K-State Turfgrass Research 2007

K-State Turfgrass Research 2007
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station
and Cooperative Extension Service
2007
Report of Progress 981
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
FOREWORD
Turfgrass Research 2007 contains results of projects done by K-State faculty and graduate students.
Some of these results will be presented at the Kansas Turfgrass Field Day, August 2, 2007, at the Olathe
Extension and Research Center. The enclosed articles present summaries of research projects that
were completed recently or will be completed in the next year or two. Specifically, this year’s report
presents summaries of research on environmental stresses, turfgrass establishment and culture, and
cultivar evaluations.
What questions can we answer for you? The K-State research team strives to be responsive to the
needs of the industry. If you have problems that you feel need to be addressed, please let one of us know.
In addition to the CD format, you can access this report, those from previous years, and all K-State
Research and Extension publications relating to turfgrass on the Web at:
http://ksuturf.com
Personnel Associated with the K-State Turfgrass Program
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Personnel Associated with the K-State Turfgrass Program
Faculty
Bob Bauernfeind
Entomologist, Department of Entomology, KSU,
133A Waters Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506
(785) 532-4752 Fax: (785) 532-6258 [email protected]
Dale Bremer
Associate Professor, Turfgrass, Division of Horticulture, KSU,
2021 Throckmorton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506
Phone: (785) 532-1420 Fax: (785) 532-6949 [email protected]
Jack Fry
Professor, Turfgrass Research and Teaching, Division of Horticulture, KSU,
2021 Throckmorton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506
Phone: (785) 532-1420 Fax: (785) 532-6949 [email protected]
Jason Griffin
Assistant Professor, Director, John C. Pair Horticultural Center,
1901 E 95th St. South, Haysville, KS 67060
Phone: (316) 788-0492 Fax: (316) 788-3844 [email protected]
Steve Keeley
Associate Professor, Turfgrass Teaching and Research, Division of Horticulture,
KSU, 2021 Throckmorton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506
Phone: (785) 532-1420 Fax: (785) 532-6949 [email protected]
Megan Kennelly
Plant Pathologist, Department of Plant Pathology, KSU,
4063 Throckmorton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506
Phone: (785) 532-1387 Fax: (785) 532-5692 [email protected]
Larry Leuthold
Professor Emeritus, Horticulture
Rodney St. John
Turfgrass Specialist, K-State Research and Extension Center
35125 W 135th South, Olathe, KS 66061
Phone: (913) 856-2335, Ext. 110 Fax: (913) 856-2350 [email protected]
Tom Warner
Professor and Head, Department of Horticulture, Forestry and Recreation
Resources, KSU, 2021 Throckmorton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506
Phone: (785) 532-6170 Fax: (785) 532-6949 [email protected]
Bob Wolf
Associate Professor, Application Technology, Department of Biological and
Agricultural Engineering, KSU, 229 Seaton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506
Phone: (785) 532-2935 Fax: (785) 532-6944 [email protected]
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Support Staff
Christy Dipman
Secretary, Division of Horticulture, KSU,
2021 Throckmorton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506
Phone: (785) 532-6173 Fax: (785) 532-5780 [email protected]
Anthony Goldsby
Research Technician and Manager, Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center,
2021 Throckmorton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506
Phone: (785) 539-9133 Fax: 785-532-6949 [email protected]
Linda Parsons
Research Assistant, John C. Pair Horticultural Center,
1901 E 95th St. South, Haysville, KS 67060
Phone: (316) 788-0492 Fax: (316) 788-3844
Mike Shelton
Ward Upham
Field Maintenance Supervisor, John C. Pair Horticultural Center,
1901 E 95th St. South, Haysville, KS 67060
Phone: (316) 788-0492 Fax: (316) 788-3844 [email protected]
Extension Associate, Horticulture, Forestry and Recreational Resources, KSU, 2021 Throckmorton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506
Phone: (785) 532-1438 Fax: (785) 532-5780 [email protected]
Graduate Students
Tony Goldsby
Hyeonju Lee
Jason Lewis
Kemin Su
Qi Zhang
M.S. Student, Horticulture
M.S. Student, Horticulture
Ph.D. Student, Horticulture
Ph.D. Student, Horticulture
Ph.D. Student, Horticulture
Contents of this publication may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. In each case, give credit to the author(s), Turfgrass Research 2007, Kansas State University,
August 2007.
Contribution number: 08-20-S
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Turf Evaluations
Evaluation of Turfgrass and Green Leaf Area Index and Aboveground Biomass
with Multispectral Radiometry... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6
Lateral Spread of Tall Fescue Cultivars and Blends .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 10
2001 National Tall Fescue Test .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 13
Creeping Bentgrass Fairway NTEP Evaluation... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ..23
NTEP Buffalograss Cultivar Trial.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 25
2002 National Bermudagrass Test ... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ..28
Disease Control
Preventative Fungicide Applications for Management of Dollar Spot on Greens
Height Creeping Bentgrass... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ..32
Large Patch as Affected by Cultivation Practices and Timing of Nitrogen Application ... ... ... ... ... .34
Environmental Stress
Effects of Drought on the Performance of Two Hybrid Bluegrasses, Kentucky
Bluegrass and Tall Fescue.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 36
Comparative Irrigation Requirements of 30 Cultivars of Kentucky Bluegrass
under a Large Rainout Facility in the Transition Zone .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 41
Effects of High Temperature and Drought on a Hybrid Bluegrass Compared
with Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue ... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ..46
Mowing Height and Drought Effects on a Texas Bluegrass Hybrid Compared
with Kentucky Bluegrass ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .50
Freezing Tolerance of New Zoysiagrass Progeny.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 55
Preliminary Evaluation of Freezing Tolerance of Meyer and DALZ 0102 Zoysiagrass ... ... ... ... ... .65
Changes in Membrane Lipids and Abscisic Acid in Meyer and Cavalier Zoysiagrass
During Cold Acclimation... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .71
Fertilization and the Environment
Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Three Different Turfgrass Species and From
Perennial Ryegrass Under Different Irrigation Regimes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .80
Nitrogen Source and Timing Effect on Carbohydrate Status of Bermudagrass
and Tall Fescue... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .84
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
TITLE:
Evaluation of Turfgrass Quality and Green Leaf Area Index and Aboveground
Biomass with Multispectral Radiometry
OBJECTIVES: 1. Compare correlations between canopy reflectance and visual ratings in four coolseason grasses; and 2. measure relationships between reflectance data and green leaf
area index and biomass in seven turfgrass species.
AUTHORS:
Hyeonju Lee, Dale Bremer, and Kemin Su
SPONSORS:
The Scotts Co., Inc, Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, and the
Kansas Turfgrass Foundation
INTRODUCTION:
Turfgrass quality is typically evaluated by visual observations of color, uniformity, density, and texture.
Visual evaluations, however, are subjective and may vary among observers. Multispectral radiometry
(MSR) may provide quantitative and objective evaluations of turfgrass quality and its responses to
various stresses by measuring the reflectance of turfgrasses in the visible and near infrared part of the
spectrum (Table 1). Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the ratio of near infrared to red
(NIR/R) may be good predictors of green leaf area index (LAI) and aboveground biomass, although this
has not been evaluated in turfgrasses.
METHODS:
Study 1: Correlations between visual ratings of turfgrass quality and canopy reflectance.
measurementsResearch was conducted under a rainout shelter (12 x 12 m) at the Rocky Ford Turfgrass
Research Center, Manhattan, KS, summer, 2005 and 2006 (Fig. 1A). Four cool-season turfgrasses
were evaluated: Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., ‘Apollo’), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea
Schreb., ‘Dynasty’) and two hybrid bluegrasses, genetic crosses between Poa arachnifera Torr. and
Kentucky bluegrass (‘Thermal Blue’ and ‘Reveille’). Spectral reflectance was measured once weekly
with a handheld multispectral radiometer (CropScan16, Inc., Rochester, MN) (Fig. 1B-1D). Turfgrass
quality was rated visually on a scale from 1 to 9 (6=minimally acceptable for use in home lawns) and
was compared with reflectance at each of 8 wavelengths as well as with the ratios NDVI (computed as
[R935-R661] / [R935+R661]), NIR/R (R935/R661), Stress 1 (R706/R760), and Stress 2 (R706/R935).
Study 2: Predicting green leaf area index and aboveground biomass with NDVI and NIR/R.
Aboveground biomass samples (three 7.62 cm diam. PVC rings) were harvested from turfgrass canopies
immediately after measurements with MSR on seven turfgrass cultivars. Green leaf area was measured
with an area scanner and software (WinRhizo 2002C Reg). Green biomass was then dried and weighed
separately from dead biomass at 78°C for 12 hours. Measurements of green LAI and aboveground
biomass were correlated with NDVI and NIR/R to determine relationships between spectral reflectance
and canopy properties.
RESULTS:
Study 1: Correlations between visual ratings of turfgrass quality and canopy reflectance measurements.
Relationships between turfgrass quality and MSR data were significant at R661 NDVI, IR/R and Stress1
showed strong correlations in cool-season grasses (Table 2). Our results indicated that reflectance
measurements in these wavebands and ratios may be a good method for assessing turfgrass quality.
Further research and data analyses are being conducted to develop predictive models to accurately
estimate turfgrass visual quality using multispectral radiometry.
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Study 2:Predicting green leaf area index and aboveground biomass with NDVI and NIR/R.
No relationships were evident between green LAI or biomass and reflectance data (Fig. 2). Data
indicated that LAI in established turfgrasses may be above the “saturation point” of reflectance-based
vegetation indices, suggesting limited use of MSR data in predicting LAI. Further research is needed
to develop adequate models to predict LAI from reflectance data – e.g., hyperspectral radiometry or the
refinement of vegetation indices from our MSR data may result in improved predictions from reflectance
data of green LAI and biomass in turfgrasses.
Table 1. Wavelengths measured by Cropscan multispectral radiometer and the associated color and
function in plant tissue at each wavelength.
Wavebands
C olor
P roperties
Green
Low absorbance by chlorophyll
Red
High absorbance by chlorophyll
Near
infrared
High reflectance by air -water interfaces
in leaf
R 507
R 559
R 613
R 661
R 706
R 760
R 813
R 935
Table 2. Correlation coefficients for reflectance vs. turfgrass quality in four cool-season turfgrasses in
2005 and 2006.
Wavelength or R atio
Correlation
2005
2006
R 507
-0.48
-0.70
R 559
-0.64
-0.61
R 613
-0.74
-0.09
R 661
-0.80
-0.73
R 706
-0.54
-0.37
R 760
0.76
0.55
R 813
0.38
0.62
R 935
0.40
0.54
NDV I
0.88
0.77
IR /R
0.83
0.68
S tress1
-0.84
-0.68
S tress2
-0.70
-0.70
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Figure 1. (A) The rainout shelter shields turf plots from rainfall and allows for precise irrigation
application. (B) Reflectance was measured using a Cropscan MSR 16. The sensor head of MSR 16
radiometer (C) and keypad (D) are shown.
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Figure 2. Relationship between IR/R and green LAI (left) and NDVI and green aboveground dry
biomass and (right) in seven turfgrass cultivars.
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Title: Objective: Lateral Spread of Tall Fescue Cultivars and Blends
Personnel: Jack Fry, Dale Bremer, Steve Keeley, and Rodney St. John
SPONSORS:
Kansas Turfgrass Foundation. Hummert International, Barenbrug USA, and Seed
Research of Oregon provided seed
Compare lateral spread of tall fescue cultivars and blends
with Kentucky bluegrass
INTRODUCTION:
Some new tall fescue cultivars and blends have been advertised as being rhizomatous, resulting in faster
establishment and recovery time. More research is needed to determine the extent of this rhizomatous
nature in tall fescue. Barenbrug USA researchers reported that ‘Labarinth’ tall fescue produced more
and longer rhizomes compared to several other tall fescue cultivars when evaluated 20 months after
transplanting 2-month-old plants. Ohio State University researchers evaluated six tall fescue cultivars,
including some that were purported to be rhizomatous, and found that the average number of plants
producing a rhizome was 21 percent, and all were less than 3 cm long. More information is needed
to evaluate the rhizomatous potential of tall fescue cultivars and its influence on lateral spread and
recuperative potential.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Six different cultivars or blends were seeded into a silt loam soil in 5 x 5-ft. plots arranged in a
randomized complete block design on September 14, 2005, at the Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research
Center, Manhattan, KS. Each cultivar was replicated four times. Tall fescues evaluated included
‘Grande’, ‘Regiment II’, ‘Barlexus’, ‘Water Saver RTF’ tall fescue blend (39.84 ‘Labarinth’; 29.93
‘Barlexus II’; 29.86 ‘Barrington’); and ‘Kentucky-31’. SR2284 Kentucky bluegrass was also included.
Tall fescue cultivars evaluated that are purported to be more prolific rhizome producers are Grande
II, Regiment II, and Water Saver RTF blend (particularly the Lararinth cultivar in the blend). Tall
fescue was seeded at 7 lbs/1,000 sq. ft. and Kentucky bluegrass at 2 lbs/1,000 ft2. Seed was mixed with
Milorganite to provide 1 lb. N/1,000 ft2 at the time of seeding. Nitrogen from urea was applied at 1
lb./1,000 ft2. in November 2005, and May and September 2006. Turf was irrigated to prevent drought
stress and mowed at least once weekly at a 3 inches.
During autumn 2005, percentage of coverage during the establishment period was determined weekly
through 9 weeks after seeding using a First Growth camera.
On July 28, 2006, four 4-inch-diameter x 4-inch-deep plugs were removed from the center of each plot.
A uniform circle of 1-ft.-diameter x 4-inch-deep was cut in the center of each plot around the area where
plugs were removed on August 1, 2006, and voids were filled with the same field soil to return to the
original level. Plugs were planted in an adjacent area for another study in which lateral spread will be
evaluated (data not presented here). Hand weeding within each circular void was done as needed. On
August 31 and October 5, 2006, the number of emerging daughter plants arising from rhizomes within
each void was counted. On August 31, the greatest distance from the circle’s edge that a newly emerging
daughter plant was observed was also recorded. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means
separated using an F-LSD (P < 0.05).
10
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RESULTS:
Establishment rate. Kentucky bluegrass was slowest to establish following seeding in Fall 2005 (Figure
1). Among tall fescues, Kentucky-31 exhibited greater coverage three weeks after seeding than other
cultivars, and was greater than at least one other tall fescue cultivar on all rating dates. Regiment II had
lower levels of coverage than at least one cultivar other than Kentucky-31 at 2 to 5 weeks after seeding
and 7 weeks after seeding. Coverage of other tall fescue cultivars and blends was intermediate between
Regiment II and Kentucky-31.
Lateral Spread into Voids. Kentucky bluegrass had significantly more emerging daughter plants than any
tall fescue cultivar or blend on each evaluation date (Table 1). Kentucky bluegrass had produced more
than 11 daughter plants per 1 ft. diam. void on August 31 and more than 18 on October 5. The average
number of daughter plants emerging in voids in tall fescue plots was less than 2 on both evaluation
dates. The greatest distance from the circle’s edge that a Kentucky bluegrass daughter plant emerged was
about 8 cm. Tall fescue daughter plants emerged no greater than 1.5 cm from the circle’s edge.
In summary, rhizomatous tall fescue cultivars and blends did not increase rate of coverage relative
to non-rhizomatous types. By October 2006, plants were more than 24 months old. Research by
Barenbrug USA indicated that plants needed to be at least 20 months old before rhizome production was
substantial. Data collection will continue on these cultivars and blends.
Table 1. Daughter plants emerging in 1-foot-diameter circular voids in the center of tall fescue and
Kentucky bluegrass plots, and the farthest distance away from the circle’s edge that any one plant
emerged. Voids were created on July 28, 2006.
Cultivar or Blend
Grande II tall fescue
Regiment II tall fescue
Water saver RTF tall fescue blend
Barlexus tall fescue
Kentucky 31
SR2284 Kentucky bluegrass
Reported to
have improved
recuperative
potential?
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
-
Daughter plants (no.)
Aug. 31
0.50 b*
2.00 b
0.25 b
1.50 b
1.25 b
11.50 a
Oct. 5
0.50 b
0.00 b
0.50 b
1.00 b
2.00 b
18.75 a
Distance
(cm)
Aug. 31
1.25 b
2.25 b
0.25 b
1.50 b
1.00 b
8.25 a
*Means followed by the same letter on a date are not significantly different (P < 0.05).
11
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Fig. 1. Rate of coverage of tall fescue cultivars and blends and Kentucky bluegrass after seeding on
September 14, 2005. Points represent the mean of four replicates. Points followed by the same letter in a
week are not statistically different (P < 0.05).
90
80
a
ab
70
a
a
ab
a
a
a
a
a
b
ab
ab
b
b
b
a
a
b
bc
c
60
c
b
c
50
c
b
c
40
Coverage (%)
Grande II tall fescue
c
c
Regiment II tall fescue
30
a
Barlexus tall fescue
ab
20
d
water saver RTF tall fesuce blend
b
d
Kentucky 31
10
c
a
SR2284 kentucky bluegrass
c
a
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Weeks after seeding
12
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TITLE:
2001 National Tall Fescue Test
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate tall fescue cultivars under Kansas conditions and submit data
collected to the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program
PERSONNEL:
Linda R. Parsons and Rodney St. John
SPONSOR:
USDA National Turfgrass Evaluation Program
INTRODUCTION:
Tall fescue is the best-adapted cool-season turfgrass for the transition zone in Kansas as it is drought
and heat tolerant and has few serious insect and disease problems. Tall fescue possesses a rather coarse
leaf texture, lacks stolons, and has only very short rhizomes. Efforts to improve cultivar quality include
selection for finer leaf texture, a rich green color, and better sward density, while still maintaining good
stress tolerance and disease resistance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
After incorporating 13-13-13 at a rate of 1 lb. NPK /1,000 ft2 into 480 5- x 5- ft. study plots at the
John C. Pair Horticultural Center, Wichita, KS, the area was seeded September 28, 2001, with 160 tall
fescue cultivars and experimental numbers in a randomized complete block design at a rate of 4.4 lb.
of seed per 1,000 ft2. Fertility was maintained at 0.25 to 0.5 lb. N/1,000 ft2 per growing month. Plots
were mowed weekly during the growing season at 2.5 in. and clippings removed. Irrigation was done
as necessary to prevent stress. Weeds, insects, and disease were controlled only when they presented a
threat to the trial.
During the course of the study, information was collected on spring green-up, genetic color, leaf texture,
quality, and other measures when appropriate. Rating was done on a scale of 1=poorest, 6=acceptable,
and 9=optimum measure.
RESULTS:
During the summer of 2006, data were collected on turf green up and quality. The growing season began
by assessing spring green up. By April 12, the cultivars/ experimental numbers BE1, CAS-ED, and
Tar Heel were among the greenest (Table 1). Fescue plots were rated monthly throughout the growing
season for turf quality. Ratings were influenced by degree of coverage and weed infestation as well
as turf color, texture, and density. Those that performed best overall were Escalade (01-ORU1), 2nd
Millennium, BE1, Dynasty, and Finelawn Elite (DLSD).
In reviewing turf performance over the course of the study, Finelawn Elite (DLSD), Justice (RB2-01),
Apache III (PST-5A1), and BE1 were rated as the best performers with the highest quality ratings (Table
2). Evaluation of the turf plots began in 2001, six weeks after seeding, by looking at percent ground
cover as a measure of turf establishment rate. At that time, GO-RD4, PST-5NAS, Kentucky 31 with
Endophytes, Elisa, and Falcon II were the best established, with 60 to 67 percent cover, respectively.
Starting in 2003, spring green up was rated annually, with Blackwatch (Pick-OD3-01), CAS-ED,
Gremlin (P-58), and Tar Heel earliest to green. Every year of the study from 2002 through 2005, genetic
color and turf texture were rated. MRF 28, NA-TDD, Regiment II (SRX 805), MRF 210, and MRF 211
were among the darkest green. ATF 806, Inferno (JT-99), JT-12, and Wellington had the finest texture.
More information on the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program and the complete results of the
nationwide 2001 National Tall Fescue Test can be found at http://www.ntep.org/.
13
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Table 1. 2006 performance of tall fescue cultivars at Wichita, KS.1
Spring
Quality
Cultivar/
Green
Experimental Number
up
Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug.
