SYSTÈMES UBIQUITAIRES & RÉSEAUX AMBIANTS UBIQUITOUS

SYSTÈMES UBIQUITAIRES & RÉSEAUX AMBIANTS UBIQUITOUS
SYSTÈMES
UBIQUITAIRES &
RÉSEAUX AMBIANTS
UBIQUITOUS
SYSTEMS & AMBIENT
NETWORKS
Dr. D. IDOUGHI
Maître de Conférences
École Doctorale Cloud Computing- EDC2
Université A. Mira de Béjaïa
Le contenu de ce cours est extrait du livre de
référence
«
Ubiquitous
Computing
Fundamentals » de John Krumm.
La version française de ce support de cours
sera mise en ligne ultérieurement.
SOMMAIRE
1.
NTRODUCTION A L’INFORMATIQUE UBIQUITAIRE
2.
LES SYSTEMES UBIQUITAIRES
3.
LES DOMAINES D’APPLICATION DE L’INFORMATIQUE UBIQUITAIRE
4.
ETHNOGRAPHIE EN INFORMATIQUE UBIQUITAIRE
5.
INTERFACES UTILISATEURS POUR L’INFORMATIQUE UBIQUITAIRE
6.
LOCALISATION EN INFORMATIQUE UBIQUITAIRE
7.
SENSIBILITE AU CONTEXTE (CONTEXTE AWRE) EN INFORMATIQUE UBIQUITAIRE
8.
DONNEES DE CAPTEURS ET LEUR TRAITEMENT EN INFORMATIQUE UBIQUITAIRE
SOMMAIRE
Chapter 1 - An Introduction to Ubiquitous Computing
Chapter 2 - Ubiquitous Computing Systems
Chapter 3 - Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing
Chapter 4 - Ubiquitous Computing Field Studies
Chapter 5 - Ethnography in Ubiquitous Computing
Chapter 6 - From GUI to UUI: Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing
Chapter 7 - Location in Ubiquitous Computing
Chapter 8 - Context-Aware Computing
Chapter 9 - Processing Sequential Sensor Data
Objectifs
 CE COURS VISE À PRÉSENTER UN PANORAMA DES RECHERCHES
FONDAMENTALES ET APPLIQUÉES DANS UN DOMAINE AUX ENJEUX
TECHNOLOGIQUES CONSIDÉRABLES : LES SYSTEMES UBIQUITAIRES ET
RÉSEAUX AMBIANTS (UBIQUITOUS NETWORKS).
 CES RÉSEAUX SERVIRONT DE SUPPORT À DES APPLICATIONS COMMUNICANTES
OFFRANT DE SERVICES NUMÉRIQUES VARIÉS (MULTIMÉDIA, GRID COMPUTING,
WEB, ASSISTANCE AUX PERSONNES DÉPENDANTES, ETC).
 FAIRE FONCTIONNER CORRECTEMENT CES RÉSEAUX HÉTÉROGÈNES COMPLEXES
(HÉTÉROGÉNÉITÉ DES INFRASTRUCTURES, PROTOCOLES, APPLICATIONS, ETC.)
EST UN DÉFI SCIENTIFIQUE MAJEUR POUR LES PROCHAINES ANNÉES.
 UTILISER CORRECTEMENT ET EFFICACEMENT CES RÉSEAUX EST ÉGALEMENT UN
DÉFI QUI NÉCESSITE LE DÉVELOPPEMENT DE RECHERCHES DANS LES OUTILS DE
COOPÉRATION, LA CONCEPTION D’INTERGICIELS, LA REPRÉSENTATION DE LA
CONNAISSANCE EN PARTICULIER LE WEB SÉMANTIQUE, L’INTELLIGENCE DES
SERVICES, ETC.
DESCRIPTION
• This course introduces an overview of the field of
Ubiquitous Computing.
• Aimed at students who want to explore it as
researchers or track its evolution.
• Intended for advanced undergraduates students
interested in ubiquitous computing research,
• It covers the major fundamentals and research in
the key areas that shape the field.
• The field of ubiquitous computing is
simultaneously young and broad.
6
DESCRIPTION
• Research papers in the field commonly reference Mark
Weiser, who famously coined the term ubiquitous computing
in his Scientific American article in 1991.
