HFD8 Heat Field Deformation ICT International Solutions for soil, plant & environmental monitoring HFD Sap Flow Meter Quick Start Guide NOTE: This manual should be used in conjunction with the instructional videos provided by ICT International to compliment each section of operation. These videos are located on the ICT YouTube site: http://youtube.com/user/ictintl WARNING – The measurement needles of the HFD Sap Flow Meter are made of hollow 1.9mm stainless steel tubing. They can easily be bent, damaged or broken off if basic care is not taken in handling the instrument. The significant length of the needles relative to this very thin diameter demands additional attention to detail when handling or transporting the needles. Once installed in sleeves within the tree the needles are very robust. NOTE: the needles gain much of their structural strength when combined with the sleeves. 1 HFD Sap Flow Meter Start-Up Check List WARNING 1 - Please Read, Understand and Complete this checklist before unpacking the HFD8 Sap Flow Meter Have you Read the Manual? http://www.ictinternational.com/support/productmanuals/ Have you watched the instructional videos? http://youtube.com/user/ictintl Have you contacted ICT to schedule webcast training? Email: [email protected] Phone: + 61-26772 6770 2 System Requirements 2.1 Hardware The ICT Instrument software does not require a powerful computer. Recommended Minimum System Specifications: Intel Atom 1.66 GHz and 1GB RAM or higher. 2.2 Software: The ICT Instrument software is fully resizable on screen and compatible with the following Operating Systems: a. Windows Vista b. Windows 7 c. Windows 8 and 8.1 d. Windows Virtual OS run from a Mac computer 3 Charge the HFD Sap Flow Meter Internal Battery The HFD is a self-contained instrument that incorporates a dual power supply consisting of a 4V, 1A lithium polymer battery, located between the circuit boards and a large capacity 4 v 5A Lithium battery located within the end cap at the top of the instrument where the needles exit. Before use the instrument MUST be charged. To choose from a range of charging options see section 3 – Charging - Powering the Instrument. The unique power-bus plug design was developed by ICT to simplify the electrical wiring process. It minimises the need for custom tools in the field, requiring only that the outer cable sheath be stripped back to expose the copper wire. As shown below no other tools are required with all necessary components and fixings fully incorporated into the instrument design. Retaining straps ensure the power-bus plugs do not separate from the instrument when removed from the power-bus during wiring preparation and connection of external power. 3.1 Connecting a Power Supply to the Instrument 3.1.1 Individual Power Supply Connections 7 1 8 Remove both ICT bus plugs from one end of the logger 2 9 3 4 10 5 6 1. 12V Solar Panel Only 2. 12V Solar Panel and Battery 3. 12V DC Power Supply 3.2 Connecting Power Directly via Solar Panel HFD8 3.3 Connecting Power via External 12V Battery HFD8 3.4 Connecting Power via External 12V Battery and Solar Panel HFD8 3.5 Sharing an External 12V Battery and Solar Panel via Daisy Chaining HFD8 HFD8 HFD8 4 Install the HFD Sap Flow Meter Software & USB Driver Insert the supplied CD into the computer. The CD will auto-run to present a menu. Choose install software. 5 Turn the Instrument On The HFD Sap Flow Meter can either be turned on manually by pressing the power button or automatically by connecting an external 12V DC power supply. This includes a USB cable connected to a PC. The HFD Sap Flow Meter can be charged directly from any computers USB port. On/Off Switch USB Port LED light pipe Micro SD 6 Connect to the Instrument Connect the USB cable to the instrument. The HFD8 will automatically be detected by the computer as with any USB device. Double click the HFD icon on the Desktop to open the software and click the icon “Connect to HFD”, then click “Find Devices” to search for the instrument and select the named instrument from the Available Devices within the Device Selection Window. Alternatively, if you are using an MCC1 wireless Radio Modem Instrument Information: Fields are provided to Name the instrument and attach a Comment. Entries in these fields will be recorded in a header line within the data file and can be beneficial to recalling important aspects of the experiment after data has been collected. Every time these fields are changed and updated, the change is automatically recorded in a new header line entry in the data file. The name should be indicative of the instrument or treatment and identify its location, as it is the “Name” field which is displayed (along with the serial number) when connecting to the instrument. This is especially valuable if connecting wirelessly to the instrument. 7 Installation: 7.1 Drilling: Drill speed should be high. Only use short increments, stopping regularly to clean the flutes of the drill to prevent friction and heating of the drill bit which will cause the drill to become fluid and take the path of least resistance between fibres rather than through. NOTE: If using a Dremel drill you will need to use the optional drill chuck accessory. This is necessary to accommodate the 1.9 and 2.0 mm drill bits which exceed the maximum collet size of the Dremel. Use the guide rods provided in the installation kit to check the alignment of the drilled holes before inserting sleeves. If the alignment is not parallel a new installation will be required. 