkmntophiluo
congclencie
Enzootlc
Abortlon
- complete
area except
Nepal
ueartuater
Nalrobl
Sheep Dl.eeasc
Rift
Valley
Fever
Scrsple
- complete
are.3 except
Yemen
Uealoo
8
-Annple,vmx4.
- Ne” Zealend
&l!.!oi,l
- New Zenland
tlluctooguc
BwcuZlo
mzZitenri8
CanreKlous
Agalsctla
Enzootlc
Abortlon
and New Zealend
Foot end Hooch Dlaease
- Austrelia
ueartvater
Nelrobl
Sheep Dlseaae
PPR
Rnhlrs
- AustreLle
and New 2.ole.J
Rift
Valley
yevrr
Salrrlnrllaelu
SC r up1 P
Shr~ap/Gont
POX
TryponoQomlasie
- Au~rr~lla
and New Zval.,ud
115
Appendix II
Other Sources of lnformatidn on Diseases of Sheep
Books and Reports
Current Veterinary
Therapy.
Food Animal Practice.
W. B. Saunders.
1981.
Edited by Jimmy L.
Howard, DVM. Philadelphia,
London, Toronto.
Diseases and Parasites
of Livestock
in the Tropics,
1977.
M. T. B. Hall,
Longman, New York, NY
10036, USA.
Diseases of Sheep, 2nd edition.
1982.
R. Jensen
and B. L. Swift.
Lea and Febiger, 600 S. Washington Square, Philadelphia,
PA 19107, USA.
The Merck Veterinary
Manual, 5th edition.
1979.
Merck and Company, Inc.
Rahway, NJ 07065,
USA.
Proceedings
1976, 1979, American Association
of
Sheep and Goat Practitioners.
c/o Dr. Don E.
Bailey,
Secretary-Treasurer,
248 N.W. Garden
Valley Road, Roseburg, OR 97470, USA.
The Sheepman's Production Handbook.
Sheep Industry
Development,
200 Clayton
Street,
Denver,
CO
80206, USA.
Institutions
Agriculture
Department or Ministry
Officials
in the
country you are working in.
Winrock Tnternational,
Informational
and Technical
AR 72110 USA
Services, Route 3, Morrilton,
Local
or District
Veterinarian
116
Appendix III
[ilossary
- an enlargement
Abscess
either
Acute
within
or pocket filled
with
the body or under the skin.
- rapid
hours,
Anemia-
blood
cells.
onset of illness,
to a day or two.
measured in
A decrease of red blood cells
loss or inability
to produce
- toward
Anterior
usually
pus
caused by
red blood
the head.
- a drug derived
from a living
organism, used to suppress growth of or kill
an
organism (bacteria,
chlamydia,
or rickettesia).
Antibiotics
- particles
Antibodies
tection
Antiserum
-
-
joints.
their
aid in pro-
an immunizing
agent made from blood
It
provides
a short-lived
immunity,
no more than 30 days.
an inflammation
Arthritic
refers
- a vaccine
Bacterin
that
from disease.
serum.
usually
Arthritis
of material
prepared
or disease
to arthritis.
of
the
from dead bacteria
or
products.
salts containing
the HC03 anion
as obtained
from sodium bicarbonate
or baking
soda. Used to keep the blood from becoming too
acid.
Bicarbonate
casts
ion
-
clear to cloudy
form of the intestine.
-
mucous plug
- a long period
of
days to months or years.
Chronic
illness
shaped in the
measured
in
- the first
milk of animals after
the
birth of their young.
It is high in antibodies
and protects
the young from disease until
they
are old enough to produce their own antibodies.
Colostrum
117
Contagious
- a disease capable of being
from one animal
or person to another.
Cornea ball.
the
clear
part
on the
Dehydration
- loss of water
a very critical
situation:
results
in death.
front
transferred
of
the
eye-
from the body.