• This is considered the start of the research area, and it has
grown to encompass a broad array of technologies since then.
• Although the field is broad, there are well-established
conferences and researchers devoted to it.
• Ubiquitous computing research can be categorized into three
distinct areas where the research is focused:
(1) Systems
(2) Experience
(3) Sensors
7
DESCRIPTION
The three categories and their supporting chapters are:
1. Systems—These chapters focus on how to build the software
support for deploying ubiquitous computing applications.
– “Ubiquitous Computing Systems” discusses the important
issues to consider when building the infrastructure to
support ubiquitous computing applications.
– “Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing” explains how to
maintain privacy in systems that inherently need to
connect with personal devices and information.
8
DESCRIPTION
2. Experience—These chapters highlight the critical points
where ubiquitous computing technologies touch people.
– “Ubiquitous Computing Field Studies” shows how to
evaluate ubiquitous computing applications in the field.
– “Ethnography in Ubiquitous Computing” details how to
observe people and consider how they might use
ubiquitous computing technology.
– “From GUI to UUI: Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing”
focuses on moving from the graphical to the ubiquitous
computing user interface.
9
DESCRIPTION
3. Sensors—These chapters show how systems sense
location and analyze and determine context.
– “Location in Ubiquitous Computing” illustrates how to
measure a person’s location, one of the most important
inputs for ubiquitous computing applications.
– “Context-Aware Computing” explains the use of context
to allow ubiquitous computing applications to deliver the
right services at the right time.
– “Processing Sequential Sensor Data” details how to
effectively process sensor data for location and context.
10
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
http://www.starlab.vub.ac.be/website/files/project_profile-amie-1.pdf
Advances in grid and pervasive computing, lecture notes in computer science, vol. 4459, cérin, christophe; li,
kuan-ching (eds.), 2007, isbn: 978-3-540-72359-2, springer
Pervasive computing, lecture notes in computer science , vol. 4480, lamarca, anthony; langheinrich, marc;
truong, khai n. (eds.) 2007, isbn: 978-3-540-72036-2, springer
http://www.hitech-projects.com/euprojects/ambience/
Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interactions, Par Stefan Poslad, John Wiley and Sons,
2009
Fundamentals of Mobile and Pervasive Computing, Frank Adelstein, Sandeep K. S. Gupta, Golden G. Richard III,
and Loren Schwiebert, McGraw-Hill, 2005.
Ubiquitous Computing Fundamentals, John Krumm, ed., CRC Press, 2010.
Pervasive Computing, 2nd Ed., Uwe Hansmann, Lothar Merk, Martin S. Nicklous, and Thomas Stober, Springer
Verlag, 2003
Pervasive Computing: Technology and Architecture of Mobile Internet Applications, Jochen Burkhardt, Horst
Henn, Stefan Hepper, Klaus Rindtor_, and Thomas Schack, Pearson Education Ltd., 2002.
Mark Weiser. "The world is not a desktop". Interactions; January 1994; pp. 7-8.
Mark Weiser, "Hot Topics: Ubiquitous Computing" IEEE Computer, October 1993.
Mark Weiser, "Some Computer Science Problems in Ubiquitous Computing," Communications of the ACM, July
1993. (reprinted as "Ubiquitous Computing". Nikkei Electronics; December 6, 1993; pp. 137-143.)
Mark Weiser, "The Computer for the Twenty-First Century," Scientific American, pp. 94-10, September 1991
I- INTRODUCTION A L’INFORMATIQUE UBIQUITAIRE - UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
This chapter discusses the history of the field in terms of its major research projects as
highlighted by the following contents.