7.2 Sleeves: The HFD Sap Flow Meter uses surgical grade 316 stainless steel tubes with a very high tolerance Inside Diameter (ID) of 1.7 mm and Outside Diameter (OD) 1.88 mm. The choice of material and dimensions are very important. This grade of stainless steel prevents corrosion when inserted in the stem both on the outside of the sleeve that is in contact with the xylem, and internally to ensure smooth movement of the needles. A thin coating of vacuum grease is recommended for use on the needles to expel any air void (however small), between the needle and the sleeve to ensure good thermal coupling with the stem. Two sizes of drill bit are supplied with the installation kit, 1.9 mm and 2.0 mm. It is recommended that holes be drilled with the drill guide using the 1.9 mm drill bits. In many installations this will ensure a good “tight fit” of the sleeves in the stem, but the fit should not be “too” tight. NOTE: installations that are “too” tight are easily determined. If pressure greater than finger pressure is required to ease the sleeves into position with the aid of the Insertion Tool, the holes are “too” tight. If holes are “too” tight it is possible to enlarge the holes by reaming them out using the 2.0mm drill bits provided. This is not common, but in some installations it's essential during installation of the HFD Sap Flow Meter. For this reason two 2.0 mm diameter drill bits are supplied. No actual drilling is done with these drill bits so breakage is uncommon. Great care should be exercised when reaming the holes out. No pressure should be placed on the drill, instead merely allow the drill to follow the existing hole that has already been drilled (hopefully) perfectly straight and parallel to its neighbours. WARNING: Always use the Insertion Tool to insert the tubes, never use your fingers. The very small diameter and wall of the tubes makes them very sharp and they will cut perfectly symmetrical discs out of the flesh of your fingers which is very painful. Again, a small amount of vacuum grease can be applied (using the offset 10 ml syringe) to aid insertion. Using the Insertion Tool provided, slowly ease the sleeve into position. Never force the sleeve and resist the temptation to “tap” the Insertion Tool to insert the sleeve. Any force greater than finger pressure will buckle the very thin walled sleeve, destroying the sleeve and rendering it unable to be reused, and potentially (if the sleeve can be extracted) ruining the installation site, requiring a completely new site to be started due to the hole deforming during extraction. The measurement needles of the HFD Sap Flow Meter are made of hollow 1.6 mm stainless steel tubing. They can easily be bent, damaged or broken off if basic care is not taken in handling the instrument. The significant length of the needles relative to this very thin diameter demands additional attention to detail when handling or transporting the needles. Once installed in sleeves within the tree the needles are very robust. NOTE: the needles gain much of their structural strength when combined with the sleeves. ICT provides sleeves with a closed end to prevent sap and resin from filling the sleeve and gluing the needle in place. This also enables the sleeves to be left in place without the HFD needles installed and to be used again at a later time without the sleeves having become blocked by sap & resin. NOTE: if you intended to use the sleeves for more than one growing season, it may be advisable to allow a small excess of sleeve protruding from the stem surface to compensate for tree growth and increment of the stem, otherwise the sleeves will become engulfed and obscured by the tree making reuse difficult. If this technique is employed it is very important to make allowance for this to ensure the specific depths of insertion for the measurement points are known and adjusted using a insulated spacer (see below). Insert the sleeves into the drilled holes. A Sleeve set consists of three 100mm long sleeves for the three measurement needles and one 120mm long sleeve for the heater needle. The sleeves should slide easily into the drilled holes. 7.3 Needle Position: Positioning of the first measurement point is crucial to the interpretation of the measured data. All measurement needles have a 20mm distance between the base and the first measurement point (Point 1). To accurately position this first or outer measurement point, a plastic spacer should be cut to the precise length and slid over the needle to regulate the positioning of this measurement point. Begin by measuring the bark thickness and establish a reference or datum point of smooth, firm bark, (not rough, flaky bark) such that the outer measurement point is located 5mm below the cambium. NOTE: This depth of 5mm below the cambium is the default value used in the Sap Flow Tool software for analysing the data. This ensures the measurement point is located mid way between the sphere of influence of the thermsitors (or measurement points), which are spaced exactly 10mm apart radially along the needle. For thin bark