This is
over 12% dehydration
Dummy lamb - newborn lamb with incomplete
ment of nervous
system.
Has problems
standing,
nursing,
and(or)
seeing.
developwalking,
Electrolyte
- normal
chemical
particles
in
the
blood
capable
of conducting
electricity
and
needed to maintain
natural
cell
balance.
The
electrolyte
ions
are
sodium,
potassium,
chloride,
and bicarbonate.
Emaciation
- a wasted,
of the body.
excessively
Encephalitis
- inflammation
brain by an organism.
Fecal
(waste
Fetus
young.
- unborn
- easily
from
crumbled,
Gangrenous
(mastitis)
that has no blood
to pain.
Genital
infection
condition
of
the
- See feces.
Feces - manure
Friable
or
lean
- referring
Gestation
- period
from conception
sheep.
the gut).
torn.
- dead,
dry,
rotten
tissue
supply
and shows no reaction
to the
reproductive
of
organs.
development
time for fetus
to birth;
about
146
days in
118
Heat
period of time that the female
and will accept the male for breeding.
(estrus)
fertile
East
-
an animal on which a parasitic
pends for its life.
The parasite
within
the host.
organism demay live on or
-
Imnunity
-
particu
ease.
security
against
lar disease.
High
is
the development
of a
resistance
to a dis-
Infectious
- the ability
of an organism such as a
virus or bacterium to multiply
in an animal and
cause disease.
Intramuscular
Intravenous
to placing or injecting
a muscle or muscle tissue.
into
(IV)
substance
into
IU - International
Ketone
- refers
(IM)
a substance
- refers
to placing
a
Units
- by-products
Bodies
or injecting
a vein.
of fat
breakdown
found
in the blood and urine.
Lancing
to cut or incise,
-
as to lance
an abscess
or boil.
an abnormal change in structure
organ or part due to injury
or disease.
Lesions
-
of
an
Lymph Node - normally
a small mass of tissue associated
with the lymph system; drainage
system
primarily
containing
white
blood
cells
that
help fight diseases.
Hastitis
- an inflammation
or infection
of the mam-
mary gland.
Metabolic
diseases
or unusual
breakdown
processes in the body.
Disease
lack of
chemical
- those
119
that involve
of physical
the
and
Mucous Membrane -
tissue
throat,
of the mouth,
and anus.
- a dead, dried
term or later.
Mummified
Fetus
ried'to
Noninfectious
ical
lining
eye,
disease
- one not
the inside
reproductive
fetus,
surface
tract,
usually
car-
caused by a biolog-
organism.
- a developmental
stage
in the feces, that contains
ticles.
Oocyst
Organism
-
virus,
Parasite
-
another
expense.
Peracute
ness,
any living
matter
parasite,
etc.
an organism
animal (host),
of coccidia,
passed
many infective
parsuch
that lives
benefitting
as bacteria,
on or within
at the host's
- extremely
usualiy
rapid onset and period of illmeasured in minutes or hours.
Pneumonic
- refers
to the lungs
Posterior
- toward
the rear.
Postmortem
-
Exam (Necropsy)
or pneumonia.
an examination
done
to a dead animal.
Rate - movements of air from the lungs
measured in rate
per minute;
one in-and-out
movement counts as one respiration.
Respiration
Rickettsia
blood
an organism that lives
cells;
a blood parasite.
-
on or in
red
the first
stomach in the ruminant animal, a
large compartment that stores roughage or forage
while the contents are being digested or broken '*
down by bacterial
action.
Rumen-
.
120
_:
~_.,
Rumen Movement -
in the digestive
process,
the
rumen moves to shift
and mix the material
eaten
by the animal.
Each of these movements can be
seen or felt
on the left
side of the animal.
They can be counted to evaluate
the health
and
function
of that organ.
an animal that has a four-compartment
stomach, including
cattle,
sheep, goats,
buffalo, deer, antelope,
camels, etc.