Contents
1.1 Founding Contributions to Ubiquitous Computing
1.1.1 Xerox PARC
1.1.2 Tabs, Pads, and Liveboards
1.1.3 Context Awareness
1.1.4 IBM Research: Pervasive Computing versus Ubiquitous Computing
1.1.5 University of Tokyo: T-Engine and the ITRON Operating System
1.1.6 Hewlett Packard: Cooltown
1.2 Ubiquitous Computing in U.S. Universities
1.2.1 UC Berkeley: InfoPad
1.2.2 MIT Media Laboratory: Wearable Computing
1.2.3 Georgia Tech: Living Laboratories
1.3 Ubiquitous Computing in European Laboratories and Universities
1.3.1 Olivetti Research: Active Badges
1.3.2 Karlsruhe: Cups and Smart-Its
1.3.3 Lancaster University: Guide
1.4 Modern Directions in Ubiquitous Computing
1.4.1 Microsoft Research
1.4.2 Intel Research
1.5 The Research Community Embraces Ubiquitous Computing
1.6 The Future of Ubiquitous Computing
References
I- INTRODUCTION A L’INFORMATIQUE UBIQUITAIRE - UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
INTRODUCTION
Ubiquitous Computing, or Ubicomp, is the term given to the third era of
modern computing.
1. The first era was defined by the mainframe computer, a single large timeshared computer owned by an organization and used by many people at
the same time.
2. Second, came the era of the PC, a personal computer primarily owned and
used by one person, and dedicated to them.
3. The third era, ubiquitous computing, representative of the present time, is
characterized by the explosion of small networked portable computer
products in the form of smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs),
and embedded computers built into many of the devices we own—
resulting in a world in which each person owns and uses many
computers.
13
I- INTRODUCTION A L’INFORMATIQUE UBIQUITAIRE - UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
The early informative research in this area began in the late
1980s and was pioneered by :
• Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC),
• IBM Research,
• Tokyo University,
• University of California (UC) Berkeley,
• Olivetti Research,
• HP Labs,
• Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and
• Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Media
Laboratory.
I- INTRODUCTION A L’INFORMATIQUE UBIQUITAIRE - UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
• Many commercial entities also began forays into ubiquitous
computing during the 1990s, exploring the business potential for
ubiquitous services, and novel mobile devices such as pen-based
computers. At this time, we also saw the introduction of the
• Apple Newton,
• and the term PDA was coined.
• Other product examples included the EO pad, using GO Pen
software, and later
• the Palm Pilot (with Graffiti) and the
• Sharp Zaurus;
• Fujitsu also developed a series of tablet and palm-based devices
particularly targeted at vertical markets.
• Later still, MP3 players from Archos and Apple also played into this
market.
I- INTRODUCTION A L’INFORMATIQUE UBIQUITAIRE - UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
• Today, demonstrating the most convincing evidence of the
value of ubiquitous computing,
– the cell phone, or more precisely the “smart phone,” takes
center stage crossing a threshold of
• processor performance, memory/disk capacity, and connectivity
both cellular and local, making it the most widely adopted and
ubiquitous computer there has ever been.
• In the remaining sections, we follow the path of research that
has defined ubiquitous computing since its beginning, and
discuss the various approaches and some of the philosophies
that have grown up around the work.
16
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.1 Xerox PARC
• The original term Ubiquitous Computing was coined
by Mark Weiser in 1988 at Xerox PARC, while serving
as the director of the Computer Science Laboratory
(CSL), one of five laboratories at the renowned
research center.
• He envisioned a future in which computing
technologies became embedded in everyday
artifacts, were used to support daily activities, and
were equally applicable to our work, managing our
homes, and for play.
17
FIGURE 1. Xerox PARC—Computer Science Laboratory 1991: Mark Weiser using a Liveboard with a ParcPad
visible in the foreground. (Photo courtesy of PARC, Inc., http://www.parc.com)
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.1 Xerox PARC
• A more complete description of this vision is described on a
Web site maintained by PARC summarizing Weiser’s work and
ideas and can be found at www.ubicomp.com/weiser.
• A concise summary of ubiquitous computing, or ubicomp, as it
was originally referred to by researchers at PARC, can also be
found in his 1991 Scientific American article (Weiser, 1991),
which contains his famous quote:
• “The most profound technologies are those that disappear.
They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until
they are indistinguishable from it”. —Mark Weiser
Mark Weiser, "The Computer for the Twenty-First Century," Scientific American, pp. 94-10,
September 1991
http://sandbox.parc.com/weiser/
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.1 Xerox PARC
• The essence of Weiser’s vision is that mobile and embedded
processors can communicate with each other and the
surrounding infrastructure, seamlessly coordinating their
operation to provide support for a wide variety of everyday
work practices.