installations, measure bark thickness and calculate the spacer length of 20mm (to the outer measurement point) then subtract 5mm depth below cambium plus the bark thickness to determine the length of spacer required to fit over each needle, including the heater. In the case of very rough fiborous and flaky bark, the bark surface must be smoothed and trimmed down to between 10 and 15mm thick. If you can confidently trim to 15mm no spacer should be required, otherwise a spacer must be used to ensure precise placement of the outer measurement point 5mm below cambium. WARNING When preparing the bark surface it is essential that the reference or datum point be equal for all needles both in the axial and tangential directions around the heater. This is to ensure all measurement points are located at the same depth below the cambium and across the radial profile of the sap wood. Heater Installation: The heater (needle with the red base) must also be fitted with the insulation and spacer. NOTE: Attach the HFD Sap Flow Meter to the tree and secure it in place before attempting to insert the needles into the sleeves. Ensure that a gentle curve is placed in the needle cables to provide strain relief for the needles. 7.4 Insulation: Once installed, fasten the base of all needles together to prevent needles from moving relative to each other over time. Then insulate the block on all needles bases by tightly wrapping them with high density foam. Secure the foam tightly at the top of the stem. A bead of Blu-tac or plasticine can be used as a boundary layer. The final installation should then be covered with aluminium foil to reflect radiant energy. Secure the foil at the top of the stem using electrical tape or similar. NOTE: it is important not to secure the insulation at the bottom of the installation to allow air flow past the needles to maintain a stable ambient temperature. 8 Configuration Enable The Heater by clicking the check box Set Heater power to value of 0.04 W/cm by using the slider bar to achieve the desired value. Select Continuous Heating mode Select prefered logging interval. For long term measurements every 1 minute to 5 mins is adequate. For dynamic experiements such as cut stem, every 1 second or 10 seconds should be employed. Set to Instantaneous logging mode. Under Logging Configuration, Check all supplementary parameters to be logged. Save Configuration 8.1 Live Data: After installation connect to the HFD Sap Flow Meter and view the HFD Channels Tab. 8.2 Verification Test It is best to use a low heater power for initial measurements. If night time dT Asymmetrical value for the outer meaurement point (number 1) is persistently below 1oC then heater power should be applied in incremental steps of 0.005 W/cm and checked to determine the optimum heating setting. A dT Asymmetrical temperature of at least 1°C is required to achieve sufficient sensivity of measurement, however, increasing the temperature above 1°C does not significantly improve sensitivity but does unnecessarily increase damage to the plant tissue. NOTE: The inner measurement points can have a higher night time dT Asymmetrical value due to lower flow rate and heat storage in heart wood. View the absolute temperatures for each radial measurement point and confirm using the colour coding feature that all temperatures are within similar ranges within the stem. If the temperatures of individual measurement points are significantly different in temperature from others, (especially on the outer edge of the stem Measurement point 1) check the position of the needles and insulation around the needle base 9 Data Storage & Downloading The HFD8 does not store data on internal non-removable memory. Data is stored on MicroSD cards. Data can be downloaded via USB Cable, wireless Radio Frequency (RF) or through physical removal of the MicroSD card. 9.1 MicroSD Card Storage Capacity The storage capacity of the MicroSD card is 4GB. The HFD8 is configured to record the temperatures of all needles; Upper, Lower and Side needles, as well as automatically calculated Symmetrical and Asymmetrical values. A 4GB card has the memory capacity to log all raw parameters relevant to the calculation of Sap Velocity and Sap Flux Density including optional operational diagnostics of the instrument such as: Heater Voltage, Current and Power, battery voltage and temperature, external power supply voltage and charging current at a 1 second logging interval for at least 12 months. 9.2 Data Format 9.2.1 Windows FAT-32 Compatible Data is written to and stored on the MicroSD card in fully compliant Windows File Allocation Table (FAT-32) format. What this means is that any MicroSD card can be used in the Instrument. There is no requirement that memory cards must be supplied by ICT. Any MicroSD card purchased anywhere in the world, or a MicroSD card from any digital camera or mobile phone can be inserted directly into the Instrument for immediate compatibility and use. Similarly, any MicroSD card used in the HFD8 can be removed and placed into a Camera, phone or any computer and is automatically recognized and functional. If inserted into a computer the data can be copied across through Windows Explorer to any file location on the PC. NOTE 1: MicroSD cards are “Hot Swappable” meaning it can be removed from the instrument and inserted into a USB port of a computer using a USB card adaptor and then reinserted to the instrument. No closing down, ejecting or formatting is required. 