A Tuned Amplifier And Null Detector With One-Microvolt Sensitivity

A Tuned Amplifier And Null Detector With One-Microvolt Sensitivity
THE
GENERAL
R A D 10
•
VOLUME
3S
No.7
JU LY , 1961
IET LABS, Inc in the GenRad tradition
534 Main Street, Westbury, NY 11590
www.ietlabs.com
TEL: (516) 334-5959 • (800) 899-8438 • FAX: (516) 334-5988
THE
GENERAL
RA 0 I 0
fxr fR IMfNTfR
[< IU I- G(N ERAl .... o ro CO MPA NY, W( ST CO NCORD , MASS ., U.S. A.
PublisheeJ Monthly by the Ge ne ral RoeJia Compon y
VOLUME 3S • NUMBER 7
JULY, 196 1
CON TENTS
A Tuned Amplifie r and Nul) Delector with OneMicrovolt Sensitivity.
Vacotion Closing
Single-Camponent-ConlroUed RC NuU Circuih .
The New Type W30 Variac M Auto transformers ..
General Radio De monstrates Traveling EJ,;hibit ot
Paris Seminar
Pog'
3
7
8
10
11
The General Radra EXPERIMENTER IS marled withaul charge
each monlh 10 engineers, scientists, technic;ians, and olhers
interesled in electronic techniques rn measurement. Whe n
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nolices, please supply the follow ing m' ormalion, nome,
compony address, Iype of business company is engaged in,
and Idle O( posilion of individual.
GENERAL RA DIO COMPAN Y
West Concord , Mo ssa c h us e Hs
TII'phone, !Conco.d) EM, ..on 9·~~00; !5o>ronl Mluion 6 .7400
NEW YORK :
B,ood A" ' n '" 01 lInd , n, Rldg,A , ld , N. w J It. IY
T'I'phone - N. Y., WOrth ~·1722
N. 1., WHitney ] -31~0
CHICAGO:
6605 W..I No,. h A".n ... . , O ak Po,k , lIIinoi.
Telephone - vmogo. 8 ·9~00
PHILADEL PHI A:
1150 Yo rk Roo d, Ab lnglon, P. n n l",' "onlo
Telepho". - HAncock ~ ·7419
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T,I'pho". - JUn;".. 5·1088
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T.,.pho". - HOllywood 9 ·620'
SAN FRA NCIS CO: 1186 l os AltaI A" I., La. Ait ol. Co li f,
Telephon. - WHjl.cliff 8·823]
CANADA:
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T"ephone - CHerty 6 _2 17'
COVER
EAST COAST,
NEW YORK ,
High "nll" ... II.,. and
10 ... no, .. 0 " flolu, .. of
Ih ' n.... T.,.p .
1232_A
Tun ' d Ampl'A .. and Null
O" ec'o" I ho ... n h...... I'h
Ih l T.,.p ' 1632 _A 'nd"._
lonu 8"dg,.
M'DWf5T :
WEST COAST:
CANA OA,
REPA IR SERVICES
G' n,.ol Radio CD., S•• "I.e D. p' ., 22 80 k" A"'nu"
W... Concord , Mall.
Tel_pho". - Concord, EM."on 9-"400
80"on, MI ..ion 6 .7 400
G.n .... 1 Ra d io Co., S. . ... I•• D. pl" 8.00 d A" •. 01
Llnd,n, Rldg, n e ld , N.w l .... y
Telepho". - N. Y., WOrt~ 4.2721
N. J., WHit".y 3·3140
G' nlt ol Ro d l .. Co., h,,,I •• Oe p, ., 6605 Will North
A"." Oak Po,k, Il1I n ol.
Te!.phone - Villog. 8 ·9400
G e n"ol Rodio Co" S..... I•• Oept., 1000 No •• h
Se ... o,d 5, .. ", LO l Ang e ln 3B, CaU l .
TeI.pho". - HOllywood 9·620 I
Bay l y En g ;n'"ing , l Id., Fi,", SI., AlaI[, Onlo .lo
T.lepho.,., - TO'OM lo EMpi,.. 2-374 '
IET LABS, Inc in the GenRad tradition
534 Main Street, Westbury, NY 11590
www.ietlabs.com
TEL: (516) 334-5959 • (800) 899-8438 • FAX: (516) 334-5988
r
,
f lg u .. l. Po n e l v ie w of 'II . Typ o 1232 · .
Tune d Amp LUl e. and Null O" u ' o.,
A TUNED AMPLIFIER AND NULL DETECTOR
WITH ONE-MICROVOLT SENSITIVITY
The TYI'~ 1232-.\ Tuned .\ mplificl'
und SuI! Detector is a sen~ili\'c. low.
1I0ilie,
lran;;;i~t')1
11 rnpli !iel", II hii'll t Ill}e",
t'olltitluC)u"I,v fmlll 20 cps to 20 kc, wit h
nddition:ll fixed·tulled f1'(~qH('tl('ic.'" of
50-kl' and IOO-k(', I t i. . illl<.'IlO('O Wimllril)' :l.~ a hridg(' dl'\(. (· tor bllt hn,.,
1n:IIlY
0111('1"
importHnt
II~".
:Imoll!!:
til('m tIl(' (I('I('('/ioll of hi!!h-fr(~PI('tll'Y
modulated ,.,iglw1.~ (wit h a l'1"y:-Ial d (,Il1n<illlatOl'), appr'oximate \\"a\'C illl:ll.\'.~i~
at :\l\d i() freqILcncip". :Ul d :1S a pr('atnplifif'1' for t nillsdll(,('r.",
'I'll(' Ottt "la llding (,hnrad ('rist iI'S of t hi"
instnlll]('nl - oll('-Illi('mvolt :-icll "iti,'ity.
low J\oi'<t, [PHI. and ('onl i IHt()ll,; t llll illg result fmm llnu,~ua! features of C'ircuiL
de...,ign.
CIRCUIT
Preamplifi er
Of til(' ctf'n1('n1.~ ::hOll'll ill the hlock
d iagram of Figure 2, th e prcam plificr is
olle of t he rnn.~t illlpOl'tll n1. b('c':lu,~C th e
mi nimum dct t'('lll blt, :<ij!11:tl i" det C'l'1nincd
fl,V 1he pl'camplifiN lIoi:<e 1l'\'C~1. T he
ty pe: of Il'all:<i:<tnr fill' the fi l);t stagc
\\';1:< cho"{'n to minimizC' uoi)<e, llot on ly
fro m loll' irn pcu:I1I('C ,";()IU'('C'" sHeh lli;
ill d uc'I:II1('c h ri dg:e,.: lit 10\\' ft'C(IIlC'l1ciei<,
hut :l 1 ~1 frnm hi!!;h irnp(,dall('e ,.:ourr'es
:<11,.]\ :1": ('ap:lI'il,\' )l1'id!,!;('" a t low fre(llIt'IWit'...;, It l the lil!;hl of :<im p lified noi$C
I hcnryl, Ihi,.: tne:llli< :I 11':I1I:<j~I{)1' lI'ilh U
10\\' OlwlH'in'nil noi"£' gellemt01', i., :18
II'cli :I" lo \\' ,~h()I'I-('i l'l'llit HOj,.:C W"lIeratol',
('.' .\ f(('1' noi.~(' d i:lj(1':lmf< 1I'f'1'(' plo!tf'u
frl1' null1.... 1I'!1I1'''i~lol''', it W(\S di:<('m'('I'('d
t hat Ihe 2): lt iH.\ tl'al1:<i ...tot' when o p('r:lIed fit \'CI'y loll' ('olleetor ('lI l'I'I '1I1
had a IIl1i,'«' lil:(lIl'(, of ;l til 5 dh tit fill
oplimutn "01!I'C'£' impf'dallf'c of :>0 ki loohm,.:, II'hil'h i~ 11 ll llS11nlly high fnr a
' ,\, E, ~n(I" ...... n ao,1 H, G, .'"lk., ".\ ::j"'l'lifi.. 1 :<oi,.,
Th...,cy, ~od i,. ,\m,li""n"" to. 'h~ I~i~" "I r.o"·.:"\,,i.~
,\,,,plif,~ ... ," III'" Te>m .",/i'm' ~" ,~~'I; d, July •. lu ... ".t,
l IMIt.
IET LABS, Inc in the GenRad tradition
534 Main Street, Westbury, NY 11590
www.ietlabs.com
TEL: (516) 334-5959 • (800) 899-8438 • FAX: (516) 334-5988
~
GEN ER A l
R A DIO
tm.ll..;j';IOJ'. By 11"<' of tl('!-!;,lti\'r fe·l'db:!!.:!.:
11H' illPHI illlpl'dntl('l' of \111' pr'I':llllplilicr
j ... al~() Ilwde fiO kiloll1ll'-, alltl (he H()i:<c
1t,\,'1
a ... fC:I\J
Iht'
1111
outpllt
IlWll'!' i,~
n·blin·I.,- ~(lIl~IHlll <11111 illdt'pl'lldcnt of
in1l>c'(i:uu'c.
111(' 'lHlrt'\'
Ihl' ilU'IHI\"('tlil'IWI'
llll'l,'t" h:11Lj!
I'irnlit
of
Thi~ f'iilllilllltC";
hal' illg 111(' ollipul
"IT ;-(':111.' Whl'll('\'l'j" I he input
('il'{'uilt'lL 11' IIftt·]! hap-
i~ Opt'll
1)(,1I.~ wilh
\':U'\Hlrll-!l1bc :l!llplitll\r~.
111
:Hldilj!1jl. all,\' bl"l!;l' tliffl'relwl' lldllt'('11
lhl' ,hoft-eireuit :llld np('lH'il"('(ljl noi,.e
len'l", 11"(.,11([
til,'
!"I·qllirt· ill<'l"I':I-.l,d rall~{' OJ!
11;:1111 (',uIII'III, :-:ill('I'
~:II''''' II) l)pl'I'alt'
it
•
EX P E RIMENTER
i .~ :, [II':IY" IICt'l'''-
Seri es and Shunt Filters
pn' arnplifil'alion, t he ~i!!:II:11
l!tI"(lu,!.!;h a "l·t or ~l'l"i('-; aud :<huul
fihl'l'''' \I hii'll are tI('"igul'd to l"C'jl'I'!
f n'lllll'll('il'" ahove :lIld heloll" I he .~£'It'f·! cd
,\fl{'r
pas'I'"
Itllling m l lgl'. F I)I" l'x:llllple. 011 th e ~()O­
\,!l,-lo- 2- k,' I !tIling ra II.c;c, :1 .~{' ri {'" (':1 p:witnr I'l'jet:t::i all frcqtll'll l"ic.'i helol\" 2t.HJ t"P'.
:;:h llll1 {'lI p:kilor ('ejed" till frl'-
qll(,llt'i('s :Ihm'(' 2 kt.
(l ll
:11[
.~\ril(" h
po:-i-
ti01l .... c .~ I·cpl FL.IT :lIld 20-200 I·V.... 1111( II hl'r r·(·jcel i011 li[1 l' 1" l ·etllU:e.~ I he l·t·.~!)OII"t·
til no ('P" to gl"c:ltcr lhan 00 db brloll'
Iwak
I"C"pOll~C.
with 111<' wlj,<f' It'H'1 "ell
1)("1,11\' fnll-M·ult· "HlpU ! "u 1111' nl\'!('r,
To ]lmlt'el till' input lrall~i..;lllr from
po",... illl(' da1ll:l1!.'I· due' 10 Int'l:!,"(' ol'Nlo:ld s
PI'l'('edt'd hy II I ill1i1l'I'
(If a ~~·I·jl''': (,llpadllJI' ami tIro
~lIllllj ,.:ilitllli l'('I'li/i(,1' diode", Thi~ t"l1'tll;t 1.'1Tt'l'Iiwly ]>rt'I'('I"'" . . i~lIld" greHll'r
(I[ lilt' illput. it j ...