• A consequence of this approach is that each device needs to
limit the range of its communication to enable valuable
wireless bandwidth reuse.
• As a result, he introduced the notion of bits-per-second percubic-meter to the ubicomp vision (Weiser, 1993a), and
inspired many researchers to explore techniques for spatial
reuse of the radio spectrum.
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.1 Xerox PARC
In the early 1990s, there were no short-range wireless
standards that could provide this capability, but today
we have
•Bluetooth,
•Near Field Communication (NFC),
•IrDA,
•Zigbee, and
•WiFi (soon WiFi PAN),
which have enabled wide deployment of devices that
take advantage of local ad hoc communication, and can
be used to build the ubicomp vision.
22
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.1 Xerox PARC
• Going beyond technology per se, Weiser saw ubicomp as an opportunity
to improve on the style of computing that has been imposed on users
since the early days of the mainframe also carrying over to PCs —namely,
sitting in a chair, staring at a screen, typing on a keyboard, and making
selections with a mouse.
• Through this style of interaction, traditional computers consume much of
our attention and divorce us from what is happening all around us,
resulting in a somewhat solitary all-consuming experience.
• Weiser believed that in a ubicomp world, computation could be
integrated with common objects that you might already be using for
everyday work practices, rather than forcing computation to be a
separate activity. If the integration is done well, you may not even notice
that any computers were involved in your work.
• Weiser sometimes also referred to this as invisible computing and
wrote a number of articles about his philosophy (Weiser, 1993b).
• Another term Weiser used to describe ubiquitous computing was “The
coming age of calm
technology” (Weiser and Seely-Brown, 1997).
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.1 Xerox PARC
• Although there is no simple formula to convert a PC application into
a calm embedded computing experience, ubiquitous computing
takes the opposite philosophy to the PC, which tries to virtualize
our world (e.g., the familiar PC desktop and icons representing
documents, printers, and trash can).
• Instead, ubicomp pushes the computerized versions of these
technologies back into the physical world (Weiser, 1994).
• For example, rather than reading documents on a PC screen in a
graphic made to look like a printed page, the objective would be to
create a dedicated document reader with an embedded processor
that you can hold and use just like a book.
• This is an old idea from PARC originally conceived by Alan Kay with
his Dynabook project, but was later updated by Weiser’s vision,
making it highly connected and coordinating wirelessly with the
surrounding systems.
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.1 Xerox PARC
• From a user’s perspective, the experience of using such a
device is simplified relative to a PC because it has a dedicated
function (a design point sometimes referred to as an
information appliance);
• it does not need the complex arrangement of nested menus
and control functions required by a generalized computing
platform.
• Although this concept has been tested several times in the
marketplace, for example, Rocketbook and Softbook, which
were not commercially successful, the idea is still being
revisited in the marketplace today with Sony’s e-reader and
Amazon’s Kindle.
• Similar to the evolution of the PDA, each generation learns
from the failures of the previous generation, and at the same
25
time technology improves, allowing an e-book to more
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.2 Tabs, Pads, and Liveboards
• Under Weiser’s leadership, CSL set out to design and build a
ubiquitous computing environment within the confines of the
research center.
• PARC has long had a philosophy of “Build what you use, and use
what you build” and the ubicomp research theme continued that
tradition.
• However, given the resource constraints of research, it was
necessary to limit the scope of the ubicomp exploration to a
manageable set of projects.
• Toward this goal, a guiding philosophy was inspired by the
traditional units of length.
– The units inch, foot, and yard were born out of everyday needs
and had a different origin than the more scientifically
rationalized metric system with the millimeter, centimeter, and
26
meter.
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.2 Tabs, Pads, and Liveboards
Consider how the traditional units came about: they most likely
represent significantly different uses from a human perspective.
1. Yard-scale measurements are typically used to measure
objects around us that are large and immovable.
2. Foot-sized objects can be held in your hands and carried, but
are large enough that they are not likely to be carried with us
at all times.
3. Inch-scale objects can fit in a pocket and be forgotten about
while carrying out other unrelated daily activities.
27
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.2 Tabs, Pads, and Liveboards
In other words, these three measurements represent three very different
scales of human interaction, and define scale transitions for how we interact
with the world around us.