5.7
5.7
6.3
5.7
6.0
6.0
Escalade (01-ORU1)*2
2nd Millennium*
5.3
5.0
5.7
6.3
6.0
6.0
BE1
6.7
5.7
5.7
6.0
5.7
6.0
Dynasty*
6.0
5.7
6.7
5.7
6.7
5.3
Finelawn Elite (DLSD)*
5.7
5.7
6.0
6.0
5.7
5.7
Falcon IV (F-4)*
6.0
5.7
6.0
5.7
5.3
5.3
Wolfpack*
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
Cochise III (018)*
5.7
5.7
6.3
5.3
5.0
5.7
CAS-ED
6.7
6.0
6.0
5.0
5.7
5.0
Justice (RB2-01)*
6.3
4.7
6.0
6.0
6.7
5.0
K01-E03
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.0
5.3
5.7
Padre (NJ4)*
5.3
5.0
5.7
6.0
5.7
5.7
Watchdog*
5.7
5.3
5.7
6.0
5.7
5.3
Avenger (L1Z)*
6.3
6.0
6.0
5.0
5.3
5.0
Forte (BE-2)*
6.0
5.3
5.3
6.0
6.0
5.0
JT-13
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.7
6.0
5.3
PST-5BAB
5.7
5.3
5.3
6.0
5.3
5.3
PST-5JM
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.7
5.7
5.0
Serengeti (GO-OD2)*
6.0
5.3
5.3
5.0
6.0
5.7
ATF 702
5.0
4.7
5.3
5.3
6.3
6.0
Scorpion*
6.0
5.3
5.7
5.7
5.3
5.3
Silverado II (PST-578)*
5.7
5.0
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.3
Blackwatch (Pick-OD3-01)*
6.0
5.3
5.7
5.3
5.0
5.0
CIS-TF-67
5.3
5.0
5.7
5.3
5.3
5.7
Cayenne*
5.7
5.0
6.0
5.3
5.3
5.7
Pick TF H-97
4.7
5.3
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.3
Titanium (SBM)*
5.3
5.0
5.3
5.3
6.0
5.7
Apache III (PST-5A1)*
6.0
6.0
6.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
Fidelity (PST-5T1)*
5.3
5.3
6.0
5.3
5.3
5.3
MRF 26
5.7
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.7
5.0
PST-5NAS
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.7
5.7
Tar Heel*
6.7
5.3
4.7
5.7
5.7
5.3
Ultimate (01-RUTOR2)*
6.3
5.7
5.7
6.0
5.3
5.3
Gremlin (P-58)*
5.7
4.7
6.0
5.0
4.3
5.3
Kalahari*
5.0
5.3
5.7
5.7
4.7
5.3
Laramie*
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.0
6.0
5.3
Lexington (UT-RB3)*
5.3
5.3
5.3
4.7
5.3
6.0
Millennium*
5.7
5.3
5.7
5.3
5.0
5.7
Rendition*
5.7
5.3
5.3
5.7
5.3
4.7
Tar Heel II (PST-5TR1)*
5.7
5.3
5.7
5.0
5.0
5.7
Olympic Gold*
6.3
5.7
5.3
4.7
5.3
5.0
DLF-J210
5.0
4.7
5.3
5.7
5.0
5.3
Focus*
5.3
4.7
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
Jaguar 3*
5.3
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.3
PST-5S12
5.7
5.3
5.7
5.0
5.0
5.0
R-4
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
Riverside (ProSeeds 5301)*
6.0
5.3
5.0
5.7
5.7
5.0
Silverstar (PST-5ASR)*
5.7
5.3
5.7
5.0
5.0
5.3
UT-155
5.3
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.3
Blade Runner (Roberts SM4)*
5.7
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.3
Coyote*
5.3
5.3
4.7
5.7
5.3
4.7
MA 127
5.3
4.7
5.3
5.3
5.7
5.0
Sep.
5.7
6.3
6.0
5.0
6.0
6.3
6.0
5.7
6.0
5.0
6.0
5.3
5.3
5.7
5.3
5.3
5.7
6.0
5.7
5.0
5.3
5.3
6.3
5.7
5.3
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.7
5.3
5.7
4.3
6.7
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.7
5.3
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.0
5.3
6.0
5.3
5.7
5.3
Avg.
5.9
5.9
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.2
5.2
5.2
14
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Cultivar/
Experimental Number
MRF 210
MRF 27
Matador GT (PST-5TUO)*
PST-5BZ
Rembrandt*
Tahoe (CAS-157)*
ATF 799
Bravo*
Endeavor*
Five Point MCN-RC*
JT-15
JT-9
K01-8007
MRF 28
Magellan (OD-4)*
Masterpiece*
Mustang 3*
Picasso*
Pick ZMG
Prospect*
SR 8600*
Turbo (CAS-MC1)*
Constitution (ATF-593)*
Finesse II*
PST-53T
PST-5KU
Plantation*
BAR Fa 1CR7
Barrera*
CIS-TF-77
Dynamic (PST-57E)*
Grande II*
MRF 25
SR 8550 (SRX 8BE4)*
Stonewall (JT-18)*
MA 138
Raptor (CIS-TF-33)*
TF66*
Trooper (T1-TFOR3)*
Dominion*
K01-WAF
SR 8250*
ATF 806
Biltmore*
EA 163
Falcon II*
K01-8015
MA 158
PST-5LO
Quest*
B-7001
JTTFF-2000
PST-DDL
Spring
Green
up
4.7
6.0
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.3
5.0
5.3
5.3
6.0
5.0
4.3
5.3
5.7
5.0
5.7
5.7
6.0
5.7
5.0
5.0
6.0
5.0
5.0
4.7
5.3
6.3
4.7
5.7
5.3
4.7
5.7
5.7
5.3
4.7
5.0
4.7
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.3
5.7
6.3
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.0
4.7
5.3
5.3
5.3
Quality
Apr.
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.0
4.7
5.0
4.7
5.3
4.7
4.7
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.7
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.3
4.7
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.0
4.7
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.7
5.0
5.3
5.0
May
4.7
5.0
6.0
5.7
5.7
5.3
5.7
5.0
5.7
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.3
6.0
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.3
6.7
5.3
5.7
4.7
5.3
5.7
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.7
5.7
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.7
5.7
5.3
5.7
5.3
4.7
5.3
5.3
5.7
5.3
6.0
4.7
5.7
Jun.
5.7
5.7
5.3
6.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.0
4.7
5.7
5.7
6.0
5.7
5.3
4.3
5.7
5.7
5.0
4.7
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.7
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
6.0
5.3
5.3
5.3
4.7
5.3
6.0
5.7
4.3
4.7
4.3
5.0
5.0
4.3
5.7
5.3
5.3
4.7
4.7
5.3
4.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
Jul.
5.7
5.3
5.7
5.7
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
6.3
4.0
5.0
5.7
4.3
5.0
4.7
5.7
4.7
4.7
5.3
5.3
5.7
5.0
5.3
5.7
5.7
6.0
5.0
5.7
5.3
5.7
4.7
5.7
4.7
5.3
4.3
4.7
5.0
5.0
4.3
4.7
5.0
5.0
5.7
5.0
4.7
5.0
4.0
5.3
4.7
4.7
5.3
Aug.
5.3
4.7
5.0
4.7
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.0
4.0
4.7
4.7
4.7
5.7
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
4.7
5.0
4.3
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.3
4.7
5.0
5.0
4.7
4.7
5.3
5.0
4.3
4.7
4.7
6.0
5.7
5.0
5.0
4.7
5.3
5.3
4.3
4.3
5.7
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.0
4.7
4.0
Sep.
5.0
5.3
4.3
4.3
5.3
5.7
5.0
5.7
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.7
5.3
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.3
5.0
6.3
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.7
4.3
4.0
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
5.0
4.3
5.3
4.3
4.7
4.7
5.3
5.0
5.7
5.3
5.3
5.3
3.7
4.3
4.3
5.3
5.3
4.3
6.0
4.7
4.0
5.3
4.7
Avg.
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.9
15
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Cultivar/
Experimental Number
Bingo*
Davinci (LTP-7801)*
Legitimate*
PST-5FZD
Barlexas II*
JT-12
Signia*
BAR Fa 1005
Barrington*
Covenant (ATF 802)*
DP 50-9082
Daytona (MRF 23)*
Guardian-21 (Roberts DOL)*
Inferno (JT-99)*
MRF 29
Ninja 2 (ATF-800)*
Rebel Sentry*
ATF 586
DP 50-9226
Firebird (CIS-TF-65)*
GO-RD4
JT-6
Southern Choice II*
Tempest*
Titan Ltd.*
ATF 707
BAR Fa 1003
Matador*
Rebel Exeda*
Barlexas*
Pick-00-AFA
Pure Gold*
CIS-TF-60
CIS-TF-64
K01-E09
Tulsa II (ATF 706)*
ATF 704
Regiment II (SRX 805)*
South Paw (MRF 24)*
Expedetion (ATF-803)*
MRF 211
PST-5KI
Kitty Hawk 2000*
Stetson*
Tracer*
NA-TDD
Tomahawk GT*
Elisa*
Floridian (GO-FL3)*
Lancer*
T991
GO-SIU2
Spring
Green
up
5.7
5.3
5.3
4.7
5.7
5.0
5.7
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.7
5.0
4.7
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.0
4.7
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
4.7
5.7
5.3
5.3
4.7
4.7
4.7
5.0
5.7
5.3
5.7
4.7
4.7
5.3
4.7
4.7
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.3
5.3
4.7
4.7
5.7
5.0
4.0
5.0
Quality
Apr.
4.7
4.7
4.0
5.3
4.7
4.3
5.0
4.7
4.7
5.0
5.0
4.3
4.7
5.3
4.7
5.0
5.0
4.3
4.0
4.3
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
5.3
4.7
4.7
5.0
5.0
4.7
5.0
4.7
4.7
5.0
5.0
4.7
4.3
4.3
4.7
4.3
4.3
5.0
4.7
4.0
4.7
5.3
4.0
4.0
4.3
4.3
4.0
4.3
May
5.0
5.7
4.7
5.7
4.7
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.0
5.3
5.7
6.0
5.3
5.3
4.7
4.7
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.7
5.0
5.7
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.0
4.7
5.0
4.3
4.7
5.3
5.0
4.7
5.3
4.7
5.0
4.3
4.7
5.0
5.0
4.3
Jun.
5.3
5.0
5.0
4.0
4.3
5.0
4.7
4.3
5.0
4.7
4.7
4.7
5.0
4.0
5.7
4.0
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.0
4.7
5.3
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.3
4.7
5.0
5.3
4.7
5.0
4.3
4.7
5.0
5.0
4.0
5.0
4.7
5.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.7
4.3
4.3
4.0
4.3
4.7
4.0
Jul.
5.7
5.3
5.3
4.0
5.0
4.7
5.0
4.0
5.0
4.7
4.7
5.7
4.7
3.7
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.7
4.0
5.0
4.0
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.3
4.0
4.0
4.3
4.7
4.7
4.3
4.7
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.0
4.7
4.7
4.3
3.3
4.3
4.3
3.3
3.7
4.7
5.3
4.7
4.0
3.7
4.7
Aug.
4.7
4.3
5.0
5.7
4.7
5.0
4.7
5.0
4.7
4.3
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.3
4.0
4.7
4.3
4.7
4.7
5.0
5.0
5.3
4.7
5.0
4.3
4.3
4.7
5.0
4.7
4.0
4.3
5.0
4.3
5.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
5.0
4.0
4.3
5.0
4.7
4.3
5.0
4.7
4.3
4.3
4.0
4.3
4.3
5.0
4.0
Sep.
4.3
4.3
5.3
4.7
6.0
5.0
4.3
5.7
4.7
5.3
4.7
5.3
4.3
5.0
3.7
5.0
4.0
5.0
4.7
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.3
4.7
5.0
5.3
4.7
4.7
4.3
4.3
3.7
4.3
4.0
3.3
4.0
4.3
4.3
5.3
4.0
4.7
3.7
4.7
4.3
4.7
4.7
3.7
4.0
4.3
4.0
4.0
3.7
4.3
Avg.
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
16
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Cultivar/
Experimental Number
Wyatt*
Bonsai*
Ky-31 E+*
LSD3
Spring
Green
up
4.7
4.7
5.0
1.5
Quality
Apr.
4.7
4.0
3.3
1.4
May
4.7
5.0
3.3
1.2
Jun.
4.0
4.3
3.0
2.1
Jul.
4.3
4.7
3.7
3.6
Aug.
4.3
3.7
3.3
1.8
Sep.
3.7
3.0
3.3
2.1
Avg.
4.3
4.1
3.3
0.9
Ratings based on a scale of 1–9 with 9=best measure.
Cultivars marked with “*” became commercially available in 2005.
3
Least Statistical Difference. To determine statistical differences among entries, subtract one entry’s
mean from another’s. If the result is larger than the corresponding LSD value, the two are statistically
different.
1
2
17
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
18
Table 2. Performance summary of tall fescue cultivars at Wichita, KS, for the years 2001 through 2006.1
%
Avg.
Average Monthly Quality 2002–2006
Cultivar/
Cover
Avg.
Genetic
Avg.
Experimental Number
2001
Green up
Color
Texture
Apr. May Jun. Jul.
Sep. Oct.
40.0
5.9
6.2
6.5
5.3
5.5
5.6
5.6
5.5
5.1
5.8
Finelawn Elite (DLSD)*2
Justice (RB2-01)*
51.7
5.9
6.4
6.3
4.9
5.5
5.7
5.9
5.3
5.3
5.8
Apache III (PST-5A1)*
48.3
5.8
6.4
6.5
5.4
5.5
5.2
5.5
5.4
5.4
5.5
BE1
46.7
6.0
6.1
6.2
4.7
5.3
5.3
5.7
5.7
5.3
5.5
CAS-ED
46.7
6.1
6.8
5.9
5.2
5.5
5.2
5.6
5.3
5.3
5.3
Dynasty*
48.3
6.0
5.9
6.7
5.0
5.7
5.4
5.7
5.3
4.8
5.2
Avenger (L1Z)*
53.3
5.9
6.8
6.6
4.9
5.5
5.2
5.5
5.4
5.1
5.4
MRF 26
35.0
5.6
7.6
6.1
4.9
5.1
5.5
5.7
5.1
5.2
5.3
Cochise III (018)*
50.0
5.8
6.4
6.3
5.3
5.7
5.3
5.4
5.4
4.7
5.2
Falcon IV (F-4)*
41.7
5.9
6.4
6.6
5.0
5.3
5.1
5.4
5.1
5.3
5.6
Millennium*
53.3
5.8
6.2
6.3
4.9
5.5
5.3
5.5
5.5
5.0
5.2
Escalade (01-ORU1)*
41.7
5.8
6.4
6.6
5.1
5.4
5.1
5.5
5.5
4.9
5.3
JT-9
41.7
5.4
6.4
6.5
4.7
5.4
5.6
5.3
5.4
5.1
5.1
Riverside
45.0
6.0
6.5
6.3
5.0
5.1
5.5
5.7
5.2
5.0
5.3
(ProSeeds 5301)*
Wolfpack*
45.0
5.5
5.8
6.0
5.1
5.3
5.1
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.4
Watchdog*
48.3
5.9
6.0
6.3
5.1
5.1
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.2
Scorpion*
45.0
5.8
6.4
6.5
4.7
5.3
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.0
5.3
2nd Millennium*
43.3
5.8
6.3
6.6
4.6
5.0
5.4
5.5
5.3
5.2
5.4
Picasso*
46.7
5.8
6.4
6.1
4.6
5.3
5.1
5.4
5.3
5.3
5.5
EA 163
43.3
5.8
6.8
5.8
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.4
5.0
4.9
5.6
Cayenne*
46.7
5.3
5.9
6.1
4.3
5.6
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.1
5.1
BAR Fa 1CR7
56.7
5.4
7.3
6.3
4.5
5.1
5.3
5.6
5.4
5.1
5.2
Padre (NJ4)*
41.7
5.5
6.2
5.9
4.5
5.3
5.3
5.2
5.4
5.3
5.0
Ultimate (01-RUTOR2)*
45.0
6.0
6.4
6.4
5.0
5.4
5.1
5.6
5.2
4.7
5.1
JT-13
43.3
5.3
6.8
6.3
4.6
5.1
5.5
5.7
4.7
5.0
5.4
Constitution (ATF-593)*
40.0
5.4
6.4
5.8
4.4
5.1
5.5
5.5
5.3
4.9
5.3
MA 127
43.3
5.6
6.6
5.8
4.8
5.3
5.3
5.5
4.7
5.3
5.2
Blackwatch
45.0
6.2
6.3
6.0
4.8
5.3
5.2
5.4
5.3
5.0
5.1
(Pick-OD3-01)*
ATF 702
51.7
5.4
7.4
5.9
4.4
5.3
5.2
5.6
5.3
4.7
5.2
Coyote*
45.0
5.5
6.5
6.2
4.8
5.1
5.3
5.5
5.0
4.9
5.3
Gremlin (P-58)*
40.0
6.1
6.1
6.1
4.3
5.3
5.2
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.3
Titanium (SBM)*
46.7
5.6
6.2
6.5
4.6
4.7
5.3
5.3
5.5
5.3
5.1
MRF 210
50.0
5.4
7.8
5.9
4.7
5.1
5.4
5.3
5.1
5.1
5.0
Grande II*
41.7
5.8
6.4
6.5
4.8
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.1
5.3
Masterpiece*
45.0
5.8
6.3
6.0
4.8
5.0
5.1
5.3
5.4
5.0
5.1
Avg.
5.5
5.5
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
19
Cultivar/
Experimental Number
Silverado II (PST-578)*
CIS-TF-67
Rembrandt*
PST-5NAS
SR 8550 (SRX 8BE4)*
Turbo (CAS-MC1)*
MRF 27
PST-5JM
Laramie*
MRF 25
Lexington (UT-RB3)*
Serengeti (GO-OD2)*
Blade Runner
(Roberts SM4)*
PST-5BZ
SR 8600*
R-4
Tar Heel*
CIS-TF-77
Raptor (CIS-TF-33)*
Five Point MCN-RC*
Olympic Gold*
Pick ZMG
PST-5BAB
Focus*
Rendition*
Biltmore*
Matador GT
(PST-5TUO)*
PST-5S12
Falcon II*
Prospect*
PST-5KU
PST-5LO
Davinci (LTP-7801)*
Stonewall (JT-18)*
Tahoe (CAS-157)*
Forte (BE-2)*
%
Cover
2001
43.3
43.3
43.3
61.7
43.3
43.3
43.3
40.0
58.3
48.3
45.0
43.3
41.7
Average Monthly Quality 2002–2006
Avg.
Green up
5.6
5.4
5.7
5.7
5.5
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.7
5.5
5.9
5.6
Avg.
Genetic
Color
6.3
6.6
6.1
6.1
6.6
6.7
7.2
6.6
6.2
6.8
6.8
6.3
6.7
Avg.
Texture
5.8
6.5
5.9
6.3
5.9
6.0
6.3
6.2
6.0
6.1
5.8
5.9
5.8
Apr.
4.4
4.6
4.8
4.8
4.7
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
5.1
4.8
4.9
4.7
May
5.1
5.4
5.2
5.1
5.6
5.3
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.2
5.1
4.9
Jun.
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.1
5.0
5.1
5.1
5.0
5.1
Jul.
5.3
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.1
5.1
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.1
5.4
5.5
5.3
5.3
4.7
5.2
5.4
4.9
5.2
4.9
4.9
5.1
4.9
4.8
5.0
5.2
Sep.
5.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
4.9
4.7
4.9
5.1
4.9
5.0
5.1
5.0
5.0
Oct.
5.3
5.3
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.2
4.9
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.1
4.9
5.3
Avg.
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
40.0
38.3
50.0
46.7
43.3
36.7
43.3
55.0
40.0
36.7
43.3
43.3
45.0
45.0
5.5
5.6
5.8
6.1
5.7
5.3
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.6
5.5
5.6
5.4
5.6
6.3
6.2
6.7
5.9
6.5
6.6
6.6
6.1
6.3
6.3
6.4
6.4
6.6
6.5
6.0
6.2
6.5
5.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
5.9
5.7
6.2
6.0
6.3
6.3
5.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.5
4.7
4.5
4.3
5.0
4.3
4.7
4.7
4.6
4.8
4.5
5.3
5.3
5.1
4.7
4.9
5.3
4.9
5.0
5.1
4.9
5.3
5.3
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.1
5.4
5.2
5.5
5.3
5.0
5.5
5.3
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.3
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.2
5.5
5.1
4.8
5.0
5.3
5.1
5.3
5.3
5.1
5.1
5.3
5.2
4.9
4.9
5.1
4.6
4.9
5.1
5.0
5.2
4.7
5.1
4.9
5.1
5.0
5.0
4.9
4.7
4.7
4.9
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.2
5.3
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.0
5.1
4.9
5.1
5.1
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
50.0
66.7
46.7
43.3
45.0
48.3
38.3
40.0
41.7
5.8
5.3
5.2
5.3
5.5
5.4
5.4
5.5
5.6
6.0
5.9
6.6
6.7
5.8
6.5
6.9
6.3
6.6
5.7
6.2
6.0
5.9
6.1
6.4
6.0
5.8
6.0
4.6
4.8
4.8
4.3
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.4
4.3
5.3
4.7
5.5
5.4
5.1
5.1
5.3
5.1
4.9
5.0
5.0
4.9
5.1
5.0
4.9
5.3
5.2
5.3
5.1
5.3
5.1
5.3
5.1
5.3
5.1
5.3
5.3
5.1
5.3
5.1
4.7
5.1
5.0
4.9
4.5
4.9
5.0
5.1
4.8
5.1
5.1
4.9
4.5
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.1
5.1
5.2
4.9
5.1
5.1
5.2
4.9
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
20
Cultivar/
Experimental Number
Bravo*
MA 158
Barrera*
Finesse II*
K01-E03
Pick TF H-97
BAR Fa 1003
MA 138
Pure Gold*
Magellan (OD-4)*
Inferno (JT-99)*
Fidelity (PST-5T1)*
Plantation*
Signia*
DLF-J210
Jaguar 3*
PST-5FZD
Rebel Sentry*
Legitimate*
Dynamic (PST-57E)*
CIS-TF-64
JT-15
JT-12
MRF 28
Quest*
Silverstar (PST-5ASR)*
ATF 799
TF66*
Barlexas II*
Guardian-21
(Roberts DOL)*
Bingo*
CIS-TF-60
PST-DDL
Trooper (T1-TFOR3)*
JT-6
K01-E09
Mustang 3*
%
Cover
2001
43.3
38.3
40.0
36.7
46.7
43.3
53.3
41.7
41.7
45.0
45.0
40.0
46.7
45.0
45.0
45.0
38.3
48.3
38.3
43.3
38.3
36.7
41.7
45.0
43.3
36.7
40.0
50.0
50.0
35.0
35.0
40.0
40.0
45.0
33.3
41.7
36.7
Average Monthly Quality 2002–2006
Avg.