I'IUl~;"'litl,!!;
1111111 1 I'olt, )1I'.tI':-10-P(·llk. rroltll'i':l('It;II~
\r;IJ\~i~lot·
Freque ncy-Selective Amplifier
Thi~ amplifier f·Olbi ... 1.~
(I f
Ihl"ee ,,;{II;.::(· ...
wilh 11('J,!:alin' fCl'dh:.H'k t l l1'l)ll ~h II Illtil
HI'I I\"or k, II" h i('ll h:(..; il" Inti I nIl he d('.~il"<·( I
opCt"alill,!!;
fl'eqIH,'Hty.
:4 iul"l'
I hl,\"{'
I'"
I1I'),::alil'(' l"e('(I11ll1'k :11 :tll freq ll {, lIcil'~ 11111
the dcslred l)Ill'. t hc (J\'cr-aIJ t'C"jiOlbl'
peak:-; ill I h is fl"!'ljll{,lIey IlHd is l'IIllV;hl,I'
ulld dl)!'>: not 1"011HilmI£' IIOi~I' or di"lurlioll It) JOll-II'I'e!
(,([uil'ale!!! 1(1 thaI of a tlLllt...! eil'('llil with
~i,!!;lItlk
1I1liqut' ft':lllll"cof Ihi~ nlllltl!'lllllrk i . . il ...
OtIC-pOt tI11lillg~. :'I l allY Hill! ll('tllol"b
r('llllirc t h l"ec v:tt'iuh[c l'ICIIIl'l lt:-, ('illll'r
gauged {'apaeitol""; or gall)"(cd P~ ' I(' l lli'1111<;1['1"". Tlti." I{'ad~ 10 mallY ))1'(,hl£'III": ill
!In' input
:<cl fol'
I p\' filII :'I'a k', il i" p()~~ibll' 1(1 (·Ulllll,(·t
tllt input to U I L}-I'o]t ;H.: lil)(' without
\rilll
tilt' ,!!;uill
(")1111'01
JUtn:I!.!;I' III II\(' itlpnt 11';IIl:<i:-IIJ!".
:'la-.:irllorn
~:Iill of
til(' preamplifier is
:\h"UI 10 db, II'hi('1I i" l,dl.'qllat£' \O":Ir:lnlp
lIlt' !loi~{' of :<ilu'I't'l'dilig :-1:Ig:es. The lolal
l'al1~t' of IIle lolullU' control i.~ 120 db,
Ilhidl n·lllll'I'. . the full-:-"'all' ,",CII ... iliI'iIY
10 I 1'011 foil .~t:lk, HIli I atll'nllaliol1 in
db i" t'/)Il~hly proportion:11 to I ht- 1'0t:11 ion
Hllgle of 1hl'
•
whil(' a
~aill
{'(lIIt wI.
H q (,t" nl)(J111 20 (5'( hlltld widlh). T Ill'
:tligtlllll'Ht :l tld tl"ackillg t il(' 11I1"I 'l' l'il'ntl'lIt.~ 10
IIUllu{'1
tt1:tillwin H good Illlil.
\l tJ rk ~ ha .~:1 pI'I"f l'I'1
Th l' I i all
Imll ill ( ltl'(II',\'
for ully P(I,.:il ilm o f I h{' I (IIling PlI! t'ltl illtuct(,'I".
alld il i",
po~sibl(' to eIH l'I":1
T""""""i,,,, • .."
' lI~nc, 1'. noll. Hff:
,.;..,,,~;,,I:><,c 1",).1, 1,,1. l'T·2, ,>".
aC!icl~.,on I'a~e ~ 01 '" .. ,.. u~.
:1.
(,; ,.,.",1
p ~~:1. St.",
\0:\
'n",,",
"I""
"I""'PASS ....
IOW'PASS F'UERS
;
,,
IET LABS, Inc in the GenRad tradition
534 Main Street, Westbury, NY 11590
www.ietlabs.com
TEL: (516) 334-5959 • (800) 899-8438 • FAX: (516) 334-5988
,I<"
,
,
JU L Y,
=-_i·"T--,_r_rl
' r ----r"r-r':-;'c"i:~c·,':'..
.•
.•
•
~
10 dl\mnge the meter by ovclxlri\·ing tlw
:t1nplilier, For null dete'ctor 11:«', till'
meter ';11 itch is throwl1 La WG and lilt'
upper part of t he meter l'oCalc is eQIil1'1'1.',",800, '1'\1'0
Pili l'S of
~ili(,(l11 dif)dc~
are
ill ::;hullt Ilith the> ('Olll'I'Ior 1'1,'of t\\'o tr:.\II,..i",c ol'l' 10 provide a
s\litl.JH~1
8i;: t o~
tunillg r~iHgc with u IO-db cxpnllcnlia[
potcntionlcter. TUllill~ C'up!lcitors arc
swit<"il(!d to change ranges, II hid l has t he
nd"antagc of maitltaiuiug the impl.'tial1ec
[c,'d of t lw Ilull nctwOI"k a p])l'Oximatcly
COIl"laut for
19i5 l
the
Ihn.>;! IUlliug t'tLHI.!;(.'S.
Silll"r the ilO-kc :wd JOO-kc null net\\orkR nrc not I'cquired \0 be 11ltliihlc,
connmtiollfll twill-'/' uull nelll'orks arc
lIM:d.
Un the fl.AT po!<itioll of the r:lngc
switch, all filters ure RI\ itched out tlnd
the fr('(lucu('y rc:opon~ if! fln l to within
±-:l db f!"OlIl 20 cps to Ion kc. T he overall gain of the amplifil'f Ii< rc<hj('cc:I by 26
db to !-t.'\'p the lLoi~ 10\'('\ all the output
metcr eqUId to about 101/0 of fu ll .scale
fit maxim u m gain.
Am plifj e r- Co m press o r
Till! gain of thl' frt'("!Ucncy sclcdivc
amplifier is IIljQu L 10 db, find !l1tothcl'-IO
db of J;:liu i ~ sli ppli(~1 hy the amplificrCOI\I]Jrc.·',." or, makiug the l.ot:d gnin of the
(l.lllplitier about 120 db, Wilh thc MI::I'EI(
811i1('h .~d '0 the I, I ~ I;,\ I! PO"ilioll, the
lllllpiifi!.'I'-cOmprc."sor fUllClions :t>\ a lille:tr amplifirr, drivillg the Ill!.'!!.'r !'e('lifier
cirt'uit :1..-; 111.'11 llf; slI ppl,\'i ng 'he OUI put
tel'millal", Wilh about \.1 "01 , ,, for fullseale deflcetiol1 of tllc meier, Tlw de St illplied to t hl.' la,;t trall",io;lllr jj;. suffieicnl 10
clrin' the output !lIl'ler to full se:lll.', but
vcry litllc more, so ,hal it is impossible
notllillcllr ('olle{'lor im l,H.-'d:lllec. ])U(, 10
1he voltage ofT~1 of !lIe ~i li\'nl1 dillll('",
the bottom 20/ ; of the mClcr H.'ale i"
virtll:llly UllflfTC('tl-d. ,\ ~ig11al len'1 ('orres polldillg to 1001 ~ ddlt,t'l ioll for lilll'llI'
reilponsc Il'ill dl'OP to 50(0 for Jog:l1'i thmic rcsponse, An ilwre:l"C of 20 db
iuere:l$Cs the re:ldillg 10 sort, :Uld
anot her 20 db mises the readitlg In
100% , ThUll lhe dyn:ll nic nwge (.If tllf'
in::;t n llllClll for logarithmic Opt'r:lli!lI! i~
oi.:tout ,10 db gr{'aler thim il i::; fpr hW'ar,
:Ilthough the millimllll1 dl'tl.'l'1 .. hlt" ~iglla l
is the Sllll1 e,
Meie r Circuit
T he meter ('in'lIit lL»C.-t tl full-I\:1\'e
reelificl' in Ol'dN to d\Juhle the ripple
frC<IHl'lwy thllt ]las,,'iC!:! through the metcr
!1I1t1 lilU:< 10 prevcnt lhe needle frolll
,' ibnuing d:.ibly al 20 . (' I):', H,,,,i:.tfll'!;
fire utoi',:d ill place uf 1\\'0 of the ]'I.'l'tificl's
ill che tom'Clltionll] full-lI':\ ve hJ'id!{e ill
orue>r 10 lint'uriw t ht' rdation 1 ~II\et: n
mNer iudil'alion und :.i~lm l le\"l' l. lind
10 minimi7,c di':jortiflll , :\'0 de illil pli fi.
l':lCiOII \\,11'; in('uq}(lI':llL'{1 ill(O till' Illt'1CI'
circuit. SO thal thel'(' i.. 1111 1I('t-cl for u
de zero IlIlju;:lment 011 lhl' front palwl
lind 110 IK,,,,,ihility of dt, zc;ro ill~tllhilily,
1l igll-irnpetblwe, cry~c:rl-type earpllolll')l,
CU ll be COIIIlL'<:IL"<i to 1he output Icrlllillals.
Exte rnal Filte r
Extcrnal filtcJ'l'l ('1111 be connel'l ed lit.
1he EXT "1I,n :n jilek, Wlrell U ((.'Il'pholle
plug i ~ illS('rtcd in thi" jilek, the huilt-in
"hunt filler i.: di ."'i'Ol1lll"l "II"tl The cxlcl'Ilul
filter may he eit he r u ,..e;ri('~ 111/lcti ril'(,lIit
IET LABS, Inc in the GenRad tradition
534 Main Street, Westbury, NY 11590
www.ietlabs.com
TEL: (516) 334-5959 • (800) 899-8438 • FAX: (516) 334-5988
~
GENE RA l
RAOIO
•
e X PERI MII NTER
10 tmp OUt. nn IIndc~ircd fre<IUt'll{·Y. or nil
IIHlirCtiQlltlill parallcl tUlied cirt'uit 10
cnhullCC the flC!N:livity :\1 the d{'~irL... 1
frccluclIl'Y . For the JlUfJ>Q.."C of calcula ling
lhe Q of the {'xtcrn:lI filter , t he !;OlIN'C
impt,dlllwC is lIbout. 700 ohms. Hillf'c Ille
extcrlllli filtl'r ili plugged illlo l he ciJ"l'uil
at u poillt beyolld the (j().eyeic I'cj('('liull
filter :~ lI d II here there iii 80 db ga in to
the nll'lcr circuil, it ili important. thai t he
cxtcl'uul fill/'f I.e shielded and pr<'fcrably
that it. U~ a toroicl:\l indlwlOr fo r
minimum ~m:iti\'it.y to hum picku l).
illdud:II1(:C b:II:UH'CS to a rf'solutioll of I
part in 10'. An ('(luivnlcn L prcci~ion fo r
Cllp:wit:I/II:<-' ba l:1lwc ('1L1l be oht:lil1(.'(1 with
the Tl'I'~: 7 11i-C Capacita nce Brid ge.
oetecto r- Oe m ad ulator
For t he d dedioll uf modu la ted highfrt'quC"llcy liign:II<;, t he T \"I'~; 1232-A
Amplifier ulid :-\ull Dctector call be
utl<.,<1 \Iit h the T YI'E R7I-VQ \ 'oh meterDectcclOr. Ht'l1!<itivity if! a p proximutely
200 ~v full st:de up to abou t 2000 ?I re.
Amplifier or Preamplifie r
USES
The IJigh sclJsiti\'ity of t his instrumc-nt permits its Ul'(l flS it preampli fier
The high .~nJ;iti\·ity, low noi!<C I('\'el,
and coutinuolls.tuni1lg (e[lImc:-; of t hLo;
illst nullcnt foster a \\ide vadeLY of moei'!.
Figure!! 3, 4, 5, and 6 show the :-clcc-
for trausd ucer OlltputS QI' oi<Cilioscopc
illPllt. As !I gCII(,I":1 I - p 1Jl' jJI'J~e labo ra t.Qry
amplificl', it otTerg both select h'c flnd
resi>l)ll~
lind Jloi.;;c charae\erj"til'",
us fUH ctiolis of frequeucy.
tivity ,
Bridge Balancing
The ahovf' {'olllhin:ltiOIl of fell! Urt'S
mukL-g po~,.;ib l e extremely prCl'i:<e hridg{'
roltitlg>l, ('W'1l with \'ery 10W-pO\H'r getl('r!ltor~, III UJly frequcncy in t he fludio
range. Pr(Jvi~ ion for log:lritlullie rcSPOII,.;C mnkc:s adjustments of gCIII'rator
levcl unn<-'(·cssary. Thc new GellNal
Radio mcter ('I.I~, with open, cn"ily
rcil.d sealc, further fa('ili!atcs thc bridge
blll:uwf'.
With tbe THE Hi32-A Illdur\:lI1('e
Brid!;(',
~
thi~ llUli
df'teclur llIak(·~ po:-..,.;ihl('
flat
ch:ll~I('terili'ics,
Audio Spe ctrum Anoly,il
The tUllcd amplifier can bc usc<l ll.!!. Ull
tl.udio-frcqllell(-Y w:t\'e uualY7.er with U
.';clI"iti\·ity of one micro\'oll.. and a baudwidth of about 5S''o. For ap p roximate
mcasurcmenls, the ~aill ellll be !'lSSumcd
to he eonstllnt with fr('(p't"'lIey, b llt excellent aCI"l!r;WY call bc obtained if the
amplifier is first tnlihrnted wit h U C0I1stal lt-amplitude, \'ari:1blc-fN..'qllellcy sig1It11.
Since the rilllgr of the db scllie 011
the Qutput mder is limited to 10 <lb. a
calibrnic·d attcllliator i" IIl'(.'f.-"'i.":U·Y for
~rC:ltN rallg!:", \\, ilh the T \,N: 5 1ti-C
:rri· f·... T
. 1
~.
1..
'
.,
' .,,':-,,".,:0...
~J"".\,.~
~1
I
... ' .
__
.... -
-
~
__ l-.....i.._-'--_:'
I
•
co . . . _
.~
Fig" •• 4. h ll IIm l" fo , bolh ", oll" g. " nd
n l .. , l"ncUon, 0 1 I, e q". nc r.
<",..
Fig " •• S. Typl co l nolo. 1.....10 .. s a
fun<llon at '. e q". n< y,
IET LABS, Inc in the GenRad tradition
534 Main Street, Westbury, NY 11590
www.ietlabs.com
TEL: (516) 334-5959 • (800) 899-8438 • FAX: (516) 334-5988
,
JULY ,
,,..,
I
,.
0
0
PI" ... .
6.
...... I ..lIon
."po" ••
Typical
I.. p ... "
wl,h ft._
qu o .. c)' fo. con., .. ,,1
"oln .< onl.ol .otU"9 .
- -- -
QDIIISTut
,
,
./
~
>,
_ ..u
-
"-
./
,
!II; _I 0
I
~ -~ 0
I
C-)O
"
I I
rot4 .... , CIJIIIIUIT_(
~
, =
l\iiN"O\'oiter, t ill' illl)UI lO the amplifier
c:.Ul be illcrl':t~.J in kno\\'l1 !llc'ps to cover
9. mC/l.<;urcmCllt. r:tngc of 120 db.
The fiuthQr hn.,> also found this nmplifier wilh :l. micl'Opilone :l.nd n pair of
1\
7-1
-
COHSTuT VQL"oa '_Cl~
!
>
cllrphnncs,
his piallo.
--- ,-,...-
1961
vuln:lblc aid in I.uni llg
A. K SANIlEHSON
'"
,
I
•
...I
I
~
~
~
.
CREDITS
The rit'I'{'lol>rnl'nt of the TYI'E 1232-.\ TUI1L..:1
J\mlllifif'f !Iud :-'ull 1)"'I~·tor Willi curried out
l>y AliJ.ert K SUUdCI'lIOIl, "lIthor of the fon...
going urtirle. Tht' dOl<igu or tho luned null
network WfL8 coutribulcd by Henry 1'. lI ull,
uuth()r of the ankle Hlnrt ing on !Juge S. The
pmje<-l wns lIuucr lh~ din:.'t:lion of n. A.
&dcrlllll.tJ.
- EUI'fun
SPECifiCATIONS
h ' q" , ncy Rupon ••,
Tun"bl. flU,,, , 20 cpi! to 20 kc in 3 r:lngl'l'l;
6« I'Muh\idth; 2ud h,.rmonic lit It'flllt 31 db
do"n frOIll peak, 3rd at leIL':!t 40 db dO"'II; rt'jt'C:tion filtl'r on t ....o highest rHugll! rWul'etl
G4).(0ydc I('vti to lit I~i .. t 60 db below peuk.
Fn.~lu('Il<'Y dbl RCCUI"J.C.... it! ±3( (C,
so •• "nd 100· •• Filler.: 2nd harmonic:at 1!!IIst
60 dll down.
flal R"pan", :t:3 dh 20 cps 1.0 100 kc.
Se nsitivity, Oue Illirrol'ult, full >!t·al." o r heller,
on'r mu~t of tile frcqm:tJcy r"tlge. &~j Figure I
fur le.<llimit.a.
Nol •• L....I, Inuepenrlcut of IIOUl'1,;C impcdnncu;
ISei' FigUre .~.
Inp"t Imp.donc., Apllro~im!llely rIO kilohmll to
onl' megohm, dl'pendiuJ; 011 gAiIH·onlrul lK.'llinl:.
M.... Inpu t Vol/oot: 200 \'ollll ne or 400 \'ultll dc,
without dJinUlgt'.
Goln, 120 db 011 the IUllable ruUJ(,eI; 100 dh,
fbt mn..:!'; 106 db lit 50 kc; 100 db at 100 kc
IKlSilion.
1',,~
1232·'"
480 . P301
O"tp"t: 1 volt iulo 10,000 ohms. Inlernal impc..
dll.lIl'e i3 3000 ohm~.
M.It. Un",.ily, Db dilJcrelll'N! on lW'ale arc ar·
curnl(' 1..0 ±5' (. for inpul/! of I~ tlum 0.3 volt.
Ext.. nal Fill", SoUI'f'C iml'c.·dullce, 700 ohm5.
Co"'p"ulan, Ite<.iun'll fuJl~'lIlc !K'n~ili\'ily by
40 db. Ooc!s not affcci holtom tor ~ Qr Iif(·ale.
OI"o"lan: (lu filiI pOllilion) I~ Ih:1l\ 5('~ ,
JJrll~licuJly all IlllribuLllblc to tl,e meter re<:ti·
JiCr9.
Pawer S"pply, 12 vol18 d r, fmm !) mcnou r~'
P 1i2) ('eils io 8Cri,~. l'jjliOlal(-t1 L:mucry life i9
1500 hours. ('OIIt i:l :lwul 0.4 ,'l!nl Iwr hour.
t.on.l.t". Complem.nh Six 2~l(j!M. two
2N1395.
........ a.I •• S"ppU.d, TV I'.: 874.. 113-1 1'lIt('h Cord.
Olm.n. lonL: Width 8. hright 6, depth j I Z in~he>j
(205 by 150 ily 100 mill ) O\·CN,Il.
' ig"" 5': ~)Oundll (2.6 kg),
N.. W
C(1"~ Word
{'''f:''
T"n. d "'",pUR., ond Nun Dale.lo.
W)('At,
$360.00
R .loy·lt a ~ k Ponel hltn.la". IPal.)
.: XI'.\J;&L/lot;
7.00 Pol.
VACATION CLOSING
During t he weeks of July 24 li nd 3 1,
our :\Ttulilfact u ring DcpartmCIlli! will be
c1o!'ed for "acalion.
Thcre will be busiuCliS WJ usual in tho
Sales Ellginccring and C'OInmcrci:li DeptlrtOll'nt~. I lIqlli ric~, including n'f!m~ts
for It'dll1icul and commcr('i:d informa-
lion. will rct'ch'e 0111' usual p rompt at.tcnt ion. Our Sen'ice Department requests that. bceaui'iC of (l. 1l."Cllcel:l in tho
manufacturing :md rcp.'lir group~. shipmcnts of C(luipmcltt. to be repaired at our
pitlnl be
~.'ht..'dllled
":ltllli()Il
pcricKi.
IET LABS, Inc in the GenRad tradition
534 Main Street, Westbury, NY 11590
to r('ach us !lfter lhe
www.ietlabs.com
TEL: (516) 334-5959 • (800) 899-8438 • FAX: (516) 334-5988
~
GENERAL
RADIO
•
EXPERIMENTER
SINGLE-COMPONENT- CONTROLLED
RC NULL CIRCUITS
Th(' !lull l'ir('uit used ill tile T'I'E
1232-.\ Tuned Ampiifit·r Imd ;'\;1111 Dc.
tector if! one of scvI'ra l B(' net IIOl'ksl h!l.l
U'iC on ly olle variable l'ompollent to
adjust t he frequency of the null. These
l'i r('uit~ hal'e the adl'alltage of al'oiding
the u:;c of guugro, variable com pollents
whi('h Illll"t track cto!;cly to Illaintaiu
stability when u5'oCd in highly selective
fcedhack !llllplificN;.
The olily siugie-controi-cieillent HO
Hull cit'cuits kUOlI'1l for mlilly years werc
those di;;covcI'cd by SUtcrdotc l showll
in Figul'{'s I and 2. These fou r-terminal
bridge tU'l.work.... gh'e 11 true null ut t1
frequency "'0 and h:lve tuniBg laws 0(;
I
Wi)=
!n- I
I
llC,, ~andWil= He\ I -a'
rc-
formed by iutcrchangillg B's ami C's in
t he original tlIO, h :lVC It tuning law
obtained frolll t hut of the first two by
.
I
su bsllt uliou of - - for
I -a
0'.
Similar sets
of four circuit.~ call be formed from the
circu its of Figures 5 and O. Thew circuits have lhe same tuning bll's.
These frCfluency bridges all have three
complex bridge arms. A simpler a rrnngc.
ment for usc in feed buck cirCllits is to
have two arms of the Iwidge CQlI sist. of a
fixed voltage di vider. The ot hel' two
arms of the bridge a rc fornu:d hy n.
thrce-tcrrninul network II'ho;;o output
voltage is e<Wrll to llmt of the di\'ider
at some frequen cy, a'J in the ramili:u
!'<p{'t.'livt'iy, where n is the norllll1lizc<i
J,
vllltle of t be vadalJle tomponcnt. Thl'!)1'
flllll·lion . . do lIot give ns wide tl frL'<1HctH~Y
chuli ge fOl' a I,!;h'cn chunge in 0' liS do the
WiclI llridgc alld the tIl iu-T II'ilh ganged
f}~:
!
1
-1"
l'
~.
I
component:"', for whieh wo'-"'-"-. The first
a
bridge is pnrlicularly interesting, however, IWt,tlUl-C it gives a zcro-frcCjueucy
Ilull U!'<illg ('omponellt.l; of finite value.
Clot hier! and Doylc' 1'1101\00 llml the
"dlmls" of thc::;c cit'Cuit!<, Figures 3 lllld
4, Illso twit ami have the S:lme frC{lllcncy
clmraclcrisliciol. These arc not dua l$ in
the· Ulm:lI sense, hut arc tOI>ologie:li
duals wilh H's and C's inlcrchallged
£3(·h pair of dU:ll circuits Ims the SIITU'
tuning I~w , anti the two other circuiL-<,
'8ot.oef'liut.,. Alia Fr'Vl<_, '\u.tuot 1~. p. 431.
'{lo'h, ..... \1, K. IN I! 1'ru~--' ...., "" ('; ...... ,
~l./'Ooh 10:";. p 117.
'!M'l~, ~;, n. l'Ioe Hque, .de BridqI MuJw..h. Sih
1'._1/.
•
f,QUf!E.
f lOOAE 3
,
•
,
,
,
.::.tltlon.~tl ".
IET LABS, Inc in the GenRad tradition
534 Main Street, Westbury, NY 11590
www.ietlabs.com
TEL: (516) 334-5959 • (800) 899-8438 • FAX: (516) 334-5988
•
JULY,
1 9 61
.
,
i
o--)t.C."""C.•C.:r--
,
o
•
<>;;;-;;;:;;;-:t=~ ~
"G""{ ,
t..