If ubiquitous computing systems were built to mimic everyday capabilities
that occur at these three scales, any observation of such a system would
probably have generic characteristics that would hold true for a much larger
set of devices, each falling into one of these categories.
PARC thus embarked on the design of three devices:
1. ParcTab, or Tab, an inch-scale computer that represented a pocket book
or wallet (Want et al., 1995);
2. ParcPad, or Pad, a foot-scale device, serving the role of a pen-based
notebook or e-book reader; and
3. Liveboard, a yard-scale device that provides the functionality of a
whiteboard.
28
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.2 Tabs, Pads, and Liveboards
1. Tabs communicated wirelessly with a ceiling-mounted
basestation using 10 kbps diffuse infrared signaling.
– Each room was typically fitted with one basestation providing an
infrared wired microcellular communication network.
– Each basestation also communicated through a wired serial
connection to a nearby workstation attached in turn to the building’s
Ethernet, thus providing a connection to distributed services available
on the network.
• ParcTabs were effectively dumb terminals generating pen/key
events in response to user actions, and these were sent to
remote applications running on servers attached to the
network, resulting in application state changes that sent back
screen updates to the Tab displays.
29
FIGURE 3 (a) Xerox ParcTab a palm (inch-scale) computer communicating using diffuse
infrared (IR) signalling;
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.2 Tabs, Pads, and Liveboards
2. ParcPads employed a similar design approach using
a low-bandwidth X-protocol across a radio link,
communicating with a basestation through a
proprietary short-range near-field radio (Katarjiev et
al., 1993).
• The radio basestation was also mounted in the
ceiling of each office or laboratory, and had a 3–4 m
range, similar to the infrared system but with 25.
more bandwidth at 250 kbps.
• The reason infrared was used on the Tabs versus the
Pads was that it could be operated at much lower
power, and was more suited to the small battery
used by the inch-scale ParcTab device.
31
(b) an infrared transceiver basestation nstalled in the ceiling of each room comprising the ubicomp
environment. Note the ring of IR emitters at the edge of the circular board, and four IR detectors at the center
pointing in four cardinal compass directions. (Photos courtesy of PARC, Inc., http://www.parc.com)
FIGURE 4 (a) The ParcPad, a notebook-sized (foot scale) tablet computer;
(b) the near-field communication basestation mounted on the ceiling of an
office at PARC. (Photos courtesy of PARC, Inc., http://www.parc.com)
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.2 Tabs, Pads, and Liveboards
3. Liveboards were designed around standard computer workstations,
but with much larger pen-based displays, and pen-based input.
• At PARC, several of these were deployed at fixed locations around
the building and linked by a wired network.
• The display was implemented using a backprojected LCD panel and a
45° mirror to realize the image on a 67-inch frosted display panel.
• For writing and selection, Liveboard employed an infrared pen that
was tracked across its screen using a four-quadrant infrared sensor
mounted in the optical path behind the screen.
• The output of the optical sensor was fed through a calibration table
resulting in a representative screen coordinate.
• The primary pen-based interaction software for Liveboard was called
Tivoli, also developed at PARC, and allowed many unique pencentric operations for the drawing and manipulation of graphical
freeform objects (Elrod et al., 1992).
35
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.2 Tabs, Pads, and Liveboards
• Although the objective for designing Tabs, Pads, and
Liveboards was to replace equivalent objects in the workplace
by offering similar physical affordances, an equally important
goal was to enhance their capabilities relative to the original
technology, and thus make a compelling value proposition for
the user.
• For example, a conventional whiteboard allows a teacher to
write notes about a lesson which can be captured while
interacting with the class.
• However, Liveboard provides this as a baseline capability, but
adds the option of indexing the pen-based markup with
contextual events to make future search and retrieval easier.
The annotations and graphics drawn on the board could also be
played back using an interactive timeline to support a
discussion that revisited earlier topics.