Green up
5.5
5.5
5.6
5.6
5.4
5.0
5.5
5.3
5.4
5.6
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.6
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.8
5.3
5.3
5.6
5.2
5.6
5.3
5.6
5.4
5.8
Avg.
Genetic
Color
6.2
6.6
6.6
6.9
6.6
5.9
6.6
6.4
6.1
6.5
6.1
6.1
6.4
7.0
6.8
5.9
6.2
6.6
6.4
5.7
6.6
6.6
6.6
8.2
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.4
6.4
6.3
Avg.
Texture
6.0
6.3
6.1
6.0
6.7
6.6
5.7
5.8
6.2
6.1
6.8
6.0
6.0
5.8
5.8
5.8
6.4
6.0
5.6
6.3
6.5
6.7
6.8
5.9
6.4
5.8
6.3
6.3
6.4
6.0
Apr.
4.8
4.5
4.6
4.3
4.4
4.4
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.9
4.8
4.6
4.6
4.7
4.7
4.8
4.7
4.8
4.3
4.3
4.6
4.6
4.3
4.8
4.3
4.5
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.6
May
5.0
5.2
5.1
5.2
4.8
5.1
5.3
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.5
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.0
4.7
5.1
5.2
4.7
5.2
5.3
4.9
5.2
5.1
5.0
4.7
5.3
4.8
5.1
4.8
Jun.
4.9
5.3
5.0
5.1
4.9
5.0
4.9
5.2
5.3
4.6
4.9
5.1
5.0
5.1
5.1
4.9
4.8
5.1
4.8
5.1
5.0
5.1
4.8
5.1
5.1
4.7
4.9
4.8
4.7
5.1
Jul.
5.4
5.3
5.3
5.1
5.3
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.3
4.7
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.4
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.1
5.5
5.3
5.4
5.2
5.2
5.1
5.3
4.9
5.1
4.9
5.2
5.3
4.9
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.0
4.8
5.0
4.8
4.9
5.2
4.8
5.1
4.8
4.9
5.1
4.9
5.0
4.7
4.9
4.9
5.0
4.8
5.1
4.7
4.9
5.0
4.9
5.1
4.5
4.8
Sep.
4.8
4.6
4.7
5.2
4.9
5.0
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.9
4.5
4.7
4.9
4.4
4.7
5.1
4.9
4.8
4.9
4.7
4.2
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.9
5.3
4.6
5.1
5.0
4.5
Oct.
5.3
4.8
4.9
4.8
5.3
5.0
4.8
5.1
4.9
5.2
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.1
4.8
5.3
4.9
4.8
5.0
5.0
4.8
4.8
5.1
5.0
5.0
5.1
5.0
Avg.
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
5.6
5.8
5.7
5.8
5.3
5.7
5.8
7.4
7.7
6.3
6.3
7.2
6.6
6.3
6.1
6.4
6.2
5.8
6.2
6.7
6.0
4.3
4.3
4.4
4.9
4.2
4.6
4.3
4.7
5.1
5.3
5.2
4.8
4.8
4.7
5.1
5.0
5.1
4.7
5.2
5.1
4.9
5.3
5.1
5.2
5.0
5.0
5.1
4.9
5.2
4.8
4.5
4.7
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.5
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.9
4.5
5.0
4.8
5.2
4.8
5.1
4.8
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.8
4.8
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
21
Cultivar/
Experimental Number
Ninja 2 (ATF-800)*
Expedetion (ATF-803)*
Firebird (CIS-TF-65)*
B-7001
Kalahari*
Titan Ltd.*
Daytona (MRF 23)*
Southern Choice II*
PST-53T
DP 50-9226
UT-155
JTTFF-2000
Barrington*
K01-8015
Dominion*
Tempest*
Endeavor*
Tar Heel II (PST-5TR1)*
Regiment II (SRX 805)*
BAR Fa 1005
SR 8250*
Matador*
ATF 704
DP 50-9082
ATF 806
MRF 211
South Paw (MRF 24)*
K01-8007
K01-WAF
ATF 707
Rebel Exeda*
GO-RD4
MRF 29
Barlexas*
Stetson*
ATF 586
Pick-00-AFA
Tulsa II (ATF 706)*
%
Cover
2001
48.3
50.0
38.3
40.0
40.0
50.0
45.0
43.3
40.0
43.3
41.7
41.7
38.3
38.3
50.0
48.3
45.0
45.0
33.3
41.7
38.3
41.7
50.0
43.3
40.0
31.7
48.3
35.0
46.7
46.7
40.0
60.0
43.3
51.7
55.0
36.7
46.7
43.3
Avg.
Green up
5.2
5.5
5.3
5.5
5.5
5.3
5.1
5.4
5.3
5.3
5.4
5.8
5.2
5.0
5.5
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.4
5.6
5.4
5.7
5.0
5.2
5.4
5.5
5.4
5.5
5.3
5.1
5.6
5.3
5.5
5.3
5.4
5.3
5.1
5.4
Avg.
Genetic
Color
6.3
6.6
7.4
6.5
6.3
5.4
7.5
6.9
6.8
6.2
6.4
6.2
6.5
6.0
5.7
7.0
5.9
5.4
7.9
6.4
6.4
6.5
6.4
5.3
6.3
7.8
6.5
6.3
5.9
6.4
6.1
6.0
7.4
6.3
5.4
5.9
5.9
6.0
Average Monthly Quality 2002–2006
Avg.
Texture
6.5
6.7
6.2
5.8
6.3
6.2
5.6
5.8
6.1
6.0
5.7
5.8
6.7
6.6
5.4
5.9
6.1
5.5
6.1
5.9
5.8
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.9
6.0
5.4
6.8
5.9
6.4
6.2
5.8
5.8
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.3
5.9
Apr.
4.4
4.5
4.2
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.2
4.3
5.0
4.5
4.1
4.4
4.5
4.3
4.1
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.5
4.3
4.1
4.3
4.2
4.6
4.0
4.4
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.5
4.2
4.3
4.2
4.4
4.3
May
5.1
4.8
5.0
5.3
4.9
4.8
4.8
4.9
5.1
4.7
4.8
5.0
4.9
5.3
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.9
4.9
4.7
5.1
4.9
4.5
5.1
4.9
4.9
5.1
4.9
4.8
4.8
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.5
4.5
4.9
4.5
Jun.
4.6
4.9
4.9
4.6
5.0
4.7
4.7
5.1
4.8
5.0
4.8
4.7
4.9
4.7
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.5
4.7
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.9
4.9
5.1
4.9
4.7
5.1
4.5
4.8
4.7
4.5
5.0
4.7
4.5
5.0
4.7
4.7
Jul.
5.2
5.1
4.7
5.0
5.1
5.1
5.3
4.9
5.2
5.4
4.9
4.8
4.9
4.8
5.1
5.0
4.9
5.0
5.0
4.7
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.8
4.9
4.9
4.7
5.1
4.7
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.7
4.9
4.6
4.7
4.5
4.7
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.7
5.0
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.5
4.8
4.9
4.7
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.7
5.0
4.9
4.5
4.9
4.8
4.5
4.8
4.6
4.5
4.6
4.5
4.7
4.7
4.5
4.6
4.6
4.7
4.7
4.5
Sep.
4.9
4.7
5.1
4.5
4.5
4.8
4.9
4.7
4.4
4.7
5.0
4.6
4.4
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.9
4.9
4.7
4.9
4.8
4.5
4.5
4.9
4.4
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.7
4.5
4.5
4.6
4.1
4.7
4.9
4.3
4.2
4.3
Oct.
5.3
5.3
4.9
4.9
4.9
5.3
4.8
5.1
5.0
4.9
4.8
4.8
5.0
4.7
4.9
4.8
4.9
5.2
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.8
4.8
5.0
4.6
4.9
5.0
4.7
5.0
4.7
5.0
4.7
4.8
4.7
5.3
4.9
4.5
4.7
Avg.
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.5
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Cultivar/
Experimental Number
Elisa*
Covenant (ATF 802)*
Kitty Hawk 2000*
Tracer*
Wyatt*
Tomahawk GT*
T991
Lancer*
Bonsai*
Floridian (GO-FL3)*
PST-5KI
NA-TDD
GO-SIU2
Ky-31 E+*
LSD3
%
Cover
2001
61.7
40.0
43.3
35.0
46.7
43.3
31.7
50.0
41.7
58.3
38.3
33.3
46.7
61.7
16.0
Avg.
Green up
5.5
5.3
5.2
5.3
5.1
5.1
4.8
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.5
5.4
5.5
5.4
0.6
Avg.
Genetic
Color
4.7
6.6
6.3
6.9
6.0
6.4
7.0
6.1
6.2
4.8
6.1
7.9
5.3
3.8
0.5
Average Monthly Quality 2002–2006
Avg.
Texture
5.9
6.0
5.9
6.2
6.0
5.8
5.7
6.3
6.1
5.5
6.0
6.0
5.6
3.9
0.5
Apr.
4.3
4.0
4.3
4.3
4.2
3.8
3.8
4.1
3.8
4.0
3.9
4.2
4.0
3.5
0.9
May
4.3
4.7
4.5
4.7
4.4
4.6
4.6
4.7
4.7
4.5
4.5
4.3
4.3
3.5
0.6
Jun.
4.4
4.5
4.4
4.2
4.5
4.4
4.5
4.7
4.6
4.3
4.0
4.3
4.0
3.4
1.0
Jul.
5.0
4.7
4.7
4.4
4.7
4.8
4.3
4.5
4.7
4.5
4.1
4.6
4.6
3.5
1.1
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.5
4.5
4.3
4.5
4.0
4.1
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.0
3.5
1.0
Sep.
4.4
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.2
4.3
4.1
4.2
3.9
4.3
4.4
3.8
4.2
3.3
1.0
Oct.
4.9
4.7
4.8
4.8
4.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
4.5
4.3
4.7
4.4
4.4
3.6
1.1
Ratings based on a scale of 1–9 with 9=best measure.
Cultivars marked with “*” became commercially available in 2005.
3
Least Statistical Difference. To determine statistical differences among entries, subtract one entry’s mean from another’s.
If the result is larger than the corresponding LSD value, the two are statistically different.
1
2
Avg.
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.2
3.4
0.6
22
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
TITLE: Creeping Bentgrass Fairway NTEP Evaluation
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate performance of creeping bentgrass cultivars under golf course fairway
management conditions
PERSONNEL: Jack Fry
SPONSOR: National Turfgrass Evaluation Program
INTRODUCTION:
Creeping bentgrass is used for putting greens in Kansas, but several courses are using it on fairways.
In the eastern half of the United States, creeping bentgrass fairways are commonplace. Information
is needed to find which creeping bentgrass cultivars are best suited to use under golf course fairway
conditions.
METHODS:
Creeping bentgrass was seeded on September 24, 2004, in plots measuring 6 x 6 feet. In 2006, the
study area received 3 lbs. N/1,000 ft2. Turf was mowed at 0.5 inches; no aerification or topdressing was
employed. Irrigation was applied to prevent drought stress. An insecticide was applied in July for white
grub control; no other pesticides were applied.
Data were collected on turfgrass quality each month from April to August. Ratings were done visually
on a 0 to 9 scale; 9=best. A quality rating of 7 was considered acceptable for a golf course fairway. In
mid-June, plots were rated for percentage weed cover on a 0 to 100 percent scale.
RESULTS:
Those interested can see results from this location, and others throughout the United States at www.ntep.
org. In general, creeping bentgrasses performed better than colonial bentgrasses. Quality of all grasses
was generally better in June and July than in other months. Top performing cultivars included ‘Alpha’,
‘Penneagle II’, ‘Pennlinks II’, ‘L-93’, ‘SR-119’, ‘T-1’, ‘Independence’, ‘Kingpin’, ‘LS-44’, ‘Penncross’,
and ‘Princeville’.
‘Seaside’ had the highest level of weed encroachment in mid-June. No other creeping bentgrass cultivars
had significant levels of weeds, but several colonial bentgrasses had levels higher than 10 percent.
23
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Table 1. Visual ratings of creeping and colonial bentgrass cultivars maintained under fairway
conditions at Manhattan, KS, in 2006.
______________________________________________________________________________
Quality
Weeds (%)April
May
June
July August
Mean
Name
______________________________________________________________________________
Alpha
0.7
4.3
5.3
6.7
7.3 6.3
6.0
Penneagle II
0.7
4.0
5.0
7.3
7.0 6.3
5.9
Pennlinks II
3.7
4.7
6.7
7.0
6.0 5.0
5.9
PST-OEB
1.7
4.7
6.0
6.3
6.3 5.7
5.8
13-M
0.3
3.7
4.7
6.3
7.0 7.0
5.7
IS-AP 14**
0.3
3.0
4.7
7.0
6.7 7.0
5.7
L-93
1.0
3.7
6.0
6.3
6.7 6.0
5.7
SR 1119
1.3
4.0
5.3
6.7
6.7 6.0
5.7
T-1
1.7
3.3
4.7
7.3
7.0 6.3
5.7
SR 1150 (SRX 1PDH) 0.3
3.0
4.7
7.0
7.3 6.0
5.6
Independence
1.0
4.0
5.3
6.0
6.0 6.0
5.5
Kingpin (9200)
0.7
2.7
4.3
6.3
6.7 7.3
5.5
LS-44
1.3
3.7
5.0
6.7
6.3 6.0
5.5
Penncross
6.7
4.7
6.3
6.3
5.3 4.3
5.5
6.0
4.7
5.3
6.0
5.3 5.0
5.3
Princeville
Bengal
3.7
3.3
5.0
6.3
5.3 5.3
5.1
Mackenzie (SRX 1GPD) 1.3
3.3
4.3
5.7
6.0 6.0
5.1
Authority (235050)
0.7
2.7
4.0
6.0
6.3 6.0
5.0
Declaration
1.0
2.7
4.0
6.7
6.0 5.3
4.9
Shark (23R)
0.7
2.7
4.0
5.3
6.3 6.3
4.9
Tiger II**
9.0
5.0
5.7
5.3
4.3 3.7
4.9
PST-9NBC**
5.3
4.7
5.7
5.0
4.7 4.0
4.8
EWTR**
4.3
43.
5.7
5.0
5.0 3.7
4.7
SR 7150**
11.7
5.0
5.3
5.0
4.3 4.0
4.7
Bardot
15.0
4.7
5.3
5.0
4.3 3.7
4.6
IS-AT 7**
11.0
4.7
5.0
4.7
4.7 4.0
4.6
PST-9VN**
10.3
4.7
5.0
4.7
4.7 4.0
4.6
5.3
4.0
3.7 3.0
4.2
Seaside
26.7
5.0
1.3
1.0
1.0
1.6
1.1
0.8
LSD*
10.9
______________________________________________________________________________
*Least Statistical Difference. To determine statistical differences among entries, subtract the mean
of one entry from that of another. A statistical difference occurs when the value is larger than
the corresponding LSD value.
24
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
TITLE:
NTEP Buffalograss Cultivar Trial
OBJECTIVE:
Evaluate buffalograss cultivars for use in Kansas
PERSONNEL:
Steve Keeley
INTRODUCTION:
Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) is a warm-season grass that is native to the Great Plains. It is
considered to be the lowest-maintenance turfgrass for use in Kansas. After establishment, it can be
grown without supplemental irrigation. Fertilizer requirements are also minimal ­– 1 lb. N/1,000 ft2 per
year is adequate. However, better turf quality can be obtained with occasional irrigation during very dry
periods. An additional pound of nitrogen per 1,000 ft2 will darken color and improve density.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Ten buffalograss cultivars were planted in July 2002 at the Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Field in
Manhattan. The trial was mowed at 2.5 inches and fertilized with 2 lb. N/1,000 ft2 per year. The turf was
irrigated to prevent dormancy. No fungicides or insecticides were applied.
Turf quality was rated monthly from April to September on a visual scale of 1 to 9, where 1=dead turf
and 9=optimum color, density, and uniformity. The cultivars were also rated for genetic color, spring
green-up, leaf texture, and fall color retention.
RESULTS:
The 2006 growing season was the fourth – and final – year for this trial. The summarized data for all
four years of this trial can be viewed at www.ntep.org.
Data for 2006 are shown in Tables 1 and 2.
25
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Table 1. Monthly turfgrass quality of buffalograss cultivars grown in Manhattan, KS, in 2006.
Turfgrass quality1
April
May
June
July
August
Cultivar
Legacy
609
SWI-2000
Density
Texoka
Bowie
Bison
378
Frontier Turfallo
NE 95-55
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.3
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.3
2.5
4.3
7.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.3
6.0
5.3
6.0
6.0
6.0
5.3
6.0
6.0
7.0
6.0
5.3
5.7
5.0
6.5
4.7
7.0
6.3
7.3
5.7
7.0
6.7
6.0
5.7
6.0
5.0
September
Mean
7.3
7.0
6.0
6.3
6.3
7.0
5.7
6.7
4.3
6.7
6.7
6.3
7.3
6.0
5.3
6.0
5.3
6.0
6.2
6.0
5.9
5.9
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.7
5.7
5.2
1.1
2.2
1.1
1.9
0.9
1.7
1.1
C.V. (%)
16.3
13.2
9.9
13.8
7.8
12.6
8.2
1/
1-9 scale; 9=Ideal turf.
2/
Minimum significant difference based on the Waller-Duncan K-ratio t-Test. If the difference between any two means is less than
this value, the means are not significantly different from one another.
MSD2
26
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Table 2. Spring green up, genetic color, leaf texture,1 and fall color retention of buffalograss
cultivars grown 3in Manhattan, KS, in 2006.
Leaf Texture
Fall Color Retention4
Spring Green up
Genetic Color2
Legacy
5.0
7.0
8.0
4.3
SWI-2000
5.0
6.7
8.0
5.0
Bowie
4.3
7.0
8.0
4.7
NE 95-55
5.3
7.0
7.0
4.3
Texoka
5.0
6.7
8.0
4.3
378
4.0
7.0
8.0
4.0
Density
3.7
5.0
8.0
6.3
Bison
4.3
7.0
7.0
5.0
609
4.7
6.7
7.7
5.7
Frontier Turfallo
3.0
6.0
7.0
4.5
1.7
0.5
0.3
2.1
C.V. (%)
16.7
4.9
2.4
18.6
1/
1-9 scale; 9=Completely green.
2/
1-9; 9= Darkest green.
3/
1-9; 9=Very fine.
4/
1-9; 9=Complete color retention (rated in early October).
5/
Minimum significant difference based on the Waller-Duncan K-ratio t-Test. If the difference between any two means is less than this value, the
means are not significantly different from one another.
6/
Not significant.
MSD5
27
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
TITLE:
2002 National Bermudagrass Test
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate bermudagrass cultivars under Kansas conditions and submit data
collected to the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program
PERSONNEL:
Linda R. Parsons and Rodney St. John
SPONSOR:
USDA National Turfgrass Evaluation Program
INTRODUCTION:
Bermudagrass is a popular warm-season turfgrass that is heat- and drought-tolerant as well as wear
resistant. It has a wide range of uses and is especially suited to athletic-field turf. Kansas represents
the northernmost region in the central United States where bermudagrass can be successfully grown as
a perennial turfgrass. Historically, few cultivars that have both acceptable quality and adequate coldtolerance have been available to local growers. New introductions of interest are continually being
selected for improved hardiness and quality; seeded varieties, in particular, show the potential for
improved winter survival. Both seeded and vegetative types need regular evaluation to determine longrange suitability for use in Kansas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
In June 2002, three replications each of 42 bermudagrass cultivars and experimental numbers were
planted in a randomized complete block design at the John C. Pair Horticultural Center in Wichita, KS.
Twenty-nine entries were seeded; 13 vegetative entries were plugged with 12-inch spacings. Starter
fertilizer was incorporated into the study plots at planting time at a rate of 1.0 lb. N/1,000 ft2. Plot
fertility was maintained at 0.5 to 0.75 lb. N/1,000 ft2 per growing month. Plots were mowed once a week
during the growing season at 0.75 to 1.0 inch, and irrigated as necessary to prevent dormancy. Weeds,
insects, and diseases were controlled only to prevent severe stand loss.
During the course of the study, we information is collected on spring green-up, genetic color, leaf
texture, seed head density, quality, and other measures when appropriate. Rating is done on a scale of
1=poorest, 6=acceptable, and 9=optimum measure.
RESULTS:
The 2006 growing season was begun with looking at greenup. By May 11, the vegetative varieties
‘Ashmore’, ‘Midlawn’, ‘OKC 70-18’, and ‘Patriot’, and the seeded variety ‘Yukon’ were the greenest
(Table 1). Turf quality was rated monthly from May through September. Quality ratings were influenced
by degree of coverage and weed infestation as well as turf color, texture, density, and the presence
of seed heads. The best overall vegetative performers were ‘Patriot’, ‘Midlawn’, ‘OKC 70-18’, and
‘Premier (OR 2002)’; and the best seeded, ‘Yukon’ and ‘Riviera’. As clean-looking turf with no seed
heads is preferred, seed head density was rated in spring, summer, and fall. At the end of May, most
of the turfgrass plots had few, if any, seed heads (Table 2). In July, vegetative varieties ‘Patriot’, ‘MSChoice’, and ‘Premier (OR 2002)’ and seeded varieties ‘CIS-CD6’ and ‘SWI-1044’ had the fewest
28
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
seed heads; in September, the vegetative varieties ‘Ashmore’, ‘MS-Choice’, and ‘Midlawn’ and seeded
variety ‘SWI-1046’ had the fewest. Mid-season, turfgrass stands were rated for overall density, with
the densest found to be vegetative varieties ‘OKC 70-18’, ‘Midlawn’, and ‘Patriot’ and seeded varieties
‘SWI-1044’, ‘Riviera’, and ‘SWI-1012’. Turf color and texture were reviewed near the end of the
growing season, with vegetative entries ‘Patriot’, ‘Tifway’, and ‘Celebration’, and seeded entry ‘Yukon’
the darkest green. Vegetative entries ‘Ashmore’, ‘Midlawn’, ‘Premier (OR 2002)’, and ‘Tifway’, and
seeded entries ‘SWI-1044’ and ‘SWI-1046’ had the finest texture.
More information on the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program and nationwide 2002 National
Bermudagrass Test results can be found at www.ntep.org.
29
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Table 1. Performance of bermudagrass cultivars in 2006 at Wichita, KS.1
Cultivar/
Spring
2
Experimental
Number
S
or
V
Green
up May
Jun.
Patriot*3
V
5.0
5.3
5.3
Midlawn*
V
5.3
6.0
5.3
Yukon*
S
5.0
5.3
5.0
OKC 70-18
V
5.0
5.0
5.3
Premier (OR 2002)*
V
4.7
5.0
6.0
Riviera*
S
4.0
4.0
5.3
Tifway*
V
3.7
4.3
5.3
Tifsport*
V
3.3
4.3
5.0
Tift No. 4
V
3.0
4.0
4.7
SWI-1044
S
2.3
3.3
4.7
Contessa (SWI-1045)*
S
2.7
3.3
4.0
SWI-1046
S
3.0
3.0
4.0
SWI-1014
S
4.0
4.3
4.0
CIS-CD6
S
3.7
4.0
4.3
SWI-1012
S
3.0
3.3
4.0
Aussie Green*
V
3.3
4.3
5.0
Celebration*
V
2.0
2.7
4.3
MS-Choice*
V
2.0
2.0
4.0
Sunbird (PST-R68A)*
S
2.3
3.0
3.7
LaPaloma (SRX 9500)*
S
3.0
3.0
3.7
CIS-CD7
S
3.0
3.0
4.0
Tift No. 3
V
2.0
2.0
4.0
Ashmore*
V
6.0
6.0
4.7
Panama*
S
2.3
2.3
3.3
CIS-CD5
S
2.3
2.3
3.0
Princess 77*
S
2.0
1.7
3.0
FMC-6*
S
2.3
2.7
3.3
SR 9554*
S
2.7
2.7
3.3
Sundevil II*
S
3.0
3.0
3.0
Transcontinental*
S
2.3
3.0
3.3
Sunstar*
S
3.0
3.0
3.0
SWI-1001
S
2.0
2.3
3.3
B-14
S
3.0
2.0
3.0
GN-1*
V
2.7
2.7
3.7
SWI-1041 (Veracruz)*
S
2.0
1.3
3.0
Mohawk*
S
2.3
2.3
3.0
SWI-1003
S
2.3
2.0
2.7
Southern Star*
S
2.3
2.3
3.0
NuMex Sahara*
S
2.7
2.3
3.0
Arizona Common*
S
2.7
2.3
2.7
Tift No. 1
S
2.3
1.3
2.3
Tift No. 2
S
2.5
1.7
1.3
0.8
0.7
0.9
LSD4
Quality
Jul.
Aug.
6.7
6.7
6.3
6.3
5.0
7.3
5.7
6.7
5.0
6.0
5.3
7.0
5.3
5.7
5.0
6.0
4.3
6.3
5.0
6.0
5.0
5.7
5.0
6.0
4.7
5.7
4.7
5.3
4.3
5.7
4.7
4.7
4.3
6.3
5.0
5.3
4.7
5.0
4.3
4.7
4.0
5.0
4.0
5.3
2.3
3.0
4.0
5.0
4.0
5.3
3.7
6.0
3.7
4.7
4.0
4.7
4.0
4.3
3.7
4.7
4.0
4.0
3.7
4.7
4.0
4.7
3.3
4.0
3.7
5.0
3.7
4.3
3.0
4.3
3.7
4.0
3.3
4.0
3.3
3.7
3.0
4.7
1.7
2.3
0.9
1.3
Sep.
4.3
3.7
4.0
3.7
4.3
4.7
4.0
3.7
4.7
4.3
5.0
5.0
4.0
4.0
5.0
3.3
4.3
3.7
3.3
3.7
3.3
4.0
2.7
4.0
3.7
4.0
3.7
3.3
3.3
3.0
3.5
3.3
3.3
3.3
4.0
3.0
4.3
3.0
3.0
3.3
3.7
2.0
1.2
Avg.
5.7
5.5
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
4.9
4.8
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.0
3.9
3.9
3.9
3.9
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.6
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.1
3.1
3.0
1.8
0.6
Ratings based on a scale of 1–9; 9=best measure.
Seeded or vegetative varieties.
3
Cultivars marked with “*” became commercially available in 2007
4
Least Statistical Difference. To determine statistical differences among entries, subtract one entry’s mean from
another’s. If the result is larger than the corresponding LSD value, the two are statistically different.
1
2
30
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Table 2. Performance of bermudagrass cultivars in 2006 at Wichita, KS, continued1.
Seed
Heads
Cultivar/
Genetic
Summer
May
Experimental Number
S or V2
Color
Texture
Density
Patriot*
V
8.0
5.0
7.0
9.0
Midlawn*
V
7.0
8.7
7.0
9.0
Yukon*
S
7.7
6.0
5.7
9.0
OKC 70-18
V
4.3
7.3
7.3
9.0
Premier (OR 2002)*
V
6.3
8.0
5.3
9.0
Riviera*
S
6.3
5.7
6.3
9.0
Tifway*
V
8.0
8.0
6.7
9.0
Tifsport*
V
7.3
7.3
6.7
9.0
Tift No. 4
V
6.3
6.7
5.3
9.0
SWI-1044
S
5.0
6.3
6.7
9.0
Contessa (SWI-1045)*
S
6.3
5.7
5.0
9.0
SWI-1046
S
7.0
6.3
5.7
9.0
SWI-1014
S
6.7
4.7
5.0
9.0
CIS-CD6
S
5.0
5.7
6.0
8.3
SWI-1012
S
7.0
6.0
6.3
9.0
Aussie Green*
V
6.0
5.0
5.3
9.0
Celebration*
V
7.7
6.3
5.7
9.0
MS-Choice*
V
5.3
5.0
5.3
9.0
Sunbird (PST-R68A)*
S
4.7
5.3
5.3
9.0
LaPaloma (SRX 9500)*
S
5.3
5.3
5.0
9.0
CIS-CD7
S
6.0
4.7
4.3
9.0
Tift No. 3
V
5.3
5.3
4.3
9.0
Ashmore*
V
5.0
9.0
5.3
9.0
Panama*
S
4.7
5.3
5.0
9.0
CIS-CD5
S
5.7
5.0
4.7
9.0
Princess 77*
S
5.7
5.3
4.7
9.0
FMC-6*
S
4.7
5.3
4.7
9.0
SR 9554*
S
5.0
5.0
4.0
9.0
Sundevil II*
S
4.3
5.0
4.7
9.0
Transcontinental*
S
5.0
4.3
4.7
9.0
Sunstar*
S
5.0
5.0
5.0
9.0
SWI-1001
S
4.7
5.0
4.7
8.7
B-14
S
5.0
5.0
3.7
9.0
GN-1*
V
7.0
4.7
4.0
9.0
SWI-1041 (Veracruz)*
S
5.0
5.3
5.0
9.0
Mohawk*
S
4.0
5.0
4.0
9.0
SWI-1003
S
4.7
5.7
4.3
8.7
Southern Star*
S
5.3
5.0
4.7
9.0
NuMex Sahara*
S
5.0
5.0
4.0
9.0
Arizona Common*
S
5.0
5.0
3.7
9.0
Tift No. 1
S
6.3
5.3
4.0
9.0
Tift No. 2
S
6.0
6.0
2.5
9.0
1.2
1.1
1.1
0.4
LSD3
Seed
Heads
July
9.0
7.7
6.7
8.3
8.7
7.0
8.0
8.0
6.0
7.7
6.0
7.0
7.0
7.7
6.7
8.3
6.7
8.7
6.3
7.0
6.0
8.0
8.0
6.7
5.7
6.7
7.0
6.3
5.3
6.0
7.0
7.0
6.0
8.0
5.7
7.0
5.7
6.0
6.7
7.0
5.7
7.5
1.1
Seed
Heads
Sept.
8.7
9.0
5.7
6.0
7.7
5.7
8.7
8.0
5.3
5.7
5.0
6.7
5.3
4.7
5.7
7.3
8.0
9.0
5.0
4.0
4.0
8.0
9.0
5.0
4.3
5.0
4.3
4.0
4.0
4.7
4.0
4.7
4.7
7.3
4.7
5.0
4.7
4.0
5.7
4.3
5.0
4.5
1.3
Ratings based on a scale of 1–9; 9=best measure.
Seeded or vegetative varieties.
3
Least Statistical Difference. To determine statistical differences among entries, subtract one entry’s mean from
another’s. If the result is larger than the corresponding LSD value, the two are statistically different.
1
2
31
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
TITLE: Preventative Fungicide Applications for Management of Dollar Spot
on Greens-height Creeping Bentgrass
PERSONNEL: Megan Kennelly, Jack Fry, Alan Zuk
SPONSORS:
Bayer, Syngenta, BASF
INTRODUCTION:
Dollar spot is caused by the fungus Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. It is a common disease, appearing on
greens nearly every year. It can develop throughout the growing season but is most common in spring
through early summer and again in late summer through early fall. In low-cut (putting green) turf,
the disease appears as sunken patches of tan/brown turf up to 2 inches in diameter. In severe cases,
the infection spots coalesce to form larger blighted areas. Many fungicides are labeled for dollar spot
suppression in golf courses. This test was done to evaluate several standard and newer materials.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Fungicides were evaluated on an established stand of ‘Penncross’ creeping bentgrass on a sand-based
putting green at the Rocky Ford Turf Research Center, Manhattan, KS. The turf was mowed to a height
of 0.156 inch, irrigated daily for 15 minutes, and fertilized during the season with 5.52 lb. total N/1,000
ft2. Applications were made at 2-, 3-, or 4-week intervals beginning May 31, with the final application on
Sep. 20. Fungicides were applied with a CO2-powered boom sprayer with XR Tee Jet 8003VS nozzles
at 30 psi in water equivalent to 2.0 gal/1,000 ft2. Plots were 5 X 7 feet and arranged in a randomized
complete block design with four replications. Plots were rated every 1 to 3 weeks from July 19 through
September 21 by counting the number of dollar spot infection centers per plot.
RESULTS:
Dollar spot developed at low levels in late July and increased through August and September. All
materials provided significant disease reductions compared to the unsprayed control (Table 1). Chipco
26GT, Emerald, Headway, and Spectro 90 WDG provided excellent control (less than 2 infection centers
per plot) on all rating dates. Daconil Ultrex provided significant control compared to the untreated
plots but the 1.8-oz. rate allowed a modest amount of disease under high pressure late in the season.
Similarly, Bayleton 50 WSP (0.5 oz. on 28-day interval) provided significant control but did allow some
breakthrough under high disease pressure. No phytotoxic effects were observed.
32
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Table 1. Preventative fungicide applications for management of dollar spot on creeping bentgrass.
Spray
Dollar spot infection centers per plot**
2*
Treatment and rate/1,000 ft
interval 19
11
25
29
5
13
21
(days)
Jul
Aug
Aug
Aug
Sep
Sep
Sep
Unsprayed control
Chipco 26 GT
4 oz
Emerald
0.13 oz
Emerald
0.18 oz
Emerald
0.18 oz
Headway
3 oz
Headway
1.5 oz
Bayleton 50 WSP
0.5 oz
Bayleton 50 WSP
0.25 oz
Daconil Ultrex 82.5 WDG
1.8 oz
Daconil Ultrex 82.5 WDG
3.2 oz
Spectro 90 WDG
4 oz
-14
0.0a
0.3a
12.5a
0.0b
22.8a
0.0c
79.3a
0.0c
98.3a
0.0c
173.0a
0.0c
131.3a
0.0c
14
0.0a
0.0b
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
0.3bc
21
0.0a
0.0b
0.3bc
1.0bc
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
28
0.0a
0.0b
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
28
0.3a
0.0b
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
14
0.5a
0.5b
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
28
0.3a
0.0b
0.0c
0.0c
0.3c
4.8bc
3.8bc
14
0.3a
0.3b
0.0c
0.3
1.3c
0.5c
0.8bc
14
0.0a
0.0b
2.5b
6.3b
13.0b
7.8b
5.8b
14
1.8a
0.5b
0.0c
0.5bc
1.3c
1.3c
0.8bc
14
0.3a
0.0b
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
0.0c
*
Fungicide applications were initiated on 31 May. 14-day interval application calendar dates were
31 May, 14 and 28 Jun, 12 and 26 Jul, 9 and 23 Aug, and 6 and 20 Sep. 21-day interval application
calendar dates were 31 May, 21 Jun, 12 Jul, 2 and 23 Aug, and 13 Sep. 28-day interval calendar dates
were 31 May, 28 Jun, 26 Jul, 23 Aug, and 20 Sep.
**
Values are means of four replicates. Values were log (x +1) transformed prior to analysis to stabilize
variance and back-transformed for presentation. Means within columns followed by the same letter are
not significantly different according to Tukey’s pairwise comparisons (family error rate p = 0.05).
33
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Title:
Large Patch as Affected by Cultivation Practices and Timing
of Nitrogen Application
Objective: Evaluate cultivation practices, including core aerification, verticutting, and sand topdressing in conjunction with time
of N application for effects on large patch
Personnel: Jack Fry and Megan Kennelly
SPONSORS:
Kansas Turfgrass Foundation
INTRODUCTION:
Cultural practices are a critical component in turfgrass disease management. Prior work by Ned Tisserat
and David Green at Kansas State University has determined that large patch in zoysia is favored by
lower mowing heights, but is not influenced by pre-emergence herbicides. In the same study, there
were no differences in large patch due to source (organic vs. synthetic) or rate (high or low) of N.
However, in these experiments, N was applied in June and August, not in spring or fall when large
patch is most active. Early spring fertilization of zoysiagrass is commonly practiced to speed green
up, which leads to the presence of susceptible turf during the peak large patch infection period. Some
superintendents apply nitrogen in late summer and autumn to delay dormancy, which could increase fall
susceptibility to disease. The hypothesis that spring and fall nitrogen applications increase large patch
remains to be tested
The disease that causes large patch infects plants at the sheath level. This led us to hypothesize that
promoting a drier soil surface/thatch layer with aerification, verticutting, and topdressing helps keep a
drier environment around leaf sheaths where the disease initially occurs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Plots in a split-plot design were established at the Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center Manhattan,
KS. Whole plots were the cultivation treatment and sub-plots were fertilizer timing. Cultivation in 2006
was done on June 5 and included aerification, verticutting, and topdressing. Aerification was done
with a John Deere hydraulic aerifier that created holes 0.5 inch in diameter and about 1.5 inches deep.
There were 64 holes punched per square foot. Cores were allowed to dry and then broken up by running
a verticutter across the surface. Topdressing was applied to provide dry sand at a rate of about 1,400 lbs.
per 1,000 ft2. A second topdressing of sand was applied in early July at about 320 lbs. of sand per
1,000 ft2.
The two fertilizer timing regimes in 2006 included: i) summer fertilization, and ii) early spring and
late summer fertilization. Traditional summer fertilization was accomplished by applying 2 lbs. of N
1,000 ft2 on June 12. For early spring and late summer fertilization, 0.5 lbs. of N per from urea was
applied on April 14, May 16, August 22, and September 25.
34
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
RESULTS:
A significant outbreak of large patch began in the study area in autumn 2006. Nitrogen fertilizer timing
had no effect on large patch. However, zoysiagrass that was cultivated (aerified, verticut, topdressed) had
significantly more large patch than untreated turf on September 29 and October 5 (Figure 1). This result
contradicted expectations, and the explanation is yet to be determined. It is possible that the pathogen is
spread with the cultivation process, or that cultivation somehow creates a more desirable environment
in the turf canopy for the disease to proliferate. This work continues in 2007, and we hope to expand the
scope of the study.
Fig. 1. Influence of zoysiagrass cultivation in June on resulting large patch levels in autumn 2006.
70
Aerify , verticut ,
& topdress
60
a
a
Untreated
50
b
40
30
Large patch (%)
20
b
10
0
May 12
May 18
Sep 20
Sep 29
Oct 5
35
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
TITLE:
Effects of Drought on the Performance of Two Hybrid Bluegrasses, Kentucky
Bluegrass and Tall Fescue
OBJECTIVE:
Evaluate the effects of drought on the visual quality and photosynthesis in two
hybrid bluegrasses (‘Thermal Blue’ and ‘Reveille’), one Kentucky bluegrass
(‘Apollo’), and one tall fescue (‘Dynasty’)
AUTHOR:
Kemin Su, Dale Bremer, Steve Keeley, Jack Fry
SPONSORS:
The Scotts Co., GCSAA, Kansas Turfgrass Foundation
INTRODUCTION:
Drought stress is a major problem in cool-season turfgrasses during summer months in the U.S.
transition zone. Kentucky bluegrass is a fine-textured, high quality cool-season turfgrass commonly
used in athletic fields and golf courses fairways and roughs. The performance of Kentucky bluegrass is
marginal in the transition zone because of its sensitivity to drought. Tall fescue, also a cool-season grass,
is sometimes used in golf course roughs and is popular in lawns because of its good drought resistance,
but some golf course superintendents do not like its coarser texture. Hybrid bluegrasses, which are
genetic crosses between native Texas bluegrass and Kentucky bluegrass, may have similar visual quality
as Kentucky bluegrass but greater drought- and heat-resistance than other cool-season grasses. To further
complicate the issue, increasing competition for water among industry, agriculture, and the public has
resulted in restrictions on turfgrass irrigation.
New cultivars of hybrid bluegrasses are being investigated as potential alternatives that may perform
better under drought than current cool-season turfgrasses. Despite the potential for using hybrid
bluegrasses in lawns and golf course fairways and roughs, little scientific data are available about the
field performances of hybrid bluegrasses in the transition zone, including under well-watered and
drought conditions.
METHODS:
This study was conducted from 3 August to 8 October, 2004, and from 27 June to 15 September,
2005, under an automated rainout shelter (180 m2) at the Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center near
Manhattan, KS (Fig. 1). Thirty two plots (1.36 x 1.76 m) of a Kentucky bluegrass (‘Apollo’), a tall
fescue (‘Dynasty’), and two hybrid bluegrasses (‘Reveille’ and ‘Thermal Blue’) were arranged in a
randomized complete block design with four replications; plots were bordered by metal edging (10 cm
depth) to prevent lateral soil-water movement between adjacent plots. One water deficit treatment,
which included the replacement of 60% of the water lost from plant and soil surfaces via
evapotranspiration (ET), was applied to 16 plots, or 4 plots (reps) of each species/cultivar. The
remaining 16 plots were well watered (100% ET replacement) and served as a control. To determine
irrigation requirements, evapotranspiration (ET) was calculated by using the Penman-Monteith equation
(FAO, 1998) and climatological data obtained at a weather station located at Rocky Ford Turfgrass
Research Center. Water was applied twice weekly through a fan spray nozzle attached to a hose; a meter
was attached to ensure proper application rate. Plots were mowed at 7.62 cm twice a week with a walkbehind rotary mower.
Turf visual quality was rated on a scale of 1 to 9 (1=poorest quality, 6=minimally acceptable, and
9=highest quality) according to color, texture, density, and uniformity. Quality ratings were recorded
weekly by the same individual during the 2-year study. Photosynthesis was measured biweekly on clear
days between 1000 and 1400 CST with an LI-6400 portable gas exchange system using a custom surface
36
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
chamber. Permanent polyvinyl chloride collars (10-cm diam.) were placed randomly at one location in
each plot and were driven approximately 5 cm into the soil. Gross photosynthesis (Pg) was estimated
as the sum of photosynthesis measured by sunlit chamber and respiration measured by shaded chamber.
In all plots, the volumetric soil water content (θv) in the 0- to 50-cm profile was measured weekly using
time domain reflectometry and in drought plots at 5 cm using dual-probe heat-pulse sensors.
RESULTS:
In well-watered plots, visual quality was highest in tall fescue and lowest in Thermal Blue among
species and cultivars. Visual quality was generally higher in Reveille than Thermal Blue during the
second month of the study (Fig. 2A).
In the drought treatment, tall fescue also had the highest visual quality among species and cultivars. The
visual quality of Reveille was greater than Thermal Blue and Kentucky bluegrass as the plots dried, but
then became similar to Thermal Blue and Kentucky bluegrass during the most severe part of drought
(Fig. 2B). After termination of the drought treatment and upon re-watering (on 70 DOT), Thermal Blue
and Reveille recovered faster than Kentucky bluegrass, and both hybrid bluegrasses had higher visual
quality than Kentucky bluegrass late in the study (Fig. 1B).
In well-watered conditions, Pg was generally greatest in TF among species and cultivars (Fig. 3A). In
the drought treatment, Pg was greater in TF than in Thermal Blue and KBG during the first two weeks,
but Pg thereafter became similar among cultivars and species. There was generally no difference in Pg
between TF and Reveille (Fig. 3B).
CONCLUSIONS:
In well-watered and drought treatments, tall fescue had highest the visual quality and greatest
Pg among species and cultivars. In the drought treatment, Reveille performed better than Thermal
Blue, and both hybrids (i.e., Thermal Blue and Reveille) recovered from drought more quickly
than Kentucky bluegrass. In general, the performances ranked: tall fescue > Reveille >= Thermal
Blue=Kentucky bluegrass.
37
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Figure 1. Rainout shelter (180 m2) at Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center near Manhattan, KS. The
rainout shelter automatically moved over plots (on tracks) when rainfall began, then retracted one hour
after rainfall ended.
38
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Figure 2. Visual quality of Thermal Blue (HBG1), Reveille (HBG2), Kentucky bluegrass (KBG), and
tall fescue (TF) rated on a scale of 1 to 9 (1=poorest and 9=highest) under well-watered (A) and drought
(B) conditions in 2005. Means followed with the same letter on a given day after treatment initiation
(days of treatment) are not significantly different (P<0.05).
9
a
a
a a a
a
a
a
a
a
a
ab a ab
bc
c c c
a
a
b b
b b
Visual quality
6
a a a ab
a
b b
7
ab
b
b
a
b
b
a b
ab
6
c
a
b
a
a a
ab b
HBG1
HBG2
KBG
TF
c bc
b
5
b b b
b b
b
c c
c
4
ab
a
b b
5
a b
a
a a
bc bc
c
a
a
a b
a
a
b b
b
a
a a
a
8
ab ab
7
a
a
a
B
Drought
a
8
a
9
A
Well-watered
b b
b b b
4
0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105
0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105
Days of treatment, 2005
39
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Figure 3. Gross photosynthesis (Pg; sum of photosynthesis and respiration) in Thermal Blue (HBG1),
Reveille (HBG2), Kentucky bluegrass (KBG), and tall fescue (TF) in well-watered (A) and drought (B)
plots in 2005. Means followed with the same letter on a given day after treatment initiation (days of
treatment) were not significantly different (P<0.05).
35
35
Well-watered
A
Drought
B
a
30
30
a
a
a
a
a
a
-2
ab
b
b
b
bc
20
a
b
15
b
a
a
b
b b
a
b
a
a
a
a
b
a
b
a
a
10
10
5
ab
b
b
(mmol
m
c
c
a
a
b
b
25
ab
b
20
15Pg
b
a
)
25s
-1
a
HBG1
HBG2
KBG
TF
0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98
a
5
0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98
Days of treatment, 2005
40
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
TITLE:
Comparative Irrigation Requirements of 30 Cultivars of Kentucky Bluegrasses under a Large Rainout Facility in the Transition Zone
OBJECTIVES: 1. Develop and implement a novel method for concurrently comparing
irrigation requirements among 30 cultivars of turfgrasses using a large rainout facility at Kansas State University; 2. produce a database of relative irrigation requirements for 30 cultivars of Kentucky bluegrass;
3. partition cultivars of Kentucky bluegrasses into irrigation-requirement categories of “high, medium, and low”; and 4. conduct dry-down and genetic rooting potential experiments in a greenhouse to evaluate responses to drought and physiological characteristics among the same cultivars as those tested in the field.
AUTHORS: Dale Bremer, Steve Keeley, Jack Fry, and Jason Lewis
SPONSORS: U.S. Golf Association and Turfgrass Producers International
INTRODUCTION:
One of the most important challenges facing the turfgrass industry today is the increasingly limited
supply of water for irrigation. Water conservation and improvement of turfgrass resistance to drought
stresses have become topics of major importance as turf managers face drought across the county.
In 2004, the Environmental Institute for Golf concluded in a task group meeting that future water
availability is a serious issue in the western United States and that data on water use is lacking in many
states. They also noted that state and local drought restrictions may be imposed on turf managers with no
regard for damage to turfgrasses.
Clients and the public (for example, golfers, participants at outdoor sporting events, and lawn owners)
express their displeasure when turfgrass does not meet quality standards they expect – even when
irrigation is restricted. Adding to the issue’s importance, land acreage covered with turfgrasses is rapidly
expanding. A 2005 NASA study indicated that turfgrass covers an area three times greater than any
other irrigated crop in the United States. Identifying cultivars that use less water and tolerate drought
better could result in significant water savings.
Kentucky bluegrass is one species commonly used on golf course roughs and fairways, in sports
fields, and in home and commercial lawns. Information is needed on Kentucky bluegrass cultivars that
conserve water while maintaining acceptable quality.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The project is being conducted in a fully automated, mobile rainout shelter (12 x 12 m) and in a
greenhouse facility located at Kansas State University, Manhattan, during the summers of 2007
and 2008.
Cultivars and turfgrass management
Turfgrasses in the study include 28 cultivars of Kentucky bluegrass and two Texas bluegrass hybrids
(Table 1). Cultivars were selected to include representatives from major groups, based on similar
phenotypic characteristics, of Kentucky bluegrasses. Most cultivars were best-performers in NTEP trials.
Four standard entries were included in the mix: ‘Midnight’, ‘Baron’, ‘Eagleton’, and ‘Kenblue’.
41
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
On September 19, 2006, Kentucky bluegrasses were seeded at approximately 10 g m‑2 pure live seed
in a randomized block design (Fig. 1). Cultivars were replicated three times each for a total of 90 plots
(plot dimensions: 1.13 x 1.22 m each). Plots were covered with a seed germination blanket (Futerra F4
Netless, Profile Products LLC, Buffalo Grove, IL) to prevent movement of seed across plots from water
or wind. Plots were then irrigated several times daily to maintain a wet seedbed during germination.
Three weeks after seeding during the fall of 2006, germination and establishment were good (Fig. 2).
Turfgrasses were mowed once in the fall of 2006 at approximately 5 cm, and are being maintained
during 2007 and 2008 following typical rough management programs in the Midwest regions.
Irrigation management and data collection
Plots were initially well-watered until June 2007. Thereafter, turfgrasses are being allowed to dry down
without irrigation or precipitation until the first sign of wilt. Individual cultivars will be evaluated a
minimum of three times per week, and plots will be irrigated with approximately one inch of water at
the beginning of wilt. Plots will be evaluated daily as drydown commences and during extremely high
temperatures (e.g., above 30oC). Each plot will be irrigated manually, and irrigation quantity and date for
each plot will be recorded. This experiment will continue through the end of September, including both
hot and cool months to determine possible interactions among cultivars with changes in atmospheric
evaporative demands. Total irrigation requirements of each cultivar for the entire study period will be
summarized. This project will be repeated in 2008 to incorporate further climatic variability. General turf
performance will be evaluated biweekly by visually rating turf quality. To account for plots in different
stages of drydown (e.g., cultivars irrigated on the previous day vs. those that have not been irrigated for
several days), quality of individual plots will be rated on the day after receiving irrigation.
Greenhouse component
The same cultivars used in the field study will be evaluated for rooting depth in the greenhouse using
slanted root tubes. This involves transplanting plugs of turfgrasses into clear polyethylene root tubes
filled with fritted clay. Polyethylene tubes are then inserted into opaque PVC pipe (sleeves). Root
growth can then be monitored periodically along the side of the clear root tubes. When roots in the first
tube reach the bottom of its container, a dry down will be started to evaluate relative drought resistance
among cultivars. Plants will be rewetted to evaluate recovery. Finally, roots will be harvested, dried
in forced-convection ovens, and weighed to compare root biomass among cultivars. This research
will be conducted during 2007, and initial results will be included in next year’s K-State Turfgrass
Research Reports.
42
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Table 1. List of 28 Kentucky bluegrass cultivars and two Texas bluegrass hybrids selected for the 2year study under the rainout shelter at Kansas State University. Groups indicate cultivars with similar
phenotypic characteristics.
Group Common
Compact
Compact America
Julia
Mid-Atlantic
Compact Midnight
Shamrock
BVMG
Aggressive
European
Texas bluegrass hybrids
Cultivar
Kenblue
Wellington
Park
Diva
Skye
Moonlight
Langara
Bedazzled
Apollo
Unique
Kingfisher
Julia
Eagleton
Preakness
Cabernet
Midnight
Midnight II
Blue Velvet
Nu Destiny
Award
Shamrock
Baron
Envicta
Abbey
Limousine
Touchdown
Blue Knight
Bartitia
Thermal Blue Blaze
Longhorn
43
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Figure 1. Plot layout of 28 cultivars of Kentucky bluegrasses and two Texas bluegrass hybrids under
the rainout shelter at Kansas State University. Plot dimensions are 1.13 x 1.22 m each; plots
are arranged in a randomized block design.
1
Block
2
Midnight II
Thermal
3
NORTH
Diva
Shamrock
Bedazzled
Langara
Kingfisher
Envicta
Bartitia
Julia
Blue Velvet
Longhorn
Moonlight
Bartitia
Touchdown
Unique
Eagleton
Nu Destiny
Baron
Shamrock
Wellington
Park
Cabernet
Skye
Bedazzled
Limousine
Abbey
Unique
Skye
Touchdown
Kenblue
Baron
Unique
Blue Knight
Baron
Blue Velvet
Kenblue
Preakness
Bartitia
Limousine
Midnight
Nu Destiny
Midnight
Preakness
Midnight II
Cabernet
Apollo
Envicta
Wellington
Award
Blue Velvet
Shamrock
Touchdown
Diva
Blue Knight
Midnight
Moonlight
Apollo
Preakness
Longhorn
Award
Kenblue
Longhorn
Langara
Park
Abbey
Envicta
Abbey
Thermal
Cabernet
Langara
Park
EAST
WEST
Blue Blaze
Blue Blaze
Eagleton
Nu Destiny
Limousine
Julia
Diva
Kingfisher
Moonlight
Skye
Apollo
Award
Kingfisher
Bedazzled
Blue Knight
Eagleton
Midnight II
Thermal
Wellington
Julia
Blue Blaze
SOUTH
44
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Figure 2. View of plots approximately six weeks after seeding.
45
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
TITLE:
Effects of High Temperature and Drought on a Hybrid Bluegrass Compared with
Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue
OBJECTIVE:
Evaluate effects of high temperature and drought on physiology and growth of
‘Apollo’ Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), ‘Dynasty’ tall fescue (Festuca
arundincea Schreb.), and ‘Thermal Blue’, a hybrid between KBG and Texas
bluegrass (Poa arachnifera Torr.)
AUTHOR:
Kemin Su, Dale Bremer, Steve Keeley, Jack Fry
SPONSORS:
The Scotts Co., GCSAA, Kansas Turfgrass Foundation (KTF)
INTRODUCTION:
High temperature and drought stresses are significant problems in cool-season turfgrasses during
summer months in the U.S. transition zone. High temperature and drought stresses often occur
simultaneously during summer months and may limit growth and cause a severe decline in the visual
quality of cool-season turfgrasses. Recent increases in competition for water have resulted in restrictions
in water use for irrigation of turfgrasses, which further exacerbates the problem of drought stress in coolseason turfgrasses. Predictions of higher temperatures from global warming also suggest that heat stress
in cool-season turfgrasses may become more common in some regions, including the transition zone.
Texas bluegrass hybrids, which are genetic crosses between native Texas bluegrass and Kentucky
bluegrasses, may have greater heat and drought resistance than other cool-season grasses. Hybrid
bluegrasses have similar visual qualities to Kentucky bluegrass, which is a fine-textured, cool-season
turfgrass commonly used in lawns and golf courses in the United States. Consequently, new cultivars
of hybrid bluegrasses are being investigated as potential water-saving, heat-resistant alternatives to
current cool-season turfgrasses. However, little information is available about the effects of both high
temperature and drought on hybrid bluegrasses.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Turfgrasses were exposed for 48 days to supra-optimal (high temperature; 35/25oC, 14-h day/10-h
night) and optimal (control; 22/15oC, 14-h day/10-h night) temperatures under well-watered (100%
evapotranspiration [ET] replacement) and deficit (60% ET replacement) irrigation
Turf visual quality was rated on a scale of 1 to 9 (1=poorest quality, 6=minimally acceptable, and
9=highest quality) according to color, texture, density, and uniformity. Quality ratings were recorded
every 6 d by the same individual during the entire study. Photosynthesis was measured every 6 d at
about 8 h into the daily light cycle, with a LI-6400 portable gas exchange system. Leaf electrolyte
leakage (EL) was measured at 0, 3, 15, 27, 39, and 45 days of heat and drought treatments.
Turfgrasses were mowed every 3 d, and all clippings were collected. Clippings were dried in a forcedair oven for 48 h at 70oC and then weighed. Cumulative dry matter production for each treatment
was determined by summing the dry weights of all clippings during the 48 d study. Daily dry matter
production was calculated as the clipping weight at each mowing divided by the number of days since
the previous mowing.
46
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Soil surface temperature was measured with soil-encapsulated thermocouples. To evaluate potential
cumulative heat effects among treatments during the most stressful periods, heat units (degree-hours)
were calculated as the sum of soil surface temperatures during the final 8 h of each daily light cycle.
Our data indicated that this was the period of maximum soil surface temperatures, which may have had
important physiological impacts on the turfgrasses (e.g., on meristematic activity in the crowns).
At the end of each 48 d replication, aboveground biomass was harvested from each lysimeter and
separated into living and dead components. Green leaves were separated from green shoots and the
area of the leaves was measured with an area meter (LI-3100, LI-COR, Lincoln, NE). All green and
dead tissue was then dried in a forced-air oven for 48 h at 70oC and weighed separately. Green LAI was
calculated as the ratio of the green leaf area to ground surface, and total aboveground biomass for each
treatment was calculated as the sum of the dry weights of all living and dead tissue.
After aboveground biomass was harvested, lysimeters were laid horizontally and cut into three sections
(0 to 15, 15 to 35, and 35 to 57.5 cm). The soil was washed from the roots in each section and roots were
dried in a forced-air oven for 48 h at 70oC and then weighed. Root mass density of each section was
calculated as dry root mass divided by the volume of soil inside each respective section of lysimeter.
RESULTS:
Heat resistance was greater in the hybrid bluegrass, which was illustrated by its greater visual quality
than Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue under high temperature (Fig. 1). The hybrid bluegrass also
exhibited greater photosynthesis, ET, and dry matter production (Table 1), and lower electrolyte leakage
and soil-surface temperatures than Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue under high temperature (data
not shown). Cumulative photosynthesis during the study was 16% and 24% greater in the hybrid than
in Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue, respectively, in the high temperature treatment. Green leaf area
index (LAI) in the hybrid bluegrass was not affected by high temperature, but LAI was reduced by
29 % in Kentucky bluegrass and 38% in tall fescue. Differences in drought resistance were negligible
among species. The combination of high temperature and drought caused rapid declines in visual
quality and dry matter production (Table 1), but the hybrid bluegrass generally performed better;
cumulative photosynthesis decreased by 50% to 60% among all species compared with the control, but
photosynthesis was higher in the hybrid than in tall fescue. Results indicated greater heat resistance, but
not drought resistance, in the hybrid bluegrass than in Kentucky bluegrass or in tall fescue.
Note: More information on this study is available in Crop Science (in press).
47
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Figure 1. Effects on visual quality rated on a scale of 1 to 9 (1=poorest and 9=highest) of: high
temperature (A), drought (B), high temperature and drought (C), and control (D) in Kentucky
bluegrass (KBG), hybrid bluegrass (HBG), and tall fescue (TF). Symbols along the abscissa
of each graph indicate significant differences (P<0.05) between: HBG and KBG (*); HBG and
TF (+); and KBG and TF (+); on a given day after treatment initiation (Days of treatment).
9
9
A
High temperature
8
8
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
9
Drought
B
1
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
High temperature and Drought
Visual quality
8
42
48
C
9
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
C ontrol
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
48
D
8
7
42
KBG
HB G
TF
1
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
D a ys o f tr e a tm e n t
48
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Table 1. Effects on dry aboveground biomass of high temperature, drought, high temperature and
drought, and control in Kentucky bluegrass (KBG), hybrid bluegrass (HBG), and tall fescue (TF).
Aboveground biomass(g m-2)
Treatments
High temperature
Drought
High temperature
and drought
Control
Species
Percentage
of living
biomass in
total (%)
Total
Dead
Living
KBG
1411.8 ef†
776.4 de
635.4 bcdef
45 abcd
HBG
1430.6 def
606.5 de
824.2 abc
58 a
TF
1706.7 bcd
1092.6 abc
614.1 cdef
36 cde
KBG
1596.4 cde
869.5 bcde
726.9 abcd
46 abcd
HBG
1338.7 ef
687.2 de
651.5 bcde
49 abc
TF
1932.6 ab
1153.6 ab
779.0 abc
40 bcde
KBG
1266.4 f
903.1 abcd
363.3 f
29 de
HBG
1179.7 f
718.0 de
461.7 def
39 bcde
TF
1581.3 cde
1205.0 a
376.3 ef
24 e
KBG
1717.6 bc
802.2 cde
915.5 ab
53 ab
HBG
1444.8 cdef
571.4 e
873.4 abc
60 a
TF
2151.1 a
1207.4 a
943.6 a
44 abcd
Means followed by the same letter within a column were not significantly different
(P<0.05).
†
49
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
TITLE:
Mowing Height and Drought Effects on a Texas Bluegrass Hybrid Compared
with Kentucky bluegrass
OBJECTIVE:
Evaluate the effects of mowing height and drought on the visual quality,
photosynthesis, canopy spectral reflectance, and soil moisture of a Kentucky
bluegrass (‘Apollo’) and a hybrid bluegrass (‘Thermal Blue’). Recovery from
drought after re-watering was also investigated.
AUTHOR:
Kemin Su, Dale Bremer, Steve Keeley, Jack Fry
SPONSORS:
The Scotts Co., GCSAA, Kansas Turfgrass Foundation (KTF)
INTRODUCTION:
A growing challenge facing the turfgrass industry is limited availability of water for irrigation. Local
water-use restrictions may be imposed during drought that limit growth and cause severe declines in
the visual quality of many cool-season turfgrasses. In golf courses, lower mowing heights in fairways
may result in additional stress to turfgrass during drought because lower mowing typically reduces
root growth and development. Texas bluegrass hybrids, which are genetic crosses between native
Texas bluegrass and Kentucky bluegrasses, may have greater heat and drought resistance than other
cool-season grasses. Hybrid bluegrasses have similar visual qualities to Kentucky bluegrass, which is
a fine-textured, cool-season turfgrass commonly used in lawns and golf courses in the United States.
Consequently, new cultivars of hybrid bluegrasses are being investigated as potential water-saving,
heat-resistant alternatives to current cool-season turfgrasses. Research is needed to identify species or
cultivars of cool-season turfgrasses that may perform better under drought stress, including maintenance
at lower mowing heights.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This study was conducted from 3 August to 8 October, 2004, and from 27 June to 15 September,
2005, under an automated rainout shelter (180 m2) at the Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center near
Manhattan, KS. Thirty two plots (1.36 m x 1.76 m) of a Kentucky bluegrass and a hybrid bluegrass were
arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications; plots were bordered by metal
edging (10 cm depth) to prevent lateral soil water movement between adjacent plots. Three treatments
were applied to the plots: 1) a low mowing height (3.81 cm); 2) reduced irrigation (replacement of
60% of the water lost from plant and soil surfaces via evapotranspiration [ET]) at higher mowing
height (7.62 cm); and 3) combination of low mowing height (3.81 cm) and reduced irrigation (60% ET
replacement). A control was also included that was well watered (100% ET replacement) and mowed at
the greater height (7.62 cm). Plots were mowed twice a week with a walk-behind rotary mower. Water
was applied twice weekly through a fan spray nozzle attached to a hose; a meter was attached to ensure
proper application rate. To determine irrigation requirements, evapotranspiration (ET) was calculated by
using the Penman-Monteith equation (FAO, 1998) and climatological data obtained at a weather station
located at Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center.
Turf visual quality was rated on a scale of 1 to 9 (1=poorest quality, 6=minimally acceptable, and
9=highest quality) according to color, texture, density, and uniformity. Quality ratings were recorded
weekly by the same individual during the 2-year study. Photosynthesis was measured biweekly on clear
days between 1000 and 1400 CST with a LI-6400 portable gas exchange system using a custom surface
chamber. Permanent polyvinyl chloride collars (10-cm diam.) were placed randomly at one location in
each plot and were driven approximately 5 cm into the soil. Canopy spectral reflectance was measured
weekly on clear days at approximately 1200 CST with a Cropscan multispectral radiometer (MSR)
50
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
(model MSR16, Cropscan Inc., Rochester, MN). Canopy reflectance was measured in eight wavelengths
including 507, 559, 613, 661, 706, 760, 813, and 935 nm. The normalized difference vegetation index
(NDVI) was computed as ([R935-R661] / [R935 +R661]), where Rx indicates reflectance at wavelength
x. The ratio of near infrared to red (NIR / R) was computed as R935 / R661. In all plots, the volumetric
soil water content (θv) in the 0 to 50 cm profile was measured weekly using time domain reflectometry
and in drought plots at 5 cm using dual-probe heat-pulse sensors.
RESULTS:
Low mowing height
In general, our data indicated that this hybrid bluegrass (Thermal Blue) generally performed poorer than
this Kentucky bluegrass (Apollo) in well-watered plots at the low mowing height. Visual quality, which
may be the most important parameter to the turfgrass manager, was not affected in Kentucky bluegrass
by low mowing but was reduced in the hybrid bluegrass (Figs. 1A and 1B). The deleterious effects of
low mowing on photosynthesis and canopy reflectance, which indicate reductions in the vigor or size of
the turfgrass canopy, were generally greater in the hybrid than in Kentucky bluegrass (data not shown).
Drought
Drought significantly reduced the visual quality of both species in 2005, but the effects of drought
on visual quality were less severe in 2004 (Figs. 1C and 1D). In 2005, drought reduced mean visual
quality by 28% in Kentucky bluegrass and by 25% in hybrid bluegrass compared with the control. In
2004, visual quality decreased in drought plots as the study progressed although significantly only in
the hybrid bluegrass. The greater decline in visual quality with drought in 2005 than in 2004 was likely
caused by corresponding higher temperatures during the study. High air temperature may compound
drought stresses by adding heat stress; low soil moisture in drought plots reduces ET and evaporative
cooling in canopies of drought, compared with well-watered plots. Visual quality between species was
similar, although visual quality in the hybrid bluegrass tended to be lower than in Kentucky bluegrass in
drought plots in 2004.
Soil moisture was consistently lower in the hybrid bluegrass (Fig. 2A), which indicates the hybrid
bluegrass may have been more efficient at extracting soil moisture during drought, including at near
the surface (5 cm; data not shown) (i.e., where root density is greater). In general, however, values of
photosynthesis and canopy reflectance were lower in the hybrid than in Kentucky bluegrass (data not
shown), which indicates that any advantage in soil moisture extraction capability by this hybrid during
drought are not reflected in greater performance compared with Kentucky bluegrass.
Effects of low mowing height and drought combined
Visual quality was strongly reduced in Kentucky bluegrass and in the hybrid bluegrass by the
combination of low mowing and drought, and the effects during both years were similar to or more
pronounced than in separate treatments of low mowing or drought (Figs. 1A to 1F). In 2005, visual
quality was significantly lower in the hybrid bluegrass than in Kentucky bluegrass for about the first half
of the study period (Fig. 1F). Visual quality in 2005 averaged 14% lower in the hybrid bluegrass than in
the Kentucky bluegrass.
The combination of low mowing and drought significantly reduced photosynthesis in both species
compared with the control (data not shown). Between species, however, photosynthesis was consistently
lower in the hybrid bluegrass than in Kentucky bluegrass in low mowed and drought plots in 2005.
Soil moisture in the 0-50 cm profile steadily decreased in combination low mowing and drought plots
in 2005, but soil moisture decreased faster in Kentucky bluegrass than in the hybrid (Fig. 2B). Soil
moisture was significantly lower in Kentucky bluegrass than in the hybrid during most of the study,
51
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which was similar to the trend in soil moisture at 5 cm (not shown). Consistently lower soil moisture in
Kentucky bluegrass indicates that Kentucky bluegrass extracted more water from the soil than the hybrid
bluegrass, which in combination with generally higher visual quality suggests (Figs. 1E and 1F) that this
Kentucky bluegrass (Apollo) is better suited for conditions of low mowing height and drought than this
hybrid bluegrass (Thermal Blue).
Recovery after drought and summer stress
The hybrid bluegrass recovered more quickly in drought plots after termination of the drought treatment
and re-watering on 70 DOT (Fig. 1D). Visual quality, which was measured weekly for four weeks
after re-watering, increased more rapidly in the hybrid bluegrass than in Kentucky bluegrass and was
significantly higher in the hybrid than in Kentucky bluegrass during the last two weeks of the recovery
period. The recoveries of the hybrid bluegrass and Kentucky bluegrass were similar, however, in the
combination low mowing and drought treatment (Fig. 1F).
CONCLUSIONS:
In summary, these data indicate that this Kentucky bluegrass (Apollo) generally performed better
than this hybrid bluegrass (Thermal Blue) at the lower mowing height, during drought, and in the
combination of lower mowing height and drought. Therefore, no advantage in drought resistance was
observed in this hybrid compared with Kentucky bluegrass in this study, with the exception of faster
recovery time after drought.
52
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Low mowing height A
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Drought
9
Visual quality
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Low mowing height and drought E
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Control
HBG
7
14
21
28
35
42
D ays of treatment, 2004
49
X
X X
X
56
63
70
X
Drought
D
X
X
Low mowing height and drought F
X
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
G
KBG
0
X
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
C
X
X
Low mowing height B
X
X
X
X
Control
H
KBG
TBG
0
7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105
D ays of treatment, 2005
Figure 1. Visual quality of a Kentucky bluegrass (KBG) and a Texas bluegrass hybrid (TBG) rated on
a scale of 1 to 9 (1=poorest and 9=highest) in treatments: Low mowing height (A, B), drought (C, D),
combination low mowing height and drought (E, F), and control (G, H) in 2004 and 2005. Symbols (+)
along the abscissa of each graph indicate significant difference between HBG and KBG (P<0.05) on a
given day after treatment initiation (Days of treatment).
53
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
0.45
High mowing
A
M HM aheight
n d d r o uand
g h t drought
B
SWC at 0-50 cm profile
0.40
0.35
DKBG
0.30
KBG
DHBG
0.25
HBG
0.20
SWC at 0-50 cm profile
0.15
0.10
0
7
14
21
28
35
42
49
56
63
70
Da ys of tr e a tm e nt, 2 0 0 5
0.45
Low mowing
B
L M H height
a n d d r oand
u g h tdrought
C
SWC at 0-50 cm profile
0.40
0.35
LDKBG
0.30
KBG
LDHBG
0.25
HBG
0.20
SWC at 0-50 cm profile
0.15
0.10
0
7
14
21
28
35
42
49
56
63
70
Da ys of tr e a tm e nt, 2 0 0 5
Figure 2. The effects drought (A) and the combination of low mowing and drought (B) on volumetric
soil water content (SWC) at 0-50 cm in Kentucky bluegrass (KBG) and in a hybrid bluegrass (HBG).
Closed symbols represent SWC in each respective treatment (D=drought; LD=low mowing and
drought combination) and open symbols represent the control (higher mowing height, well watered).
Vertical bars indicate LSD values (P<0.05) among treatments on a given day after treatment initiation
(Days of treatment).
54
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Title:
Freezing Tolerance of New Zoysiagrass Progeny
Objective: Evaluate field performance of 381 zoysiagrass progeny and identify the
potential cultivars that can be used in the transition zone with similar cold
tolerance as ‘Meyer’.
Personnel: Qi Zhang, Jack Fry, Milt Engelke, Dennis Genovesi, and Dale Bremer
SPONSORS:
Heart of America Golf Course Superintendents Association, the Kansas Golf
Course Superintendents Association, and the Kansas Turfgrass Foundation
INTRODUCTION:
‘Meyer’ zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) has been the predominant cultivar used in the transition
zone since its release in 1952 because of its excellent freezing tolerance and good turf quality. However,
it is relatively slow to establish and coarser in texture than cultivars of Z. matrella. Researchers at
Texas A & M released several zoysiagrass cultivars including ‘Crowne’, ‘Cavalier’, ‘Diamond’, and
‘Palisades’ that exhibited higher turf quality than ‘Meyer’ in southern evaluations, but lacked freezing
tolerance necessary in the transition zone. New progeny have been generated from crosses between
freezing-tolerant cultivars and high quality lines that may have desirable characteristics lacking in
‘Meyer’, but with a comparable level of freezing tolerance. Eventually, this may lead to the selection of
one or more high quality cultivars that are well adapted to the transition zone environment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Three hundred seventy-eight genetically different zoysiagrass progeny resulting from crosses at Texas
A & M were space-planted (3-ft centers) as 4- x 4-inch plugs at Manhattan, KS, on 16 August, 2004,
for field evaluation (Table 1). In most cases, 18 offspring from a cross represented a “family” and were
arranged in groups of six in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Meyer was
replicated three times for comparison. The plugs were watered twice and mowed at 4 inches weekly
during the growing season in 2005 and 2006. Urea was applied at 1 lbs/1,000 ft2 on 20 July, 2005, and
28 July, 2006.
Zoysiagrass progeny were evaluated visually for fall color, leaf texture, winter kill, and rate of growth.
Leaf color was used as an indicator for the rate at which each selection enters autumn dormancy and was
evaluated in October and November, from 2004 to 2006 using a 0 to 9 scale, where 0=straw-brown and
9=dark green. On 15 May, 2005, winter kill (damage in 3- x 3-ft area) was evaluated visually using a 0
to 9 scale, where 0=dead and 9=no winter injury. Seventy-eight progeny with no severe winter damage
and high quality were further evaluated in 2005 and 2006 (Tables 2 and 3). Winter kill was recorded
again on 10 May, 2006, and center damage (damage to the initial 4- x 4-inch plug) was also evaluated
with a 0 to 9 scale, where 0=90–100% damage in the initial plug and 9=less than 10% damage. Lateral
spread was determined by measuring the diameter of each selection on 18 May, 2005. Percentage
surface coverage in a 30- x 30-inch square of each selected progeny was measured using a First Growth
digital camera monthly from June to October 2005. Leaf texture of each selection was evaluated
monthly on a 0 to 9 scale, where 0=coarsest texture and 9=finest texture. Data were analyzed with
PROC GLIMMIX procedure. In some cases, means in tables represent an average of several progeny
derived from a particular cross. As such, we are also looking more closely at performance of individual
progeny within some of these crosses. Air and soil surface temperatures were collected using a weather
station located within 30 feet of the study area and dual probe sensors placed in contact with randomly
selected crowns and connected to a CR-10 data collection unit.
55
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RESULTS:
Soil temperature. Soil temperature was recorded from 3 December, 2004, to 30 April, 2005 (Figure 1);
18 October, 2005, to 22 May, 2006 (Figure 2); and 25 September, 2006, to 23 January, 2007. The lowest
temperatures at the soil surface in each year were 7º F on day 359 (24 December) 2004; 25º F on day
341 (7 December), 2005; 28º F on day 17, 2007. Lower soil temperature in the winter, 2004, compared
to the winter, 2005 and 2006, resulted from the colder weather in 2004 and less soil surface coverage by
turf. As the grasses spread out, the difference between soil surface temperature and temperature at a 1
inch depth was gradually reduced.
Field performance. In fall 2004, Meyer, Meyer x BMZ230 (TAES #5322), Meyer x Anderson #2 (TAES
#5323), and Companion x Diamond (TAES # 5332) had lower color ratings in November, indicating an
earlier entry into dormancy (Table 2). Leaf texture ratings were variable, but some selections clearly had
a finer texture than Meyer. Texture is also being evaluated in the greenhouse where duplicate samples
of all progeny are being kept. A lower mowing height, which will be employed when a smaller group of
progeny is selected, will better help separate the progeny based upon leaf texture.
Progeny within 5 crosses, Cavalier x Anderson #1 (TAES #5311), Cavalier x Anderson #2 (TAES
#5312), Meyer x BMZ230 (TAES #5322), Meyer x Anderson #2 (TAES #5323), and Emerald x Zenith
(TAES #5334) had winter damage ratings similar to Meyer on May 15, 2005.
Meyer exhibited a growth rate (diameter) that was as good as any of the averages of the families
evaluated on 15 May, 2005. By October, only 2 progeny from TAES #5330 (Crowne x Companion) had
greater coverage than Meyer.
Seventy-eight progeny exhibiting good freezing tolerance and quality characteristics were identified
for further evaluation in the field on 15 May, 2005 (Table 2). Half of the selected progeny were from
crosses of Cavalier x Anderson #1 (TAES #5311) and Meyer x Anderson #2 (TAES #5323) (Table 2).
No progeny from crosses of Meyer x Cavalier (TAES #5282), Meyer x BMZ230 (TAES #5322), Meyer
x Diamond (TAES #5327), or 8501x Zenith (TAES #5343) were selected due to severe winter damage
or coarse leaf texture. Lower color rating in November 2005 compared to 2004 was due to the faster air
temperature drop in fall 2005.
On 10 May, 2006, Meyer x Anderson #2 (TAES #5323), Meyer x 8501 (TAES #5325), and Companion
x Diamond (TAES #5332) had the same level of winter kill and center damage as Meyer, although
none of the crosses had superior color and texture compared to Meyer. On 30 August, 2006, all selected
progeny had 100% coverage, and Cavalier x Meyer (TAES #5283) and 8501 x Meyer (TAES #5324)
had the highest rating in texture. Crowne x Companion (TAES #5330) and 8501 x Meyer (TAES #5324)
had the best color on 13 October, 2006. All progeny were dormant by 21 November, 2006.
During 2006, we selected 34 zoysiagrass progeny from the study described above, and also from an
additional 241 progeny that were planted in 2005 (the data from these 241 are not included above).
The 34 progeny, along with ‘Meyer’ and DALZ 0102, another zoysia of interest, are listed in Table 4.
These progeny were propagated in the greenhouse in 2006 and were planted in the field in Manhattan
and Olathe in June 2007. Plots will be 5 x 5 ft., with three replicates of each. Grasses will be maintained
under golf course fairway/tee conditions.
56
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Table 1. Zoysiagrass progeny generated from crosses between cold-tolerant and high quality
parental lines.
TAES (#)
5282
5283
5311
5312
5313
5320
5321
5322
5323
5324
5325
5327
5330
5331
5332
5334
5343
Pedigree
Meyer x Cavalier
Cavalier x Meyer
Cavalier x Anderson #1
Cavalier x Anderson #2
Zorro x Meyer
Palisades x Meyer
Emerald x Meyer
Meyer x BMZ230
Meyer x Anderson #2
8501 x Meyer
Meyer x 8508
Meyer x Diamond
Crowne x Companion
Palisades x Companion
Companion x Diamond
Emerald x Zenith
8501 x Zenith
57
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Table 2. Field performance of zoysiagrass progeny from autumn 2004 to 2005 at the Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research
Center, Manhattan, KS.
2005†
# of
2004
2005
# of
15
May
16
Oct.
11
Nov.
18
May
19 Oct.
12 Nov.
progeny
progeny
Color‡
Texture‡
Color‡
Winter
Color‡ Diameter Color‡ Coverage
Color
‡
TAES
to
after
kill
(inch)
(%)
#
start
selection†
*
7.63
5.15
2.56 ef
0
-------------------------------------5282
8
5.50 g
abcd
bcd
--------------5283
10
5.10 gh
7.30 de
4.88 cd
2.26 ef
2
6.92
abc
5311
36
6.33 de
7.19 e
5.28
bcd
7.39 ab
22
7.57 a
5312
36
6.28 e
7.44 cd
5.22 ab
6.31 b
10
7.59 a
5313
36
6.64 abc
7.92 a
5.81 ab
1.89 f
2
7.04
abc
5320
18
6.41
bcde
6.77 ef
5.64
abc
2.28 ef
1
7.12
abc
5321
18
6.61
abcd
7.72 abc
5.44
abc
4.11 cde
4
7.25 ab
5322
18
6.18 ef
6.82 ef
3.83 ef
4.89 bc
0
-----------
5323
36
6.00 f
6.58 fg
3.11 f
8.06 a
19
7.03
abc
5324
36
6.72 ab
7.92 a
5.86 ab
3.33 de
6
7.13
abc
5325
18
6.67 abc
7.50 bcd
6.17 a
1.61 f
1
7.12
abc
7.56 bc
9.13 bc
8.23 bc
7.83 bc
8.11 bc
6.65 c
-------------
11.30 ab
5.87 c
9.29 abc
7.07 a
39.0 ab
1.84
abc
6.23 a
28.3 bc
2.92 a
6.23 a
34.2 b
2.76 a
7.00 a
31.0 bc
3.58 a
5.86 a
25.0 bc
1.03 bc
5.82 a
27.0 bc
3.10 a
--------
-------------
-----------
6.23 a
27.0 bc
1.20 bc
6.50 a
22.8 c
3.42 a
6.86 a
17.0 c
4.04 a
58
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Table 2. (cont.)
5327
18
6.88 a
7.75 ab
5.54
abc
1.06 f
0
-----------
5330
18
6.33 cde
6.39 g
5.67
abc
3.67 cde
2
6.96
abc
5331
18
6.39 cde
6.06 h
5.72
abc
6.56 b
4
6.68 bc
5332
18
6.77 ef
4.54 de
3.72 cde
1
7.92 a
5334
18
6.22 ef
7.50 bcd
5.28
bcd
4.72 bcd
4
6.49 c
5343
18
6.39cde
7.72 ab
5.67
abc
0.50 f
0
-----------
Meyer
3
4.67 h
6.67 efg
4.00
def
7.67 ab
3
7.33 ab
6.47
bcde
-------------
16.18 a
9.29 bc
14.06 ab
11.26 ab
-------------
--------
-------------
-----------
7.14 a
49.0 a
3.63 a
7.03 a
33.8 bc
2.91 a
6.00 a
42.0 ab
3.84 a
6.53 a
28.0 bc
2.28 ab
-------6.33 a
------------32.7 bc
12.28 ab
*
Means of each hybrid line before and after selection. Numbers in a column followed by the same letter are not
significantly different according to Tukey’s LSD (P ≤ 0.05).
†
Zoysiagrasses with promising quality characteristics and freezing tolerance were selected on 15 May, 2005. Selection was
based upon performance of the group and individuals. Data were collected and analyzed only from selected individuals
within each hybrid line after 15 May, 2005.
‡
Color, texture, and winter kill were rated with a 0 to 9 scale, where 0 = straw-brown color, coarsest texture, or winterkilled turf and 9 = dark green color, finest texture, and no winter damage. Color and texture were rated monthly and winter
kill was rated on 15 May, 2005.
----------1.00 c
59
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Table 3. Field performance of zoysiagrass progeny in 2006 at the Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center, Manhattan, KS.
10 May
30 August
13 October
# of
TAES
progeny
Color
Texture
Winter Kill
Center
Color
Texture
Color
Texture
#
after
damage
selection†
5282
0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5283
2
3.91 a*
6.50 a
4.57 d
3.00 cd
7.00 a
7.50 a
6.00 b
7.00 ab
5311
22
5.12 a
5.55 bc
7.34 b
6.28 b
6.73 a
7.05 ab
6.09 b
7.09ab
5312
10
4.84 a
5.20 c
6.48 bc
5.59 bc
6.90 a
7.00 ab
5.80 b
6.90b
5313
2
5.13 a
6.50 a
5.63 cd
1.80 d
7.00 a
7.00 ab
7.00 ab
7.00 ab
5320
1
5.18 a
5.00 c
2.87 d
1.01 d
7.00 a
6.00 bc
7.00 ab
6.00 c
5321
4
5.36 a
6.50 a
6.01 bc
4.44 bcd
7.00 a
7.00 ab
6.50 ab
6.99 ab
5322
0
----------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------5323
19
4.91 a
5.05 c
8.53 a
8.34 a
7.00 a
6.68 b
5.63 b
6.32 c
5324
6
5.37 a
6.67 a
7.04 bc
5.54 bc
7.00 a
7.50 a
7.17 a
7.34 a
5325
1
5.18 a
6.00 abc
7.87 ab
8.01 ab
7.00 a
7.00 ab
7.00 ab
7.00 ab
5327
0
------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------5330
2
4.59 a
5.00 c
6.38 bc
6.08 bc
7.00 a
6.00 c
7.50 a
5.99 c
5331
4
4.57 a
5.00 c
5.66 cd
5.45 bc
6.50 a
6.00 c
6.75 ab
6.00 c
5332
1
3.73 a
5.00 c
7.75 ab
7.41 ab
6.00 a
7.00 ab
7.00 ab
6.01 c
5334
4
5.02 a
6.25 ab
6.35 bc
5.40 bc
7.00 a
6.75 b
7.00 ab
7.00 ab
5343
0
------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------Meyer
3
5.67 a
5.33 bc
9.00 a
9.00 a
7.00 a
7.00 ab
6.00 b
6.67 b
*
Means of each hybrid line before and after selection. Numbers in a column followed by the same letter are not
significantly different according to Tukey’s LSD (P ≤ 0.05).
†
Zoysiagrasses with promising quality characteristics and freezing tolerance were selected on 15 May, 2005. Selection was
based upon performance of the group and individuals. Data were collected and analyzed only from selected individuals
within each hybrid line after 15 May, 2005.
‡
Color, texture, winter kill, and center damage were rated with a 0 to 9 scale, where 0 = straw-brown color, coarsest texture,
or winter damaged turf and 9 = dark green color, finest texture, and no winter damage. Color and texture were rated
monthly and winter kill and head kill was rated on 10 May, 2006.
60
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Table 4. Thirty-four zoysia progeny and two “controls” that have exhibited good cold-tolerance and
have been selected for further evaluation in Manhattan and Olathe. The first parent in the cross is the Z.
matrella type, the second is the Z. japonica type.
TAES#
5311 and 5312
5313
5321
5324
5327
5334
5282 and 5283
Cross
Cavalier x Anderson
Zorro x Meyer
Emerald x Meyer
8501 x Meyer
Diamond x Meyer
Emerald x Zenith
Cavalier x Meyer
DALZ 0102
Meyer
Number
10
2
8
8
1
4
1
1
1
61
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140
130
120
Soil
surfacetemperature
temperature
Soil surface
Soil
temperature
atinch
1 inch
Soil temperature
at -1
110
Soil temperature (F)
100
90
80
70
60
Soil50
Temperature (F)
40
30
20
10
0
3
339 347 354 362
11 19 26 34 41 49 56 64 72 79 87 94
102 110 117 125 132 140 147
Day
Da yofofYear
Yea r
Figure 1. Soil temperature in winter 2004 and spring 2005.
62
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100
Soilsurface
surface
temperature
Soil
temperature
Soil
temperature
at -1 inch
Soil temperature
at 1 inch
90
Soil Temperature (F)
80
70
60
50
40
Soil Temperature (F)
30
20
10
0
1
291 300 310 319 329 338 347 357
10 20 29 39 48 57 67 76 85 95
104 114 123 132 142
Day
Day of
of YYear
ear
Figure 2. Soil temperature in winter 2005 and spring 2006.
63
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90
Soil
surfacetemperature
temperature
Soil surface
Soil temperature
at -1
Soil
temperature
at inch
1 inch
80
Soil Temperature (F)
70
60
50
40
Soil
30Temperature (F)
20
10
0
3
268 273 278 283 288 293 298 303 308 313 318 323 328 333 338 343 348 353 358 363
Day
Da yofofYear
Yea r
8
13 18 23
Figure 3. Soil temperature in winter 2006 and spring 2007.
64
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TITLE: Preliminary Evaluation of Freezing Tolerance of Meyer
and DALZ 0102 Zoysiagrass
OBJECTIVE: Compare freezing tolerance of ‘Meyer’ and DALZ 0102 zoysiagrass
PERSONNEL: Qi Zhang and Jack Fry
SPONSORS: Kansas Turfgrass Foundation
INTRODUCTION:
Meyer has long been the standard zoysiagrass cultivar for use in Kansas and throughout the transition
zone. DALZ 0102 (Z. japonica) is a new experimental zoysia that has demonstrated good hardiness and
fast lateral spread. To minimize the unpredictable and uncontrollable environmental conditions in the
field, this study was done in a controlled freezing chamber to determine relative freezing tolerance of
DALZ 0102 compared to Meyer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
One hundred and ninety-two rhizomes from Meyer and from DALZ 0102 were sampled from Rocky
Ford Turfgrass Research Center on 24 February and 1 March, 2006. Sixteen rhizomes of each (four
replications and four subsamples) were exposed to temperatures ranging from control (no freezing) to
-23º C. Sixteen rhizomes of each (four replications and four subsamples) were exposed to temperatures
ranging from control (no freezing) to -19º C. Rhizomes measured about 2~3 inches long and each had
4 nodes. Each group of 10 rhizomes was wrapped in a wet paper towel and then in aluminum foil.
Rhizome bundles were put in a circulating ethylene glycol bath set at -3º C for 3 hours, and ice pieces
were added to ensure ice formation. The temperature was decreased at 2º C/hour; one group of rhizomes
was taken out at each interval. Rhizomes were slowly thawed in a growth chamber at 4º C overnight,
planted in small pots containing a standard potting mixture, and placed in the greenhouse. The
experiment was repeated on 7 December, 2006, and 15 February, 2007, with the number of subsamples
increased to 10 and freezing temperatures tested from control to -19º C.
Data were collected on the percentage of living rhizomes and nodes, number of shoots, and leaf and root
dry weights 8 weeks after exposure to the freezing temperatures. The minimum freezing temperature
at which some recovery occurred was also recorded. Data were analyzed with PROC GLM procedure,
and means were separated with Fisher’s protected LSD test. The experiment was set up as a complete
randomized design with four replications.
RESULTS:
This study was complicated by a relatively low percentage of surviving rhizomes in controls that
were not exposed to freezing temperatures. When a rhizome is washed in the field after sampling, it is
unknown if it is alive or dead. As such, Meyer and DALZ 0102 had an average rhizome survival that
was never above 60%.
The greatest decrease in rhizome survival occurred between -13º and -15º C in both Meyer and DALZ
0102 on the 24 February, 2006, sampling date (Table 1). Meyer exhibited greater rhizome survival at
-7º and -9º C, and had more living nodes than DALZ 0102 on this date. Meyer exhibited some rhizome
survival to -17º C, whereas no survival occurred beyond -13º C in DALZ 0102. Both cultivars seemed
to have lost some hardiness when sampled one week later on 1 March, 2006 (Table 2). No regrowth
occurred below -15º C in either cultivar. Meyer was superior to DALZ 0102 for all measured variables
except root weight at -7º C; otherwise, cultivars responded similarly.
65
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On 7 December, 2006, DALZ 0102 had more shoots and greater biomass following freezing at
temperatures ≥-7º C, reflecting its fast growth and recovery potential (Table 3). Cultivars did not differ
in freezing tolerance at lower evaluation temperatures.
On the 15 February, 2007, sampling date, Meyer had 47.5% living rhizomes at -19º C, while DALZ
0102 had 12.5%. The number of shoots in Meyer was nine times as much as in DALZ 0102 at -15º
C; leaf and root dry weight were also higher in Meyer than in DALZ 0102. These data are somewhat
suspect, for DALZ 0102 was inferior to Meyer even at warmer temperatures evaluated.
Preliminary results indicate that DALZ 0102 indicate that recovery from minor winter injury may be
faster than in Meyer. However, Meyer has demonstrated that it is, at the least, slightly hardier than
DALZ 0102. Should DALZ 0102 be released, these results, as well as field survival in the winter, need
to be considered in recommending its northernmost boundary of use in the United States.
66
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Table 1. Evaluation of Meyer and DALZ 0102 zoysiagrass regrowth 8 weeks after exposure to freezing temperatures on
24 February, 2006.
Treatment
Living Rhizomes
Living Nodes
Shoots
Leaf Weight
Root Weight
(%)
(%)
(no./pot)
(mg/pot)
(mg/pot)
Meyer
DALZ
Meyer
DALZ
Meyer
DALZ
Meyer
DALZ
Meyer
DALZ
Control
62.5 a*
43.8 a
28.0 a
26.3 a
5.0 a
6.8 a
19.6 a
34.1 a
11.6 a
19.8 a
-3 C
68.8 a
37.5 a
26.5 a
22.8 a
5.0 a
7.5 a
25.0 a
46.2 a
10.0 a
25.1 a
-5 C
87.5 a
37.5 a
35.8 a
16.5 a
8.0 a
6.3 a
50.7 a
35.7 a
20.1 a
16.3 a
-7 C
81.3 a
43.8 b
33.5 a
27.5 a
8.5 a
6.0 a
59.9 a
30.0 a
25.6 a
15.3 a
-9 C
56.3 a
18.8 b
35.0 a
14.3 b
6.8 a
2.8 a
42.2 a
17.8 a
33.4 a
22.5 a
-11 C
31.3 a
31.3 a
11.8 a
10.3 a
3.0 a
1.8 a
16.2 a
9.2 a
9.1 a
4.7 a
-13 C
50.0 a
31.3 a
9.8 a
10.8 a
4.5 a
3.0 a
18.0 a
16.2 a
10.8 a
5.1 a
-15 C
6.3 a
0.0 a
1.8 a
0.0 a
0.3 a
0.0 a
0.5 a
0.0 a
0.2 a
0.0 a
-17 C
12.5 a
0.0 a
3.8 a
0.0 a
0.5 a
0.0 a
2.1 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
-19 C
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
-21 C
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
-23 C
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
*Means followed by the same letter treated within the same temperature are not significantly different at P≤0.05.
67
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Table 2. Evaluation of Meyer and DALZ 0102 zoysiagrass regrowth 8 weeks after exposure to freezing temperatures on 1
March, 2006.
Treatment
Living Rhizomes
Living Nodes
Shoots
Leaf Weight
Root Weight
(%)
(%)
(no./pot)
(mg/pot)
(mg/pot)
Meyer
DALZ
Meyer
DALZ
Meyer
DALZ
Meyer
DALZ
Meyer
DALZ
Control
60.0 a*
37.5 a
41.5 a
24.5 a
8.5 a
8.3 a
49.0 a
42.7 a
25.2 a
19.8 a
-3 C
68.8 a
81.3 a
35.0 a
47.3 a
9.0 a
8.8 a
47.1 a
40.2 a
25.8 a
19.5 a
-5 C
68.8 a
50.0 a
45.3 a
34.8 a
8.8 a
5.8 a
29.4 a
21.5 a
19.1 a
9.8 a
-7 C
37.5 a
12.5 b
30.0 a
5.0 b
7.0 a
0.8 b
26.7 a
3.0 b
12.2 a
1.1 a
-9 C
81.3 a
41.7 a
38.5 a
19.3 a
8.0 a
4.7 a
40.5 a
19.0 a
20.4 a
13.3 a
-11 C
33.3 a
8.3 a
18.3 a
2.7 a
4.0 a
0.3 a
11.0 a
0.7 a
4.6 a
0.4 a
-13 C
50.0 a
8.3 b
23.3 a
4.3 a
4.7 a
0.7 a
15.8 a
0.7 a
4.9 a
0.4 a
-15 C
8.3 a
6.7 a
2.0 a
1.7 a
0.7 a
0.3 a
1.7 a
0.7 a
0.0 a
0.3 a
-17 C
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.3 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
-19 C
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
-21 C
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
-23 C
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
0.0 a
*Means followed by the same letter treated within the same temperature are not significantly different at P≤0.05.
68
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Table 3. Evaluation of Meyer and DALZ 0102 zoysiagrass regrowth 8 weeks after exposure to freezing
temperatures on 7 December, 2006.
Treatment
Control
-3 C
-5 C
-7 C
-9 C
-11 C
-13 C
-15 C
-17 C
-19 C
Living
Rhizomes
(%)
Meyer DALZ
45.0
50.0 a
a*
32.5
52.5 a
a
12.5
40.0 a
a
20.0
40.0 a
a
27.5
37.5 a
a
35.0
50.0 a
a
27.5
23.3 a
a
20.0
17.5 a
a
20.0
2.5 a
a
15.0
15.0 a
a
Living Nodes
(%)
Shoots
(no./pot)
Leaf Weight
(mg/pot)
Root Weight
(mg/pot)
Meyer DALZ Meyer DALZ Meyer DALZ Meyer DALZ
16.2 a 22.5 a 11.0 b 22.8 a 56.1 b 192.2 21.2 a 97.6 a
a
12.9 a 25.7 a 8.0 b 23.8 a 48.2 b 200.0 23.8 b 109.7
a
a
5.3 a 16.6 a 3.0 a 14.3 a 11.1 a 98.8 a 11.1 a 61.0 a
6.1 a
17.4 a
2.5 b
11.5 a
5.3 a
75.8 a
1.3 b
46.5 a
11.8 a
18.0 a
8.0 a
18.5 a
34.1 a
124.5
a
46.1 a 78.2 a
18.2 a
78.5 a
14.7 a
17.6 a
9.0 a
13.3 a
18.6 a
47.9 a
10.0 a
9.7 a
5.8 a
5.0 a
17.8 a
24.5 a
12.1 a
14.9 a
7.7 a
7.5 a
10.5 a
5.3 a
34.4 a
36.0 a
18.5 a
25.5 a
5.4 a
0.7 a
2.5 a
0.3 a
5.4 a
0.9 a
2.5 a
0.1 a
5.2 a
3.0 a
3.0 a
1.8 a
12.0 a
7.63 a
6.1 a
5.1 a
*Means followed by the same letter treated within the same temperature are not significantly different
at P≤0.05.
69
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Table 3. Evaluation of Meyer and DALZ 0102 zoysiagrass regrowth 8 weeks after exposure to freezing
temperatures on 15 February, 2006.
Treatment
Control
-3 C
-5 C
-7 C
-9 C
-11 C
-13 C
-15 C
-17 C
-19 C
Living
Rhizomes
(%)
Meyer DALZ
35.0
17.5 a
a*
62.5
15.0 b
a
52.5
20.0 b
a
62.5
17.5 b
a
40.0
20.0 a
a
40.0
17.5 b
a
52.5
12.5 b
a
57.5
17.5 b
a
52.5
7.5 b
a
47.5
12.5 b
a
Living Nodes
(%)
Shoots
(no./pot)
Leaf Weight
(mg/pot)
Root Weight
(mg/pot)
Meyer DALZ Meyer DALZ Meyer DALZ Meyer DALZ
14.8 a 12.5 a 16.8 a 13.3 a 144.7
91.8 26.2 a 27.1 a
a
a
28.5 a 8.5 b 28.3 a 14.3 a 194.8 131.3 53.2 a 27.4 a
a
a
24.3 a 7.5 b 19.5 a 10.8 a 156.6
85.2 51.4 a 30.1 a
a
a
32.0 a 6.0 b 26.5 a 11.0 b 240.7 117.0 72.7 a 27.3 a
a
a
19.0 a 9.0 a 15.0 a 11.3 a 110.2 118.5 36.9 a 33.1 a
a
a
18.0 a 10.5 a 15.5 a 12.0 a 116.0 111.3 40.0 a 25.3 a
a
a
21.0 a 7.5 a 14.0 a 6.8 a 100.5
49.5 28.7 a 16.3 a
a
a
26.0 a 5.5 b 24.3 a 8.8 b 150.6
93.7 38.7 a 33.9 a
a
a
19.0 a 2.8 b 18.8 a 2.0 b 107.2
8.0 b 33.5 a 3.6 b
a
18.3 a 5.3 b 19.0 a 7.3 b 147.6
55.2 40.0 a 10.5 a
a
a
*Means followed by the same letter treated within the same temperature are not significantly different
at P≤0.05.
70
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TITLE: Changes in Membrane Lipids and Abscisic Acid in Meyer and Cavalier Zoysiagrass during Cold Acclimation
OBJECTIVE: Identify the differences in lipids and ABA between Meyer and Cavalier during cold acclimation
PERSONNEL: Qi Zhang, Jack Fry, Channa Rajashekar, and Xiangqing Pan
SPONSORS:
Kansas Turfgrass Foundation
INTRODUCTION:
We are interested in identifying new zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) cultivars with a level of freezing tolerance
comparable to ‘Meyer’ (Zoysia japonica Steud.), but with better quality characteristics. New progeny
have been generated from crosses between freezing-tolerant cultivars and high-quality lines. Our goal is
to identify some of the physiological contributors to freezing tolerance in zoysiagrass. Membrane lipid
species and abscisic acid have been reported to serve a role in signaling pathways that are important in
the acclimation process. The type of lipid in living membranes influences how it responds to freezing
temperatures. Membranes that contain more unsaturated fatty acids (analogous to cooking oil at home)
are more flexible and tolerate freezing stress better. Membranes composed more of saturated fatted acids
(analogous to butter) are less flexible and may sustain more freezing injury. Accumulation of abscisic
acid helps enhance freezing-dehydration caused by ice crystals. Changes in lipid composition and
abscisic acid content in Meyer (cold tolerant) and Cavalier (cold sensitive) (Z. matrella) were evaluated
during cold acclimation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Meyer (sampled from Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center) and Cavalier (provided by Dr. Milt
Engelke from Texas A & M) were propagated in cone containers (2-inch diameter, 10 inches deep) in
a greenhouse in June 2005 and 2006. Containers were moved into an 8-ft. diameter storage tank, with
sand filled around the containers for natural cold acclimation. Containers were sampled monthly from
October to January. One set of the containers was brought to a greenhouse set at 70º to 80º F during
the day and 60º to 70º F at night (control). Another set of containers was exposed to cold temperatures
in a freezing chamber. Cavalier was subjected to temperatures of -3º, -6º, -9º, and -12º C. Meyer was
exposed to temperatures of -5º, -9º, -13º, and -17º C. The experiment was arranged as a randomized
complete-block design with four replications. Plant survival was estimated visually as percentage of
regrowth 6 weeks after the freezing treatment. The lethal temperature that killed 50% of the grasses
(LT50) was calculated by using regression. The minimum freezing temperature from which any shoot
recovery occurred was also recorded (Tmin). In winter 2006, one more sampling date was added for each
cultivar, 18 November for Cavalier and 20 December for Meyer.
Rhizomes were sampled from another set of acclimated plants removed from the field at the same
time other plants were subjected to freezing treatments. Rhizomes were sampled from ~1 inch below
the soil surface, and roots and leaves were excised from rhizomes. Rhizomes were then immersed in
liquid nitrogen and stored in a -80º C freezer. A profile of the polar complex lipids (membrane lipids)
was generated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-ES/MS) and recorded as
the percentage in the total amount of the lipids. Each of the entries in Table 2 represents a group of
fatty acids ranging in number from 5 to 64. Abscisic acid was analyzed with high-performance liquid
chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).
71
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Data were analyzed with the PROC GLM procedure, and means were separated with Fisher’s protected
LSD test. LT50 was calculated with a regression model.
RESULTS:
Freezing tolerance. Freezing tolerance increased from October to December in both cultivars (Table 1 &
2). The LT50 and Tmin were lower in Meyer than in Cavalier in all months. Cavalier reached its maximum
cold tolerance in late November (LT50 -10.0 C), but recovery growth from Cavalier treated at -12º C was
still observed in December and January. The lowest LT50 in Meyer occurred in December, -15.9º C in
2005 and -15.2º C in 2006, respectively, one month later than that in Cavalier. Recovery growth from
exposure to -17º C was also observed in December and January in Meyer.
Changes in membrane fatty acid species. Eleven lipid classes have been identified in zoysiagrass
rhizomes, including phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidic acid (PA), which have been reported to
be related to freezing stress in other plants. Lipids in the PC group were highest in Cavalier and Meyer
when each reached their peak hardiness (November for Cavalier; December for Meyer) in winter 2005
(Figure 1). About 90% of the fatty acids in the PC group were unsaturated fatty acids, indicating that
PC might serve to stabilize membranes. Total PA content increased to a much higher extent in Cavalier
than in Meyer in December when Cavalier, but not Meyer, was severely damaged by freezing (Figure 2).
However, a similar trend was not observed in winter 2006 (Table 3).
Changes in abscisic acid content. ABA content in rhizomes was negatively correlated to freezing
tolerance in both cultivars, i.e. as ABA content increased, freezing tolerance improved (Table 3). ABA
has been shown to reduce drought injury in turfgrasses and may also serve a role in freezing tolerance.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
We appreciate the assistance of Dr. Ruth Welti, Richard Jeannotte, and Mary Roth with the Kansas
Lipidomics Research Center.
72
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Table 1. Recovery growth (%), LT50†, and Tmin† of Meyer and Cavalier zoysiagrass six weeks after exposure to freezing
temperatures from October to December 2005.
Control
-3 C
-5 C
-6 C
-9 C
-12 C
-13 C
-17 C
LT50 (C)
Tmin (C)
4 October
Cavalier
Meyer
100.0 a*
100.0 a
50.0 b
-------------------------‡
100.0 a
0.0 c
------------0.0 c
0.0 b
0.0 c
------------------------0.0 b
------------0.0 b
-3.0
-7.7
-3.0
-5.0
5 November
Cavalier
Meyer
100.0 a
100.0 a
100.0 a
------------------------100.0 a
100.0 a
------------37.5 b
100.0 a
0.0 c
------------------------77.5 b
------------0.0 c
-8.3
-13.4
-9.0
-13.0
2 December
Cavalier
Meyer
23.3 a
95.0 ab
33.8 a
------------------------97.5 a
35.0 a
------------20.0 a
87.5 ab
3.8 a
------------------------77.5 b
------------35.0 c
N/A§
-15.9
-12.0
-17.0
*Means with the same letter in each column are not significantly different at P≤0.05. Means represent the average of four
replications.
†
LT50, lethal temperature that results in 50% or less recovery growth; Tmin, the lowest freezing temperature at which any
recovery growth was observed.
‡
Dashed lines indicate that this freezing temperature not tested.
§
N/A, no LT50 was calculated because recovery growth was out of range.
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Table 2. Recovery growth (%), LT50†, and Tmin† of Meyer and Cavalier zoysiagrass six weeks after exposure to freezing
temperatures from October 2006 to January 2007.
Treatment
Control
-3 C
-5 C
-6 C
-9 C
-12 C
-13 C
-17 C
LT50 (C)
Tmin (C)
2 October
Cavalier Meyer
100.0 a* 100.0 a
80.0 b
-------85.0 a
--------§
5.0 c
-------0.0 c
0.0 b
0.0 c
--------------0.0 b
-------0.0 b
-4.0
-6.5
-6.0
-5.0
7 November
Cavalier Meyer
100.0 a 100.0 b
100.0 a --------------100.0 b
87.5 ab -------65.0 b
100.0 b
0.0 c
--------------42.5 b
-------0.0 c
-8.7
-12.2
-9.0
-13.0
18 November
Cavalier Meyer
100.0 a ------100.0 a -------------------100.0 a ------95.0 a
------3.8 b
---------------------------------10.0
-------12.0
-------
1 December
Cavalier Meyer
46.3 ab 100.0 a
57.5 ab ------------100.0 a
75.0 a
------30.0 bc
87.5 a
0.0 c
------------85.0 a
------40.0 b
-6.2
-17.1
-9.0
-17.0
20 December
Cavalier Meyer
------100.0 a
------------------100.0 a
------------------100.0 a
------------------90.0 b
------17.5 c
-------15.2
-------17.0
*Means with the same letter in each column are not significantly different at P≤0.05. Means represent the average of four
replications.
†
LT50, lethal temperature that results in 50% or less recovery growth; Tmin, the lowest freezing temperature at which any
recovery growth was observed.
‡
Dashed lines indicate that this freezing temperature or date not tested.
§
N/A, no LT50 was calculated because recovery growth was out of range.
9 January
Cavalier
Meyer
53.75 a 100.0 a
36.3 ab ------------95.0 ab
36.3 ab ------7.5 b
77.5 b
7.5 b
------------42.5 c
------8.8 d
-11.8
N/A§
-12.0
-17.0
74
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Table 3. Correlation between freezing tolerance (LT50 and Tmin†) in Cavalier and Meyer rhizomes and changes in
phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), and abscisic acid content (ABA) in the winter of 2005 and 2006§.
PC
PA
ABA
LT50
r = 0.19
P = 0.55
r = -0.26
P = 0.41
r = -0.74
P < 0 .01
Cavalier
Tmin
r = 0.74
P < 0.01
r = -0.84
P < 0.01
r = -0.21
P = 0.54
2005§
Meyer
LT50
Tmin
r = 0.54
r = 0.54
P = 0.07
P = 0.07
r = -0.94
r = -0.94
P < 0.01
P < 0.01
r = -0.55
r = -0.55
P = 0.08
P = 0.08
2006§
LT50
r = -0.26
P = 0.28
Cavalier
Tmin
r = -0.62
P < 0.01
LT50
r = -0.33
P = 0.16
Meyer
Tmin
r = -0.58
P < 0.01
r = 0.43
P = 0.06
r = 0.72
P <0.01
r = -0.03
P =0.90
r = 0.13
P = 0.61
r = -0.94
P < 0.01
r = -0.32
P = 0.17
r = -0.58
P < 0.01
r = -0.33
P = 0.17
†
LT50, lethal temperature that results in 50% or less recovery growth; Tmin, the lowest freezing temperature at which any
recovery growth was observed.
§
Measurements were taken monthly from October to December 2005 and from October 2006 to
January 2007.
75
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Cavalier
Meyer
35
*
30
*
PC Content (%)
25
20
15
PC10
Content (%)
5
0
Oct 4
Nov 5
2005
Dec 2
Figure 1. Changes in the total amount of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in winter 2005.
*Denotes significant differences between Cavalier and Meyer at P ≤ 0.05.
76
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Cavalier
Meyer
30
*
PA Content (%)
25
20
15
10
PA Content (%)
5
0
Oct 4
Nov 5
Dec 2
2005
Figure 2. Changes in the total amount of phosphatidic acid (PA) in the winter, 2005.
*Denotes significant differences between Cavalier and Meyer at P ≤ 0.05.
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Cavalier
80
Abscisic acid (ng/g weight)
70
*
Meyer
*
*
60
50
40
30
20
10
Abscisic acid (ng/g weight)
0
4 Oct.
5 Nov.
2 Dec.
2005
Figure 3. Changes in abscisic acid content in winter 2005.
*Denotes significant differences between Cavalier and Meyer at P ≤ 0.05.
78
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Cavalier
Meyer
120
*
Abscisic acid (ng/g weight)
100
*
80
60
40
20
Abscisic acid (ng/g weight)
0
2 Oct.
7 Nov. 18 Nov.
1 Dec. 20 Dec.
9 Jan.
2006
Figure 4. Changes in the abscisic acid content in winter 2006.
*Denotes significant differences between Cavalier and Meyer at P ≤ 0.05.
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TITLE:
Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Three Different Turfgrass Species
and from Perennial Ryegrass under Different Irrigation Regimes
OBJECTIVES: Investigate: (1). the seasonal magnitude and patterns of nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes
in one cool season and two warm season turfgrasses; and (2). effects of irrigation on
N2O emissions from perennial ryegrass
AUTHOR:
Jason Lewis and Dale Bremer
SPONSORS:
Kansas Turfgrass Foundation (KTF)
INTRODUCTION:
Different species of turfgrasses (for example, warm- and cool-season turfgrasses) may be fertilized with
nitrogen (N) at different rates and frequencies, and irrigated with different amounts of water, all of which
may affect N2O emissions. The selection of different species of turfgrasses may be a useful management
tool in mitigating N2O emissions from turfgrass ecosystems. Irrigation may also significantly impact
N2O emissions from turfgrass. Therefore, this study investigated (1) N2O emissions from three species of
turfgrasses during a 5-month period (i.e., June through October) of the 2006 growing season; and (2) the
effects of irrigation on N2O emissions in turfgrass during a 2-month period in the summer of 2006.
METHODS:
Study 1: Species effects. Eighteen plots, or six plots per species, were arranged and established in a
repeated Latin square design (Fig. 1). The species investigated included one cool-season (perennial
ryegrass, Lolium perenne L.) and two warm-season turfgrasses (bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon] and
zoysiagrass [Zoysia japonica]). Urea N fertilizer was applied to turfgrasses according to the schedule
presented in Table 1. Soil fluxes of N2O were measured weekly to biweekly from 6 June to 25 October,
2006, using static surface chambers and analyzing N2O by gas chromatography. Turfgrass irrigation
requirements were determined with the Penman-Monteith equation (FAO-56), and all plots were
irrigated one or two times weekly as needed, by hand to ensure uniformity. Plots were mowed at 7.62 cm
twice a week with a walk-behind rotary mower.
Study 2: Irrigation effects. Eighteen plots were arranged in a previously established sward of perennial
ryegrass. Three treatments were applied to the plots in a randomized block design. Irrigation amounts
included (1) 100% evapotranspiration (ET) replacement; (2) 80% ET replacement; and (3) no irrigation.
To determine irrigation requirements, evapotranspiration (ET) was calculated by using the PenmanMonteith equation (FAO, 1998) and climatological data obtained at a weather station located at Rocky
Ford Turfgrass Research Center. Water was applied twice weekly as needed through a fan spray nozzle
attached to a hose; a meter was attached to ensure proper application rate. Soil fluxes of N2O were
measured weekly to biweekly using the same technique as described above from 22 June to 17 August,
2006. Plots were mowed at 7.62 cm twice a week with a walk-behind rotary mower.
RESULTS:
Study 1: Species effects. Daily fluxes of N2O ranged from 8 µg N2O-N m‑2 h‑1 on 25 October to
1709 µg N2O-N m‑2 h‑1 after N fertilization on 11 July (Fig. 2). Nitrogen fertilization increased N2O
emissions by up to 45 times within one day, although the amount of increase differed after each
fertilization. Cumulative emissions of N2O-N during the study differed slightly among species (Fig. 3).
Cumulative fluxes were 2.60 kg ha‑1 in bermudagrass, 2.31 kg ha‑1 in perennial ryegrass, and 2.63 kg
ha‑1 in zoysiagrass. Thus, cumulative N2O emissions were very similar between the two warm season
turfgrasses (i.e., bermudagrass and zoysiagrass), and cumulative N2O emissions averaged 13% higher in
80
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the warm-season species than in the cool-season turfgrass species. However, because perennial ryegrass
was actively growing earlier in the spring than warm-season grasses (e.g., during March, April, and
May), before measurements were collected in this study, N2O emissions may have been greater from
perennial ryegrass during that period. Therefore, data collected during this 5-month period likely do not
represent cumulative fluxes from the entire season from March through November.
Study 2: Irrigation effects. Significant precipitation during much of the study period muted the effects
of reduced and no irrigation on N2O emissions (Fig. 4). Cumulative N2O fluxes during the study period
decreased by about 8% when irrigation was reduced to 80% ET and when irrigation was withheld,
compared with well-watered plots (100% ET). No difference in N2O emissions was observed between
80% and no irrigation treatments.
Note: These data are preliminary and therefore, not conclusive because the study was still underway
at the writing of this report. Results from the completed study will be presented in the 2008 K-State
Turfgrass Research Report.
Table 1. Fertilization schedule for bermudagrass, perennial ryegrass, and zoysiagrass.
Perennial Ryegrass
Zoysiagrass
Bermudagrass
......................................... lbs N 1000 ft-2......................................
May
June
July
August
September
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
--
1.0
-0.5
-1.5
1.0
-1.0
---
81
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Figure 1. Plots of perennial ryegrass, zoysiagrass, and bermuda grass were established in 2005 and
arranged in a Latin square design. Photo was taken in mid-November 2005, when zoysia and bermuda
were dormant.
200
Values for 11-Jul
Bermuda 1518
Ryegrass 1151
Zoysia 1709
Bermuda
Ryegrass
150
N2O_N Flux µg m h)
Zoysia
Fertilizer Dates
100
N2O_N Flux (ug m h)
50
0
23-May
12-Jun
2-Jul
22-Jul
11-Aug
31-Aug
20-Sep
10-Oct
30-Oct
19-Nov
D ate, 2006
Figure 2. Patterns among turfgrass species of nitrous oxide nitrogen fluxes (µg N2O_N m‑2 h‑1) from
6 June to 25 October, 2006. Vertical dashed lines represent N-fertilization dates.
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J une 6 to O c tober 25, 2006
3.0
Cumulative N2O_N (kg N ha -1)
-1
2.63
2.60
)
2.31
2.5
2.0
O_N
(kg ha
2 1.5
1.0
0.5
Cumulative N
0.0
Bermuda
Ryegrass
Zoysia
Figure 3. Cumulative emissions of of nitrogen (N2O_N) from three species of turfgrasses during
a 5-month period in the summer and fall of 2006.
Cumulative N2O_N (kg N ha -1)
0.52
J une 22 to A ugus t 17, 2006
0.51
) 0.50
-1
0.48
0.47
0.47
0.46
0.44
0.42
Cumulative
N2O_N (kg N ha
0.40
N o Irriga tio n
80 E T
100 E T
Figure 4. Cumulative emissions of of nitrogen (N2O_N) from perennial ryegrass under three
different irrigation regimes for a 2-month period in the summer of 2006.
83
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
TITLE:
Nitrogen Source and Timing Effect on Carbohydrate Status
of Bermudagrass and Tall Fescue
OBJECTIVE:
Evaluate coated nitrogen sources at various timings, compared with urea at
traditional timings, for their effect on carbohydrate status of bermudagrass
and tall fescue
PERSONNEL:
Tony Goldsby and Steve Keeley
INTRODUCTION:
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) are the energy source for turfgrass growth and recovery; therefore,
NSC levels have often been used as an indicator of the physiological health and/or stress-tolerance of a
turfgrass (Hull,1992). Research has shown that higher NSC levels in winter improved low-temperature
survival of various turfgrass species (Shahba et al., 2003; Ball et al., 2002; Fry et al., 1993). Similarly,
cool-season turfgrass quality during summer has been related to higher NSC content in shoots and roots
(Xu and Huang, 2003; Liu and Huang, 2000). Spring regrowth after winter dormancy and turfgrass
recovery from excessive traffic and other stresses is also dependent on an adequate supply of NSC (Fry
and Huang, 2004).
Turfgrass cultural practices can have a significant effect on plant health by altering NSC levels. For
example, lowering the mowing height reduces leaf area for photosynthesis, which ultimately results in
a reduction in rooting (Liu and Huang, 2002; Juska and Hanson, 1961). Nitrogen fertilizer is essential
for high quality turfgrass, but multiple studies have documented decreased NSC levels with higher N
rates (Gonzalez et al., 1989; Westhafer et al., 1982; Watschke and Waddington, 1974; Brown and Blaser,
1965). This reduction in NSC likely occurs because nitrogen promotes vegetative growth, which has
been shown to deplete NSC levels in turfgrass (Youngner and Nudge, 1976). Turfgrass stands receiving
high N may be less able to tolerate and/or recover from various stresses.
Non-structural carbohydrates may also play a role in preventing winter injury in warm-season turfgrass.
Late season N applications typically take place between the months of August and December. Late
season N should increase turfgrass NSC levels, but studies investigating the effect of late season N on
bermudagrass winter survival have been conflicting (Schmidt and Blaser, 1969; Beard, 1973). Early
reports suggested there may be negative effects of late season N applications on bermudagrass cold
tolerance. Goatley et at. (1994) found that late-season N improved fall and spring color and had little
effect on NSC. Schmidt and Chalmers (1993) found positive effects associated with late-season N
applications. Therefore, there is a need for better information regarding how fertilization affects NSC
status in relation to cold injury.
Slow-release nitrogen fertilizers have the potential to provide a solution to these problems by moderating
turfgrass vegetative growth. However, many slow-release N sources are dependent on microbial activity
for N release, which makes the timing and rate of release somewhat difficult to predict. Polymer-coated
nitrogen fertilizers have been developed that are not dependent on microbial activity for N release,
providing a more predictable and precise rate of N release (Christians, 2004). Research is needed
concerning the optimum rates and application timing when using these polymer-coated N sources on
turfgrass, especially with regard to their effects on NSC levels.
Because turfgrass NSC levels are known to fluctuate seasonally (Narra et.al., 2004; Miller and Dickens,
1996; Youngner et al. 1978), it is important that NSC sampling be conducted throughout the year in
order to provide a clear picture of treatments’ effects on turfgrass NSC levels. The objective of our
84
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
study was to evaluate the effect of spring vs. late summer applications of polymer-coated N sources,
in comparison to traditional N sources, on ‘Midlawn’ bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers. × C.
transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) and a blend of turf-type tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Screb.) and the
effect on NSC status throughout the year.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
On August 1, 2005, we initiated N fertilizer treatments (Tables 1 and 2) in a completely randomized
design with four replications. This research was conducted at Rocky Ford Research Center in
Manhattan, KS. NSC were measured bi-monthly by extracting two 10-cm diameter plugs from each
plot and measuring regrowth in darkness in a growth chamber at 24o C. The regrowth period lasted for 8
weeks. Plugs were completely defoliated before being placed in the growth chamber. Shoot growth was
removed biweekly, and the clippings were dried at 70o C for 48 hours, and dry weights were recorded.
The data were analyzed using SAS for Windows and MSTAT.
RESULTS:
Initial results have shown no difference in NSC status between polymer-coated N sources and
traditional N sources for the eight completed sampling periods. In the bermudagrass study, late-summer
applications have resulted in significantly higher NSC status during November, January and March, than
with spring-only applications (Figures 1, 2 and 3). Late summer applications may have a positive effect
on bermudagrass winter survival. NSC sampling continues through the 2007 growing season.
Controlled freeze testing of samples from various treatments is also under way. This research will allow
a clearer determination of the effect of N source and timing on bermudagrass cold tolerance.
85
This publication from the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Literature Cited
Beard, J.B. 1973. Turfgrass: Science and culture. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Ball, S., Y.L. Qian, and C. Stushnoff. 2002. Soluble carbohydrates in two buffalograss
cultivars with contrasting freezing tolerance. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 127:45-49.
Brown, R.H. and R.E. Blaser. 1965. Relationships between reserve carbohydrate accumulation
and growth rate in orchardgrass and tall fescue. Crop Sci. 5:577-581
Christians, N. 2004. Fundamentals of Turfgrass Management, 2nd Ed. John Wiley &
Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Fry, J., and B. Huang. 2004. Applied Turfgrass Science and Physiology. John Wiley &
Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Fry. J.D., N.S. Lang, G.P. Clifton, and F.P. Maier. 1993. Freezing tolerance and
carbohydrate content of low-temperature-acclimated and non-acclimated
centipedgrass. Crop Sci. 33:1051-1055.
Goatley, J.M., V. Maddox, D.J. Lang, and K.K. Crouse. 1994. ‘Tifgreen’ bermudagrass
response to late-season applications of nitrogen and potassium. Agron. J. 86:7-10.
Gonzalez, B., J. Boucaud, J. Salette, J. Langlois, and M. Duyme. 1989. Changes in
stubble carbohydrate content during regrowth of defoliated perennial ryegrass
(Lolium perenne L.) on two nitrogen levels. Grass and Forage Sci. 44:411-415.
Hull, R. 1992. Energy relations and carbohydrate partitioning in turfgrass. Pp. 175-205 In
D.V. Waddington, R.N. Carrow, and R.C. Shearman, eds. Turfgrass. Madison,
WI: American Society of Agronomy.
Juska, F. and A. Hanson. 1961. Effects of interval and height of mowing on growth of
Merion and Common Kentucky bluegrass. Agron. J. 53:385-388.
Liu, X. and B. Huang. 2002. Mowing effects on root production, growth, and mortality of
creeping bentgrass. Crop Sci. 42:1241-1250.
Liu, X. and B. Huang. 2000. Carbohydrate accumulation in relation to heat stress
tolerance in two creeping bentgrass cultivars. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125:442-447
Miller, G.L. and R. Dickens. 1996. Bermudagrass carbohydrate levels as influenced by
potassium fertilization and cultivar. Crop Sci. 36: 1283-1289.
Schmidt, R.E., and R.E. Blaser. 1969. Ecology and turf management. P.217-233. In A.A.
Hanson and F.V. Juska (ed.) Turfgrass Science. ASA, Madison, WI.
Schmidt, R.E. and D.R. Chalmers. 1993. Late summer to early fall application of
fertilizer and biostimulants on bermudagrass. Int. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 7:715
721.
86
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Table 1. Bermudagrass treatment list.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
Polyon 43-0-0 @ 4 lbs N/M in early April
Polyon 43-0-0 @ 4 lbs N/M in early August
Polyon 41-0-0 @ 4 lbs N/M in early April
Polyon 41-0-0 @ 4 lbs N/M in early August
SCU @ 4 lbs N/M in early April
SCU @ 4 lbs N/M in early August
SCU @ 2 lbs N/M in early April + 2 lbs N/M in early August
Methylene urea @ 4 lbs N/M in early April
Methylene urea @ 4 lbs N/M in early August
Check: Urea @ 1 lb N/M in May, June, July and August
Table 2. Tall fescue treatment list.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
Polyon 43-0-0 @ 3 lbs N/M in early Sept.
Polyon 43-0-0 @ 1.5 lbs N/M in early Sept + 1.5 lbs N/M in late March
Polyon 41-0-0 @ 3 lbs N/M in early Sept.
Polyon 41-0-0 @ 1.5 lbs N/M in early Sept + 1.5 lbs N/M in late March
SCU @ 3 lbs N/M in early Sept.
SCU @ 1.5 lbs N/M in early Sept + 1.5 lbs N/M in late March
Methylene urea @ 3 lbs N/M in early Sept.
Methylene urea @ 1.5 lbs N/M in early Sept + 1.5 lbs N/M in late March
Check: Urea @ 1 lb N/M in early Sept., Nov. and May
87
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
P olyon (43-0-0) on Midlawn B ermudagrass
7
6
5
4
3
2
Biomass in G
1
0
0 9/05 111/05 1/06
2
43-0-0 April
43-0-0 Aug.
3/063 5/06
47/06 9/06
5
6
11/06
7
8
9
Month
Figure 1. NSC status of ‘Midlawn’ bermudagrass receiving 4lb N/1000 ft2 from Polyon (43-0-0) in April
or August.
*Denotes significance at p=0.05
P olyon (41-0-0) on Midlawn B ermudagrass
7
6
5
4
3
2
Biomass
in G
1
0
09/05 11/05
1
41-0-0 Apr.
41-0-0 Aug.
2
1/06
3/06 3 5/06
4
7/06
5 11/06 6
9/06
7
8
9
Months
Figure 2. NSC status of ‘Midlawn’ bermudagrass receiving 4lb N/1000 ft2 from Polyon (41-0-0) in April
or August.
*Denotes significance at p=0.05
88
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
P olyon S CU on Midlawn B ermudagrass
6
5
4
3
2
SCU April
SCU Aug.
Biomass in G
1
0
09/05
11/05
1
1/062 3/06
35/06 7/06
4
9/06
5 11/066
7
8
9
Month
Figure 3. NSC status of ‘Midlawn’ bermudagrass receiving 4lb N/1000 ft2 from sulfur-coated urea in
April or August.
*Denotes significance at p=0.05
89
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has been archived. Current information is available from http://www.ksre.ksu.edu.
Turfgrass Research 2007
This publication is produced by the Department of Communications at Kansas State University. It is available on CD
through K-State Research and Extension. A printed version of the publication is available upon request.
Copyright 2007 Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.
Contents may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. In each case, give credit to the
author(s), Turfgrass Research 2007, Kansas State University, August 2007.
Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, Manhattan, KS 66506
SRP 981
August 2007
K-State Research and Extension is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
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