sg242506
SG24-2506-01
Magstar and IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
Technical Guide
November 1996
IBML
International Technical Support Organization
SG24-2506-01
Magstar and IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
Technical Guide
November 1996
Take Note!
Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general information in
Appendix B, “Special Notices” on page 243.
| Second Edition (November 1996)
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This edition applies to the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem, IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server, IBM
3591-A01, IBM 3590-C12, and IBM 3494 enhancements.
Comments may be addressed to:
IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization
Dept. 471 Building 80-E2
650 Harry Road
San Jose, California 95120-6099
When you send information to IBM, you grant IBM a non-exclusive right to use or distribute the information in any
way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.
 Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 1996. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users — Documentation related to restricted rights — Use, duplication or disclosure is
subject to restrictions set forth in GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.
Contents
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Tables
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Preface
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How This Redbook Is Organized
The Team That Wrote This Redbook
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Comments Welcome
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Chapter 1. Introduction to the New Technology . . . . . . .
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1.1 Tape Technology History
1.2 Half-Inch Cartridge Tape History . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 IBM 3590 Magstar Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Design Targets and Market Requirements . . . . . . . .
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1.5 New Technology
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1.5.1 Objectives
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1.5.2 Options
1.6 Metal Particle Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 Interleaved Longitudinal Recording . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8 Serpentine Interleaved Track Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9 Why Use Longitudinal Technology? . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10 IBM Tape Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.11 IBM 3590 Tape Space Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12 Now Announced the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
1.12.1 Virtual Tape Server for IBM 3494 Tape Library . .
1.12.2 Virtual Tape Server for IBM 3495 Tape Library . .
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Chapter 2. IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware
Description
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2.1 Magstar Tape Drive
2.2 Magstar Tape Drive Schematic Comparison . . . . . . . . . . .
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2.3 IBM 3590 Drive Models
2.4 IBM 3590 Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 IBM 3590 Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 IBM 3590 Environmentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
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3.1 Automatic Cartridge Facility
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3.1.1 Operator Panel
3.1.2 Priority Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3.1.3 Ten-slot Magazine
3.1.4 Status Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3.1.5 Transport Mechanism
3.2 IBM 3590 Operator Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 IBM 3590 Operator Panel Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3.4 ACF Magazine
3.4.1 Export Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 Import Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.3 Magazine Locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3.5 ACF Modes of Operation
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
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3.6 ACF Manual Mode . . . . . . . . .
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3.6.1 Operational Flow
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3.6.2 Disabling Conditions
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3.7 ACF Accumulate Mode
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3.7.1 Operational Flow
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3.7.2 Disabling Conditions
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3.8 ACF Automatic Mode
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3.8.1 Operational Flow
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3.8.2 Disabling Conditions
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3.9 ACF System Mode
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3.9.1 Operational Flow
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3.9.2 Disabling Conditions
3.10 ACF Random Mode . . . . . . . .
3.10.1 Operational Flow . . . . . . .
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3.10.2 Disabling Conditions
3.11 ACF Mode Enabling and Disabling
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Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
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4.1 IBM ES/9000 and S/390 Configurations . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Host Attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 ESCON Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4.1.3 Library Manager Attachments
4.2 IBM 3495 Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4.3 IBM 3495 Mixed Configurations
4.4 IBM AS/400 Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 Host Attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4.4.2 SCSI Considerations
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4.4.3 Library Manager Attachments
4.4.4 Special Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 IBM RISC/6000 Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1 Host Attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4.5.2 SCSI Considerations
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4.5.3 Library Manager Attachments
4.5.4 Special Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.5 POWERparallel SP2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.6 Sun Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6 IBM 3494 Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.1 IBM 3494 Model L10 (Parallel, ESCON, and SCSI) . .
4.6.2 IBM 3494 Model L12 (SCSI Only) . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4.6.3 IBM 3494 Model L14 (ESCON Only)
4.6.4 IBM 3494 Model B16 (Virtual Tape Server subsystem)
4.6.5 Mixed Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4.6.6 Library Sharing between Different Hosts
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4.7 IBM 3494 Model Summary
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4.7.1 Control Unit Frame Models
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4.7.2 Drive Unit Frame Models
4.7.3 Storage Unit Frame Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.4 VTS Unit Frame Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.5 IBM 3494-L10 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4.7.6 Installation Features and Upgrades
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4.8 IBM 3494 Capacity Guidelines
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4.9 IBM 3590 Feature Codes
4.9.1 Description of No-Charge Features
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4.9.2 MES Field-Installation Features . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.3 New Features
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
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5.1 IBM 3590 Software Support Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 ES/9000 and S/390 Parallel Server Environment . . . . . . . . .
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5.1.2 AS/400 Environment
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5.1.3 RISC System/6000 and POWERparallel SP2 Environment
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5.1.4 Sun Environment
5.2 New and Changed Read Channel Commands for ES/9000 and S/390
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5.2.1 Separate Channel Commands for IPL Read and Normal Read
5.2.2 Read Previous to Replace Read Backward . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.3 New Read Media Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5.2.4 Changed Read Commands
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5.3 New STAGE Channel Command for ES/9000 and S/390 Systems
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5.4 Logical Block Numbers
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5.5 IBM 3590 Support for MVS/ESA
5.5.1 Hardware Configuration Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.2 Stand-Alone Dump Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.3 New Generic Unit Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5.5.4 Device Support
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5.6 IBM 3590 Support for DFSMS/MVS
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5.6.1 Toleration PTFs
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5.6.2 Supports Both Stand-Alone and Library Environment
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5.6.3 Error Recovery Procedure for IBM 3590 Tape Drive
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5.6.4 Sequential Access Method
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5.6.5 Checkpoint/Restart
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5.6.6 Open/Close/End-of-Volume
5.6.7 System-Managed Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5.6.8 Access Method Services Command Changes
5.6.9 Interactive Storage Management Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5.6.10 Hierarchical Storage Manager (DFSMShsm)
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5.6.11 Removable Media Manager (DFSMSrmm)
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5.6.12 Object Access Method
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5.6.13 Tape Library Support
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5.7 IBM 3590 Support for JES3
5.7.1 Library Device Group Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.2 DTYPE for JUNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5.7.3 JES3 Dump Job Dynamic Support Program
5.7.4 Other JES3 Tape Dynamic Support Program . . . . . . . . . . .
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5.8 VM/ESA Version 2
5.8.1 CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8.2 CMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8.3 DFSMS/VM Removable Media Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.9 VSE/ESA Version 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.10 Transaction Processing Facility (TPF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.11 OS/400 Version 3 Release 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5.12 AIX/6000 Version 3.2.5 and Version 4.1.1
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5.13 SunOS and Solaris
5.14 ADSM for AIX/6000 and SunOS/Solaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.15 Other Software Supported for IBM 3590 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 6. Tape Performance Considerations
6.1 IBM 3490E ESCON Data Rate . . . . . . .
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6.1.1 Native Data Rates . . . . . . .
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6.1.2 Data Compression
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6.1.3 Effective Data Rates
6.2 IBM 3490E ESCON Data Rate Chart
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6.3 IBM 3490E SCSI Data Rate
6.4 IBM 3490E SCSI Data Rate Chart
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6.5 IBM 3590 ESCON Data Rate
6.6 IBM 3590 SCSI Data Rate . . . . .
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6.7 IBM 3590 SCSI Data Rate Chart
6.8 IBM AS/400 Data Rate Chart . . .
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6.9 Autoblocking and Compression
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6.9.1 Cartridge Capacity
6.9.2 Compression Improvements .
6.9.3 Moving to the New Cartridges
6.10 Final Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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7.1 Now Announced the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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7.1.1 Virtual Tape Server for IBM 3494 Tape Library
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7.1.2 Virtual Tape Server for IBM 3495 Tape Library
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7.2 Introduction to the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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7.2.1 Transparent Capacity Exploitation and Management . . . . . .
7.2.2 Fully Integrated in IBM 3494 and IBM 3495 Tape Libraries . . .
7.2.3 Integration of Proven IBM Technologies
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7.3 Virtual Tape Server Key Attributes
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7.3.1 One VTS Subsystem per IBM 3494 or IBM 3495 . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2 Defined Physical Configurations
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7.3.3 Up to 40 TB of Tape Data per Virtual Tape Server Subsystem
7.4 Virtual Tape Server Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.1 Virtual Volumes
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7.4.2 Virtual Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.3 Logical Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.4 Physical Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.5 Physical Devices
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5 Hardware Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.1 IBM 3494 Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.2 IBM 3495 Tape Library Models L20, L30, L40, L50 . . . . . . . .
7.6 IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server Host Software Support
. . . . .
7.6.1 MVS/ESA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.2 VM/ESA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.3 VSE/ESA
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7 IBM 3494 Host and Library Manager Attachment . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.1 ESCON Host Attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.2 Library Manager Attachment
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.3 IBM 3494-D12 and IBM 3494-B16 Frame Connections . . . . . .
7.8 IBM 3494 Virtual Tape Server Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . .
7.8.1 The L12/L14 Frame Can Be Without Drives . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.2 The D12/B16 Frame Must Be Within The First Eight Frames . .
7.8.3 The D12 Frame Must Always Be to the Left of the B16 Frame
7.8.4 The D12 and B16 Frames Must Directly Attach to One Another
7.8.5 A Modem Must Be Supplied for the IBM 3494-B16 Frame . . .
7.9 New IBM 3494 Features, Their Codes and Model Upgrades
. . . .
7.9.1 Features and Their Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.2 Model Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10 IBM 3494 Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7.11 IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . .
7.11.1 One IBM 3495-B16 Must Be Installed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.2 One IBM 3590-A14 Frame Must Be Installed
. . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.3 Library Manager Attachment
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.4 IBM 3495-B16 and IBM 3590-A14 Must Be Installed Side by Side
7.11.5 Reduction of IBM 3495 Storage Cells when a VTS is Installed .
7.11.6 A Modem Must Be Supplied for The IBM 3495-B16
. . . . . . .
7.12 IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Frame Placement
. . . . . . . . . . .
7.13 IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Models and Features
. . . . . . . . .
7.13.1 IBM 3590 Model A14 Plus Feature 9010
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.13.2 IBM 3495 Model B16 Feature Codes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.13.3 Feature Codes For IBM 3495 Model L20, L30, L40 and L50 . . .
7.14 IBM 3495 Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.15 Logical Data Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.16 Scratch Mount Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.17 Specific Mount Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.17.1 Volume in Tape Volume Cache
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.17.2 Volume not in Tape Volume Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.18 Space Reclamation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.18.1 Tape Volume Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.18.2 Stacked Magstar Cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.19 Virtual to Real Volume Comparisons
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.19.1 Virtual Volume
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.19.2 Physical Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.19.3 Virtual Volume Advantages
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.20 Sizing Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.21 Sizing a Virtual Tape Server
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.22 Real and Virtual 3490E Device Coexistence
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.22.1 Physical Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.22.2 Library Manager View
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.22.3 Host View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.23 Virtual Tape Server Installation Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.23.1 Physical Installation and Checkout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.23.2 Logical Partitioning
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.23.3 Teach and Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.23.4 Hardware Configuration Definition (HCD) Required For Library
Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.23.5 Define the New Library to the Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.23.6 Define Volume Serial Number Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.23.7 Add Magstar Cartridges
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.23.8 Define Fast-Ready Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.23.9 Define Reclamation Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.24 Implementing the Virtual Tape Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.24.1 MVS/ESA Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.24.2 VM/ESA Environments
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.24.3 VSE/ESA Guests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.25 Migration to the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS)
. . . . . .
7.25.1 Which Data?
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.25.2 How to Migrate? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.25.3 Migration from Physical IBM 3490E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.26 Monitoring the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS)
. . . . . . .
7.26.1 Event Logging
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.26.2 Library Reporting
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.26.3 Library Manager Displayed Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.27 Operating the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) . . . . . . . .
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Contents
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7.27.1 Library Manager Updates
7.27.2 Vaulting
. . . . . . . . . .
7.27.3 Error Recovery . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
8.1 STK Trademarks
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 Why Use IBM 3590 Magstar in an STK Silo? . . . . . . . . .
8.3 Configuration Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4 IBM 3590 Model C12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1 IBM 3590-C12 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.2 IBM 3590-B1A Features
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5 IBM 3591 Model A01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.1 IBM 3591-A01 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6 Allowed Device Combinations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7 Multi-ATL Scratch Tape Allocation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8 Multi-ATL Specific Tape Allocation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9 Installation and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.1 Installation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.2 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.10 Migration Path to IBM 3494
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
|
Appendix A. Sample Cleaning Program
Appendix B. Special Notices
. . . . . . . .
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243
Appendix C. Related Publications
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.1 International Technical Support Organization Publications
C.2 Redbooks on CD-ROMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.3 Other Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How To Get ITSO Redbooks . . . . . . . . . .
How IBM Employees Can Get ITSO Redbooks
How Customers Can Get ITSO Redbooks . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
IBM Redbook Order Form
Index
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
Tape Technology History
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Half-Inch Cartridge Tape History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Magstar ESCON Configurations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Magstar SCSI Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Targets and Market Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metal Particle Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interleaved Longitudinal Recording
Serpentine Interleaved Track Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Why Use Longitudinal Technology?
IBM Tape Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Tape Space Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Now Announced the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
. . . . . . . . .
Magstar Tape Drive
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Magstar Tape Drive Schematic Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Drive Models
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Control Unit
IBM 3590 Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Environmentals
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automatic Cartridge Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Operator Panel
IBM 3590 Operator Panel Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACF Magazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACF Modes of Operation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACF Manual Mode
ACF Accumulate Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACF Automatic Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACF System Mode
ACF Random Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACF Mode Enabling and Disabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM ES/9000 and S/390 Configurations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3495 Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3495 Mixed Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM AS/400 Configurations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM RISC/6000 Configurations
IBM 3494 Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3494 Model Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3494 Capacity Guidelines
IBM 3590 Feature Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Subsystem Host Interfaces
IBM 3590 Software Support Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
IBM 3590 Channel Command for ES/9000 and S/390 Systems
New STAGE Channel Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logical Block Number
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Support for MVS/ESA
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Support for DFSMS/MVS: Basic
IBM 3590 Support for DFSMS/MVS: SMS and AMS . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Support for DFSMS/MVS: ISMF, DFSMShsm, and DFSMSrmm
IBM 3590 Support for DFSMS/MVS: OAM and LCS . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Support for DFSMS/MVS: LCS (continued) . . . . . . . . . . .
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x
IBM 3590 Support for JES3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VM/ESA Version 2
OS400 Version 3 Release 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIX/6000 Version 3.2.5 and Version 4.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SunOS and Solaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADSM for AIX/6000 and SunOS/Solaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Software Supported for IBM 3590 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3490E ESCON Data Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3490E ESCON Data Rate Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3490E SCSI Data Rate
IBM 3490E SCSI Data Rate Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 ESCON Data Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 SCSI Data Rate
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 SCSI Data Rate Chart
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM AS/400 Data Rate Chart
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Autoblocking and Compression
Title Slide of the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server Presentation
Now Announced the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
. . . . .
Introduction to the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server . . . . . . .
Virtual Tape Server Key Attributes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Tape Server Key Concepts.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardware Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server Host Software Support . . . .
IBM 3494 Host and Library Manager Attachment . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3494: VTS Configuration Guidelines
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New IBM 3494 Features, Their Codes and Model Upgrades . . .
IBM 3494 Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Configuration Guidelines . . . . .
IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Frame Placement
. . . . . . . . .
IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Models and Features
. . . . . . .
IBM 3495 Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logical Data Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scratch Mount Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specific Mount Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Space Reclamation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparison of Virtual to Real Volumes.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sizing Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sizing a Virtual Tape Server
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real and Virtual 3490E Device Coexistence
. . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Tape Server Installation Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Implementing the Virtual Tape Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration to the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS)
. . . .
Monitoring the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server . . . . . . . . .
Operating the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) . . . . . .
STK Trademarks
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Why Use IBM 3590 in an STK Silo?
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Model C12
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3591 Model A01
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allowed Device Combinations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-ATL Scratch Tape Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-ATL Specific Tape Allocation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration Path to IBM 3494 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
JCL for Sample Cleaning Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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Tables
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1.
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 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
IBM Tape Technology History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Products . . . .
Tape Media, Capacity, and Data Transfer Rate by Device Type
IBM 3494-L10 Upgrade Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590 Feature Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supported Configurations for the IBM 3490E and IBM 3590 . .
.
DFSMShsm User Commands Affected by IBM 3590 Support
. .
Effective Data Rates per Path to an IBM 3490E Tape Drive
. .
Effective Data Rates per Path to an IBM 3490E Tape Drive
Effective Data Rates per Path to an IBM 3590 Tape Drive . . .
IBM 3590-C12 Physical Characteristics
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590-C12 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3590-B1A Features
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3591-A01 Software Support
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3591-A01 Physical Characteristics
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM 3591-A01 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APARs
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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8
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xi
xii
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Preface
This document is intended to help customers and IBM technical professionals
understand and evaluate the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem that
uses the Magstar tape drive. This document describes the functions, features,
and configuration considerations of the IBM 3590 tape subsystem as well as the
technology used for the new product. It provides information that can be used to
help customers plan and prepare their IBM 3590 tape subsystem implementation.
|
|
|
|
|
In September 1996, we add descriptions of the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
subsystem that is provided with IBM 3494 and IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library
Dataservers. We also add technical description regarding IBM 3590-C12
Silo-Compatible frame that enable to attach IBM 3590 tape drives to StorageTek
“Silo” tape library.
This document is written for storage administrators, systems programmers, and
other technical professionals involved with and interested in storage
subsystems.
How This Redbook Is Organized
This redbook contains 269 pages. It is organized as follows:
•
Chapter 1, “Introduction to the New Technology”
This chapter briefly describes the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Subsystem, its technology, and history. It also describes the longitudinal
recording technology implemented in the new tape subsystem and explains
why IBM has chosen to stay with longitudinal recording for start and stop as
well as streaming tape applications.
•
Chapter 2, “IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware
Description”
This chapter describes the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
hardware, including the newly developed IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Cartridge.
•
Chapter 3, “IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations”
This chapter describes the IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility (ACF),
which automates the cartridge loading operation. The chapter also explains
the function and use of the six ACF modes.
•
Chapter 4, “Configuration Guidance”
This chapter provides some guidance for configuring the IBM 3590 High
Performance Tape Subsystem with such IBM platforms as the ES/9000, S/390,
AS/400, RISC/6000, and POWERparallel SP2 systems. The configurations for
the IBM 3494 and 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver and the new IBM
3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver models are also described.
•
Chapter 5, “Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Subsystem”
This chapter provides information on the levels of software support for the
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem and the new functions and
features provided by the software.
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
xiii
•
Chapter 6, “Tape Performance Considerations”
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the IBM 3490E tape subsystem
performance characteristics and how they relate to effective data rate and
overall performance of the IBM 3490E tape subsystem. The discussion is
then extended to the new IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem,
developing ideas and issues of most importance when considering the
improvements in native drive performance available with IBM 3590 Tape
Drive.
•
|
|
|
Chapter 7, “The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server”
In this chapter, we provide technical descriptions regarding Virtual Tape
Server that was newly announced in September 1996.
•
|
|
|
|
Chapter 8, “IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem”
In this chapter, we provide technical descriptions regarding IBM 3590-C12
Silo-compatible frame that enable to attach IBM 3590 tape drives to
StorageTek “Silo” library.
•
|
|
|
Appendix A, “Sample Cleaning Program”
This appendix shows how to get a sample cleaning program for IBM 3590
tape drives that are installed in the StorageTek Automated Cartridge System.
xiv
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
The Team That Wrote This Redbook
This redbook was produced by a team of specialists from around the world
working at the International Technical Support Organization San Jose Center.
This project was designed and managed by:
Minoru Massaki
International Technical Support Organization,
San Jose Center
The authors of the first edition of this document were:
Christina Coutts
Kjell E Nyström
Minoru Massaki
IBM United Kingdom
IBM Nordic
ITSO San Jose Center
|
The authors of the second edition of this document were:
|
|
|
|
|
Cameron Whitnall
Taisei Takai
Wolfgang Wettig
Babette Häusser
Kjell E Nyström
IBM
IBM
IBM
IBM
IBM
Australia
Japan
Germany
Germany
Nordic
Thanks to the following people for the invaluable advice and guidance provided
in the production of this document:
|
Darrel L. Armstrong
David C. Graves
Jon W. Peake
Daniel P. Sheehy
IBM
IBM
IBM
IBM
Tucson
Tucson
Tucson
Tucson
Thanks to the following people for their invaluable contributions to this project:
Joe-Ming Cheng
Maggie Cutler
Kirby G. Dahman
Don Gerheim
Peter Kasper
Geoff Littlewood
Nigel Morton
Jukka Myyrylainen
Mayank R. Patel
Richard A. Ripberger
Stephen L. Schwartz
Brian F. Sherman
Klaus Steen
Frans Versteeg
Lee R. Weaver
IBM San Jose
Technical Editor
IBM Tucson
IBM Tucson
IBM Austria
IBM UK
IBM UK
IBM UK
IBM San Jose
IBM Tucson
IBM Tucson
IBM Canada
IBM Denmark
IBM Netherlands
IBM Tucson
Preface
xv
This publication is the result of a residency conducted at the International
Technical Support Organization, San Jose Center.
Comments Welcome
We want our redbooks to be as helpful as possible. Should you have any
comments about this or other redbooks, please send us a note at the following
address:
[email protected]
Your comments are important to us!
xvi
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Chapter 1. Introduction to the New Technology
This chapter gives an overview of the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Subsystem and the Magstar tape drive, a key component of the subsystem. The
Magstar tape drive features in the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem.
We describe the longitudinal recording technology implemented in the new tape
subsystem and explain why IBM has chosen to stay with longitudinal recording
for start and stop tape applications as well as streaming tape applications.
IBM has carefully considered the requirements of future tape subsystems for
high performance computer data storage applications. IBM has also assessed
the various technology options for high performance systems and has concluded
that the implementation of a new technology for longitudinal recording is the
optimum choice. The new technology can significantly increase the performance
of longitudinal recording while considerably improving reliability and retaining
economic advantages.
The longitudinal recording format and technology were chosen to provide
potential growth in both capacity and data rate by factors of 2 to 3. Our design
meets the objective of maximizing the three critical factors of performance ,
reliability , and affordability.
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
1
Figure 1. Tape Technology History
1.1 Tape Technology History
The history of longitudinal recording formats generally coincides with the history
of tape recording. IBM has consistently been the leader in the development of
new longitudinal recording formats designed specifically for computer data
storage applications. The progression of longitudinal recording from the early
7-track devices to 9-track, later 18-track, and recently 36-track has always been
characterized by industrial strength tape devices. For more information on tape
devices, see Table 1 on page 2.
Table 1 (Page 1 of 2). IBM Tape Technology History
2
Year
Product
Capacity
(MB)
Transfer Rate
(KB/s)
1952
IBM 726
1.4
7.5
1953
IBM 727
5.8
15
1957
IBM 729
23
90
1965
IBM 2401
46
180
1968
IBM 2420
46
320
1973
IBM 3420
180
1250
1984
IBM 3480
200
3000
1989
IBM 3490
200
4500
1991
IBM 3490E
400
9000
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Table 1 (Page 2 of 2). IBM Tape Technology History
•
Year
Product
1992
IBM 3490E
1995
IBM 3590
Capacity
(MB)
Transfer Rate
(KB/s)
800
9000
10000
20000
First generation
The first generation of magnetic tapes, the IBM 726 Tape Unit, was
announced on May 21, 1952. The tape medium was stored on a reel, like the
one shown in Figure 1 on page 2. The capacity of each reel was 1.4 MB,
and the channel data rate was 7.5 KB/s. With this announcement the
transition from paper media, such as punched cards or paper tapes, started
and lasted for approximately 20 years. The last product in this generation
was the IBM 3420 Model 8 with a reel capacity of 180 MB and a data rate of
1.22 MB/s.
The management and handling of these first generation tape reels were
manual. Operators mounted and demounted tape volumes, tape librarians
managed the tape libraries (shelves), and the tape content was described on
stickers on the tape itself and in some kind of manual tape inventory.
Applications used tapes directly, and each file or data set was stored on one
or more tape volumes. As magnetic disks were not yet widely used, tapes
were not used as backup media. Of course tape was also used as the
interchange media to transport data between data centers.
•
Second generation
The second generation of magnetic tapes, the IBM 3480, was announced on
March 22, 1984. The tape was stored on a (now familiar) cartridge, which
was smaller, much more robust, and easier to handle than the reels. The
cartridge capacity was 200 MB, and the channel data rate was 3 MB/s. Once
again a transition started from the first generation′s tape reels to the second
generation′s cartridges, and today, approximately ten years later, most
installations use only 3480 and 3490 tape technology. The last product
belonging to this generation is the IBM 3490E with a tape capacity of 800 MB
uncompacted (2.4 GB compacted) and a channel data rate of 9 MB/s.
During this second generation several steps were taken to automate tape
processing and reduce or eliminate human intervention. Automatic cartridge
loaders and automated tape libraries, such as the IBM 3495, were introduced
to reduce or eliminate the need for tape operators. Software packages, such
as the Removable Media Manager (DFSMSrmm), were implemented to
automatically manage the tape volumes.
Applications still used tapes directly and new inventions, such as Improved
Data Recording Capability (IDRC), which compacts the data, reduced the
number of tape volumes used. Magnetic disks were now widely used for
online data, and these second generation tapes therefore became the
medium for backup and were introduced as an archive medium. The
process of archiving was also automated with products like the Hierarchical
Storage Manager (HSM - also a component of DFSMS/MVS, DFSMShsm),
using tape as the lowest level in a storage hierarchy. Of course tape was
still used as an interchange medium, but networks were also used for that
purpose.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the New Technology
3
•
Third generation
The third generation of magnetic tapes, the IBM 3590 High Performance
Tape Subsystem, has been announced. The new cartridge medium has a
capacity of 10 GB uncompacted (30 GB compacted), and the channel data
rate is 20 MB/s. The transition to the new medium may last for only a few
years because the medium can coexist with the current media in automated
libraries, and many software packages, such as ADSTAR Distributed Storage
Manager (ADSM), Backup Recovery and Media Services/400 (BRMS/400),
and DFSMShsm, can easily use the new medium.
The third generation will change our minds from thinking in terms of tape
volumes or cartridges to managing tape space (as we have done with
magnetic disks) and utilizing the available space most efficiently.
Applications will stop using tape directly because the capacity of the medium
far exceeds the average file or data set size. Techniques such as Tape
Mount Management (TMM) together with such software as ADSM,
BRMS/400, and DFSMShsm will be used instead, and new technology will
automatically provide the capability to fully exploit the IBM 3590 High
Performance Tape Cartridge.
4
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 2. Half-Inch Cartridge Tape History
1.2 Half-Inch Cartridge Tape History
With the most recent introduction of helical scan devices, longitudinal recording
appears to offer considerably less capacity and data rate. However, in a
commercial environment, capacity and performance are not the only criteria to
consider. With current technology implementations, capacity and performance
have come to be regarded as the most important factors, but there are
nonetheless other critical factors that have not diminished in importance. Helical
scan devices are designed for streaming mode, and most commercial
applications work in start and stop mode. Earlier devices, such as the IBM 3850
Mass Storage System (MSS), used huge amounts of DASD space as a buffer in
order to fully utilize the streaming mode of a helical scan technology and thus
avoid continually starting and stopping the device.
The core technology (head, media, and so on) in today′s 36-track longitudinal
device was developed by IBM more than ten years ago. Since then, IBM has
continued to develop technologies that are announced as the IBM 3590 High
Performance Tape Subsystem. Technologies implemented in the Magstar 3590
tape drive will significantly change the performance characteristics of
longitudinal recording.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the New Technology
5
| Figure 3. IBM 3590 Magstar ESCON Configurations
|
1.3 IBM 3590 Magstar Products
|
|
|
In the middle of 1995, IBM announced the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Subsystem, which featured the new Magstar tape drive. Highlights of that
announcement were:
6
•
New type of metal particle medium with binder formulation for reliability and
archive life. The new medium is used in a cartridge with a capacity of 10 GB
uncompacted data. The new IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge is
specifically developed for the IBM 3590. Its outer shape is compatible with
current half-inch cartridges, which permits handling in the IBM 3494 and 3495
Automated Tape Library Dataservers.
•
Ten-cartridge magazine provides quick loading and removing a set of
cartridges to and from Automatic Cartridge Facility (ACF). The magazine can
hold up to ten cartridges.
•
Automatic Cartridge Facility, which can hold one 10-cartridge magazine, plus
an eleventh slot for specific mounts, providing an online capacity of more
than 300 GB compacted data. The ACF can work in the following two modes
in addition to all modes offered by the IBM 3490E Automatic Cartridge
Loader (ACL):
−
Accumulate mode, where operator-mounted volumes will, at unload time,
be placed in the magazine
−
Random mode, where the ACF can be programmed using host software
to mount any of the 10 cartridges in the magazine.
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
•
The host attachment interface of the Magstar tape drive is the small
computer system interface (SCSI). If the Magstar tape drive is to be attached
to the Enterprise Systems Connection (ESCON) channel, the IBM 3590 Model
A00 tape controller is required. The tape drive has its own integrated control
unit function, a 9 MB/s drive data rate, and a 20 MB/s SCSI data rate. The
Magstar tape drive also has an improved compression algorithm
(Ziv-Lempel) which is called IBMLZ1 and will be more efficient than the
binary arithmetic compression (BAC) algorithm used in the IBM 3480 and
3490 Tape Subsystem′s IDRC.
Up to four IBM3590 Model B11 tape drives (a Magstar with ACF) can be
installed in a standard 19-inch rack, such as the IBM 7202 or the IBM 9309,
which gives an online capacity of more than 1 TB (compacted).
The IBM 3590 Model B1A tape drive (a Magstar without ACF) can be installed
in the IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver, which gives an online
capacity of more than 90 TB (compacted). The IBM 3590-B1A can coexist
with the IBM 3490E in the IBM 3494.
|
|
|
|
|
|
•
The IBM 3590 Model A00 tape controller is used to attach up to four Magstar
tape drives to two ESCON channels, with 128 logical paths (64 logical paths
per ESCON channel), at a distance of up to 43 km. The IBM 3590-A00 can be
installed in the IBM 3494 Model L14 and D14 or in an IBM 3590 Model A14
frame (see below).
•
The IBM 3590 Model A14 is a frame box, similar to the IBM 3490 frame
models, where one IBM 3590-A00 tape controller and up to four IBM
3590-B11/B1A tape drives can be installed. The IBM 3590-A14, with one IBM
3590-A00 and four IBM 3590-B1As, as a tape subsystem, can be installed in
the IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver and coexist with the IBM
3490 and 3490E tape subsystems in the IBM 3495, giving a maximum online
capacity of almost 600 TB (compacted).
Note: The IBM 3495 Model M10 Manual Tape Library Dataserver does not
support the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem.
|
|
IBM has enhanced the 3590 family of products by recently announcing some
additional features and products. Some of the features of this announcement are:
|
|
|
|
|
|
•
The IBM 3590 Model C12 is an IBM 3590 Silo-Compatible Frame Model. It is
designed for attachment to StorageTek Automated Cartridge Systems. Four
IBM 3590-B1A drives are installed in an IBM 3590-C12 frame, which are
attached to an IBM 3591-A01 ESCON controller. These drives are installed at
a special slanted 15 degree angle within the frame, to allow compatibility
with the StorageTek robotics.
|
|
|
|
•
The IBM 3591 Model A01 is the initial ESCON tape controller released for up
to four IBM 3590 drives. The IBM 3591-A01 ESCON controller requires no
new software as it emulates a 3490E Subsystem. Tapes are written on an
IBM 3591-A01 drive in a 3590 media format.
|
|
|
|
|
•
The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) is a hardware and software
(microcode) product designed to provide full capacity utilization for IBM 3590
High Performance Tape Cartridges when housed within an IBM 3494 or 3495
Tape Library. The Virtual Tape Server also provides improved performance
for customer tape data access.
|
|
The price of the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem is comparable to
the IBM 3490E. Table 2 on page 8 shows the range of IBM 3590 High
Performance Tape Subsystem products
Chapter 1. Introduction to the New Technology
7
|
Table 2. IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Products
|
System
Attachment
Product
|
|
|
|
|
ES/9000
S/390 Parallel Server
ESCON
IBM
IBM
IBM
IBM
IBM
|
|
RISC/6000
SCSI
IBM 3590-B11
IBM 3590-B1A for IBM 3494
|
|
POWERparallel SP2
SCSI
IBM 3590-B11
IBM 3590-B1A for IBM 3494
|
|
AS/400
SCSI
IBM 3590-B11
IBM 3590-B1A for IBM 3494
|
|
Sun Systems
SCSI
IBM 3590-B11
IBM 3590-B1A for IBM 3494
|
|
3590-A14
3590-A00
3494/3495 support (IBM 3590-B1A)
3590-C12 (IBM 3591-A01)
3591-A01
Figure 4 shows a summay of the possibility for using the IBM 3590 Magstar tape
subsystem in a SCSI environment.
| Figure 4. IBM 3590 Magstar SCSI Configurations
8
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 5. Design Targets and Market Requirements
1.4 Design Targets and Market Requirements
The design targets and market requirements for the IBM 3590 High Performance
Tape Subsystem are:
•
Replacement for 3480, 3490, and 3490E
The IBM 3480 provided a foundation for 10 years of growth and technological
advancement. The IBM 3590 uses the best of the 3480 and 3490 technology
by retaining the reliability of the mechanical drive components. Advances in
recording technology allow the IBM 3590 to establish the basis for a new
family of tape drives that offer large gains in recording density, data
reliability, and performance.
•
High performance in all environments
The IBM 3590 will be available for many operating platforms. Regardless of
platform, performance will be improved over the IBM 3480 and 3490
technology.
•
Design for broad market acceptance
The IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem is designed for use in a
variety of environments. By using the same basic hardware for a tape
product that is used in several markets, efficiencies are realized for
customers and IBM. Customers with multiple platforms benefit, for example,
from short operator training periods and easy conversion from SCSI to
ESCON.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the New Technology
9
•
Introduce range of automation options
The need to lower operational costs led the drive toward automated tape
systems. The rise of distributed systems now calls for a range of automation
options. Small tape systems, for example tape systems requiring just a few
terabytes of data, need a small amount of reliable automation for unattended
backups and other data storage needs. Intermediate systems (for example,
distributed servers) need a reasonable amount of automation. The IBM 3590
offers the large capacity of a single cartridge along with the ability to
integrate the tape drive in small IBM tape libraries (the IBM 3494 Tape
Library Dataserver).
Even intermediate and large systems without a tape library will benefit by
using the Cartridge Magazine to reduce operator mount time.
•
Affordability
Many different factors combine to make the IBM 3590 affordable. From a
cost-per-megabyte perspective, the IBM 3590 reduces costs by offering the
ability to store enormous amounts of data on a single cartridge. From a raw
purchase standpoint, customers benefit from the multiple markets to which
the IBM 3590 is offered (economies of scale benefits are realized).
10
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 6. New Technology
1.5 New Technology
We discuss the design objectives and technology options for the IBM 3590 High
Performance Tape Subsystem.
1.5.1 Objectives
When new tape technologies are included in product development, it is important
to consider all objectives. The list of design objectives can be long, but overall
three critical factors are evident:
•
Performance - improve storage capacity to reduce space and operator
activity, and increase data transfer rate to the limit of existing channel
interfaces.
•
Reliability - increase data integrity to accommodate data capacity increases,
that is, so that data integrity overall remains constant or is improved when
compared with previous lower-capacity devices. As tape capacity increases,
the residency time for a tape in a drive will increase, and the availability
must be improved accordingly.
•
Affordability - maintain purchase price and maintenance expense at a
comparable level with current products. To protect customer investments, a
new tape subsystem ideally should be able to coexist with IBM 3490 products
in an IBM 3494 or 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the New Technology
11
1.5.2 Options
How well a new product addresses these three critical factors is directly
dependent on the choice of core technologies. IBM has evaluated future
development potentials, which are broadly outlined as the following three
options:
•
Extend current technology that was originally developed for the IBM 3480 and
enhanced for the different versions of the IBM 3490.
Minor performance and reliability improvements are possible, and the price
would remain comparable with the price of today′s IBM 3490E.
•
Helical scan was originally developed to store digital information for
streaming applications such as the video industry (D1 in 1983) and later
enhanced to attach to computers (D2 in 1986). Both implementations use a
19 mm medium, which makes them incompatible with today′s medium size
of half an inch. The D2 implementation has removable read and write heads,
which make this type of device quite large and difficult to service. To
overcome some of the issues with D2, a new implementation using a
half-inch medium with nonremovable heads (D3) was developed (and used
during the Olympic games in Barcelona in 1992).
The performance of helical scan devices for streaming applications is very
good, and the capacity of the medium is large. In a helical scan
implementation the tape is in forced contact with the rotating read and write
heads. If the host system writing the data cannot sustain the data rate of the
device, the device will be forced into a stop and start cycle even if a buffer is
used. For one pass of the tape, this time-consuming process (of the order of
seconds per stop-restart cycle) is executed tens of thousands of times.
The high degree of contact between the tape and the heads in a helical scan
implementation results in high wear of both the medium and the heads. The
high wear of the heads makes advanced helical scan devices very expensive
for computer-attached use in a commercial environment.
•
New longitudinal technology now announced by IBM (16-track Serpentine
Interleaved Longitudinal Recording) significantly improves tape performance
and transfer rates without changing the tape speed (2 m/s). A buffer is used
and the data compressed before it is written to. In addition it can complete a
stop-start cycle in approximately 100 ms. The performance is significantly
improved for both start-stop and streaming applications.
The new technology has many new features that significantly improve
reliability, such as servo tracks on the tape and the implementation of an
improved error correcting code (ECC). A portion of the tape within each
cartridge has been reserved for error history; it will be continually updated
after each use (read or write), providing statistics that can be used to identify
problems with a particular tape as early as possible.
12
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 7. Metal Particle Medium
1.6 Metal Particle Medium
A chromium dioxide medium is used in the IBM 3480 and 3490 cartridges. The
new IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge uses a metal particle medium,
which has a significantly increased coercivity and therefore permits a much
higher data recording density in comparison with chromium dioxide media. 1 The
linear density is proportional to the medium′s coercivity, and therefore the
density of the IBM 3590 tape is approximately three times that of the IBM 3480
and 3490 as represented in Figure 7. The track density is also improved
approximately four times. Metal particle media have been available in the
consumer market for many years but has only recently matured sufficiently to
provide characteristics suitable for computer data storage.
Advancements in the metal particle coatings and media binders afford reliability
and magnetic stability equal or superior to chrome media.
1
Coercivity is a measure of a material′s ability to maintain a magnetic field. Higher coercivity of a medium allows more
information to be recorded on the medium and increases the ability of the medium to resist demagnetization.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the New Technology
13
Figure 8. Interleaved Longitudinal Recording
1.7 Interleaved Longitudinal Recording
Tape media is commonly damaged in two ways:
•
Vertical damage, which can occur if the tape is folded for some reason.
•
Horizontal damage, such as a scratch along the length of the tape, which can
occur during tape movement.
By recording information in an interleaved fashion (that is, spreading the bits of
a unit of information along the tape as shown in Figure 8), the probability of
being able to recover from either vertical or horizontal damage is increased,
because no whole unit of information (a byte) is unrecoverable. Only a few bits
within many bytes are damaged, and having only a few bit errors simplifies error
recovery and will considerably improve the probability of being able to read a
damaged tape.
14
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 9. Serpentine Interleaved Track Sets
1.8 Serpentine Interleaved Track Sets
The 18 tracks recorded on IBM 3480 media were used to record ECC information
along with the data. The original base IBM 3490 models also used the same
18-track format but were later enhanced in the IBM 3490E models, which
implemented two sets of 18 tracks. In an IBM 3490E device the first 18 tracks are
recorded when the tape moves in a forward direction until the physical end of
the tape is reached. Then, using an electronic head switch (that is, not
physically moving the head itself in any direction but switching to a second set of
read-write heads), a second set of 18 tracks is recorded when the tape moves in
a backward direction until the physical beginning of the tape is reached.
In the IBM 3590 a second generation of thin film magneto resistive (MR) heads is
used, which, together with the new tape medium, allows recording with much
higher area density, both in number of bits as well as number of tracks per inch.
Data is written in blocks of 384KB of user data using a 16-track format (data and
ECC information are recorded differently compared to the 18-track format). The
first set of 16 tracks is written to the physical end of the tape, and then, using the
electronic head switch, 16 different interleaved tracks are written while the tape
moves back to the beginning. The head is then indexed (physically moved a
fraction of a millimeter) to the next set of 16 tracks. In this way eight sets of
interleaved tracks are written to a total of 128 tracks.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the New Technology
15
Servo tracks are used to ensure accurate reading and writing of the data. The
servo tracks on each IBM 3590 tape cartridge are written at the time of
manufacture.
The high-speed search has been enhanced to position the drive directly at a
certain block without sequentially searching forward and backward through the
entire recorded part of the tape.
16
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 10. Why Use Longitudinal Technology?
1.9 Why Use Longitudinal Technology?
In summary IBM has chosen serpentine interleaved longitudinal recording
technology to meet the three critical factors, performance, reliability,
affordability, for the following reasons:
•
Mechanical simplicity - fewer moving parts are needed in comparison with a
helical scan implementation, and proven IBM 3490E technology is used. A
simple loading mechanism also contributes to reliability and mechanical
simplicity.
•
Start-stop operation - the very fast back-hitch gives very good performance
regardless of application type. This is of particular importance because
computer applications in most installations are start-stop applications (such
as normal batch or backup operations) and very few are streaming
applications (as in the oil or seismic industry).
•
Data integrity - a new ECC design, interleaved recording, and new hardware
technology result in data integrity that is expected to be 100 times higher
than that of the IBM 3490E. The large number of concurrent data channels
(16 tracks) contributes to data integrity and reliability.
•
Lower head wear - service expense is minimized and availability improved.
•
Lower media wear - debris generation is minimized, which in turn minimizes
the probability of read or write errors and improves the overall life of the
medium.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the New Technology
17
Figure 11. IBM Tape Products
1.10 IBM Tape Products
IBM offers a wide range of tape products, and often it is not easy to decide
which product to use.
In selecting a product to solve a business requirement, both the financial and
data requirements need to be examined. The amount of data to be stored, the
performance when reading and writing data, archive capability, and the level of
automation required are all aspects of data requirements that should be
reviewed:
•
Capacity: How much data is planned to be stored for each access to that
data? That is, what capacity would each tape ideally have, and how well
does the hardware or planned software utilize that capacity? If automation is
under consideration, the capacity of the robotics library also needs to be
taken into account.
Table 3 on page 19 documents the capacity of the media used by the
devices shown in Figure 11. Software products such as ADSM, BRMS/400,
or DFSMShsm will fully utilize any size media.
•
18
Performance: What speed is required to access and/or store the data? The
batch and backup windows are typically time-constrained environments, and,
by alleviating tape contention, a time reduction in the batch and backup
processing or more throughput can be realized.
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Table 3 on page 19 documents the data transfer rate for the devices shown
in Figure 11.
•
Reliability/archivability: The metal particle medium has improved reliability
and has a longer shelf life when compared with the chromium dioxide media
used today. Advances in the metal particle coatings and media polymers
afford reliability and magnetic stability equal or superior to chrome media.
•
Automation: Today most installations have some level of automation in the
tape environment. This automation may entail the automating of tape
messages, the use of cartridge loaders, or a robotics accessor to perform
tape mount handling.
Until now, the IBM 3490E was the product of choice for capacity, performance,
and reliability. The IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem provides for
12.5 times the capacity, 3 times the performance, and 100 times the reliability of
the IBM 3490E using extended capacity cartridge system tape (ECCST). The IBM
3494 and 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataservers continue to provide library
automation while utilizing both IBM 3490E and IBM 3590 technology.
Table 3. Tape Media, Capacity, and Data Transfer Rate by Device Type
Device Type
|
Media Type
Media Capacity
Data Transfer
Rate
IBM 7207
QIC
1.2 GB
300 KB/S
IBM 7206
4 mm
4 GB
400 KB/S
IBM 7208
8 mm
5 GB
500 KB/S
IBM 7332
4 mm
4 GB
400 KB/S
IBM 7331
8 mm
7 GB
500 KB/S
IBM 3490
CST
400 M B
3 MB/S
ECCST
800 M B
3 MB/S
HPTC
10 GB
9 MB/S
IBM 3490E
IBM 3590
The IBM 3490E offers two different cartridges with a capacity of 400 MB or 800
MB (uncompacted) and 1.2 GB or 2.4 GB (compacted). The IBM 3590 High
Performance Tape Cartridge has a capacity of 10 GB uncompacted, or 30 GB if
compaction is used.
The IBM 3490E is capable of transferring data between the processor and the
tape buffer with a speed of 9 MB/s, and between the buffer and the drive itself
with a speed of 3 MB/s. The Magstar tape drive is capable of transferring data
between the processor and the tape buffer with either 20 MB/s in the SCSI
interface is used or 17 MB/s if ESCON channel interface is used, and between
the buffer and the drive itself with a speed of 9 MB/s.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the New Technology
19
| Figure 12. IBM 3590 Tape Space Utilization
1.11 IBM 3590 Tape Space Utilization
When implementing the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem, different
application requirements have to be considered from both a capacity and a
performance point of view. Applications such as ADSM, BRMS/400, and
DFSMShsm can fully use the capacity of the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Cartridge.
Other applications, for example, a dump of a disk volume, will use only a fraction
of the medium capacity. Yet other some applications are time constrained and
need the performance of the IBM 3590 tape drive even if the amount of data
written does not fully use one cartridge. In an environment with mixed
technologies, for example, an IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver with
both IBM 3490E and IBM 3590 installed, techniques such as system-managed
tape in DFSMS should be used to have the system automatically store data in
the optimum way.
|
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|
IBM now has capacity-enabling technology on our ESCON-attached tape
libraries. Virtual Tape Server uses 3590 drives within IBM 3494 and 3495
Automated Tape Library Dataservers to maximize the customer data content on
each IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge. Virtual Tape Server also
provides improved performance for customer tape data access.