36
FIGURE 5 A commercial version of the Liveboard, sold by Liveworks in the
mid-1990s, which evolved out of the original wooden laboratory prototype
developed
at
PARC
(Photo
courtesy
of
PARC,
Inc.,
http://
www.parc.com
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.2 Tabs, Pads, and Liveboards
• At the foot scale, a book is just a single book with no interactive capability,
but ParcPad could be potential thousands of books delivered across the
network (or recall them from its local disk). It could also support electronic
markup through its pen interface, and thus allow for hyperlinked text, word
definition look-up, and cross-referencing with other material (all common
today through Web interfaces, but not in the early 1990s).
• Last, the ParcTab (replacing the pocket planner), served as a simple Personal
Information Manager, but using its infrared network connection ParcTab also
supported one of the first wireless pocket email readers. It could also edit
documents stored in the network; serves as a remote controller for a room’s
heating and air-conditioning system; and play games.
• Because the ParcTab was easily carried, it could also serve as a location
beacon, and the system could keep track of the Tabs as they moved around.
• This led to the notion of context aware applications (Schilit et al., 1994),
which has become a central research theme in many other ubiquitous
computing programs today.
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.3 Context Awareness
• Context-awareness
allows
applications
to
comprehend the environment in which they are being
used, and adapt their operation to provide the best
possible user experience.
• A user or device context is difficult to model because
it has many dimensions, such as
–
–
–
–
–
location,
the identity of devices close by,
who else is present,
the time, and
environmental factors such as sound, motion, temperature,
orientation, and other physical variables, many of which can
be measured through on-platform sensors.
39
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.3 Context Awareness
Context awareness can also span multiple levels of system architecture.
• Operating locally at the device level, it can take advantage of onboard sensors.
– For example, inverting a ParcTab detected by an on-board tilt
sensor would invert its screen to maintain the orientation of the
display.
• At a higher-system level, applications could use context to modify
their behavior.
– For example, the ParcTab used an application called a Proximity
Browser, which provided a user with the option of viewing files
that had been accessed at its current location on a previous
occasion. The objective was to take advantage of the cache
principle: files that had been used at a location in the past were
likely to be useful again.
40
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.3 Context Awareness
• This summary represents the focus of ubicomp at PARC
between 1988 and 1996 when these projects were completed.
• However it has taken ~15 years for
– the underlying technologies to mature,
– communication standards to be ratified,
– and for many of the models to gain traction in the
marketplace.
• This is the nature of ubiquitous computing.
• It is very sensitive to the affordances of the devices that
technologists are trying to replace and, as technologies
advance, whether it be processor performance per watt,
storage capacity, network bandwidth, display resolution,
device size, and weight. Each year more possibilities for the
mainstream application of ubiquitous computing open up.
41
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.4 IBM Research: Pervasive Computing versus Ubiquitous Computing
• In the mid-1990s, IBM began a research direction it called
pervasive computing (IBM Mobile and Pervasive
Computing), which had many similarities to the goals of
ubiquitous computing.
• In fact, many texts today describe pervasive and ubiquitous as
the same thing. Although the notion of being freed from the
desktop computer and building on the opportunities opened up
by connected mobile and embedded computers is a theme
common to both, in 1991 the connection with invisible and
calm technologies was a uniquely Xerox PARC perspective.
• However more than 10 years later, any unique position
described by either party has been slowly integrated into the
shared vision and by the mid-2000s any publications that set
out to describe this topic presented fundamentally the same
position.
42
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.4 IBM Research: Pervasive Computing versus Ubiquitous Computing
• IBM, to its credit, was one of the first companies to investigate the
business opportunity around pervasive systems, and created a
business unit dedicated to the task.
• One of the first commercial deployments of a pervasive computing
system was born from a collaboration between IBM Zurich and
Swissair in 1999 (IBM Swissair), enabling passengers to check-in using
Web-enabled (WAP) cell phones.
– Once the passengers had accessed the service, the phone also
served as a boarding pass, showing gate seat and flight departure
information, and identifying the traveler as having valid fight
credentials.
– Although this was one of the most publicized projects, IBM also
applied these technologies to other service opportunities in
banking and financial services, gaining early experience in this
area.
43
FIGURE 6. IBM provided Web-based services for Swissair using WAP on a
cell phone to create an electronic boarding pass. (Courtesy of IBM Corp.)
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.4 IBM Research: Pervasive Computing versus Ubiquitous Computing
• Ubiquitous computing system-level solutions tend to
– be cross-discipline, and
– involve the integration of many disparate technologies to
meet the original design goals.