9.2.2 Data File Nomenclature The data file is automatically generated by the HFD8 using the following nomenclature; instrument_serial_number.csv e.g. HFD1C905.csv. The serial number not only uniquely identifies each instrument, it contains specific information about the date of manufacture and production run. Please provide the serial number to ICT International for all support inquiries. NOTE 2: The Serial Number is automatically stored in the “Header Line” of the data file as well as being the data file name. A Serial Number is affixed to the back of the instrument for physical display. Finally, the Serial Number is displayed on screen in the HFD8 software upon connection to the instrument. 9.2.3 Data File Format The HFD8 stores data in *.CSV format on the internal MicroSD card. The file structure of the HFD8, whether it uses a comma (,) or a point (.) for the separator, and a point (.) or a comma (,) for the decimal delimiter, is based upon the regional settings of the user’s computer. These regional settings are typically set the first time a user connects to the computer. If the computer’s regional settings are different to the HFD8 Sap Flow Meter a message is displayed on screen warning that the Regional settings of the computer do not match those of the instrument. If they are both set to the same regional settings no message will appear. WARNING 2 - It is recommended that the regional settings of the Instrument are set to those of the computer that will be used to process the Sap Flow data. Failure to do this will result in a data file that is unreadable in both Excel and Sap Flow Tool Software because the file structure is the opposite of what the computer is configured for. 22.214.171.124 Main Data File The *.CSV data file is a true Comma Separated Values (CSV) data file that can be easily opened in Excel or SFT software. It is used for logging all measurement parameters. Depending upon the logging frequency these files can be very large (MB in size). The file includes a detailed header with all of the configuration parameters relevant to any processed data contained in the data file. As well every column is preformatted with headings denoting the measurement parameter and the engineering units of the measurement. WARNING 3 – It is very important that the integrity of the original *.CSV data file be maintained. Opening this file in Excel will corrupt the native Comma Separated Values file format as Excel introduces hidden formatting markers. These hidden markers have the potential to make the file unreadable in Sap Flow Tool. It is recommended that if the CSV file is opened in Excel save file as an *.XLSX file format maintaining the original file name, but do not save any changes to the original *.CSV file. 9.2.4 Download MicroSD Card via USB Adaptor The HFD8 data can be downloaded by removing the MicroSD card and putting it in a USB Adaptor (supplied by ICT or available from electronics and computer stores) and inserting the adaptor into a USB port of a computer. Open the communication port to access the MicroSD card. The MicroSD card is secured by a spring locking mechanism, press on the edge of the card to release the spring then remove the card. A pair of forceps or tweezers is very convenient to extract and insert the card into the slot. Removing the MicroSD card using a pair of forceps (tweezers) via the communications port Place the MicroSD card inside the USB Adaptor and insert it directly into a USB port on a computer ICT uses Microsoft FAT32 formatting so that the card is immediately recognizable as a mass storage device when inserted into a computer running a Windows OS. An Explorer window will pop up, allowing files to be cut, copied, pasted or dragged as normal. Copy the file and paste it to the preferred directory location on the computer. The full USB 2.0 transfer speed is then possible when downloading data. If a USB cable is used between the device and the PC then the speed is much slower. NOTE 2: The ability to remove the MicroSD card from the instrument means data can be manually downloaded from the instrument without the requirement of a laptop in the field. The MicroSD card can simply be removed from the instrument and exchanged with a new MicroSD card inserted in its place. The HFD8 automatically generates a new data file and continues logging uninterrupted while the data is returned to the office for download from the original MicroSD card. Data files that have already been downloaded can be imported by HFD software for basic analysis. Click on the Import CSV file icon select the data file Click on the Select Channel, choose the channels or add all and click ok Click on the Plot icon and display the graph Clicking plot size icon can enlarge the graphical display by turning off the tabular display Using the filter menu provides the facility to select and display only portions of the data on the displayed graph. 10 Analyse Data Whilst raw temperature data can be displayed in the HFD software, all data must be imported into SFT Sap Flow Tool Software for post processing and analysis of sap flux density and Sap Flow Rates.