20
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 13. Now Announced the I B M Magstar Virtual Tape Server
|
1.12 Now Announced the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
|
|
|
|
In April 1995, together with the announcement of the IBM Magstar 3590 High
Performance Tape Subsystem, IBM announced a statement of direction to deliver
capacity-enabling technology (also called volume stacking) on our
ESCON-attached library products.
|
|
Fulfilling this statement of direction, IBM now announces the IBM Magstar Virtual
Tape Server (VTS) for IBM 3494 and 3495 Tape Libraries.
|
|
1.12.1 Virtual Tape Server for IBM 3494 Tape Library
The VTS subsystem in an IBM 3494 is installed in two frames:
|
|
•
One IBM 3494-D12 drive unit frame houses the IBM 3590-B1A tape drives that
are dedicated to the Virtual Tape Server function.
|
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|
•
One IBM 3494-B16 Virtual Tape Server unit frame which contains the
required hardware and microcode to enable full 3590 Magstar tape storage
capacity, plus cartridge storage cells.
|
|
|
Figure 13 shows the minimum configuration of a Virtual Tape Server subsystem
in IBM 3494 Tape Library including one library unit frame, one drive unit frame,
and one Virtual Tape Server unit frame.
|
|
See Section 7.8, “IBM 3494 Virtual Tape Server Configuration Guidelines” on
page 167 for more detail on IBM 3494 Virtual Tape Server configuration.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the New Technology
21
|
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1.12.2 Virtual Tape Server for IBM 3495 Tape Library
Installed in an IBM 3495 Tape Library, the Virtual Tape Server subsystem is
composed of:
|
|
|
•
One IBM 3590-A14 frame that houses four IBM 3590-B1A tape drives which
are dedicated to the Virtual Tape Server function. No IBM 3590-A00 ESCON
tape controller is required.
|
|
•
One IBM 3495-B16 Virtual Tape Server unit frame that contains the required
hardware and microcode to enable full tape storage capacity.
|
|
|
Figure 13 on page 21 shows the smallest Virtual Tape Server subsystem in an
IBM 3495 Tape Library configuration consisting of an IBM 3495 Tape Library
Model L20, including the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS).
|
|
See Section 7.11, “IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Configuration Guidelines” on
page 173 for more detail on IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server configuration.
22
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Chapter 2. IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware
Description
The IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem is a completely new tape
processing system that provides new levels of function, performance, reliability,
and cartridge capacity. The IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem is a
replacement product for the IBM 3480, 3490, and 3490E tape subsystems.
The IBM 3590 tape drive which is called the Magstar tape drive, can be
configured in frames or racks, inside or outside an IBM Automated Tape Library
Dataserver. Either SCSI or ESCON channel attachments are supported, but
parallel channel attachment is not supported. The IBM 3590 High Performance
Tape Subsystem is intended for customers who have a requirement to back up
large amounts of data or who can use the faster performance.
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
23
| Figure 14. Magstar Tape Drive
2.1 Magstar Tape Drive
We describe the IBM 3590 tape drive, which is called the Magstar tape drive.
•
Modular drive unit
Figure 14 shows the basic IBM 3590, with and without the top cover. The
unit is 8.8 inches wide, 29.8 inches deep, and 10.5 inches high (221 mm x 750
mm x 262 mm). The drive read/write mechanism and heads and the drive
logic are completely new technology; however, as indicated in the figure, the
basic load/feed mechanism of the new drive is built on the proven,
high-reliability IBM 3490E design.
Other operating characteristics are:
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
•
Read/write tape speed: 2 m/s
High-speed locate: 5 m/s
Forward space/Backspace file: 5 m/s
Rewind speed: 5 m/s
Full cartridge rewind time: 2 s
Maximum cartridge rewind time: 60 s
Average cartridge load time: 16 s
Native SCSI attachments
The drive unit can be attached directly to a 16-bit, fast-and-wide SCSI
differential interface. Each drive unit has two such external SCSI interfaces
for attachment to RISC System/6000, POWERparallel SP2, AS/400, and Sun
24
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
systems. The drive can also be attached to ESCON channels using a
separate control-unit device (see 2.4, “IBM 3590 Control Unit” on page 30).
•
9 MB/s drive performance
The drive data rate at 9 MB/s is three times faster than the IBM 3480, 3490,
or 3490E tape drives. This increase in drive data rate, together with the
built-in data compression capability, makes it possible to utilize more
effectively the full capability of a 20 MB/s fast-and-wide SCSI or a 17 MB/s
ESCON channel.
The higher drive data rate is achieved with the much higher areal density
possible with the new tape medium. The tape transport speeds and
mechanical handling are basically unchanged; they are based on the IBM
3490E design, which is optimized for reliability of the tape medium used.
The integrated control unit function eliminates drive contention and thus
enhances performance.
•
Control function in drive unit
Each IBM 3590 drive has its own integrated SCSI-3 control unit function (with
two channel interfaces, for multihost attachment, or availability). This is
shown in section 2.2, “Magstar Tape Drive Schematic Comparison” on
page 27.
•
Improved compression
The IBMLZ1 compression algorithm used in the IBM 3590 is based on the
Ziv-Lempel algorithm 2 and Jackson′ s 3 class of encoding methods. For the
IBM 3590 IBMLZ1 compression, a 1024 bytes of history buffer is used. This
implementation differs from the IDRC used in the IBM 3490E, which is based
on BAC. The IBMLZ1 algorithm is expected to be more effective than IDRC.
As in the IBM 3480, 3490, and 3490E, the data is reblocked in the IBM 3590
buffer (which is 4 MB in size), before it is written to the tape. This is called
autoblocking. In the IBM 3590 the autoblocking block size for user data has
been increased to 384KB from 128 KB in the IBM 3490E.
The IBMLZ1 compression algorithm is designed for robust and highly
efficient compression. Key design objectives for the IBMLZ1 algorithm are:
−
Hardware execution efficiency: the hardware architecture should use as
few machine cycles as possible to compress or decompress a byte. The
architecture should maintain low complexity and use silicon technology
effectively. In addition, the smallest number of machine cycles for each
byte (this number is called CPB) should be used to compress or
decompress data.
−
Robust compression: achieve good coding efficiency for broad
applications.
−
Minimum system integration overhead: the maximum benefit from
compression is achieved when the compression can be performed
2
Jacob Ziv and Abraham Lempel, ″A Universal Algorithm for Sequential Data Compression,″ IEEE Transactions of Information
Theory , Vol. 23, No. 3 (May 1977). Ziv and Lempel have given their names to a class of algorithms known as LZ (not ZL),
each of which can be implemented in different ways.
3
Rory D. Jackson and Willi K. Rackl, both of IBM Poughkeepsie Lab, ″Data Expansion Apparatus,″ described essentially the
LZ1; patent filed on June 30, 1976; US Patent 4,054,951, October 18, 1977.
Chapter 2. IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware Description
25
without performance loss. So the algorithm is capable of running at
channel speed (20 MB/s for SCSI).
26
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 15. Magstar Tape Drive Schematic Comparison
2.2 Magstar Tape Drive Schematic Comparison
The diagram compares the IBM 3490E drive unit with a separate control unit and
the IBM 3590 tape drive unit with an integrated control unit. The IBM 3490E
control unit shown represents the IBM 3490-A10, which has the potential to
support multiple (up to eight) drive units using its single control unit function.
However, only a single drive can be used at a time. In the IBM 3590 the single
tape transport has its own control unit function within the drive unit module,
including buffering and compaction.
Potential contention of the drives or bottlenecks in the control unit are removed
by moving these functions to the individual drive units. The same effect is
achieved by dedicating a single drive unit to a single control unit function, as, for
example, in the IBM 3490-C10.
Chapter 2. IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware Description
27
Figure 16. IBM 3590 Drive Models
2.3 IBM 3590 Drive Models
There are two IBM 3590 models: the IBM 3590-B11 and the IBM 3590-B1A. The
IBM 3590-B1A is the Magstar and the IBM 3590-B11 consists of a Magstar and an
ACF.
The IBM 3590-B11 is a rack-mountable model. It includes a 10-cartridge ACF,
which can be quickly loaded using a new magazine. When the IBM 3590-B11 is
ordered, a magazine, a cleaner cartridge, one IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Cartridge, and a SCSI terminator are automatically included. It is recommended
that a second (spare) magazine be ordered separately. The power cord does
not need to be specified, the IBM 3590 is supplied with a short cord to attach to
the rack (IBM 7202 or IBM 9309), frame (IBM 3590-A14), or library (IBM 3494 L14
and D14 units).
|
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|
The IBM 3590-B1A is designed to be installed in the IBM 3494 Automated Tape
Library Dataserver and thus has no ACF. It can be installed in new models of
the IBM 3494 or 3495 Tape Library, currently installed library frame units can be
upgraded to these models. Up to six (up to four if ESCON attached) IBM 3590
Model B1A tape drive units can be installed in a single IBM 3494 frame. Four
ESCON attached IBM 3590 Model B1A tape drives can be installed in an IBM
3590-A14 frame installed alongside an IBM 3495.
IBM 3490E and 3590 tape drives can be managed within the same tape library
(see Chapter 4, “Configuration Guidance” on page 65).
28
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
The meaning of the model numbering is shown in the diagram. Generally for
tape subsystems the numbering convention is as follows:
•
The first character signifies the type of unit: an A for a control unit or a B for
a drive unit. (The C models of the IBM 3490 have the control unit integrated
with the drives.)
•
The second character indicates the number of drives installed in the unit.
•
The third character shows the number of ACFs installed; an A indicates that
the model is designed to be installed in an automated tape library.
Although this numbering system is generally adhered to for the IBM tape
products, it has not been rigorously applied in numbering all previous models,
for example, the IBM 3490E models.
Note: The new 14 model numbers of the IBM 3590 and the IBM 3494 indicate a
frame or drive unit where the IBM 3590 Tape Control Unit is installed, for
example, the IBM 3590 model A14 frame and the IBM 3494 model D14
drive unit.
Chapter 2. IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware Description
29
Figure 17. IBM 3590 Control Unit
2.4 IBM 3590 Control Unit
The IBM 3590 model A00 tape control unit allows the IBM 3590 tape drive (which
is a native SCSI device) to be attached to ESCON channels. The IBM 3590-A00 is
not free-standing but is designed to fit into the purpose-built IBM 3590-A14 rack
(the frame) or inside the IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver.
•
|
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One/Two ESCON channels
Many of the functions of previous IBM tape control units have been moved
into each IBM 3590 tape drive unit (see 2.2, “Magstar Tape Drive Schematic
Comparison” on page 27). Thus the primary function of the IBM 3590-A00 is
to provide an interface from the SCSI adapters on the IBM 3590 to the
ES/9000 or S/390 ESCON channels. To achieve this the IBM 3590-A00 has
one single-adapter ESCON card that provides attachment for one ESCON
host channel and the IBM 3590 SCSI drive units. A single ESCON adapter is
now available, soon after General Availability (GA) a second ESCON adapter
will be available to improve the availability of the IBM 3590 subsystem. The
IBM 3590-A00 is also attached to the Library Manager when installed in an
IBM 3494 or 3495 configuration.
Note: The IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem do not support
attachment to OEMI (parallel) channels.
−
17 MB/s
The IBM 3590-A00 supports the maximum speed, 17 MB/s, of the ES/9000
or S/390 Parallel Server ESCON channels. Together with IBMLZ1
compression and the improved IBM 3590 drive data transfer rate of 9
30
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
MB/s, this speed could considerably improve performance for long
sustained tape I/Os, over the tape devices that support up to 9 MB/s
channel speeds.
−
Maximum 43 km
The maximum distance between the ES/9000 or S/390 host and the tape
subsystem attached using the IBM 3590-A00 is 43 km.
•
128 logical paths
The number of logical paths for each physical path has been quadrupled,
from 16 to 64: a total of 128 logical paths is available with an IBM 3590-A00.
•
Both paths to each drive
Both physical paths to the ES/9000 or S/390 host are available to each of the
tape devices. This availability is the same as in the IBM 3490-A20 tape
controller, which has two concurrently active paths to a single host. All
attached tape devices in the subsystem can use both paths.
•
IBM 3590 model A00
A single model of the IBM 3590 tape control unit fits into the two basic
environments, the library and the frame. The latter is described in 2.5, “IBM
3590 Frame” on page 32. The frame and library environment are explained
in more detail in Chapter 4, “Configuration Guidance” on page 65
The IBM 3590-A00 should be ordered separately for installation in either in
the purpose-built rack IBM 3590-A00 or in the IBM 3494 Automated Tape
Library Dataserver. All the components of a subsystem to be installed in an
IBM 3494 or in an IBM 3590-A14 must be ordered separately.
•
|
|
Up to four IBM 3590 tape drives attached
An IBM 3590-A00 can attach up to four IBM 3590-B11s in an IBM 3590-A14 or,
four IBM 3590-B1As in an IBM 3590-A14 (IBM 3495 attach) or, four IBM
3590-B1As in a drive frame (IBM 3494-D14) of the IBM 3494 Automated Tape
Library Dataserver. In the case of an IBM 3494-L14, the control unit frame
can contain up to two IBM 3590-B1As attached to an IBM 3590-A00.
Unlike the 3480, 3490, and 3490E, tape control operations such as forward
space file, back space file, and locate record do not tie up control unit
function. These operations are controlled by the drive itself, and the control
unit function in the IBM 3590-A00 becomes free. In the case of an IBM
3590-A00 with four IBM 3590-B11s or -B1As, a maximum of two data transfer
operations and two tape control operations can occur at the same time.
Chapter 2. IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware Description
31
| Figure 18. IBM 3590 Frame
2.5 IBM 3590 Frame
|
|
|
|
This unit is the IBM 3590 model A14, a purpose-built rack that houses an IBM
3590 tape control unit and up to four IBM 3590-B11 drives with ACFs, or four IBM
3590-B1A′s (NON ACF). An IBM 3590-A00 and up to four IBM 3590-B11s should
be ordered separately for installation in an IBM 3590-A14.
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This subsystem is similar to the IBM 3490 A and B models. It is this frame
model that will be incorporated into the IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library
Dataserver as part of the library configuration. When the IBM 3590-A14 is
incorporated into the IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver, the IBM
3590-A14 must have one IBM 3590-A00 and all four IBM 3590-B1As installed. The
Library Manager of the IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver supports
attachment of up to eight control units (that is, IBM 3490 A-models or IBM
3590-A00s). Thus a maximum of eight IBM 3590-A14s (32 IBM 3590-B1A tape
drives) can be incorporated into an IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library
Dataserver configuration. The physical positions of the IBM 3590-A14 in an IBM
3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver configuration are the same as the
positions where the IBM 3490 B-models are installed today.
See Figure 33 on page 69 in section 4.2, “IBM 3495 Configurations” on the
relationship between IBM 3495 models and the number of IBM 3590-A00s.
Note: The IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem is not supported in The
IBM 3495 model M10 Manual Tape Library Dataserver.
32
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
An optional top-mounted operator display that connects directly to the IBM
3590-A14 has been designed by Texas Digital Systems, Inc. (TDS). The TDS 3590
Display Station features an eleven color LED display that can be read up to 90
feet, and provides flexible user controlled display functions that are menu
selected via an infrared keyboard.
Chapter 2. IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware Description
33
Figure 19. IBM 3590 Environmentals
2.6 IBM 3590 Environmentals
•
Power control
Power control is provided by a power on and off switch at the back of the
device. A power-on indicator is located at the back of the drive near the
switch.
AC power is supplied from a wall outlet, rack enclosure, or other AC source.
The device is supplied with a single AC to DC power supply and will support
a single IBM 3590 tape drive with ACF.
The IBM 3590 drive unit itself does not provide remote power control. If
required, remote power control is provided by the enclosure or higher level
subassembly.
•
Input voltages
The IBM 3590 is designed to accept a wide variety of input voltages and
frequencies; from 100 V AC (nominal) to 240 V AC (nominal) and from 50 Hz
(nominal) to 60 Hz (nominal). The device will automatically adjust itself for
proper operation when presented with any combination of these voltages
and frequencies.
•
Power consumption
The power consumption of each IBM 3590 with ACF is 0.3 kVA.
34
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
•
Cooling requirements
The calorific value for an IBM 3590-B1A, IBM 3590-B11, and IBM 3590-A00 is
1024 BTU/hr. The value for an IBM 3590-A14 is 341 BTU/hr.
Cooling is provided by three fans. Two fans provide cooling to the tape deck
and power supply. A third fan provides cooling to the card cage.
Thermal protection is provided by two sensors. Each sensor, when activated
(by extremes of temperature outside recommended operating conditions),
causes an immediate power down of the device. Once activated the sensor
will not allow a device power-on until an IBM service representative resets
the device. Only qualified personnel can reset the thermal sensor.
Chapter 2. IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware Description
35
Figure 20. IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge
2.7 IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge
The tape cartridge and media used with the IBM 3590 tape drive—the IBM 3590
High Performance Tape Cartridge—is completely new; it is not compatible with
any other IBM tape subsystems. You cannot read from or write to this tape
using IBM 3480, 3490, or 3490E tape subsystems. (Note that the IBM 3590 tape
drive can neither read from nor write to previous IBM tape cartridge
formats—that is, neither 18-track nor 36-track format.)
•
Characteristics
Physically the new tape cartridge is similar to the IBM 3480 cartridge design
(the ECCST and CST (cartridge system tape))—that is, it has the same
external size and shape. However, the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Cartridge has a capacity of 10 GB (with uncompacted data) or greater if the
data is suitable for compaction.
The tape itself is a half inch wide and 300 m long, which is similar to the 320
m IBM 3490E ECCST. Thus the time in which to access the data, high speed
searches, and rewind activity will be little changed from the current ECCST
despite the considerable increase in capacity.
•
Cartridge design
The cartridge casing is more robust than its predecessors but is otherwise
the same physical size and shape as the IBM 3480 cartridge. It is also
physically compatible with the IBM 3480 cartridge in terms of, for example,
robotics handling and storage. However, some minor (but important)
36
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
differences physically distinguish the IBM 3590 cartridge from other cartridge
types.
There are two new colored plastic inserts in the cartridge casing, and each
insert has the potential for two indentations. The presence or absence of the
indentations signifies a binary 1 or 0, and thus different cartridge types may
be identified by the tape subsystem hardware. By this means it is possible
to recognize 16 cartridge types. Currently, three cartridge types are
recognized: the new IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge, the new
IBM 3590 cleaner cartridge (these two cartridges are shown in Figure 20 on
page 36 ), and the current IBM 3480 and 3490 cartridge. The absence of the
inserts (and therefore no indentations) indicates a standard cartridge system
tape (CST) or an ECCST (IBM 3480 and 3490 cartridge). The IBM 3590
hardware can recognize and reject this type of cartridge.
Note: This is a means for the hardware to recognize what sort of tape is
mounted in the drive. This information is not passed to the host software or
the Library Manager.
The leader block on the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge has
been modified such that it cannot be mounted in an IBM 3480, 3490, or 3490E
drive. If an attempt is made to mount the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Cartridge in an IBM 3480, 3490, or 3490E tape drive, the mount will be
rejected. The IBM 3590 tape drive recognizes a standard IBM 3490E
cartridge CST or an ECCST by the absence of the inserts as described above
and rejects the mount.
The casing has been modified so that an operator can easily grasp a
cartridge in the new cartridge magazine (see Section 3.4, “ACF Magazine”
on page 46 for details on the new cartridge magazine). A large indentation
between the blue inserts on the lower surface allows more space for the
fingers to grip the cartridge, and a serrated surface at each side toward the
back of the cartridge allows for secure handling if the cartridge is held in the
other orientation.
•
Media type indicator ″J″
The new cartridges have a media type identifier, J , on the tape barcode
label. The IBM Library Manager software uses this information to manage
the different types of media in the library.
The designated character for the standard cartridge tape media type is 1,
and that for the ECCST is an E.
The IBM 3495 and the IBM 3494 will attempt to read the media type identifier
to identify a type of cartridge. For compatibility with the current IBM 3495
implementation, if the IBM 3590 does not detect a media type barcode label,
it attempts to determine whether the cartridge is either a CST or ECCST by
means of the two-tone casing of the latter.
•
Metal particle medium
A new metal particle medium is used in the IBM 3590 High Performance
Tape Cartridge. The new medium has a much higher coercivity, which is
required to support a high aerial density, and hence gives the ability to write
a large a number of tracks. See Section 1.6, “Metal Particle Medium” on
page 13 for more details about this medium.
The cartridge medium for the drives is manufactured to IBM specifications by
3M Corporation, which also produces magnetic media for IBM′s current
halfinch tape cartridge. The cartridge with the new medium, is the result of
Chapter 2. IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware Description
37
a codevelopment effort of IBM and 3M Corporation and incorporates the new
particle tape formulated for higher capacity, performance, and reliability.
•
Servo tracks
Each IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge has prerecorded servo
tracks. The servo tracks on the tape cartridge are recorded at the time of
manufacture. These tracks enable the IBM 3590 tape drive to position the
read/write head accurately with respect to the media while the tape is in
motion. If these servo tracks are damaged or removed, the cartridge cannot
be written to until the servo tracks are restored. Degaussing an IBM 3590
cartridge requires use of a special metal particle degausser. After the tape
has been degaussed, it should be returned to the manufacturer for
reformatting of the servo tracks.
38
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
This chapter describes the IBM 3590 ACF. It is similar to the IBM 3480 ACL and
IBM 3490 integrated cartridge loader (ICL).
|
The ACF has five modes of operation. This chapter describes the function and
use of each mode.
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
39
Figure 21. Automatic Cartridge Facility
3.1 Automatic Cartridge Facility
The IBM 3590 ACF is designed to provide new functions while offering the same
operational capabilities as the IBM 3490 ICL. It is a significantly different design;
however, operators familiar with the IBM 3490 ICL will be able to quickly adapt to
the new ACF.
3.1.1 Operator Panel
Mounted on the ACF housing is a liquid crystal display (LCD) panel and controls,
which the operator can tilt for the optimum viewing angle. The display panel can
also be removed from the front by IBM customer service representatives for rear
service of the drive unit.
3.1.2 Priority Cell
In addition to the ten cartridge positions (cells), there is an eleventh slot known
as the priority cell directly in front of the drive, at the top of the ACF. Specific
mounts can be inserted in this slot without affecting the cartridges in the ACF
magazine.
40
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
3.1.3 Ten-slot Magazine
The ACF has been expanded to hold up to ten cartridges. The cartridges are
loaded into a convenient magazine, which is inserted into the cartridge loader as
shown in Figure 21. A cartridge magazine is required to use the ACF.
3.1.4 Status Lights
Each of the ten magazine cells and the priority cell is equipped with a bicolored
LED (yellow and green) cell status indicator. The operator can thus determine
some machine conditions from some distance away before checking the
operator panel for check codes and text messages.
One or more flashing yellow cell indicator lights signify attention conditions,
indicating that a device cannot continue to function without operator intervention.
Various positions and numbers of lights are associated with different types of
attention conditions. For example, if 1 of the 11 cell lights is flashing, it can
indicate a cell conflict—that is, a cartridge cannot be unloaded to its assigned
cell because the sensors indicate that the cell is already occupied. If the priority
cell light is flashing, it may indicate an unfulfilled mount request. If all cell lights
are flashing, there may be a cartridge jam in either the ACF (10 lights flash) or
the drive (all 11 lights flash).
Alert conditions are a somewhat lower priority and are indicated by steady-state
yellow lights. These lights indicate that a condition exists that does not
immediately preclude the use of the drive. For example, if the priority cell
indicator is steady yellow, a cartridge may need to be removed from the priority
cell. If all ten magazine lights are lit steady yellow, the magazine is either not
installed or it is empty, or it is full of used cartridges that need to be removed or
replaced. The green lights indicate that there is some activity with the cartridge
that normally resides in that cell. If a cartridge is placed in such a cell, a cell
conflict condition will ultimately result.
3.1.5 Transport Mechanism
Transport mechanisms within the ACF move the cartridges between drive,
magazine, and the priority cell.
When a mount is requested, the cartridge is moved (imported) from the
magazine into the ACF where it is elevated to the mouth of the drive and then
mounted. The elevation of a cartridge from the lowest position in the magazine
to the drive takes approximately 2 seconds. When the tape is unloaded and
demounted, the elevator returns (exports) the cartridge to the same slot in the
magazine.
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
41
Figure 22. IBM 3590 Operator Panel
3.2 IBM 3590 Operator Panel
The IBM 3590 operator panel displays menus, device status, activities, error
conditions, and messages. It is typically plugged into a socket located on the
front of the drive, or on the ACF if installed. For rear service environments, the
operator panel can be removed from the front and plugged in the back so that a
hardware service representative working at the rear of the device can easily
view it.
The operator panel has five switches that are used to select functions located on
the panel mounting socket. Two of the switches are for IBM service
representative personnel use, and these are hidden from view and protected
from operator access when in normal operation:
•
Reset switch (hidden)
This button is marked with a vertical bar and in normal operation is hidden
from view. It is enabled at all times and, when pressed, causes a device
power-on reset.
•
Mode switch (hidden)
This button is marked with a symbol of a wrench and in normal operation is
hidden from view. It is a toggle switch that selects either CE mode or normal
mode. The CE mode enables special menus for service activities not
available in normal mode. CE mode can be selected at any time, but it will
not become active until the device completes the current processes. Normal
42
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
mode can be selected at any time. The layout of the display is shown in the
diagram.
•
Menu control switches (in view)
The three menu control switches are used to select and control the choices
currently displayed on the panel. The two switches marked with up and
down arrows move the cursor up and down the menu items; the third switch,
marked with a return key symbol, is used to enter the selection.
There is one power on and off switch for each IBM 3590. It is located at the back
of the device and controls the distribution of AC power to the device.
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
43
Figure 23. IBM 3590 Operator Panel Screens
3.3 IBM 3590 Operator Panel Screens
Two screens are displayed on the IBM 3590 Operator Panel: the Option/Status
Screen and the Intervention Screen. The Option/Status Screen is the default
screen. It consists of a menu area and a status area.
•
Menu area lists various control functions
Note: For the IBM 3590, UNLOAD is a menu selection. When you select the
UNLOAD option, a loaded cartridge is rewound and unloaded from the
device. The device does not accept any motion commands after UNLOAD
has been selected. If the device has data in the buffers, it will synchronize
the data before rewinding. If it is unable to synchronize the buffers, an
appropriate error will be presented to the host. The device will be in Not
Ready status immediately after UNLOAD is selected.
•
44
Status area shows:
−
ACF mode status (SYSTEM in the example)
−
Offline mode status (the device is not offline in the example)
−
Current device activity (READING in the example; other possibilities are
cleaning, ready, unloading, rewinding, writing, ACF disabled, and so on)
−
Supplemental messages (none in the example)
−
The tape position indicator, which provides the operator with a graphical
representation of the position of the device relative to the beginning and
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
end-of-volume (if processing) or the beginning and end of the medium (if
rewinding).
−
Status icons (show the direction of movement of the tape in the
example).
The Intervention Screen overlays the default screen when human intervention is
required. It consists of a single eight-character intervention message displayed
in large font, a prompt indicating that the options menu can be accessed by
pressing Enter, device status information, and a two-line message area (in
standard font).
There are five types of messages:
•
Routine messages that is, messages received from the host (for example,
mount and demount messages) and the CLEAN message. In general, routine
messages are intended to refer to the priority cell.
•
Check messages, which indicate error conditions that customer personnel
may be able to resolve.
•
FID (field replaceable unit (FRU) identification) messages of varying degrees
of severity
An FID 1 message is generated when a hardware failure has occurred. The
message numbers should be reported to the service representative when a
repair call is made. A corresponding service information message (SIM) will
be sent to the host operating system.
An FID 2 message indicates that the drive is in a degraded state but can still
be used.
An FID 3 message indicates that some service circuitry has failed.
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
45
| Figure 24. ACF Magazine
3.4 ACF Magazine
The cartridge magazine slots into the ACF. It may be loaded with up to ten
cartridges and transported using the carrying handle.
3.4.1 Export Position
When a cartridge is returned to its cell after it has been processed, it is pushed
out of the cell slightly (about 16 mm) to facilitate cartridge removal. An operator
can easily see which cartridges have been processed and may be removed or
replaced.
Note: when in random mode the ACF operates slightly differently (see Section
3.10, “ACF Random Mode” on page 59).
3.4.2 Import Position
|
|
|
When the operator inserts a new cartridge into the ACF magazine, the cartridge
is in the import position; the outside edge of the cartridge appears flush with the
edge of the magazine.
46
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
3.4.3 Magazine Locking
To ensure the physical security of the cartridges during handling as well as data
security, two locking mechanisms hold the cartridges in the magazine:
•
Latch lock
A detent mechanism is designed into the magazine such that when the
magazine is removed from the ACF, each cartridge is held in whatever
position (import or export) it happens to be in at the time of removal. 4 With
the magazine in the device, the detent mechanism can be released by the
device, one cartridge at a time. The operator can freely remove or install
cartridges at any time (unless the magazine is locked).
•
Locking bar
A physical transport lock at the side of the magazine can be used to prevent
the removal or insertion of cartridges by the operator until the whole
magazine is removed and unlocked. This lock has a two-position latch
mechanism:
4
−
Normal position - where the locking bar is opened. Even in this position
the cartridges (whether in import or export position) are prevented from
falling out of the magazine while the magazine is being transported.
However, the operator can easily remove and replace cartridges while
the lock is in the normal position, for example, in automatic or system
ACF modes.
−
Locked position - where the locking bar is closed and locked in position.
The operator cannot remove (or install) cartridges from the operator
access side of the magazine. When the magazine is installed in the ACF,
the operator cannot access the machine side of the magazine, nor can
he or she access or change the position of the magazine lock without
first removing the magazine from the ACF. (When the ACF magazine is
thus removed, the host program or application is alerted.) A sensor in
the device determines whether the latch is in the locked position.
A detent is a hinged or pivoted device that fits into a notch of another machine part to drive it forward or prevent backward
motion.
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
47
| Figure 25. ACF Modes of Operation
3.5 ACF Modes of Operation
|
|
|
The ACF has five modes of operation: manual, accumulate, automatic, system,
and random. Manual, automatic, and system modes are the same as the IBM
3490 ACL modes. Accumulate and random modes are new modes.
The operator can set the ACF mode (with the exception of library mode) or
switch between modes; the physical switch on the drive has been replaced with
an electronic switch that is accessed using the operator panel (see Section 3.2,
“IBM 3590 Operator Panel” on page 42 for further details about the operator
panel).
All ACF modes are hardware settings that determine how the ACF reacts to
system requests.
The different modes are explained briefly below and in more detail in Sections
3.6, “ACF Manual Mode” on page 51 through Section3.10, “ACF Random Mode”
on page 59 .
|
|
•
Manual
Manual mode allows either operator mounting of individual cartridges or
operator-initiated mounting of a premounted cartridge. Manual mode may
be set either by the operator, using the operator panel, or automatically
when the magazine is full.
•
48
Accumulate
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Accumulate mode is similar to manual mode. The operator inserts individual
cartridges into the priority cell, but the cartridge is not returned to the
priority cell from which it was mounted. Instead, a processed cartridge is
returned to the next available cell in the magazine. This mode facilitates the
removal of cartridges by the operator.
•
Automatic
In automatic mode cartridge loading is under the control of the ACF. The
cartridges are accessed sequentially; the next unused cartridge is imported
directly into the drive. Once the tape has finished processing, it is exported
to its cell, and the next cartridge is imported to the drive. The cartridges are
loaded even if a system mount is not issued.
If and when a nonspecific private volume (scratch) request is allocated to a
drive in automatic mode, the premounted cartridge is used, whether or not it
is an eligible scratch volume. (Note that in most installations some form of
tape management system, such as DFSMSrmm, is used to protect against
the use of ineligible volumes.)
If and when a specific volume request is allocated to a drive in automatic
mode, and the volume is not premounted in the drive or in the magazine
cells, each volume is imported and exported in turn, as the system searches
for the specified volume.
•
System
System is the recommended (and the default) mode for MVS operations.
In system mode the automatic mounting of cartridges is under the indirect
control of the host programming software; that is, the program specifies that
a cartridge is to be loaded if possible, but it cannot specify from which cell
the cartridge is to be obtained.
|
Requests for automatic scratch mounts and manual specific mounts can be
intermixed. If and when a nonspecific private volume (scratch) mount is
requested, the next sequential volume from the magazine cells will be
mounted; the volumes are not premounted in the drive. If and when a
specific volume mount is requested, the volume is mounted by the operator
using the priority cell.
•
Random
In random mode the host programming software controls the ACF directly.
The host software can move cartridges from the priority cell to any empty
magazine cell or to the drive, and it can move any cartridge in the magazine
or the drive to the priority cell.
The host software must use the SCSI Medium Mover commands or S/370
Stage channel command word (CCW) to select a cartridge from a given cell
and move it to its destination cell. Control of the source and destination cell
is left entirely to the host software.
In random mode the cartridges are locked in the magazine in the import
position. The operator can insert specific mounts into the priority cell, which
is addressed by the host software just like any other cell. In other words,
when in random mode this cell has no inherent priority; it is used as an
input/output cell for the magazine.
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
49
Note: This hardware capability is driven by the operating software, which
must be capable of sending suitable commands to the subsystem. Magazine
inventory and control are entirely the responsibility of the host software .
The ACF hardware has no means of reading an external cartridge label to
identify a tape to be mounted, nor does the tape subsystem microcode
“remember” which tapes are present in the ACF in any way.
With BRMS/400, ADSM for OS/400, ADSM for AIX, and ADSM for
SunOS/Solaris, users have the option of using random mode. With
DFSMS/MVS, users can write their own code to use randome mode, but
DFSMS/MVS itself does not use random mode.
50
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 26. ACF Manual Mode
3.6 ACF Manual Mode
Manual mode allows the operator to load cartridges directly Figure 26. Once
manual mode has been set (for example, from the operating panel), it can be
enabled by selecting Start ACF on the operator′s panel (see Figure 23 on
page 44) or inserting a cartridge into the import position of the priority cell.
Once the single cartridge has finished processing, the mode will become
disabled until the operator loads the next cartridge.
3.6.1 Operational Flow
Figure 26 shows the two ways in which an operator can mount a volume in
manual mode:
1. If the operator selects Start ACF on the operator′ s panel, the ACF will
become enabled and will verify that there is at least one cartridge in the
import position of the magazine. If so, the ACF will index down the magazine
until it finds the first cell with a cartridge in the import position (VOL001 in
the diagram). The ACF will set the status indicator light for that cell to “in
use” (which is a steady green light) and move the cartridge from the cell to
the drive.
2. If the operator inserts a cartridge in the priority cell (VOL002 in the diagram),
the ACF will load the cartridge into the drive and set the status indicator light
for the priority cell to “in use” (steady green light).
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
51
3. If a cartridge is placed in the priority cell while the ACF is enabled (for
example, processing a cartridge from a cell in the magazine), the ACF will
activate the status indicator light for the priority cell to “in use” and, when
the ACF has completed its current operation, it will automatically load the
cartridge from the priority cell. Preloading the priority cell in this way may
result in a cell conflict condition as described below.
4. When a cartridge that was loaded while in manual mode is unloaded, if
possible, it is returned to its original cell, and the “in use” indicator light is
turned off; the cartridge will be in the export position. If the original cell is
occupied, the ACF will turn off the “in use” light, put the cartridge in the
priority cell, and set the priority cell status light to “alert” (which is a steady
yellow light). If the priority cell is already occupied, the priority cell status
indicator is set to “attention” (which is a flashing yellow light) to indicate a
cell conflict condition. The ACF will become disabled, and an intervention
message will be posted.
3.6.2 Disabling Conditions
The ACF will become disabled in manual mode when:
52
•
The magazine cartridge has been processed and returned to its original cell
and there is no cartridge in the import position of the priority cell.
•
The ACF is enabled by the operator by selecting Start ACF, but the ACF
cannot detect a cartridge in the import position in the magazine.
•
There is an “extra cartridge” condition or some similar condition that
requires operator attention.
•
Start ACF is entered on the operator panel, and the ACF cannot detect the
presence of the magazine.
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 27. ACF Accumulate Mode
3.7 ACF Accumulate Mode
Accumulate mode Figure 27 works similarly to manual mode. The cartridges
are not returned to their original cell after processing, however. They are
always exported to a cell in the magazine and always imported from the priority
cell. Although not a requirement, it is recommended that initially the magazine
should be empty.
Once accumulate mode has been set (for example, from the operator panel), it
can be enabled by selecting Start ACF on the operator′s panel or inserting a
cartridge into the import position of the priority cell
Once the magazine and priority cell are full of exported cartridges, the ACF will
become disabled until the operator empties the magazine and re-enables the
ACF.
3.7.1 Operational Flow
Figure 27 shows the two ways in which an operator can mount volumes in
accumulate mode:
1. If the ACF is disabled and in accumulate mode, and the operator enters Start
ACF on the operator panel, the ACF will become enabled and will wait until a
cartridge is inserted in the import position of the priority cell.
2. When a cartridge is inserted into the priority cell, the priority cell status
indicator light will change to “in use.”
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
53
3. As soon as the drive is available, the cartridge will be loaded (VOL000 in the
diagram), and the status indicator light will be turned off. The cartridge will
not be returned to the priority cell, and the priority cell is now ready to
accept another cartridge (VOL001 in the diagram). When in accumulate
mode, all magazine cell status lights are set to “in use” to remind the
operator that the entire magazine is reserved to accumulate processed
cartridges and that he or she should insert cartridges only in the priority cell.
4. When a cartridge is unloaded from the drive, it is moved to the magazine.
The ACF places the cartridge in the top cell of the magazine unless that cell
is occupied, in which case the ACF searches down the magazine for the next
available cell. Each cartridge is placed in the export position.
5. When the magazine has its last available cell filled, all cell magazine status
indicator lights are set to “alert” (the steady yellow light) to warn the
operator to unload the magazine. When the next cartridge is unloaded it is
placed in the priority cell, if possible, and the priority cell indicator is also set
to “alert.”
3.7.2 Disabling Conditions
The ACF will become disabled in accumulate mode when:
54
•
The magazine has been filled and the last imported cartridge returned to the
priority cell
•
There is an “extra cartridge” condition or some similar condition that
requires operator attention.
•
Start ACF is entered on operator panel, and the ACF cannot detect the
presence of the magazine.
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 28. ACF Automatic Mode
3.8 ACF Automatic Mode
Automatic mode Figure 28 allows the operator to keep the drive continually fed
with cartridges from the magazine. After the ACF is enabled, it automatically
feeds cartridges to the device until all of the cartridges in the magazine have
been processed. Processed cartridges are returned to their originating cell in
the export position and can be removed from the magazine (and unprocessed
cartridges can be added) without disturbing the ACF; the ACF will find each
unprocessed cartridge in turn.
The operator can supply specific cartridges for an application by simply inserting
the cartridge into the priority cell. When a specific mount is requested and a
scratch cartridge is already mounted, it will be identified as the incorrect volume
serial and “flushed” from the drive; the cartridge in the priority cell will
automatically be the next one to be loaded into the drive. When the specific
cartridge has been processed, the ACF automatically resumes processing
cartridges from the magazine.
Once automatic mode has been set (for example, from the operator panel), it can
be enabled by selecting Start ACF on the operator′s panel or inserting a
cartridge into the import position of the priority cell.
Automatic mode is usually enabled through the operator panel. The ACF then
loads the first cartridge directly to the device before receiving a mount request
from the initiator. Although not a requirement, the magazine would normally be
full when the mode is first enabled.
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
55
If the magazine and priority cell are allowed to become full of exported
cartridges, the ACF will become disabled until the operator empties the
magazine and re-enables the ACF.
3.8.1 Operational Flow
Figure 28 on page 55 shows how the operator enables the ACF and how the
ACF progressively processes each volume in turn from the magazine:
1. If the operator selects Start ACF on the operator′ s panel, the ACF will
become enabled and will verify that there is at least one cartridge in the
import position of the magazine. If so, the ACF will index down the
magazine until it finds the first cell with a cartridge in the import position (a
scratch cartridge in the diagram). The ACF will set the status indicator light
for that cell to “in use” (which is a steady green light) and move the
cartridge from the cell to the drive.
2. If the operator inserts a cartridge in the priority cell (VOL000 in the diagram),
the ACF will be enabled and load the cartridge into the drive and set the
status indicator light for the priority cell to “in use.”
3. If a cartridge is placed in the priority cell while the ACF is enabled, the ACF
will activate the status indicator light for the priority cell to “in use,” and
when the ACF has completed its current operation, the ACF will
automatically load the cartridge from the priority cell.
4. When a cartridge that was loaded while in automatic mode is unloaded, if
possible, it is returned to its original cell, and the “in use” indicator light is
turned off. The cartridge will be in the export position. The ACF then
searches the magazine for the next cell in the import position and loads it to
the device. This process is repeated until the ACF cannot find another
loadable cartridge. At the end of the process shown in the diagram, the
operator has removed the first two processed scratch volumes and replaced
them with the new volumes, NEWSC1 and NEWSC2, in the import position.
The other scratch volumes have been processed and are in the export
position (they are now private volumes).
3.8.2 Disabling Conditions
The ACF will become disabled in automatic mode when:
56
•
A cartridge has been processed and returned to its original cell and there is
no cartridge in the import position in the magazine or the priority cell.
•
The ACF is enabled by the operator selecting Start ACF, but the ACF cannot
detect a cartridge in the import position in the magazine or the priority cell.
•
There is an “extra cartridge” condition or some similar condition that
requires operator attention.
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 29. ACF System Mode
3.9 ACF System Mode
System mode Figure 29 also allows the operator to keep the drive continually
fed with cartridges from the magazine. After the ACF is enabled (which loads
the first cartridge), all subsequent load commands are under the control of the
host operating software. The ACF will load one cartridge in response to each
system command until all of the cartridges in the magazine have been
processed. Processed cartridges are returned to their originating cell in the
export position and can be removed from the magazine (and unprocessed
cartridges can be added) without disturbing the ACF. The ACF will find each
unprocessed cartridge in turn.
System mode does not preclude specific mount requests from the host software.
The operator can supply specific cartridges for an application by inserting the
cartridge into the priority cell. The cartridge in the priority cell will automatically
be the next one to be loaded into the drive. When the specific cartridge has
been processed, the ACF will automatically resume processing cartridges from
the magazine, when the host software requests the next load.
Once system mode has been set (for example, from the operator panel) it can be
enabled by selecting Start ACF on the operator′s panel or inserting a cartridge
into the import position of the priority cell.
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
57
3.9.1 Operational Flow
Figure 29 on page 57 shows how the operator enables the ACF and how the
ACF is ready to sequentially process the scratch cartridges from the magazine:
1. If the operator selects Start ACF on the operator′ s panel, the ACF will
become enabled and will verify that there is at least one cartridge in the
import position of the magazine. If so, the ACF will index down the
magazine until it finds the first cell with a cartridge in the import position.
The ACF will set the status indicator light for that cell to “in use” (which is a
steady green light) and move the first scratch cartridge from the cell to the
drive.
2. If the operator inserts a cartridge in the priority cell (one of the specific
mounts in the diagram), the ACF will be enabled and load the cartridge into
the drive and set the status indicator light for the priority cell to “in use.”
3. If a cartridge is placed in the priority cell while the ACF is enabled (the two
specific mounts in the diagram), the ACF will activate the status indicator
light for the priority cell to “in use.” When the ACF has completed its current
operation, it will automatically load the cartridge from the priority cell.
These specific mounts are each removed from the priority cell after they
have finished being processed.
4. When a cartridge that was loaded while in system mode is unloaded, if
possible, it is returned to its original cell, and the “in use” indicator light is
turned off; the cartridge will be in the export position. The ACF will wait, in
the enabled state, until it receives the Load Unload command, or until a
cartridge is inserted in the priority cell. In the case of the Load Unload
command, the ACF will then search the magazine for the next cell with a
cartridge in the import position and will load it into the device. This process
will be repeated until the ACF cannot find another loadable cartridge. At the
end of the process shown in the diagram, the operator has removed the
three specific mounts from the priority cell; the first six scratch cartridges
have been processed from the magazine and are in the export position
ready for the operator to replace them. The last three scratch volumes have
yet to be processed; there is no cartridge in the drive.
3.9.2 Disabling Conditions
The ACF will become disabled in system mode when:
58
•
A cartridge has been processed and returned to its original cell and there is
no cartridge in the import position in the magazine or the priority cell.
•
The ACF is enabled by the operator selecting Start ACF, but the ACF cannot
detect a cartridge in the import position in the magazine or the priority cell.
•
There is an “extra cartridge” condition or some similar condition that
requires operator attention.
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 30. ACF Random Mode
3.10 ACF Random Mode
Random mode Figure 30 is designed to allow the IBM 3590 tape drive to act as a
small, self-contained library of up to ten cartridges, controlled entirely by the
host programming software. The host software uses the S/370 Stage CCW
(channel command word) or SCSI Medium Mover commands (Prevent or Allow
Medium Removal, Read Element Status, and Move Medium) to select a cartridge
from a given cell and move it to its destination cell. Control of the source and
destination cell is left entirely to the host software. The Medium Mover
commands or Stage CCW provide the host software with information to assist in
generating and maintaining an inventory of the cartridges in the magazine and to
indicate to the operator that these cartridges may or may not be removed.
Note: BRMS/400, ADSM for OS/400, ADSM for AIX, and ADSM for SunOS/Solaris
use random mode, but DFSMS/MVS does not use random mode.