• One of the key enablers for pervasive solutions has been the
development of wireless/mobile platforms running standard
operating systems that are already widely deployed in the form
of smart phones.
• Today, this has enabled the use of generalized software
environments, such as Web Sphere and the J9 Virtual Machine,
to name two of their well-known software projects.
• The strengths of IBM’s system integration have played well
together to take advantage of a growing commercial service
opportunity around pervasive systems.
45
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.5 University of Tokyo: T-Engine and the ITRON Operating System
On the other side of the Pacific Ocean in the late 1980s,
researchers in Japan also realized the time had come for a new
computing paradigm based around embedded systems.
• Prof. Ken Sakamura from Tokyo University, a famous
computing architect even before his interest in ubiquitous
computing, created the TRON research program.
• He developed a series of embedded computing platforms called
T-Engines that were designed to be embedded in devices
ranging in size from mobile electronics to home appliances and
smart sensors.
• Sakamura developed ITRON, an embedded real-time operating
system that was portable across the various scales of T-Engine,
and also able to run on a number of commercial platforms
(Krikke, 2005).
46
FIGURE 7. Several examples of T-Engines designed
computation
at
various
scales
of
devices
from
to sensors. (From Krikke, J., IEEE Pervasive Computing 4(2), 2005.
to support
information
embedded
appliances
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.5 University of Tokyo: T-Engine and the ITRON Operating System
• ITRON became very popular because it was an embedded solution that
unified the development of software between various computer vendors in
Japan, and what had been a very fragmented approach to building
embedded systems began to coalesce around one design solution.
• The license for ITRON was also attractive to businesses because although it
was open source, allowing development, improvement, and software
additions, any changes did not need to be integrated back into the source
tree, and thus given away to competitors.
• Instead, each company could keep these changes as a differentiator for their
product.
• Although these advantages served the community, it also led to
incompatibilities in some cases, which limited the ability to share and run
application code.
• Nonetheless, ITRON has been extremely successful in this market, and has
supported a high degree of innovation in mobile and embedded products,
all of which teach us lessons about the development of mainstream
ubiquitous computing applications.
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1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.6 Hewlett Packard: Cooltown
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•
•
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The Cooltown project (Kindberg et al., 2002) popularized the notion of linking realworld objects with Web content.
The key observation was that every object could have a Web page capable of
describing it, such as its name, ownership, origin, and associated network services,
etc.
This technique has clear value in a corporate setting, providing simple ways to
configure and interact with networked systems.
For complex devices such as printers and routers, a Web server can be embedded
into the device, and accessed through a network connection (wired or wireless).
However, there is also an opportunity to provide Web presence for simple,
nonelectronic, and unsophisticated objects by attaching electronic tags that encode
a unique ID.
When used in conjunction with a database that maps these unique IDs with
information, the combination becomes a powerful tool; this is similar in concept to
the “Bridging Physical and Virtual Worlds” project at Xerox PARC in 1998 (Want et al.,
1999).
In Cooltown, the tags were implemented with barcodes or IR beacons, and could
contain either the full textual URL or a unique number that could be mapped to the
URL in order to access the corresponding server.
49
1.1 FOUNDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
1.1.6 Hewlett Packard: Cooltown
Although well suited to a corporate environment in which the efficient
coordination and tracking of equipment are important, it can also be
generalized to bring advantages to almost any everyday situation by tagging
people, places, and things.
•
A system that
– has access to the identity of all the people and objects in a particular place also
– has access to the defining context, and can make inferences about the activities
taking place.
• Cooltown created a distributed system to represent people, places, and
things in the system, and constructed various experimental environments to
understand how they could be used to support work practices.
• In addition to work and office situations, Cooltown also deployed its Web
presence system in museums and other public exhibits to enhance user
experience in that setting.
• The applications of Cooltown provide us with another unique example of
how a ubiquitous computing environment can be designed and deployed in
the real world.
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FIGURE 8. A Cooltown environment at HP Labs, Palo Alto,
objects have a Web presence. (Photo courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Corp.)
CA,
in
which
all
1.2 UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING IN U.S. UNIVERSITIES
To be continued
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