JF - Part 5 - cd3wd405.zip - How to Dry Fruits and Vegetables

JF - Part 5 - cd3wd405.zip - How to Dry Fruits and Vegetables
MlCROFllCHE
REFERENCE
LIBRARY
A project G’I Vdmteers
to Drv Futs.
by:
Action
for
in Asia
a
Veoeu
Food Production
Published by:
Action for Food Production
C-l?, Community Centre
Safdarjung Development Area
New Delhi 110 016 India
Free to serious
groups.
Available
from:
Action for Food Production
C-17, Community Centre
Safdarjung Development Area
New Delhi 110 016 India
Reproduced by permission
Production.
of Action
for Food
Reproduction
of this microfiche
document '
form is subject to the same restrictions
i:
of the original
document.
tE:se
‘P
ACTION
FOR
FOOD
PRODUCTION
HOW
TO
DRY
and
VEGETABLE
AFPRO
PUBLICATION
(2)
.
I
2.
INTRODUCTION
.
HaW TO DRY FRUITS &ND VEGETABLES
[email protected], x cp this booklet
is to give practical
information
to
women in the rural
areas of India,
on how to
wolnen ; s~?cially
dry f’ruits
and rregetables,
which car Ghen be preseTved from times
of plenty to be ussu in the lean Leasons of the year.
It can
also be Used as a htild':ook to teach village
level eom+uunity
Development workers '&f~o in turn can communicate these methods
to the farmers wives,
The material
was gethere?! by wcmen Peace Corps Volunteers
after
experimentation,
an3 edited and prepared in this from by Miss.
Joya David, B.A., of AFPX Staff,
in New Delhi.
Any correspondence
directed
to:
regards-d
this
handbook
should
Elizabeth
Reid
Executive Secretary
- AFPRO
C-52, N-L’. South Extenion
II
NEk?DE&31 - 25
be
.P,JNANTAGESOF DRYING PCODS
Preserving
foods by drying does not take the plsoe of cenzing foods and storing
them in jars, or cans, but it has certain
advantages:
Little
storage place is rerluired
for dried foods
::
dried fends can be stored in containers
that cannot be
used for canning.
economically
for use during seadon3. foods can be preserved
al gluts.
Nhen foods are dried,
they may be reduced in bulk 3s much as [email protected]$
for example, 10 pounds of fresh food 7 "y be reduced to 1 pound of
&ied fcod.
By this reduction
no food value is lost,
and the flavour is not greatly
changed.
. Dried food may be stored irz plastic
bags and cans.
Hence, if
space is limited
and glass or tin containers
are difficult
to secure
or are exponsi_ve, drying may prove a very satisfactory
method of
preserving
food.
METHODS Ol? DRYIRG lLND DRIERS
Stove
3*
Electric
or oven drying
dehydrator
(placing
f*od
the oven)
above a stove
cr in
'lates
or dishes may serve as d'riers when the drying is done
in the oven.
Most of the trays consist
of a wood or metal frame
over which wire netting
is tacked.
Single tray or a series of
tt;rayS one placed above the other may serve as driers.
When drying
is accomplished
by heaf; from a stove, the driers are hung over a
stove, or ikey.rest
In the latter
case,
on ths top of the :,tove.
it is necessary tha-t the frame of the tray be constructed
so that
the bottom of the tray must be of tin or galvanized
iron to protect
the food from kerosene fumes.
The lcwest tray must be placed at
least 4 inches above the metal battom.
SELECTING THE FRESH PRODUCT
Use cnly
Select fresh fruits
or vegetables
of ecd rl;tiity.
ripe frui1
that has reached its full development +nci is in Prim>
eating conditlbn.
Vegetables
that are mature but still
tender
should be wed.
fiver-mature
vegetables
tend to be tough, stringy,
and flavourl
ess .
Early morning harvest of vegetables,
while the produt'is
are
fresh and succulent,
is recommended.
Rapid handlin:
cf l-hl?m will
onserve vitamins
ordirarily
lost through long hoidirvr end :;torage.'
Under no condition
should succulent
vegetables
be 11~ ,'. longer than
6 hours after.harvest
before drying and it is essenti
! they be
kept cool during this time.
fruits
that
Make your dehydration
plans to supply a variety
of those
and vegetables
that will provide
the greatest
amount of
material.