Random mode does not preclude host requests for specific mounts, which may
be inserted in the priority cell. However, in random mode, the priority cell is
simply another addressable cell; the ACF notifies the host that there is a
cartridge in the priority cell, but the host software must specifically address that
cell to access the cartridge.
Note: The physical implementation for most of the modes can be viewed as a
medium changer (the ACF), with 11 import and export cells (the magazine and
priority cell), no storage elements, and a single medium transport element and
data transfer element (the drive), which cannot be used to permanently store a
piece of medium (a cartridge). Random mode, however, can be viewed as
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
59
having one import and export cell (the priority cell), ten storage elements (the
magazine), and a single medium transport element and data transfer element
(the drive).
To ensure the integrity of the magazine, it is equipped with a lock, which
prevents the addition or removal of cartridges once it is locked and installed in
the ACF. The state of the magazine lock is sensed by the ACF, which will not
permit random mode to be enabled unless the magazine lock is set in the locked
position. A sensor allows the unit to determine that the magazine has been
removed, and if so random mode will be disabled. Because the magazine must
be locked in random mode, the priority cell is used as an input/output port for
the magazine. The host software can move cartridges from the priority cell to
any empty cell in the magazine (or to the drive).
Once random mode has been set (for example, from the operator panel), it is
enabled when the following three conditions are met:
•
A magazine is installed in the ACF.
•
The magazine lock is set in the locked state.
•
Start ACF is selected on the operator′s panel.
3.10.1 Operational Flow
Figure 30 on page 59 shows how the operator enables the ACF in random mode
by selecting Start ACF on the operator panel. The ACF then waits for commands
from the host programming software.
1. All cartridges in the magazine are locked in the import position. All of the
magazine status lights are activated to “in use” and remain so unless
random mode is disabled. The priority cell status light is activated as it is
used.
2. The host software may request any of the volumes from any cell using the
S/370 Stage CCW or SCSI Move Medium commands. The ACF will honor the
SCSI Prevent/Allow Media Removal command by not allowing the
operator-initiated export of cartridges any time the command has specified
Prevent Media Removal. The S/370 Stage CCW can accomplish the same
actions as the SCSI Medium Mover commands.
3. When a cartridge is unloaded in random mode, it may or may not be
returned to the same cell from which it was loaded. The control of the
cartridge location is entirely the concern of the host software. In the
diagram, VOL003 is processed and then returned to the priority cell for
removal by the operator (ejected from the magazine “library”).
4. Volume SPEC01 is then placed in the priority cell; the host is made aware
that there is a cartridge in the priority cell but it cannot process it
immediately. It can process cartridges (VOLnnn) from other cells followed by
SPEC01, returning all of these cartridges to their original cells. SPEC01 is
removed by the operator and replaced by SPEC00, which is processed and
then moved to a cell in the magazine.
5. Volume VOL005 is processed and then placed in the priority cell where it
remains in the export position until removed by the operator.
60
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
3.10.2 Disabling Conditions
The ACF will become disabled in random mode when:
•
The magazine is removed from the ACF.
•
There is an “extra cartridge” condition in the priority cell or some similar
condition that requires operator attention.
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
61
| Figure 31. ACF Mode Enabling and Disabling
3.11 ACF Mode Enabling and Disabling
Figure 31 summarizes the requirements for enabling each mode. The following
points cover all modes with regard to the conditions under which the ACF
becomes disabled and enabled:
62
•
If the ACF is disabled and the operator selects Start ACF from the operator
panel, but there is no magazine in the ACF or there is no cartridge in the
import position in either the magazine or the priority cell, the ACF will return
to the disabled state without changing the position of any medium. This
does not constitute an error, and an error status will not be generated.
•
If the ACF is enabled, the selection of Start ACF will be ignored.
•
If, while unloading a cartridge to the magazine, the ACF determines that the
destination cell is occupied or the magazine is not installed, it will attempt to
unload the cartridge to the priority cell. If the priority cell is occupied, the
ACF will cause a check condition and it will become disabled (an “extra
cartridge” condition). The operator must clear the destination-full condition
and select Start ACF on the operator panel to re-enable the ACF.
•
Any cartridge that is in the export position can be removed from the ACF at
any time. Empty cells that do not have their cell status lights active can be
loaded at any time. If cartridges are added to magazine cells, the operator
may need to re-enable the ACF as described previously to cause the ACF to
recognize that these cartridges have been added.
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
•
The magazine can be inserted at any time. The magazine can be removed
while the ACF is in manual mode or while all of the associated cell status
lights are inactive.
•
Although not recommended as a normal operational procedure, cartridges in
the import position can be removed from the ACF while it is active. The
magazine also can be removed from the ACF while it is active. Any
cartridge that was previously obtained from the magazine and is still in the
ACF is ultimately returned to the priority cell.
•
Generally, cartridges in the export position may be removed from the cell
without affecting the operation of the drive, provided that none of the
associated magazine status light indicators is active.
Chapter 3. IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations
63
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
This chapter provides guidance on configuring the IBM 3590 High Performance
Tape Subsystem on such IBM platforms as the ES/9000, S/390 Parallel Server,
RISC/6000, and AS/400 systems. The IBM 3494 and 3495 Automated Tape
Library Dataservers configurations and the new IBM 3494 models are also
described.
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
65
| Figure 32. IBM ES/9000 and S/390 Configurations
4.1 IBM ES/9000 and S/390 Configurations
Figure 32 shows the IBM 3590 configurations that attach to IBM ES/9000 systems
and S/390 Parallel Server systems.
4.1.1 Host Attachment
IBM ES/9000 systems and S/390 Parallel Server systems attach to the IBM 3590
configurations using only ESCON channels. Neither SCSI nor parallel channels
are supported.
•
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver with IBM 3590 drives
ES/9000 systems and S/390 Parallel Server systems attach to IBM 3590-B1A
inside an IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver using an IBM
3590-A00 control unit. A drive unit frame (Model D14) supports zero or one
IBM 3590-A00 with a minimum of zero and a maximum of four IBM
3590-B1As. The library unit frame (or control unit frame, a Model L14)
supports zero or one IBM 3590-A00 with a minimum of zero and a maximum
of two IBM 3590-B1As. Each IBM 3590-A00 (with its attached IBM 3590) is
one control unit function. One library supports up to a maximum of sixteen
control unit functions. (See Section 4.6, “IBM 3494 Configurations” on
page 78 and 4.6.5, “Mixed Configurations” on page 80.)
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•
IBM 3590-A14
The IBM 3590-A14 Model is a custom-built rack. It attaches to ES/9000
systems and S/390 Parallel Server systems using the two ESCON adapters in
66
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
the integrated IBM 3590-A00. The Model A14 can have from a minimum of
one up to a maximum of four IBM 3590-B11s included. An IBM 3590-A14
order generates the rack only; the IBM 3590-A00 and up to four IBM
3590-B11s must be ordered separately. A fully configured IBM 3590-A14 is
one complete tape subsystem.
•
IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver with IBM 3590 drives
As well as being an independent subsystem, the IBM 3590-A14 subsystem
can be incorporated into an IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver.
When part of a library, each Model A14 subsystem must be fully configured
with the maximum of four IBM 3590-B1As installed. One library supports up
to a maximum of eight 3590-A14 tape subsystems (not Virtual Tape Server).
(See Sections 4.2, “IBM 3495 Configurations” on page 69 and 4.3, “IBM 3495
Mixed Configurations” on page 71.)
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Note: The IBM 3495 Model M10 Manual Tape Library Dataserver does not
support the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem.
4.1.2 ESCON Considerations
The considerations for ESCON are as follows:
•
Supported distances
The supported distance between a subsystem control unit and a host is
limited by the communication protocols and the timing of the signals passed
between the host and control unit. The IBM 3590 Tape Control Unit is
designed to support a maximum ESCON channel distance of 60 km.
However, with the current ESCON implementations a distance of only 43 km
is possible with an ESCON extended distance facility (XDF) channel, using a
20 km single-mode link to a director; a second 20 km single-mode link to a
second director; and a final 3 km multimode LED link to the tape subsystem.
•
Logical paths
The number of logical ESCON paths that can be defined for each physical
path has been quadrupled, from 16 to 64. Thus an IBM 3590-A00 has two
ESCON physical paths to an ES/9000 or S/390 Parallel Server host, each of
which can have 64 logical paths, a total of 128 logical paths defined for the
control unit. Only two of these paths can be concurrently active. Compare
this with the IBM 3490-A20, for example, which has a maximum of eight
ESCON physical paths to an ES/9000 host or hosts, each of which can have
16 logical paths giving a total of 128 logical paths defined for the control unit.
Again, only two of these paths can be concurrently active.
Note: Do not confuse the number of logical paths supported by an ESCON
control unit with the number of paths that can be defined from a system
image to a single device. The processor complex channel subsystem (CSS)
determines the number of paths that can be defined between a system
image and a single device. The number of paths to a device depends on the
processor type and model. ES/9000 711-based processors, 520-based
processors, and 511-based processors can define up to eight physical
channel paths to a device. All other ES/9000 and ES/3090 processors can
define up to four paths to a device. This limit is enforced by the IOCP and
the hardware configuration definition (HCD).
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
67
4.1.3 Library Manager Attachments
ES/9000 or S/390 Parallel Server hosts are connected to the IBM tape libraries
by S/390 channels to the tape control units and drives. The data is passed down
the ESCON channel to or from the drive, and the Library Manager commands
are passed to the control unit, which in turn directs them to the Library Manager.
The tape control units are connected to the Library Manager inside the library
using up to eight RS-422 connections (sixteen for the IBM 3494).
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 33. IBM 3495 Configurations
4.2 IBM 3495 Configurations
The IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver Figure 33 is designed to meet
the needs of customers who want to automate a large number of cartridges.
Four models provide a range of cartridge capacities from 5660 to 18900 storage
cells:
IBM 3495-L20
5660-6440 storage cells, 4 to 16 drives
IBM 3495-L30
8460-10580 storage cells, 4 to 32 drives
IBM 3495-L40
11280-14740 storage cells, 4 to 48 drives (4 to 32 drives if all IBM
3590)
IBM 3495-L50
14100-18900 storage cells, 4 to 64 drives (4 to 32 drives if all IBM
3590).
Each library model supports an intermix of the three tape subsystems that can
be installed in an IBM 3495 library and their associated tape storage media.
All IBM 3490 Models A01, A02, and B04 and IBM 3490E models A10, A20, and B40
have a control unit (Model Axx) and a drive unit (model Bxx). Multiple B units
can be controlled by a single A unit.
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The IBM 3590 Model A14 is installed in the IBM 3495. The control function and
four drive units are packaged within the same unit and each IBM 3590-A14 must
be fully configured (that is, with the maximum of four IBM 3590-B1A drives
installed). One IBM 3590-A14 forms a complete subsystem; there is no control
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
69
unit frame, and there are no additional B units that can be attached to the IBM
3590-A14. IBM 3590-A14 subsystems cannot be coupled together.
The number of tape drives that can be installed in an IBM 3495 library is model
dependent, as shown above, but can also be limited by the number of internal
communications paths with the Library Manager. Eight total paths are available
and the different subsystems have different requirements:
•
One path for each 3490-A01 or 3490-A10
•
Two paths for each 3490-A02 or 3490-A20
•
One path for each 3590-A00.
So, for example, using only IBM 3490 subsystems, the maximum number of
drives that can be installed in an IBM 3495 library is 64, whereas using only IBM
3590 subsystems, the maximum number of drives is 32. Mixed configurations
are possible, provided that the total number of paths to the Library Manager
does not exceed eight.
The basic configuration of the IBM 3590 subsystem within the IBM 3495
Automated Tape Library Dataserver is similar to the IBM 3490E configuration.
Subsystems are installed along the front side of the library as shown in the
diagram. Note, however, that the IBM 3495 and IBM 3590 configurations are
supported only on the IBM ES/9000 and S/390 Parallel Server platforms.
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The configuration of a IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) when associated
with a IBM 3495 tape library requires two 3590 Model A14 size frames to be
installed side by side against the 3495 aisle. The Virtual Tape Server must
consist of a 3495-B16 frame and a 3590-A14 frame. The 3495-B16 frame must be
installed to the left of the 3590 frame when viewed from within the library. The
Virtual Tape Server twin frames can reside in any location that an IBM 3490-Bxx
Model could have previously. The 3495-B16 frame can also reside in the position
that 3490-Axx boxes could be previously defined. If the 3495-B16 frame is
installed alongside such a location, the adjacent 3495 wall would still have the
storage capability of an 3490-Axx position 3495 frame (220 Slots).
|
|
See Section 7.11, “IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Configuration Guidelines” on
page 173 for more detail on 3495 configuration.
70
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 34. IBM 3495 Mixed Configurations
4.3 IBM 3495 Mixed Configurations
With IBM 3490 subsystems, the right side of the control unit model, Axx, is
aligned with an IBM 3495 frame boundary. Subsequent Bxx models are attached
to the left of the Axx unit: they do not line up with the frame boundaries. The
spacing of the IBM 3495 frames and the IBM 3490 units requires that filler panels
be installed to close a gap between the left-hand edge of the last Bxx unit in a
string and the next IBM 3495 storage frame when a full string is not installed.
A rule of thumb for the placement of the IBM 3590-A14 models is this: wherever
an IBM 3490E Model Bxx can be installed today, an IBM 3590-A14 can be
installed instead. This placement rule applies whether replacing currently
installed IBM 3490 subsystems or installing new IBM 3590 subsystems and is
independent of the model of the IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver.
illustrates how a complete IBM 3490 string would be replaced by IBM 3590-A14
subsystems. The first IBM 3590-A14 replaces the IBM 3490-Bxx unit that is
farthest from the IBM 3490-Axx unit. Subsequent IBM 3590-A14 models are to be
installed adjacent to existing IBM 3590s. When the fourth IBM 3590-A14 replaces
the final IBM 3490 in the string, the IBM 3490 Model Axx control unit is removed,
and a filler panel must be installed.
Note: Inside the library,in front of the IBM 3490-Axx unit, a special storage rack
is installed. This is not replaced when the IBM 3490-Axx unit is removed, but the
gap left between this special A unit wall and edge of the next IBM 3590-A14 is
filled with the blank panel.
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
71
When adding a completely new IBM 3590 string, the first IBM 3590-A14 unit is
installed in the position where the IBM 3490-Bxx closest to the IBM 3490-Axx unit
would normally be positioned, with a filler panel to close the gap to the adjacent
IBM 3495 frame. Additional IBM 3590-A14 units are installed adjacent to (and to
the left of) the previously installed unit.
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When installing an IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) into a 3495 the IBM
3495-B16 frame and its associated IBM 3590-A14 frame must be installed
adjacent to each other. If these are installed in addition to an existingIBM 3490
subsystem, at least two IBM 3490-Bxx boxes must be replaced by these two VTS
frames. If the VTS frames are to be the only subsystem associated with the IBM
3495 tape library, or installed with some non-VTS IBM 3590 drives, the IBM
3590-B16 frame can be installed in the location normally occupied by the IBM
3490-Axx unit. This then allows 220 tapes to be stored in the wall adjacent to the
IBM 3495-B16. (260 - 40, Axx frame cut-out = 40 cells). The original 3495 Axx
wall is left in place for convenience.
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If a VTS is to be installed on an IBM 3495 in a location where a 3490 string had
not previously been, the original 3495 wall can remain. The IBM 3495-B16 can
be placed along the outside of this wall containing the full 260 cell locations.
As stated previously, up a maximum of eight IBM 3590-A14s can be added to the
IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver. However, in a mixed
configuration of IBM 3490 and IBM 3590 subsystems, the total number of tape
subsystems (or control unit functions) must not exceed eight; that is, the total
number of IBM 3590-A14s together with any IBM 3490-Axx Models must not
exceed eight because the number of RS-422 connections to the Library Manager
within the library is currently limited to eight.
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When a Virtual Tape Server subsystem is associated with an IBM 3495 tape
library, the General Availability release of this subsystem consumes none of the
eight IBM 3495 tape library RS-422 RTIC ports. No ports are required for the
Virtual Tape Server controller or the four Virtual Tape Server IBM 3590 Model
B1A tape drives. This is a different attachment methodology to the IBM 3494,
which consumes some of the Library Manager RS-422 and RS-232 ports for VTS
connection. The General Availability release of the Virtual Tape Server
subsystem will uses a dedicated LAN connection to provide the communication
path between the Virtual Tape Server subsystem and its associated IBM 3495
Library Manager freeing up the RS-422 RTIC ports. This allows some of the
larger IBM 3495 Tape Librarys to have multiple IBM Tape Subsystem
configurations in addition to a Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
72
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 35. IBM AS/400 Configurations
4.4 IBM AS/400 Configurations
Figure 35 shows the IBM 3590 configurations that attach to IBM AS/400 systems.
4.4.1 Host Attachment
IBM AS/400 systems attach to the IBM 3590 configurations using only SCSI
channels; neither ESCON nor parallel channels are supported:
•
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver with IBM 3590 drives
AS/400 systems attach directly to an IBM 3590-B1A inside an IBM 3494
Automated Tape Library Dataserver using one or both of two SCSI adapters.
An IBM 3494 drive unit frame (a Model D12) supports a minimum of zero and
a maximum of six IBM 3590-B1As. The library unit frame (or control unit
frame, a Model L12), supports a minimum of zero and a maximum of two
IBM 3590-B1As. Each IBM 3590-B1A is one control unit function. One library
supports up to a maximum of sixteen control unit functions. (See Section 4.6,
“IBM 3494 Configurations” on page 78 and 4.6.5, “Mixed Configurations” on
page 80.)
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•
IBM 3590-B11 in a standard IBM 9309 rack
The AS/400 attaches to the IBM 3590-B11, up to four of which can be
installed in a standard IBM 9309 rack. A single IBM 3590-B11 is one
complete tape subsystem, with a single tape drive.
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
73
4.4.2 SCSI Considerations
The AS/400 Tape/Disk Device Controller (Feature 6501) is required for attaching
the IBM 3590 Model B11 or B1A. Each 6501 Feature provides two ports. Each
port can support only one IBM 3590 Model B11 or B1A for a maximum of two
IBM 3590 tape drives for each Feature 6501. Two AS/400 systems can connect to
an IBM 3590 tape drive, but they must be connected through different SCSIs.
Tape and DASD cannot be attached to the same Feature 6501.
The maximum SCSI channel distance supported is 25 m. This is a standard SCSI
limitation rather than a limitation of the IBM 3590. Currently SCSI channel
extender hardware is not available. This may be an issue where IBM 3590
subsystems are to replace current parallel attached IBM 3490E subsystems,
which are supported at a maximum distance of 100 m.
Although the IBM 3590 tape drives and 6501 Feature on the AS/400 system have
both Fast and Wide SCSI interfaces, an interposer is needed to connect the cable
correctly. The interposer needed for connection to the AS/400 can be ordered as
Feature 9410 on the IBM 3590 tape drives. See the IBM 3590 High Performance
Tape Subsystem Introduction and Planning Guide , GA32-0329, for cable planning
information.
4.4.3 Library Manager Attachments
AS/400 hosts attach to the IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver using
SCSI channels (to support IBM 3590 models) or parallel channels (to support IBM
3490-CxA models). The data and some commands (such as rewind) are passed
down the SCSI channel to or from the drive, but the Library Manager commands
are not passed down. Each AS/400 using the library must be attached to the
Library Manager using a separate RS-232 or LAN (Token-Ring or Ethernet)
interface in order to send the Library Manager commands. The number of
RS-232 connections is limited to eight. the RS-232 cable length is a standard 50
ft (about 15 m). A 400 ft (about 123 m) cable is also available.
Note: The IBM 3590 drives are connected to the Library Manager using the
RS-422 interfaces inside the library, in addition to the separate host connection
to the Library Manager using the external RS-232 or LAN connections.
4.4.4 Special Features
The IBM 3590 can be attached to all Dxx (and subsequent) models of the AS/400
except Models X02 and P03.
The IBM 3590-B11 requires the IBM 9309 rack enclosure model 2 or space in an
already installed rack.
74
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 36. IBM RISC/6000 Configurations
4.5 IBM RISC/6000 Configurations
Figure 36 shows the IBM 3590 configurations that attach to IBM RISC/6000 and
POWERparallel SP2 systems.
4.5.1 Host Attachment
IBM RISC/6000 systems attach to the IBM 3590 configurations using only SCSI
channels: neither ESCON nor parallel channels are supported.
•
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver with IBM 3590 drives
RISC/6000 systems attach directly to the IBM 3590-B1A within an IBM 3494
Automated Tape Library Dataserver using one or both of two SCSI adapters.
An IBM 3494 drive unit frame (a Model D12) supports a minimum of zero and
a maximum of six IBM 3590-B1As. The library unit frame (or control unit
frame, a Model L12) supports a minimum of zero and a maximum of two IBM
3590-B1As. Each IBM 3590-B1A is one control unit function. One library
supports up to a maximum of sixteen control unit functions. (See Section 4.6,
“IBM 3494 Configurations” on page 78 and Section 4.6.5, “Mixed
Configurations” on page 80.)
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The IBM 3590-B11 in a standard IBM 7202 or IBM 9309 rack
The RISC/6000 attaches to the IBM 3590-B11, up to four of which can be
installed in an IBM 7202, IBM 9309, or industry standard EIA rack. A single
IBM 3590-B11 is one complete tape subsystem, with a single tape drive.
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
75
4.5.2 SCSI Considerations
The maximum SCSI channel distance supported is 25 m. This is a standard SCSI
limitation rather than a limitation of the IBM 3590. But if you use the SCSI-2
Differential High-Performance External I/O Controller (Feature 2420), the
maximum total cable length is limited to 19 m. Currently SCSI channel extender
hardware is not available.
The IBM 3590 SCSI differential interface is a 2-byte-wide SCSI Fast and Wide
interface. When attaching to a 1-byte SCSI interface such as Feature 2420, a
1-byte to 2-byte interposer is required. The interposer can be ordered as
Feature 9701 on the IBM 3590. For attachment to the SCSI-2 Differential
Fast/Wide Adapter/A (Feature 2416), a 2-byte wide interposer is needed. It can
be ordered as Feature 9702 on the IBM 3590. The IBM 3590 tape drive must be
located at the end of the bus when attached to a 1-byte SCSI interface. If
multiple tape drives are attached to a RISC/6000 bus, only one of them must be
at the end of the bus. See the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
Introduction and Planning Guide , GA32-0329, for proper cabling.
The SCSI interface supports a maximum 2 MB block size.
Although multiple host systems can be attached to an IBM 3590 tape drive, the
host system cannot use the tape drive simultaneously. The IBM 3590 tape drive
can be varied online to only one host system at a time.
4.5.3 Library Manager Attachments
RISC/6000 hosts attach to the IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
using SCSI channels (to support IBM 3590 or IBM 3490-CxA SCSI Models) or
ESCON or parallel channels (to support IBM 3490-CxA ESCON or parallel
models).
The data and some commands (such as rewind) are passed down the SCSI
channel to or from the drive, but the Library Manager commands are not passed
down. Each RISC/6000 using the library must be attached to the Library
Manager using a separate RS-232 or LAN (Token-Ring or Ethernet) interface in
order to send the Library Manager commands. The number of RS-232
connections is limited to eight. The RS-232 cable length is a standard 50 ft
(about 15 m). A 400 ft (about 123 m) cable is also available.
Note: The IBM 3590 drives are connected to the Library Manager using the
RS-422 interfaces inside the library, in addition to the separate host connection
to the Library Manager using the external RS-232 or LAN connections.
4.5.4 Special Features
For SCSI attachment to devices the RISC/6000 host requires either Feature 2416
or 2420. The IBM 3590 is supported on all models of the RISC/6000 that support
these features.
Feature 2416 is the IBM SCSI-2 Differential Fast/Wide Adapter/A. This is the
recommended feature for taking advantage of the faster data rate of the IBM
3590. It is a dual-ported fast (10 MHz) and wide (2 bytes) SCSI Micro Channel
Adapter that can provide synchronous SCSI bus data rates of up to 20 MB/s.
Feature 2420 is the SCSI-2 Differential High Performance External I/O Controller,
which provides attachment of external SCSI-2 differential devices. It supports a
data rate of up to a 10 MB/s.
76
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
The IBM 3590-B11 requires the IBM 7202, IBM 9309 rack or space in an already
installed rack.
4.5.5 POWERparallel SP2
The above details also apply to the POWERparallel SP2 systems.
4.5.6 Sun Systems
The IBM 3590 is supported on all workstations that support a SCSI Differential
Ended Adapter. The IBM 3590-B11 requires the IBM 9309, 7202, or 7015-R00 rack
or space in an already installed rack.
Note: The maximum block size for Sun systems is 256 KB. This is a limitation
of the Sun SCSI Differential Ended Adapter card.
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
77
| Figure 37. IBM 3494 Configurations
|
4.6 IBM 3494 Configurations
|
|
|
|
|
|
The IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver is designed for customers
whose cartridge storage capacity needs are between 210 and 6210 cartridges. A
given configuration consists of one to sixteen frames. One control unit frame
and any combination of storage and drive unit frames for the first eight frames,
then set configuration apply for the last expansion of eight frames. The last
eight frame must be added as groups of four. Each group of four is a set
configuration of two drive frames then two storage frames.
|
|
|
A variety of frame types is available to customize the library capabilities. Four
basic models of the IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver combine to
make up the library:
|
|
•
Control-unit frame (also referred to as the library unit ), which contains one
3490E-C1A or C2A, or one or two IBM 3590-B1A tape drives.
|
•
Zero to fifteen optional storage-unit frames
|
|
•
Zero to fifteen optional drive-unit frames, which can each contain one IBM
3490E-C1A or C2A, or up to six IBM 3590-B1A drives.
|
|
•
IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server subsystem, which consist of one IBM
3494-B16 and one IBM 3494-D12.
|
|
The IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver supports a maximum of
sixteen tape control unit connections; each IBM 3590-B1A (when attached without
78
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
an IBM 3590-A00), each IBM 3590-A00 (with any number of IBM 3590-B1As
attached), and each IBM 3490-C1A or C2A utilizes one control unit connection.
Thus the maximum number of tape drives supported in a single library depends
on the mixture of tape drive models installed.
4.6.1 IBM 3494 Model L10 (Parallel, ESCON, and SCSI)
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
The original model of the IBM 3494 library is the L10. The library and drive units
house one or other of the IBM 3490E-CxA models, containing one or two drives
and a single integrated control unit. It is not possible to exceed sixteen control
unit connections in a single library, this is the maximum number of Library
Manager RS-422 control unit ports available. It is possible in some potential
configurations to over define and exceed the sixteen control unit connections in
a single library. This is because there can be eleven drive frames in the library,
and each drive frame could contain up to six control unit functions (D12). Great
care has to be taken when planning the structure of an IBM 3494 tape library.
An IBM 3490-CxA can be attached to host systems using any combination of two
out of ESCON, parallel, or SCSI adapters. However, note that any single host
system can be attached to only a single control unit using one type of adapter.
4.6.2 IBM 3494 Model L12 (SCSI Only)
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
The first new model of the IBM 3494 library is the L12, the library control unit
frame. This library control unit frame houses a maximum of two SCSI-attached
IBM 3590-B1A drives. Each SCSI-attached IBM 3590-B1A drive houses its own
integrated control unit function, and consumes one of the sixteen possible 3494
control unit connections. An IBM 3494-L12 has only fourteen available control
unit connections available for additional IBM 3494-Dxx and IBM 3494-B16 (VTS)
frames.
Each IBM 3590-B1A can be attached to host systems using one or two SCSI
adapters. The IBM 3590-B1A does not support any other host interface.
4.6.3 IBM 3494 Model L14 (ESCON Only)
|
|
|
|
The second new model of the IBM 3494 library is the L14. The library control
unit frame houses a maximum of two IBM 3590-B1A drives, which are controlled
by an IBM 3590-A00, and the drive unit frame houses a maximum of four IBM
3590-B1A drives, which are controlled by an IBM 3590-B1A. With the IBM
3590-A00 installed each library or drive unit uses only one control unit
attachment. Thus with one library unit and eleven ESCON (IBM 3494-D14) drive
units (housing a total of 46 drives) the installed tape drives are at the maximum
number.
|
|
|
Note: An IBM 3494-D14 frame with its IBM 3590-A00 control unit can house only
four IBM 3590-B1A drives. (See Section 4.7.2, “Drive Unit Frame Models”
on page 83.)
Each IBM 3590-A00 is attached to host systems using the two ESCON adapters.
The IBM 3590-A00 does not support any other host interface.
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
79
|
|
|
|
4.6.4 IBM 3494 Model B16 (Virtual Tape Server subsystem)
The IBM 3494 Model B16 is a new model introduced to support the IBM Magstar
Virtual Tape Server (VTS) within the IBM 3494 Tape Library. This new frame
must be installed alongside an IBM 3494-D12 frame.
|
|
Please see Section 7.8, “IBM 3494 Virtual Tape Server Configuration Guidelines”
on page 167 for more detail on IBM 3494 Virtual Tape Server configurations.
4.6.5 Mixed Configurations
The new model types are described above in three groups, or families.
However, the old and new models of the 3494 frames can be combined in one
library, provided that the overall configuration rules stated previously are not
broken. For example, the L10, L12, and L14 library units support S10 storage
units, or as the Feature 5400 of the L10, and the D10, D12, and D14 drive units, as
well as the 5300 drive unit feature of the L10. Basically, any combination is
acceptable.
The number of tape drives that can be installed in an IBM 3494 library is
model-dependent and also can be limited by the number of internal
communications paths with the Library Manager. Eight paths are available, and
the different subsystems have different requirements:
•
One path for each IBM 3490-C1A or 3490-C2A
•
One path for each IBM 3590-A00 (including its attached drives)
•
One path for each direct SCSI-attached IBM 3590-B1A.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Previously, with the IBM 3490E-CxA Models, it was not possible to exceed the
supported number of control unit functions; no more than eight control units
could be installed in the maximum of eight IBM 3494 frames. Now, a single drive
unit frame can accommodate six native SCSI-attached IBM 3590 drives, each
with its own integrated control unit. Or a frame may contain four drives with one
3494 control unit connection. Also, a 3494 can now have up to sixteen frames
and can support sixteen control unit functions.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
So, for example, using only IBM 3490 subsystems, the maximum number of
drives that can be installed in an IBM 3494 library is 32, whereas using only
direct SCSI-attached IBM 3590-B1A drives, the maximum number of drives is 16,
and using only ESCON-attached IBM 3590-B1A drives through the IBM 3590-A00,
the maximum number of drives is 46. Any mixed configurations are possible,
provided that the total number of paths to the Library Manager does not exceed
sixteen.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
If a Virtual Tape Server is included in the IBM 3494 library it uses either five or
eight of the LM RS-422 connections. Five RS-422 connections are used if the
three VTS drive option is chosen. Three ports being used by the drives, and two
for the VTS controller. Eight RS-422 connections are used if the six VTS drive
option is chosen. Six ports being used by the drives, and two for the VTS
controller. If a Virtual Tape Server subsystem is installed on an IBM 3494 tape
library, this will reduce the number of RS-422 and RS-232 ports available for tape
control unit and host connection.
|
|
|
|
The reduction of ports by the installation of the VTS option will leave either
seven (12-5) or four (12-8) RS-422 connections for other tape drive control units.
The reason the total number of RS-422 ports does not total the potential of
sixteen, is that a group of four RS-232 must be left in their native communication
80
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
|
|
|
protocol mode to enable the connection of the single RS-232 VTS controller path.
This leaves a maximum of 12 RS-422 ports to be shared between VTS and
non-VTS drives. Feature 5229, the second RTIC card, will have to be installed to
get the maximum 12 RS-422 ports.
|
|
Any mixed configurations are possible, provided that the total number of paths to
the Library Manager does not exceed those available.
|
|
|
|
|
|
It is easy to see that with different hosts and platforms sharing a mixed
configuration of IBM 3490E and IBM 3590, it is necessary to exercise care in
planning the IBM 3494 configuration. Please refer to Chapter 7, “The IBM
Magstar Virtual Tape Server” on page 147 or the Redbook, The IBM Magstar
Virtual Tape Server and Enhancements to Magstar: New Era In Tape for more
details on configuring an IBM 3494 with the Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
4.6.6 Library Sharing between Different Hosts
It is easy to see that with different hosts and platforms sharing a mixed
configuration of IBM 3490E and IBM 3590, it is necessary to exercise care in
planning the IBM 3494 configuration.
Any one IBM 3590-B1A can have only one type of channel attachment, either two
ESCON adapters (using the IBM 3590-A00) or two SCSI adapters, but not one of
each. This may be important when sharing tape drives between different
platforms using different channel protocols. IBM 3490-CxA can be configured
with any combination of channel adapters (two in total for any one Model CxA),
ESCON, parallel, or SCSI. So, although a tape drive can only be online to any
one host at a time, and any one host must ″see″ a control unit as either ESCON,
parallel, or SCSI attached, it is possible to attach one Model CxA control unit to
two different hosts using different channel interfaces and then switch the tape
drives between the two hosts as required. However, this scenario is not
possible with an IBM 3590 tape drive. For further information on issues
regarding sharing tape libraries and tape drives see the Guide to Sharing and
Partitioning IBM Automated Tape Library Dataservers .
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
81
Figure 38. IBM 3494 Model Summary
4.7 IBM 3494 Model Summary
In the previous section, we discussed the IBM 3494 model families defined in
terms of the tape drives used inside each model, that is, IBM 3490, IBM 3590
SCSI attached, and IBM 3590 ESCON attached. In this section, we provide an
overall summary in terms of the IBM 3494 frame types and model numbers and
discuss the IBM 3494-L10 model and feature upgrades.
4.7.1 Control Unit Frame Models
82
IBM 3494-L10
contains one IBM 3490 Model C1A or Model C2A; the Library
Manager; the cartridge accessor; the (optional) convenience
input/output station; and cartridge storage cells.
IBM 3494-L12
contains zero, one, or two IBM 3590 Model B1A tape devices; the
Library Manager; the cartridge accessor; the (optional)
convenience input/output station; and cartridge storage cells.
IBM 3494-L14
contains zero or one IBM 3590 Model A00 tape control unit; zero,
one, or two IBM 3590 Model B1A tape devices; the Library
Manager; the cartridge accessor; the (optional) convenience
input/output station; and cartridge storage cells. The IBM
3590-A00 is required if an IBM 3590-B1A is installed in the frame.
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
4.7.2 Drive Unit Frame Models
IBM 3494-D10
contains one IBM 3490 Model C1A or Model C2A; and cartridge
storage cells.
IBM 3494-D12
contains a minimum of zero and a maximum of six IBM 3590
Model B1A tape devices; and cartridge storage cells.
IBM 3494-D14
contains zero or one IBM 3590 Model A00 tape control unit; a
minimum of zero and a maximum of four IBM 3590 Model B1A
tape devices; and cartridge storage cells. The IBM 3590-A00 is
required if an IBM 3590-B1A is installed in the frame.
4.7.3 Storage Unit Frame Models
IBM 3494-S10
|
|
|
|
contains only cartridge storage cells.
4.7.4 VTS Unit Frame Models.
IBM 3494-B16
in combination with a dedicated IBM 3494-D12 frame, contains the
required hardware and microcode to enable full 3590 Magstar
tape storage capacity plus storage cell locations.
4.7.5 IBM 3494-L10 Features
Before the release of the above models, the drive and storage unit frames for
the IBM 3494 were described by the IBM 3494 Feature codes listed below. The
features, although now superseded by models, cannot be converted to models
through upgrades. The features are:
5300
The drive-unit frame for the IBM 3494-L10 subsystem Feature 5300 is
similar to the IBM 3494 Model D10 but included the mounting
hardware for the IBM 3490 subsystem.
5302
Feature 5300 can be upgraded to Feature 5302, which is the drive unit
frame similar to the IBM 3494 Model D12. Feature code 5302 provides
the hardware to accommodate up to two IBM 3590-B1A drives; other
configurations require an RPQ (see Table 4 on page 84).
5304
Feature 5300 can be upgraded to this feature, which is the drive unit
frame similar to the IBM 3494 Model D14. Feature code 5304 provides
the hardware to accommodate up to two IBM 3590-B1A drives and
one IBM 3590-A00 control unit; other configurations require an RPQ
(see Table 4 on page 84).
5400
The storage-unit frame for the IBM 3494-L10 subsystem, Feature 4500,
is equivalent to the IBM 3494 Model S10.
4.7.6 Installation Features and Upgrades
The following model upgrades are available to migrate to the new models of IBM
3494:
•
IBM 3494 Model L10 to a Model L12
•
IBM 3494 Model L10 to a Model L14
•
IBM 3494 Model D10 to a Model L12
•
IBM 3494 Model D10 to a Model D14.
Model conversions not listed above must be requested through an RPQ. Some
models and features have been added specifically to accommodate migration.
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
83
Table 4 on page 84 gives the upgrade features for the IBM 3494-L10. Features
cannot be upgraded to models.
Table 4. IBM 3494-L10 Upgrade Features
Add
Feature
Plus RPQ
5300 drive unit frame to install
up to two SCSI IBM 3590-B1As
5302
None
5300 drive unit frame to install
up to four SCSI IBM 3590-B1As
5302
8B3166
5300 drive unit frame to install
up to six SCSI IBM 3590-B1As
5302
8B3167
5300 drive unit frame to install
up to two IBM 3590-B1As + ESCON IBM 3590-A00
5304
None
5300 drive unit frame to install
up to four IBM 3590-B1As + ESCON IBM 3590-A00
5304
8B3168
5400 storage unit frame to accept
new IBM 3590 cartridges
None
None
Upgrade to IBM 3494-L10 Feature
For a description of the features required when ordering the IBM 3590 for
integration into new or existing configurations, see Section 4.9, “IBM 3590
Feature Codes” on page 86.
84
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 39. IBM 3494 Capacity Guidelines
4.8 IBM 3494 Capacity Guidelines
Figure 39 summarizes the number of cartridge cells available in the IBM 3494
frames according to the tape drives and features installed.
The number of available cartridge cells in the library control unit frame does not
depend on the IBM 3494 model. The maximum number is 240, and this number
is reduced if the convenience input/output station is installed. The installation of
the dual gripper makes some other cells inaccessible, as indicated in the two
columns. The lower number of the range for the library control unit applies
when the convenience input/output station is installed.
The cells available in the other frames depend on the number and model of tape
drives installed, as well as the dual gripper. As IBM 3590-B1A drives are added,
cartridge storage cells are displaced.
|
|
|
A potential range of 210 to 6210 cartridges is possible in a 1-to-16-frame capable
IBM 3494 subsystem. (An empty drive unit frame can contain an equal number of
tapes as a storage unit).
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
85
Figure 40. IBM 3590 Feature Codes
4.9 IBM 3590 Feature Codes
Figure 40 shows which feature codes are to be ordered when installing new or
existing IBM 3590s in new or existing IBM 3494s and IBM 3590-A14s. Table 5 on
page 87 summarizes the features codes.
The first column in Table 5 on page 87 shows the install unit, that is, the IBM
3590 unit which is to be installed (in either an IBM 3494 library or an IBM
3590-A14 rack). The Install Unit Feature Number column shows the feature that
must be specified on the install unit. N/A indicates, for example, that the IBM
3590-B11 cannot be installed in an IBM 3494 library.
|
|
86
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
Table 5. IBM 3590 Feature Codes
IBM
3590
Unit to
Be
Installed
New IBM 3494
Existing IBM 3494
New IBM 3590-A14
Existing IBM
3590-A14
Install
Unit
Feature
Number
Feature
on
IBM
3494
Install
Unit
Feature
Number
Feature
on
IBM
3494
Install
Unit
Feature
Number
Feature
on
IBM
3590-A14
Install
Unit
Feature
Number
Feature
on
IBM
3590-A14
|
|
|
New
B1A
9631
9631
none
4630
9638
9638
none
4638
|
|
|
Existing
B1A
none
9630
none
4630
none
9639
none
4638
|
|
|
New
B11
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
9631
9631
none
4630
|
|
|
Existing
B11
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
none
9630
none
4630
|
|
|
New
A00
9636
9636
none
4635
9637
9637
N/A
N/A
|
|
|
Existing
A00
none
9635
none
4635
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
|
|
|
|
|
|
These features provide only the hardware to install the subsystems into the
frames; the actual drives and control units must be ordered separately.
4.9.1 Description of No-Charge Features
Feature numbers 9xxx are nonchargeable and are for installation at time of
manufacture:
•
−
|
|
|
9630
•
An IBM 3494 feature that supplies the hardware to allow for later field
installation of one IBM 3590-B1A into a frame
9631
|
|
−
An IBM 3494 feature that causes one IBM 3590-B1A to be integrated into
an IBM 3494 frame at the factory
|
|
−
An IBM 3590-B1A feature denoting that the tape drive is integrated into
an IBM 3494 frame at the factory
|
|
−
An IBM 3590-B11 feature denoting that the tape drive is integrated into
an IBM 3590-A14 frame at the factory
|
|
−
An IBM 3590-A14 feature that causes one IBM 3590-B11 to be integrated
into an IBM 3590-A14 frame at the factory
|
•
−
|
|
|
|
•
•
An IBM 3494 feature that supplies the hardware to allow for later field
installation of one IBM 3590-A00 in a frame. This feature is applicable
only to IBM 3494 Models L14 and D14.
9636
−
|
|
|
|
9635
An IBM 3494 feature that causes one IBM 3590-A00 to be integrated into
an IBM 3494 frame at the factory. This feature is applicable only to IBM
3494 Models L14 and D14.
9637
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
87
|
|
−
An IBM 3590-A14 feature that causes one IBM 3590-A00 to be integrated
into an IBM 3590-A14 frame at the factory
|
|
−
An IBM 3590-A00 feature denoting that the control unit will be integrated
into an IBM 3590-A14 frame at the factory.
•
|
9638
|
|
−
An IBM 3590-A14 feature that causes one IBM 3590-B1A to be integrated
into an IBM 3590-A14 frame at the factory
|
|
−
An IBM 3590-B1A feature denoting that the control unit will be integrated
into an IBM 3590-A14 frame at the factory.
•
|
−
|
|
|
|
9635
An IBM 3590-A14 feature that supplies the hardware to allow for later
field installation of one IBM 3590-B1A into the IBM 3590-A14 frame.
4.9.2 MES Field-Installation Features
•
4630
|
|
|
−
An IBM 3494 feature that, when applied to the IBM 3494 Model D10,
supplies the hardware to allow for field installation of an IBM 3490 Model
CxA subsystem.
|
|
|
|
−
An IBM 3494 feature that, when applied to the IBM 3494 (except the
models D10 and B16), supplies the hardware to allow for field installation
of one IBM 3590-B1A. It is applicable if Feature 9630 was not ordered at
time of manufacture.
•
|
−
|
|
|
|
•
|
- An IBM 3494 feature that supplies the hardware to allow for field
installation of one IBM 3590-A00 in a frame. This feature is applicable
only to IBM 3494 Models L14 and D14 and where Feature 9635 was not
ordered at time of manufacture.
4638
−
|
|
|
|
|
|
4635
- An IBM 3590-A14 feature that supplies the hardware to allow for field
installation of one IBM 3590-B1A in the IBM 3590-A14 frame. This feature
is applicable if Feature 9639 was not ordered at time of manufacture.
4.9.3 New Features
This covers some of the new features not applicable to the units in Table 5 on
page 87.
•
|
|
|
9010
- An IBM 3494-D12 feature that denotes that it is attached to the IBM
3494-B16 and forms part of the Virtual Tape Server.
•
|
|
|
9012
- An IBM 3494-A14 feature that causes it to be integrated into an IBM 3495
library at the factory.
•
|
|
|
|
9020
- An IBM 3494-A14 feature that denotes that it is attached to an IBM 3495-B16
Virtual Tape Server; it has no IBM 3590-A00 controller installed, and is
mutually exclusive with feature 9637.
88
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
•
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
3311 and 3312
- IBM 3590-A00 features that provide the ESCON/SCSI adapters. 3311 is a
required feature and supplies the first ESCON and SCSI adapter; Feature
3312 is optional and supplies the second ESCON and SCSI adapter.
•
2710, 2711, and 2712
- IBM 3590-A00 features that provide rapid remote support capability. Each
IBM 3590-A00 must have one of these; Feature 2710 is applied to the first
IBM 3590-A0 in an installation; Feature 2711 is applied to the second; and
Feature 2712 is applied to No.s 3 through 14.
Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
89
Figure 41. IBM 3590 Subsystem Host Interfaces
4.10 IBM 3590 Subsystem Host Interfaces
Figure 41 briefly summarizes the IBM 3590 subsystem host interfaces. The IBM
3490E support is listed for reference. A check mark indicates support.
Table 6 on page 91 shows an overview of the platform and software support in
slightly more detail. The table indicates the software and hardware supported
with the various configurations. The check mark indicates support; S stands for
SCSI, E stands for ESCON, and P stands for parallel attachments. For precise
details of software supporting levels seeSeaction 5.1, “IBM 3590 Software
Support Overview” on page 94.
90
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Table 6. Supported Configurations for the I B M 3490E and I B M 3590
3490E
Platform
Native
3590
In 3494
In 3495
Native
In 3494
In 3495
S
E
P
S
E
P
S
E
P
S
E
S
E
S
E
ES/9000, S/390
-
√
√
-
√
√
-
√
√
-
√
-
√
-
√
AS/400
√
-
√
-
-
√
-
-
-
√
-
√
-
-
-
RISC/6000
√
√
√
√
√
√
-
√
√
√
-
√
-
-
-
POWERParallel SP2
√
√
√
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(√ )
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Chapter 4. Configuration Guidance
91
92
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance
Tape Subsystem
This chapter introduces the software support for the IBM 3590 High Performance
Tape Subsystem, including the Magstar tape drive. It also provides information
about the levels of software that support the new devices and the new functions
and features that the software provides.