Ruminant
-
- normal or abnormal fluids
a body organ.
Tears are secretions
coming from
of the eyes.
- fits,
convulsions,
vous system dysfunctions.
central
Secretions
or other
Seizures
ner-
fermented plant material
that has
- moist,
been stored in an airtight
environment
and is
used as feed for ruminants.
Silage
Spleen
-
blood
blood
an organ within
the body that serves as a
reservoir
and aids in the breakdown of red
cells.
Spore - a very
hardy,
or fungal
bacterial
Stillbirth
Subclinical
always
- a fetus
masritis
(SQ,
or injecting
separate
host.
form of
udder that
does not
born dead.
- infected
Sub.
Q.)
a substance
Tick
parts
-
a tick
of its
- an immunizing
duced by bacteria.
Toxoid
or inactive
show symptoms.
Subcutaneous
Three-Host
dormant,
life.
- refers
to
under the skin.
that
life
agent
placing
spends each of three
cycle on a different
against
toxins
pro-
a raw, red, eroded area
mucous membrane or on the skin.
Ulcer
-
a biological
into
an animal to
particular
disease.
fied live,
or killed
Vaccine
-
occurring
on a
product
that is injected
stimulate
an immunity
to a
It can contain live,
modiorganisms.
122
..
Appendix IV
Index
Abortion
18, 28, 35, 36, 43, 46, 48, 49, 55, 56,
59, 74, 81
Abscesses 16, 27, 104
Acidosis
10, 60
Afterbirth
110
Afterbirth
Removal 113
Aftosa
51
Albendazole
93
Alcohol
105
Allergen
62
Allergic
Reactions
40
Allergies
17, 61
Amblyommahebraeum 73
Amoxicillin
Ampicillin
Amprolium
95
95
94
Anaplasma ouis
71
Anaplasmosis
11, 23, 71, 115
Anemia 71, 72, 76
Anterior
Delivery
108
Anterior
Presentation
109
Anthelmintics
93, 94
Anthrax
11, 12, 23, 24
Antibiotics
48, 87, 95, 102
Antibodies
64
Antihistamines
62
Aphthous Fever 51
Aspirin
96
Avermectins
94
tiabesia
spp.
115
Babe&a motasi 72
Babesia ovis
Babesiosis
Bacillus
72
11, 72
adhracis
2.4
Bacterial
Diseases
24-47
Baking Soda 32, 90, 91
Balling Gun 101
Bang's Disease
25
Berenil
72, 74
Birth,
107
Birth Complications
107
Birth Stages 107
Black Scours 43
Blindness
4, 30, 32, 35, 68
123
Bloat
10, 23, 60, 62, 96
Blood Loss 11
Blood Parasites
71-74
Bloody Scours 43
Blow Fly Larvae 85
Bluebag 37
Bluestone
91
Bluetongue
12, 13, 18, 20; 48, 51, 115
Bolus 101
Bont Tick
73
Border Disease
18, 20, 49
Bottle Jaw 76
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus
49
Breech Presentation
112
Brown Tick
52
BruceZZa ~pp* 26
Brucella meZitens&
26, 115
Brucella
07d.s
20, 42, 115
Brucellosis
13, 18, 25, 111
Brucellosis
of Rams 42
Bums 66
Calcium 66
Calcium Borogluconate