SEUCflY[ NnWORK
"-
flGOI'IE 1
\\i('11 brjJge'~ \,hil'h i .~ ,..hOIl'I1 in Fil!;l1J'{'
i. \ri){:tn GPI't'~('11 t" ~illl.dl'-(·()!lt m! ('in'lI it"
of this 'ypC', :11111 hi" ,..ill1pJc.~t cirt'ui! ii<
... IUIIIII iii Fi~lIrt· S. Thi" one ha:" II I'l'ry
Iwrrn\,- IHlliu)! l·all~I'. hut.
h:-'
"
1;
"
,
l1I:1kill).!',: il
"Ji~hlly 1II0rt' eompJi":llNI. ht' lIt'I'in''': :1
l'il'l'lIit lh:l\ h:I"::L fl'I'qm'lu'Y r:IIl),!l' frolll a
'"•
Ji:\t'J ,':11\1(' 10 illfillil.\'. Tht' ('il"l'Hit ,,r
Fi].!III"eU i" "dati'll I', \ri~all\: ein'llil h,":1
Y~.l tmu:-f"fillalioll of Ihl' 1"(,,,j";lor." hUL
~
• •
n'qllin'" a P(lIt'1l1il)nldl·t' for o]naillill),!: a
ulri:lblt.... fn:.'<llIelll·y 111111.
bll
of
(,,%0
=
't
ha~ II 1l1lliug;
~==", and
/((', K+a at
r h.'rt' i.. .: :1 dual of I hi ... /'in-uit lI'ing
11.
ditTel'('111 i~ll \':1 P:II,j I()t',
in F i)!lIrt· 10
(wit h it" uC'rinHiw' 11f'1II (lrk", in FiV;W'c-"
t t. 12, alld 13), h:,,, til(' illlC'I'C'<tilig
,\
1i('11
'
tlllllllg
IlClllf1l'k. ,.,1101I"1l
\:111',
(dJ'"
I ~
NC'..J ~--.- ,
\ '\
W li e I
('on~i,,!s
of
He' c:il'l"uils
till"I'('-\('l'mi1l1d
11!:11 ~i\'(' a ('{llllp[P({, 1I1111 l\itlwullK'ilig
di\idN, The
familial' ot' I hi,.. f,:I'OIIP
h:lIIUl!'t,d a,l1:1III1"'[ a \·oh:lgt·
twin-'['; j" 1 h('
but
1I\(I.... t
j~ 11111.\' lilli'
of
jlllllllm'I~lhk' p.-,:--~ihk'
I\('t\\ork~. \lllIl'l'),<'\" di"'('()\l'I'('d 11 \'Hria~
tllf'or('ti(,:llly 1,:d:lIW' ·S fflr :In,\' fn'i ll1C'llt'Y
"Y. a ... u j..: \':11';('([ from I 10 0,
t j'/Il ()11 1 Ii(' t II ill~T ( Fi1!;\lI'C I I) 1hat ~h ('S
ft'l'f(I]('III'Y <ldjH.~\III(,1J1 Ilith :L ~illg:[c
"'ll~(>_""'" il" 11 . . (' in I' \\,idl·-r:tllge
u ...dllalur UI' 11II1l'd I1lllplilil'r, ,\1"0. for
pott-litiolll(,jC'I', Till' llilltll)!
rl'llIlI 0 10
Thi . .
IO-w-\ fIWlll('W'Y nlll,l!;C, il J!:in.· " 11
f1't'(III('III'..,· :--":'[(' \'('r~' elo>-c to the IHlally
,11' . . il'l"..1 1(1~:iI'ilhll\i(- ,,(':I[C,
:1
\!lolh('1'
i ...
eta"... of 1I('1\\'()I'k. lI'hidl (,ft('n
.,(ille:,_~il'r
lO lI"'e ill "(,[N,tin' ('il'l'lIit !'
11,.n . .\1 .. 11· ...1. Au .. L .~'lt, H. r.~9.
1 •..1.1. I:' I .... \ II.~I~'_")I'" r"-~,,,,, ,,~)· '1~lt.",
1;", ..1 H".li" ""I""~""'".t;.II. ""'-~,,."' .. 11~II,
II '''''P, I .. II .. 1:1',/rMi. 1-" h, ".,., Ju"~. 1\"--.0. II. :n:l.
II ,_ T""I~. "lI"01,,,~I,T ,,,,,I l'" .. II~I-T '\"n (', ..... ",.
/,/. II ... ·""·"".",, ., Un,I,,, F"~l"""c,,""" ,',.". I !If:,
J"""~n, 1(1111.
Ind'~)1""
T''''''''''''''''H;C,,'i,,~.
1''''IllI''''''' I'ri'..._ '1'1'1",·1",;,," 1,
·II~II. II . 1'.. I/lA'
I,," IU:..~. II ~SJ..
:0<0. 2.
1 (I,;U,
]>, l!l~
r... w ..~ II"H' I>H ('...... Hi! TI'''''II. ""1'letll'
cir('uil i" wo =
ot lll'['
----,:,,== .
a"
It('...
thi ~
Thl' ollly
.
kllO"11 ('in'lIit'> of tlii:< t.~'pe :11'1'
t he one IN·d hi
tht' ')'''1'1: t2~12-.\ '1'1111(,\1
.\lllpJifiN alld XliII Dt'le,'IM :l1ld it"
dual!, Th;..: ('in'lIit, showll ill Figlll'C' I.-I,
has n Illl1illg Inw of Wo = - - - /
HC\n\ l -a).
In
()1"(!\'1'
f n 'flllt'llt',I'
tn :--pnll U 10-10- 1 IOWII'ithl1ll,'
1':111).(',
1111'
1lI11,.t hal(' :111 ('-':polwlltiai
of
Ilt)\ellliPl llC'l('1'
('harad('l'i~ti c
0\"('1' 100-10-1.
IET LABS, Inc in the GenRad tradition
534 Main Street, Westbury, NY 11590
law fol'
www.ietlabs.com
TEL: (516) 334-5959 • (800) 899-8438 • FAX: (516) 334-5988
~
GENERAl
RAOIO
"
E)(I'ERIMENTEII
lI!'itl/£
l'hlllt lI" the null frcqm'ul'Y j" dmngctl. .
In order to \I~ ,hi" ("ilar:II'If'ri"lie, thc
1I(,1'\mrk 111111'1 he d.-in' lI hy lind loaded
hy low impcthllli·C:<. Tht'tl~hlrc , it i.. u.-.ed
ill :I fC('db:wk ('i r('uit with :111 amplifier
ha \'i llf; !e)I\' input itHd Oillpul irnpt.'d·
t (llI st:lllt
:11\('('"
FlW :111
IllI' C'in'lIi l ': dj"'f>u;-;..;(>tl Ill'rf',
1Ill' ..dl'(·li\'i' .... (If the 11':.1II ... fl'f
rtLtio.
I~o
E .• , ;-:
lIull frt'( IIII..'IWY j"
1I0t
n~lta~('
cOIl~ta1!l :IS
:ldju_~Il'd .
the
TiLi." 1I1ClIIIS
Ihat a j'llH \'i'lJliomd ."'('IC(,ti\'t' amplifiel'
,hi:-; ('hul"U{'!Nj",ic \\ill nnt Illl \'C
"l'lt'<'tiv ily ()n~r it,.; nllIgt' , I h ,wI'W I' , for Ih i' (';n'lIil 1I~ in the T YPE
1232-ATulll·d .\mplificr :lIld ~ull Dd ct.:lor, t he l-(.·lli'li,·ity of thc tl'llll:oJer
n<.imitl:ul(,c, l UI E •• (01' Y!I)' is quite ('UII-
und
:1 I ran,.:f('r t'(.',.:i,.:tU IH'C,
Ep/I .
A,
(or:1 .-('al hi!) that i,.: l'ho";('11 10 gi vc the
d l",irf'd ::ck.>tli\'ily, Thi,.: comhination
provid('S a ~'olld Imrmmde rcj('('fion of
31 d b o\'cr cach 10-1(.- 1 £1'('(IU{,III")" rangc.
- II. P. IJ ALL
THE NEW TYPE W30 VARIAC"
AUTOTRANSFORMERS
1110001cl" in('o rporatl' fhe q ua lity ('ompot1l'1l1": :lI1J pl·{j\'t'll df':-<igll fl'fllurcs now
illdlldrt.! in 1111 C;I'II('ral HlIdio , 'a rinc
:111 lUI r:1I1:4 nrHll'r.<. Th e"t' f Ctll lI rCj~ i 1I(' l lld c
all o\"en'oltll~(' ,·on nel:1iOIl. to pro"idc
an outpu t \"(llll,~e nUlge from zero 10
17("; ahove lilll' ,·oll:ll:'e, :ull1 the PlltclItl'd J)I'Jl\T I! '" (·Ol l tillt.(
longer
bnl .~ h -trn('k
])1"01·('5.", for
1if1'.
T' I>}'; W:lO mo!h'1.~ ure- tlvllil:tblc in
and tIIoto r-drh'Ctl
u"::o'{'llIbli{',.:. wil h or w it hnul h:\11 bel.ll'ing.s,
The nil iug,.: fl)1" the Tn'.~'i \\":10 3nd
0Pl'H. l'lI":('(L 1!,"tlllgC<l.
For
"OIllC
tilllc
\I'C
han' fclt that the
ga p 1)('1\\'('('1\ t il(' 2O-amlX'f(', Tn·t: \\"20,
:lIld !he iiO-atnpt.'fl·, Tn·t: WOO, rari!\('"
\ III (It nll1~fornH'~ wa,.: 100 gr('ul , 'I'll{' 11~I'r
l'Ollll'III111uI illl( t il!' I'IUII fill of 10:111 .. in 1111'
aO-ltlnpt'I't' "('!!;ion W(I-.1 ~in:1l no lIltl'r11:It jn~ hUI to Il.-:t.' ('it het':i .sO-amp{'!"l' IIlIil or
IwO 20-ftuqwl'l' 1t1lit~ in [HIt'allt-1. Both of
t h.,"'C lIwlhud,.; I){'in~ l'O~lt.v :lll d i ll\'f!i"i('nl, \\1' htl\,(· dC'\'plopl'd Ihi-' lIew
:lO-:IIll!l('I·" tllfH.It'I..;, T n'E:< \r:30 :Ind
\r:l0l1. Tlwir hil!h-pfl\wr I1Ilin.l';" 1'011\"{'ni('ully hridJ!:(, tlw !tap 1)(>1\\('('11 tho:«l
(.f till' T\"I'.~ \\'20 amI \\"50 model".
:-'Jwriuv; till' famity f('f'{'mhlan(·.' ('ommOIL to 1111 f'('fics- \\' IInil:-<, !he- '1', l'L \\"30
\\'3011 ,ingle-ullit 11loJrl-.; :11·(' .e;iwn ill
the t:lhll' be'low. Compl(·tt, de"l.'ription-.;
II lId ralin,!!;": for !hl' 'j'YI'L \\"30 g:l nl?;cd
ul",clllhli&.; m:I." hi' fllHlld in the cUlTcnt.
(:l'llcml Hadio el l tlllug.
_. _"
~""_1_'6'"
"",
__
lI ...
.........
C"~''''
,'
, , ",
,.....
.,. c...._.
.,~; G' ~ ~,,:,;:
• ., 0..>
~
"'" ....:.._.. _ _
IET LABS, Inc in the GenRad tradition
534 Main Street, Westbury, NY 11590
__
"•
.....
....
'010_"" __
_io._·_
,0.""',_
t"", .....
www.ietlabs.com
TEL: (516) 334-5959 • (800) 899-8438 • FAX: (516) 334-5988
"
JULY ,
~
1961
SPECIFICATIONS
r
Co.. Io u "I 60 ~yd .. : J.;j "altl!, nil m()d~lB.
Driving To ...... , i)O..lOO oUIl.·c-inl'lll'!<J nil mod('I~.
OC I ll i. I" .. u of Wlndi .. g :
TYI'~;":'
T\'I'~:"
t ..... . on Windt ... :
,.~;"
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\\30 lind \\"30:\1 184
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