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
93
Figure 42. IBM 3590 Software Support Overview
5.1 IBM 3590 Software Support Overview
Below we list the IBM 3590 software support for each environment.
5.1.1 ES/9000 and S/390 Parallel Server Environment
5.1.1.1 MVS/ESA System
The following are the minimum releases of software:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MVS/ESA SP 4.3 + SPE
MVS/ESA SP 5.1.0 + SPE
MVS/ESA SP 5.2.0 + SPE
JES3 4.2.1 + SPE
JES3 5.1.1 + SPE
JES3 5.2.1 + SPE
DFSMS/MVS 1.2.0 or higher + SPE
EREP 3.5.0 + PTF
ADSM for MVS in a future release
DFSORT Release 12 + SPE
DITTO/ESA Release 1
Note:
•
94
Toleration PTFs will be required for DFSMS/MVS 1.1.0 and DFSMS/MVS 1.2.0
without the IBM 3590 Support SPE when sharing an IBM 3494 or 3495
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Automated Tape Library Dataserver with DFSMS/MVS 1.2.0 with the IBM
3590 SPE installed.
•
BTLS does not support the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem at
announcement time.
•
DFDSS V2.5 does not support the IBM 3590 but DFSMSdss 1.2.0 does.
5.1.1.2 VM/ESA System
•
•
•
•
VM/ESA Version 2
EREP 3.5.0 + PTF
DITTO/ESA Release 1
ADSM for VM in a future release
5.1.1.3 VSE/ESA System
•
•
•
•
VSE/ESA Version 2 - available in the second quarter of 1996
EREP 3.5.0 + PTF
ADSM for VSE in a future release
DITTO/ESA Release 1
5.1.1.4 Transaction Processing Facility (TPF) System
•
TPF in a future release
5.1.2 AS/400 Environment
•
•
•
•
OS/400 Version 3 Release 1 + PTF and subsequent releases
BRMS/400 Version 3.1 + PTF
ADSM for OS/400 Version 1.2 + PTF
Report/Data Archive and Retrieval System (R/DARS) for OS/400
5.1.3 RISC System/6000 and POWERparallel SP2 Environment
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
AIX/6000 3.2.5 + PTF
AIX/6000 4.1.1
ADSM for AIX/6000 Version 1.2.1
IBM Client Input Output/Sockets (CLIO/S)
Remote Tape Application Interface (RTAPI) service offering
REELlibrarian Release 4.2
NSL UniTree Release 2.1
5.1.4 Sun Environment
•
•
•
SunOS 5.2 or higher releases
Solaris 2.2 or higher releases
ADSM for Sun Solaris
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
95
Figure 43. IBM 3590 Channel Command for ES/9000 and S/390 Systems
5.2 New and Changed Read Channel Commands for ES/9000 and S/390
Systems
Magstar Tape Drive itself is a SCSI device and has its own set of SCSI
commands. The tape drive must be controlled by the SCSI commands, but the
System/390 and System/370 use their own set of I/O commands to control
attached I/O devices. The I/O commands that the S/390 and S/370 use are
called channel commands , channel command words (CCWs), or channel
programs . The S/390 or S/370 channel commands differ from the SCSI
commands from an architecture point of view, even though they both control I/O
devices. To use the Magstar tape drive from an ES/9000 or S/390 system, an
IBM 3590-A00 tape controller is required to convert the channel commands to
corresponding SCSI commands. Below we describe the channel commands that
are used by ES/9000 and S/390 systems.
5.2.1 Separate Channel Commands for IPL Read and Normal Read
On IBM 3480/3490 tape devices there is only one Read Forward CCW, the X′02′
command code. This CCW is used to perform not only normal read operations
but also an IPL Read from tape, for example, DFSMSdss Stand-Alone Restore.
When the CCW is used as an IPL Read, it is not subject to resetting event
notification, by definition. Because there is only one Read Forward CCW, it
cannot be subject to resetting event notification on IBM 3480 and 3490 devices.
96
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
To differentiate between an IPL Read and a normal read forward operation, the
X′02′ command code has been redefined to be the IPL Read CCW, and a new
X′06′ command code has been defined to be the Read Forward CCW. The new
Read Forward CCW, X′06′, is subject to resetting event notification, as should be
the case for normal read CCWs issued by applications or other host software.
5.2.2 Read Previous to Replace Read Backward
The ESCON-attached Magstar tape drive does not support the Read Backward
CCW (command code, X′0C′). It supports a new Read Previous CCW that allows
processing of an IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge in the backward
direction without the performance penalties that exist with the Read Backward
CCW. IBM 3480 and 3490 devices had to reread the physical block from the
medium for each request of a logical block. The Magstar tape drive retains the
physical block in the device buffer and satisfies any subsequent Read Previous
from the buffer, similar to how Read Forward operates. The Read Previous CCW
operates somewhat like the Read Backward CCW in that it can be used to
process the volumes in the backward direction. It is different from the Read
Backward, however, because the data is transferred to the host in the same
order in which it was written, rather than in reverse order like Read Backward.
The DFSMS/MVS tape error recovery procedure (ERP) program for the IBM 3590
tape device has been enhanced to change a rejected Read Backward CCW to a
Read Previous CCW and vice versa, where appropriate. See Section 5.6.3,
“Error Recovery Procedure for IBM 3590 Tape Drive” on page 105 for details.
5.2.3 New Read Media Characteristics
The new Read Media Characteristics CCW (command code x′62′) provides up to
256 bytes of information about the media and formats supported by the Magstar
tape drive.
5.2.4 Changed Read Commands
•
Read Block ID CCW (command code x′22′) has been modified to handle the
new format of the block ID. For more information, see Section 5.4, “Logical
Block Numbers” on page 100.
•
Read Buffered Log CCW (command code x′24′) transfers the new format of
log data which is increased to 128 bytes.
•
Read Device Characteristics CCW (command code x′64′) supports the
Magstar tape drive and IBM 3590-A00 tape control unit.
•
Read Configuration Data CCW (command code X′FA′) supports the Magstar
tape drive and IBM 3590-A00 tape control unit as well as some field changes.
For more detailed information about new and changed commands see the IBM
3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware Reference , GA32-0331.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
97
Figure 44. New STAGE Channel Command
5.3 New STAGE Channel Command for ES/9000 and S/390 Systems
The new STAGE CCW (command code x′53′) provides a mechanism to load and
unload volumes on an IBM 3590-B11 tape drive and control an IBM 3590 ACF
when it is operating in a mode other than library mode. The Stage CCW has
several parameters called stage orders:
Stage Order
Action performed
Unload
Performs a rewind and unload of the device and
returns the cartridge to the magazine as follows:
Load
•
If the ACF is operating in random mode, the
cartridge is stored in a specified cell. If the cell
number specified is zero, the cartridge is
returned to the cell from which it was obtained
when it was loaded.
•
If the ACF is operating in manual, accumulate,
system, or automatic mode, the cartridge is
stored in the first available cell in the magazine
and set in the export position.
Loads a cartridge in the drive as follows:
•
98
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
If the ACF is operating in random mode, the
cartridge is fetched from a specified cell. A cell
value of zero causes a unit check.
•
If the ACF is operating in system mode, the first
available cartridge in the import position is
loaded.
Move
Moves a cartridge from a specified source cell to a
specified target cell. This order only works if the ACF
is in random mode.
Read Cell Status
Returns information about the cells in the ACF. The
order returns a cell type:
Type
Device
Storage
Input/Output
Description
The cell that is associated with the
device
A cell in the magazine
The cell that is used to load or
unload cartridges manually.
The order also returns the status, such as:
•
•
•
Operational or not
Full or empty
Intervention required, that is, cartridge in export
position.
Read Volume Loader Data Returns information about the ACF itself. The
information returned is:
•
•
•
•
Mode of operation
Volume loader locked or not
Volume loader status
Number of each cell type.
When the ACF is installed within an IBM 3495 Tape Library Data Server it is
controlled by the Library Manager. For more information on the ACF see
Chapter 3, “IBM 3590 Automatic Cartridge Facility Operations” on page 39.
Note: Any MVS/ESA or DFSMS/MVS components that support the IBM 3590 High
Performance Tape Subsystem do not use the IBM 3590 ACF random mode , which
is managed by the Stage CCW.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
99
Figure 45. Logical Block Number
5.4 Logical Block Numbers
This topic applies to both ESCON-attached and SCSI-attached Magstar tape
drives.
The definition of block IDs for the 3480 and 3490 is as follows:
Bits
0
1-7
8-9
10-31
Used for
Direction bit
Segment number
Format
Logical block number
The Magstar tape drive uses 32 bits for block numbering in combination with a
block identifier table recorded in a reserved area at the beginning of the tape.
When the Magstar tape drive writes to an IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Cartridge, the block ID of the blocks written to the middle of a pass and at the
end of the pass (the arrows in Figure 45) are recorded in the block table. The
last block written is also recorded. The table is used to move quickly and
directly to the right block in response to high-speed search requests from
applications such as ADSM, DFSMShsm, and BRMS/400.
Note: Figure 45 is not a physical representation of the tape but a logical view of
the tape data.
100
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 46. IBM 3590 Support for MVS/ESA
5.5 IBM 3590 Support for MVS/ESA
The IBM 3590 support is provided as a small programming enhancement (SPE)
to the MVS/ESA basic control program (BCP), JES3 component, and DFSMS/MVS
1.2.0. Below we describe the IBM 3590 support provided by the MVS/ESA BCP.
The supported MVS/ESA BCPs are MVS/ESA SP 4.3.0, 5.1.0, and 5.2.0.
5.5.1 Hardware Configuration Definition
To define the existence of the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem,
users must use a hardware configuration definition (HCD) program. MVSCP
does not support defining IBM 3590 devices in the MVS/ESA system.
5.5.2 Stand-Alone Dump Program
The stand-alone dump program (SADMP) allows users to use an IBM 3590
device as either the SADMP IPL device or dump output device. If users specify
the COMPACT=YES option (default is YES) of the AMDSADMP macro to
generate the SADMP, the dump program dumps the data with compression.
This is similar to current IBM 3480 and 3490 tape devices.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
101
5.5.3 New Generic Unit Name
3590-1 is the new generic unit name used for the Magstar tape drive in the JCL,
HCD dialog, and on different ISMF panels. The 3590-1 generic unit name is
incompatible with all other tape devices.
In the new default device preference table, the position of the IBM 3590 device is
as follows:
1. 3590-1
2. 3490
3. 3480.
5.5.4 Device Support
The IBM 3590 device support in the BCP is described as follows:
•
UCBTYPE
The UCBTYPE is x′78048083′, the OBR identifier is X′83′, and the MDR
identifier is X′46′.
•
Missing interrupt handler
The IBM 3590 device returns recommended missing interrupt handler (MIH)
timeout values to the host operating system in Read Configuration Data
CCW; that is, issued at IPL or VARY ONLINE processing time. It should not
be necessary for customers to specify MIH timeout values for IBM 3590
devices in the IECIOSxx member of SYS1.PARMLIB because the
device-supplied values should handle all MIH timeouts.
•
Device class extension
The device class extension (DCE) control block has been increased by 40
bytes to accommodate new fields for IBM 3590 devices and allow downward
compatibility with systems without the IBM 3590 support SPE.
In MVS/ESA 4.3 and 5.1, the increase is in SQA virtual below 16MB, and the
total size depends on the number of UCBs defined. In MVS/ESA 5.2, the
increase is in SQA virtual below 16MB, and the total size depends on the
number of UCBs defined below 16MB.
•
Control unit initiated reconfiguration
The IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem supports control unit
initiated reconfiguration (CUIR) in order to fence a device or a device path.
CUIR makes it possible for the service representative to take devices or
paths “offline for service” from the service panel. This ensures that the
correct paths are taken offline when required and reduces operator
involvement and possible errors. The CUIR is monitored by MVS/ESA and
was introduced with the IBM 3990 DASD control unit.
•
Service information message
The IBM 3590 Tape Drive is the first tape device to report service information
messages (SIMs) data to the host system. This is similar to some DASD
devices attached to ES/9000 and S/390 systems today. The SIMs provide
service information for the hardware maintenance representatives as DASDs
do.
102
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
MVS/ESA issues the following SIM:
IEA480E cuu,type,model,severity ALERT,
SER=ssssss,MC=mc,ES=es,REF=ref1-ref2-ref3
•
Media information message
The IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem stores media statistics on
a cartridge (for both read and write operations) every time it is used. This
information is stored in a reserved area at the beginning of the tape in the
same place as the block identifiers described in Section 5.4, “Logical Block
Numbers” on page 100. When a failure occurs, the media statistics are used
to help determine whether the failure is caused by media or hardware. The
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem notifies the host when a
cartridge exceeds a certain error threshold. The IBM 3590 device is the first
tape device to report media information messages (MIMs) data to the host
system. The MIM is similar to some DASDs attached to ES/9000 and S/390
systems today.
MVS/ESA issues the following MIM:
IEA486E cuu,TVOL,severity ALERT,
VOLUME=volid,MC=mc,ES=es,RC=rc-mid-fid
The MIM can be detected automatically by NetView in an MVS/ESA
environment. NetView can then, if necessary, be used to issue commands,
such as the DFSMShsm RECYCLE command or the ADSM MOVE DATA
command, to automatically move valid data off the failing cartridge.
For AS/400, the MIMs and SIMs are stored in the AS/400 error log.
•
Dynamic allocation
Users of dynamic allocation (SVC 99) currently have the ability to use the
DALINCHG text unit - Volume Interchange Specification - KEY = x′006F′ to
specify the media type and recording technology to be used for a
system-managed tape library allocation. The allowable value has been
updated to include MEDIA3 for the new cartridge and 128TRACK for the new
recording technology of the IBM 3590 tape drive.
•
SMF type 21
In two fields of the SMF type 21 record (Error Statistics by Volume),
SMF21BRN and SMF21BWN, the number of bytes read and written, has been
increased by 1 byte to accommodate the increase in size of the counter
returned by the IBM 3590 control unit. The source of these two fields is
stored in the UCB device class extension (DCE).
The SMF Volume Statistics Print Utility program, IFHSTATR, has been
updated to format and print the updated SMF type 21 records.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
103
Figure 47. IBM 3590 Support for DFSMS/MVS: Basic
5.6 IBM 3590 Support for DFSMS/MVS
The IBM 3590 support SPE can be installed on DFSMS/MVS 1.2.2 or subsequent
DFSMS/MVS releases.
DFDSS V2.5 does not support the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem,
but DFSMSdss does.
Note: DFSMS/MVS does not use the IBM 3590 ACF random mode.
5.6.1 Toleration PTFs
Toleration PTFs will be required for DFSMS/MVS 1.1.0 and DFSMS/MVS 1.2.0
without the SPE when sharing an IBM 3494 or 3495 Automated Tape Library
Dataserver with DFSMS/MVS 1.2.0 with the SPE installed.
5.6.2 Supports Both Stand-Alone and Library Environment
DFSMS/MVS 1.2.0 plus an SPE supports the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Subsystem in both stand-alone and tape library environments. At general
availability of the ESCON-attached IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem,
there is no BTLS support for the IBM 3590.
104
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
5.6.3 Error Recovery Procedure for IBM 3590 Tape Drive
The tape error recovery procedure (ERP) program has been extensively changed
for the new hardware. A new module, IGE0003E, has been created to support
the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem. This ERP has many functions,
such as all device error recovery processing not performed by the hardware
subsystem, the initiation of operator messages, logging error records, any
required repositioning, and retry or restart of the failing channel program. But
here we only describe the read alternate recovery (RAR) function because it
simulates the Read Backward CCW that is not supported by the ESCON-attached
IBM 3590 tape device. The RAR provides compatibility of user programs that
use the Read Backward CCW to current tape device. Without any changes the
user programs can use the new IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem.
Note, however, that the programs that use the Read Backward CCW have to pay
some performance penalty.
When this recovery action is presented for a Read Backward CCW, the ERP must
issue a Read Previous CCW in order to retrieve the data from tape. Conversely,
when this recovery action is presented for a Read Previous CCW, the ERP must
issue a Read Backward CCW to retrieve the data from tape. The IBM 3590
devices only request a Read Alternate Recovery action if the original failing CCW
was a Read Backward CCW because IBM 3590 devices do not support the Read
Backward CCW. The ERP must be prepared to handle both scenarios, however,
because future devices may support the Read Backward CCW. The Read
Alternate Recovery action is similar to the existing Read Opposite Recovery
(ROR) procedure in the 3480 and 3490 ERP. The Read Alternate Recovery
procedure performs in a manner consistent with 3480 and 3490 ROR recovery. In
particular, the data is read into ERP storage first and then transferred to the
user′s storage in much the same manner as is used today during 3480 and 3490
ROR. A Read Backward CCW′s data address points to the end of the storage
area, and a Read Previous CCW′s data address points to the beginning of the
storage area.
The tape ERP will handle incorrect length, simulate channel protection checks as
required, and provide all of the checking that is done today when recovering with
ROR. Note that, unlike ROR, no repositioning of the tape is required after the
Read Previous CCW completes.
5.6.4 Sequential Access Method
The sequential access method (SAM) provides support for the IBM 3590 tape
device. This support is functionally transparent to the user programs with the
exception of those applications that use the NOTE TYPE=ABS macro and
calculate the logical block number on the basis of the values returned in register
0 and resister 1. These application programs may have to be modified. The IBM
3590 tape drive uses 32-bit logical block number that was in the low-order 20 bits
of the registers for previous tape devices. (See Section 5.4, “Logical Block
Numbers” on page 100.)
The relative block number field from the SYNADAF macro has been expanded to
hold the ten decimal digits that result from the increased media capacity of the
new devices.
The SAM uses the new Read Forward CCW (x′06′) for the IBM 3590 tape device.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
105
The ESCON-attached IBM 3590 tape device does not support the Read Backward
CCW. When the Read Backward CCW is issued to an IBM 3590 tape device, the
device returns a unit check, which causes ERP to do a Read Alternate Recovery
procedure to read the data block. (See Section 5.6.3, “Error Recovery Procedure
for IBM 3590 Tape Drive” for more details.) This results in a performance
penalty for programs processing SAM tape data sets open for RDBACK on the
IBM 3590 devices.
5.6.5 Checkpoint/Restart
Restart issues the new Read Previous CCW instead of the Read Backward CCW
to the IBM 3590 tape device.
5.6.6 Open/Close/End-of-Volume
OPEN/CLOSE/EOV routines in DFSMS/MVS have been changed to record the
serial number of the physical Magstar tape drive used to write a data set. This
device serial number is stored in bytes 42-47 in the HDR2/EOV2/EOF2 headers.
106
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 48. IBM 3590 Support for DFSMS/MVS: SMS and A M S
5.6.7 System-Managed Storage
The new IBM 3590 tape device introduces a new media type, recording
technology, and device type. Defining or altering the existing SMS constructs
and definitions may be required.
•
Data class
The only way to specify which type of media to use for a data set is to select
a data class (DC), either directly in the JCL or indirectly by using the ACS
routines. A new Data Class Definition/Alteration panel has been defined for
media interchange and compaction. This information was specified on Panel
2 in previous releases of DFSMS/MVS. The data class panel of DFSMS/MVS
has also been enhanced to offer two new choices for media type:
−
MEDIA3, to specify the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge
−
MEDIA4, reserved for future use.
For the new media types, a new recording technology of 128TRACK can be
specified. Other ISMF panels and displays have been updated with the
option of specifying and/or displaying the new device type, 3590-1, and the
two new media types, MEDIA3 and MEDIA4, but MEDIA4 is reserved for
future use.
Note: The above description applies only to System Managed Tape (SMT) in
DFSMS/MVS. The IBM 3590 is of course supported outside SMT, but
there is no way to select the media type outside SMT.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
107
•
Storage group
To use the new IBM 3590 devices, system programmers may need to create
or alter existing storage group constructs.
•
Automatic class selection routines
To use the new IBM 3590 devices, existing customer-written automatic class
selection (ACS) filter routines may have to be changed or new ACS routines
created to select the appropriate SMS constructs.
5.6.8 Access Method Services Command Changes
ALTER, CREATE, and LISTCAT Access Method Services (AMS) commands have
been changed to support the new media type and recording technology.
One new subparameter, 128TRACK, for the RECORDING parameter has been
added for the CREATE and ALTER VOLUMEENTRY commands. Another new
subparameter, MEDIA3, for the MEDIATYPE parameter has been added for the
CREATE and ALTER VOLUMEENTRY commands.
CREATE VOLUMEENTRY
(NAME(entryname)
RECORDING(128TRACK)
MEDIATYPE(MEDIA3)
)
ALTER entryname VOLUMEENTRY
RECORDING(128TRACK)
MEDIATYPE(MEDIA3)
The number of scratch volumes and the threshold value for the new media type
MEDIA3 subparameter have been added to the CREATE and ALTER
LIBRARYENTRY commands.
CREATE LIBRARYENTRY
(NAME(entryname)
NUMBERSCRATCHVOLUMES(MEDIA1(num) MEDIA2(num)
MEDIA3(num))
SCRATCHTHRESHOLD(MEDIA1(num) MEDIA2(num)
MEDIA3(num))
)
ALTER entryname LIBRARYENTRY
NUMBERSCRATCHVOLUMES(MEDIA1(num) MEDIA2(num)
MEDIA3(num))
SCRATCHTHRESHOLD(MEDIA1(num) MEDIA2(num)
MEDIA3(num))
The LISTCAT command has been enhanced to display the value associated with
the MEDIATYPE and RECORDING parameters for volume entries and the
NUMBERSCRATCHVOLUMES and SCRATCHTHRESHOLD for library entries.
108
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 49. IBM 3590 Support for DFSMS/MVS: ISMF, DFSMShsm, and DFSMSrmm
5.6.9 Interactive Storage Management Facility
On the Interactive Storage Management Facility (ISMF) dialog panels, a new
generic device type, 3590-1, is used for the IBM 3590. The new media type,
MEDIA3, and recording technology, 128TRACK, subparameters are also used.
The scratch threshold value and number of the scratch volumes for MEDIA3 also
have been added. The following ISMF panels have been updated to support the
IBM 3590:
•
Data set application
−
−
−
•
Tape library application
−
−
−
−
−
−
•
Data Set Selection Entry
Data Set List
Data Set Filter Entry
Tape
Tape
Tape
Tape
Tape
Tape
Library
Library
Library
Library
Library
Library
Define
Alter/Redefine
Display
List
View Entry
Sort Entry
Data class application
−
−
−
Data Class Define/Alter
Data Class Display
Data Class List
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
109
•
Mountable tape volume application
−
Mountable Tape Volume List
5.6.10 Hierarchical Storage Manager (DFSMShsm)
DFSMShsm supports the new IBM 3590 tape device for all user commands that
specify a tape device. Table 7 lists all of the DFSMShsm commands that are
affected. The value of unittype for the IBM 3590 tape device is 3590-1.
Table 7. DFSMShsm User Commands Affected by I B M 3590 Support
Command
Required
Parameter
UNIT( unittype )
ABACKUP
ADDVOL
Optional Parameter
UNIT( unittype )
ARECOVERY
UNIT( unittype )
BACKDS
UNIT( unittype )
DEFINE
UNIT( unittype )
MIGRATE
UNIT( unittype )
RECALL
UNIT( unittype )
RECOVER
UNIT( unittype )
SETSYS
ABARSUNITNAME( unittype )
SETSYS
ARECOVERML2UNIT( unittype )
SETSYS
ARECOVERUNITNAME( unittype )
SETSYS
BACKUP(TAPE( unittype ))
SETSYS
CDSVERSIONBACKUP
UNITNAME( unittype )
SETSYS
MIGUNITNAME()
SETSYS
RECYCLEOUTPUT
(BACKUP( unittype ) MIGRATION( unittype ))
SETSYS
SPILL(TAPE( unittype ))
SETSYS
TAPEMIGRATION(
DIRECT(TAPE( unittype ))
ML2TAPE(TAPE( unittype ))
NONE(ROUTETOTAPE( unittype )))
SETSYS
TAPEUTILIZATION
UNITNAME( unittype )
SETSYS
UNITNAME( unittype )
TAPECOPY
ALTERNATEUNITNAME( unittype1,unittype2 )
TAPEREPL
ALTERNATEUNITNAME( unittype )
5.6.11 Removable Media Manager (DFSMSrmm)
The removable media manager component, DFSMSrmm, has been enhanced to
support the IBM 3590 tape device.
The RMM TSO ADDVOL, CHANGEVOL, and SEARCHVOL subcommands have a
new value in the MEDIATYPE and RECORDINGFORMAT parameters for the IBM
3590. The new value for MEDIATYPE is 3590 and for RECORDINGFORMAT,
128TRACK.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
The output of LISTVOLUME commands for the IBM 3590 show the following new
values:
3590
An IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge
128TRACK
Specifies the recording format for the IBM 3590
In other places within the DFSMS/MVS program product where tape or media
can be selected or displayed (for example, in the IDCAMS utility), new values,
such as 3590, 3590-1, or MEDIA3, can be chosen or used.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
111
Figure 50. IBM 3590 Support for DFSMS/MVS: O A M and LCS
5.6.12 Object Access Method
Object access method (OAM) basic device support for the IBM 3590 tape device
is as follows:
•
Object tape support
This support extends the scope of the devices and media types supported by
the OAM Object Tape support function introduced in DFSMS/MVS 1.2.0.
OAM allocates a scratch tape using the tape unit name specified with the
TAPEUNITNAME subparameter of the STORAGEGROUP parameter on the
SETOAM command. The TAPEUNITNAME parameter allows 3590-1 as a valid
unit name. OAM also supports the new 3590 media type.
•
OAM optical configuration database
OAM tape volumes that are used for object storage are tracked in a DB2
table in the OAM optical configuration database. The DB2 name of the table
is TAPEVOL. The table is contained within a separate DB2 table space,
ODTVLTSP.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
The OAM Tape Configuration Database (TCDB) shows new values in the
following columns:
UNITNAME
MEDIATYP
CAPACITY
FRESPACE
•
In this column 3590-1 is used for the IBM 3590 tape device
This column contains a value that indicates the media type
as follows:
Value
Meaning
02
This is a Standard Capacity Cartridge System Tape,
CST.
04
This is an Enhanced Capacity Cartridge System
Tape, ECCST.
05
This is an IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Cartridge.
This column contains the approximate number of millimeters
of the tape as well as the approximate number of kilobytes
of data for the volume. The values are as follows:
.
Value
Meaning
150,000
This is the length of a CST, written in 18-track
format on an IBM 3480 or 3490 base model.
300,000
This is the length of a CST, written in 36-track
format on an IBM 3490E.
600,000
This is the length of an ECCST, written in 36-track
format on an IBM 3490E.
9,765,625 This is the approximate number of kilobytes of
data for an IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Cartridge.
Contains the available free space, in kilobytes, left for
writing data on the volume. For MEDIATYPes 02 and 04, this
value is kilobytes (KB), 05 is in megabytes (MB).
CBROAMxx SYS1.PARMLIB member
OAM processes the CBROAMxx SYS1.PARMLIB member during OAM
address space initialization. The CBROAMxx member of SYS1.PARMLIB
contains the SETOAM command. The TAPEUNITNAME parameter of the
SETOAM command in the CBROAMxx member accepts the new unit name
for the IBM 3590 tape device. 3590-1 is a valid generic unit name for the IBM
3590.
A new optional parameter, DEMOUNTWAITTIME, has been added to specify
the amount of time OAM waits before demounting and deallocating a tape
device. This parameter is applicable for all tape devices that OAM supports.
The value specified is the time in seconds; the default is 120 sec.
5.6.13 Tape Library Support
OAM tape library support routines, library control system (LCS), have been
updated to support the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem in the
IBM Automated Tape Library Dataservers.
•
Tape configuration database
To accommodate the new media type and recording technology, the library
record and volume record in the tape configuration database (TCDB) have
been changed. To share a TCDB with lower-level DFSMS/MVS systems that
do not support the IBM 3590 tape drive, toleration PTFs to the lower-level
systems are required. The number of scratch volumes and scratch volume
message threshold fields in the new MEDIA3 subparameter have been
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
113
modified in the tape library record. The new tape recording technology
(128TRACK) and media type (MEDIA3) for the IBM 3590 can be set in the tape
volume record.
•
LCS external services
LCS external services provided by the CBRXLCS macro have been changed
to support the new media type and recording technology.
Tape device selection information (TDSI), mapped by the CBRTDSI macro, is
used to pass device selection information among system components
providing the tape library support. The TDSI now contains the definitions of
the new media type (MEDIA3) and recording technology (128TRACK). Source
code for CBRTDSI is distributed in SYS1.MACLIB.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 51. IBM 3590 Support for DFSMS/MVS: LCS (continued)
•
Installation exits
The new TDSI values, MEDIA3 and 128TRACK, are passed to the following
installation exit routines:
−
−
−
−
Change use attribute exit - CBRUXCUA
Cartridge entry exit - CBRUXENT
Cartridge eject exit - CBRUXEJC
Volume not in library exit - CBRUXVNL.
Customer-written exit routines must be reviewed and changed to use the
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem. See the DFSMS/MVS Version
1 Release 3 Object Access Method Planning, Installation, and Storage
Administration Guide for Tape Libraries , SC26-3051, for details.
•
Operator commands
The following operator commands support the new media type and recording
technology:
−
DISPLAY SMS,LIBRARY( library-name ),DETAIL
Displays scratch volume counts and their corresponding scratch
threshold values for the new media type. The command displays scratch
volume counts for only those media types that have a scratch threshold
value and a scratch count greater than zero.
−
DISPLAY SMS,VOLUME( volser )
Displays the new media type and recording technology.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
115
−
LIBRARY DISPDRV
Used to display the new media type for scratch volumes that are in the
cartridge loader for the tape library.
−
LIBRARY DISPCL
Used to display the new media type for scratch volumes that are in the
cartridge loader for the IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver.
The display output for the DSIPCL is same as the DISPDRV output for a
single drive.
−
LIBRARY SETCL
Sets the new media types for scratch volumes that will be loaded into the
cartridge loader of a tape drive inside the IBM 3495 Automated Tape
Library Dataserver. The devices in an IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library
Dataserver currently have no cartridge loader. If the SETCL command is
issued, the command fails.
•
Sharing a TCDB with lower-level systems
In an environment with multiple systems at different DFSMS/MVS software
levels but sharing a common TCDB that has up-level TDSI values, users
must be aware of the following processing:
−
Tape cartridge entry processing
When cartridges are entered into an IBM automated Tape Library
Dataserver, the Library Manager sends an unsolicited attention interrupt
to all connected systems to signal that cartridges are in the insert
category. When the new IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge is
entered in the library, the attention interrupt could be sent to a
DFSMS/MVS system that does not support or understand the new media
type. The lower-level software system is changed to recognize this
condition by the toleration PTF and leave the up-level volumes in the
insert category. Insert processing for the new IBM 3590 High
Performance Tape Cartridge must be done by a host system that
supports the up-level media type.
−
Tape cartridge eject processing
A MEDIA3 volume can only be rejected from a system that understands
the new media type. If an eject request for an up-level volume is
submitted by a lower-level software system, the eject request fails.
−
Tape volume audit processing
The library audit must be performed on the system with the highest
software level of DFSMS/MVS because the lower-level software system
cannot include the new media type.
−
Volume not in library installation exit processing
If a job run on a lower-level software system inadvertently asks for a
MEDIA3 volume, the exit has two choices: cancel the job or proceed to
have the volume entered. If the exit proceeds to have the volume
entered, once the volume is successfully entered on an up-level system
and the exit returns with return code 4 (indicating retry), the job on the
lower-level system fails during job step setup on subsequent retrieval of
the volume record. If the host system detects that it is an up-level
volume (TCDB volume record exists), the call to the exit is bypassed, and
the job is canceled.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 52. IBM 3590 Support for JES3
5.7 IBM 3590 Support for JES3
In a JES3 environment, JES3 component Version 4.2.1, 5.1.1, or 5.2.1 is required
to use the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem. The IBM 3590 tape
device is treated as one of the tape devices supported by JES3.
5.7.1 Library Device Group Name
To use the IBM 3590 devices in a JES3-managed IBM Automated Tape Library
Dataserver, the following esoteric unit names must be defined as library device
group (LDG) names in the HCD and SETNAME of the JES3 initialization
parameter:
•
LDBsssss - includes any IBM 3590 within the library indicated by library
serial number, sssss.
•
LDG3591 - includes any IBM 3590 in any library in the JES3plex.
5.7.2 DTYPE for JUNIT
When IBM 3590 tape devices are used as JES3-managed devices, they must be
defined on DEVICE statements in the JES3 initialization parameter. If the JUNIT
parameter is specified in the DEVICE statement, the DTYPE must be specified as
TA435901.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
117
5.7.3 JES3 Dump Job Dynamic Support Program
The JES3 Dump Job (DJ) Dynamic Support Program (DSP) supports the IBM 3590
tape device for dumping and restoring the JES3 spool. When the operator calls
the Dump Job DSP, TA435901, TA4, or the device number can be specified on the
IN= or OUT= parameter in the JES3 CALL,DJ command. The operator can also
specify compaction.
5.7.4 Other JES3 Tape Dynamic Support Program
The other JES3 tape DSPs, such as TT (Tape to Tape) and TL (Tape Label), do
not support the IBM 3590 device.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 53. VM/ESA Version 2
5.8 VM/ESA Version 2
VM/ESA Version 2 supports the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem in
both VM/ESA native and guest operating system environments. The IBM 3590
High Performance Tape Subsystem is also supported in the IBM Automated Tape
Library Dataservers.
5.8.1 CP
CP provides basic device support such as device type definition and recognition,
CCW translation, and error recovery procedures.
CP converts the Read IPL CCW (x′02′) to the Read Forward CCW (x′06′) for the
IBM 3590 tape drive when the I/O is issued by DIAGNOSE or CP I/O. The CP IPL
command also has been modified to use the Read Forward CCW if the device is
an IBM 3590 tape drive.
•
Guest operating system support
To provide guest operating system support, the CP has enhanced the CCW
translation to handle the new and changed CCWs that are used by the IBM
3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem. The guest operating systems that
support the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem can use the tape
subsystem in the same way as in its native environment.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
119
•
DDR
The DASD Dump Restore (DDR) utility program supports the IBM 3590 tape
device. The specified device type for the IBM 3590 in the DDR control
statement is “3590”. Both stand-alone DDRXA program and CMS command
DDR support the IBM 3590.
•
SPXTAPE
SPXTAPE is a CP utility that dumps and restores CP spool files to and/or
from tape devices. SPXTAPE supports the IBM 3590 tape device and uses
the Read Forward CCW if the tape device is an IBM 3590.
•
Stand-alone dump
The stand-alone dump program recognizes the IBM 3590 tape device as a
valid IPL and dump device.
•
MONITOR and TRSAVE
The format of the MONITOR and TRSAVE commands has not changed but
the IBM 3590 tape drive is supported.
5.8.2 CMS
CMS commands and macros support the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Subsystem as a tape device.
•
Commands
TAPE, VMFPLC2, and FILEDEF CMS commands support the IBM 3590 tape
device. Two new options of the CMS commands are available for the IBM
3590 device:
−
−
•
3590B - specifies uncompacted recording format
3590C - specifies compacted recording format.
Assembler macros
CMS assembler macros, RDTAPE, WRTAPE, TAPECTL, and TAPESL, support
the IBM 3590 tape device. Two new values of the MODE= parameter in
each macro have been provided:
−
−
3590B - specifies uncompacted recording format
3590C - specifies compacted recording format.
5.8.3 DFSMS/VM Removable Media Services
DFSMS/VM Removable Media Services (RMS) virtual machine and its interface
routines provide support for the IBM Automated Tape Library Dataservers. The
IBM 3590 tape devices can be used in the IBM 3494 and 3495 Automated Tape
Library Dataservers. The DFSMS/VM RMS has been enhanced to recognize the
new IBM 3590 tape device and the new IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Cartridge.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
5.9 VSE/ESA Version 2
VSE/ESA Version 2 will support the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
in the fourth quarter of 1996. EREP 3.5.0 plus PTF, DITTO/ESA Release 1, and
future release of ADSM for VSE will also support the IBM 3590 High Performance
Tape Subsystem.
5.10 Transaction Processing Facility (TPF)
TPF Version 4.1 supports the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
121
Figure 54. OS400 Version 3 Release 1
5.11 OS/400 Version 3 Release 1
OS/400 Version 3.1 is required to use the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Subsystem in both a tape-library and non-tape-library environment. Typically the
user application program itself does not use the tape drive directly. The backup
and archive software subsystems, such as Backup Recovery and Media
Services/400 (BRMS/400) and ADSM for OS/400, use tape drives and tape
libraries.
BRMS/400 Version 3.1 and ADSM for OS/400 support IBM 3590 High Performance
Tape Subsystem. Both BRMS and ADSM can utilize an IBM 3590-B11 as a tape
library by using the ACF in random mode.
If you want to use IBM 3590 tape drive for alternate IPL, RPQ 843860 is required.
The IBM 3590 tape drive cannot be used for IBM software distribution in an
OS/400 environment. Please use current supported tape drive or migrate to the
CD-ROM software distribution system.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 55. AIX/6000 Version 3.2.5 and Version 4.1.1
5.12 AIX/6000 Version 3.2.5 and Version 4.1.1
AIX/6000 Versions 3.2.5 and 4.1.1 support the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape
Subsystem in both a RISC/6000 and POWERparallel SP2 system environment.
The device driver for the IBM 3590 is provided as a hardware feature of the IBM
3590-B11 tape drive. The feature number is 9603. For library support, a feature
number of the IBM 3494 tape library (number 5212) provides both the IBM
3590-B1A tape drive device driver and the Library Manager device driver. The
Library Manager device driver supports both RS-232 and LAN interfaces. Both
device drivers for the IBM 3590 tape drive are exactly same.
The SCSI tape device driver is called the IBM AIX Enhanced Tape Medium
Changer Device Driver. The device driver supports the IBM 3490 models C and
E, the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem, and the IBM 7331 8 mm tape
libraries. All current application interfaces, such as open, read, write, close, and
ioctl , are supported. The ioctl application interface provides a set of tape and
SCSI-specific functions. It allows an AIX/6000 application to access and control
features and attributes of the tape device programmatically. For the IBM 3590
tape drive and medium devices (ACF), ioctl also provides a set of medium
changer functions that can be accessed through the normal tape device special
file or independently through an additional special file for the medium changer
only.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
123
The device driver supports standard AIX/6000 tape commands, such as tctl, mt,
dd, tar, cpio, backup, and restore . A standard set of AIX/6000 device
management commands is available. The chdev, rmdev, mkdev, and lsdev
commands are used to bring the device online or change attributes that
determine the status of the tape devices.
A set of Tape Drive Service Aids is provided with the device driver. The service
aids can take the dump of the tape drive microcode and transfer it to the host. It
is also possible to load the microcode from the host into the tape drive through a
SCSI interface.
If you want to read or write 2MB block size data for the IBM 3590 tape drive, you
must increase the SCSI adapter DMA bus memory length by using smit config.
The default block size is 256KB.
Device driver information is described in the IBM SCSI Tape Drive, Medium
Changer, and Library Device Drivers Installation and User ′ s Guide , GC35-0154.
124
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 56. SunOS and Solaris
5.13 SunOS and Solaris
The IBM 3590 support for SunOS and Solaris is similar to the IBM 3590 support
for AIX/6000. SunOS 5.2 or 5.3 and Solaris 2.2 or 2.3 support the IBM 3590 High
Performance Tape Subsystem on Sun systems.
The IBM 3590 device driver for SunOS is provided as a hardware feature of the
IBM 3590-B11 tape drive. The feature number is 9710. For library support, a
feature number of IBM 3494 (number 9204) provides both the IBM 3590-B1A tape
drive device driver and the Library Manager device driver. The Library Manager
device driver supports both RS-232 and LAN interfaces. Both device drivers for
IBM 3590 tape drive are exactly same.
The SCSI device driver contains both a tape drive and medium changer device
driver. The device driver supports the IBM 3490 C and E models and the IBM
3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem. All current application interfaces, such
as open, read, write, close, and ioctl , are supported. The ioctl application
interface provides a set of tape and SCSI-specific functions. For the IBM 3590
tape drive and medium devices (ACF), ioctl also provides a set of medium
changer functions.
A set of Tape Drive Service Aids is provided with the device driver. The service
aids can take the dump of the tape drive microcode and transfer it to the host. It
is also possible to load the microcode from the host into the tape drive through a
SCSI interface.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
125
The maximum block size of the IBM 3590 tape drive is limited to 256KB because
of the SCSI adapter in the Sun system.
Device driver information is available in the IBM SCSI Tape Drive, Medium
Changer, and Library Device Drivers Installation and User ′ s Guide , GC35-0154.
126
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 57. ADSM for AIX/6000 and SunOS/Solaris
5.14 ADSM for AIX/6000 and SunOS/Solaris
AdStar Distributed Storage Manager (ADSM) for AIX/6000 and ADSM for
SunOS/Solaris provide support for IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
similar to the support provided for IBM 3480 and 3490 tape subsystems. The IBM
3590 support requires ADSM Version 1 Release 2.1. Supported operating system
levels of AIX are AIX 3.2.5 and AIX 4.1.1. For Sun systems, SunOS 5.3 or Solaris
2.3 is required.
ADSM uses the ACF of the IBM 3590 as a 10-cartridge tape library. Thus the IBM
3590-B11 is treated as a medium change library. The 3590 tape drives in the
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver are also supported. ADSM also
uses the high-speed search capability of the IBM 3590.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
127
Figure 58. Other Software Supported for I B M 3590
5.15 Other Software Supported for IBM 3590
On the POWERparallel SP2 and RISC System/6000 systems, support for the IBM
3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem is also provided under the following
products:
•
IBM Client Input Output/Sockets
IBM Client Input Output/Sockets is a set of commands and application
programming interfaces (APIs) that can be used for high-speed
communication and for accessing tape devices on a network of AIX
workstations and MVS/ESA mainframes. CLIO/S makes it easier to distribute
work and data across a network of POWERparallel SP2, RISC/6000, and
MVS/ESA mainframe systems. CLIO/S also provides an API to tape drives
anywhere in the network. The API supports the IBM 3590 High Performance
Tape Subsystem.
CLIO/S is a licensed program (program number 5648-129). See the IBM
Client Input Output/Sockets Version 2 Release 1 General Information ,
GC23-3879, for details.
•
RTAPI
Remote Tape Application Interface (RTAPI) is a service offering developed by
the IBM Scientific and Technical Systems and Solution group. The RTAPI
provides data transfer from tape servers to tape clients at near tape-head
speeds.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Clients can access the tape devices on tape servers located at remote sites
throughout a network. Tape server support is for IBM 3590 tape drives. The
client interface is an API, not a device driver interface, so users must
develop client applications.
•
REELlibrarian
REELlibrarian for AIX/6000 Release 4.2 supports the IBM 3590 High
Performance Tape Subsystem. The REELlibrarian is a tape management
product developed by Storage Technology Corporation.
•
NSL UniTree
National Storage Laboratory (NLS) UniTree Release 2.1 supports the IBM
3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem. This product is an online mass
storage management system that gives users direct access to data stored on
a variety of different storage devices.
Chapter 5. Software Support for the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
129
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Chapter 6. Tape Performance Considerations
In the absence of the final performance information relating to the IBM 3590 High
Performance Tape Subsystem that uses the Magstar tape drive, this chapter
discusses the 3490E performance characteristics and how they relate to effective
data rate and overall performance of the 3490E subsystems. The discussion is
then extended to the new Magstar tape drive devices, developing ideas and
issues of most importance when considering the improvements in native drive
performance available with the Magstar tape drive.
The general nature of the discussions and diagrams relates to all relevant
platforms (for example, ES/9000, S/390 Parallel Server, RISC/6000, and AS/400).
However, the tape performance in any subsystem will depend on the
implementation, applications, and thus platform. The actual throughput a
customer can achieve is a function of many components, such as system
processor, disk data rate, data block size, data compressibility, I/O attachments,
and system and application software.
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
131
Figure 59. IBM 3490E ESCON Data Rate
6.1 IBM 3490E ESCON Data Rate
Figure 59 shows an ESCON host attached to an IBM 3490E model A20 control
unit using two ESCON channel adapters. Note that this diagram shows two
channels to the control unit; the effective and instantaneous data rates quoted
refer to each path. Thus the overall effective data rate in the diagram is 12MB/s
for the model A20 control unit—6MB/s for each path. In the sections below, the
effective (or sustainable) data rates are quoted for each path to enable us to
make valid comparisons.
6.1.1 Native Data Rates
The IBM 3490E subsystem control units support a channel data rate of up to
9MB/s. The model A20 is capable of attaching up to eight ESCON channels, but
only two of them can be concurrently active because the model A20 has two
control unit functions. That is, each of the two concurrently active host channels
shown in the diagram is capable of a maximum data rate of 9MB/s. Each control
unit function buffers the data by dynamically allocating a buffer from the 8MB
buffer storage available in the model A20 and associating it with the tape drive
allocated by the host system software. The model A20 control unit has an 8MB
buffer available, which serves up to 16 tape drives. It is during the process of
transferring data from the host channel to the buffer that the data can be
compressed using the BAC algorithm component of IDRC.
The speed of the IBM 3490E tape drive is 3MB/s. If the data is compressed in
the control unit at a ratio of less than approximately 3:1, the attainable
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
subsystem throughput is constrained by the drive speed. If the compression
ratio achieved is greater than 3:1, the attainable throughput is constrained by the
channel speed. Nevertheless, for most applications using conventional DASD,
the data rate attained is determined not by the tape drive speed but by another
system or application component.
6.1.2 Data Compression
The compression achieved using IDRC is made up of two factors:
•
Automatic reblocking of the data to a block size of 128KB, which has a more
marked effect on small block sizes
•
Applying the BAC algorithm to the data, the effectiveness of which depends
on the randomness of the data, and whether or not it has already been
compressed (for example, by hardware or software data compression in the
host).
IDRC uses an adaptive algorithm that is applied as each block of data is read or
written and optimizes the effectiveness of the compression. If the data is known
to be unsuitable for compression, the user or application can choose to turn off
the IDRC compression by using software parameters. However, the automatic
reblocking function is always applied, and it cannot be turned off.
An average compression ratio achieved with normal commercial data is quoted
as 3:1 when using the IDRC algorithm. Actual results achieved with specific data
will vary.
6.1.3 Effective Data Rates
The theoretical figures for data rates are put into perspective by actual
measurements of maximum effective data rates achieved.
Such a measurement study was conducted at the SSD Laboratory in Tucson
where one IBM 3490E model A10 control unit and two model B40 drive units
were used for the measurements. The host was an IBM 3090-200 running
MVS/SP 3.1.0E and DFP 3.1. The SSPD measurement driver, using EXCP, did not
perform any processing of the data blocks read from or written to tape. Two
data patterns were used in this study to provide compaction ratios of
approximately 1.5:1 and 3:1. A third set of results for the uncompacted data case
was achieved by setting the JCL parameter TRTCH=NOCOMP to turn off the
IDRC compression. Table 8 on page 134, taken from WSC Flash 9108 IBM 3490E
Tape Subsystem Performance , which documents the study, relates to a
subsystem such as the subsystem shown in the diagram, using an ESCON
channel, an 8MB buffer, and with five drives active.
Note: Because of the five concurrently active drives, the numbers are not the
maximum; the objective in showing these numbers is to demonstrate the effect
of differing block sizes while keeping the other factors constant. There are
performance differences depending on the number of active drives sharing a
path. These differences are most noticeable going from one to three drives;
when moving from three to eight active drives per path, the performance
numbers change less (approximately 0.1MB/s). However, the number of active
drives is important, and with IBM 3490E subsystems, control unit constraints can
be induced by having too many active drives.
Chapter 6. Tape Performance Considerations
133
Table 8. Effective Data Rates per Path to an I B M 3490E Tape Drive
Compaction
Ratio
16KB Blocks
(MB/s)
32KB Blocks
(MB/s)
64KB Blocks
(MB/s)
No compaction
2.4
2.7
2.8
1.5:1
2.9
3.8
3.9
3:1
3.2
4.6
6.1
Table 8 is shown as a simple graph in Figure 60 on page 135.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 60. IBM 3490E ESCON Data Rate Chart
6.2 IBM 3490E ESCON Data Rate Chart
The measured data rates illustrate two points about effective data rates as
opposed to native data rates in tape subsystems:
•
When the data is not compressed, the effective data rate is limited by the
drive speed, that is, approximately 3MB/s. However, when the data is
compressed, the maximum data rate is approximately 6MB/s.
•
The data rate is dependent on block size. With a block size of 16KB and a
compression ratio of 3:1, the maximum data rate is 3.2MB/s.
The explanation for this is that not all of the data passed down a channel is user
data. Although the channel may send data to the control unit at 9MB/s, a
proportion of this is “hand-shaking” exchanges between host and control, sent
before and after each block. The effective data rate in a subsystem that is not
constrained by the drive speed (or other parts of the overall system), will be the
number of megabytes per second of user data sent down the channel. Because
the same amount of hand-shaking occurs for each block, regardless of the
amount of data in the block, when block sizes are small, the proportion of user
data sent down the channel is lower than for larger block sizes.
Note: Do not confuse the two effects of block size. The effect of auto-reblocking
is greater when the user block size is small; thus the compression ratio is
higher. High compression ratios mean that the effective data rate to the
drives will be greater than the drive speed of 3MB/s, and ultimately (with
compression ratios of approximately 3:1) the effective data rate can
approach the channel data rate. However, the smaller the block size, the
Chapter 6. Tape Performance Considerations
135
higher the channel overheads, and the lower the effective data rate over
the channel.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 61. IBM 3490E SCSI Data Rate
6.3 IBM 3490E SCSI Data Rate
Figure 61 shows a SCSI host attached to an IBM 3490E model Cxx control unit
and integrated drive unit using a SCSI adapter.
The issues governing performance are exactly the same as in the ESCON
example. The channel overheads are slightly different because of the different
protocols. Measurement studies with the 3490E model Exx have yielded
maximum effective data rates of approximately 6.5MB/s. (Figure 62 shows some
of these measurements in a simple graph.)
However, it should be noted that other system factors limit many common tasks
to data rates of no more than 2MB/s. Such factors include slow DASD speeds,
nonsequential data access patterns, small file transfers, communication
overheads, or even overall I/O capabilities of the host.
Chapter 6. Tape Performance Considerations
137
Figure 62. IBM 3490E SCSI Data Rate Chart
6.4 IBM 3490E SCSI Data Rate Chart
Figure 62 is similar to the graph in Figure 60 on page 135 The measurements
were taken in the IBM Tucson Laboratories using an IBM RISC/6000 host writing
data to an IBM 3490 E model SCSI-attached tape drive. Table 9 shows the
effective data rates used to construct the graph.
Table 9. Effective Data Rates per Path to an I B M 3490E Tape Drive
Compaction
Ratio
16KB Blocks
(MB/s)
32KB Blocks
(MB/s)
64KB Blocks
(MB/s)
No compaction
2.9
2.9
2.9
1.5:1
4.3
4.4
4.3
3:1
4.6
6.0
6.5
The block size effect is not so noticeable in this example going from 16KB to
64KB blocks where the subsystem is limited by the drive speed. When there is
no compaction, the data rate is the same for all three block sizes, 2.9MB/s, that
is, the limit of the drive speed. With compaction at 1.5:1 the effective drive speed
is 1.5 times greater than with no compaction, that is, approximately 4.3MB/s;
again the three block sizes show the same data rate to the drive. However, at
3:1 compaction, the block size effect is noticeable, as the data rate to the drive is
no longer the limiting factor. The effective data rate down the channel is the
limiting factor, and this is block size dependent.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 63. IBM 3590 ESCON Data Rate
6.5 IBM 3590 ESCON Data Rate
Figure 63 shows an ESCON host attached to an IBM 3590 model A00 control unit
using the control unit′s two upper-interface ESCON adapters. IBM 3590 tape
drives (and integrated control unit functions) are attached to the IBM 3590 model
A00 using the control unit′s two lower-interface SCSI adapters. The two ESCON
paths can be concurrently active, as each drive is attached to both paths and
each drive has its own control unit function. (Needless to say, both paths cannot
concurrently access the same drive.)
The improved compression algorithm together with the high native drive speed
of 9MB/s mean that IBM 3590 subsystems are unlikely to be constrained to the
native drive speed (9MB/s). Although final product performance data will not be
available until general availability of the product, preliminary laboratory
measurements show that, for a 32KB block size (the supported maximum, for
example, for most MVS access methods), effective sustained data rates of 8MB/s
or more may be achieved where there are no other application, DASD, or system
inhibitors. With block sizes of 64KB (that is, coded at the EXCP level), sustained
data rates of more than 11MB/s may be achieved. Nevertheless, common MVS
applications, such as DASD dumps or DFSMShsm backups, are constrained
(because of DASD data rates, and application, or other system overheads) to
rates often substantially below the capability of the tape drive. Further
performance information will be published as it becomes available and nearer to
the availability date of the product.
Chapter 6. Tape Performance Considerations
139
Figure 64. IBM 3590 SCSI Data Rate
6.6 IBM 3590 SCSI Data Rate
Figure 64 is much the same as Figure 63 on page 139. The SCSI host can
attach directly to the IBM 3590 tape drives, using the 20MB/s SCSI bus. Each
tape drive has two SCSI adapters, which cannot be concurrently accessed.
Maximum effective sustained data rates are expected to be up to 12MB/s, from
the preliminary measurements made at the IBM Tucson laboratories. Some of
the results are shown as a simple graph in Figure 65 on page 141.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 65. IBM 3590 SCSI Data Rate Chart
6.7 IBM 3590 SCSI Data Rate Chart
Figure 65 shows some of the preliminary data rate measurements made in the
IBM Tucson Laboratories, using the IBM 3590 tape drive. For clarity, the results
are shown in exactly the same simple graphical form as in Figure 60 on
page 135 and Figure 62 on page 138.
Table 10 shows the effective data rates used to construct the graph in Figure 65.
Table 10. Effective Data Rates per Path to an I B M 3590 Tape Drive
Compaction
Ratio
16KB Blocks
(MB/s)
32KB Blocks
(MB/s)
64KB Blocks
(MB/s)
No compaction
4.9
6.6
9.0
1.5:1
5.7
8.8
9.4
3:1
5.8
9.2
11.1
Chapter 6. Tape Performance Considerations
141
Figure 66. IBM AS/400 Data Rate Chart
6.8 IBM AS/400 Data Rate Chart
Figure 66 shows the data rate achieved using various AS/400 hosts writing data
to various tape drives. (Note that the data rate units for this chart are GB/hr,
rather than MB/s.) The graph illustrates two points:
First, it shows the performance improvements expected using the IBM 3590 with
an AS/400 host. It shows that, for example, an AS/400 model F80 may save data
with an IBM 3590 tape drive up to 20% faster than an IBM 3490 on large files.
Note: It is worth considering here that, for the AS/400 environment, these
implied performance enhancements are derived from data rate increases alone;
further overall improvements may be seen through cartridge capacity changes
and the resulting need for fewer tape mounts. Please refer to AS/400
performance documentation for more detailed information on specific
environments.
Second, the graph illustrates the general point that the path to the tape drive is
by no means the only consideration in estimating overall performance, or
performance improvements with IBM 3590 tape drive. This applies to all of the
configurations and platforms discussed in this chapter.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Figure 67. Autoblocking and Compression
6.9 Autoblocking and Compression
As described previously, the compression factor achieved in the tape subsystem
is important in two different ways:
•
High compression ratios mean that the data occupies less space on the
cartridge, fewer cartridges are used, and less space is required to store the
cartridges.
•
High compression ratios mean that the effective data rate to the tape drive is
increased, and thus the tape drive is less likely to be the limiting factor in
the performance of the subsystem.
The IBMLZ1 algorithm is considered to be generally more effective than IDRC,
and yet the average compression ratio quoted is approximately 3:1, the same
ratio used for IDRC. The differences between the implementation of IDRC and
the IBMLZ1 algorithm are discussed below.
6.9.1 Cartridge Capacity
The space savings achieved using the IBM 3590 are calculated slightly differently
from those achieved using IDRC.
IDRC overall compaction (in the example in Figure 67, 3:1) was achieved in two
parts, that is, reblocking and application of BAC. A cartridge capacity of 800MB
means that 800MB of user data can be written to the tape if no reblocking or
compression is applied. In IBM 3490E drives, reblocking (to 128KB blocks) is
automatic, so some space savings are achieved even if the compression is
Chapter 6. Tape Performance Considerations
143
turned off by the software. Thus the average 3:1 compression is calculated as a
combination of the two factors.
The IBM 3590 drives also reblock automatically (to 384KB blocks). However, the
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge capacity of 10GB means that 10GB of
user data, when reblocked to 384KB, will fill the tape. Thus the average 3:1
compression in this case is entirely due to the IBMLZ1 compression algorithm.
6.9.2 Compression Improvements
The IBMLZ1 algorithms are in principle and overall more effective than BAC
(although not always). The effectiveness of both algorithm varies as a function of
the specific data to which it is applied. From measurements conducted by IBM
Tucson on a limited but broadly based sample of MVS customer data, and from
IBM MVS channel traces conducted by IBM San Jose, in general IBMLZ1 gave
more than 60% higher compression ratios than BAC. IBMLZ1 is more adaptive
and should thus be applicable to a wider range of data types than IDRC,
meaning better compression should be achieved on average. However, the
variation in the compression factors for different data types is likely to be wider.
For example, data which achieves very high compression factors with IDRC may
not change a great deal using the new algorithm, whereas other data where
IDRC was not effective may become a better candidate for compression.
6.9.3 Moving to the New Cartridges
After taking the above into consideration, it is possible to calculate the tape
capacity required. However, it is also important to understand which
applications can use the 10GB tape capacity (DFSMShsm, for example) and
which cannot (full volume dumps for example). See Section 1.11, “IBM 3590
Tape Space Utilization” on page 20.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
6.10 Final Note
Although the IBM 3590 tape drive is capable of a 9− 2 0 MB/s instantaneous data
rate, other components of the system may limit the actual effective data rate.
For example, in a RISC/6000 environment, without file system striping, the disk
file system and utilities will typically limit the data rates to under 4MB/s. For
memory-to-tape applications, a RISC/6000 can achieve data rates of up to
12MB/s (or 9MB/s if the data is uncompressed); tape-to-tape applications could
be nearly as fast. In the S/390 environment, dumps from DASD are limited by
the data rate from the disk, and in batch work, job suite dependencies and the
typical start and stop nature of the applications may be the limiting factors.
As a final note, the following points should be considered when using the IBM
3590:
•
Large block sizes
In the S/390 environment, use at least 32KB blocks or 64KB when supported
by the application.
In the RISC/6000 environment, set the block size in SMIT or use chdev . In
variable blocked mode be sure the utility has the proper blocking
characteristic set. The performance of intermediate block sizes (from 32KB
to 128KB) may be improved by setting Bus Domination ON in SMIT or chdev .
•
Fast DASD data rate
In the S/390 environment, performance is often limited by the data rate from
the DASD or the application. DFSMS data set striping can help some
applications. However tape-to-tape applications generally will be the fastest.
In the RISC/6000 environment, use sequential DASD access whenever
possible, allocating large files using center tracks, and defragmenting
periodically. Use striped file systems and fast DASD; simulate striping with
AIX 3.2.5 allocation maps.
•
Optimum compression resources
If you are using LZ2-based host compression in the S/390 environment
(hardware or software), then you should disable the IBMLZ1 tape
compression.
Usually, hardware compression should be favored over host software
compression, for optimum resource utilization and performance. In the
RISC/6000 environment, the IBMLZ1 tape data compression is faster than
host utility compression.
•
Host connections
For SCSI hosts, use the fast and wide SCSI adapter. Avoid sharing the host
connection with other nontape devices.
Chapter 6. Tape Performance Considerations
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Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
| Figure 68. Title Slide of the I B M Magstar Virtual Tape Server Presentation
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The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS), integrated with the IBM Tape
Library Dataservers, delivers an increased level of storage capable to the
traditional storage products hierarchy. The host software sees Virtual Tape
Server subsystem as a 3490 Enhanced Capability (3490E) Tape Subsystem with
associated standard (CST) or Enhanced Capacity Cartridge System Tapes
(ECCST). This virtualization of both the tape devices and the storage media to
the host allows for transparent utilization of the capabilities of the IBM 3590 tape
technology.
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In this chapter, we present the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) and cover
the following topics:
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We introduce and give you a brief overview of the key attributes and the
general concept of the Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
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We describe the hardware components and building blocks and list the
supporting host software products.
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We provide the information required for sizing and configuration of a Virtual
Tape Server subsystem.
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We explain the implementation considerations for supported host software
environments.
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We describe migration and operational considerations.
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
147
| Figure 69. Now Announced the I B M Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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7.1 Now Announced the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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In April 1995, together with the announcement of the IBM Magstar 3590 High
Performance Tape Subsystem, IBM announced a statement of direction to deliver
capacity-enabling technology (also called volume stacking) on our
ESCON-attached library products.
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Fulfilling this statement of direction, IBM now announces the IBM Magstar Virtual
Tape Server (VTS) for IBM 3494 and 3495 Tape Libraries.
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7.1.1 Virtual Tape Server for IBM 3494 Tape Library
The VTS subsystem in an IBM 3494 is installed in two frames:
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•
One IBM 3494-D12 drive unit frame houses the IBM 3590-B1A tape drives that
are dedicated to the Virtual Tape Server function.
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One IBM 3494-B16 Virtual Tape Server unit frame which contains the
required hardware and microcode to enable full 3590 Magstar tape storage
capacity, plus cartridge storage cells.
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Figure 69 shows the minimum configuration of a Virtual Tape Server subsystem
in IBM 3494 Tape Library including one library unit frame, one drive unit frame,
and one Virtual Tape Server unit frame.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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7.1.2 Virtual Tape Server for IBM 3495 Tape Library
Installed in an IBM 3495 Tape Library, the Virtual Tape Server subsystem is
composed of:
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One IBM 3590-A14 frame that houses four IBM 3590-B1A tape drives which
are dedicated to the Virtual Tape Server function. No IBM 3590-A00 ESCON
tape controller is required.
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One IBM 3495-B16 Virtual Tape Server unit frame that contains the required
hardware and microcode to enable full tape storage capacity.
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Figure 69 on page 148 shows the smallest Virtual Tape Server subsystem in an
IBM 3495 Tape Library configuration consisting of an IBM 3495 Tape Library
Model L20, including the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS).
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
149
| Figure 70. Introduction to the I B M Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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7.2 Introduction to the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server Controller, Tape Volume Cache, and the
IBM 3590 Magstar tape drives, together with the required housing, make up the
IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) subsystem, allowing automatic utilization
of the Magstar cartridge storage capacity and the drive data rate of 9 MB/s.
7.2.1 Transparent Capacity Exploitation and Management
The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) automatically fills the 30 GB Magstar
3590 cartridge. This is completed by the built-in storage management functions
and is transparent to any software, whether operating system or third-party
program.
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7.2.1.1 Host Software Transparency
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7.2.1.2 IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server Controller
The operating system knows only about tape drives and volumes and does not
need to manage the storage of virtual and stacked volumes. Therefore, in most
installations you do not need to change your operating system software at all.
The IBM Magstar Tape Server Controller and its associated microcode, are the
key components of the Virtual Tape Server subsystem:
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It automatically fills and manages Magstar 3590 cartridge capacity.
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It controls and manages the volume movement to and from the tape volume
cache and 3590 cartridges or Magstar tape drives.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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7.2.1.3 High Capacity Tape Volume Cache
The tape volume cache (TVC) is the disk component of the Virtual Tape Server
subsystem. It is used to buffer virtual volumes created by the host before they
are written to the physical IBM 3590 tape devices. It has these advantages:
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All host interaction is through the tape volume cache. The operating system
sees 32 virtual tape devices which are physically represented by storage
space on the tape volume cache′s RAID (Redundant Array of Independent
Disk) DASD. The operating system cannot directly write a logical volume to
a stacked Magstar cartridge.
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Multiple virtual volumes can be accessed in parallel because they physically
reside on the DASD.
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Virtual volumes are reacessible at disk speeds. Tape motion commands
such as space, locate, rewind, and unload are mapped into disk commands
and happen in milliseconds, not seconds as for traditional tape commands.
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7.2.2 Fully Integrated in IBM 3494 and IBM 3495 Tape Libraries
The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) can only be installed inside an IBM
3494 or 3495 Tape Library, and is fully supported through the Library Manager.
For instance, the location of virtual volumes and physical Magstar cartridges is
stored in the Library Manager console. Logical and physical volume serial
ranges are defined at the Library Manager console.
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7.2.2.1 ESCON Channel Attachment
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7.2.2.2 Coexistence in Same Library with IBM 3490, 3490E or 3590
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7.2.2.3 Automatic Exploitation for Future Tape Technology
Evolutions
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The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) is attached to the host through
ESCON channels, allowing two simultaneous ESCON data transfers.
The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) can be installed in an IBM 3495 with
IBM 3490, 3490E, and 3590 tape drives. Inside an IBM 3494, the IBM Magstar
Virtual Tape Server (VTS) can be installed together with IBM 3490E, and ESCONand SCSI-attached IBM 3590 tape drives. This ensures investment protection
and ease of migration.
The concept of the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) allows for immediate
utilization of future enhancements to the IBM 3590 tape technology without
impact to the host software.
7.2.3 Integration of Proven IBM Technologies
The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) is built using proven IBM
technologies. The Virtual Tape Server controller, for example, is based on RISC
technology
7.2.3.1 Magstar 3590
These are the industry′s leading half-inch tape drives for performance, capacity,
and reliability. Over 7,000 IBM 3590 tape drives have been shipped since
general availability in September 1995.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
151
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7.2.3.2 Serial Storage Architecture
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7.2.3.3 Storage Management Techniques
Serial Storage Architecture (SSA), together with high-performance disks,
provides improved performance and availability over previous-generation disk
architecture.
The storage management techniques are built on over 20 years of IBM
experience; they use for example, many features and functions found in IBM′ s
industry-leading DFSMShsm and ADSM software products.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 71. Virtual Tape Server Key Attributes
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7.3 Virtual Tape Server Key Attributes
Figure 71 lists the logical and physical key attributes of the IBM Magstar Virtual
Tape Server (VTS).
7.3.1 One VTS Subsystem per IBM 3494 or IBM 3495
Currently, one Virtual Tape Server subsystem can be installed in a single IBM
3494 or 3495 tape library. The Virtual Tape Server subsystem can be integrated
into an existing automated tape library in addition to, or instead of, already
installed physical tape drives. VTS tape drives can be shared across different
platforms and Sysplexes, just like any other IBM 3490E subsystem can in our
libraries. For details of the installation requirements, please refer to Figure 76
on page 167 through Figure 82 on page 179.
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7.3.1.1 Number of Logical 3490E Tape Drives
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Each Virtual Tape Server subsystem presents itself to the host as 32 3490E tape
drives, thus allowing much more parallelism in tape processing. Because of the
large number of logical tape drives, more drives can now be dedicated to
different hosts and platforms. In most cross-platform installations, dynamic and
automatic sharing of tape drives may no longer be required, although the Virtual
Tape Server fully supports existing tape drive sharing methods.
Before this announcement, no more than sixteen IBM 3490E tape drives could be
installed in a single IBM 3494 tape library or an IBM 3495-L20.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
153
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7.3.1.2 Up to 50,000 Logical Volumes
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Logical volumes are defined through the Library Manager console and can have
two different sizes:
A single Virtual Tape Server subsystem can manage up to 50,000 logical 3490E
volumes, making even a small tape library look very large. We describe logical
volumes in detail in Section 7.4, “Virtual Tape Server Key Concepts” on
page 156.
•
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MEDIA1=400 MB
MEDIA1 reflects a CST type of cartridge written in 36-track recording
technology without using the Improved Data Recording Capability (IDRC) that
a physical IBM 3490E tape drive provides.
•
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MEDIA2=800 MB
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MEDIA2 reflects an ECCST type of cartridge written in 36-track recording
technology without using the IBM 3490E′s IDRC.
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Logical 3490E volumes are stacked on physical Magstar cartridges allowing
effective use of their large capacity of +30 GB and of the IBM 3590 tape drive′ s
excellent performance.
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The number of stacked Magstar 3590 physical cartridges managed by the IBM
Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) is limited only by the number of storage slots
inside your IBM 3494 or 3495 tape library.
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7.3.2 Defined Physical Configurations
Regardless of the physical Virtual Tape Server configuration, the logical
attributes such as the number of virtual drives and volumes remain the same as
listed above.
7.3.2.1 IBM 3494
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The Virtual Tape Server in an IBM 3494 is supported in two configurations at
general available time according to the number of physical IBM 3590-B1A tape
drives and tape volume cache storage capacity:
•
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Three IBM 3590-B1As plus 36 GB of tape volume cache
If your tape operation is inhibited by the number of tape drives available but
not in terms of throughput, you might consider installing this configuration.
For details on sizing the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS), please refer
to Figure 88 on page 191.
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Six IBM 3590-B1As plus 72 GB of tape volume cache
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This configuration is the maximum configuration for a Virtual Tape Server
subsystem in an IBM 3494.
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More configurations are being tested; support for these will be announced at the
completion of testing. Some of the configurations being tested are four- and
five-drive configurations.
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7.3.2.2 IBM 3495
An IBM 3590-A14 frame included in a IBM 3495 tape library must always contain
four IBM 3590-B1A tape drives. Because the IBM 3590-B1As used by the Virtual
Tape Server are installed in an IBM 3590-A14 frame, the following two
configurations are available:
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Four IBM 3590-B1As plus 36 GB of tape volume cache
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Four IBM 3590-B1As plus 72 GB of tape volume cache
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7.3.3 Up to 40 TB of Tape Data per Virtual Tape Server Subsystem
The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) introduces new dimensions for
managing tape data. Instead of wasting tape storage capacity by not effectively
utilizing the full length of a tape cartridge, the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
(VTS) occupies only the amount of tape storage necessary to store the number
of bytes written by a host application. For instance, a tape data set of 200 MB
which is written to a virtual 3490E MEDIA2 cartridge will occupy only 200 MB on
the tape volume cache and on the stacked Magstar cartridge and not use the
possible 800 MB.
Defining the maximum number of logical volumes using MEDIA2 only, and
making full use of their 800 MB capacity, allows you to store up to 40 TB of tape
data in a single Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
155
| Figure 72. Virtual Tape Server Key Concepts.
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7.4 Virtual Tape Server Key Concepts
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Along with introducing the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS), we introduce
new views of volumes and devices because of the different knowledge about
volumes and devices in the host system and the hardware. Using a Virtual Tape
Server subsystem, the host application writes tape data to virtual devices. The
volumes created by the hosts are called Virtual Volumes and are physically
stored in a tape volume cache which is built from RAID DASD.
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Through tape volume cache management policies, the virtual tape server
management software moves host-created volumes from the tape volume cache
to a Magstar cartridge managed by the Virtual Tape Server subsystem. Once a
virtual volume is moved from the tape volume cache to tape, it becomes a
logical volume.
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To allow software transparency and implementation of a Virtual Tape Server
subsystem with no changes to the host′s operating system software, the host
has only a virtual view of the volumes and tape drives managed by the Virtual
Tape Server subsystem. The host cannot distinguish physical from virtual
volumes or their respective tape drives and will treat them as if they were ″real″
cartridges and devices.
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Management of physical Magstar tape drives and Magstar cartridges is
completely under control of the VTS storage management software.
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7.4.1 Virtual Volumes
When the host application writes tape data to the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape
Server (VTS), a virtual volume is created. Virtual volumes are physically stored
in the tape volume cache and all host commands are issued to the virtual
volume residing on DASD. All host interaction with tape data in a Virtual Tape
Server subsystem is through virtual volumes and through virtual tape devices.
Each virtual volume has the following characteristics (just like a real volume):
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•
It has a unique volume serial (volser) number known to the host.
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It is loaded and unloaded on a virtual device.
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It supports all tape write modes, including Tape Write Immediate.
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It contains all standard tape marks and data blocks.
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It supports an IBM standard label.
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•
It can be appended to after it was initially written from the beginning of tape.
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•
Data written is guaranteed to be in the tape volume cache when a command
is completed successfully that either implicitly or explicitly causes
synchronization.
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Each host written record has a logical block ID.
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•
End of volume is signaled when the total number of bytes written has
reached 400 MB for an emulated CST or 800 MB for an emulated ECCS T
volume.
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Virtual volumes can exist only in an IBM 3494 or 3495 tape library. You can
direct a tape data set to a virtual tape drive by directing it into a specific tape
library.
7.4.2 Virtual Devices
From a host perspective, the Virtual Tape Server subsystem looks like two IBM
3490E tape control units, each with 16 devices attached through ESCON
channels. Virtual tape drives are defined just like physical IBM 3490-A10
controller with 16 addresses through HCD (Hardware Configuration Definition), or
through IOCP (I/O Configuration Program), and MVSCP or HCPRIO macro.
However, you should not define a preferred path for the virtual devices.
An IOCP example of two VTS strings has been included showing the virtual
drives configured using the CUADD statements:
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Virtual Tape Server IOCP
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9032 - PORT D6 = CHPID′ S 29 & 32
9032 - PORT D7 = CHPID′ S 2A & 35
*
CNTLUNIT CUNUMBR=32E,PATH=(32,29),UNIT=TAPE,
UNITADD=((00,16)),LINK=(D6,D6),CUADD=0
CNTLUNIT CUNUMBR=35E,PATH=(35,2A),UNIT=TAPE,
UNITADD=((00,16)),LINK=(D7,D7),CUADD=0
TAPE1AE0 IODEVICE ADDRESS=(1AE0,16),UNIT=TAPE,CUNUMBR=(32E,35E),
UNITADD=00
*
CNTLUNIT CUNUMBR=32F,PATH=(32,29),UNIT=TAPE,
UNITADD=((00,16)),LINK=(D6,D6),CUADD=1
CNTLUNIT CUNUMBR=35F,PATH=(35,2A),UNIT=TAPE,
X
X
X
X
X
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
157
UNITADD=((00,16)),LINK=(D7,D7),CUADD=1
TAPE1AF0 IODEVICE ADDRESS=(1AF0,16),UNIT=TAPE,CUNUMBR=(32F,35F),
UNITADD=00
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Each virtual device has the following characteristics (just like real tape devices):
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It has a host device address.
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It is included in the I/O generation for the system.
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It is varied online or offline to the host.
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It signals ready when a virtual volume is loaded.
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It responds and processes all IBM 3490E I/O commands
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It becomes not ready when a virtual volume is rewound and unloaded.
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X
The functionality of the 3490E Integrated Cartridge Loader (ICL) is also included
in the virtual device′s capability. All virtual devices indicate that they have an
ICL. You can associate a media type with the cartridge loader that will allow fast
access for scratch mounts. The active status of the cartridge loader depends on
the availability of scratch volumes of the assigned media type.
7.4.3 Logical Volumes
When a virtual volume is moved from the tape volume cache, the process is
called Destaging, and the volume becomes a logical volume. When a logical
volume is moved from a Magstar cartridge to the tape volume cache, the
process is called staging and the volume becomes a virtual volume again.
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As virtual volumes are moved from the tape volume cache to a Magstar
cartridge, they are stacked on the cartridge end to end, taking up only the
number of bytes written by the host, thereby effectively utilizing all of the
cartridge′s storage capacity.
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You define the volume serial numbers for the logical volumes through the
Library Manager console. The Library Manager console associates a
Fast-Ready attribute with the category that the volume serial numbers are
defined within. The Library Manager assigns the logical volumes to the insert
category and notifies all attached hosts. Subsequent host inventory processing
is performed as for physical CST and ECCST volumes.
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Because a logical volume
other logical volumes, the
treated as a closed store.
volumes electronically but
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Note: Currently, stacked Magstar cartridges cannot be removed from the IBM
Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS). Therefore, these cartridges cannot be
ejected from the tape library.
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resides on a physical cartridge together with many
library containing virtual and logical volumes must be
This means that you can move the data on the
not physically.
7.4.4 Physical Volumes
The physical Magstar cartridges used by the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
(VTS) to store logical volumes are totally under the control of the Virtual Tape
Server subsystem and are not known to the hosts. The physical volume is also
called “stacked volume.” However, they must have unique volume serial
numbers like any other cartridge in a tape library.
158
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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Through the Library Manager console, you define which cartridges are to be
used by the Virtual Tape Server subsystem. Logical volumes are mapped by the
internal storage management software.
7.4.5 Physical Devices
The physical Magstar tape drives installed in the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape
Server (VTS) are invisible to any attached host system. They are completely
under the control of the Virtual Tape Server subsystem and therefore cannot be
addressed by any host system.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
159
| Figure 73. Hardware Overview
|
7.5 Hardware Overview
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This section describes hardware overview for Virtual Tape Server.
7.5.1 IBM 3494 Tape Library
An IBM 3494 Tape Library offers great configuration granularity because it is
made up of frames of identical size.
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An IBM 3494 Tape Library including the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS)
is composed of the hardware frames discussed below.
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7.5.1.1 One IBM 3494 Model L10, L12, or L14 Control Unit Frame
An IBM 3494 must include one library control-unit frame which contains the
Library Manager, the convenience I/O station (optional), and up to two tape
drives:
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•
IBM 3490E-CxA tape drives with an integrated controller in the IBM 3494-L10
|
•
SCSI-attached IBM 3590-B1A tape drives in the IBM 3494-L12
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•
ESCON-attached IBM 3590-B1A tape drives and the IBM 3590-A00 controller
in the IBM 3494-L14.
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The IBM 3494-L12 and IBM 3494-L14 library control unit frame can be installed
without drives. For an IBM 3494-L10 frame, you must submit a Request for Price
Quotation (RPQ).
160
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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7.5.1.2 One VTS Subsystem per IBM 3494
Currently, only one Virtual Tape Server subsystem can be installed in each IBM
3494 tape library. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) is made up of the
following components:
•
One IBM 3494-D12 drive frame housing three or six IBM 3590-B1As
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These IBM 3590-B1As are for exclusive use of the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape
Server (VTS). They are attached only to the Virtual Tape Server controller,
which is installed in the IBM 3494-B16 frame, and are therefore not visible to
any attached host. No additional tape drives that directly attach to any host
can be installed inside an IBM 3494-D12 frame owned by the Virtual Tape
Server.
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When ordering an IBM 3494-D12 frame, you must order the tape drives
separately, as you would for non-VTS-attached IBM 3494-D12 frames.
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The IBM 3494-D12 frame provides 290 cartridge storage cells. The
occupancy of the storage cells is under control of the Library Manager.
Therefore, these storage cells can be used by the Library Manager to store
any physical cartridge, not only those belonging to the Virtual Tape Server
subsystem.
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•
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One IBM 3494-B16 frame including the tape volume cache and the VTS
subsystem controller
If you open the door of an IBM 3494-B16 frame, you will notice that it looks
almost like an IBM 3494-S10 storage unit frame from the inside. This is
because the IBM 3494-B16 frame provides storage capacity for 400 cartridges
as well as containing the hardware and software components of the Virtual
Tape Server. As in the Virtual Tape Server-owned IBM 3494-D12 frame,
these storage cells can also contain cartridges that do not belong to the
Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
7.5.1.3 Additional IBM 3494 Model D10, D12, D14, or S10 Frames
An IBM 3494 tape library can be composed of up to 16 frames. An additional 13
frames can be added, consisting of drive unit frame IBM 3494-D10/D12/D14 and
storage unit frame IBM 3494-S10.
7.5.2 IBM 3495 Tape Library Models L20, L30, L40, L50
The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) is integrated in an IBM 3495 tape
library by attaching two frames to either model, similar to adding two IBM
3590-A14 frames or a combination of one IBM 3490-A20 tape control unit and one
IBM 3490-B40 tape drive box.
7.5.2.1 One Virtual Tape Server Subsystem per IBM 3495
At this time, only one Virtual Tape Server subsystem can be added to an IBM
3495 tape library. The Virtual Tape Server consists of:
•
One IBM 3590 Model A14 frame, housing four Magstar tape drives Model
B1A.
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The IBM 3590-A14 frame for integration in a Virtual Tape Server does not
include the IBM 3590-A00 controller. You must order the IBM 3590-B1A tape
drives separately.
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The IBM 3590-B1A tape drives are not accessible by any host system and
are for exclusive use of the Virtual Tape Server. All of the tape drives in the
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
161
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|
IBM 3590-A14 are dedicated to the Virtual Tape Server subsystem and
cannot directly attach to a host system instead.
•
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162
One IBM 3495-B16 Virtual Tape Server unit frame including the tape volume
cache and the VTS subsystem controller.
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 74. IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server Host Software Support
|
7.6 IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server Host Software Support
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The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) appears to the host as two fully
configured IBM 3490E tape subsystems. The software support is thus the same
in the environments described below whether for a Virtual Tape Server
subsystem included in IBM 3494 or one in IBM 3495.
7.6.1 MVS/ESA
The table on the left hand-side of Figure 74 shows the software requirements in
an MVS/ESA environment.
In a system-managed tape environment, the following software levels are
supported:
|
•
MVS/ESA V4.3.0, V5.1.0, or V5.2.0
|
•
JES3 Version V4.2.1, V5.1.1 or V5.1.2, if installed
|
•
DFSMS/MVS V1.1.0, V1.2.0, or V1.3.0
|
•
Environmental Record Editing and Printing (EREP) V3.5 plus PTF
|
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|
If you are managing your IBM 3494 or 3495 tape library using Basic Tape Library
Support (BTLS) for MVS/DFP (5655-057), the following software levels are
supported:
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•
MVS/ESA V4.2.2, V4.3.0, or V5.1.0
|
•
MVS/DFP V3.3.0 or V3.3.2
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
163
•
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|
EREP V3.5 plus program temporary fix (PTF)
If you are using BTLS for DFSMS/MVS (5655-056), the following software levels
are required:
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•
MVS/ESA V4.3.0 or V5.1.0
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•
DFSMS/MVS V1.1.0, V1.2.0, or V1.3.0
|
•
EREP V3.5 plus PTF
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If you are using other 3490E emulations, such as Magstar tape drives attached to
the host through the IBM 3591-A01 controller, you must install BTLS to allow the
host to distinguish between native and emulated IBM 3490E devices.
7.6.2 VM/ESA
In a native VM/ESA environment, the Virtual Tape Server requires the following
software levels:
|
•
VM/ESA V1.2 or higher
|
•
DFSMS/VM Function Level 221
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For guest operating system support, VM/ESA V1.2. or higher must be installed,
but DFSMS/VM is not required.
7.6.3 VSE/ESA
Native VSE/ESA does not support the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS). If
VSE/ESA is running as a guest under VM, the following software levels are
required for support of a Virtual Tape Server subsystem installed in an IBM 3494
tape library:
|
•
VSE/ESA V1.3.5 or higher plus PTFs
|
•
EREP V3.5 plus PTFs
|
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|
Please note that the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) in a IBM 3495 tape
library is not supported for VSE/ESA, either native or running as a guest under
VM.
164
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 75. IBM 3494 Host and Library Manager Attachment
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7.7 IBM 3494 Host and Library Manager Attachment
In Figure 75, we outline the integration of a Virtual Tape Server subsystem into
an automated tape library through its attachments to the host and the Library
Manager for an IBM 3494 tape library.
7.7.1 ESCON Host Attachment
The Virtual Tape Server subsystem is attached to the host through two ESCON
channels, each providing 64 logical paths. Thus, the subsystem provides 128
logical paths in total.
|
Each ESCON channel provides a channel data rate of 17 MB/s instantaneous.
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The Virtual Tape Server subsystem can be installed at the same distance of 43
km from the host as native Magstar tape drives.
|
All 32 virtual tape drives can be addressed through either ESCON channel.
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7.7.2 Library Manager Attachment
The IBM 3590-B1A tape drives residing in the IBM 3494-D12 frame are not
attached to any host system. They are attached solely to the Library Manager
through an RS-422 connection to provide the required communication path for
library-related commands, and to the Virtual Tape Server controller IBM
3494-B16.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
165
|
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The Virtual Tape Server controller is connected to the Library Manager through
one RS-232 connection and two RS-422 connections to provide the required
communication paths.
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A total of five or eight RS-422 connections are required, depending on the
number of Magstar tape drives installed in the Virtual Tape Server plus one
RS-232 connection.
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Without additional features installed on the library control-unit frame Models L10,
L12, or L14, the library manager provides four RS-232 direct-attached host ports
and four RS-422 control-unit or direct-attached drive connections. Currently, you
need to order additional features for the IBM 3494 Model Lxx frames to provide
the required Library Manager connections to the Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
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Depending on the number of IBM 3590-B1A tape drives in the Virtual Tape
Server controller (IBM 3494-B16) configuration and whether other control unit are
installed in the IBM 3494, Feature 5229 and one or two Feature 5228 may need to
be installed.
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•
If the IBM 3494-B16 contains three IBM 3590-B1A tape drives, up to an
additional seven control units can be connected to the Library Manager with
appropriate Features 5229 and 5228.
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•
If the IBM 3494-B16 contains six IBM 3590-B1A tape drives, up to an
additional four control units can be connected to the Library Manager with
appropriate Features 5229 and 5228.
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7.7.3 IBM 3494-D12 and IBM 3494-B16 Frame Connections
All IBM 3590-B1A tape drives installed in the IBM 3494-D12 frame are connected
to both SCSI buses of the Virtual Tape Server controller IBM 3494-B16. Because
of this connection, both frames must be installed adjacent to one another.
166
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 76. IBM 3494: VTS Configuration Guidelines
|
|
|
7.8 IBM 3494 Virtual Tape Server Configuration Guidelines
For physical configuration of an IBM 3494 Tape Library including the Virtual Tape
Server, five basic configuration rules apply.
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|
7.8.1 The L12/L14 Frame Can Be Without Drives
|
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|
7.8.2 The D12/B16 Frame Must Be Within The First Eight Frames
|
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|
For a minimum configuration of an IBM 3494 with a Virtual Tape Server
subsystem, the L12 or L14 frame can be installed without tape drives. Please
submit an RPQ if you want to install a Model L10 frame without tape drives.
If you are extending your current library to more than eight frames, you cannot
install the Virtual Tape Server subsystem beyond the eighth frame.
If the configuration of frames in an installed IBM 3494 tape library has to be
changed — for example, if frames must be moved to install a VTS subsystem, or
if frames are moved from one IBM 3494 to another — an RPQ must be processed
before the IBM 3494 Tape Library can be reconfigured. This RPQ is required for
moving feature numbers 5300, 5302, 5304, and 5400, or Models B16, D10, D12,
D14, and S10, and will ensure that the proper cables are available. The RPQ will
also prepare for future changes or enhancements.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
167
|
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7.8.3 The D12 Frame Must Always Be to the Left of the B16 Frame
|
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|
7.8.4 The D12 and B16 Frames Must Directly Attach to One Another
|
|
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|
7.8.5 A Modem Must Be Supplied for the IBM 3494-B16 Frame
If you are planning to use an already installed IBM 3494-D12 frame to hold the
IBM 3590-B1A tape drives of the Virtual Tape Server, it has to be installed to the
left of the IBM 3494-B16 frame (between the IBM 3494-B16 and the IBM 3494-Lxx
frames). If you want to change an existing empty IBM 3494-D14 frame into an
IBM 3494-D12 frame, you must submit an RPQ.
You cannot install another frame between the IBM 3494-D12 and the IBM
3494-B16 frames that include an IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS).
It is mandatory that you supply a modem for installation, operation, and remote
support service of the IBM 3494-B16 frame. The same modems as for the IBM
3591-A01 and 3590-A00 Remote Support Facility (RSF) are supported. You can
obtain a list of these modems from your IBM representative.
168
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 77. New I B M 3494 Features, Their Codes and Model Upgrades
|
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7.9 New IBM 3494 Features, Their Codes and Model Upgrades
For integration of an IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) into an existing IBM
3494, or for factory installation, you must order the features listed below. To use
an existing IBM 3494 frames for installation of a Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
7.9.1 Features and Their Codes
To install an IBM 3494 plus IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS), you must
order some new features in addition to existing features and products. For
instance, the IBM 3590-B1As that are installed inside the IBM 3494 Model D12
frame must be ordered separately.
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|
|
7.9.1.1 IBM 3494 Model D12 plus Feature 9010
|
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|
7.9.1.2 IBM 3494 Model L1x plus Feature 9006
|
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|
Note: Additional Library Manager connections are currently required for the
installation of the Virtual Tape Server in an IBM 3494 tape library. Please
refer to Section 7.7, “IBM 3494 Host and Library Manager Attachment” on
page 165 for details about feature codes 5228 and 5229.
Feature 9010 for the IBM 3494 Model D12 frame indicates that the IBM 3590 tape
drives in it are to be used by a Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
To add an IBM 3494 Model B16 frame to a library, one feature 9006 must be
specified for the library unit frames L10, L12, or L14 to track the number of
frames installed in the library.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
169
|
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|
7.9.1.3 IBM 3494 Model B16 Feature Codes
|
|
Feature 9986 is required to provide a special line cord for Chicago, Illinois,
U.S.A.
|
|
|
Feature 3701 provides the DASD storage for the tape volume cache. Each feature
includes two DASD arrays providing you with 36 GB of usable tape volume
cache. Currently, you can order either one or two Features 3701:
Feature 9109 must be specified for the IBM 3494 Model B16 frame to specify its
connection to the S/390 host systems.
|
|
•
Order one Feature 3701 if three IBM 3590-B1As are installed in the Virtual
Tape Server subsystem.
|
|
•
Order two Features 3701 if six IBM 3590-B1As are installed in the Virtual
Tape Server subsystem.
|
|
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|
It is required that you supply a modem for installation, operation, and remote
support service of the Model B16 frame and that you install one of the following
features code. The same modem and switch may be shared between an IBM
3494 Model B16, and an IBM 3590 Model A00.
|
2710
|
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|
This feature supplies a cable and connectors to attach a
customer-supplied modem to the IBM 3494 Model B16 for remote
diagnostic support. This feature should be specified only on the first
IBM 3494 Model B16, or IBM 3590 Model A00 in an installation, as the
Model B16s and Model A00s can use the same Remote Support
Facility. Each IBM 3494 Model B16 must specify either Feature 2710,
2711, or 2712.
|
2711
|
|
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|
|
Remote Support Switch
This feature provides a switch, cables, and connectors for the
attachment of a IBM 3494 Model B16, and one or more 3590 Model
A00 Controllers to the Remote Support Facility (Feature Code 2710). It
should be ordered on a IBM 3494 Model B16, IBM 3495 Model B16, or
IBM 3590 Model A00 that is the second product in an installation.
Only one switch should be specified per installation site. Each IBM
3494 Model B16 must specify Feature 2710, 2711, or 2712.
|
2712
|
|
|
|
|
Remote Support Attachment
This feature provides an additional cable and connector to attach to
the Remote Support Switch (feature code 2711). Order it on the IBM
3494 Model B16, or IBM 3590 Model A00 — that is, the third through
fourteenth product in the installation. Each 3494 Model B16 must
specify Feature 2710, 2711, or 2712.
|
|
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|
|
Remote Support Facility
Features 2710, 2711 and 2712 are both plant and field installable.
7.9.2 Model Upgrades
You must apply for an RPQ if you wish to upgrade an existing IBM 3494 Model
D10 or D12 frame to an IBM 3494 Model B16 frame. The following Model
conversions may be supported:
|
•
IBM 3494 Model L10 to L12
|
•
IBM 3494 Model L10 to L14
170
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
•
IBM 3494 Model D10 to D12
|
•
IBM 3494 Model D10 to D14
|
•
IBM 3494 Model D10 to B16
|
•
IBM 3494 Model D12 to B16
|
•
IBM 3494 features 5300 to 5302
|
•
IBM 3494 features 5300 to 5304
|
|
If you want to upgrade one or two existing frames to a D12+B16 frame
combination and the model upgrades are not listed, also please submit an RPQ.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
171
| Figure 78. IBM 3494 Environmental Requirements
|
7.10 IBM 3494 Environmental Requirements
|
|
|
Figure 78 lists the physical specifications for the operation environment of an
IBM 3494 tape library and the specifications for the Virtual Tape Server in IBM
3494.
|
|
The dimensions of the IBM 3494 Model B16 frame are the same as for every
other IBM 3494 frame:
|
•
Height: 1800 mm (70.9 in)
|
•
Width : 750 mm (29.5 in)
|
•
Depth : 1524 mm (60.0 in)
|
|
|
For further information on the Virtual Tape Server subsystem′s physical
installation please refer to IBM 3494 Tape Library Dataserver Introduction and
Planning Guide .
172
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 79. IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Configuration Guidelines
|
|
|
7.11 IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Configuration Guidelines
For physical configuration of an IBM 3495 Tape Library including the Virtual Tape
Server, the following basic configuration rules apply:
|
|
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|
|
7.11.1 One IBM 3495-B16 Must Be Installed
|
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|
7.11.2 One IBM 3590-A14 Frame Must Be Installed
|
|
The IBM 3495-B16 provides the ESCON connection to the host, and houses the
tape volume cache and the Virtual Tape Server controller. In the IBM 3495 wall
adjacent to the 3495-B16 storage cells can still exist, as is with the IBM 3490-Axx
installed in an IBM 3495. These storage cells, which are managed by the Library
Manager, can contain any cartridge and are not restricted to storing only
Magstar cartridges that are used by Virtual Tape Server subsystem
One IBM 3590-A14 frame is required for the Virtual Tape Server subsystem. It
contains four IBM 3590-B1As plus the necessary SCSI cabling to connect the
tape drives to the IBM 3495-B16. Other than with ESCON-attached IBM 3590 tape
drives the BM 3590-A14 frame used by a Virtual Tape Server does not require an
IBM 3590-A00 control unit to be ordered.
You must order the IBM 3590-B1As in addition to the IBM 3590-A14 frame.
However, you do not need to specify SCSI cables for the tape drives.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
173
|
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7.11.3 Library Manager Attachment
The Magstar tape drives residing in the IBM 3495-D12 frame are not attached to
any host system. The drives are managed by the Virtual Tape Server controller.
None of the IBM 3495 Library Manage RS-422 control unit ports are used by the
VTS subsystem. They are attached solely to the Library Manager through a LAN
connection to provide the required communication path for library-related
commands, and to the Virtual Tape Server controller IBM 3495-B16.
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The Virtual Tape Server controller is connected to the Library Manager through
a dedicated LAN connection to provide the required communication paths.
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7.11.4 IBM 3495-B16 and IBM 3590-A14 Must Be Installed Side by Side
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7.11.5 Reduction of IBM 3495 Storage Cells when a VTS is Installed
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7.11.6 A Modem Must Be Supplied for The IBM 3495-B16
The IBM 3495-B16 and the IBM 3590-A14 must be installed adjacent to one
another. You cannot separate the two frames.
When a VTS is installed in an IBM 3495, the total amount of storage cells in the
library may be decreased. If it is placed in a location where a 3490 subsystem
already existed, the cell count is not affected. If the VTS is installed on an IBM
3495 Model L30, L40 or L50 in a position where no IBM 3490 string existed, then
the cell count will drop by 520 tapes (two IBM 3495 storage racks, no reduction in
the frame adjacent to the B16 frame).
It is mandatory that you supply a modem for installation, operation, and remote
support service of the IBM 3495-B16. The same modems as for the IBM
3591-A01, and 3590-A00 Remote Support Facility (RSF) are supported. You can
obtain a list of these modems from your IBM representative.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 80. IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Frame Placement
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7.12 IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Frame Placement
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Each VTS subsystem is integrated into an IBM 3495 library through the
installation of an IBM 3495-B16 and an adjacent IBM 3590-A14 frame. The IBM
3590-A14 frame must be installed to the left of the IBM 3495-B16 frame (when
viewed from the front of the library) and must have no other frame between it
and the IBM 3495-B16.
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The two frames can be located along the library isle wherever IBM 3490 or 3590
tape subsystems can be installed. Figure 80 shows where the A14/B16 frames
can be installed relative to where the IBM 3490 frames are installed. If the VTS
is being installed and replaces part of an existing IBM 3490 subsystem, it is
installed to the left of the remaining IBM 3490 frames. If the VTS is replacing the
entire IBM 3490 tape subsystem or is being installed where there was no
previous IBM 3490 tape subsystem, the rightmost edge of the IBM 3495-B16
frame is placed on the IBM 3495 frame boundary. This similar to IBM 3490-Axx
frame placement rules.
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If a VTS replaces an existing IBM 3490 tape subsystem, the existing “A” box
cartridge rack is left in place, even though there is no front service access
requirement for the IBM 3495-B16 frame. It is suggested that a filler cover be
installed in the hole in this frame.
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The maximum number of VTS subsystems per physical IBM 3495 library is four.
At the initial GA of VTS on the IBM 3495, only one VTS is supported per IBM
3495.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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The VTS subsystem controller uses the LAN attachment method to communicate
with the Library Manager. This leaves all existing eight control-unit attachment
ports (RS422) into the LM available to connect to IBM 3490 subsystems and IBM
3590-A00 attached IBM 3590 tape subsystems.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 81. IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Models and Features
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7.13 IBM 3495 Virtual Tape Server Models and Features
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For integration of an IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) into an existing IBM
3495, or for factory installation, you must order the features using the codes
listed below.
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To install an IBM 3495 plus IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS), you must
order the new features in addition to existing features and products. For
instance, the IBM 3590-B1As that are installed inside the IBM 3590-A14 frame
must be ordered separately. We list only the additional features that are
required to include the Virtual Tape Server in the IBM 3495.
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7.13.1 IBM 3590 Model A14 Plus Feature 9010
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7.13.2 IBM 3495 Model B16 Feature Codes
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Feature 9010 for the IBM 3590-A14 frame indicates, that the IBM 3590 tape drives
in it are to be used by a Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
Feature 9986 is required to provide a special line cord for Chicago, Illinois,
U.S.A.
Feature 3701 provides the DASD storage for the tape volume cache. Each
feature provides you with 36 GB of usable tape volume cache. Currently, you
can order either one or two Features 3701.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
177
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In addition to the modem you must supply for installation, operation, and remote
support service of the IBM 3495-B16, you must install one of the following
features:
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2710
Remote Support Facility
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2711
Remote Support Switch
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2712
Remote Support Attachment
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For detailed information on the features and their codes, please refer to Section
7.9, “New IBM 3494 Features, Their Codes and Model Upgrades” on page 169.
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7.13.3 Feature Codes For IBM 3495 Model L20, L30, L40 and L50
When a Virtual Tape Server is installed in an IBM 3495, Feature 9020 must be
specified for the tape library. This feature provides the hardware and microcode
for the Library Manager to VTS controller communication path.
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For a plant-installed IBM 3495-B16, you must order Feature 9016; for field
installation, order Feature 4016.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 82. IBM 3495 Environmental Requirements
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7.14 IBM 3495 Environmental Requirements
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Figure 82 lists the physical specifications for the operation environment of an
IBM 3495 tape library and the specifications for the Virtual Tape Server in the
IBM 3495.
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For further information on the Virtual Tape Server subsystem′s physical
installation please refer to IBM 3495 Tape Library Dataserver Introduction and
Planning Guide .
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
179
| Figure 83. Logical Data Flow
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7.15 Logical Data Flow
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Figure 83 shows the logical data flow though an IBM Magstar Virtual Tape
Server (VTS) subsystem.
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The host system has knowledge about the following components and interfaces
that allow it to write data onto tape:
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ESCON channel attachment: The host knows that there are two ESCON channels
to the (virtual) 3490E tape drives. Either ESCON channel can access
all virtual tape drives.
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Virtual tape devices: The host sees two IBM 3490E control unit images, each of
them fully configured with 16 tape drives for a total of 32 virtual 3490E
tape drives.
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Cartridge system tape emulation: The host can use virtual CST or ECCST media
to store its data.
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Library Manager: Through the Library Manager, the host is informed about
logical volumes available in the IBM 3494 or 3495 tape library, their
status, and status changes as well as about the status of the virtual
devices.
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The physical storage and management of the data written by the host is invisible
to the host and its applications.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 84. Scratch Mount Scenario
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7.16 Scratch Mount Scenario
The Virtual Tape Server has special facilities for handling scratch (nonspecific)
type mount. With the following facilities, the Virtual Tape Server processes
scratch-mount requests in a fast and efficient manner.
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After the first usage of a volume serial number as a virtual volume,
information about that usage is maintained in the Tape Volume Cache even
though most of the volume′s data has been moved onto a Magstar cartridge
into a logical volume. This portion of the data from the last usage of the
volume is called the stub and includes the first several hundred bytes of data
written during the last use of the volume. The information includes at least
the data records that include a tape label.
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Virtual Volume Use Information.
Automatic Initialization of a virtual volume on its first use.
Prior to the first use of a volume serial number as a virtual volume, the Tape
Volume Cache will not have any information about the previous use of the
volume. When the volume is mounted for the first time, the Storage
Management Software will generate a set of records for the volume in the
Tape Volume Cache as if the volume had been initialized using EDGINERS or
IEHINITT specifying an IBM standard label, that is the volume will contain a
VOL1, HDR1 and Tape Mark.
•
Outboard Management of Volume Pools (Categories).
The IBM Tape Libraries, along with host software, provide a facility to have
the Library Manager manage groups of volumes in pools. The pools are
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
181
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called Categories and the host can assign one or more volumes to a
category and later ask for a mount of a volume from the category. The
Library Manager, on receiving a mount from category request, will select a
volume from the specified category and make it ready on a tape device. As
part of the operation to make the volume ready on a tape device, the Library
Manager passes the volume serial number of the volume mounted back to
the host software. Through the use of categories, the Library Manager can
maintain a set of volumes that can be used for scratch mounts. Depending
on the host software support at least two categories are used for scratch
mounts, one for Media Type 1 - Standard Cartridge System Tape and one for
Media Type 2 - Enhanced Capacity Cartridge System Tape.
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Fast-Ready Attribute for Categories
With the introduction of the Virtual Tape Server, an attribute can be assigned
to a category that allows the Storage Management Software in the Virtual
Tape Server to know that it can use the last usage information maintained in
the Tape Volume Cache to process a nonspecific mount instead of having to
recall the complete logical volume for the selected volume from a Magstar
cartridge. The attribute for a specific category is set by the operator through
a panel on the Library manager.
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Logical Volume Data Invalidation
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Like a physical volume, the data that resides in a logical volume is
accessible until two things happen. First, the Tape Management System
determines that the data on the volume has expired and returns the volume
to a scratch pool. Second, the volume is mounted in response to a scratch
mount request and new data is written on the volume from the beginning of
tape. The Storage Management Software in the Virtual Tape Server
maintains a database to where the current accessible version of a logical
volume is located on the IBM 3590 tape cartridges that it manages. This is
done independent of whether the Tape Management System has returned
the volume to a scratch pool or not. It is only when the volume serial
number of the logical volume is reused as a virtual volume and modified,
either from the beginning of tape or in an append operation, that the old
location of the logical volume is deleted and the space it represents marked
as invalid. When the new version of the logical volume is migrated to a
Magstar cartridge, it will be in a different location on a different cartridge.
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A nonspecific mount request for the first time a volume serial number is used is
processed with the following steps:
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1. The host sends a mount request for a scratch cartridge by specifying the
category that contains either CST or ECCST volumes. The categories have
the Fast-Ready attribute set. The Library Manager selects a logical volume
serial number to satisfy the mount request.
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2. The Storage Management Software in the Virtual Tape Server checks
whether the selected volume has prior usage information in the Tape Volume
Cache. Since this is the first usage of the volume, there will not be any
information. The Storage Management Software will create that information
including the data records for a VOL1, HDR1 and tape mark.
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3. Mount complete is signaled to the host which then can write data to the
virtual volume. Since there was no physical mount of a volume required, the
nonspecific mount request is handled much faster than in a conventional
tape library.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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4. When the host closes the volume, End-of-Volume (EOV) processing is
performed, and the volume is rewound and unloaded.
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5. After the volume is unloaded, the virtual volume is scheduled to be copied
onto a physical IBM 3590 cartridge.
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6. After it is copied, the virtual volume remains in the Tape Volume Cache until
the space it occupies is needed for other virtual volumes. When a virtual
volume′s space is needed, most of the volume′s data is deleted, leaving a
small portion stub of the volume′s data. That stub has enough space to
include the VOL1, HDR1 and HDR2 records, URL1 through URL8 records if
present and a tape mark. Selection of when a virtual volume is stubbed in
the Tape Volume Cache is through a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm.
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After the host has expired the data on the logical volume, it becomes a scratch
volume again and can be selected by the Library Manager in response to a
mount request for a scratch volume.
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A nonspecific mount request for a subsequent use of a volume serial number is
processed with the following steps:
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1. The host sends a mount request for a scratch cartridge by specifying the
category that contains either CST or ECCST volumes. The categories have
the Fast-Ready attribute set. The Library Manager selects a logical volume
serial number to satisfy the mount request.
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2. The Storage Management Software in the Virtual Tape Server will find that
the selected volume has prior usage information in the Tape Volume Cache.
This information contains all of the data records that the host Tape
Management Software needs to validate the usage of the volume for a
nonspecific mount request.
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3. Since the volume was selected from a category that had the Fast-Ready
attribute set, the Storage Management Software signals the host that the
mount is complete without having to recall all of the data from the last usage
of the volume from a physical cartridge. This results in a very low
mount-response time since no physical movement or mounting of a cartridge
is involved.
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4. Same as in the first usage of a volume serial number.
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5. After the volume is unloaded, the virtual volume is scheduled to be copied
onto a physical 3590 tape cartridge. It is at this point that the last version of
the data associated with the volume serial number is invalidated.
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6. Same as in the first usage of a volume serial number.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
183
| Figure 85. Specific Mount Scenario
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7.17 Specific Mount Scenario
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When the host requests a specific logical volume, and the virtual volume exists
in the tape volume cache, no physical mount is required to access this volume.
If the tape volume cache contains only the usage information stub, the logical
volume has to be staged to the tape volume cache first and become a virtual
volume before the host can process it.
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7.17.1 Volume in Tape Volume Cache
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7.17.2 Volume not in Tape Volume Cache
In case the virtual volume resides in the tape volume cache, the host can
process the volume almost immediately, allowing very fast mount-response
times.
If the logical volume resides only on tape, it must be staged to the tape volume
cache first. This involves a physical mount, positioning the tape and copying the
logical volume to the tape volume cache. Mount complete is signaled to the
host system only after the complete volume is available in the tape volume
cache.
184
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 86. Space Reclamation
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7.18 Space Reclamation
In the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS), two levels of physical storage are
managed automatically: the tape volume cache to free up DASD space, and the
Magstar cartridges to free up tape space.
7.18.1 Tape Volume Cache
The tape volume cache is under complete and exclusive control of the Virtual
Tape Server subsystem. There are no external interfaces to influence the
management of the tape volume cache.
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Disk space reconciliation for the tape volume cache is performed about once per
day, which is every 18 to 24 hours depending on the Virtual Tape Server
subsystem′s workload and on occupancy of the Magstar tape drives.
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Copying of a virtual volume onto a Magstar Cartridge is scheduled after the
volume is rewound and unloaded. It is very likely that the virtual volume is
copied during the following 20 to 60 minutes.
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Once a virtual volume has been copied onto a Magstar cartridge, it becomes a
candidate for being reduced to its usage information stub to make space
available in the Tape Volume Cache space for other virtual mount requests.
Candidates for reduction are managed with a Least Recently Used (LRU)
algorithm meaning that, when space is needed, volumes that have been in the
Tape Volume Cache the longest without being accessed are reduced until
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
185
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enough space is freed up. Access includes when a virtual volume is read from
as well as when written to.
7.18.2 Stacked Magstar Cartridges
When the data associated with a specific volume expires through the policies of
the tape management system, the volume is returned to scratch. As part of the
expiration process, DFSMSrmm (removable media manager) for example
automatically notifies the Library Manager about the status change of the
volume.
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7.18.2.1 Logical Volume Space Use
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Returning a volume to a scratch pool is not the only way space on a stacked
Magstar cartridge becomes unusable. Any time a volume is modified, the space
occupied by the previous use of the volume becomes unusable.
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The reason the space becomes unusable is twofold.
With a Virtual Tape Server subsystem, the volume is a logical volume and
resides on a stacked Magstar cartridge along with other logical volumes. When
a logical volume is returned to a scratch pool, it becomes eligible to satisfy a
nonspecific mount request. When the volume is next selected and written to, the
space associated with the previous use of the logical volume on the Magstar
cartridge becomes unusable, meaning it no longer contains valid active data and
cannot be accessed or used.
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1. As with other prior tape technology, the Magstar tape drive does not support
writing data between two areas of valid data. The reason for this is that the
valid data in the area directly after the newly written data may be partially
overlaid.
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2. The next time the logical volume is used, it may contain a greater number of
bytes and would not fit on the tape.
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Over a period of time, the amount of unusable space on a Magstar cartridge will
grow until it becomes a large percentage of the total space of the cartridge. The
reclamation of that unusable space, converting it to usable space, is part of the
management responsibilities of the Virtual Tape Server.
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7.18.2.2 Automatic process
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In addition, you can specify through the Library Manager console during which
time periods reclamation is normally not to be performed.
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The above rules for when reclamation processing is performed are dependent on
a threshold number of available scratch stacked 3590 cartridges. The
dependencies are:
Space management of the stacked 3590 cartridges is performed automatically
without any external direction. The storage management software in the Virtual
Tape Server monitors the utilized space on the 3590 cartridges that it manages
and determines when a cartridge is a candidate to have its unusable space
reclaimed. The reclamation process requires a portion of the resources of a
Virtual Tape Server subsystem and as such can impact host usage of the
subsystem. To minimize any impact, the storage management software in the
Virtual Tape Server monitors how much of the subsystem resources are in use
because of host processing and will normally perform reclamation processing in
mostly idle periods.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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•
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There are fewer than 50 scratch stacked 3590 cartridges
If the number of available scratch stacked 3590 cartridges falls below 50,
reclamation processing will be performed until it is again above 50 except for
the time periods set through the Library Manager console. Host usage of the
subsystems resources is ignored and may be impacted.
•
There are fewer than 10 scratch stacked 3590 cartridges
If the number of available scratch stacked 3590 cartridges falls below 10,
reclamation processing will be performed until it is again above 10. Host
usage of the subsystems resources and any time period limits set through
the Library Manager console are ignored.
Reclamation of unusable space involves the following general steps:
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1. Selecting tape with a high amount of unusable space
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2. Move all of the valid logical volumes on the selected stacked 3590 cartridge
to another 3590 cartridge, restacking them end to end. The end result is a
contiguous space from the end of the last valid logical volume (which could
be the beginning of the stacked volume) to the logical end of tape of the
stacked Magstar cartridge.
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3. Returning the now empty stacked 3590 cartridge to the stacked volume
scratch pool.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
187
| Figure 87. Comparison of Virtual to Real Volumes.
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7.19 Virtual to Real Volume Comparisons
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In this section we compare the virtual volumes to real or physical volumes and
list the advantages of the Virtual Tape Server implementation through 3490E
emulation.
7.19.1 Virtual Volume
When the host application selects a tape, it can define whether it wants a media
type of MEDIA1 or MEDIA2 to be used by using an appropriate data class. For
example, if a volume residing in a Virtual Tape Server subsystem is selected, a
virtual volume is created. A virtual volume is an emulated CST cartridge when
MEDIA1 is selected, or ECCST when MEDIA2 is selected.
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7.19.1.1 Uncompressed Size
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This might result in more multivolume files when migrating from real to
emulated 3490E cartridges.
The Virtual Tape Server controller does not have the hardware compression
feature that allows a real 3490 device to store more data than the amount
specified below on a single logical volume.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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7.19.1.2 CST = 400 MB
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Applications that attempt to directly copy a real CST cartridge onto an emulated
CST cartridge will fail if more than 400 MB are on the real cartridge and the
application cannot handle the change to a multivolume file. DFSMShsm is an
example of such an application. A copy of an emulated CST cartridge to a real
cartridge, however, will always fit.
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7.19.1.3 ECCST = 800 MB
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Applications that attempt to directly copy a real CST cartridge onto an emulated
CST cartridge will fail if more than 400 MB are on the real cartridge. A copy of
an emulated CST cartridge to a real cartridge, however, will always fit.
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The emulated CST cartridge stores up to 400 MB. This is different from a real
CST cartridge, which can hold more than 400 MB because of the effects of IDRC.
Assuming an average IDRC ratio of 1:3, a real CST cartridge can hold up to 1.2
GB of data.
The emulated ECCST cartridge stores up to 800 MB. This is different from a real
ECCST cartridge, which can hold more than 800 MB because of the effects of
IDRC. Assuming an average IDRC ratio of 1:3, a real ECCST cartridge can hold
up to 2.4 GB of data.
7.19.2 Physical Volume
The physical volumes used in a Virtual Tape Server subsystem to store logical
volumes are 3590 cartridges which provide a capacity of 10 GB if the data is not
compressed. Because of a compression algorithm that is improved over the
IDRC function of IBM 3490E devices, an IBM 3590 cartridge can store over 30 GB
data.
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The compression takes place in the IBM 3590 tape drive at the time the data is
copied from the Tape Volume Cache to 3590 cartridges.
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Assuming a compression ratio of 3:1, a single 3590 cartridge can physically store
up to 75 emulated CST cartridges or up to 37 emulated ECCST cartridges,
although the application cannot handle the change to a multivolume file.
DFSMShsm is an example of such an application.
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7.19.3 Virtual Volume Advantages
A virtual volume is physically stored on DASD and therefore has some
advantages over traditional tape processing.
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7.19.3.1 Mount response time
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The mount response time for a specific mount request, where the volume is in
the tape volume cache, is a fraction of the time required on a physical volume
because of the same reasons as above.
The mount response time for a scratch mount request is a fraction of the time
required on a physical volume because it is not dependent on the physical
movement of a cartridge or the loading and threading delays of a physical tape.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
189
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7.19.3.2 Fast tape motion commands
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A Rewind/Unload command is performed in a fraction of time because it is not
dependent on the delays of tape movement on a physical tape device.
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7.19.3.3 Random access
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7.19.3.4 Cache Volume reaccess
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The tape volume cache is large enough to hold virtual volumes for several hours
after they have been copied to stacked 3590 cartridges. The duration of this
period is dependent upon the tape volume cache size and amount of data written
by the host per hour.
Tape positioning command such as Locate, Space or Rewind, for example, are
performed in a fraction of the time required for a physical volume.
You can randomly access tape data through the use of the available tape
commands Read Block ID and Locate Block ID
In many cases, data that is written to a tape volume from one job or job step is
read by a subsequent job or job step. The time between creation and reaccess
is variable. However, very often the reaccess occurs within the next few hours.
190
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 88. Sizing Guidelines
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7.20 Sizing Guidelines
Today, to size an automated tape library and the tape drives included in it, you
need to consider the number of:
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Total cartridges
Automation slots
Mounts per hour
Concurrent opens
Sufficient drives
Sufficient channels
Sufficient control units
Sufficient tape capacity utilization
Sufficient available scratch tapes
With the Virtual Tape Server, you need only to consider:
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How many gigabytes of tape data do I need to store?
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For a single Virtual Tape Server subsystem, you can define up to 50,000
virtual volumes. If you define these volumes as ECCST, you can store up to
40 terabytes of data in a single Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
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To calculate the physical number of Magstar cartridges required to store this
data, a conservative approach would be to assume
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Compression ratio of 2:1
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50% of the physical cartridges contain active data
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
191
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This would allow an average of 10 GB per Magstar tape drive. Divide the
required number of gigabytes of tape data by 10 to calculate the number of
physical Magstar cartridges for your Virtual Tape Server.
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How much data will I need to transfer per hour?
We assume that the Virtual Tape Server capability is a throughput of 10 MB/s
for a Virtual Tape Server subsystem, which equals an hourly throughput of 36
GB. Dividing your required hourly throughput by 36 will give you the number
of Virtual Tape Server subsystems required for your environment.
192
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 89. Sizing a Virtual Tape Server
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7.21 Sizing a Virtual Tape Server
To size a Virtual Tape Server subsystem, you need to evaluate your environment
in term of:
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Categorizing your tape data is required to evaluate which data must be
excluded from the Virtual Tape Server.
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IDRC Ratio
The IDRC ratio currently achieved helps you to define the number of physical
Magstar cartridges required for your Virtual Tape Server subsystem
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Data set categories
Throughput
To define the number of tape drives inside an IBM 3494 Virtual Tape Server
subsystem, to define the size of the tape volume cache, and to define the
number of Virtual Tape Server subsystems, you need to know your
throughput requirements.
The following tools are available to help you sizing your Virtual Tape Server
subsystem in an MVS environment:
•
Volume Mount Analyzer (VMA)
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VMA is part of the DFSMSdfp component and can be used to analyze your
tape environment.
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VMA provides filtering capabilities that allow you to exclude tape data that
you do not intend to store in the Virtual Tape Server and provides
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information on the number of cartridges that are currently used, number of
tape drives allocated in parallel, and gigabytes per hour written to tape.
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Quick and easy tape investigation and simulation (QUIETIS)
QUIETIS is an IBM internal analysis tool that provides information on your
tape environment based on the information contained in the catalog of your
tape management system on MVS. Currently, the following tape
management systems are supported:
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DFSMSrmm
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EPIC/MVS
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TLMS
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CA-1
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Please contact your technical IBM representative for further information.
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Tape Data Set Analysis (TDSA)
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TDSA is an IBM internal tool specially developed for configuration of the IBM
Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS). TDSA analyzes your tape environment
based on VMA data and parameter input, and proposes the number of
Virtual Tape Server subsystems, the IBM 3590 tape drives, and the library
configuration of a Virtual Tape Server configuration that will meet your
requirements today and in the future.
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For analysis and for further information, please contact your technical IBM
representative.
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DASD and Tape Magic for OS/2
DASD and Tape Magic for OS/2 make up a tool for IBM marketing use which
helps in configuring IBM tape libraries. For details, please refer to your
technical IBM representative.
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| Figure 90. Real and Virtual 3490E Device Coexistence
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7.22 Real and Virtual 3490E Device Coexistence
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To support the coexistence of both real and virtual 3490E type devices in the
same physical library, the library is logically partitioned.
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Figure 90 shows the physical and logical implementation of an IBM Magstar
Virtual Tape Server (VTS).
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7.22.1 Physical Installation
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7.22.2 Library Manager View
A Virtual Tape Server subsystem must be installed in an IBM 3494 or 3495 tape
library because the physical assets used by the Virtual Tape Server subsystem
are managed by the Library Manager in the library. The physical assets include
the Magstar tape drives and the Magstar cartridges used for stacking logical
volumes.
The Library Manager provides the support for logical partitioning of an IBM 3494
or 3495 tape library. To support the Virtual Tape Server′s capability to coexist
with current native IBM 3490, 3490E, and 3590 tape devices in the same library,
the Library Manager partitions the physical library into logical libraries. This
must be done because the Virtual Tape Server presents an image of 3490E tape
devices, and yet cannot read or write a real CST or ECCST type cartridge. By
placing a Virtual Tape Server subsystem in its own logical library, the possibility
of host software allocating a virtual 3490E tape device for a real 3490 mount is
removed. This also removes the possibility that host software could allocate a
real 3490 mount instead of a virtual 3490E tape device.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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A logical library can contain either a Virtual Tape Server subsystem, or current
IBM 3490/3490E with or without native IBM 3590 tape subsystems. Given general
availability of the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS), each physical IBM
3494 or 3495 tape library can be partitioned into two logical libraries:
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•
One contains one Virtual Tape Server subsystem
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•
The other contains all real IBM 3490 and all native IBM 3590 subsystems.
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7.22.3 Host View
Each logical library has its own library sequence number used in defining the
logical library to the host and therefore looks like a separate physical library to
the hosts attached to that partition.
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A single logical Virtual Tape Server library, can be shared by multiple MVS, VM,
and VSE guest systems in the same way that a physical library can be shared.
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For details on sharing or partitioning a logical library, please refer to the Guide
to Sharing and Partitioning IBM Tape Library Dataserver .
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| Figure 91. Virtual Tape Server Installation Tasks
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7.23 Virtual Tape Server Installation Tasks
Figure 91 describes the tasks involved in installing an IBM Magstar Virtual Tape
Server (VTS).
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7.23.1 Physical Installation and Checkout
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7.23.2 Logical Partitioning
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7.23.3 Teach and Inventory
Hardware installation and checkout involves installing the hardware components
of the Virtual Tape Server and performing the subsystem setup. At times during
this phase, the library will either be unavailable to the host or degraded,
because manual mode operation is required to satisfy host requests.
Logical partitioning is performed by the hardware customer engineer as part of
the physical installation of the Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
Teaching the robotics the locations of the Magstar tape drives associated with
the Virtual Tape Server and inventory of storage cells in the Virtual Tape Server
frames is performed by the hardware customer engineer (CE) or customer
service representative (CSR) as part of the Virtual Tape Server subsystem
installation.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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7.23.4 Hardware Configuration Definition (HCD) Required For Library Devices
Because the virtual tape drives of the Virtual Tape Server are library resident,
you must define them through the hardware configuration definition dialogue
specifying LIBRARY=YES. As for the VTS drives resident in the physical library,
there is no definition in IOCP/MVSCP/HCPRIO.
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For BTLS-managed libraries, HCD is not required, because BTLS does not
require the LIBRARY=YES definition.
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7.23.5 Define the New Library to the Host
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7.23.6 Define Volume Serial Number Ranges
For details on defining a new library to the host, please refer to Figure 92 on
page 200.
Although a physical library partitioned in the way described in Figure 90 on
page 195 looks like two separate libraries to the host, they share the same
library manager and its database. Because of this, the volume serial numbers of
both the virtual and physical volumes in the same physical library must be
unique.
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Before you can insert physical 3590 cartridges for use by the Virtual Tape Server
subsystem into a library, you must define them through the Library Manager
console. You must also define a beginning set of volume serial ranges for your
virtual volumes as well.
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Volume serial numbers supported by the Virtual Tape Server must be six
characters long and contain either an alphabetic or numeric character in any
character position.
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You add the volume serial number ranges through a Library Manager panel that
contains two edit fields. If just one volume serial number is to be added, you
enter the volume serial number in the first field and leave the second field
empty. If a range of volume serial numbers is to be added, enter the two volume
serial numbers that indicate the ends of the range in the two fields. You do not
need to be concerned with which end to put in which field; the Library Manager
will determine the range expansion regardless of whether the highest volume
serial number is in field one or two.
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Both volume serial numbers must have the same format. The same format
means that if a character position in the first volume serial number is alphabetic,
the corresponding character position in the second must be alphabetic as well.
Likewise, if a character position in the first is numeric, the corresponding
character position in the second one must also be numeric. For example, a
range of ABC000 through ABD999 is valid, but ABC000 through ABCD99 is
invalid.
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To add multiple ranges, simply repeat the volume serial number entry process.
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Volumes defined through the Library Manager console are processed as
described below:
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Logical
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The Library Manager expands the specified volume serial number
range, adds the resultant volumes to its inventory, places them in the
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insert category and notifies all attached hosts. The hosts can then
perform insert processing for these volumes as they would for
physical cartridges in the library.
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The range of volumes is expanded starting with the lower valued
volume serial number (A is less than B, B is less than C, and so on).
The volume serial number is incremented where alphabetic
characters are incremented alphabetically and numeric characters
are incremented numerically. For example, a volume serial number
range specified as ABC000 and ABD999 would result in 2000 volumes
being added (ABC000 - ABC999 and ABD000 - ABD999).
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Physical
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You do not have to define all of the logical and physical ranges during
installation. As needed, additional volume serial number ranges may be added
later. You also do not have to have add all of the physical 3590 cartridges you
defined at one time, they can be added as needed.
If a 3590 cartridge is inserted into a library and fits into the volser
range defined for physical volumes used by the Virtual Tape Server
subsystem, the Library Manager does not notify any host.
Management of these cartridges is under control of the Library
Manager and the Virtual Tape Server subsystem. If you did not define
the physical volumes for use by the Virtual Tape Server subsystem
before entering them into the library, the Virtual Tape Server
subsystem will not be able to use these cartridges.
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7.23.7 Add Magstar Cartridges
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7.23.8 Define Fast-Ready Categories
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7.23.9 Define Reclamation Schedule
After you have defined the Magstar cartridges through the Library Manager
console, you can insert them into the IBM 3494 or 3495 tape library.
To take advantage of the scratch-mount performance advantages of the Virtual
Tape Server, as described in Section 7.16, “Scratch Mount Scenario” on
page 181, you need to indicate to the Library Manager the numbers of the
categories used by the host for scratch volumes. You do this through the Library
Manage console. The Library Manager provides a panel by which a 4-digit
category number can entered. This will add the category to the list of categories
in the library that have the Fast-Ready attribute set. To reset a category′ s
Fast-Ready attribute, the Library Manager panel allows you to highlight one of
the categories in the list with the Fast-Ready attribute set and then request that
it be reset.
To minimize the effect of IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) internal space
reclamation on your tape operation, you can inhibit space reclamation for certain
periods of time through the Library Manager console.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
199
| Figure 92. Implementing the Virtual Tape Server
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7.24 Implementing the Virtual Tape Server
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From software point of view, the Virtual Tape Server is same as the IBM
Automated Tape Library Dataserver with IBM 3490E tape drives. We explain how
to implement the Virtual Tape server in MVS/ESA, VM/ESA, and VSE/ESA
environments.
7.24.1 MVS/ESA Environments
In general, the Virtual Tape Server subsystem must be defined as a new tape
library, with IBM 3490E tape drives as the host system.
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7.24.1.1 DFSMS System-Managed Tape (SMT)
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During hardware installation of the Virtual Tape Server, the customer engineer
assigns a five-character library sequence number to the VTS library. You use
this sequence number to define a new library to SMS through the ISMF Library
application.
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To direct allocations to the Virtual Tape Server subsystem, you must define new
storage groups that only contain VTS libraries. You cannot intermix VTS and
non-VTS libraries in the same storage group. However, if you have more than
one VTS library installed, you can define storage groups that span more than
one VTS library.
To use the Virtual Tape Server subsystem under SMT, you must define the
virtual 3490E devices through HCD specifying LIBRARY=YES.
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You must change your ACS routines to assign these newly defined storage
groups. If the storage group ACS routine assigns a storage group that contains
a VTS library, the tape data set is directed to the Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
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For details on the implementation in an SMS managed environment, please refer
to the DFSMS/MVS Version 1 Release 3 Object Access Method Planning,
Installation, and Administration Guide for Tape Libraries . For further information
on sharing a VTS library, please refer to the Guide to Sharing and Partitioning
IBM Tape Library Dataserver .
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7.24.1.2 Basic Tape Library Support (BTLS)
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You need to define a new logical library to BTLS that contains all virtual devices
associated with this logical library. If only BTLS is using the Virtual Tape Server
subsystem, you define all 32 drives.
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To direct tape allocations to the Virtual Tape Server, you define a new esoteric
unit name and use it in the DD statement for the newly allocated tape data set.
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Because of the library definitions, BTLS knows that the device allocated resides
in a Virtual Tape Server library.
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For BTLS implementation details, please refer to the Basic Tape Library Support
Version 1 Release 1 User ′ s Guide and Reference .
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If you implement the Virtual Tape Server subsystem under BTLS, you can define
the tape drives through the Hardware Configuration Definition (HCD) dialogue, or
you can use IOCP and MVSCP.
7.24.2 VM/ESA Environments
After you have defined the new library through HCD, must must define it to
DFSMS/VM, if the VM system will directly use the Virtual Tape Server
subsystem.
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You define the VTS library through the DFSMS/VM DGTVCNTL DATA control file.
You define the tape drives that are available though the RMCONFIG DATA
configuration file.
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To allow the removable media services (RMS) component of DFSMS/VM to
perform automatic-insert bulk processing, you must create the RMBnnnnn DATA
file in the VMSYS:DFSMS.CONTROL directory. The nnnnn matches up with the
five-character library sequence number that is assigned to the Virtual Tape
Server during hardware installation.
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For details on the implementation of DFSMS/VM and RMS, please refer to the
VM/ESA DFSMS/VM Function Level 221 Removable Media Services User ′ s Guide
and Reference . If the Virtual Tape Server subsystem is shared among your VM
system and other systems, additional considerations apply. Please refer to the
Guide to Sharing and Partitioning IBM Tape Library Dataserver for further
information.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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7.24.3 VSE/ESA Guests
VSE/ESA must run as a guest system under VM/ESA to use a VTS library. The
VSE Guest Server (VGS) support must be installed as well as DFSMS/VM RMS
for communication with the Library Manager of the VTS library.
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You must define the LIBCONFIG file on the VGS service machine′s A-disk. This
file simply cross-references the VSE/ESA guest′s library names with the names
that DFSMS/VM uses.
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To enable VSE/ESA guest exploitation of inventory support functions through the
LIBSERV-VGS interface, the LIBRCMS part must be installed on the VM system.
If VGS is to service inventory requests for multiple VSE/ESA guests, you must
edit the LIBRCMS SRVNAMES cross-reference file. This file enables the
inventory support server to access Librarian files on the correct VSE guest
machine.
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For further information, please refer to the Guide to Sharing and Partitioning IBM
Tape Library Dataserver .
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 93. Migration to the I B M Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS)
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7.25 Migration to the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS)
Although migrating to a Virtual Tape Server subsystem is transparent to the
host, there are some considerations to be made because you are migrating from
physical to logical volumes Figure 93. This is mainly because the physical and
the logical volumes are of different size, owing to the fact that the Virtual Tape
Server does not use hardware compaction.
7.25.1 Which Data?
In general, all tape data can be under control of a Virtual Tape Server
subsystem. Especially if your tape processing is currently restricted by the
number of tape drives, you may want to direct as much as possible to the Virtual
Tape Server, utilizing the full 32 virtual tape drives.
Before migrating, you should however review the exceptions that you may want
to leave on native tape cartridges. Exceptions could be:
•
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Data that must be removed from the Virtual Tape Server library.
Data in this category is usually interchange data or data that must be stored
for some period of time in a remote vault. Such data should initially be
directed to native tape or it must be copied from the Virtual Tape Server
library to native tape.
•
Data whose retrieval time from tape would increase too much.
Some data retrieval applications, involving extraction of just part of data
residing on a volume, as for example for a DFSMShsm recall, may
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
203
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experience longer retrieval times if the volume is stacked and doesn′t reside
in the tape volume cache.
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Tape jobs whose nature makes native tape more cost effective.
Tape applications that already utilize both high tape bandwidth and capacity
may be more effective if kept on native volumes. Such applications are not
common, and are generally restricted to certain types of efforts, such as
seismic data processing.
7.25.2 How to Migrate?
Migrating your tape data into a Virtual Tape Server subsystem can be done in
two ways:
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1. Copy your tape data.
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2. Direct new allocations to the Virtual Tape Server and let the data outside the
Virtual Tape Server expire.
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The approach is the same no matter on which type of cartridge the tape data
was stored before.
7.25.3 Migration from Physical IBM 3490E
There are some implications if you are migrating from native 3490E volumes to
emulated 3490E volumes. Because the Virtual Tape Server subsystem does not
have hardware compression, an emulated 3490E cartridge will either store 400
MB or 800 MB of tape data. If you are currently utilizing the full capacity of a
CST or ECCST type cartridge, migrating to emulated 3490E will result in more
multivolume files and thus in a larger number of volumes to be managed by your
tape management system and the system catalog.
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Reading data for a large data set could result in more tape mounts than before.
Since some large data sets that once occupied just one physical volume will now
occupy two or more logical volumes, there is a potential for more tape mounts to
recall all of the logical volumes. However, extra tape mounts will not occur if the
stacked cartridge is still in the drive when subsequent logical volumes are
referenced. Please note that spreading the data over several logical volumes
will not increase the number of physical scratch mounts. Analyses so far have
shown that the increase in mounts resulting from multiple logical mounts is more
than compensated for by the decrease in mounts due to scratch and read cache
hits.
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Data copied out of a Virtual Tape Server subsystem can occupy more native
tapes than if the data were written initially on native drives. The DFSMShsm
TAPECOPY command, for example, may increase the number of cartridges that
have to be trucked to offsite vaults or sent back to users.
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There are some differences between the Virtual Tape Server subsystem′ s
emulation of a 3490E device, and a real 3490E device, in addition to those
described for the size of the logical and physical volumes. The differences are:
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Dynamic Device Reconfiguration (DDR)
DDR is an error recovery operation that is performed by the host to retry a
failed operation on another physical tape device when an unrecoverable
error has occurred. With virtual drives, there are no unrecoverable errors
that could be resolved by swapping to a different drive. Therefore, error
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codes that would indicate DDR are not reported; instead, ERA 35, Drive
Equipment Check is reported.
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The Read Buffer command always returns zero bytes of data.
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Read Buffer command
Erase Gap command
The execution of the Erase Gap command does not cause an actual gap on
the virtual device.
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Data Security Erase Command
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The execution of the Data Security Erase command does not cause random
data patterns to be written on a virtual volume to its virtual end-of-tape.
Instead, the End-of-Data (EOD) mark is repositioned at the logical block
location at which the command was issued. Any data beyond that logical
block location is no longer accessible.
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When the virtual volume is copied to a Magstar cartridge, only the data up to
the EOD mark is written. Any data beyond this point is no longer accessible
by the host.
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•
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The boundaries of a virtual volume are limited by the BOT and EOD mark
location. Any attempt to read or position beyond the EOD mark fails,
indicating ERA 36, End-of-Data.
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Reading or Positioning beyond EOD
Load Display Command
The execution of the Load Display command is accepted and returns with an
error-free ending status, but the information contained in the command is
discarded.
•
Block IDs
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The format of the 4-byte field of a block ID is identical to that for a real 3490E
device, except that the tape direction, segment, and format mode information
contained in Bits 0-9 is set to B′0′.
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The Virtual Tape Server subsystem maintains two block IDs for each virtual
tape device:
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Channel Block ID
The channel block ID maintains the current tape position
from the host program′s perspective and reflects the
tape positioning resulting from the last tape motion
command issued by the host. The block ID identifies the
next logical block to be accessed in the forward
direction.
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Device Block ID
When performing write operations, the device block ID
identifies the last logical block that was implicitly or
explicitly synchronized to the physical DASD of the tape
volume cache. For read operations, the device block ID
is the same as the channel block ID.
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•
The subsystem always reports that it is achieving a 1:1 compaction ratio.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
205
| Figure 94. Monitoring the I B M Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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7.26 Monitoring the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS)
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Figure 94 shows the monitoring provided by the Virtual Tape Server. Once a
Virtual Tape Server has been installed and is operational, the focus of a
customer′s management shifts from “What kind of work will we have it do?” to
“How is it doing?” The Virtual Tape Server, working with the Library Manager,
provides ongoing management information to answer that question. Information
about the performance and operational usage of the Virtual Tape Server is
provided in both detailed and summary form and is host accessible. In addition,
graphical displays of some of the key operational and performance aspects of
the Virtual Tape Server are displayable through the Library Manager console.
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The Virtual Tape Server/Library Manager provides:
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Virtual Tape Server event logging
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Operational Statistics for the virtual and physical aspects of the tape library
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Operational and Performance display graphs through the Library Manager
console
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7.26.1 Event Logging
Several kinds of events that occur in the Virtual Tape Server are logged. Most of
the events provide detailed information about the actions taken against the
virtual volumes in the server. Other events include when the Virtual Tape Server
controller was initialized and an hourly summary of operational and performance
statistics for the library. All log events are date- and time-stamped to a
resolution of 1/100 of a second.
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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Log events are accumulated daily and then written out to a virtual volume in the
system at midnight. A special set of volumes, one for each day of a year, are
used for this purpose, providing a one-year rolling log of events. Once a day′ s
log of events has been written to a virtual volume, that log is available for host
access.
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The log data for a day is contained in a single file on the volume. The size of
the log file depends on the number of virtual volumes processed during the day.
Nominally, the number of bytes logged for each virtual volume is between 200
and 300. If the library processes 5,000 virtual volumes in a day, that would result
in a log file size of approximately 1.5 MB.
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The types of log events are described in subsequent sections.
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7.26.1.1 Control unit initialization
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7.26.1.2 Virtual volume event
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The log events provide detailed information about the use of each virtual volume
by the Virtual Tape Server. Please see Figure 94 on page 206, which contains a
time stamp, the event, and the library sequence number of the logical library
that contains the Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
For a virtual volume, the following events are logged:
•
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This event is indicated in the figure by Open
•
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The completion of a mount operation.
This event is logged when the virtual device is ready and is indicated by
Ready. This log record also includes the size of the volume.
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The beginning of a mount operation for a virtual volume.
The issuance of the first Read, Write, or Tape Motion command to the virtual
device after a mount is completed.
This event is indicated in the figure by FIO.
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The completion of rewinding and unloading of a virtual volume.
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This event is indicated in the figure by Close. The log record also includes
the size of the volume, whether it was modified, and the number of bytes
read or written from or to the volume by the host.
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If a virtual volume was modified while it was open and is scheduled for
premigration. This event is indicated in the figure by CIM.
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•
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If the virtual volume was modified it will be premigrated.
This event is indicated in the figure by PRE.
•
The removal of a virtual volume from the tape volume cache.
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This event is indicated in the figure by MIG.
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7.26.1.3 Library Manager hourly statistics
A group of records are written to the log that contain the data the library
manager generated about the last hour′s performance of the library. There are
nine records in the group which contain the same information as is provided in
SMF Record Type 94. This group of records is written to the log at the same
time it is being provided to the attached hosts. Refer to Section 7.26.2, “Library
Reporting” for the content of the records.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
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7.26.2 Library Reporting
SMF Record Type 94 will include the virtual mount statistics and VTS operational
information when the record is written for a logical library that contains a Virtual
Tape Server subsystem. The information listed below will be provided:
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Number of currently installed and available physical drives.
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Maximum, minimum, and average number of physical drives that were
mounted in parallel during the last hour.
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Maximum, minimum, and average physical mount time during the last hour.
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Number of physical mounts completed during the last hour for:
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Recalls
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Migrate
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Reclaim
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•
Number of currently configured virtual drives.
|
|
•
Maximum, minimum, and average number of virtual drives that were
mounted in last hour.
|
•
Maximum, minimum, and average virtual mount time during the last hour.
−
|
Number of virtual mounts completed during the last hour for:
|
- Fast-Ready
|
- Specific tape volume cache
|
- Recalls
|
−
Number of virtual volumes premigrated during the last hour.
|
−
Number of bytes written to and read from the VTS during the last hour.
|
|
•
Number of bytes written and read from a stacked 3590 cartridges in the last
hour.
|
•
Average tape volume cache age at the end of the reported hour.
|
|
•
Average volume size in the tape volume cache at the end of the reported
hour.
|
|
•
Number of virtual volumes in the tape volume cache at the end of the
reported hour.
|
|
•
Number of bytes of active data managed by the Virtual Tape Server
determined as of the end of the previous day.
|
|
•
Number of bytes of free space available in the VTS as of the end of the
previous day.
|
|
|
|
|
7.26.3 Library Manager Displayed Information
Through the Library Manager console, several of the key operational and
performance statistics regarding a Virtual Tape Server are displayed in a
graphical format. These are in addition to the current performance graph. The
information displayed includes:
•
|
|
A 30 day graph showing the daily state of the storage space managed by the
Virtual Tape Server. The graph displays four values:
|
−
Total effective managed storage capacity of the Virtual Tape Server.
|
−
Number of gigabytes of active data
208
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
−
Number of gigabytes of free space
|
−
Free-space alert threshold.
|
|
•
A 24-hour graph showing the data throughput in gigabytes per hour of the
Virtual Tape Server. The graph displays four values:
|
−
Host read gigabytes
|
−
Host write gigabytes
|
−
3590 device read gigabytes
|
−
3590 device write gigabytes
|
|
•
A 24-hour graph showing how virtual mounts were performed during each
hour. The graph displays three values:
|
−
Number of mounts completed with Fast-Ready (scratch mounts).
|
|
−
Number of mounts completed because the needed volume was in the
Tape Volume Cache.
|
−
Number of mounts completed by recalling data from a stacked cartridge.
|
|
•
A 24-hour graph of the hourly usage of the 3590 devices managed by the
Virtual Tape Server. The graph displays three values:
|
−
Maximum physical devices concurrently mounted
|
−
Minimum physical devices concurrently mounted
|
−
Average physical devices concurrently mounted.
|
•
A 24-hour graph of the virtual mounts completed each hour.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
209
| Figure 95. Operating the I B M Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS)
|
7.27 Operating the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS)
|
Figure 95 lists the steps in operating the Virtual Tape Server.
|
|
|
|
7.27.1 Library Manager Updates
|
|
|
|
|
7.27.2 Vaulting
Updating entails defining the volumes, inserting the cartridges, and dealing with
the space occupied by the old data. The Library Manager provides an interface
for defining logical and physical volumes and to inhibit space reclamation.
Vaulting is preserving data in a reliable way. Data can be moved from the
Virtual Tape Server subsystem only by copying it to a physical tape. Any
attempt to eject a logical volume will result in an error message and the eject
command will be rejected.
|
|
|
|
|
Note: Do not remove any Magstar cartridge from a library containing a Virtual
Tape Server subsystem by just opening the door and taking the cartridge
out. Always use the host command to eject a cartridge from the library.
This will ensure that Magstar cartridges owned by the Virtual Tape Server
are not removed inadvertently.
210
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
|
|
|
7.27.3 Error Recovery
If the IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) detects either a write or read error
on a 3590 cartridge and the error is not recoverable (the recovery process
includes retrying the read or write on another 3590 device), the following occurs:
|
|
•
The valid active data from the physical volume is moved to another physical
volume.
|
•
The physical volume is ejected to the convenience output station.
|
|
•
A message is sent to each attached host indicating that an intervention is
required in the library.
|
|
•
The operator intervention panel on the Library Manager indicates that
volume xxxxxx has a permanent data error and has been ejected.
|
|
|
|
|
The database information stored by the Library Manager and the Virtual Tape
Server subsystem is critical to the operation of a Virtual Tape Server subsystem.
The database contains the location of the physical resources in the library
(devices, cartridge) as well as information on the logical volumes and their
associated stacked volume locations.
|
|
|
|
|
The Virtual Tape Server subsystem provides facilities to allow for the recovery of
the database information in the case of a major failure or disaster. Your
involvement is not required to ensure that critical information is being protected,
but your involvement can be required to perform some of the steps of a recovery
operation.
|
|
In the worst case that all database information is lost, the database can be
recreated from the information in the stacked volumes.
Chapter 7. The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server
211
212
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
|
|
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
This chapter describes how the IBM 3590 Magstar Tape Drive can be installed in
a StorageTek Automated Cartridge System.
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
213
| Figure 96. STK Trademarks
|
8.1 STK Trademarks
|
|
|
|
|
The StorageTek Automated Cartridge System has been on the market for some
years and some of the components are trademarks of the Storage Technology
Corporation, marked with an asterisk (*) in Figure 96. Other parts of the system
are represented by terms or definitions that are used by STK or installations
having a Silo installed:
•
|
|
4410 Automated Cartridge System
This is the first Silo, also called Nearline, introduced by StorageTek in 1987.
•
|
|
|
4480 Cartridge Tape Subsystem
This is the StorageTek IBM 3480-compatible tape subsystem, using 18-track
format standard cartridges and is able to attach to parallel channels only.
•
|
|
|
|
9310 PowderHorn Automated Cartridge System
This is the second version of the Silo introduced by StorageTek in 1993 and
has approximately twice the robotics performance of the StorageTek 4410
Automatic Cartridge System.
•
|
|
|
|
Host Software Component (HSC)
The primary function of HSC is to steer allocation, mounting, and
dismounting of different cartridge types. The HSC basically intercepts
console messages before they are visible to the operator.
214
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
•
|
|
|
Receives and responds to requests from the hosts and directs the function to
the robotics of the Library Storage Module (LSM).
•
|
|
|
|
•
•
•
•
|
|
|
|
|
Silverton 4490 Cartridge Subsystem
This is the StorageTek IBM 3490E-compatible tape subsystem, using 36-track
format standard cartridges and is able to attach to parallel channels only.
•
|
|
|
Silo
Some people use this term as the name of the whole subsystem and some
use it as the name of the LSM. Nicknames for the Silo exist in different local
languages.
|
|
|
RedWood SD-3 Helical Cartridge Tape Subsystem
This is the latest tape drive announced from StorageTek; it uses helical-scan
technology. Because helicalscan is a very expensive technology to use and
maintain, this type of device should only be used for very special niche
applications.
|
|
|
|
Library Storage Module (LSM)
The LSM is a free-standing robotic arm within a twelve-sided cylindrical
housing (the Silo), with storage capacity for approximately 6000 cartridges.
|
|
|
|
|
Library Management Unit (LMU)
Provides an interface between the Host Software Component (HSC), and the
Library Control Units (LCUs), attached to each Library Storage Module
(LSM).
|
|
|
Library Control Unit (LCU)
StorageTek
StorageTek or STK are short versions of the company name of Storage
Technology Corporation.
•
TimberLine 9490 Cartridge Tape Subsystem
This is the StorageTek IBM 3490E-compatible tape subsystem, using 36-track
format extended cartridges and with a performance twice that of the
Silverton 4490 Cartridge Subsystem.
See Section 8.3, “Configuration Overview” on page 218 for an overview of a
StorageTek Automated Cartridge System with IBM Magstar tape drives.
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
215
| Figure 97. Why Use I B M 3590 in an STK Silo?
|
8.2 Why Use IBM 3590 Magstar in an STK Silo?
•
|
Solve capacity and performance problems .
|
|
|
|
|
|
The capacity in terabytes of a StorageTek Silo can be increased by up to 50
times by attaching IBM 3590-C12 frames. Comparing on the basis of the
uncompacted storage capacity of a cartridge and recording technology, the
IBM Magstar cartridge can store 50 times as much as IBM 3480 drive
technologies and 12 times as much as IBM 3490E drive technologies using
an Enhanced Capacity cartridge.
|
|
|
|
The performance of the IBM Magstar tape drives may substantially improve
throughput for certain tape applications. They will also have the
performance to improve dump and restore times for the newly announced
RAMAC-3 array disk.
•
|
|
|
|
|
Minimize changes to operation .
When installing an IBM 3590-C12 frame, no new software is required because
existing 3490E tape applications also run on IBM 3590-C12. If the esoteric
unit names used by existing applications are defined for the new drives, no
JCL-changes are required.
•
|
|
|
|
|
Maximize investment protection .
By adding an IBM 3590-C12 frame, or installing it to replace existing tape
drives, the investment in all other parts of the StorageTek Automated
Cartridge System is retained at the same time as the capacity and the
performance are improved.
216
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
|
|
|
|
Later, the IBM Magstar 3590 cartridges and the IBM 3590-B1A drives can be
moved and installed in an IBM Automated Tape Server, such as the IBM
3494, giving you the option to use virtual tapes and drives to maximize the
utilization of your investment.
•
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Invest in extendable technology .
In 1995, IBM first announced the IBM Magstar 3590 tape subsystem and now
in 1996 substantial additions have been announced in products, functions,
and features. The IBM Magstar technology will be further enhanced and new
products, functions, and features will be included in future announcements.
By installing the IBM 3590-C12 in the StorageTek Silo, you will invest in a
technology that will be extended in the future.
•
Prepare for the future .
As you have seen in earlier chapters of this book some functions and
features of the IBM Magstar technology will be available next year and even
more are expected in the future. By installing the IBM 3590-C12 now, you
prepare to take full advantage of all functions and features of the IBM
Magstar technology. Also by installing the IBM 3590-C12 now, you reduce
the number of cartridges, and convert all your tape data to the new
technology.
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
217
| Figure 98. Configuration Overview
|
8.3 Configuration Overview
|
|
The components of a StorageTek Automated Cartridge System with an IBM 3590
Model C12 Silo-Compatible Frame installed (Figure 98) are as follows:
•
|
Library Storage Module (LSM)
|
|
|
Contains the Magstar 3590 Data Cartridges, Magstar 3590 Cleaning
Cartridges, and Magstar 3590 Diagnostic Cartridges, and cartridges for STK
drives, if installed, as well as storage slots and robotics.
|
Up to sixteen drives can be attached to one LSM.
•
|
|
|
|
Library Control Unit (LCU)
Controls the robotics motion and interfaces to the drives through the
LCU/DRIVE Control Path. The LCU gets orders from the Library
Management Unit, see below, through the Library Control Path.
•
|
|
|
|
|
IBM 3590-C12 (Silo-Compatible Frame)
Contains four IBM 3590-B1A drives attached to StorageTek LSM and
interfaces with the StorageTek LCU through the LCU/DRIVE Control Path.
More information on the IBM 3590-C12 will follow in Section 8.4, “IBM 3590
Model C12” on page 220.
•
|
|
StorageTek Tape Drives
These may be installed at the same time as the IBM 3590-C12.
218
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
•
|
|
|
|
|
IBM 3591-A01 ESCON tape controller provides for ESCON attachment of the
IBM 3590-B1A drives as if they are IBM 3490E drives. More information on
the IBM 3591-A01 will follow in Section 8.4, “IBM 3590 Model C12” on
page 220.
•
|
|
|
•
|
|
|
|
Library Management Unit (LMU)
The LMU converts the mount commands from up to 16 hosts to robotic
commands for up to 16 LCUs. The LMU interfaces with the LCUs and with
the hosts (via a Network Controller, see below) through the Library Control
Path.
•
|
|
|
IBM ESCON Director
The ESCON director allows the drives in the IBM 3590-C12 to be accessed
from multiple hosts or logical partitions. This is optional.
|
|
|
|
|
IBM 3591-A01 (ESCON Tape Controller)
Network Controller (for example, IBM 3274)
The controller allows the Host Software Component, see below, to access
the LMU through the Library Control Path.
•
Host Software Component (HSC)
The HSC manages the cartridge-to-slot database and steers drive allocation.
IBM provides maintenance for the entire library subsystem and problem
determination assistance for interoperability issues in split maintenance
environments.
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
219
| Figure 99. IBM 3590 Model C12
|
8.4 IBM 3590 Model C12
|
|
|
|
|
|
The IBM 3590-C12 Silo-Compatible Frame (Figure 99) is designed for attachment
to a StorageTek Automated Cartridge System, often called a Silo. Four IBM
3590-B1A drives are installed in the IBM 3590-C12 frame. The SCSI bus of the
IBM 3590-C12 attaches to an IBM 3591-A01 ESCON controller for 3490E emulation
to the host. More information on the IBM 3591-A01 ESCON controller follows in
Section 8.5, “IBM 3591 Model A01” on page 224.
|
|
|
|
|
The drives installed in the IBM 3590-C12 frame are standard IBM 3590-B1A
drives with Feature 2003 which adds a target for the STK robotics and
attachment for the drive display. The drives can later be installed in another
configuration, such as the IBM 3494 Virtual Tape Server (see Section 8.10,
“Migration Path to IBM 3494” on page 238).
|
|
|
|
|
The IBM 3590-B1A drives are oriented in the IBM 3590-C12 frame on slanted (15
degrees) trays, as shown in the front view in Figure 99. This is done so that the
StorageTek robotic assembly can pick cartridges from and place cartridges in
the IBM 3590-B1A loader mechanism. The IBM 3590 drive is designed for rear
slide-out service in the IBM 3590-C12 frame (see rear view in Figure 99).
|
|
Table 11 on page 221 shows the physical specifications of the IBM 3590-C12
frame.
|
|
|
Four tape cartridges for diagnostics and a cleaning cartridge are supplied with
each IBM 3590-C12. A three-month supply of data cartridges is recommended,
along with cartridge labels to identify each cartridge’s volume serial number.
220
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
|
|
|
|
|
See Table 12 on page 222 for ordering data cartridges with the IBM 3590-C12
Frame. For detailed information on ordering additional cartridges, see:
•
IBM 3590 Magstar High Performance Tape Subsystem Silo-Compatible Frame
Model C12 Introduction, Planning, and User’s Guide .
Up to four IBM 3590-C12 units can attach to one LSM, allowing up to 16 IBM
3590-B1A drives.
|
Table 11. IBM 3590-C12 Physical Characteristics
|
Feature
Specification
|
|
Height
1803 m m
(71 in.)
|
|
Width
724 m m
(28.5 in.)
|
|
Depth (Free-Standing)
975 m m
(38.4 in.)
|
|
Depth (Installed)
775 m m
(30.5 in.) 1
|
|
Weight
400 kg
(880 lb) 2
|
Notes:
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
1. In the service position, the maxi mum installed depth for Model C12 is
1635 mm (62.1 in.).
2. This is the weight of a fullyloaded C12 frame.
For more information on environmental specifications and additional information
about the IBM 3590 Model C12, see:
•
IBM 3590 Magstar High Performance Tape Subsystem Silo-Compatible Frame
Model C12 Introduction, Planning, and User’s Guide .
For additional information about the IBM 3590 Magstar tape drive, see:
|
•
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Introduction and Planning Guide
|
•
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem User’s Guide,
|
•
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware Reference
|
|
•
Magstar and IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem: Multiplatform
Implementation
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
An optional display mounted on the top of the IBM 3494-C12 (not shown in
Figure 99 on page 220) is available from Texas Digital Systems, Inc. (TDS) of
College Station, Texas 77845, USA, telephone (409) 693-9378. The TDS display
features an 11-color LED display that can be read from a distance up to 27
meters, and provides drive status information. The display attaches to the
RS-422 interface of each IBM 3590-B1A drive through a display controller
mounted in the IBM 3494-C12 frame.
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
221
|
|
|
8.4.1 IBM 3590-C12 Features
Table 12 shows the feature codes for the features applicable to the IBM
3590-C12 frame.
|
Table 12. IBM 3590-C12 Features
|
Description
|
|
One 12 m (39.4 ft) SCSI cable;
One SCSI bus with four drives
5201
|
|
Two 12 m (39.4 ft) SCSI cables;
Two SCSI buses with two drives each
5202
|
One cleaning cartridge
8002
|
|
Seven 30-packs of tape cartridges (210 cartridges);
without seventh character on VOLSER label
8210
|
|
Fourteen 30-packs of tape cartridges (420 cartridges);
without seventh character on VOLSER label
8220
|
No data cartridges
9590
|
Chicago line cord, 2 meters
9986
•
|
Feature Code
Feature 520x
|
|
|
|
You must select either Feature 5201 or 5202. Installation is performed at the
plant. The 12-m cable is shipped separately from the drive and is installed in
the field. Approximately 10 m of the 12-m SCSI cable length is available for
connection to the IBM 3591-A01 ESCON controller.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Feature 5201 supplies one 12-m SCSI cable for attachment of a IBM 3590-B1A
drive to a IBM 3591-A01 ESCON controller, and three 4-m SCSI cables for
daisy-chaining to three additional IBM 3590-B1A drives in an IBM 3590-C12
frame. The SCSI cables are daisy-chained from the lowest drive in the frame
to the top drive (see Figure 100 on page 224). A terminator is attached to
the last connector in the top drive. The uppermost drive in the frame has
SCSI address 0 and the bottom drive has SCSI address 3.
|
|
|
|
|
Feature 5202 supplies two 12-m SCSI cables for attachment of two IBM
3590-B1A drives each to two IBM 3591-A01 ESCON controllers, and two 4-m
SCSI cables, each of which is used to daisy-chain the two drives connected
to the IBM 3591 controllers. This results in two IBM 3590-drives on each bus
(Figure 100 on page 224).
•
|
|
|
Feature 8002
This feature supplies one cleaning cartridge. Up to ten Features 8002 can be
specified for plant or field install.
•
|
|
|
Feature 8210
You can order no more than one Feature 8210 containing 210 IBM 3590 Data
Cartridges without the “seventh character” J on the external label.
•
|
Feature 8220
|
|
You can order no more than Feature 8220 containing 420 IBM 3590 Data
Cartridges without the “seventh character” J on the external label.
|
Features 8210 and 8220 are plant install only.
222
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
•
Feature 9590
|
|
This feature should be specified if no data cartridges should be delivered
with the IBM 3590-C12 frame.
|
|
Note: One of Features 8210, 8220, or 9590 must be ordered with every IBM
3590-C12 frame.
|
•
|
|
|
Feature 9986
Feature 9986 is required for a IBM 3590-C12 installed in Chicago.
8.4.2 IBM 3590-B1A Features
Table 13 shows the features for the IBM 3590-B1A drive.
|
Table 13. IBM 3590-B1A Features
|
Description
|
C12 Attachment
2003
|
ES/9000 Attachment
9000
|
•
|
|
|
|
|
|
Feature Code
Feature 2003
Feature 2003 is required on a IBM 3590-B1A to be installed in the IBM
3590-C12. This feature adds a target for the robotic vision system and a
holder for the display.
•
Feature 9000
Feature 9000 should be specified when IBM 3590-B1A will be attached to a
ES/3090, ES/9000, or S/390 system.
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
223
| Figure 100. IBM 3591 Model A01
|
8.5 IBM 3591 Model A01
|
|
|
|
|
The primary function of the IBM 3591 Model A01 control unit (Figure 100) is to
provide an interface between the SCSI-attached IBM 3590 Magstar drives and the
host system ESCON channels. The IBM 3591-A01 ESCON control unit allows the
operating system to communicate with the IBM 3590 Magstar drives as if they
were IBM 3490E drives.
|
|
|
|
The IBM 3590-C12 supports attachment of one or two IBM 3591-A01. All four IBM
3590-B1A drives are attached through one SCSI interface to the IBM 3591-A01 in
a one-control-unit configuration. Feature 5000 provides a free-standing
enclosure for the IBM 3591-A01 that can be used instead of a rack.
|
|
|
|
|
|
When two IBM 3591-A01 control units are used, two IBM 3590-B1A drives are
attached through one SCSI port. The first IBM 3591-A01 control unit and the
other two IBM 3590-B1A drives are attached through another SCSI interface to
the second IBM 3591-A01, as shown in Figure 100. The drives are not attached
to both control units. The two-control-unit configuration can be used to improve
throughput for certain applications, such as master-in, master-out applications.
|
|
The IBM 3591-A01 supports up to 64 logical paths and can be at a maximum
channel distance of 43 km from the host.
|
|
The IBM 3591-A01 can, as previously announced, be mounted in a rack attaching
up to four IBM 3590-B11/B1A drives.
224
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
|
|
|
Support for the IBM 3590-C12 Silo-compatible frame together with one or two
IBM 3591-A01 ESCON control units is provided in the MVS/ESA operating
environment. No new software is required because existing IBM 3490E tape
applications also run on IBM 3590-C12.
|
|
Table 14 shows which software releases support the IBM 3590-B1A drives
attached to an IBM 3591-A01 ESCON controller.
|
Table 14. IBM 3591-A01 Software Support
|
|
|
MVS
Level
|
DFP
DFSMS
3.3.0
3.3.2
1.1.0
1.2.0
1.3.0
4.2.0
Yes
Yes
|
4.2.2
Yes
Yes
|
4.3.0
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
|
5.1.0
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
|
5.2.0
Yes
Yes
Yes
|
5.2.2
Yes
Yes
Yes
|
|
|
For more information on software support for the IBM 3591-A01 ESCON
controller, see Magstar and IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem:
Multiplatform Implementation .
|
|
Table 15 shows the physical specifications of the IBM 3591-A01 ESCON control
unit.
|
Table 15. IBM 3591-A01 Physical Characteristics
|
Dimension
|
|
Height
381 m m
(15.0 in.)
|
|
Width
482.6 m m
(19 in.)
|
|
Depth (free-standing)
441.3 m m
(17.4 in.)
|
|
Depth (installed)
533.4
(21 in.) 1
|
|
Weight
40.8 kg
(90 lb)
|
Notes:
|
|
|
|
|
|
Specification
1. The installed depth includes the added length of the front cover and rear
plug.
For more information on environmental specifications, see
•
IBM 3590 Magstar High Performance Tape Subsystem Silo-Compatible Frame
Model C12 Introduction, Planning, and User’s Guide .
For additional information about the IBM 3591 Model A01, see:
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
225
•
|
|
|
|
IBM 3591 Tape Control Unit Model A01 Introduction, Planning, and User ′ s
Guide .
8.5.1 IBM 3591-A01 Features
Table 16 shows the features for the IBM 3591-A01 ESCON control unit.
|
Table 16. IBM 3591-A01 Features
|
Description
|
Remote support facility
2700
|
Remote support switch
2701
|
Remote support attachment
2702.
|
ESCON Adapter Card
3311
|
IBM 3591-A01 Floor-Standing Package
5000
•
|
|
|
|
|
|
Feature Code
Feature 2700
Feature 2700 attaches a customer-supplied modem for installation, operation,
and remote diagnostic support. It should be ordered for the first IBM
3591-A01 in one location. Only one Feature 2700 should be specified for
each site, because up to 14 IBM 3591-A01 units can use the same Remote
Support Facility (RSF).
•
|
|
|
|
|
Feature 2701
Feature 2701 attaches to multiple IBM 3591-A01 ESCON control units to the
Remote Support Facility (Feature 2700). It should be ordered for the second
IBM 3591-A01 in one location. Only one Feature 2701 should be ordered for
each customer site.
•
|
Feature 2702
|
|
|
Feature 2702 attaches to the Remote Support Facility (Feature 2700). It
should be ordered for the third through fourteenth IBM 3591-A01 in one
location. Only one Feature 2701 should be ordered for each site.
|
|
Note: Each IBM 3591-A01 must specify either Feature 2700, Feature 2701, or
Feature 2702. All are plant or field installable.
•
|
|
|
|
|
|
Feature 3311
An ESCON adapter card, Feature 3311, is required on all IBM 3591-A01
ESCON controllers; it provides an ESCON channel for attachment to a host
processor ESCON channel or to a port of an IBM ESCON director. A SCSI
adapter is included for attachment of IBM 3590-B1A drives on a SCSI bus.
Only one Feature 3311 is needed for plant installation.
•
|
|
|
Feature 5000
Feature 5000 provides the hardware necessary to have the IBM 3591-A01 as
a free-standing box, not requiring a rack.
|
|
ESCON cables are ordered with the IBM 3591-A01 ESCON control unit. For
information on ordering ESCON cables, refer to:
•
|
|
226
IBM 3591 Tape Control Unit Model A01 Introduction, Planning, and User ′ s
Guide .
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 101. Allowed Device Combinations
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
8.6 Allowed Device Combinations
The IBM 3590-B1A drives in the IBM 3590-C12 frame are defined to the HSC as
either StorageTek 4490 or StorageTek 9490 tape drives. For this reason, several
requirements must be met when operating mixed devices in the StorageTek
Automated Cartridge System under different StorageTek HSC levels:
•
HSC 1.2
The following tape device combinations are allowed when using 3590 drives
in a StorageTek Automated Cartridge System under HSC 1.2:
1. IBM 3590 only
2. StorageTek 4480 (18-track) and IBM 3590
Use explicit ranges of volume serial numbers for IBM 3590 media. The
following volume attribute definitions are suggested to manage drive-media
relationships:
|
|
−
One or more statements for IBM 3590 Data Cartridges to identify tapes
as long media operated with 36-track recording technology.
|
|
|
−
One statement for IBM 3590 Cleaning Cartridges; the same media and
recording technology attributes used for IBM 3590 Data Cartridges should
be applied.
|
|
−
Additional statements as required to associate media for 4480 drives with
18-track recording technology.
|
|
−
A statement to designate a default recording technology. In a mixed
configuration, do not specify the IBM 3590 media as the default.
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
227
|
|
|
|
Esoteric unit names are used to steer allocation inside and outside the
StorageTek Automated Cartridge System. More information on allocation is
given in Section 8.7, “Multi-ATL Scratch Tape Allocation” on page 229 and
Section 8.8, “Multi-ATL Specific Tape Allocation” on page 231.
•
|
|
|
HSC 2.x
The following tape device combinations are allowed when using 3590 drives
in a StorageTek Automated Cartridge System under HSC 2.x:
|
|
|
|
1.
2.
3.
4.
IBM 3590 only
StorageTek 4480, SD-3 or both, plus and IBM 3590
StorageTek 4480, SD-3 or both, plus StorageTek 4490 and IBM 3590
StorageTek 4480, SD-3 or both, plus StorageTek 9490 and IBM 3590
|
|
|
The IBM 3590 drives emulate StorageTek 4490 or 9490 drives, and cannot be
introduced into the Automated Cartridge System if 4490 and 9490 tape drives
are present.
|
|
Use explicit ranges of VOLSERs for IBM 3590 media. The following volume
attribute definitions are suggested to manage drive-media relationships:
|
|
|
−
One or more statements for IBM 3590 Data Cartridges to identify 3590
tapes as an unique media type associated exclusively with the recording
technology of the model type they emulate (StorageTek 4490 or 9490).
|
|
|
−
One statement for IBM 3590 Cleaning Cartridges; the same media and
recording technology attributes used for IBM 3590 Data Cartridges should
be applied.
|
|
−
Additional statements as required to associate media for other drive
types with their appropriate recording technology.
|
|
−
A statement to designate a default recording technology. In a mixed
configuration do not specify the IBM 3590 media as the default.
|
|
|
|
|
|
Unit attribute statements are needed to associate IBM 3590 drives with the
model type they emulate. Esoteric unit names are used to steer allocation
inside and outside the Automated Cartridge System. More information on
allocation will be given in Section 8.7, “Multi-ATL Scratch Tape Allocation”
on page 229 and Section 8.8, “Multi-ATL Specific Tape Allocation” on
page 231.
|
For additional information on how to define devices and cartridges to HSC, see:
|
|
•
StorageTek Host Software Component (MVS/XA-ESA Implementation) System
Programmers Guide, Release 1.2 , 4044266-2
|
|
•
StorageTek Host Software Component MVS System Programmers Guide,
Release 2.0.1 , 112156401.
228
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 102. Multi-ATL Scratch Tape Allocation
|
8.7 Multi-ATL Scratch Tape Allocation
|
|
|
|
|
When you decide to install an IBM 3494 or IBM 3495 Automatic Tape Library
Dataservers beside an already installed StorageTek Silo to make a smooth
migration, you need to know which data is written on which cartridges in which
library. This section describes how new tape allocations, that is scratch
allocations, are handled in a multivendor tape library installation (Figure 102).
|
|
|
|
|
When the IBM Automatic Tape Library is installed, you define it to DFSMS/MVS
and define groups for the tape volumes that will be system-managed storage
groups. You also add some statements to the automatic class selection routines
of DFSMS/MVS to direct new allocations to the correct tape storage groups. For
more information on how to implement system managed tape, see:
|
•
IBM 3495 Implementation Primer for MVS .
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
When you define a JCL statement, requesting a scratch tape, the information is
first passed to the DFSMS automatic class selection (ACS), routines. If the logic
of the Storage Class ACS routine assigns a storage class to this request, the
volume requested by this allocation will be system managed. The logic of the
storage group ACS routine then assigns a storage group to this allocation. The
storage group name is then used by MVS allocation to direct this scratch request
to the library or libraries defined to host it. A scratch volume is selected by the
Library Manager in the library selected.
|
|
If the storage class ACS routine does not assign a storage class to this request,
it is not system managed, and is handled as a traditional scratch tape allocation.
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
229
|
|
|
|
After DFSMS, the StorageTek HSC routines will pick up this tape scratch
allocation. If the allocation request is directed to an esoteric unit name defined
for the tape drives in a Silo, the HSC software will select a scratch volume from
the Control Data Set and turn this allocation into a specific allocation.
|
|
|
|
If the scratch allocation is for a unit-name not defined for a Silo, the allocation
will go to some tape drive of the requested type outside the tape libraries. The
operator is then requested to mount a scratch tape, if the scratch request could
not be satisfied by a cartridge loader on the tape drive.
230
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 103. Multi-ATL Specific Tape Allocation
|
8.8 Multi-ATL Specific Tape Allocation
|
|
|
|
As described in Section 8.7, “Multi-ATL Scratch Tape Allocation” on page 229
you can use system managed tape together with a StorageTek Silo for scratch
requests, once data is created. This section describes how stored data can then
be retrieved.
|
|
|
|
The most common request for data already stored in your system is to specify
the name of the data set and specify disposition OLD or SHR, as shown in
Figure 103. MVS routines extract the unit and volume information from the
system catalog, if it is not specified in the allocation request.
|
|
|
|
|
|
MVS allocation together with the library support routines included in DFSMS
Object Access Method (OAM) component and information in the Tape
Configuration Database (TCDB), will see if this is a system-managed tape, and if
so, in which library the tape is stored. For all system-managed tapes, MVS
allocation directs the allocation to the drives installed in the library containing
the tape.
|
|
|
|
|
If the tape is not system managed, the StorageTek HSC routines see the
allocation request afterward. The HSC routines check the control data set to find
in which Silo the tape is stored and which drives to use in order to mount the
volume. The HSC routines update the allocation information and send the mount
order to the robotics in the Silo.
|
|
If the tape is not system-managed, and is not defined in the HSC control data
set, the allocation is directed to any stand-alone tape drive that can satisfy the
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
231
|
|
request. The operator is then requested to mount the tape on the allocated tape
drive.
232
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
| Figure 104. Installation and Operation
|
8.9 Installation and Operation
|
|
|
|
|
This section describes the installation of the IBM 3590-C12 and IBM 3591-A01 and
explains operation procedures for the installation.
8.9.1 Installation
We describe six installation steps:
1. Install PTFs
|
|
|
|
|
No new software releases are required to use the IBM 3590-C12. The IBM
3591-A01 ESCON controller emulates the IBM 3490E, and functions with
existing system-level and application software. The software restrictions,
limitations, and maintenance associated with IBM 3591-A01 apply to IBM
3590-C12.
|
|
|
Table 17 on page 234 shows the Authorized Program Analysis Reports
(APARs) that should be installed in order to exploit the full capacity of the
IBM 3590 Magstar Cartridges.
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
233
|
Table 17. APARs
|
Software Component
|
DFHSM
OW20500
|
DFSMShsm
OW20192
|
|
DFDSS V2.5 (FMID HAE2502)
PN74583
PN77830
|
|
DFSMSdss 1.1.0, 1.2.0, 1.3.0
(FMID JDZ1120, HDZ11B0, HDZ11C0)
OW14835
OW16802
|
APAR number
The APARs are described as followed:
•
|
|
|
|
APARS OW20500 and OW20192
These allow the TAPE UTILIZATION to be specified with four digits, that
is up to 9999. This function is needed in order to utilize the Magstar
cartridge capacity if the tape utilization option is not NOLIMIT.
•
|
|
|
APARS PN74583 and OW14835
These implement the new BUILDSA command and provide stand-alone
support for restoration from a file that is not the first file on the tape.
•
|
|
|
APARS PN77830 and OW16802
provide support for restoration from a file that is not the first file on the
tape.
|
For more information refer to:
•
|
|
|
|
|
IBM 3591 Tape Control Unit Model A01 Introduction, Planning, and User’s
Guide .
Your IBM installation planning representative and IBM marketing
representative can determine the latest levels of software, microcode, and
hardware available for your subsystem.
|
2. Install DFSMS/MVS IOGEN
|
|
|
Each IBM 3591-A01 ESCON control unit can have only one logical path
specified to each host image. Specify four addresses for all IBM 3591-A01
control units, even if only two devices are attached.
|
Specify the IBM 3590-B1A drives as 3490E devices.
|
|
You also need to define an esoteric unit name for the devices as the
StorageTek HSC uses it to direct the allocations.
|
3. Set Cleaning program
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
The drive cleaning mode is determined at installation; the service
representative either enables or disables automatic cleaning for each IBM
3590-B1A drive. In automatic cleaning, a drive informs the Automated
Cartridge System that cleaning is required; the Automated Cartridge System
then delivers a cleaning cartridge to the drive. When automatic cleaning is
disabled, the operator runs a job that mounts a cleaning cartridge (see
Appendix A, “Sample Cleaning Program” on page 241 and Figure 106 on
page 241).
|
|
|
In a mixed-drive environment, automatic cleaning is performed for non-3590
drives, while cleaning jobs are scheduled at regular intervals for IBM
3590-B1A drives. If there are no mixed media in the Automated Cartridge
234
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
|
System and only 3590 drives are present, then automatic cleaning can be
enabled.
|
|
|
|
Install the cleaning job and the cleaning program even if automatic cleaning
is enabled. You find information on how to obtain the necessary MVS JCL
and source code of the cleaning program in Appendix A, “Sample Cleaning
Program” on page 241.
|
|
|
4. Make HSC updates possible
Define one or more statements for IBM 3590 Data Cartridges to identify tapes
as:
|
|
•
Long media operated with 36-track recording technology if HSC 1.2 is
used
|
|
|
•
A unique media type associated exclusively with the recording
technology of the model type they emulate (4490 or 9490) if HSC 2.x is
used.
|
|
|
Define one statement for IBM 3590 Cleaning Cartridges (prefix MGC); the
same media and recording technology attributes used for IBM 3590 Data
Cartridges should be applied.
|
|
The IBM 3590 Diagnostic Cartridges (prefix DGC) are not to be defined to the
HSC.
|
|
Define unit attribute statements to associate IBM 3590-B1A drives with the
model type they emulate.
|
|
|
|
Add statements as required to associate media for other drive types with
their appropriate recording technology. Esoteric unit names are used to
steer allocation inside and outside the StorageTek Automated Cartridge
System.
|
|
Add one statement to designate a default recording technology. In a mixed
configuration do not specify the IBM 3590 media as the default.
|
|
|
|
In an Automated Cartridge System that has only IBM 3590-B1A drive, the
cleaning prefix for autocleaning can be set to MGC, and the drives
themselves can be configured to request autocleaning. See also Section
8.9.2, “Operation” on page 236.
|
5. Install Hardware
|
|
|
Relocate the cartridges in the LSM drive panel (top four and bottom four
cartridge arrays) into which the IBM 3590-C12 is to be installed. This action
is not necessary if you audit the LSM panel when the LSM is varied online.
|
|
|
Setup and verify the IBM 3590-C12 and IBM 3591-A01 before the LSM is taken
offline. During installation, the LSM is offline for approximately 2 hours.
Total installation time is 6.5 hours.
|
|
|
|
|
|
6. Restart the Host Component Software
After the hardware is installed:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Stop the HSC
Run the reconfiguration program.
Start HSC, with new LIBGEN and control statements in place.
Enter IBM 3590 Magstar data and cleaning cartridges into the LSM.
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
235
|
|
8.9.2 Operation
Four types of operation are described:
•
|
Manual mode
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Varying the Library Storage Module (LSM) offline while the HSC is active
allows you to enter the LSM and load cartridges manually into the IBM
3590-B1A drives. To load a cartridge manually, with the metal washer facing
down, gently slide the cartridge into the drive′s loading slot until it stops.
Then, push the cartridge into the drive; after you push the cartridge about 1.5
cm into the drive, the loading mechanism pulls the cartridge into the drive
and completes the load.
|
|
|
|
|
Some LSM actions can leave the drive unable to load a cartridge on the first
mount after opening the LSM door. If pushing the cartridge into the drive
fails to start the loader, leave the cartridge in the slot and select ALLOW
LOAD on the display panel main menu. This should start the load. If it does
not, remove the cartridge and repeat the manual loading procedure.
|
|
In manual mode, the panel displays the cartridge VOLSER and LSM cell
coordinates.
•
|
Drive cleaning
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
When IBM units are intermixed with StorageTek drives and media in an
Automated Cartridge System, special measures are required to ensure that
the IBM 3590 cleaning cartridges are mounted on IBM 3590-B1A drives, and
StorageTek cleaning cartridges are mounted on StorageTek drives. Since a
single cleaning prefix is available in support of all tape drives in an
Automated Cartridge System, either IBM 3590-B1A drives or StorageTek
drives, but not both, can be enabled for automatic cleaning.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
At installation, the IBM 3590-B1A drives are configured to either enable or
disable autocleaning in the Automated Cartridge System environment. It is
recommended that IBM 3590 drives be enabled for autocleaning only when
they are in an Automated Cartridge System containing only IBM 3590 drives
and media. In a mixed-drive or mixed media Automated Cartridge System,
the IBM 3590 drives are configured so that they do not request cleaning.
Autocleaning is enabled for the Automated Cartridge System, but will be
requested only by the StorageTek drives. IBM 3590-B1A drive cleaning is
accomplished through special, regularly scheduled jobs that request
mounting of an IBM 3590 cleaning cartridge on a specific IBM 3590 drive.
Typically, once every day is sufficient; customize your cleaning schedule
based on drive usage.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
An example of a drive cleaning program and job control language can be
obtained through FTP service. See Appendix A, “Sample Cleaning
Program” on page 241 for more information. The cleaning program in that
example receives a drive address as an input parameter. Defined constants
in the program specify the cleaning prefix MGC and the high and low
sequence numbers, 000-020, for the range of available cleaning cartridges.
An additional defined constant specifies the maximum number of times that
a cleaning cartridge should be used.
|
|
|
|
|
The example program searches for a suitable cleaning cartridge by starting
at the low end of the range and issuing an SLSXREQ QVOLUME command
for the VOLSER. If a cartridge is encountered that has been mounted for the
maximum number of times, it is ejected from the library by means of
SLSXREQ EJECT.
236
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
|
|
|
The sample cleaning program and the JCL are optimized for cleaning drives
successively rather than concurrently. Four job steps are used to request
the cleaning of each IBM 3590 tape drive in the IBM 3590-C12 frame.
•
External labels
|
|
|
|
Typically, J is the media identification character for the IBM Magstar 3590
High Performance Tape Cartridge and is in the seventh character position.
For IBM 3590-C12, cartridges without a media identification character are
recommended for the reasons listed below.
|
The following consequences occur when using J-labeled cartridges:
|
|
−
Warning messages appear on the operator console when the library
vision system encounters this unexpected J media type
|
|
−
Redundant robotic movements occur during the physical mounting of
J-labeled cartridges
|
|
−
J-labeled cartridges cannot be entered temporarily into the Automated
Cartridge System to satisfy specific mount requests.
|
|
You can use J-labeled cartridges that are already present, but be aware of
the effects listed above. It is recommended that the J labels be removed.
|
|
|
|
|
When existing J-labeled cartridges associated with IBM automated or
stand-alone libraries or drives are requested for temporary or permanent
entry in an Automated Cartridge System, the J can be removed or
temporarily concealed to allow the cartridge to be used without the effects
listed above.
|
|
Note: IBM Magstar 3590 cartridges without J-labels can be used effectively
in IBM tape libraries and distinguished from other media types.
|
|
|
|
•
Inventories and catalogs .
Inventories and catalogs that associate 3590 datasets with emulated 3490E
tape units require future modification when the 3590 device type is
introduced as a native device.
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
237
| Figure 105. Migration Path to I B M 3494
|
8.10 Migration Path to IBM 3494
|
|
|
|
Even if attaching IBM 3590-B1A Magstar tape drives to a StorageTek Silo gives
your installation many benefits, you may consider migrating to an IBM Automatic
Tape Library. Such a migration will give your tape subsystem many additional
functions and enhancements:
•
|
|
|
|
|
Investment protection
The investment you have already made in the IBM Magstar technology can
now be further exploited by, for example, using the IBM 3590 drives and
cartridges in a Virtual Tape Server to improve the utilization of already
installed tape space.
•
|
|
|
|
Native IBM 3590 support
Moving the installed IBM 3590-B1A drives from the IBM 3590-C12 frame and
installing them in an IBM 3494-L14, IBM 3494-D14, or IBM 3590-A14 frame
gives you native 3590 support.
•
|
|
|
|
|
Reduced floor space
Installing the IBM 3590-C12 frame in your StorageTek Silo drastically reduces
the number of cartridges needed, perhaps by as much as 50 times. For this
reason, you may not need more than one or a few IBM 3494 frames to host
all the cartridges in your installation.
•
|
|
|
System-managed tape
System-management of tape gives tape allocations all the benefits of
system-managed dataset. DFSMS automatically stores your tape data,
238
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
application data, DFHSM/ADSM or other migrated data, interchange data,
archive data, local backup copies, or disaster backups copies, in the
appropriate tape library or the real or virtual tape server. It does all of this
using the technology of your choice, IBM 3490, IBM 3490E (real or virtual), or
IBM 3590, and selects the cartridge type defined in DFSMS without any JCL
changes.
•
Virtual Tape Server
The IBM 3590-B1A drives can also be moved into an IBM 3494-D12 frame.
Used together with an IBM 3494-B16 frame, the combination forms a IBM
Virtual Tape Server. This configuration will give you all the benefits of virtual
tape support described in this book.
Chapter 8. IBM Magstar 3590 Silo-Compatible Tape Subsystem
239
240
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
|
Appendix A. Sample Cleaning Program
|
|
|
|
|
|
An example of a drive cleaning program, and job control language, can be
obtained over the Internet through file transfer protocol (FTP) server. The name
of the anonymous FTP server is index.storsys.ibm.com. Access the FTP server
as you would an anonymous service. The driver and documentation are in
directory /devdrvr .
In summary:
|
|
|
|
|
|
FTP site:
URL:
User:
Password:
Files:
index.storsys.ibm.com
ftp://index.storsys.ibm.com/devdrvr
anonymous
<email>
/devdrvr/3590_C12/README
/devdrvr/3590_C12/clean_asm /* 370 assembler source example */
//CLEANMAG JOB
//*
//CLNMAG PROC
//CLNDRV EXEC
//STEPLIB DD
//
DD
//DUMDD
DD
//
PEND
//*
//CLNE50 EXEC
//CLNE51 EXEC
//CLNE52 EXEC
//CLNE53 EXEC
//
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
000,MSGLEVEL=(1,1)
DEVNO=
PGM=CLEANDRV,PARM=′&DEVNO′
DISP=SHR,DSN=YOUR.LINKLIB * LIBRARY CONTAINING PROGRAM
DISP=SHR,DSN=SLS.SLSLINK * LIBRARY CONTAINING STK-CODE
UNIT=(&DEVNO,,DEFER)
* STOP OTHERS USING DRIVE
CLNMAG,DEVNO=E50
CLNMAG,DEVNO=E51
CLNMAG,DEVNO=E52
CLNMAG,DEVNO=E53
|
Figure 106. JCL for Sample Cleaning Program
|
|
|
The sample program requires the device number of the tape drive to be cleaned
as a parameter. The device number may be specified with three or four
characters.
|
The return code from this program is:
|
|
|
|
104
108
R15 after SLSXREQ call
Value of SLXCMDRC
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
Invalid input
Cleaner cartridge not available
HSC not active
Mount of cleaner cartridge failed
241
242
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Appendix B. Special Notices
This publication is intended to help customers and IBM technical professionals
understand the IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem that uses the
Magstar tape drive. The information in this publication is not intended as the
specification of any programming interfaces that are provided by IBM 3590 High
Performance Tape Subsystem. See the PUBLICATIONS section for more
information about what publications are considered to be product documentation.
References in this publication to IBM products, programs or services do not
imply that IBM intends to make these available in all countries in which IBM
operates. Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended
to state or imply that only IBM′s product, program, or service may be used. Any
functionally equivalent program that does not infringe any of IBM′s intellectual
property rights may be used instead of the IBM product, program or service.
Information in this book was developed in conjunction with use of the equipment
specified, and is limited in application to those specific hardware and software
products and levels.
IBM may have
this document.
these patents.
Licensing, IBM
patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter in
The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to
You can send license inquiries, in writing, to the IBM Director of
Corporation, 500 Columbus Avenue, Thornwood, NY 10594 USA.
Licensees of this program who wish to have information about it for the purpose
of enabling: (i) the exchange of information between independently created
programs and other programs (including this one) and (ii) the mutual use of the
information which has been exchanged, should contact IBM Corporation, Dept.
600A, Mail Drop 1329, Somers, NY 10589 USA.
Such information may be available, subject to appropriate terms and conditions,
including in some cases, payment of a fee.
The information contained in this document has not been submitted to any
formal IBM test and is distributed AS IS. The information about non-IBM
(″vendor″) products in this manual has been supplied by the vendor and IBM
assumes no responsibility for its accuracy or completeness. The use of this
information or the implementation of any of these techniques is a customer
responsibility and depends on the customer′s ability to evaluate and integrate
them into the customer′s operational environment. While each item may have
been reviewed by IBM for accuracy in a specific situation, there is no guarantee
that the same or similar results will be obtained elsewhere. Customers
attempting to adapt these techniques to their own environments do so at their
own risk.
Any performance data contained in this document was determined in a
controlled environment, and therefore, the results that may be obtained in other
operating environments may vary significantly. Users of this document should
verify the applicable data for their specific environment.
The following document contains examples of data and reports used in daily
business operations. To illustrate them as completely as possible, the examples
contain the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products. All of these
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
243
names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an
actual business enterprise is entirely coincidental.
Reference to PTF numbers that have not been released through the normal
distribution process does not imply general availability. The purpose of
including these reference numbers is to alert IBM customers to specific
information relative to the implementation of the PTF when it becomes available
to each customer according to the normal IBM PTF distribution process.
The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines
Corporation in the United States and/or other countries:
ACF/VTAM
AIX
AIX/6000
AS/400
CICS/ESA
DFSMS
DFSMS/VM
DFSMSdss
DFSMSrmm
Enterprise System/3090
Enterprise System/9000
Enterprise Systems Architecture/370
Enterprise Systems Connection
Architecture
ES/4381
ES/9370
ESA/390
ESCON
IMS
Magstar
MVS/DFP
MVS/SP
OS/390
POWERparallel
RISC System/6000
RS/6000
S/390
Scalable POWERparallel Systems
System/360
System/390
Virtual Machine/Enterprise Systems
Architecture
VSE/ESA
3090
ADSTAR
AIX/ESA
Application System/400
CICS
DB2
DFSMS/MVS
DFSMSdfp
DFSMShsm
DFSORT
Enterprise System/4381
Enterprise System/9370
Enterprise Systems Architecture/390
ES/3090
ES/9000
ESA/370
ESCON XDF
IBM
IMS/ESA
MVS
(logo)
MVS/ESA
MVS/XA
OS/400
PR/SM
RMF
S/370
S/390 Parallel Enterprise Server
SP2
System/370
S/390 Parallel Enterprise Server
VM/ESA
VTAM
9076 SP2
The following terms are trademarks of other companies:
C-bus is a trademark of Corollary, Inc.
PC Direct is a trademark of Ziff Communications Company and is
used by IBM Corporation under license.
UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other
countries licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Limited.
Microsoft, Windows, and the Windows 95 logo
are trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
244
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Java and HotJava are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
SunOS, SPARCstation, Network File
System, NFS.*
Sun Microsystem s, Inc.
Other trademarks are trademarks of their respective companies.
Appendix B. Special Notices
245
246
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Appendix C. Related Publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a
more detailed discussion of the topics covered in this redbook.
C.1 International Technical Support Organization Publications
For information on ordering these ITSO publications see “How To Get ITSO
Redbooks” on page 249.
•
Guide to Sharing and Partitioning IBM Automated Tape Library Dataservers ,
SG24-4409
|
|
•
Magstar and IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem: Multiplatform
Implementation , SG24-2594.
|
|
•
The IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server and Enhancements to Magstar: New
Era in Tape , SG24-4917.
|
C.2 Redbooks on CD-ROMs
Redbooks are also available on CD-ROMs. Order a subscription and receive
updates 2-4 times a year at significant savings.
CD-ROM Title
System/390 Redbooks Collection
Networking and Systems Management Redbooks Collection
Transaction Processing and Data Management Redbook
AS/400 Redbooks Collection
RISC System/6000 Redbooks Collection (HTML, BkMgr)
RISC System/6000 Redbooks Collection (PostScript)
Application Development Redbooks Collection
Personal Systems Redbooks Collection
Subscription
Number
SBOF-7201
SBOF-7370
SBOF-7240
SBOF-7270
SBOF-7230
SBOF-7205
SBOF-7290
SBOF-7250
Collection Kit
Number
SK2T-2177
SK2T-6022
SK2T-8038
SK2T-2849
SK2T-8040
SK2T-8041
SK2T-8037
SK2T-8042
C.3 Other Publications
These publications are also relevant as further information sources:
•
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Introduction and Planning
Guide , GA32-0329
•
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem User ′ s Guide , GA32-0330
•
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem Hardware Reference , GA32-0331
|
|
•
IBM 3590 Magstar High Performance Tape Subsystem Silo-Compatible Frame
Model C12 Introduction, Planning, and User’s Guide , GA32-0366.
|
|
•
IBM 3591 Tape Control Unit Model A01 Introduction, Planning, and User’s
Guide , GA32-0358.
•
IBM 3494 Tape Library Dataserver Introduction and Planning Guide ,
GA32-0279
•
IBM 3495 Tape Library Dataserver Introduction and Planning Guide ,
GA32-0234
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
247
248
•
IBM SCSI Tape Drive, Medium Changer and Library Device Drivers
Installation and User ′ s Guide , GC35-0154
•
AS/400 Automated Tape Library Planning and Management Version 3 ,
SC41-3309
•
DFSMS/MVS Version 1 Release 3 Object Access Method Planning,
Installation, and Administration Guide for Tape Libraries , SC26-3051
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
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251
252
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
Index
Numerics
128TRACK
ALTER AMS command 108
CREATE AMS command 108
data class 107
dynamic allocation 103
16-track 15
18-track 15
3590-1
generic unit name 102
3M Corporation
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge
8B3166
RPQ 84
8B3167
RPQ 84
8B3168
RPQ 84
A
Access Method Services
See A M S
accumulate mode
ACF 6, 48, 53, 55
disabling conditions 54, 56
operational flow 53, 56
ACF 6, 28
accumulate mode 6, 48, 53, 55
ADSM 127
automatic mode 49
cartridge magazine 6
device driver 123, 125
enabling and disabling 62
export position 46, 98
import position 46, 99
load order 98
locking bar 47
magazine 41, 46
manual mode 48, 51
modes of operation 48
move order 99
operation 39
operator panel 40
priority cell 40
random mode 6, 49, 59, 122
read cell status order 99
read volume loader data order 99
Stage CCW 98
status light 41
system mode 49, 57
transport mechanism 41
unload order 98
 Copyright IBM Corp. 1996
37
ACF mode
s u m m a r y 62
ACL 6
ACS 108
ACS routine
scratch allocation 229
SMS 108
storage class 229
storage group 229
ADSM 4, 18
AIX/6000 95, 127
high-speed search 100
MVS/ESA 94
OS/400 95, 122
Solaris 127
Sun Solaris 95
SunOS 127
tape space utilization 20
VM/ESA 95
VSE/ESA 95
ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager
See ADSM
AIX/6000 95
ADSM 127
block size 124
IBM 3590 support 123
supported configurations 91
tape command 124
algorithm
compression 25
allocation
automatic class selection routine 229
Host Software Component 231
scratch request 229
Silo 229, 231
specific request 231
tape library 229, 231
alternate IPL
OS/400 122
A M S 108
AMS command
ALTER 108
CREATE 108
LISTCAT 108
AS/400
configuration 73
data rate chart 142
Feature 6501 74
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
Library Manager 74
SCSI consideration 74
special feature 74
supported configurations 91
73
253
autoblocking 25, 143
Automated Cartridge System
cleaning program 234
drive cleaning 236
operation 236
Automatic Cartridge Facility
See ACF
Automatic Cartridge Loader
See ACL
automatic class selection
See ACS
automatic mode
ACF 49
automation
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
IBM tape products 19
B
BAC 7, 25, 133, 144
Backup Recovery and Media Services/400
See BRMS/400
basic control program
See BCP
Basic Tape Library Support
See BTLS
BCP 101
binary arithmetic compression
See BAC
block ID 100
Virtual Tape Server 205
block size
AIX/6000 124
IBM 3490E 138
performance 145
RISC/6000 76
Sun systems 77, 126
BRMS/400 4, 18, 95, 122
high-speed search 100
tape space utilization 20
BTLS 95
IBM 3590 support 104
supported configurations 91
Virtual Tape Server 163, 201
C
capacity
IBM 3490E 19
IBM 3590 19
IBM 7206 19
IBM 7207 19
IBM 7208 19
IBM 7331 19
IBM 7332 19
IBM tape products 18
TCDB 113
cartridge capacity 143
IBM 3494 85
254
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
10
cartridge eject exit
CBRUXEJC 115
cartridge eject processing 116
cartridge entry exit
CBRUXENT 115
cartridge entry processing 116
cartridge load time 24
cartridge magazine
ACF 6
cartridge system tape
See CST
cartridge type 37
casing
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge
CBROAMxx
SYS1.PARMLIB member 113
CBRTDSI macro
TDSI 114
CBRUXCUA
change use attribute exit 115
CBRUXEJC
cartridge eject exit 115
CBRUXENT
cartridge entry exit 115
CBRUXVNL
volume not in library exit 115
CBRXLCS macro
LCS external services 114
CCW 96
IPL Read 97
Read Backward 97, 105, 106
Read Block ID 97
Read Buffered Log 97
Read Configuration Data 97, 102
Read Device Characteristics 97
Read Forward 97, 105, 119
Read IPL 119
Read Media Characteristics 97
Read Previous 97, 105, 106
Stage 49, 59, 60, 98
change use attribute exit
CBRUXCUA 115
channel attachment
Virtual Tape Server 151
channel command 96
channel command word
See CCW
Checkpoint/Restart
IBM 3590 support 106
Read Previous CCW 106
chromium dioxide
m e d i u m 13, 19
cleaner cartridge 37
cleaning program
Automated Cartridge System 234
IBM 3590 241
IBM 3590-B1A 234
IBM 3590-C12 241
37
cleaning program (continued)
IBM 3591 tape subsystem 241
Silo 234
CLIO/S 95, 128
CMS
IBM 3590 support 120
compaction ratio
Virtual Tape Server 205
compression 143
algorithm 25
BAC 7, 25, 144
history buffer 25
IBM 3590 25
IBMLZ1 7, 25, 144, 145
IDRC 25, 144
Magstar 25
performance 145
physical volume 189
virtual volume 188
Ziv-Lempel 7, 25
configuration
3495 RS-422 Connections 72
AS/400 73
ES/9000 66
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
VTS 78
IBM 3495 72
IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
70, 71
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
IBM 3590-C12 218
IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) 70
POWERparallel SP2 75, 77
RISC/6000 75
S/390 Parallel Server 66
Silo 218
software and hardware support matrix 91
StorageTek Automated Cartridge System 218
Sun systems 77
Virtual Tape Server 72, 154
control unit frame
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
IBM 3494-L10 82
IBM 3494-L12 82
IBM 3494-L14 82
control unit function
IBM 3490-A10 27
IBM 3490-C10 27
IBM 3590 27
Magstar 25, 27
schematic comparison 27
SCSI-3 25
control unit initiated reconfiguration
See CUIR
cooling 35
CST 36
logical volume 154
CST (continued)
media type 37
virtual volume 189
CUIR 102
D
78
69,
65
78
DASD data rate
performance 145
DASD Dump Restore
See DDR
data class
See also DC
128TRACK 107
MEDIA3 107
SMS 107
data compression
IBM 3490E 133
data integrity
ECC 17
longitudinal recording 17
data invalidation
logical volume 182
Virtual Tape Server 182
data rate
IBM 3490E ESCON 132
IBM 3490E SCSI 137
IBM 3590 ESCON 139
IBM 3590 SCSI 140
Magstar 25
data rate chart
AS/400 142
IBM 3490E 142
IBM 3490E ESCON 135
IBM 3490E SCSI 138
IBM 3590 142
IBM 3590 SCSI 141
Data Security Erase command
Virtual Tape Server 205
data set striping 145
data transfer rate
IBM 3490E 19
IBM 3590 19
IBM 7206 19
IBM 7207 19
IBM 7208 19
IBM 7331 19
IBM 7332 19
DB2
OAM optical configuration database
DC 107
DCE 102, 103
DDR 120, 204
IBM 3590 support 120
definition
logical volume 198
physical volume 199
degaussing
servo track 38
112
Index
255
density
IBM 3590 tape 13
linear 13
track 13
design targets
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
device class extension
See DCE
device coexistence
Virtual Tape Server 195
device driver
ACF 123
AIX/6000 123
feature 5212 for IBM 3590-B1A 123
feature 9204 for IBM 3590-B1A 125
feature 9603 for IBM 3590-B11 123
feature 9710 for IBM 3590-B11 125
Library Manager 123, 125
service aids 124, 125
SunOS 125
device management command
AIX/6000 124
device preference table 102
device serial number 106
DFDSS 95
DFSMS system-managed tape
Virtual Tape Server 200
DFSMS/MVS 3
IBM 3590 support 104
random mode 50, 59, 99, 104
toleration PTF 94, 104
Virtual Tape Server 163
DFSMS/MVS 1.1.0
supported configurations 91
toleration PTF 104
DFSMS/MVS 1.2.0
supported configurations 91
toleration PTF 104
DFSMS/VM
Virtual Tape Server 164
DFSMS/VM RMS
IBM 3590 support 120
DFSMShsm 4, 18
command 110
high-speed search 100
tape space utilization 20
DFSMSrmm 3, 110
DFSORT
MVS/ESA 94
dimension
IBM 3494-B16 172
IBM 3495-B16 179
Virtual Tape Server 172, 179
disabling
ACF 62
disabling conditions
accumulate mode 54, 56
manual mode 52
256
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
9
disabling conditions (continued)
random mode 61
system mode 58
display
IBM 3590-C12 221
Texas Digital Systems, Inc. (TDS) 221
DISPLAY SMS,LIBRARY operator command
tape library support 115
DISPLAY SMS,VOLUME operator command
tape library support 115
DITTO/ESA
MVS/ESA 94
VM/ESA 95
VSE/ESA 95
DJ 118
drive cleaning
Automated Cartridge System 236
IBM 3590-B1A 236
IBM 3590-C12 236
Silo 236
drive models
IBM 3590-B11 28
IBM 3590-B1A 28
drive unit frame
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
IBM 3494-D10 83
IBM 3494-D12 83
IBM 3494-D14 83
DSP 118
DTYPE
IBM 3590 117
Dump Job
See DJ
dynamic allocation 103
dynamic device reconfiguration
See DDR
Dynamic Support Program
See DSP
E
ECC 12, 15
longitudinal recording 17
ECCST 19, 36
logical volume 154
media type 37
virtual volume 189
EDGINERS
Virtual Tape Server 181
effective data rate
IBM 3490E 133
enabling
ACF 62
end-of-data
See EOD
enhanced capacity cartridge system tape
See ECCST
Enterprise Systems Connection
See ESCON
78
Environmental Record Editing and Printing
See EREP
environmentals 34
IBM 3494-B16 172
IBM 3495-B16 179
Virtual Tape Server 172, 179
EOD
Virtual Tape Server 205
Erase Gap command
Virtual Tape Server 205
EREP
MVS/ESA 94
Virtual Tape Server 163, 164
VM/ESA 95
VSE/ESA 95
ERP 97
IBM 3590 97, 105
error correcting code
See ECC
error recovery
physical volume 211
Virtual Tape Server 211
error recovery procedure
See ERP
Error Statistics by Volume 103
ES/9000
software support 94
supported configurations 91
ES/9000 configuration
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
IBM 3495 Model M10 Manual Tape Library
Dataserver 67
IBM 3590-A14 66
Library Manager 68
ESCON 7
IBM 3590-A00 30
supported distance 67
XDF 67
ESCON adapter
IBM 3591-A01 226
ESCON channel
Virtual Tape Server 165
ESCON data rate
IBM 3490E 132
IBM 3590 139
ESCON data rate chart
IBM 3490E 135
ESCON extended distance facility
See XDF
event logging
Virtual Tape Server 206
virtual volume 207
export position 46, 98
extended capacity cartridge system tape
See ECCST
external label
IBM 3590 cartridge 237
external label (continued)
IBM 3590-C12 222, 237
Silo 222, 237
F
66
67
Fast-Ready attribute
logical volume 158, 182
scratch mount 199
setting 199
Virtual Tape Server 182
Feature
2416 76
2420 76
5212 123
5300 83, 84
5302 83, 84
5304 83, 84
5400 83, 84
6501 74
9204 125
9603 123
9701 76
9702 76
9710 125
IBM 3494-L10 83
Features
IBM 3494 169
IBM 3494-B16 170
IBM 3495 177
IBM 3495-B16 177
IBM 3590 86
IBM 3590-B1A 223
IBM 3590-C12 222
IBM 3591-A01 226
Remote Support Facility 226
Virtual Tape Server 169, 177
FID 45
message 45
field replaceable unit
See FRU
FILEDEF
CMS command 120
forward space 24
FRU 45
FRU identification
See FID
G
generic unit name
3590-1 102
guest operating system support
IBM 3590 119
H
half-inch cartridge tape
helical scan 5
Index
257
half-inch cartridge tape (continued)
history 5
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
longitudinal recording 5
hardware configuration definition
See HCD
HCD 67, 101
library device group name 117
virtual device 157
Virtual Tape Server 157, 198
HDR2/EOV2/EOF2 106
head wear
longitudinal recording 17
heads 15
helical scan 12
half-inch cartridge tape 5
IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) 5
RedWood SD-3 Helical Cartridge Tape
Subsystem 215
Hierarchical Storage Manager 110
See also HSM
high-speed locate 24
high-speed search 16, 100
ADSM 127
history
half-inch cartridge tape 5
IBM 3480 3
IBM 3490E 3
IBM 3590 3
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
IBM 726 3
tape technology 2
history buffer 25
host connection
performance 145
host interface
IBM 3490E 90
IBM 3590 90
HSC
device combination 227, 228
IBM 3590 227, 228
installation 235
level 2.1 227
level 2.x 228
specific allocation 231
StorageTek 4480 228
StorageTek 4490 228
StorageTek 9490 228
StorageTek SD-3 228
HSM 3
I
I/O configuration program
See IOCP
IBM 2401 2
IBM 2420 2
IBM 3420 2
258
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
5
4
IBM 3480
history 3
IBM 3480 compatible
4480 Cartridge Tape Subsystem 214
IBM 3490 2
ICL 40
IBM 3490-A10 27
IBM 3490-C10 27
IBM 3490E 19
AS/400 data rate chart 142
data compression 133
effective data rate 133
ESCON data rate 132
ESCON data rate chart 135
history 3
host interface 90
native data rate 132
SCSI data rate 137
SCSI data rate chart 138
Silo 216
supported configurations 91
IBM 3490E compatible
Silverton 4490 Cartridge Subsystem 215
Timberline 9490 Cartridge Tape Subsystem 215
IBM 3494
cartridge capacity 85
features 169
media type 37
model upgrades 171
scratch allocation 229
Virtual Tape Server 151
Virtual Tape Server configuration 154, 160, 167
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver 28
AS/400 configuration 73
configuration 78
control unit frame 78, 82
drive unit frame 78, 83
ES/9000 and S/390 configuration 66
IBM 3494-B16 80, 83
mixed configuration 80
POWERparallel SP2 configuration 75
RISC/6000 configuration 75
sharing 81
storage unit frame 78, 83
s u m m a r y 82
Virtual Tape Server 80
VTS unit frame 83
IBM 3494 support
IBM 3494-B16
dimension 172
environmentals 172
features 170
Library Manager attachment 165
Remote Support Facility 168
Virtual Tape Server 21, 80, 148
Virtual Tape Server configuration 161, 167
IBM 3494-D10 83
Virtual Tape Server configuration 161
IBM 3494-D12 83
Library Manager attachment 165
Virtual Tape Server configuration 161
IBM 3494-D14 83
Virtual Tape Server configuration 161
IBM 3494-L10 79, 82
Feature 83
model upgrade 83
Virtual Tape Server configuration 160
IBM 3494-L12 79, 82
Virtual Tape Server configuration 160
IBM 3494-L14 79, 82
Virtual Tape Server configuration 160
IBM 3494-S10 83
Virtual Tape Server configuration 161
IBM 3495
Configuration 72
features 177
frame replacement 175
Library Manager attachment 174
media type 37
RS-422 Connections 72
RTIC Ports 72
scratch allocation 229
Virtual Tape Server 22, 72, 149, 151
Virtual Tape Server configuration 155, 161, 173
IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
configuration 69
ES/9000 and S/390 configuration 67
IBM 3590-A00 32
IBM 3590-A14 32
IBM 3590-B11 32
IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) 70
Library Manager 70
mixed configuration 71
IBM 3495 Model M10 Manual Tape Library Dataserver
AS/400 7
ES/9000 7
ES/9000 and S/390 configuration 67
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem 7,
32
POWERparallel SP2 7
RISC/6000 7
S/390 Parallel Server 7
Sun systems 7
IBM 3495 support
IBM 3495-B16
dimension 179
environmentals 179
features 177
Remote Support Facility 174
Virtual Tape Server 22, 149
Virtual Tape Server configuration 173
IBM 3495-L20 69
IBM 3495-L30 69
IBM 3495-L40 69
IBM 3495-L50 69
IBM 3590 19
alternate IPL 122
AS/400 data rate chart 142
Checkpoint/Restart 106
cleaning cartridge 227
data cartridge 227
drive models 28
ESCON data rate 139
Features 86
host interface 90
Host Software Component 227
menu control switch 43
mode switch 42
OPEN/CLOSE/EOV 106
operator panel 42
operator panel screen 44
power-on reset 42
reset switch 42
sample cleaning program 241
schematic comparison 27
SCSI data rate 140
SCSI data rate chart 141
supported configurations 91
Virtual Tape Server 21, 148, 151
IBM 3590 cartridge
external label 237
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge
3M Corporation 37
cartridge type 37
casing 37
characteristics 36
cleaner cartridge 37
density 13
design 36
media type 37
m e d i u m 13
metal particle medium 37
servo track 38
tape space utilization 20
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
ACF 6
automation 10
configuration 65
design targets 9
hardware description 23
helical scan 12
history 4
IBM 3495 7
IBM 3495 Model M10 Manual Tape Library
Dataserver 7, 32
IBM 3590-A00 7
IBM 3590-A14 7
IBM 3590-B11 7
IBM 3590-B1A 7
IBM 3590-C12 7
IBMLZ1 7
introduction 1
longitudinal technology 12
Index
259
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
(continued)
marketing requirements 9
metal particle medium 6
objectives 11
OEMI (parallel) channel 30
options 12
performance considerations 131
software support 93
technology 11
IBM 3590 support
AIX/6000 123
BCP 101
BTLS 104
CMS 120
DDR 120
DFSMS/MVS 104
DFSMS/VM RMS 120
guest operating system 119
JES3 117
MVS/ESA 101
OS/400 122
Solaris 125
SPE 101
SPXTAPE 120
SunOS 125
TPF 121
VM/ESA 119
VSE/ESA 121
IBM 3590 tape subsystem
Silo 213, 217
StorageTek Automated Cartridge System 213
IBM 3590-A00 7, 30
ESCON 30
IBM 3590-A14 31
IBM 3590-B11 31
IBM 3590-B1A 31
Library Manager 30
logical path 7, 31
tape controller 7
Virtual Tape Server configuration 160
IBM 3590-A14 7, 28, 32
ES/9000 and S/390 configuration 66
IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver 32
IBM 3590-A00 31, 32
IBM 3590-A14 7
IBM 3590-B11 32
operator display 32
Virtual Tape Server configuration 161, 173
IBM 3590-B11 7
IBM 3590-A00 31
IBM 3590-B1A 7
cleaning program 234
Feature 2003 223
Feature 9000 223
features 223
IBM 3590-A00 31
IBM 3590-C12 220
260
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
IBM 3590-B1A (continued)
Virtual Tape Server configuration 160, 161
IBM 3590-C12 7
display 221
external label 222, 237
Feature 520x 222
Feature 8002 222
Feature 8210 222
Feature 8220 222
Feature 9590 222
Feature 9986 223
features 222
IBM 3590-B1A 220
IBM 3590-C12 7
IBM 3591-A01 220
installation 233
physical characteristics 221
PTF 233
sample cleaning program 241
SCSI cable 222
Silo 216, 217, 218
Silo-compatible frame 220
StorageTek Automated Cartridge System 218
Texas Digital Systems, Inc. (TDS) 221
IBM 3591 tape subsystem
sample cleaning program 241
IBM 3591-A01
ESCON adapter 226
Feature 2700 226
Feature 2701 226
Feature 2702 226
Feature 3311 226
Feature 5000 226
features 226
IBM 3590-C12 220, 224
logical path 7, 224
physical characteristics 225
software support 225
tape controller 7
IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) 5
IBM 7202 7, 28, 75
IBM 7206 19
IBM 7207 19
IBM 7208 19
IBM 726 3
IBM 727 2
IBM 729 2
IBM 7331 19, 123
IBM 7332 19
IBM 9309 7, 28, 73, 75
IBM Client Input Output/Sockets
See CLIO/S
IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS)
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
Configuration 78
IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver 70
IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) 7
Virtual Tape Server 7
IBM Magstar Virtual Tape Server (VTS) (continued)
Virtual Tape Server subsystem 7
IBM tape products
automation 19
capacity 18
performance 18
reliability 19
IBMLZ1 143, 144, 145
ICL 39
IBM 3490 40
IDRC 3, 25, 133, 143, 144
logical volume 154
virtual volume 189
IECIOSxx
SYS1.PARMLIB member 102
IEHINITT
Virtual Tape Server 181
IFHSTATR 103
IGE0003E
ERP 105
import position 46, 99
Improved Data Recording Capability
See IDRC
initialization parameter
JES3 117
installation
Host Software Component 235
IBM 3590-C12 233
installation tasks
Virtual Tape Server 197
integrated cartridge loader
See ICL
Interactive Storage Management Facility
See ISMF
interleaved
recording 14
track sets 15
interposer
Feature 9701 76
Feature 9702 76
inventories and catalog
Silo 237
inventory
Virtual Tape Server 197
IOCP
virtual device 157
Virtual Tape Server 157
IPL Read CCW 97
ISMF 109
J
JES3 94, 101
DJ 118
IBM 3590 support 117
initialization parameter 117
library device group name 117
tape DSP 118
Virtual Tape Server 163
JUNIT
IBM 3590
117
L
LCD 40
operator panel 40
LCS 113
external services 114
OAM tape library support routines 113
LDG 117
library control system
See LCS
library device group
See LDG
library device group name
JES3 117
LIBRARY DISPCL operator command
tape library support 116
LIBRARY DISPDRV operator command
tape library support 116
Library Manager
AS/400 74
device driver 123, 125
displayed information 208
ES/9000 and S/390 configuration 68
IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
IBM 3590-A00 30
logical volume 158
RISC/6000 76
RS-422 70
SMF record type 94 207
statistics 207
Virtual Tape Server 195
Library Manager attachment
IBM 3494-B16 165
IBM 3494-D12 165
IBM 3495 174
RS-232 166
RS-422 165
Virtual Tape Server 165, 174
LIBRARY SETCL operator command
tape library support 116
liquid crystal display
See LCD
Load Display command
Virtual Tape Server 205
load order
ACF 98
logging
Virtual Tape Server 206
virtual volume 207
logical block number 100, 105
logical partitioning
Virtual Tape Server 197
logical path 67
IBM 3590-A00 7, 31
IBM 3591-A01 7, 224
Index
70
261
logical vo lume
concept 158
CST 154
data invalidation 182
definition 198
ECCST 154
Fast-Ready attribute 158, 182
IDRC 154
Library Manager 158
MEDIA1 154
MEDIA2 154
space reclamation 186
tape volume cache 158
Virtual Tape Server 154
virtual volume 158
longitudinal recording
data integrity 17
head wear 17
horizontal damage 14
interleaved 14
media wear 17
reason for using 17
recording 5
start-stop operation 17
technology 12
vertical damage 14
LZ
IBM 3590 7, 25
LZ1 25
LZ2 145
M
magazine
ACF 41, 46
latch lock 47
locking bar 47
magneto resistive (MR) heads 15
Magstar
compression 25
control unit function 25
data rate 25
drive models 28
drive unit 24
IBM 3590-B11 7
IBM 3590-B1A 7
introduction 1
operating characteristics 24
performance considerations 131
schematic comparison 27
SCSI attachment 24
manual mode
ACF 48, 51
disabling conditions 52
operational flow 51
marketing requirements
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
Mass Storage System
See MSS
262
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
9
media
IBM 3490E 19
IBM 3590 19
IBM 7206 19
IBM 7207 19
IBM 7208 19
IBM 7331 19
IBM 7332 19
media information message
See M I M
media type
CST 37
ECCST 37
IBM 3494 37
IBM 3495 37
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge 37
media wear
longitudinal recording 17
MEDIA1
logical volume 154
MEDIA2
logical volume 154
MEDIA3
ALTER AMS command 108
CREATE AMS command 108
data class 107
dynamic allocation 103
MEDIATYP
TCDB 113
medium
chromium dioxide 13
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge 13
metal particle 13
Medium Mover command
Move Medium 59
Prevent Medium Removal 59
Read Element Status 59
SCSI 49, 59, 60
menu area
operator panel screen 44
menu control switch 43
message
FID 45
metal particle medium 13, 19
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge 37
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem 6
migration
IBM 3590 238
native 3490E 204
Silo 238
Virtual Tape Server 203
MIH 102
M I M 103
missing interrupt handler
See MIH
mixed configuration
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver 80
IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver 71
mode switch 42
model upgrade
IBM 3494-L10 83
model upgrades
IBM 3494 171
modem
Remote Support Facility 168, 174
MONITOR CP command
IBM 3590 support 120
monitoring
Virtual Tape Server 206
mount response time
virtual volume 189
move order 99
ACF 99
MSS 5
MVS/DFP
Virtual Tape Server 163
MVS/ESA 94
BCP 101
BTLS 201
DFSMS system-managed tape 200
IBM 3590 support 101
SPE 101
stand-alone dump program 101
Virtual Tape Server 163, 200
MVSCP 101
operator command
tape library support 115
operator display
IBM 3590-A14 32
Texas Digital Systems, Inc. 32
operator panel
ACF 40
IBM 3590 42
LCD 40
menu control switch 43
mode switch 42
power-on reset 42
reset switch 42
operator panel screen
IBM 3590 44
Intervention Screen 45
menu area 44
Option/Status Screen 44
status area 44
UNLOAD 44
optical configuration database 112
OS/400 95
IBM 3590 support 122
software distribution 122
supported configurations 91
P
N
native data rate
IBM 3490E 132
non-DFSMS
supported configurations 91
nonspecific mount
Virtual Tape Server 181
NOTE macro 105
NSL UniTree 95, 129
O
O A M 112
object access method
See O A M
object tape support 112
OEMI channel
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
OPEN/CLOSE/EOV
IBM 3590 106
operation
ACF 39
Automated Cartridge System 236
drive cleaning 236
Silo 236
operational flow
accumulate mode 53, 56
manual mode 51
random mode 60
system mode 58
30
panel
ISMF 109
parallel channel
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
partitioning
Library Manager 195
Virtual Tape Server 195
performance
IBM tape products 18
performance considerations
DASD data rate 145
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem
Magstar 131
physical characteristics
IBM 3591-A01 225
physical device
concept 159
Virtual Tape Server 159
physical installation
Virtual Tape Server 197
physical volume
compression 189
concept 158
definition 199
error recovery 211
space reclamation 186
Virtual Tape Server 158, 199
power consumption 34
power control 34
power-on reset 42
Index
30
131
263
POWERparallel SP2
AIX/6000 123
configuration 75, 77
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
supported configurations 91
priority cell
ACF 40
PTF
IBM 3590-C12 233
Q
QUIETIS
194
R
R/DARS for OS/400 95
rack
EIA 75
IBM 7202 7, 75
IBM 9309 7, 73, 75
RAID
Tape Volume Cache 151
random access
virtual volume 190
random mode
ACF 6, 49, 59
DFSMS/MVS 50, 59, 99, 104
disabling conditions 61
operational flow 60
OS/400 122
SCSI Medium Mover command 49, 59, 60
Stage CCW 49, 59, 60, 99
RAR 105
RDTAPE
CMS macro 120
read alternate recovery
See RAR
Read Backward CCW 97
Checkpoint/Restart 106
ERP 105
S A M 106
Read Block ID CCW 97
Read Buffer command
Virtual Tape Server 205
Read Buffered Log CCW 97
read cell status order 99
ACF 99
Read Configuration Data CCW 97, 102
Read Device Characteristics CCW 97
Read Forward CCW 97
CP 119
S A M 105
Read IPL CCW
CP 119
Read Media Characteristics CCW 97
Read Opposite Recovery
See ROR
264
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
75
Read Previous CCW 97
Checkpoint/Restart 106
ERP 105
read volume loader data order 99
ACF 99
read/write tape speed 24
recording
helical scan 5
longitudinal 5
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk
See RAID
REELlibrarian 95, 129
reformatting
servo track 38
reliability
IBM tape products 19
Remote Support Facility
See RSF
Remote Tape Application Interface
See RTAPI
Removable Media Manager 3, 110
Removable Media Services
See RMS
Report/Data Archive and Retrieval System
See R/DARS for OS/400
reset switch 42
rewind speed 24
rewind time 24
RISC/6000
AIX/6000 123
block size 76
configuration 75
Feature 2416 76
Feature 2420 76
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver 75
Library Manager 76
SCSI consideration 76
SCSI-2 Differential Fast/Wide Adapter/A 76
SCSI-2 Differential High-Performance External I/O
Controller 76
special feature 76
supported configurations 91
RMM TSO subcommand 110
RMS 120
ROR 105
RPQ
843860 122
8B3166 84
8B3167 84
8B3168 84
RS-232
Library Manager attachment 166
Virtual Tape Server 166
RS-422
Library Manager attachment 165
Virtual Tape Server 165
RSF
IBM 3494-B16 168
RSF (continued)
IBM 3495-B16 174
IBM 3591-A01 226
m o d e m 168, 174
RTAPI 95, 128
S
S/390 parallel server
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver 66
IBM 3495 Automated Tape Library Dataserver 67
IBM 3495 Model M10 Manual Tape Library
Dataserver 67
IBM 3590-A14 66
Library Manager 68
software support 94
supported configurations 91
SADMP 101
S A M 105
scratch mount
Fast-Ready attribute 199
Virtual Tape Server 181
SCSI 7
AS/400 74
attachment 24
command 96
IBM 3490E data rate 137
IBM 3490E data rate chart 138
IBM 3590 data rate 140
IBM 3590 data rate chart 141
Medium Mover command 49, 59, 60
RISC/6000 76
Sun SCSI Differential Ended Adapter 77
SCSI cable
IBM 3590-C12 222
SCSI-2 Differential Fast/Wide Adapter/A 76
SCSI-2 Differential High-Performance External I/O
Controller 76
SCSI-3 25
sequential access method
See S A M
Serial Storage Architecture
See SSA
service aids
device driver 124, 125
service information message
See SIM
servo track 16
degaussing 38
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge 38
reformatting 38
SETNAME
IBM 3590 117
SETOAM command 113
sharing
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver 81
TCDB 116
Silo
4410 Automated Cartridge System 214
Silo (continued)
9310 PowderHore Automated Cartridge
System 214
cleaning program 234
configuration 218
device combination 227
drive cleaning 236
ESCON director 219
external label 237
Host Software Component 214, 219
IBM 3490E 216
IBM 3590 tape subsystem 213, 217
IBM 3590-C12 216, 217, 218, 220
IBM 3591-A01 219
inventories and catalog 237
Library Control Unit 215, 218
Library Management Unit 215, 219
Library Storage Module 215, 218
migration 238
Network Controller 219
operation 236
PowderHore 214
scratch allocation 229
specific allocation 231
Virtual Tape Server 239
SIM 102, 103
sizing
guidelines 191
tools 193
Virtual Tape Server 191, 193
small computer system interface
See SCSI
small programming enhancement
See SPE
SMF
Error Statistics by Volume 103
IFHSTATR 103
type 21 103
SMF record type 94
Library Manager statistics 207
Virtual Tape Server operational information 208
SMS 107
ACS routine 108
data class 107
storage group 108
SMT 107
software distribution
IBM 3590 122
software implementation
BTLS 201
DFSMS system-managed tape 200
MVS/ESA 200
VM/ESA 201
VSE/ESA 201
software support
ES/9000 94
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Subsystem 93
IBM 3591-A01 225
Index
265
software support (continued)
matrix 91
MVS/ESA 94
OS/400 95
o v e r v i e w 94
POWERparallel SP2 95
RISC/6000 95
S/390 Parallel Server 94
Sun systems 95
TPF 95
Virtual Tape Server 163
VM/ESA 95
VSE/ESA 95
Solaris 95
ADSM 127
IBM 3590 support 125
supported configurations 91
space reclamation
logical volume 186
physical volume 186
schedule 199
Tape Volume Cache 185
Virtual Tape Server 185, 199
SPE 101
IBM 3590 support 104
special feature
AS/400 74
RISC/6000 76
specific mount
Virtual Tape Server 184
SPXTAPE
IBM 3590 support 120
SSA
Virtual Tape Server 152
stacked volume
concept 158
Virtual Tape Server 158
Stage CCW
load order 98
move order 99
random mode 49, 59, 60, 99
read cell status order 99
read volume loader data order
unload order 98
stand-alone dump program
See also SADMP
MVS/ESA 101
VM/ESA 120
start-stop operation
longitudinal recording 17
statistics
Library Manager 207
SMF record type 94 207
Virtual Tape Server 206
status area
operator panel screen 44
status light
ACF 41
266
99
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
storage capacity
Virtual Tape Server 155
storage cell
IBM 3495 174
Virtual Tape Server 174
storage class
scratch allocation 229
storage group
scratch allocation 229
SMS 108
storage unit frame
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver 78
IBM 3494-S10 83
StorageTek 215
4410 Automated Cartridge System 214
4480 Cartridge Tape Subsystem 214
4480 tape drive 227
4490 tape drive 227
9310 PowderHore Automated Cartridge
System 214
9490 tape drive 227
Host Software Component 214, 219
Library Control Unit 215
Library Management Unit 215, 219
Library Storage Module 215
Nearline 214
PowderHore 214
RedWood SD-3 Helical Cartridge Tape
Subsystem 215
Silo 214, 215
Silverton 4490 Cartridge Subsystem 215
Timberline 9490 Cartridge Tape Subsystem 215
StorageTek Automated Cartridge System
configuration 218
ESCON director 219
Host Software Component 219
IBM 3590 tape subsystem 213
IBM 3590-C12 218
IBM 3591-A01 219
Library Control Unit 218
Library Management Unit 219
Library Storage Module 218
Network Controller 219
stub
Virtual Tape Server 181
virtual volume 181
Sun systems
block size 77, 126
configuration 77
SCSI Differential Ended Adapter 77
supported configurations 91
SunOS 95
ADSM 127
IBM 3590 support 125
supported configurations 91
SVC 99 103
SYNADAF macro 105
SYS1.PARMLIB m e m b e r
CBROAMxx 113
IECIOSxx 102
System Managed Tape
See SMT
system mode
ACF 49, 57
disabling conditions 58
operational flow 58
System-Managed Storage
See SMS
T
TAPE
CMS command 120
tape cartridge
CST 36
ECCST 36
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge
tape command
AIX/6000 124
tape configuration database
See TCDB
tape control operation 31
tape control unit
IBM 3590-A00 30
tape controller
IBM 3590-A00 7
IBM 3591-A01 7
Tape Data Set Analysis
See TDSA
tape device selection information
See TDSI
tape label
initialize 181
Virtual Tape Server 157, 181
tape library
scratch allocation 229
tape library support
installation exit 115
operator command 115
TCDB 113
Tape Mount Management
See T M M
tape positioning commands
virtual volume 190
tape space utilization
ADSM 20
BRMS/400 20
DFSMShsm 20
IBM 3590 High Performance Tape Cartridge
tape technology
first generation 3
history 2
second generation 3
third generation 4
Tape Volume Cache
See TVC
36
TAPECTL
CMS macro 120
TAPESL
CMS macro 120
TCDB 113
sharing 116
specific allocation 231
TDSA 194
TDSI 114
teach
Virtual Tape Server 197
Texas Digital Systems, Inc.
IBM 3590-A14 32
operator display 32
Texas Digital Systems, Inc. (TDS)
display 221
IBM 3590-C12 221
TMM 4
toleration PTF
DFSMS/MVS 94, 104
tape library support 113
tools
DASD and Tape Magic for OS/2 194
Quick and easy tape investigation and simulation
See QUIETIS
Volume Mount Analyzer
See V M A
TPF 95
IBM 3590 support 121
track sets
IBM 3480 15
IBM 3490 15
IBM 3490E 15
IBM 3590 15
Transaction Processing Facility
See TPF
transport mechanism
ACF 41
TRSAVE CP command
IBM 3590 support 120
TVC
IBM 3494 154
IBM 3495 155
logical volume 158
RAID 151
space reclamation 185
Virtual Tape Server 184
virtual volume 151
U
20
UCB 102, 103
UCBTYPE 102
unit name
3590-1 102
UNITNAME
TCDB 113
UNLOAD
operator panel screen
44
Index
267
unload order
ACF 98
V
vaulting
Virtual Tape Server 210
virtual device
characteristics 157
coexistence 195
concept 157
definition 157
HCD 157
IBM 3490E 195
IOCP 157
Virtual Tape Server 157
Virtual Tape Server
See VTS
virtual volume
advantage 189
capacity 189
characteristics 157
compression 188
concept 157
CST 189
ECCST 189
event logging 207
IDRC 189
logical volume 158
mount response time 189
random access 190
stub 181
tape positioning commands 190
Tape Volume Cache 151, 184
VM/ESA 95
IBM 3590 support 119
stand-alone dump 120
supported configurations 91
Virtual Tape Server 164, 201
VM/VSE or VGS
supported configurations 91
V M A 193
VMFPLC2
CMS command 120
voltage 34
volume audit processing 116
volume not in library exit
CBRUXVNL 115
volume not in library installation exit processing
volume serial
definition 198
logical volume 198
physical volume 199
Virtual Tape Server 183, 198
VSE/ESA 95
IBM 3590 support 121
supported configurations 91
Virtual Tape Server 164, 201
268
IBM 3590 Tape Subsystem Technical Guide
116
VTS
announce 21, 148
block ID 205
BTLS 163
channel attachment 151
coexistence 151
compaction ratio 205
configuration 154
configuration guidelines 167, 173
controller 150
CST 154
data invalidation 182
Data Security Erase command 205
DDR 204
DFSMS/MVS 163
DFSMS/VM 164
dimension 172, 179
ECCST 154
EDGINERS 181
environmentals 172, 179
Erase Gap command 205
EREP 163, 164
error recovery 211
ESCON channel 165
event logging 206
Fast-Ready attribute 182
features 169, 177
frame replacement 175
HCD 157, 198
IBM 3494 21, 148, 150, 151, 160
IBM 3494 Automated Tape Library Dataserver
IBM 3494-B16 21, 80, 148, 161
IBM 3494-D10 161
IBM 3494-D12 161
IBM 3494-D14 161
IBM 3494-S10 161
IBM 3495 72, 151, 161
IBM 3495-B16 22, 149, 173
IBM 3590 21, 148, 151
IBM 3590-A14 173
IDRC 154
IEHINITT 181
installation tasks 197
introduction 150
inventory 197
IOCP 157
JES3 163
key attributes 153
key concepts 156
Library Manager attachment 165
Load Display command 205
logging 206
logical data flow 180
logical partitioning 197
logical tape drive 153
logical volume 154, 158
MEDIA1 154
MEDIA2 154
80
VTS (continued)
migration 203
monitoring 206
MVS/DFP 163
MVS/ESA 163
nonspecific mount 181
operational considerations 210
operational information 208
operational statistics 206
partitioning 195
physical device 159
physical installation 195, 197
physical tape drive 153
physical volume 158
positioning beyond EOD 205
Read Buffer command 205
scratch mount 181
Serial Storage Architecture 152
Silo 239
sizing 193
sizing guidelines 191
software implementation 200
software support 163
software transparency 150
space reclamation 185
specific mount 184
stacked volume 158
storage capacity 155
storage cell 174
storage management 152
stub 181
tape label 157, 181
Tape Volume Cache 151
teach 197
technology 151
vaulting 210
virtual device 157
virtual volume 157
VM/ESA 164
volume serial 183, 198
VSE/ESA 164
VTS unit frame
IBM 3494-B16 83
IBM 3494-D12 83
VTS.
IBM 3495 72
Z
Ziv-Lempel
See LZ
W
WRTAPE
CMS macro
120
X
XDF
67
Index
269
IBML

Printed in U.S.A.
SG24-2506-01
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