66, 96
California
Mastitis
Test (CHIC) 37
Cambendazole 81, 93
Campylobacter fetus
19
Campylobacter fetus intestinulis
46
Campylobacteriosis
46
Cannula 63
Carcass 23
Caseous Lymphadenitis
16, 21, 27, 104
Castration
36, 85, 101, 102
Castration
Instruments
103
Catheter
100
Charbon 24
Charcoal (Activated)
91, 96
Charcoal
32, 60
Chlamydia psittaci
28, 32, 41
Chlamydial Abortion
(EAE) 18, 28, 32, 41
Chloramphenicol
29, 33, 39, 43, 44, 95
Chlorohexadine
97
Chlortetracycline
95
Choke 55, 60
Chronic Internal
Parasites
21
Chronic Wasting Diseases
21
Circling
Disease
35
124
Clostridium
Clostridium
Clostridiwn
Clostridium
perfrinyens
31
septicum 36
spp. 36
tetani
45
Coccidia
75, 94
Coccidiosis
9, 10, 11, 75
Coccidiostats
93, 94
Coconuts
91
Colibacillosis
9, 29
Coliforms
38
Colostrum
29, 50, 64, 100, 112
Colostrum Deprivation
9, 13, 14, 64
Conditions
of the Eye 22
Contagious Abortion
25
Contagious Agalactia
13, 22, 30, 115
Contagious Ecthyma 15, 50, 51
Conversion Table
89
Copper Sulfate
33, 91
Corn Syrup 90
Corticosteroids
62, 69
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
Corynebacterium spp. 38
Cowciria ruminantium 73
Culicoides spy. 48
Decoquinate
94
Dehydration
89
Delivery
107, 108
Delivery
Problems
110
Demodex 83
Dermatophilosis
15, 44
Dermatophilus
conyolensis
115
Diagnostic
Guides 6-23
Diarrhea
9, 10, 29, 89
Difficult
Delivery
110
Dimidine
94
Diminazene Aceturate
72, 74
Dip 83
Dipyrone
91
Disease Incidence
115
Disinfectant
97
Dislocations
67
Docking
36, 85. 102, 106
Docking Instruments
103
Dosage of Drugs 88
125
(ovis)
27
Dose Syringe
99
Drenching
99
Drug Usage 87
Drugs 93, 94, 96
Dystocia
110
Edema 61, 74
Egg Passage Vaccines
55
Eimeria spp. 75
Elastrators
104
Elbow Lock 113
Encephalitis
36
Enterotoxemia
7, 9, 10, 23, 31
Enzootic Abortion
115
Enzootic Abortion of Ewes 28
Epididymitis
42
Epinepherine
62, 96
Epizootic
Aphthae 51
Epsom Salts
60, 96
Equipment
99
Erythromycin
95
Escherichia
coli
29
Estrous Cycle 2
Estrus
2
Ethidium
74
Examination
3
External Parasites
15, 83-86
Eye Conditions
22
Failure
to Lamb 20
Fenbendazole
81, 93
Fever 3, 12
Flatworms
76
Flies
17, 41, 71, 85
Fluid Replacement Solutions
90
Flukes
76, 93
Fly Strike
102
Follicle
Mites
83
Follicular
Conjunctivitis
22, 32, 41
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) 13, 18. 21, 51, 115
Foot Bath Mixtures
91
Foot Rot 13, 33, 51
Foot Trimming
104
Formaldehyde
91
Formalin
33
Fractures
66
Frothy Bloat
62, 63
E'usiformis'nodosus
33
.
.
Fusobacterium necrophorus
33
GammaGlobulin
64
Gangrenous Mastitis
37
Gargot 37
Gas Gangrene 36
Gestation
2, 25
Glossary
117-122
Grain Overload Mixture
91
Grain Pastures
63
Grass Staggers
65
Grass Tetany
14, 65
Guanidine
94
Hairy Shaker Disease
49
Haloxon
93
Hard Breathing
12
Heart Rate 2, 4
Heartwater
7, 72, 115
Heat 2
Hives 61
Homidium Compounds 74
Honey 90
Hoven 62
Human Glanders
39
Hydrophobia
54
Hypocalcemia
65, 66
Hppogammaglobinemia
9, 13, 14, 64, 111
Hypomagnesemia Tetany
65
Impaction
60
Inability
to Stand 14
Indigestion
60
Infected
Feet 91
Infected
Spots 16
Infectious
Keratoconjunctivitis
32
Injection
Sites
97, 98
Insect Stings
17, 61
Insecticides
83, 85, 102, 111
Internal
Parasites
9-12, 23, 75-82, 93, 94
Intramammary
38, 98
Intramammary Injection
99
Intramuscular
(IM) 97
Intravenous
(IV)
98
Iodine
27, 84
Iodine Dosages 96
IV Johnin Test 34
Johne's Disease
21, 34
Kata 52
127
Ketone Bodies 69
Ketosis
14, 68, 107
Lamb Dysentery
31
Lambing Sickness
65
Lameness 13, 33, 48
Lancing Abscesses 27, 104
Larvae
78, 79, 80, 81, 93
Lasalocid
94
Le Rage 54
Legumes 63
Levamisole
81, 93
Lice
83
Listerellosis
35
Listeria
nronocytogenes
35
Listeriosis
7, 18, 35, 115
Liver Fluke (Life Cycle)
77
Liver Fluke 76
Lockjaw
45
Loss of Appetite
9, 10
Lumpywool 44
Lung Sickness
40
Lunger Disease
53
Lungworms 12, 40, 81, 93
Lymph Node Locations
105
Lyssa 54
Mad Dog 54
Maedi-Visna
53
Magnesium 65
Magnesium Oxide 91
Magnesium Sulfate
60, 96
Malformed Lambs 20
Malignant Carbuncle
25
Malignant Edema 16, 23, 36
Malignant Pustule
25
Malta Fever 25
Mange 83
Mastitis
13, 16, 30, 37, 38, 50, 98
Mebendazole
93
Medicine by Mouth 99
Meliodosis
7, 12, 13, 16, 21, 39, 115
Metabolic Diseases
60-70
Meteorism
62
Methazine
94
Methylene Blue 96
Milk Fever 14, 65
Milk Gland 98
&ilk of Magnesia 60, 96
Milzbrand
24
Mineral Oil
63, 96, 99
Mites
83
Monensin 94
Morantel
93
Mosquitoes
56, 58
Mucous Membranes 4, 48, 58
Multiple
Births
108, 110
Mummified Fetus 28, 49
Mycobacterium
johnei
Mycoplasma
ayalactia
34
30
Nagana 73
Nairobi Sheep Disease
10, 18, 52, 115
Needles 97
Neomycin 29, 43, 95
Nervous System 7, 8
Newborn 107
Nitrofurazone
94
Novidium
74
Orf 50
Overeating Disease
31
Ovine Progressive
Pneumonia 53
Oxfendazole
81, 93
Oxibendazole
93
Oxytetracycline
71, 95
Oxytocin
96
Paleness
11
Parasitic
Diseases
71-86
Paratuberculosis
34
Parturient
Paresis
65
Pasteurization
of Milk
38
Pectin
90
Pediculosis
83
Penicillin
25, 27, 32, 35, 36,
44, 45 y 95,
110,
114
Penicillin
G & Benzathine
Penicillin
G & Streptomycin
Penicillin
G-Procaine
95
Peste Des Petits Ruminants
Peste of Sheep and Goats
Pests 17, 85
Phenothiazine
93
Physical Injury
66
Physiological
Data 2
95
95
(PPR)
52
10, 12, 22, 51,
52,
115
I
129
Pill Administration
101
Pinkeye
32
Piroplasmosis
73
Placenta
81, 110
Pneumonia 12, 21, 40, 48, 53, 58, 81
Poisoning
73
Polioencephalomalacia
8, 23, 68
Poloxalone
63, 96
Polyarthritis
7, 13, 32, 41
Poor Appetite
12, 13
Posterior
Delivery
108
Posterior
Presentation
109
Potash 65
Pox 57
Pregnancy
66, 107
Pregnancy Toxe&a
14, 68, 69, 70, 107
Progressive
Pneumonia 21, 53
Prolapse
106
Propylene Glycol
69, 96
Pseudomonas pseudomallei
39
Pseudorinderest
of Small Ruminants
Pseudotuberculosis
27
Pulpy Kidney Disease
31
Puncture Wound 45
Pyrantel
94
Quaternary Ammonium 97
Quinoxaline
94
Rabies 8, 54, 73, 115
Ram Epididymitis
20, 42
Rectal Prolapse
106
Red Water 72
Reproductive Tract
108
Respiration
2
Retained Afterbirth
28
Rhipicephalus
Rhipicephalus
52
spp. 72
appendiculatus
52
10, 19, 55, 115
Rift Valley Fever
Rinderpest
53
Ringworm 15, 84
Roundworms 76, 79, 93, 94
Rumen Acidosis
91
Rumen Inoculation
101
Rumen Movements 2, 4
Rumenotomy 61
Ruminal Tympany 62
Salmonella spp.
43
130
_.. _
.,..
,. ., i
,,"
Salmonellosis
Salt
90, 91
Sannare 73
Sarcoptes
9, 10, 19, 43, 115
83
Scabies
83
Scabs 15, 44, 83
Scales
15
Scours 29, 43, 89
Scrapie
8, 17, 21, 56, 115
Screwworms 85, 102, 111
Scrotum 101
Selenium
96
Sheep and Goat Pox 12, 15, 22, 51, 57, 115
Skin Fungus 84
Sodium Bicarbonate
60, 91, 96
Sore Mouth 50
Sore Muzzle 48
Sources of Information
116
Spectinomycin
29, 95
Splenic Fever 24
Spontaneous Abortion
18
Staphylococcus
spy.
38
Sterile
Fluid
91
Sterilizing
Instruments
97
Stiff
Lamb Disease
41
Stomach and Intestine
Roundworms 76
Stomach and Intestine
Roundworms (Life Cycle)
79
Stomach Tube 100
Stomatitis-Pneumoenteritis
Syndrome 52
Strawberry Footrot
44
Streytococcus spp. 38
Streptomycin
44
Streptotricosis
15, 44
Stress
66
Struck
31
Subcutaneous (SQ) 66, 97
Sulfa Drugs 29, 36, 39, 41, 43, 76, 82, 94, 95
Sulfa Powder 37
Sulfabromomethazine
95
Sulfachloropyridazine
95
Sulfadimethoxine
95
Sulfadimidine
95
Sulfaethoxypyridazine
95
Sulfamethazine
95
Syringes
97, 99, 100
Tapeworms 78, 93
131
Tapeworms (Life Cycle)
80
Techniques
97-114
Temperature
2, 4
Temperature Conversions
2
Tetanus
8, 45, 73
Tetanus Antitoxin
(T.A.T.)
45, 46, 102, 104
Tetanus Toxoid
46
Tetracycline
25, 27-30, 33, 36, 39, 41, 43, 44,
47, 71, 73, 95, 110, 114
Tetracycline
HCl 95
Therapy
87-96
Thiabendazole
84, 93
Thiamine
68
Ticks
17, 44, 56, 71-73, 85
Tollwut
54
Toxoplasmosis
19, 81
Transport Tetany
65
Trocar
63
Trypanosom brucei
74
Trypanosom congoZense 74
Trypunosom ~~imx 74
Trypanosomiasis
11, 19, 21, 73, 115
Tsetse Fly 74
Tylosin
30, 33, 41, 95
Tympanities
62
Urination
105
Urine Sample 105
Vaginal Prolapse
106
Vampire Bats 55
Vegetable Oil
63
Vesicular
Stomatitis
51
Vibriosis
19, 46, 115
Viral Diseases
48-59
Viroid
57
Vitamin E 96
Wasting Disease
21, 34
Weights and Measures 89
Wesselbron Disease
19, 58
Whipworms 81, 93
White Scours 29
Whitmore's Disease
39
Wool Maggots 102
Wounds 66
Yellow Scours 29
Zinc Sulfate
33, 92
132
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement