4 .'EKTH )-

4 .'EKTH )-
4
.'EKTH
)-
F R C N
1'
i
F
I
y.
C
V,
HINTS
ON
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
BY
K
E.
GREEK
PART IIL-COLOUR.
SEVENTH EDITION.
LONDON:
GEOEGE ROWNEY AND COMPANY,
MANUFACTURING ARTISTS' COLOURMEN,
52,
KATHBONE PLAGE, AND
29,
OXFOED STEEET, W.
:
LONDON
HENDERSON, RAIT, AND FENTON, GENERAL PRINTERS,
73
&
74,
MARYLEBONE LANE, OXFORD STREET.
PREFACE.
The
favourable reception of the
first
and second parts
of this work, as indicated not only
by the general
demand
many
for
them, but expressed in
letters
of
kind approval received by the Author, encourages him
to
hope that
amount
this third part,
of time
meet with equal
quirers for its
and care have been expended,
success,
publication will
Circus Road,
St.
will
and that the numerous en-
in its perusal.
3,
on which a considerable
John's Wood, London.
not be disappointed
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in
2013
http://archive.org/details/hintsonsketchingOOgree
CONTENTS.
PAGE
Colour.
Introduction
Primary Colours and their Combinations
....
Qualities of Colours
8
11
Mixing Broken Tints
17
Contrast and Harmony
General Distribution of Colour
7
in
Landscape
.
.
.21
.25
Balance of Colour
29
Water Colour Materials
32
Management of Washes
47
Progressive Treatment of a Sketch in
Water Colours
.
54
Unity of Effect
69
Conclusion
63
...........
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
PART
III.
CHAPTER
1.
ON OOLOUE.— INTRODUCTION.
The
the
hints on sketching from nature already given in
first
and second parts
of
this
work would be
incomplete without some reference to painting and
This part of the subject
the use of water colours.
so
full,
both in
instruction in
its
is
theory and practice, that any
a handbook of this description must
The following
who have not commenced
be of the most elementary character.
hints are offered to those
the practice of colouring, with the hope that they
may
prove acceptable, and be the means of leading
to a
more thorough and earnest study
important branch of the
is
a natural
gift,
and one
for
amateur can be too grateful
gift
may
be, it is capable of
;
We will
of colour,
good eye
which neither
for colour
artist
nor
but, whatever the natural
being developed by study,
and continuously improved by
first
A
art.
of this most
practice.
endeavour to explain the general laws
and then consider
ledge of these laws
to
what extent the know-
may be made available
in sketching.
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
8
CHAPTER
II.
ON THE PEIMAEY COLOUES AND THEIE
COMBINATIONS.
A
PRIMARY colour
is
one that cannot be produced by
There are but three primaries
the mixture of others.
From
yellow, red, and blue.
others
The
may
:
these three colours all
be produced by mixture.
three colours, yellow, red, and blue, with the
assistance of the white
ground of the paper, are
equal,
at least in theory, to all the requirements of the art.
By
the mixture of yellow and red
we
obtain orange,
from yellow and blue we have green, and by blending
red and blue
we produce
purple.
Orange, green, and purple
secondary
tiaries
series,
— orange
purple,
We
brown
;
may
then be called the
and from these we produce the
and green giving
olive
;
and green and purple, gray or
have placed
ter-
orange and
slate.
this before the reader in a tabular
form, in order that the sequence and relative position
may
of the various colours
be clearly seen and re-
membered.
We
gray or
have called the
slate
;
and
last
it is
colour on the right
hand
worthy of remark that while
the six colours comprising the
first
and second
series
C
!
OL
tace
OUR
page 8
SH ADF,
.
ON THE PRIMARY COLOURS AND THEIR COMBINATIONS. 9
have distinctive names which are recognized by
all;
the three last are spoken of under different names,
and, worse
For
still,
the names are sometimes transposed.
named
instance, the tertiary series are
russet,
and
olive
;
citrine
thus, citrine,
being another name for the
mixture of orange and green, russet for the mixture
and purple, and, sad
of green and purple being called
of orange
to relate, the
olive.
Now, whatever
may
be the original signification of the term
now
generally understood to
mean
a
mixture
warm
olive, it is
rich green,
differing exceedingly
from any colour that can be made
by mixtures
and purple.
We
of green
have added the term
slate to the
mixture of
green and purple, because the crossing of these two
we have no
colours produces a slatey gray for which
generally accepted
name
—a
true gray
is
simply the
mixture of black and white, while the colour which
results
from the blending of purple and green has an
excess of blue in
its
composition.
These remarks upon
the names of the tertiaries would not have been intro-
duced were
it
not most important to have clear ideas
of the connection between
also that the reader
may
names and
colours
;
and
be warned against a possible
misunderstanding, arising from the use of different
names in the writings of others.
In the first tabular illustration of the colours, page 8,
the primary, secondary, and tertiary series have been
kept separate in order to impress them more readily
on the memory
;
but this arrangement
is
not the most
favourable for expressing their connection, or the
manner
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
10
in which one set of colours produces that next in order
to
We have therefore given the usual circular figure,'*'
it.
in which the sequence
colours, yellow, red,
more
is
and
evident, the primary
blue, occupying the centre,
and each colour in the outer circles lying next the two
by which it is produced thus orange is placed over the
yellow and the red, and the green next the yellow and
;
blue,
and
so
on throughout the
The connection which
and
light,
and the
exists
loss of light
may
mixture of the primaries
diagram.
In the
series.
between purity of colour
which
from the
results
also be observed in this
centre, yellow, red, ancj blue,
each their distinct correlatives in shade
;
have
yellow having
the least, red the next in quantity, and blue the most.
From this scale there is no direct
of the second circle
than yellow,
it
;
composed of the
perceptible
;
pass to the outer circle, which
tertiaries,
olive has
the loss of light
by no means
much
so
much
brown
gray
decidedly nearer to shade than blue.
is
is
is
most
light as
deeper in tone than red, and
yellow,
is
less light
has in equal proportion more light than
But when we
red.
departure in the colours
although orange has
for,
not therefore consider that this loss of light
We must
is
a disad-
vantage, for the presence of tone in the colours of the
tertiary scale, of
is
generally
them
which the greater portion of a picture
made
up,
so valuable as a
is
the very quality that makes
ground on which
to place the
brighter touches of the picture. This connection between
colour
and tone or shade
next chapter.
is
further considered in the
;
ON THE QUALITIES OF COLOUR.
11
CHAPTER III.
ON THE QUALITIES OF COLOURS.
The
division of the
first
are called
warm and
primary
scale is into
termed warm, and blue the cold colour, and
from being a fanciful arrangement
this is far
for in painting
;
yellow and red are inseparable from a light and
effect,
and
it is
By
natural scale of colours the
is,
warm
impossible to produce shade or coolness
without the use of blue.
and the
what
and red being
cold colours, yellow
this
warm
we
see that in the
tones predominate
practical inference to be derived
from
this fact
that they should maintain the same relative value
in painting
;
or in other
picture should be
words the general tone of a
warm, the cold colours being
duced as a contrast, and in order to give value
introto
the
other side of the scale.
Let us now consider each colour separately, observing
its
place in the table, and endeavoming to connect
with those properties which belong to
it
it
as a conse-
quence.
It will be seen in the chart,
have been used,
below
is
all lies
viz., light,
the
page
shade,
gloomy region
8,
and
that three terms
colour,
and that
of blackness.
Light
placed above the yellow, shade over the blue, and
12
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
colour over the red, because these terms best express
the characteristics of these colours.
And
connection between yellow and light.
we might almost say
frequent,
in nature
;
and seldom
is
its
Yellow
tone.
tints
it
in constant, union with
warmth can be
detected
are found pervading the
lights of nearly every object in the landscape
warm
is
occurs in
the sun or a cloud so white
that no trace of yellowness or
in
as to the
This colour
placed next to whiteness or light, for
it
first,
they
;
the foliage, enrich the mountain side, and tone
the distant sky.
Blue, on the contrary,
though not shade in
without
it.
is
itself,
nearest allied to shade,
and
yet no shade can be produced
We find it therefore
mingling with
all
the
shades of nature, especially those of the clouds and distant landscape
seem
;
to be free
chart will
and though the foreground browns may
from
its
influence, yet a reference to the
show that even here
it is
present, having been
introduced through the purple.
We have placed the word colour over red,
it
merits the distinction, for red
acme of
colour.
may
Yellow
diluted with light,
and
blue,
is,
so to speak, the very
be regarded as colour
as colour passing
shade, a theory which, however fanciful
is
and surely
not without support in nature.
it
may
into
appear,
For instance,
let
us
consider the changes which tinge in succession the face
of the sun.
In mid-day pure light with
ing whiteness prevails
tone of yellow makes
into a golden
hue
;
its
accompany-
towards the afternoon a delicate
its
appearance, which deepens
as the sun approaches the horizon
;
ON THE QUALITIES OF COLOUR.
13
but the intensities of colour are near at hand
is
quickly exchanged for a fiery red
glorious orb disappears from view
—orange
yet before the
;
tinged with
is
it
crimson, a colour which cannot be produced from the
Thus we have an
primaries without the aid of blue.
unbroken
series
of
from white
tints
light,
the
to
commencement of shade, passing through red, at
which point we may certainly say that colour is
most vigorously expressed.
But for another illustra^
tion
red
:
colours
unquestionably the most
is
as such it is used as a signal both
;
and night, and many other instances
mind
the
of
its
forcible
in
which
it
is
attractive power.
of
by day
occur to
will
employed in consequence
This characteristic makes
it
a matter of great importance that we should understand
its
right
employment in
required in
its
use
mingle with every
;
art.
The
and although
tint,
it
using
is
it
its
power, there
in a crude state
may
;
is
is
therefore,
care
is
be said to
and that a picture
rich in colour in proportion as red
consequence of
greatest
is
only
present, yet, in
great danger in
when any
object
principally composed of red, every gradation towards
brown or gray should be most carefully preserved.
But whilst directing attention particularly to red
as the most effective of colours, we must not forget
the claims of yellow and blue.
These, together with
complete
the
scale
primary
and in a painting
the red,
each must be represented, or the eye will not be
;
satisfied
For
with
instance,
its
it is
completeness as a work of colour.
in vain that the
warm
tones formed
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
14
by yellow and red are exhibited, if the cool tints
produced by the use of blue are wanting, for without
them the work can only appear hot and oppressive.
Again,
if
the picture
is
composed principally of cool
warm
without the aid of the
tints,
scale,
must
it
remain cold and comfortless in the extreme.
It
this filling
is
which gives
up or completing the primary
which
term
to the
rise
frequently employed
when speaking
complementary to yellow, green
to
blue:
or,
which
purple,
primaries, red
scale
is
and
other words,
composed of
is
and
or if red
;
of yellow
blue
in
is
blue,
and orange
to red,
if
— a word
said to be
is
yellow
present,
is
two remaining
the
complements or
up the
composed
fills
used, then green, which
blue, forms the
is
complementary
and
;
if
employed, then orange, which results from
mixing the remaining
complement or
The
of coloiu'
Thus, purple
signifies filling up.
scale
" complementary," so
fill
up the
primaries,
the
is
colour
to
series.
principle of emj)loying
complementary colour
of the utmost imj)ortance in painting
;
therefore if
is
any
tone of colour prevails, either through the whole subject
or
any considerable portion
of
it,
the complementary to
that tone should be carefully introduced.
For
in treating the sky where blue prevails,
important to exhibit, together with
of orange,
its
complementary.
water-colour pafnting
it,
This
instance,
it
a certain
is
is
most
amount
carried out in
by toning the paper with a warm
wash, previous to painting the sky
;
this
warm wash
gives to all the lights of the clouds a faint orange tone,
ON THE QUALITIES OF COLOUR.
and, as this colour underlies the blue,
The
harmonize the whole.
may
orange
haze that
is
is
rendered
This
warm
scape.
it
tends to
toning blue with
be frequently observed in nature when the
always more or
less present in the distance
warm and luminous by the
haze overlaps, as
and changes
delicate
effect of
15
to a
it
warm
it
light of the sun.
were, the distant blue,
tone, thus bringing
it
into
and refined harmony with the distant landBut if we desire to experience the full power of
this delicious
exhibition of colour, let us go out to
nature on some lovely evening
are floating in an azure sky
—then,
this combination will be felt
For a
when
rich golden clouds
if ever,
illustration of the
firrther
the value of
and acknowledged.
working of
this
principle, let us consider its application to the prevailing
tone of the landscape
to be green
;
this is in
most instances found
—the complementary being
in landscape painting
it is
red.