Your selection
of foods should include
items
will
give variety
in colour and flavvur
as well as nouris+hent.
. . .2
.
-2-
IMPORTPZE OF PROP33 PREPmTION
Fresh fruits
and vegetables
contain many nutritive
substances
that
are easily
lost in storage,
handling3
and preparation,
Conservation
of these is important.
Chief among these elements are vitamins,
sugar r protein,
and mineral,
all essential
to the body.
When
preparing
the products
certain
steps are necessary to conserv? some
of these essential
materials.
Many, like Vitamin C, oxidize
readily
in the presence of air.
Others, like sugar and minerals
dissolve
in,the
washing or blanching
procedure and are lost.
Wieh
greater
.car.e given.to
each step in the preparation,
more of these
elements can be retained
in the product.
,
PREP&UT ION FOR DRYING
To secure the best results
They shotild be in good conditioi,
select mature but'fresh
without
blemish.
vegetables.
Certain
foods, such as berries,
cherries,
peas,'lima
and shell
beans are dried whole.
Most vege:ables
should be clot into slices
from 98 to & of an inch
in thickness.
The slicing
may be done
with a paring or kitchen'knife,
or it may be done by means of a
good chopper.
It is necessary that all knives and cutting
devices
be clean.
There should be no discolouration
of the .vegetable
It has been found advisable
to blanch most
from the knife.
vegc+-hles
before drying.
Foods are not cold-3ippr.5,
:?owever, ai'ts;
blanC’..&+lg when they are to be dried.
Fruits
are usually
not
blanched before drying.
PFJPARATICW OF FRUITS FOR DFXCNG
.
,
Washf.ng is the first
sten in preparatl?n.
After clea:ii..lg,
some fruibs
like apoles,
are hani-neeled,
ccred, and slicsd,
such as apricots,
are cut in half an-! the nit is rem36S .
Others,
Peaches and mangoes are usually
cut, halved, and pitted.
RETREATMENT r:?PFRUITS
I
Sliced
or cut fruit
is subject
because the soft tissue
is ex;,osed;
enzymes and the
sygen of the air.
to exidation
tha exidation
3~ dlr.c::lo:>:,.::icn
is c.ausa! i;~r
As soon as the fruit
is peeled cr sliced,
the cut surface
should be temporarily
protected.
This can bc don? best by dipping
the product
in a weak salt solution
(appromixately
3 tables7jo~ns
Discolouration
d!--zring' the drying Process 2.21
per quart of water).
be avoided by subjecting
the fresh cut fruit
to the Ames of
,, burning
sulphur.
This treatment
will
also nrotect
the dry fruit
in storage against
insects.
All highly acid fruits
that teni 5';
oxidize
or discolour
readily
nr:ed to be sulphurt;d
and must not ba
dried on wire-screen
trays,
To safepuard the product use only
wood-slat
trays.
Sulphuring
takes from
prod.uc ts . Long sulphuring
as the product
dries,
The
as. a preservative,
as well
completely
driven off ,dhen
30 minutes to r hours :'or most fruit
bleaches the c~lo~,
vk:ch will
roturn
sulphur abscrb;,d by ths fruit
acts
as an antioxidant,
and is zl.nor,t
the pr jluc t is cooked .
I
I
I
trays
snd place in stacks off
Place the fruit
on mod-slat
“z
the floor
in a roo3 that can !:i: rati.er
t.ightly
sealed to prevent
Stuffing
the cracks aromd the
the escspe of the sL;;hur
fumes.
doers and windows with cloth will
c’x~;;-rz? tight
enough quarters.
Suiphur is hzrmful to mete.2 Jr rui:tier parts SC’ check and remcve
these objects
from your sulphuring
room.
P-G~2 of an inch elf
sulphur in a metal can (not enamell~d) and heat on tht stove
until
the suiphur is mel'-d
. The xelttd
sulphur can be set aflame
Then the can of burning
with a matth l r piece of burning paper.
sulphur is -?t in the middle under the trays and left for the
recommended iength of time.
SEE TABL: I (END OF BOOK-3)
PREPARATION 07 VEGETABlBSFOR I&-DRj!.TICN
In general,
the preparation
of vegetables
for dehydration
is not different
from their preparaticn
for any ether home use,
But, caution
should be taken t, ;ee that the pieces of the prepared product
are of uniform thickness.
BLNCRII?G VEGETABLES
is
step in the prellrlnary
Blar+hing
the most important
c.re not :.:oroughly
treatme nt 5 IT Tegetdtles . if the products
blanched,
tiley will not retain
thein, flavour,
colour,
or nourishing qualities.
All fresh uncooked vegetables
contain qxantitites
of enzyrles.
T.hc:se euzymes are organic substances that cause
cknges
in livi/lg
,iSSU?.S. They are present and active during
the life
of .r-he vegetable
and continue
to ,function
in breaking
down plai,t ma:ariaJs
unless
they are inactivated.
Blanching
is
the most ~~7act?ca.l process by which we can stop tne action of
enzymes that, TV*'.. .%a off fle.-ours
and odours during storage and
undesirable
for consumption.
make the deh.y&*,;, t! px.ducts
water in
Blanchin;;
is ,rt'ox.~:.j?ished with the use of boiling
Construct
or purchase a wire
a large 4 to 6 gal~lon I:'/-::er.
basket that will
fit in::.'r,l: the cooker.
Fill the cooker at least
half full
of water and p!;c~~ 5~: the hottest
$art of the fire ta
Bring thc ;vater to a vigourous
boil.
sup&y heat quickly.
enough vegetables
in the wire bbjket
i;o fill
it half full,
submerge in boiling
water, and agitate
by stirring
gently or by
It must be
raising
&ad lowering
thebasket
during blanching.
noted that large quantity
cl' water drops less in temperature
t;han
are introduced;
hence,
small quantity
when the cold vegetables
fqr blanching
in hot water use of a large cocker is imperative.
Before blanching
another basket of vegetables
be sure the watyr
has again corie to a vigourous
boil.
PlSCC
SEE TABLE II
(End of Booklet)
b'lL"!?HODS
OF DRYIEG FOODS
Plnse the prepared food on drying trays.
Unless the drying
If pasis
done in the oven, cover the food with cheese-cloth.
sj.ble,
4rask the zloth to the frame so that
dust or insects
no
san 'come in contact with the food.
twice a dav while they are drying.
when food is dried in the sun.
Stir
This
or turn feed once or
is especially
necesszxy
-4If the food is to be dried in the sun, place the tray cozt,;ir!ing the food in the sun, where therxabreeze.
If :!t rains,
take the tray indoors.
Also bring the tray indoors just before
sunset.
1.
.
If the food is to be dried in the ok-en, place the fc;.Jd on
2.
plates
or trays.
P-.-en dryiz? is much more satisfactorily
dcne
if the oven is provided
with a thermometer.
It is cfteR necessary
to keep the door open so that thg temprature
lees not become too
high (it usually
varies from 115 F to 1'75°F).
If the food is to b> dried in a mechanical
+,place th:
3.
.‘ -. l#*ator,
-..-tray s and place in dehydrator
food on suitable
fel-b '2~ specified
length of times stirring
occassiona7'-7.
Be sure t 3: temperature
is
maintained
according
to instructicr.
TESTING [email protected] SUFFICicENT DRPTItGA&D [email protected]
kind
The time
of food.
for drying
A definite
varies with the methcd of drying and ;he
time of drying car.not be stated.
B)
When first
%ken from the arier
and cooled, ITegetables
should be rather
brittle
and frl:Lts
rather
leathery
and -pliable.
One method of determining
whether fruit
is dry eilough is to squeeze
a handful;
if.the
fruit
separates when the hard is opened, it is
dry enough.
Another way is to press a single piece;.if
no moisture
comes to the surface the piece is sufficiently
dqy. $,
SEE TABLE III
(tid
I
of booklet)
When the food is sufficiently
dry it should be Flaced in
boxes or bowls and covered with clean cloth.
The dried food
should be-stirred
or poured from one container
to another once e.
day for 10 days or two weeks.
If at the end of this time the focd
is found to be moist,
it must be subiected
to the drying process
for a short time.
After the second
drying,
it should be
treated
as directed
above. .If thr food is observed for several
days and found to be moist, it must bt: subjected
to the dw,ying
process for a short tim.
After the second drying,
it should bd
treated
as directed
above!. If the food is obaf:rved for several
days ar,d found to be dry it may be stored away.
This process of
testing
and ,making them sufflcifntly
Lry after removing fro2 t.lt
drier
is termed 'conditioning'.
l?ACKING AKD STORAGE CF DBWDRATED 2RCDUCTS
,
Keeping quality
of dehydrated
products
depends, to a
considerable
extent,
on their fins1 moisture
content.
92.2 lo&r
the moisture
content,
the better
the keer;ing quclity.
After
drying,
fruits
and vegetables
will
take uo mcisture from the
surrounding
air if allowed to remain exposed for any length cf
time.
This absorption
takes place rapidly
on days when the Tiatural
humidity
of the air is high.
To avoid absorption
and to
improve keeping quality,
store under moisture proof conditions
immediately
after
drying an! during
'conditioning',
also.
l
e
1
q
-5-
-.
0
..
The best type of container
for dtihydrated
products are glass
jars with tight
seals.
It is extremely
imnortant
to clean them
well to remove all traces of odour that might contaminate
the
dehydrated
products.
Dried vegetables
such as carrots
are quite
susceptible
to flavour
changes and foreign
odours.
Cans with
tight
seals that ar e moisture
proof can likewise
be used.
It is
imperative,
however 9 that any type of container
used must be
sealed to prevent air leakage.
Air leakage means moisture
absorption
and the possi lility
of insact infestation.
Before
placing
the freshly
dehydrated
products
in containers,
be sure
that the cans, jars , or containers
have been thoroughly
dried out.
Place the freshly
dehydrated
product in the hot or still
warm
container c Fill
the contai.ners
as much as possible.
Use smaller containers
to avoid opening and exposing large
batches of dehydrated
food,
Large tin cans with air tight
covers
can be used to store many small vapour-proof
cellophane
packages.
;~;;;ysmall
packages should contain a complete serving for the
. Use of small packages preserves
the product against
breakage and moisture absorption.
Removal of a bc?,: for serving
rocedure and involves
is a simpl!;
no damage to the rest of the
food materia P stored in the can. Cool storage is essential
for
long keeping of packaged dried material.
This can be accomplished
’
by the use of a cellar
or underground
chamber.
PREPARATION OF DEHYDRATED FOOD FOR COOKING
0
Some dehydrated
fcods bo:oefit by preliminary
soaking,
while
especially
the green, leafy vegetables
others,
refresh
during
to a Large extf nt,
cooking . The size of the pieces determines
the length of the time for soaking.
The larger pieces take Up
the water more slowly,
while the smaller pieces such as shreds, dices,
slices,
e tc . have more surface per unit volume for absorpticn
of
water and re hresh sore quickly.
If a food is left to soak too
long, it map become water-logged
and produce an unattractive
product when cooked , Mangoes soaked 24 hours, then cooked, do not
have the attractive
shape? firmness,
or flavour
of mangoes soaked
only 12 hours before cooking.
Fruits
vegetables,
of spoilage
.
can be soaked overnight
without
spoilage,
but dehydrated
if allowed to soak more than 2 k:ours 9 may show evidence
F
Foods that have been soaked should be cooked in the water in
Just enough water should be used to allow
which they were soaked.
As the majcrity
of vegetables
for refreshing
and for cooking,
have been precooked or blauched before drying 9 they will
not requira
as much time to cook as fresh vegetables.
The cooking required
will
de end on the stage of maturity
at the title the vegetable were
dr Ped. When soaking and cooking,
use-13 to 2 measures of water for
every measure of dehydrated
vegetable
with the exception
of green
leafy vegetables.
Cook all food until
tender,
The food .-.PY bt?
in which they will
be cooked.
More water
soaked in the container
car be added before cooking if needed, but none should be poured
off.
. . . . ...6/-
--
-6.
:
Onions to be used as flavouring
:nay be powdered and a bit of
powder added as seasoning to foods without
refreshing,
If onion
slices
are wanted, the slices
should be’ soaked for 15 minutes in
water) then simmered gentiy for 20 to 30 minutes.
One tablespoon
on oruon will need 3 tablesDoons
of water for refreshinu.
Dehydrated
a~4 flavourable
food that
dishes.
has been
p?operly
prepared
makes attractive
. .
.
.
.
c
i
i
d
.
.
,P
.c
#
&
3
eu
c
#
a
c”
m
a”
!i
a
:
E
5
.
:
:4
r:
Of
*; ‘ii
00
.
,
I
.
m
fl
F
P
-
d
z
P
iz
d0.
r:
c,
s
N
I4
JR
sm
.
c
4
TABLE II
Continuation
_ --.
U~HYIXUTED PRODUCT
Condition
V/h&n
J&&.bg.
.QUdi~ty " . *.-.-.. Dry
)
..
I
._ - .
Brittle,greenish
.. ..
Flack.. ,.
_ __ _-. -y. -.. .’ ._._ ._ _._. ..-. L
-_ __--- --Be&. Crtha) ‘..i.- --- -y..
__. -I . __- -.
:‘_A s. BrittZJe
Beat&.
__ .__ _.__._.
-.y - ;- ._ ._ ___.____
:_,..
_._._-..-.-&;icL-oli‘__._
. _-- ._-..._,I.
_-.,.__
a Cabbage'
Brittj.e
.__
. _-_ ..-
.’
,
‘hoop
_
-‘.-
_ _. i
.
..-
-.
_____
__...
.__.
_
a.-
_....
--
Okra
Brit$e
.. .
,,
l _-
Patatkes.
___. ..- ._ -..-.
... I -.i . ..
_. _ . Peas
.
e__. - __._.
..- -- - mpkk
:-.
1. _
; ._ i
1 ..T ._.
.;
_ . _ -.
.- - .Spti%ch,
. ,_..-- !.,?r grze~
w
'.'.'
,, . Swe&. Po&bes
I
' ':..:
i
:
I.
I
_-.
. Good
.--,
_
Briftle
-.-.,-_ op-ti
I. _..__. Brittle
,..
__,_ ..__.. . .T
..-.----: .- "
._pmsni.p&
, Brittie
;
"
_ . &-___ _
Tomatoes
_ _ .._
Turnips.
Radishes
G&d
;.. ...i
rough
1 -'e'-e,.
.
-. .
lJ&gh;
.A’
__...I( ___.
_ I ._-.
__.
.
_- -._. ._-&g.p.bte
-.._
.__ .
-.
i
;.
Good:
'- ---'
,'
-.--
:,
.-
_..-r
.-..
” ..,-..
. Good ! ___._..__.._ .
..
: ', _. .-......
__.,..
1.~:-..
i .
-, .". - Good' _ _ __._,_.
-. ._ t
__._ ..
'
J:.Hard, Brittle.'
-' Good:
: .;
_,. :. .. . ; 1. .... -. _
__
._.
I
i Good '.._. __ _ - .Y.,,,:.
Hard.,. .wrinkled.,
! '.-..'*
, Brittle
. . .
_._...!.
". _
.
' ._..;-.
,,,
,A:.Tough,' Brittle:
- "i .&cd';, '. ".I ...!.,
;
Lie,
..
. ... .
. . .. .
'.
,!
Good
:
.
.
!
-...'. C.ri.spt brittle
*
.
I
I
- .Hard, .brittle
___ .
.'II Gopd. :
.
:
I
.__
., : ~ ':
'Tough, Brittle.:
'.I Gook.
.:
'. . .._
.I.
:Tough,brittle
_
...- :
I Good
I
_.
.
TABLE III
L! ;? AND VEGETABLEREFRESHINGTABLE
PRODUCT-
I
Peaches
or
Rhubarb _...
! ..
VEGEPABLE
Beans (~re'eti)'
1 Beans(Lima)
Broccoli
Cabbage (shredded)
(shredded!
arrots
ci
Corn
..
Eggplant
parsnie s
.-.
# 1*
: 1.
_
',- 1 2.
I j.
:!-;.l
-t
l.;
,.1 1
70 min
* 15
, S? min
I
C_ZOmin
1 30 Miil
no_n_e
i 30 min
) 20.
115
t 5
1
,2
d!'%
_
1 1
.---.
16
-12%
24
,2
-'-'
1 30 min
JTOmin
Pumpkin(Shredded)
Rutabagas
Spinach..Squash
Okra
* Tablespqqns
.! 1
*,I 30 min
'0
IO
--.--1 15
15
.
----
r.
1
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