Therefore
of the utmost consequence to
introduce amongst the various greens tones tending
towards red, for
if
these be omitted the effect of the
picture will certainly be cold
One
of the
scape colouring
is
plementary red.
to overlook the presence of this
;
com-
Their trees are painted too green,
especially in the distance,
crude
and harsh.
most common errors of beginners in land-
and the grass
is
insufferably
whereas a more matured judgment would be
watchful for the faintest tinges of complementary colour,
and even
find
it
brown madder,
green.
necessary to add small portions of lake,
or burnt sienna, to almost every tint of
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
16
The pleasure which the eye
experiences in the presence
of a completed scale gives peculiar value to every
tone in landscape painting, whether
it
a piece of broken ground, or patch of heather
demand
most
of the eye
for
warm
be a cottage
roof,
and
;
this
the complementary accounts
satisfactorily for the frequent practice
ducing browns or reds amongst the
of intro-
The
figures.
various seasons of the year offer an opportunity for
choice in colouring,
and the general preference given to
autumn over midsummer can be
traced directly to this
deep-seated delight in a completed scale
;
blade, russet spray, or golden leaf, being a
each olive
means by
which the much-coveted complementary colour
duced.
is
intro-
;
ON MIXING BROKEN TINTS.
CHAPTER
IV.
ON MIXING BROKEN
We
17
TINTS.
have s^Doken of the delight experienced by the
eye from the introduction of complementary tones in
but a singular result follows upon
painting,
absolute mixtiu'e
complementary
portions, black
;
for, if
any two
to each other are
is
the result
:
their
tints that are exactly
mixed
that
in certain pro-
is,
they fight so
desperately that they destroy each other.
Mix
either
yellow and purple, red and green, or blue and orange,
and the
result in each case will be the same, a dirty
gray
But this only occurs upon their mixture in
or black.
definite proportions
;
a
little
does not produce black,
it
of one colour with the other
only tones or breaks the
mixture towards gray, and this toning or breaking of
positive colours is of the highest value
—indeed
one
great difference between the sketch of an accomplished
artist
and the work of a beginner
is
that,
in
the
latter case the colours are iised in too crude a state, or
too
much
as they are supplied
by the manufacturer
whereas the more educated eye recognizes the presence
of
an all-pervading gray blending with and harmon-
izing the whole.
harmony
of its
is
by
Now, one way
of producing
this
crossing each colour with a small portion
complementary
;
yet this requires the greatest
care, for if the process is carried too far the brilliance of
B
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
18
the work must suffer, and the result will be a degraded
and dirty tone throughout the painting.
In the diagram on the opposite page the mutual
influence of colours that are complementary to each
other
may
In the
be observed.
first
row yellow
In the second, red
crossed with purple.
with green, and in the third
is
combined
is
mixed with
set blue is
orange, the result being seen in the centre squares, where
in either case a broken tint or gray
The
the mixture.
cannot be overrated
produced by
is
practical value of these half tints
;
and
it
will be evident, even to
an
unpractised eye, that, though the two outside sets of
colours,
composed of the primary and secondary
series,
are quite unfit for general use in consequence of their
unharmonious and crude character, the other
tints are
valuable as affording broken or harmonious tones
The student
for general use.
struct a table of this kind,
is
and extend
colours of the box, placing the
employed
recommended
it
to the various
names of the
at the side, so that the combination
known, should
way
it
fit
to con-
be required in future.
colours
may
be
The most
is to mix a fair progamboge and purple
place them in the spaces to the right and left, then for the
space next the gamboge add a little of the purple, for
simple
portion of
of painting such a scale
any two
colours, say
the space next* the purple a
centre space
In
this
little
;
gamboge, and
gamboge and purple
way gamboge may
in equal quantities.
also be crossed
Vandyke brown, raw sienna with
cobalt, lake
for the
with sepia or
cobalt,
ochre with
with indigo, lake with olive green,
&c.,
by
ON MIXING BROKEN
which means the student
19
TINTS.
become acquainted with
will
the influences of the various colours on each other, and
secure a store of broken tints
and grays, together with the
knowledge how to produce them when they are required.
In the commencement of the practice of colouring,
whether
it
be in copying from the work of an
artist,
or
in the endeavour to imitate nature, the mixture of the
exact tint or tone
is
The reason
made
greatest difficulties.
effort to j)aint is
generally found to be one of the
for this is that the
generally
hefore the theory of
colour has been studied, and without
tice in
any previous prac-
the preparation of mixed tints.
this case loses
much
The student
precious time, and no
and patience in the endeavour
to
little
in
colour
do that which should
have been made a separate study, and
its
difficulties
overcome before attempting to copy or to sketch.
In acquiring the knowledge necessary
this
branch of the
matter in hand
is
art,
to success in
a practical working out of the
way
the surest
to save time
;
it is
vain to look at a coloured diagram, or even to read over
the statements with regard to
of
the tint be neglected.
possibly be
made
of the
it, if
The
the actual mixing
best use that
box of colours
is first
can
to copy
the coloured diagrams in this work, and then to find
out what else can be done by mixing the various colours
in twos or threes, observing
upon each
what influence they exercise
and noticing the delicate shades of
tone which may be produced by varying the quantity
of any one colour in a mixture, or by exchanging it for
another of a similar hue. In this exercise there is no
other,
—
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
20
principle so productive of useful or varied results as
that of combining complementary colours, as already
directed at page 18
may
;
and in order that
be more clearly understood
this subject
we have given two
by which the true complementary to any tint
may be readily perceived by looking across the figure.
Thus in the first chart purple is opposite to yellow,
green to red, and orange to blue and in the second
diagram orange appears complemented by gray, green
by brown, and purple by olive.
From this it is
charts
;
evident that the primary colours have but one set
complementaries, whereas
of
either
green
and purple
green,
orange,
from the
is
first
the
—may
secondary tints
complemented
be
or the third series
complemented in the one by
by brown, purple by yellow
or olive,
;
for instance,
red, in the other
and orange by
blue or gray.
A
very valuable hint
with this fact
—
viz.,
may
be given in connection
that the primary colours need not
be present in their integrity in order to secure either
—
harmony or contrast in a painting indeed their presence
any great quantity is actually destructive of harmony.
It should therefore be remembered that the highest
in
pleasure which the
colour
may
eye
is
capable of receiving from
be secured by a judicious contrast of the
harmonious colours which form the tertiary
We
and
scale.
have frequently employed the terms harmony
contrast, and, as a clear idea of the
to these
words
is
meaning attached
of the utmost importance,
we have
dsvoted the next chapter to their consideration.
ON CONTRAST AND HARMONY.
CHAPTEE
21
V.
ON CONTRAST AND HARMONY.
These words
are frequently
of
It
colours.
is,
meaning should be
a definite idea
reader
may
when they
employed when speaking
important
therefore,
that
their
clearly understood, in order that
be conveyed to the mind of the
are used,
and that we may avoid an
improper application of them.
Contrast
is
connected with ideas of opposition.
warm
speak of the contrast of lights with darks,
We
colours
with cold ones, near objects with distant ones, and so
on.
Harmony, on the
express blending
other hand,
employed
is
Thus one
or union.
to
colour har-
monizes with another when the blending of the two
produces that which
is
pleasant to the eye
;
just as in
music notes are said to harmonize when their mutual
vibrations produce a sound
ear.
which
Things in general are said
when they
to
is
agreeable to the
work harmoniously
are free from opposing interests.
If this
be the commonly accepted meaning of the term har-
mony, can there be any propriety in the use
word when speaking of the mutual
mentary
colours, or in the
effect of
of this
comple-
remark that blue and orange
form a harmonious combination
?
Is
it
not far more
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
22
these colours form an agreeable
correct to say that
contrast ?
To
mony
may
you cannot produce har-
reply,
of colouring with blue without combining
orange
But
some
this
and
;
it
with
and blue harmonize.
the delight which the eye
therefore orange
surely in this
case
experiences in the presence of a completed scale has
simply been called by a wrong name
!
Blue and
orange brought together in a crude state do not harmonize
—they contrast
colours can.
it
and that
;
And if we desire
as violently as
to
any two
make them harmonize,
can alone be effected by crossing or breaking each
colour with a small portion of the other
;
that
is,
blue must not be pure blue, but a blue with a
orange mixed with
it;
the
little
and the orange must not be
crude, but blended with a little blue.
This method of harmonizing contrasting tones
may
be frequently observed in the works of that great
colourist,
Turner.
tian scene, in
We remember particularly
was occupied with an expanse
tone being a greenish blue
composed of boats and
colours,
a Vene-
which the principal portion of the picture
;
of water, the general
the nearer objects were
figures, in
which the contrasting
orange-and brown, predominated.
The oppos-
had been harmonized by
glazing the water with warm tones, and the boats and
ing
effect
of these colours
figures with cool purplish grays.
the
harmony did not
result
was introduced by the
Eeturning again
Surely in this case
from the
first
contrast, but
after glazing.
for a
moment
to the subject of
—
ON CONTRAST AND HARMONY.
we
music,
23
remarked that notes harmonize when
liave
their vibrations blend with each other, producing a full,
rich chord
two
but the result of the equal mixture of any
;
that are complementary to each other
colo"ars
invariably black.
Surely
it is
What harmony
nothing
less
gray
—
by
is
far the
there in this?
is
than the most fatal opposition
It will be readily admitted
that the tertiary scale
is
by advanced
—composed
!
colourists
of olive, brown,
and
most harmonious, and that the
most pleasing pictures are those in which no crude or
unbroken colours have been employed.
fact support the
Does not
argument that harmony
but yellow broken by red and blue
olive
brown but red
little
?
?
What
What
is
is
and blue ? and gray
crossed with yellow
but the result of blending a
intimately
is
connected with the breaking of pure colour
this
red and yellow with
blue?
To
place this
still
more
clearly before the reader
Olive contains 2 parts of yellow to 1 of blue and 1 of red.
Brown
2
2
Gray
Therefore
itself,
it
may
red
1
blue
1
yellow
red
be said that olive
is
,,
a
1
blue.
1
yellow.
harmony
in
the crudities of the three primary colours having
been removed by blending
equally to
The
;
and the remark applies
brown and gray.
aim of these observations on the theory
practical
of colours
fact that
is
to
direct the student
—
first,
to the great
no combination of colours can be satisfying to
the eye unless the three primaries are fairly represented
in
it
;
secondly, that this completeness of the scale of
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
24
colour
is
most agreeably secured by the employment of
and
harmony cannot proceed from the use
contrasting or complementary tones
opposing colours, but
is
It should further be
;
excellent basis,
ture
is
may
;
and
of crude or
the result of judicious blending.
remembered that the
scale— composed of olive, brown, and gray
most harmonious
thirdly, that
—
is
tertiary
by
far the
therefore these tints form an
on which the brighter colours of a
pic-
be placed, an arrangement which in practice
attended with a most satisfactory
result.
—
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF COLOUR IN LANDSCAPE. 25
CHAPTEE
VI.
ON THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF COLOUR IN
LANDSCAPE.
The
great division of colour in average daylight
first
between the sky and foreground—the one tend-
effect is
warm
ing towards the cold, and the other towards the
As
scale.
is
the sky approaches the horizon
more or
reflected
earth
;
modified by the
less
from the mists that
and
lie
warm
its
light
becomes affected by the blue of the
air
one hand, the cold colour of the sky
;
distance
so that,
is
it
on the
warmed
and, on the other, the
;
is
near the surface of the
as the foreground passes into
approaches the landscape
coldness
which
as
it
warm
tones of the foreground are cooled as they pass into the
It
distance.
is
is
harmonized and
at first that this is a
very generalized
here that each scale
blended by an all-pervading gray.
It
might seem
statement,
practical
and that
value
;
it
cannot, therefore, be of any
but we would recommend a most
careful consideration of these simple facts to those
intend to sketch in colours
colour
How
is
mixed,
blue
is
there amongst
let
;
and before a
who
single tone of
such questions as these be asked
the sky?
its oool
What amount
of
:
warmth is
what tint
tones ? and, especially,
26
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
of gray prevails in
to
observe
atmospheric
the
are
When
these
colours ?
indication
first
How
influences ?
distance? &c., &c.
Then, with regard
distance?
how warm
foreground,
the
Where can I
from
its
blue
of
gray
is
that
these various effects have
been cautiously observed, the chances are in favour of
a truthful sketch being produced, and also of a steady
improvement in colouring, by a development of the
faculty of estimating correctly the general tone of
any
portion of the picture.
With regard
fullest
blue
is
to the sky,
may
be observed that the
generally in that part most removed from
the sun, and that
it
it
its
intensity diminishes gradually as
approaches the source of light.
The amount
of gray or blue in
generally greater than
proof of this
position
there
is
any
distant view
clear
The
at first supposed.
to paint a passage of distance
where a
is also
is
is
best
from some
view can be obtained, but where
a possibility of observing the scene after-
wards, through the stems or boughs of a foreground
group of
trees.
Many
will
be surprised to
find,
on
making the experiment, that what they had considered
to be somewhat positive colouring proves to be little
more than bluish gray of varied tones this blueness
having been made evident by contrast with the strong
—
browns or greens of the nearer
objects.
Then, again,
the foreground colours are generally xauch fuller and
warmer than they appear to beginners and a wash of
colour by an experienced hand, which seems at first
far too full and energetic, is found by degrees to take
;
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF COLOUR IN LANDSCAPE. 27
its
proper place, and work harmoniously with the rest
of the picture.
In each of the
of the
its
on the opposite page one
illustrations
primary colours
is
represented in connection with
complementary, and an endeavour
is
made to
present
the combination agreeably to the eye.
In the
sunset
view, the yellow tint of the sky after
first
contrasted
is
mountain.
In
this
by the purple tones
of a distant
study light and shade form a most
important part of the composition, fulness of tone in
the shade being most necessary to
In the second
is
its effect.
glow of the setting sun
subject, the red
complemented by the deep greens of the foreground
trees
;
these are further valuable in causing the sky
and distance
to
In
retire.
this
takes the lead, for red, which
illustration,
colour
the most powerful of
is
the primaries, becomes the key-note of the composition
light
and shade are therefore made subservient
In the third example, the blue
tints of
are brought into contrast with the
field of corn,
effects of
a
afternoon
;
sky and sea
tones of a
a combination of colour
with light and shade, which
happy
instances there
effect will
;
it.
heightened towards orange by the rich
summer
yield a most
warm
to
is
is
But
result.
generally found to
in
either of these
considerable danger that a crude
be produced, in consequence of the suddenness
of the contrast.
quiet but fuller
Many
persons
harmony
may
prefer the
more
of the next three examples,
combined with
in which a secondary colour
is
plementary from the tertiary
scale.
its
com-
;
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
28
In the
first
picture, the purple of the hill is contrasted,
not as in the previous instance with yellow, but with
olive,
which
one of the
is
tertiaries,
and which forms
the prevailing tone of the trees and foreground.
In the second
is
scene, the green of the foliage
and
contrasted with brown, another of the tertiaries
hill
—
this
colour being employed freely in the tints of the stems
and
rocks,
and
also their reflections in the water.
In the third illustration, a tendency to orange pervades
the tones of
sails,
are complemented
cloud, producing
fulness
and strand
boat,
by the
an
;
these
warm
tones
prevailing gray of sky
which there
effect in
is
and
more of
and repose than would have resulted from the
employment of
blue.
In
these instances taste
all
and
judgment are the best guides there neither is, nor can
That which forms a pleasing
be, any arbitrary rule.
;
combination in the opinion of one
satisfactory to another
;
may
not be equally
an earnest study of nature
is
essential to the formation of a correct eye for colour
and
if
the picture be true in colour,
found to
offend.
it
will never be
to
f3
ce page. 2 8.
BALANCE OF EFFECT.
CHAPTER
29
VII.
BALANCE OF COLOUR.
The
connected with this part of our subject
ideas
should be understood,
most pleasing
if
effects of
we
desire
which colour
to
is
produce the
capable.
In
them more clearly, we will refer for
manner in which balance of effect is
outline, and also in light and shade.
order to explain
a
moment
secured in
to the
Balance of
effect in outline
The eye demands
which a picture
each other
;
is
may
be thus explained.
that the directions of the lines of
composed should
thus, a
group of
contrast, or balance
lines in
one direction
require the presence of lines tending in an opposite
direction, in order that a satisfactory balance
produced.
By
referring to the frontispiece,
may be
we may
see that the inclination of the lines of the cliff is con-
trasted
by an
opposite inclination in the lines of the
masts of the boat
pages 27 and 28
may
and
many
in the smaller illustrations at
instances of a similar character
be observed.
A due regard
light
;
to the principle of balance of effect in
and shade makes
it
desirable that a
mass of light
on one side the composition should be repeated
certain extent on the other
;
and the same
is
to a
necessary
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
30
for the
to colouring is a
the
The
system of darks.
most simple
transfer of these ideas
Let us consider
process.
warm and cold.
some of the warm
great division of colours into
first
A due balance of
effect requires that
colour should be carried into the cool portion of the
picture,
and
some of the
also that
cool tints should
be placed among the warmer tones.
the frontispiece will explain
picture
is
how
cool portion
reference to
The
this is effected.
divided generally thus
and water form the
A
—sky,
;
distant
cliff,
and the near
cliff,
boats,
and strand, the warm part of the composition.
Now
the cool tints of sky and distance are brought
over amongst the
warm
colours,
by the shades on the
left, and also by
houses, the grays of the boats to the
the shade over the left-hand corner
tones are carried
up towards the
touches on the distant
the small
sail
cliff,
;
while the
blue,
by
warm
the sunlit
but more expressly by
against the sky, which
is
very
warm
in
tone.
Distribution of colour
is
an agreeable balance of
another means for producing
effect.
Observe the manner
in which the reds are carried through the composition
in the frontispiece
roofs, are sustained
and large
they commence on the
;
by the reddish browns
left,
in the
of the sails
boat, are concentrated in the red of the figure)
and
finally spread
and
flag.
towards the sky by the small
The endeavour
to distribute
sail
each colour
through the various portions of a subject
may
be
observed, in a greater or less degree, in all the illustrations of this work.
"Water
is
a most
effective
means
BALANCE OF EFFECT.
for
securing
balance
of
and thus
warm
to
by
effect
reproduce the tints of sky or
introduce the
its
cloud
cool
tones of the foreground.
31
scale
These
tendency to
by reflection,
amongst the
effects
seen in each of the illustrations at page 28.
may
be
—
—
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
32
CHAPTER
VIII.
ON WATER COLOUR MATERIALS.
It
advisable, before entering
is
upon the
subject of
execution, to understand something of the materials
employed.
These are
:
and blotting
Colours, brushes, pencils, paper, sponge,
paper.
We
will consider the characters of each
and
point out their necessary qualifications.
Colour.
The following list of colours embraces
the writer, and will be found thoroughly
YELLOWS.
Cadmium.
those used
efficient
BLUES.
REDS.
Orange vermilion.
Cobalt.
Venetian red.
French
Gamboge.
Scarlet lake.
Antwerp.
Eaw
Indian red.
Indigo.
Yellow
ochre.
sienna.
:
blue.
BROWNS.
GREENS.
Olive.
Vandyke.
Warm
sepia.
Emerald.
Madders.
Burnt
sienna.
by
ON WATER COLOUR MATERIALS.
A tube
of white
is
33
very valuable for occasional mix-
ture with the colour in skies, or distances,
and
for
small touches of body colour.
It should be
colours,
remembered, with regard to any
that each professor has some favourites,
that a colour which
by another
;
is
the
put
esteemed by one
therefore, if at
not contained in the
qualities,
list
it
and
be disliked
any time a particular colour
list is
to the proof,
may
of
recommended
and
for certain
receive or reject
it
as
judgment may determine.
Cadmium.
An
intense mineral yellow, permanent,
transparent,
wherever glow
for
some
and semi-
particularly useful for sunset effects, or
is
required, also for
mixing with blue
brilliant greens.
Gamboge.
A
transparent, greenish
juicy and grassy greens
thin washes,
;
yellow gum, suitable
it
for
should be employed in
it
has a ten-
somewhat opaque, yellow
earth, suit-
for, if
used in great body,
dency to become opaque.
Yellow Ochre.
A sunny, but
able, in thin washes, for the
for this purpose,
warm
tones of clouds, and,
mixes well with vermilion or scarlet
c
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
34
lake
also useful
is
it
;
for
buildings, roads, &c.
It
should be kept out of foreground foliage, in consequence
of
opacity, but
its
especially
it is
very useful in distant greens,
where atmosphere
Eaw
A
transparent, golden
is
required.
Sienna.
earth, suited
autumnal
to
tones in foliage, or for thin glazings to give sunlight
to general
very
full
washes
;
washes as
care
it
is
necessary
when using
it
in
soon becomes spotty and opaque.
Burnt Sienna.
An
invaluable
orange-red earth, transparent, and
very useful in foliage where warmth
is
also
employed
lent colour,
and
in tile or brick work,
when mixed with Vandyke
is
or
required;
is
it
an excel-
madder brown,
for cows.
Orange Vermilion.
Very
preferable to the
heavier in colour.
ore cinabar,
make
common
This pigment
vermilion, which
is
is
prepared from the
and requires a great amount
of grinding
a good washer, but
this, and other heavy
by Messrs. Rowney & Co., may
be trusted to give the most delicate and flat washes.
It is highly valuable for sunny effects, and, in thin
to
it
colours, as prepared
tones,
may
be employed in sky, rock, or ground.
ON WATER COLOUR MATERIALS.
35
Crimson Lake.
A most useful purplish red.
purity but
It
is
seldom used in
its
very valuable in combination, especially
is
with indigo for forming delicate grays, which have the
valuable property of resisting better than any others
These grays are
the action of the brush or sponge.
therefore very useful
put on before
its
when
the shade of any object
local colour
recommended both
in
—a
distance,
method
and
broad cast
for
shadows in the immediate foreground, as
a fuller and softer
it
than when the shade
effect
is
of treatment
produces
is
added
This colour will not bear continued expo-
afterwards.
sure to strong light.
Venetian Eed.
A most
pleasant red earth, suitable for toning the
paper in the
first
warm
wash.
It forms
most useful
grays with cobalt, French, or any of the blues, and for
brick, tile, or earth, is invaluable.
Indian Eed.
A
very full-toned permanent dull red
used with caution, as
is
it
is
very
difficult to
;
should be
remove
principally valuable in forming purplish grays
;
it
by
mixture with blue.
Cobalt.
A
bright mineral blue, partly opaque, and one of
the most valuable
of
water-colours
;
it
enters into
c 2
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
36
combination with every tone where either
atmosphere
is
required
;
it is
gray or
useful for sky, shades of
and
clouds, mountains, distance, grays of all kinds,
tints
in
foliage
—
especially
shining surface of leaves
cool
the reflections from the
—with
gamboge
series of the most brilliant and lively greens
it
;
makes a
with lake,
the most beautiful purples
;
with lake or Venetian red,
the best permanent grays
;
with sepia, neutral grays,
suited to rock or stems of trees
—
^in
fact it
permeates
the picture, and therefore requires replenishing more
frequently than any other colour.
French Blue.
A fuller and more transparent
by no means
so generally useful
the box as a
medium
and
will
tone,
blue than cobalt, but
still, it is
;
valuable in
between cobalt and indigo,
be found useful in
skies,
and
also in
mixing
rich or deep greens.
Antwerp Blue.
This mineral colour
occasionally useful.
It
is
not very permanent, but
forms with Vandyke brown
delicious cool transparent greens
it
is
;
and with Indian red
produces a series of rocky grays, which possess the
quality of washing with singular flatness
and equality
of tone.
Indigo.
A
deep cold vegetable blue.
This colour enjoys by
ON WATER COLOUR MATERIALS.
no means a good reputation
account of
its
many
;
in foliage.
permanent;
when used with
still,
serviceable,
properties
it
;
object to
on
it
tendency to turn black when used in
excess, especially
found
37
for
It
also
but partly
caution,
many
has
it
is
will be
it
very valuable
forms a series of most pure and trans-
parent grays by mixture with lake and burnt sienna.
These grays are peculiarly suitable
or distant
for shades in clouds
any shades
mountains, or for
stand frequent after washings
that
—
are
required
to
instance,
the thin, transparent, cast shadows over a
For
road or the immediate foreground.
will stand better
than indigo
gained very readily by
caution already given
will as readily
intensity
;
But
it.
and depth are
if
depths
these
required, for
is
become black
no blue
here that the
is
it
these,
for
as,
too great a quantity
is
employed.
Olive Gtreen.
A very useful
or
tone of green
warmed by gamboge
it
;
raw
or
may
be heightened
sienna, deepened
burnt sienna, or cooled by the addition of blue.
especially valuable in foliage or
required to guard against
its
moss
;
but care
by
It
is
is also
tendency to blackness.
Emerald Green.
A most brilliant mineral colour—opaque
required, but
supply
its
when needed
place.
It
is
there
is
;
very seldom
nothing that can
useful sometimes for
with cobalt, for a passage of distant sky
;
it
also
mixing
makes
;;
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
38
excellent sea greens,
and
occasionally employed in
is
foliage.
Madder Brown.
A
rich
reddish in
and
very transparent
tendency,
its
gummy
drying very hard on the palette
that
brown,
vegetable
in
its
consistency,
—indeed,
hard,
so
should be kept in the tube, and only pressed
it
out as required.
It
suitable for
is
any
rich browns,
as those
amongst brambles or foreground herbage,
in the
crevices
occasionally
of
rocks, or
valuable
boughs of
warm
for
tones
trees
of
also
and
;
haze
in
distance, glazing, &c.
Vandyke Brown.
A
transparent brown, well suited to any position
where brown
is
make greenish
required.
grays,
and
With
is
indigo or cobalt,
it
will
frequently employed with
down its tone into transparent depth
purpose it is much better than sepia.
green to bring
for this
Sepia.
A
valuable animal brown, useful for cool grays,
obtained by mixture with cobalt or either of the blues
a ready worker, but not so transparent as
Vandyke
brown.
White.
This
latter,
may
be kept either in bottle or tube
;
if
in the
a short and thick one should be chosen, with
—
;
ON WATER COLOUR MATERIALS.
a large opening through
ammonia may be added
for giving a
to
which a
keep
it
in
body with any colour
it
sharp touches of high light.
mix with
are the best to
is,
It
is
or
useful
semi-opaque flatness to any wash, and
practice, that those colours
that
water
little
moist.
therefore highly valuable for distances
it
39
it
may
It
and by mixing
;
be employed for
be found by
will
which are most transparent
for touches of
raw sienna rather than
body colour
ochre, or burnt sienna
in preference to vermilion, the opaque colour having a
tendency to look chalky when mixed with white.
The
tubes,
colours should be those prepared
and a japanned
box
will be
in pans or
found essential
The one employed by the
for sketching.
arranged thus
tin
writer
is
:
O
03
>
<
But
in the arrangement of colours, as in the colours
themselves, there will always be individual preferences,
therefore each professor adopts that
which seems to
—
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
40
accord
either
The
practice.
is
with theory or
the
conveniences of
intention in the arrangement exhibited
to begin with the lighter colours, such as yellows,
on the right hand, passing through red and blue
darker colours on the
left,
and the greens
to the
are intro-
duced amongst the colours that are most frequently
employed in combination with them.
Brushes.
These
when
will
may
be of the best camel's hair at
be found more
strength and spring.
No.
For
first,
and,
the value of a good brush has been learnt, sable
first
efficient,
in consequence
The
recommended
No.
1.
washes.
sizes
No.
2.
For general work.
How TO
For
fine
of its
are
:
3.
touches and
finish.
Choose a Brush.
thoroughly in water, draw
it
freely over the
side of the vessel with a spring; if
it
comes readily
Rinse
it
to a point
readily to
it
may be
a good brush
a point, reject
it
brush has come through the
;
if it
does not return
immediately.
first
When
a
ordeal, play it with
ON WATER COLOUR MATERIALS.
41
the point on a piece of paper as though painting with
watching carefully to see
and return
surface
tool.
;
it,
the hairs keep well together,
freely to ap point
if this
The
if
be the case,
when removed from
it
the
will prove a serviceable
point should not be very long,
the colour will not flow freely from
it,
for
then
and the work
will suffer in consequence.
For comfort there
is
nothing like a good old brush,
therefore all brushes should be preserved
and nursed
into excellence.
wet, but
draw
and put
it
it
most carefully
Never put a brush away
through a damp sponge, or the mouth,
by with the point well formed, the
acquire a spring in the right direction
;
hairs thus
that
is
of the
utmost importance in working.
The
The sponge should be
Sponge.
of the above size,
and of the
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
42
form called cup sponge, of a fine texture, and thorouglily
To
freed from sand or grit.
in water, and then squeeze
should be held in the
much
home
at
left
prepare
it
for use, feoak it
it
as dry as possible.
hand, where
It
ought to be as
it
as the brush in the right.
It
is difficult
to exaggerate the value of the sponge in water colour
painting.
It acts
most
efficiently as a
means
for cleaning
the brush, which should never be put into the
when
the brush
is
too
The sponge
full.
only effectual tool for reducing a
that
is
in error.
In order
picture for alteration
it
mouth
to
remove extra colour
It serves also to
get rid of colour.
is
tint, or
to prepare
by the sponge,
the best and
removing one
any part of the
first
pass water over
with a large brush, then, having rinsed the sponge in
clear water,
and squeezed
it
as
dry as possible, commence
with gentle dabbings, turning the sponge as the colour
is
discharged, and rinsing it frequently in water to get rid
of the colour that has been
removed from the
picture.
If the dabbing should be found ineffectual, change the
movement
for
an oval one, which will allow the sponge
to press along the surface
—
this, if continued, will
recover
the white paper, even in the darkest portions of the
work.
The reason
for
the delicious efficacy of the
sponge in the dabbing process
texture
pile,
and nature.
It
is
be found in
its
the hairs of which enter the hollows of the paper,
and gently disengage the
up
may
covered with a short, fine
into the sponge,
ing surface.
By
colour,
which
and thus does not
soil
is
then drawn
the surround-
this really singular adaptation of the
sponge to the necessities of water colour painting
it is
;
ON WATER COLOUR MATERIALS.
possible to reduce the tone of a tree,
43
which has been
painted against a sky, without injuiy to the sky
Another use
for the
sponge
is
itself.
in cleaning the box,
and
even the surface of the colours themselves, in order to
remove the traces of old washes, dust, &c.
The Paper.
Whatman's " Extra stout not " is recommended as an
excellent medium surface (the word " not " is constantly
used in the trade, and means not hot pressed) but some
,
persons prefer a very rough paper, which certainly
possesses
trees
some advantages in sketching
and mountain
— especially
in
distances, as the touch exhibits
greater variety, and, as the colour remains
damp
a
longer time, a greater variety of tint can be given in
a single wash
;
but there are
in the foreground, especially
difficulties
where
attending its use
finish is required,
and
medium surface is generally preferred.
The most convenient form of the paper for sketching is
for this reason the
in a block, from which a sketch can be easily removed,
when another surface presents itself for the next effort.
The size recommended for general work is 4to Imperial
this
is
capable
direction
it
we
two excellent
will give
dimensions, and
direction
of
divisions,
in
one
two small pictures of average
by dividing
it
through
its
longest
obtain two elongated shapes, suited for
extended lake, or distant mountain studies.
—
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
44
Water-Bottle.
many
After
come
common
than a
we have
experiments in water-bottles
to the conclusion that there is
glass
and
phial
nothing better
A
cork.
bottle
holding 4 ounces will be found sufficient for average
providing
requirements,
may
supply
glass in p>reference to metal
is
known
always
when
necessary,
—
is
box
preferable,
replenished
for
when
a
recommending the
that the
amount
of supply
economy can therefore be practised
and the water
the rusting of the inside.
of the
be
it
The reason
offer.
is
Cups
never discoloured by
to
hang on the side
or, what is
be found very useful,
will
an arrangement of wells attached
to a strip of
tin thus
These serve
wards
for
for
mixing the larger washes, and
after-
economising the supply of water, as one can
The rim which
be kept for rinsing the brush.
projects
inwards, covering part of the opening, will be found
very useful, by preventing the spilling of the water.
Sketching Folio.
A very convenient sketching folio has been
by the
writer;
it
contains
all
that
is
designed
required for a
ox WATER COLOUR MATERIALS.
45
quarto imperial sketch, in the size of a music
All the materials are presented at one view.
folio.
Wells
for
water, spaces for Inclia-rubber, bottle of white, or extra
tubes,
and the brushes
are
under an
india-rubber
band.
The top
of the
so far as to
by means
box contains the block.
form a pleasant inclination
of a
row of small brass pins in the
the box against
which the block
lowered to any angle desired.
finished
It opens just
for painting,
the block
is
rests
When
it
and
sides of
may
the sketch
be
is
turned face inwards against a
ledge which keeps the surface from touching the back
of the box;
this is
a great convenience should any
portion of the surface be wet.
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
46
Blotting Paper, &c.
This
home and
It frequently saves the time that
field.
be
a great comfort, both at
is
lost in
and the
in the
would otherwise
waiting while the water washes are drying,
state of the surface after the blotting
been used
is
paper has
better suited to the reception of colour
than after partial evaporation.
when
the tone of a wash
colour
may
is felt
It
is
also
valuable
to be in error, as the
be removed, immediately by firm pressure
with the blotting paper.
A sketching
stool should
be considered a necessity,
and an umbrella, with joint and spike
ground
is
may
left to
be
certainly a great luxury
;
to drive into the
but these things
the taste or inclination of the student.
MANAGEMENT OF WASHES.
CHAPTER
47
IX.
MANAGEMENT OF WASHES.
A
FEW
washing
practical
will be
hints
on the
essentials
of
broad
found of great service to beginners
and, although a considerable part of the instruction
more suited
therefore,
to
be
home than
to open-air effort,
it
;
is
will not,
less acceptable.
Mixing,
Always mix the colours thoroughly, and continue to
work them with the brush, even after they seem to be
amalgamated with the water, and, if a wash has been
allowed to rest, stir it up again thoroughly before
using it. Take care that more colour is mixed than is
absolutely required, that there
ample supply.
may
be at
all
times an
The brush should never be exhausted.
Preparation of the Paper.
Carry a wash of clean water over the surface of
the paper, and then take up the extra moisture with
blotting paper.
This dn-ection
necessary, but practice will
make
may
it
be thought un-
evident that
it
is
—
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
48
wash
impossible to carry a
as
to the best effect
on a dry
These preparatory washes should be employed
surface.
painting
the
progresses,
delicacy are requisite
—
as
in
whenever
they should not be passed over the surface
previous colouring
and
softness
sky and distance
—but
till
all
thoroughly dry.
is
Inclination of Surface.
Never paint on a
level,
but allow a
sufficient incli-
nation to cause the extra colour to flow
after the brush, for
by
this
down
freely
means alone can a
tone be secured; the only caution required
is
clean
not to
have the inclination so steep as to cause the colour to
run of
its
own
accord.
Manner
wash may be,
hand upper portion
along the top, and bringing the
Whatever the shape
commence,
if possible, at
passing from this
of Laying-on.
or size of the
the
left
wash gradually down towards the right hand lower
corner.
Never put in a lower
one, as
the upper will flow into or over the lower,
and destroy
its flatness.
bit before
In very
an upper
free washes, as for
sky, there should always be a slight pool of colour
at
the lower edge of the wash, that
ought not to be driven on
is
is,
the
with the brush
colour
till
it
exhausted, for then the place where more colour
has been added will show.
MANAGEMENT OF WASHES.
49
GrRADUATING.
When
pale,
a surface
mix
be graduated from
lias to
full
to
comparatively small quantity of colour
a
equal in tone to the deeper portion, prepare the surface
with a water wash, apply the blotting paper, and then
may be
upAvards.
and add a brush-full
of water
turn the surface so that the fullest tint
Commence
to
at this part,
the colour in the palette every time the brush
requires replenishing, taking care to
and bring
of the tint,
tint
delicate
so
mix
it
thoroughly
This will gradually weaken the force
with the wash.
it off
that
it
to pure water at last,
—
or a
cannot injure the painting.
This process requires an amount of judgment that
can only be acquired by practice
experimental
efforts
should be
;
therefore
several
made on waste paper.
by adding
It is at all times possible to graduate a tint
more colour
But
full.
and
sure
delicacy
to the wash,
to work from pale to
by any means so delicate
and thus
this process is not
as
the former
therefore,
;
where greater
commence at
and graduate by adding
required, as in sky, always
is
the fullest portion of the tint,
water to the wash.
General System of Execution.
The
an object should be painted
lightest tint of
and carried
all
over
it
;
when
dry, the half tints should
be added, and on these, the shades,
are dry
;
when
the half tints
the deepest darks should be put in
small, decided touches.
first,
Thus the
effect is
last,
with
produced by
D
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
50
wash within wash
—the
first
being large and pale, and
The reason
the last comparatively small and dark.
for
somewhat complicated process
this
is,
that
is
it
practically impossible in water colour painting to
fit
the edges of the various tones together so neatly that
the joinings cannot be seen, and therefore the lighter
tones have to be carried under the darker ones in order
that
may
be
In advanced handling, the various tones
are
and
cleanness
secured.
delicacy
of
execution
occasionally painted next each other, passing gradually
from light to shade, the edges being joined while
wet,
and the deeper shades touched
and judgment,
considerable
dexterity
therefore, be
recommended
over
it
;
—that
is,
cannot,
Lights.
a light on the object
left
and
to beginners.
On Leaving
When
upon the half
they are dry; but this process requires
tints before
should be
in
is
clear
and sharp,
it
the colour should not be carried
but, if the edges of the light are soft
and
in-
wash may be taken over the light, which
can then be produced by the application of the brush
definite, the
before the colour
is
dry.
On Taking Out Lights with the Brush.
While a wash
may
is still
wet, a soft or graduated light
be taken out most
to enable
it
to
eff'ectively
by the brush, but
draw up the colour from the
surface of
MANAGEMENT OF WASHES.
the paper, the brush must
damp sponge with
51
be drawn through a
first
considerable pressure.
It
quired; directly
drawn up
is
the brush
is
it
is re-
touches the paper some of the colour
into the brush by capillary attraction.
moved about on the surface, a half light
immediately produced, which
by repeated
then
is
ready for application to the spot where a light
may be
If
is
increased in effect
The
applications of the brush.
lights so
produced are invaluable for clouds, reflections in water,
or,
indeed, for
any
During
are required.
softness
and gradation
this operation the
brush must be
where
effects
repeatedly passed through the sponge to remove the
drawn
colour that has been
produce a light will be
into
or
it,
its
power
On Taking Out Lights after the Surface
In practice
remove
means
all
for
it
will be
the lights
;
we
is
therefore,
require,
Dry.
is
required,
is
rubbed
off.
suitable for leaves, boughs, &c., in
is
to
and then give
a smart rub with a handkerchief or cloth
of the colour
some
One way
producing them afterwards.
means some
is
found impossible to leave or
wet the place where a light
it
to
lost.
;
by
this
This process
any portion
of
the picture where the colour has been painted thickly.
In the thinner washes
it is
surface with water, to take
advisable, after wetting the
up the extra moisture with
blotting paper,
and then rub with bread crumbs, or
with
of
a
allowing
piece
bread
held
by
the
but
crust,
the crumb only to touch the paper
d2
;
by
;
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
62
this
means a
light
produced proportionate to the
is
energy of the rubbing.
may
be
taken
out
Very small sparkling
a penknife, and
with
afterwards, if required;
this last process
for the spray of a waterfall, or the
The
foam
is
lights
tinted
suitable
of the sea.
and practised
knife
is
an excellent
hand, but
it
should not be used so as to tear or injm^e
tool in a careful
the surface of the paper.
On Taking Out a Light with the
An
first
excellent
method
cutting out
its
Sponge.
for taking out a light is
by
shape in thick tracing or note
paper, and then placing this as a shield over the place
where the light
is
required
;
the colour
may
removed by sponging through the opening
be taken, however, that the sponge
is
;
then be
care
must
only damp,
extra water having been thoroughly squeezed out of
for if this precaution is not
its
way under
or for
taken the water will find
the shield, to the detriment of the sur-
rounding tones.
figures
all
it
and small
This
lights,
process
is
such as the
recommended
sail of
for
a boat, &c.,
removing any small portion of the work that
requires correction.
On Eemoving Part
It is sometimes desirable to
wash
in order to graduate
it,
or a Tint.
remove a portion
of a
or to introduce a change
MANAGEMENT OF WASHES.
in the colour
;
for this purpose there is
cient as judicious
53
nothing so
effi-
dabbing with a damp sponge, as
recommended on page 42. A wash may be removed
altogether by the same process, but the sponge must
then be used energetically
paper
is
recovered.
till
the clean surface of the
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
54
CHAPTER
X.
PROGEESSIVE TREATMENT OF A SKETCH IN
WATER-COLOURS.
Commence
—
charcoal
the sketch with slight strokes of soft
this material is
of the facility with
recommended
which
may
it
in consequence
be dusted out, and
thus any change in the position or arrangement of the
may
various objects
eye
is
outline,
satisfied
effected.
When
the
dust off the looser portions of the charcoal,
and draw in each
avoiding,
if
frequently
it
be readily
with the general correctness of the
the tone of
clouds should
jects sketched
object carefully with
the
possible,
wears
the
use
the washes of
only be
of
surface,
HB
pencil,
india-rubber,
and
thus
and
as
alters
The forms
colour.
intimated,
an
of
distant ob-
with a delicate outline, otherwise the
show after the colour is put
on the contrary, will bear a
strokes of the pencil will
in
;
foreground objects,
vigorous and decided touch.
When
the outline
is
complete, study the general tone of the scene, and
notice the direction of the larger gradations.
Com-
mence by warming the paper with a graduated tone of
Venetian red, or ochre and lake, strong in the foreground and weak towards the upper portion of the sky,
PROGRESSIVE TREATMENT OF A SKETCH, ETC.
keeping
it
the blue.
very delicate under the deepest portion of
Wliile this
is
drying mix the various blues
or grays required for the sky or clouds, and,
graduated
over
it
warm wash
is
when the
quite dry, pass clean water
with the brush, taking up the extra moisture
with blotting
paper,
then
mass of either
clouds, as the
commence with sky or
may prevail. In a very
cloudy sky small touches of blue
last.
55
may
be
to the
left
Leave small portions of the warm wash
for the
highest lights in clouds, taking care to graduate and
soften
them
into the blue
by the
brush, as explained on page 50.
will flow into the
of a
action
A
damp
dexterous hand
sky and clouds, with their lights and
shades, in one wash, but
it
is
better for beginners to
divide this most difficult portion
stages, letting each
of the sketch into
dry before another
is
commenced,
and passing clean water over the surface between the
washes of colour, taking up the extra moisture with
blotting paper, before
more colom*
is
added.
Some may remark, but all this cannot be done in
the open air
To this we would reply, follow the
instructions as well as you can, and remember, with
regard to clouds, that very much has to be left to the
memory. The cloud originally sketched may be gone
!
long ago, but in
taken
its
shade
may
place,
all
probability one very like
it
has
from which either colour or light and
be studied with equal advantage.
Should there be any time to spare between the
drying of the various washes, the attention
given to any decided foreground object, and
its
may
be
general
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
56
sky or distance as soon
tints advanced, returning to the
as
it is
ready to receive additional work.
The
progress of the sketch must
now he
left to
the
ingenuity of the student, bearing in mind the leading
principle that finish should progress from the distance
towards the
Sky and
foreground.
distance
always be painted thoroughly behind
though the
were not there
trees
;
should
trees, just
as
and should the tones
full
that the highest lights of the trees would
suffer, still
paint over them, but remove the tone where
be so
it
It
crosses the lights of the tree
may
also
by means
of the brush.
be observed that for distant
better to paint the shades
the lights gently over
all,
first,
effects it is
carrying the tone of
and the reverse with the
foreground, where the shade should be reserved for the
last.
The one
of tone,
a softness and
process gives
and the
other, transparency
harmony
and energy of
effect.
The most
beginners
objects.
is
practical
to
advice that
commence with
can be given to
simple
foregroud
Paint them carefully, and as the power of
imitation increases,
and the hand acquires a mastery
over the brush, extend the effort to the more distant
details of the landscape.
Be
careful to paint distance
and gray than it appears, and on the
contrary, the foreground more rich and warm, the
error then, if any, will be on the safe side, and the eye
more
delicate
will gradually acquire the
power of estimating the
tones more truthfully.
With regard
to distance, it is advisable to
aim
at
PROGRESSIVE TREATMENT OF A SKETCH, ETC.
securing the general tone
rather than
also
attempt
to
the imitation of minute changes of colour
57
this will
;
tend to the formation of a free and effective
style.
A
frequent
error of beginners,
treatment of foreground objects,
in
especially
the
to put in the first
is
weak and pale. In this case, the shades tell
hard and spotty when placed upon them. The practints too
tice of
the master, on the contrary,
to paint the first
is
tints rich and full, keeping the shades delicate and in
harmony with the lights, thus producing a broad and
quiet effect.
It will frequently
happen that the whole of a subject
cannot be completed at one sitting
be a trouble
provided
there
returning to the place on
least let the
sitting,
Then
is
;
this
need never
an opportunity of
another occasion
;
but at
sky and distance be completed at the
reserving
choose a day
the foreground for a second
when
the effect
same hour and continue the
is similar,
sketch.
six weeks, but,
may
visit.
go at the
For large
or very finished work, this process
through a month or
first
pictures,
be repeated
beyond
that, it is
unadvisable to continue the study of any scene, owing
to the changes
which occur both in light and shade
from the altered altitude of the sun, and the variations
which are produced by the progress of the
of colour
seasons.
It
is
the habit of some masters to paint on
the same scene hour after hour, continuing the effort
through the greater part of the day.
study
may
This method of
prove fairly successful on cloudy days, or
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
58
for
gloomy
scenes,
but cannot be recommended for any
view where direct sunlight
is
In the
employed.
case the experience of the writer
would
by
to three hours at the utmost, for
latter
limit the effect
this
time
the
all
shadows have so considerably changed in position that
the truth of the effect would suffer
by
their continued
imitation.
There
one point in connection with the imitation
is
and tones of nature that should be
of the tints
recognized
—
viz.,
that imitation
sidered as true relatively
be absolutely true by
sidered in
its
;
that
itself, it
is,
may
only to be con-
is
no wash of colour can
is
only true
relations to the tints
Thus, one master
when
con-
which surround
prefer a brilliant,
a low scale of imitation, and either
may
be considered
many
other things in connection with sketching, must be
to the taste or
We
have
judgment
it.
and another
This pitch of the tone, like
as true relatively.
clearly
left
of the artist.
endeavoured
thus
far
hints on water-colour practice, but
to
it
give a
few
must not be
supposed that these, or any directions however careful
and complete, can supersede the
master.
Seeing
description,
is
and the
worth
direct lessons of a
more than volumes
secrets or dexterities of
of
handling
can only be communicated by personal instructions.
Still,
hints
must be useful when a master's
cannot be secured, and
we
assistance
trust the foregoing pages
have not been written in vain.
ON UNITY OF EFFECT.
CHAPTER
59
XI.
ON UNITY OF EFFECT.
After
all
drawing,
of light
that has been said on behalf of exactness in
skill in
composition, or breadth and gradation
and shade
— and after
every instruction in the
theory of colour, or manipulation of washes, there
remains the all-important subject of unity of
By
unity of
effect,
the
first,
effect.
and frequently the most
lasting impression of the painting
all
still
is
produced
by this,
;
the good qualities of the various portions of the art
are concentrated,
should be
made
and
Without unity
detailed
to this, every part of the picture
subservient.
of
effect
the
most accurate and
drawing will be but a useless expenditure of
—the powers of light and shade be employed
in vain, — and even the most subtle refinements of colour
time
will serve
will
but to distract the attention, without
ing the mind, and the work as a whole will
satisfy-
fail to
pro-
duce a lasting impression.
If then this quality be of such high value,
necessary that
we should understand
of the expression, imity of effect.
By
the
it
it
is
meaning
we mean
the general sentiment of the picture, or that impression
which the work as a whole produces on the mind
impression
may
:
this
be grave or gay, desolate or cheerful,
exciting or soothing
;
but whatever
it is, it
should bo
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
60
brought home to the
made
to produce
In order
the spectator, and
sensibilities of
an undivided
effect.
to illustrate the subject, let us
suppose
the principle object in the scene to be an old castle,
surrounded by wild or desolate scenery; in this case
cloud and shade will accord better than blue sky and
glowing colour,
sunlight be employed,
or, if
it
should
be subdued as in the deepening glow of a setting sun.
On
the contrary,
with
its
country
settle,
life,
if
the picture consists of a cottage
draw-well,
and
other accessories of
then the blooming rose, the bright blue
harmony with the scene,
group of happy children complete
sky, or golden hour are all in
and the busy wife or
the picture.
Again,
if
the subject be composed of
towering mountain heights, with foreground of fen
and reedy
pool, the
gloom
of overhanging cloud, or
break in a stormy sky will be in sympathy with such a
and the
scene,
solitary heron or distant herd of deer
will complete the subject,
and deepen the impression of
the landscape upon the mind.
In the
illustrations
mountain and
scene of
different effects.
day, with
when
on the opposite page, the same
its
The one
lake
as it
is
represented
under
might appear on a
blue sky and bright colouring
;
fine
the other
cloud and mist are present, crowning the heights,
and deepening
gloom.
The
every tone by their
latter
accompanying
treatment will be admitted by most
persons to be more in keeping with the character of
the scene,
amount
of
and thus be productive of the
unity of effect. Every scene has
greatest
its
sym-
to face pcige 60
;
ON UNITY OF EFFECT.
61
and should be represented together with
pathies,
appropriate time,
figure
season, or
secret of success is to discover
;
its
and one great
what these may
be,
by
analyzing the sensations of pleasure which rise unbidden
in the heart,
remembering that whatever has moved
the artist will be most likely to exercise a similar
who examine
influence on those
if
his
work
therefore
;
the scene be great or grand, let every accompani-
ment be great and grand
also
;
or, if
solemn and sombre,'
avoid every introduction of the pretty or gay
if
;
whilst
the view be gentle or sweet, let gentleness and
sweetness prevail throughout.
Let us consider
for a
moment
the consequence of a
We
departure from this great principle.
picture
by a great name
remember a
in water-colour art, in which a
lovely scene of river, rock,
and
tree,
with
paniment of distance,
and
dale,
was represented
with
all
the
day
hill,
its
accom-
the power of a finished master of the brush
and
hour
were
alike
well
entire scene being bathed in the golden
chosen,
the
glow of an
was
happy landscape, steeped
But figures were introin sunshine and repose.
a group of cows crossing a ford, baited and
duced
bothered by a barking cur that dashed after them
into the water, whilst a man on the bank gesticulated
This was a discordant note
wildly with his arms
indeed, and one by which the unity of the efl'ect was
afternoon sun.
complete —
So
far the unity of the subject
all told of quiet,
:
!
completely destroyed.
out
of place, but
The cows themselves were not
they should have been
standing
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
62
dreamily in the pools, or under the friendly shade of
some overhanging
larger than
tree,
and tormented with nothing
flies.
Again, the unity of a picture
may
be injured by the
introduction of figures either too attractive in themselves
or out of sympathy with the scene, as a
fashionably dressed
group of
children in a country lane, or a
bright shawl amid the solemnities of a mountain pass.
But here we
good
taste
feel that
such things must be
and judgment
of the student.
left to
We
the
have at
all events directed attention to
the subject, and also,
trust, enforced the necessity of
giving a united
we
effect to
every important work.
But some may say how can these efi'ects be secured ?
The day may be unfavourable, a bright sky may be
present when cloud and gloom are wanted, or the
sun may be absent when brilliancy is especially
To this we would answer, the best eff'ects
desired.
must be watched
advisable
fine,
to
and waited
and others
for dull weather,
door studies ready for rainy days
something to be done
But
this
fixed for
for,
therefore
it
have several subjects in hand, some
method
for
and even
;
which the day
have in-
to
thus there
is
for
is
always
is aj)propriate.
of study requires the locality to be
some weeks, and cannot be followed when
passing rapidly from one place to another
case the effects
must be taken
as they occur,
;
in
this
and thus
cannot be expected to give so high a quality to the
work, as in most instances would result from following
the plan recommended.
;
63
CONCLUSION.
CHAPTER XII.
CONCLUSION.
We cannot conclude these hints on landscape
without a parting word to those who
success in this branch of the profession the
The
first
sketching,
may desire to make
duty of
important consideration in such a case
life.
is
to
ascertain the natural taste, or, in other words, to find
we
out that of which
guide to this
are most
to observe the
is
fond.
An
works of
excellent
others,,
and
take careful note of those which give the greatest
amount of pleasure and satisfaction. Consider also
what eff'ects in nature, or what combination of objects,
move the heart most efiectually, and when they have
been discovered,
let
in this direction
;
every
for
efi'ort
be assured
be directed to success
we can never
paint
thoroughly well that of which we are not thoroughly
An
and deep love for the thing done
is the only sure basis on which to build the effort of an
Therefore let no one turn aside from his
artist's life.
fond.
earnest
natural bias, or select any other walk or style because
there
may seem
especially,
to be a better chance of success in
it
do not exchange a style of execution which
has been produced by the gradual development of mind
and heart
for
one which
may
be considered to
sell
!
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
64
it
will repay,
not
art be its own re"5vard, and eventually
and that with no stinting hand. We do
Let the
better.
mean by
young
this that a
should neglect
artist
or despise the advice of friends
this
:
would be
folly
indeed, but that he should be thoroughly convinced
that the advice
is
good, and worthy to be followed,,
before he allows his course in
to be influenced
life
by
it.
In the present day there
pendence of thought in
matters, but
it
is
a great amount of inde-
art, as
well as in all other
should be remembered that
to be independent without merit,
and
it is
possible
original at the
expense of truth.
We
will suppose that
chosen,
the
the walk in art
and that there are no extravagant
way,
simplicity
siren-like,
and
to
nature
;
induce
discover
the
of
secrets
theories in
from
departure
humbly to the
work, and seek not only
go
then
great Mistress, set earnestly to
to
a
has been
nature's
charms,
but
look within for the reason of their influence on the
mind.
Young hands
are too eager for the strokes
of the pencil or the washes of the brush,
and are in
danger of neglecting the more important matters of
and
thought
produced
is
reflection,
but
be
assured the
not of more importance
thing
than
the fact
sketch or study be carefully
selected,
observed
Let
each
seeking for that position, or
which
scene.
will
best
Eemember
efi'ect
of light
develop
the
that the
attention
and shade,
character
of
the
need not be
65
CO^XLUSION.
devoted
trary,
complete views, but
to
it
that,
frequently advisable to
is
concentrate the
power upon a small portion of a view.
prepared to study whatever presents
of
its
kind
—
at
one time
it
may
on the conTherefore be
itself as excellent
be a cloud, at another
a passage of sky or an interesting line of distance, or
may
still
all
it
be but a fragment of rock or the bough of a tree
whatever
is felt
to
be worthy the
effort
the attention and care that can be given
means the
folio will
much
not of
With regard
this
all
future work.
to style of execution, or finish, these
and must be
left to
individual
receipt can be given for the language in
which a thought should be expressed, but
least
by
be stored with choice materials,
are secondary matters,
No
:
value in themselves, but calculated to
enhance the value of
feeling.
;
should have
it
should at
be intelligible and capable of being comprehended
even by an uneducated person.
So in painting, the
touch should be clearly expressive of the intention, and
the scale of finish adapted to the character of the work.
Grrand effects will not bear so minute a finish as
scenes
;
and indeed,
as regards finish generally,
be observed that time and
on the elaboration of
treated
in
a
eff'ort
may
are frequently expended
details that
suggestive
home
it
had
manner, and
far better be
to
left
the
imagination of the spectator to complete.
In connection with the
style of execution,
we would
caution the student against the great mistake of con-
demning the work
is
not
admired.
of another, simply because the style
We
must
be
content
to
E
listen
;
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
66
occasionally to the praise of a
Each master
have no sympathy.
circle of admirers
nature,
his
whereas,
;
if his
circle
of
his taste
if
heart
pleasure from
of receiving
work with which we
is
and capable
large
many
friends
is
have his own
will
will
varied phases
be
large
of
also
manner
restricted, or the
of
his execution eccentric, so in proportion will the circle
be narrowed.
It
may
be remarked, " But surely some things must
be right, and others must be wrong.
Cannot
are
is
be
it
no rule ?
Is there
known which are good pictures and which
this we reply, yes, assuredly; weak work
bad ?" To
rejected
by
all
whose judgment
drawing shares the same
however
eccentric,
ever
will
matured
is
bad
;
but executive power,
fate,
find
some
admirers.
Therefore the student need not be surprised to find
a work eulogised which to
the
extreme; but
praised, not
him may be
painful in
he should remember
for that
which he
that
it
is
but for the
dislikes,
possession of good qualities with which he
not yet
is
acquainted, and which therefore possess no attraction
for him.
What
done
?
then in such a troubled sea of opinion
Again we return
to our former advice
:
is
to
be
seek for
that which accords with your individual feeling, follow
it
earnestly, conscientiously, devotedly
Nature, and you will
influence in art,
at
least
—keep
exert
a
and never be without a
close to
wholesome
fair
amount
of success.
There
is
one point yet untouched, and
it is
a deeply
67
CONCLUSION.
important one.
If a
and pure
liigli
mind and
take care of the
style is desired,
heart, as well as of the
eye and hand; a love for nature accompanied with
that intense delight which
indeed a precious
gift,
an
Giver of
gratitude to the
artist
and should
only knows
good.
all
Its
should be guarded with the most watchful
is
forth daily
call
possession
care,
and
all
that could tend to destroy refinement and sensibility
Be
should be cautiously avoided.
the general health
by avoiding unnecessary exposure
to
damp, and study the comfort and well-being of
cold or
the body, for
if
that be neglected
it
will surely exact a
The mind cannot work healthily
a frame debilitated either by over-exertion or the
heavy
in
careful to preserve
retribution.
absence
of
usual
the
These observations
supplies.
proceed from the dearly bought experience of one
has loved the art
^'
not wisely, but too well," and
who
who
speaks from the sad remembrance of sketching trips
which resulted rather in
of health
loss
than gain
in art.
"We must
not omit
to
shade,
its
cloud and storm,
ments, and
drawback,
would be
it
life, its
its
is
still
chequered
sunshine and
frequent disappoint-
many ups and downs;
difficult to
the
recognise
character of a landscape artist's
but, with every
a most delightful career, and
conceive one
more
full of
may
it
gentle
A
and happy thoughts.
Of the
student he ever
acquiring knowledge daily, and
lives,
artist it
be said
thus he carries into old age the freshness of youth.
spring of nature's loveliness
is
:
The
ever flowing, and from
e2
SKETCHING FROM NATURE.
68
this
pure and inexhaustible stream he daily receives
those invigorating supplies which sustain
a
life
him through
of art.
That
this
may
read these pages
be the happy experience of
is
many who
the earnest hope of the
AUTHOE.
HKM)BHSON. RAIT, AND FKNTON. PKINTEKS. JIARYLKJJONE LANK UXFOUU
ST.
"PRIZE MEDAL AWARDED."
International
Exhibition.
Class 2.
1862.
ROWNEY &
MESSRS. GEORGE
Have the
CO.
pleasure to announce that by their
SYSTEM
OF
GRINDING COLOURS BY MACHINERY,
they are enabled to supply Artists' colours in oil, water, or powder, perfectly
fine, at the same prices as hitherto charged for colours less finely ground.
Messrs. G. R. & Co. feel assured the OIL COLOURS ground by their improved process will be found to be finer brighter less oily, and to dry quicker
than any others at present manufactured and that their
COLOURS,
prepared by the same process, will prove to be finer^ brighter^ and io float more
^
^
WATER
;
evenly without granulation than
They
any other colours hitherto produced.
therefore solicit a trial in full confidence of giving satisfaction.
Paris
Universal
Exhibition.
TWO
1867.
SILVER MEDALS.
CLASS
6.
"For Chromo Lithographs.
CLASS
7.
"Colours for Painting."
Retail IDepartments
52,
RATHBOITE PLACE, and
29,
:
OXFORD STREET, W.
GEORGE ROWNEY &
2
Co.,
GEORGE ROWNEY &
CO.'S
WATER COLOURS,
GROUND BY MACHINERY.
Whole
LIST OF
Cakes,
Moist
Pans, or
Tubes.
WATER COLOURS.
Each
Middle Chrome
Half
Cakes
or Half
Pans.
Each
s.
d.
5
2
6
21
10
6
s.
d.
Blue Black
T^ln« Vat/I itAi*
Brown Ochre
Brown Pink
Green
Orange Chrome
Orange Orpmient
Payne s Grey
Olive
Burnt Sienna
X>UlIib UXIlUcl
Permanent
^A/^hite
Prussian Blue
Prussian Green
CilllClcLiU VTlCCXl
VV lliuO
ictixo Whit.A
fFlnlrA
XvdvV
Gamboge
Raw Umber
Red Lead
Hooker's Green, 1
Hooker's Green, 2
Indian Red
Indigo
Italian Ochre
Italian Pink
ivory Black
King's Yellow
Lamp Black
Lemon Chrome
OltJllLlUj
Roman Ochre
Sap Green
Terra Vert
Vandyke Brown
Venetian Red
Verdigris
Vermilion
Yellow Lake
Yellow Ochre
Black Lead
Mauve
Brown Madder
Mars Yellow
Orange Vermilion
Purple Lake
Chinese Orange
Ccenileum
Crimson Lake
Indian Lake
XOCllclIl
Scarlet Vermilion
Scarlet Lake
Sepia
XciXUYV
Roman
Italian Ultra
Warm
Magenta
Sepia
Sepia
French Ultramarine
Azure Blue
Lemon Yellow
Cobalt
Violet
Veronese Green
Carmine
Aureolin
Green Oxide
Burnt Carmine
Carmine
Intense Blue
\
2
of
Chromium
Cadmium, Pale
Cadmium, Yellow
Cadmium, Deep
Cadmium, Orange
Dahlia Carmine
Madder Lake
Mars Orange
Pink Madder
3
Pure Scarlet
Rose Madder
Gallstone
Deep Rose
Ext. Madder
mine
Purple Madder
Car-
Smalt
Ultra
1
Ash
j
.
RATHBONE PLACE,
52,
and
29,
OXFORD STREET.
GEORGE ROWNEY &
3
CO.'S
JAPANNED TIN SKETCHING BOXES,
FILLED WITH MOIST COLOURS.
£
Sepia.
2- Cake
Box
.
.
.
.
Sepia and Chinese White.
3- CakeBox
Raw Sienna, Indigo, and Sepia.
4- CakeBox
Raw
s.
d.
049
.059
.070
083
1- CakeBox
Sienna, Sepia, Indigo, and Cliinese White.
LANDSCAPE.
8-Cake Box
.
.
10
9
19
o
4
o
Gamboge, Yellow Ochre, Light Red, Crimson Lake,
Vandyke Brown, and Indigo.
LANDSCAPE.
10-Cake Box
Gamboge, Roman Ochre,
Lemon
Yellow, (J) Chinese
Orange, (J) Indian Red, (J) Vermilion, Brown Pink, Sepia,
Cceruleum, French Ultramarine, Indigo, and Veronese
Green.
(^)
LANDSCAPE.
12-Cak0Box
l
Gamboge, Raw Sienna, (J) Lemon Yellow, (|) Pale
Cadmium, (J) Deep Cadmium, (J) Mars Orange, (J) Indian
Red, (J) Vermilion, Crimson Lake, Madder Brown, Sepia,
Lamp Black, Cobalt, Indigo, and Olive Green
A
GEORGE ROWNEY &
4
Co.,
LANDSCAPE AND FIGURE.
£
s.
d.
isa
12-CakeBox
Yellow Ochre, (J) Lemon Yellow, (A) Deep Cadmium,
Mars Yellow, Light Red, (J) Scarlet Vermilion, (^) Rose
Madder, (J) Carmine, (J) Purple Lake, Vandyke Brown,
Madder Brown, Coeruleum, French Ultramarine, (J) Indigo,
Emerald Green, and Veronese Green.
(J)
LANDSCAPE AND FIGURE.
16-Cake Box
Raw Sienna, Indian Yellow, (|-) Lemon Yellow, (J)
Italian Pink, (J) Cadmium Yellow, (|) Cadmium Orange,
Brown Ochre, Burnt Sienna, Scarlet Vermilion, Madder
Lake, Indian Lake, Raw Umber, Vandyke Brown, Cobalt,
French Ultramarine, Indigo, (J) Ultramarine Ash,
Emerald Green, and Green Oxide of Chromium.
1
15
i
15
(i)
LANDSCAPE AND FIGURE.
18-Cake Box
Gamboge, Yellow Ochre, Roman Ochre,
o
(J) Lemon
Cadmium
(J)
Yellow, (1) Italian Pink, Indian Yellow,
Yellow, (J) Cadmium Orange, Brown Oclire, Light Red,
(^) Indian Red, (J) Scarlet Vermilion, Rose Madder, (J)
Indian Lake, (J) Lamp Black, Raw Umber, Sepia, Cobalt,
French Dltramarine, Indigo, (J) Emerald Green, (i) Olive
Green and Veronese Green.
LANDSCAPE, FIGURE,
&c.,
20-CakeBox
2
16-
2
7
Gamboge, Yellow Ochre, Roman
Ochre, (i) Lemon
Yellow, (J) Italian Pink, Indian Yellow, (J) Cadmium
Yellow, {^) Cadmium Orange, Light Red, (i) Indian
Red, (1) Vermilion, (J) Scarlet Vermilion, (i) Carmine,
Rose Madder, Madder Brown, Brown Ochre Vandyke
Brown, Sepia, Cobalt, French Ultramarine, Indigo, (J)
Olive Green, (J)
(J)
Ultramarine Ash, and Veronese Green.
Emerald Green,
LANDSCAPE, FIGURE,
Coeruleum, (J)
&c.,
22-CakeBox
Gamboge, Yellow Ochre, Raw Sienna, (J) Lemon Yellow,
Italian Pink, Indian Yellow, (J) Cadniium Yellow, (i)
(J)
Cadmium Orange, Light Red, Q) Indian Red, (^) Vermilion, (}) Orange Vermilion, (J) Carmine Rose Madder,
Madder Brown, Brown Ochre, Burnt Umber, Sepia, Cobalt,
French Ultramarine, Indigo, (|) Emerald Green, (J)
,
Lamp
Black, (J) Coeruleum, (J) Ultramarine Ash, (J)
Smalt, (J) Purple Madder, Olive Green, and Veronese
Green.
9
52,
RATHBONE PLACE,
and
WATER COLOUR
16
E.
CAKES AND
29,
OXFORD STREET.
5
PAINTER'S BOX,
10
HALF CAKES.
DUNCAN'S ARRANGEMENT
WHOLE
(Landscape).
PANS.
Gamboge, Indian Yellow, Yellow Ochre, Roman Ochre, Raw Sienna,
Burnt Sienna, Venetian Red, Chinese Orange, Madder Brown, Vandyke
Brown, Cceruleum, Cobalt, Prussian Blue, Indigo, Lamp Black, and Sepia.
HALF PANS.
Cadmium
Yellow, Cadmium Deep, Scarlet Vermilion, Carmine,
Rose Madder, Purple Lake, Extract of Madder Carmine, Violet
Carmine, Ultramarine Agh, and Veronese Green.
Price per box, £2i 5s. 6d.
F.
TAYLOR'S ARRANGEMENT
WHOLE
(Figure, Animals,
&
Landscape).
PANS.
Gamboge, Lemon Yellow, Indian Yellow, Raw Sienna, Brown Pink,
Veronese Green, Indigo, French Ultramarine, Cobalt, Cceruleum,
Chinese Orange, Burnt Sienna, Indian Red, Scarlet Vermilion, Madder
Brown, and Sepia.
HALF PANS.
Cadmium Yellow, Cadmium Deep, Yellow Ochre, Olive Green,
Vandyke Brown, Purple Madder, Purple Lake, Rose Madder, and
Ultramarine Ash.
Price per Box, £2 6s. 6d.
GEORGE ROWNEr &
6
Co.,
JAPANNED TIN SKETCH BOXES,
FILLED WITH HALF-PANS OF MOIST COLOURS.
£
3-Half-Cake Box
Gamboge, Light Red, and
.
.056
s.
d..
Cobalt.
8-Half-Cake Box
Gamboge, Yellow Ochre, Light Red, Rose Madder,
Vandyke Brown, Cobalt, Indigo, and Veronese Green.
o lo
3
12-Half-Cake Box
Gamboge, Roman Ochre,
o 13
9
Lemon
Yellow, Chinese
Orange, Indian Red, Vermilion, Brown Pink, Sepia, Coeruleum, French Ultramarine, Indigo, and Veronese Green.
14-Half-Cake Box
Gamboge, Raw Sienna, Lemon Yellow, Cadmium Yel-
16
9^
10
3
i
o
Mars Orange, Indian Red, Vermilion, Crimson Lake,
Madder Brown, Sepia, Lamp Black, Cobalt, Indigo, and
low,
Olive Green.
16-Half-Cake Box
Yellow Ochre, Lemon Yellow, Cadmium Deep, Mars
Yellow, Light Red, Scarlet Vermilion, Rose Madder,
Carmine, Purple Lake, Vandyke Brown, Madder Brown,
Coeruleum, French Ultramarine, Indigo, Emerald Green,
and Veronese Green.
18-Half-Cake Box
Gamboge, Yellow Ochre, Lemon Yellow, Cadmium
i
Pale,
Cadmium
Deep, Chinese Orange, Light Red, Vermilion,
Lake, Rose Madder, Sepia,
Brown Pink, Cobalt, Indigo, Coeruleum, Payne's Grey,
and Terra Vert.
Orange Vermilion, Crimson
20-Half-Cake Box
Gamboge, Yellow Ochre, Lemon Yellow, Cadmium Pale,
Cadmium Deep, Chinese Orange, Light Red, Vermilion,
Orange Vermilion, Crimson Lake, Rose Madder, Violet
Carmine, Sepia, Brown Pink, Payne's Grey, Cobalt, Indigo,
Coeruleum, Emerald Green, and Veronese Green.
14
62,
RATHBONE PLACE,
and
29,
OXFORD STREET.
JAPANNED TIN BOXES OF MOIST WATER COLOURS.
IN COMPRESSIBLE TUBES,
WITH FOLDING PALETTE.
£
12-]Vroist
Tube Box
d,
1
Gamboge, Roman Ochre, Lemon Yellow, Chinese White,
Indian Red, Vermilion, Brown Pink, Sepia, Cceruleum,
French Ultramarine, Indigo, and Veronese Green.
15-Moist Tube Box
l 14
Gamboge, Raw Sienna, Lemon Yellow, Cadmium Yellow, Mars Orange, Indian Red, Vermilion, Crimson Lake,
Madder Brown, Sepia, Lamp Black, Cobalt, Indigo, Olive
Green, and Chinese White.
20-Moist Tube Box
Gamboge. Yellow Ochre, Lemon Yellow, Cadmium
2
5
Pale,
Cadmium Deep, Chinese Orange, Chinese White, Light
Red, Vermilion, Orange Vermilion, Crimson Lake, Rose
Madder, Violet Carmine, Sepia, Brown Pink, Cobalt,
Indigo, Cceruleum, Emerald Green, and Veronese Green.
24:-Moist
Tube Box
lO
Gamboge, Yellow Ochre, Roman Ochre, Lemon Yellow,
Indian Yellow, Cadmium Orange, Light Red, Indian Red,
Vermilion, Scarlet Vermilion, Carmine, Rose Madder,
Madder Brown, Brown Ochre, Vandyke Brown, Sepia,
Cobalt, French Ultramarine, Indigo, Emerald Green, Olive
Green, Cceruleum, Veronese Green, and Chinese White.
30-Moist Tube Box
Gamboge, Yellow Ochre, Naples Yellow, Roman Ochre,
Yellow, Indian Yellow, Cadmium Orange, Italian
Pink, Light Red, Indian Red, Vermilion, Scarlet Vermilion, Carmine, Rose Madder, Madder Brown, Brown
Ochre, Vandyke Brown, Warm Sepia, Brown Pink, Cobalt,
French Ultramarine, Indigo, Neutral Tint, Ivory Black,
Emerald Green, Veronese Green, Olive Green, Chinese
White, Cceruleum, and Ultramarine Ash.
Lemon
3
7
8
GEORGE ROWNEr &
8
Co.,
MINIATURE SIZE JAPANNED SKETCH BOXES.
FILLED WITH QUARTER-CAKES OF MOIST COLOURS.
This Illustration shows the Box, with Twelve Colours, two-thirds
4-Quarter-Cake Box
Gamboge, Light Red,
*
Sepia,
.
•
4
o
.
6
o
and Cobalt.
.
8-Quarter-Cake Box
Gamboge, Yellow Ochre, Light Red, Rose Madder,
Vandyke Brown, Cobalt, Indigo, and Veronese Green.
.
its size.
.
.
.
....
,..83
12-Quarter-Cake Box
Gamboge, Roman Ochre, Lemon Yellow, Chinese Orange,
Indian Red, Vermilion, Brown Pink, Sepia, Cceruleum,
French Ultramarine, Indigo, and Veronese Green.
16-Quarter-Cake Box
12
o
5
9
6
Yellow Ochre, Lemon Y^'ellow, Cadmium Deep, Mars
Yellow, Light Red, Scarlet Vermilion, Rose Madder, Carmine, Pm-ple Lake, V^andyke Brown, Madder Brown,
Cceruleum, French Ultramarine, Indigo, Emerald Green,
and Veronese Green.
PALETTE BOXES.
For holding a small supply of Colour
wells to be filled from the tubes
Ditto, ditto, with double row of wells
for a
few days' use
;
the
8
KATHBONE PLACE,
52,
and
29,
OXFOED STREET.
9
SOLID SKETCH BLOCKS & TABLETS.
These Books consist of a number of sheets of paper, compressed so
as to form a solid block, each sheet of which is to be separated by
inserting a knife underneath the uppermost sheet, and passing it round
the edge.
SOLID SKETCH BLOCKS
AND TABLETS,
MADE OF Whatman's thick papers.
32 Surfaces.
Size.
Imperial
32mo
Royal 16mo
Imperial 16mo
5 inches by 3 J
Royal 8vo
Imperial 8vo
9
„
6mo
Royal 4to
Imperial 4to
,,
3mo
Half Royal
„
Imperial
.
10
14
llj
14
20
18
20
Solid
Blocks.
Solid
Tablets.
Each.
Each.
s.
d.
s.
d.
1
1
3
8
2
3
6
2
3
3
6
3
4
5
9
3
4
4
„
10
„
»
Hi
14
7
9
10
14
9
9
9
6
9
3
3
7
7
10
15
16
20
A 3
6
6
6
6
3
8
GEOKGE ROWNEY &
10
SOLID SKETCH BLOCKS
Co.,
AND TABLETS,
MADE OF Whatman's extra thick
32 Surfaces.
papers.
Solid
Size.
JdIocks.
Solid
Tablets.
Each.
s.
inches by 5
9
„
6
10
7
„
Imperial 16nio
Double Elephant 16mo
Imperial 8vo
6mo
14
12
14
20
18
Double Elephant 8vo
Imperial 4to
3mo
„
.
Double Elephant 4to
Half Imperial
7
9
„
„
„
10
„
„
20
9J
12
14
„
SOLID SKETCH BLOCKS
4
6
5
7
8
3
16
19
Imperial „
Royal 8vo
Imperial,,
„
.
....
6mo
.
„
...
Imperial
9
9
Each.
d.
3
5^
1
6
^2
7
3
7
2
2
3
14
G
Each.
1
Imperial,,
18
22
25
Solid
Tablets.
H
1^
9
9
3
PAPERS.
1
Royal 4to
3mo
„
Half Royal
6
9
5 inches by 3i
7
9
10
14
3
6
6
9
11
13
Solid
Blocks.
s.
12mo
Eoyal 16mo
d.
4
AND TABLETS,
Size.
Imperial
3
10
13
MADE OF THICK MACHINE MADE TINTED CRAYON
32 Surfaces.
Each,
5.
d.
3
7
.
„
18
„
„
d.
2
2
2
3
3
4
6
6
3
10
3
4
6
6
9
9
6
9
6
3
3
9
3
12
lii
14
7
7
9
20
20
s.
7
13
15
9
9
6
3
SKETCHING PORTFOLIOS,
WITH JAPANNED TIN FRAME FOR SECURING THE PAPER IN USE, AND WITH
POCKET TO CONTAIN THE SKETCHES AND A SUPPLY OF PAPER.
Size.
Each.
s.
Imperial 8vo
Half Royal
Double Elephant 4to
...
11 inches by 7
12
15
11
.,
12
19
„
18
„
12i
22
15
„
d.
5
6
7
11
12
15
G
52,
RATHBONE PLACE,
and
29,
OXFORD STREET.
11
SKETCH BOOKS.
MADE OF Whatman's hand-made drawing tapeks.
Half-bound, Cloth Sides, Roan Backs, Gilt. Yvrty Leaves.
To fasten with Elastic Band,
Each.
Size.
£
Imperial 32 mo
16mo
Demy
8vo
Medium 8vo
Royal
„
....
...
....
....
.
Imperial
Demy 4to
Medium 4to
Royal
Super-royal 4to
Imperial 4to
.
The above
.
are
.
made
5 Inches bv 3A5
7
„
7
„
8
„
41
?
9
.10
H
7'
„
13
„
7
8
9
9
14i
.,
10
„
lU
s.
d.
1
6
2
3
1
9
2
2
3
3
9
9
3
3
4
9
6
5
6
G
of "Hot-pressed " paper.
POCKET SKETCH BOOKS.
MADE OF HOLLINGWORTH's FINE DRAWING
PAPERS.
Quarter-bound, with *' Sketches" in gold mediaaval characters on the
Thirty-six Leaves
cover, Cloth Sides, Roan Backs and Elastic Band.
Each.
Size.
inches by 4J
9
5J
s.
d.
1
1
6
GEORGE EOWNEY &
12
Co.,
BLACK LEAD PENCILS,
PRIZE MEDAL
AWARDED INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION,
1862.
GEORGE ROWNEY & CO.'S
IMPROVED DRAWING PENCILS.
Neatly got up in Polished Cedar, in order to prevent the lead dust
adhering to the Pencil, and consequently soiling the fingers.
Hard for Sketching
HB Hard and Black
Harder for Outlines
B Black for Shading
Very Hard for Architects
BB Softer and very Black
Extra Hard for Engineers
F Firm for Ordinary Drawing
H
HH
HHH
HHHH
2s.
per dozen.
EXTRA LETTERS, MOST CARBPUIiLY PREPARED.
EHB
D£HB
FF
Extra Hard and Black
\
f
Thick Lead
,
Very Firm and Double Thick Lead
^
Softer and Very Black, Double Thick Lead )
BBB
BBBB Extra Soft and Black, 6d. each, or 5s. 6d. per dozen.
BBBBBBB Very Broa*d and Black Lead, Is. each, or 10s. per dozen.
Ditto, ditto, extra
.
THE IMPROVED PENCILS.
MAY BE HAD
4 Pencils
in
IN SETS, AS FOLLOWS
I
Roan Cases
7
7
7
12
each
s.
d.
1
3
8
9
Pencils in
ditto
„
2
Ditto in ditto, divided and lettered
.
.
.
Ditto in Embossed Gilt Morocco Case
„
6
Pencils, a Full Set, comprising 4 extra letters, in Roan Case,
divided and lettered
each 5
12 Ditto, a Full Set, in Embossed Gilt Morocco Case
„
11
,,2
.
.
.....
6
Rowney &
Co. have every confidence in recommending their
to the notice of the Profession,
their moderate price and superior quality being sufficient to give them
a decided preference with the public.
Messrs.
IMPROVED DRAWING PENCILS
ROWNEY'S EVER-POINTED DRAWING PENCILS,
H, HB, B,
Each degree
is
& BB.
polished in a different colour, Is. each.
Leads only,
2s. per
dozen.
Cases containing four Pencils,
The
4s.
per Case.
been hitherto their
inability to resist the pressure necessary in drawing. The above Pencils
are free from this defect, and are exceedingly light in the hand.
fault of all Pencils of this description has
Fencil Manufactvrers to
Her Majesty's Stationery
Offices
and Schools of Design.
— —
52,
RATH BONE PLACE,
and
29,
OXFORD STREET.
&
GEORGE ROWNEY
CO
13
'S
PENNY DRAWING PENCILS.
With
the view of enabling the working classes to avail themselves
of the advantages presented by the many Schools of Design and Classes
recently opened for the instruction of Drawing in its various branches,
and to supply themselves with good Materials at a low price, Messrs.
R. and Co. have devoted their attention to the production of a Penny
Drawing Pencil, of a quality sufficiently good for general purposes.
The Pencils are manufactured of Four Degrees Hard, Middle, Soft,
and very Soft, in Polished Cedar.
—
H
HB
B
BB
Hard, in Plain Cedar, Polished
Middle, Coloured Red
„
Soft, Coloured Black
„
Very Soft
„
Each Pencil
is
stamped in
Silver,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Is.
thus— "GEORGE
per dozen.
ROWNEY &
COMPy."
Cases, containing
G.
ROWNEY
&
Three
CO.'S
Pencils, 6d. each.
HALFPENNY PENCIL.
In Polished and Stained Cedar, stamped in Silver
"
G.
ROWJN'EY & CO."
6d. per dozen.
CUMBERLAND BLACK LEAD DRAWING
PENCILS,
MANUFACTURED BY
GEORGE ROWNEY AND
CO.
OF THE GENUINE PLUMBAGO, OR PATENT COMPRESSED LEAD, OF THE
FOLLOWING DEGREES:
H
HH
HHH
HHHH
HB
F
B
BB
BBB
£HB
FF
Hard
.
Harder
Very Hard
.
Extra Hard.
Hard and Black
Middling Degree
Black for Shading
Very Black for ditto
Soft Broad Lead
Extra Hard and Black
Very Fine
-3s. per
dozen.
.
,
J
6s.
per dozen.
93.
per dozen.
.
DEHB,
BBBB.
GEOKGE ROWNEY &
14
Co.,
GEORGE ROWNEY & CO/S
COLOURED CRAYONS,
ETC.,
MANUFACTURED OF THE FINEST MATERIALS.
POINTED CRAYONS.
These are hard Crayons whicli work with great evenness and freedom.
s.
Boxes containing 12
„
„
18
„
24
36
.
.....
Box
per
.
d.
1
„
16
„
„
2
3
IMPROVED CRAYONS.
These are Similar to the Swiss, rather harder, but of medium quality
and smaller.
Boxes containing 36
72
144
„ _
„
Box
per
d.
4
6
9
18
„
„
Vermilion, Lake, or Cobalt, separately.
s.
per dozen Crayons
4
6
SWISS CRAYONS.
and the material most in use for Crayon Drawing,
They are sold in Glass Tubes, which prevent the colours mingling.
These are very
soft,
£
Boxes containing 12
24
„
36
„
72
„
144.
„
each
„
„
„
.......
d.
6
10
15
1 10
3
6
52,
EATHBONE PLACE,
and
29,
OXFORD STREET.
GEORGE ROWNEY &
15
CO.'S
BRUSHES FOR WATER-COLOUR
DRAWING.
SABLE HAIR PENCILS,
Miniature.
'
Ckow.
)
Duck.
Large Duck.
^
Small Goose,
(
GOOSK
Dome-pointed, tied with gold wire.
Red.
s.
Large eagle
Small eagle
Extra large swan
Large swan
jj
j>
j>
7
6
J)
5
3
3
>»
2
i>
1
Small goose
Large duck
»
1
1
Duck
Crow
»
Middle swan
Small swan
Extra small swan
Extra large goose
Large goose
Goose
.
Miniature
?>
j>
6
9
d.
18
15
7
6
9
4
6
3
2
3
6
1
6
8
1
3
3
1
a
9
9
11
Brown.
s,
each
8
8
6
4
4
4
5
GEORGE ROWNEY &
16
Co.,
BROWN SABLE BRUSHES,
IN
GERMAN SILVER FERULES, AND POLISHED HANDLES.
VERY FINE QUALITY.
d.
s.
No. 1 round or
»»
»>
2
3
flat
each
„
„
,,
„
„
7
9
11
No. 4 round or
^
11
J)
5>
^
M
s.
d.
1
j>
?>
1
2
3
»>
??
1
6
1
9
flat,
each
RED SABLE BRUSHES,
IN
GERMAN SILVER FERULES, AND POLISHED HANDLES.
VERY FINE QUALITY.
S.
No. 1 round or
2
» 3
»>
„
„
flat,
>»
„
each
»
1
d.
13
16
No. 4 round or
flat
each
11
^
,»
>»
It
2
»»
6
»
>»
11
2
3
62,
RATHBONE PLACE,
and
29,
OXFORD STREET.
CAMEL HAIR BRUSHES.
Large Swan Quill Camels
5d. each.
Small Swan Quill Camels
4d. each.
Extra Small Swan Quill Camels
3d. each.
Full Goose Camels
8d. each.
FRENCH CAMEL HAIR BRUSHES.
No.
1.
Small Crow
2.
Crow
Duck
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
each
Lar^e Duck
Small Goose
Goose
Large Goose
Swan, No.
1
.
1
„
2
2
2
a
„
7
10
9.
10.
2
11.
1
1
4r
12.
2
2
FRENCH CAMEL HAIR IN
From
Nos. 1 to
6,
Flat or
TIN.
Round
6s.
per dozen.
SKETCHING UMBRELLAS.
5 feet, when open, made of Brown Holland or Jeannette
Ditto
ditto
with Fan Joint
.
5 feet 6 inches ditto
Ditto
ditto
with Fan Joint
.
.
£
5.
d.
each 1 15
„
1 18
1 17
^
,,'2
3
6
6
GEORGE ROWNEY &
18
Co.,
PORTABLE SKETCHING EASEL IN CASE.
Ash, 5 feet or 6 feet
Mahogany, or Walnut-Wood, 5
Ditto,
Ditto,
Ditto,
French Polished
ditto
•
feet
6
„
.
5
„
.
6
„
ditto
THE GERMAN SKETCHING SEAT AND EASEL
COMBINED.
ADAPTED FOR EITHER OIL OR WATER-COLOUR SKETCHING.
Price £1 Os. Od. each.
THE EASEL, OPEN.
CLOSED.
The same
principle has been adapted for the use of Ladies, and is
equally serviceable and portable. Price £1 13s. each.
KNAPSACK EASEL.
German easel, with the
The Interior has sufficient
Similar to the
and
straps.
of a walking tour.
addition of a waterproof case
space to contain the requisites
Price £2 9s. 6d. each.
Square Seat, similar
to above illustration, without the easel
Price 12s. each.
53,
RATHBONE PLACE,
and
29,
OXFOKD STREET.
19
JAPANNED WATER BOTTLES.
For
carrying a supply of water for Sketching^
with Cups to
Falette or Box.
Japanned Water Bottles and Cups
Middle size ditto
Large size ditto
Oval ditto, plated inside
Ditto, ditto, larger .
Large new Water
brushes
fit
on the
each
.
.
.
9
6
3
6
,
...
Bottle, with space for holding
7
To
EIMMED
d,
2
3
3
5
.
.
s,
3
prevent the
water
DIPPER,
Is.
spilling.
9d.
FRENCH COLOURED CRAYONS.
BOX OF 100 SEMI-HARD FRENCH
CRAYONS.
Boxes containing 26 short
each
s.
d.
3
6
3
5
25 semi-hard
50
7
4
6
9
12 soft
18
6
GEORGE KOWNEY &
20
Co.
GEORGE ROWNEY &
CO/S
Portable Tents,
FOR
SKETCHING TOURS,
PIC-NICS,
OR SUMMER EXCURSIONS.
consisting of their portability and h'ght weight wh6n packed,
and spaciousness when pitched, are much appreciated by artists.
The advantages of these tents,
and
their strength
Size of small tent
„
set up
Packed
Weight, about 121bs,
set up
Packed
Weight, about 17 lbs.
Size of large tent
„
when
„
„
when
4 feet square, 7 feet high.
4 inches by 4 inches, 4 feet 4 inches long.
Price, including case, 67s.
7 feet by 4 feet 6, 7 feet high.
5 inches by 5 inches, 4 feet 6 inches long.
Price, including case,
£3
15s.
.
.
*Hrr^T3
:
OK SK.ETQHING FKOM
*H|NTS ON SKSTCHING/'FIIOM. l4ATUliE.
*HINTS
'
^
ON SKEXCHING FROM N ATUEE. tot
-
i
^
•"
GUIDE- TO- FIQURB FAINTING IN WA'TER;' C^^LOUli -
GUIDE TO 'SKETCHING FROM NATl
PRINCIPLES
tJUIPE
of"
PERSPECTIVE.
i.^
Hskr?
.
Le^^.
TO WATER COLOUR PATNTING:
li P;
FOR SKETCHING TREES FROM"
COLOURS. Thomas Hatton
GUIDE TO OIL PAINTING.
GUIDE TO OIL PA-INTING.
Part L
J.
^
'
NATUiir.,
HIK.TS
•
TaMPLET^
.S,
Part iL (La3?dscaPe fkosI N&TD3-.h,„ a.
GUIDE TO LIGHT AND SHADE DllAWlNOV
GUIDE TO PENCIL AND CHALK DtrAWl:-^.
GUIDE TO PICTOiUAL ART.
IL- O'-Nsel
M.
Mrs.,
G,
H^..
,
.
..........
GUIDE TO LEVELLING AND SURVBWKa.'V^.
GUIDE TO PICTORIAL PBH8PE0TIVE.
R.^GHesm
B,
GUIDE TO FIGURE DRAWING.
O.
GUIDE TO FLOWER PAINTING
IN 'WATETi Colour-
-'Hicks
IJ.
GUIDE TO PAINTING ON GLASS. IL
. .
.
.\
.
.
.
,
Biei.fei.d
GUIDE TO MINIATURE "PAINTING A.ND COLO.u H
GRAPHS. J, S. Templeton
.
.
.
,
ON THE MATERIALS USED IN PAiNTING/'wrnf
Charlss
NisHiNQ and' CLE\^'^^?G Pictures.
GUIDE TO ANIMAL DRA.WING.
GUIDE
T<)
C.
H.
^
R?/
•
"M^i-.Ts-'s-,
We
JLL^MINATING AND MLSSAL VKmrnr-.
AUDSLEy
=
Ditto, with additional clirorao-lHliographjjd IHiii?
PRACTICAL ^lANUAL OF HERALDIC
Baigknt and C.
J.
K^sskll.
TllEORY OF COLOURING.
Demv 'Svo,
J.
Bacon.
ciotii
ILi.r^
and g-
Cloth tind
.
gi;
.
PRACJICAL GUIDE TO SCENE PAINTING. F
**H[NTS ON SKETQIHNG TItbM NAl URsv
one.
'
Cloth aud
.gilt
HEPiOF.nnoBf. Rait,
&
.-^
-Few ton:, Prir.tws, 7a aim
'
*
.m-^v.
i
*V!^iPK!rIF.^.
i^xw-
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement