Yamaha | MC2408M | Owner's Manual | Yamaha MC1608M Owner's manual

Yamaha MC1608M Owner's manual
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HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL
Thank you for purchasing a Yamaha MC1608M / MC2408M monitor mixing
console. |
To take full advantage of your mixing console, we recommend that you read this
manual carefully.
After reading the INTRODUCTION, INSTALLATION and OPERATING TIPS
sections, examine the FRONT PANEL OPERATION and REAR PANEL
CONNECTIONS sections, so that you can thoroughly familiarize yourself with this
versatile unit.
The SYSTEMS EXAMPLES section suggests some applications for this mixing
console. It is impossible to illustrate the unlimited number of setups available to
you, but this section gives you an idea of the flexibility of the MC monitor mixing
console. |
Finally, the last four sections of the manual supply you with full specifications,
block diagram and level diagram. Serious study of these sections will answer many
of your signal routing questions and enable you to use this unit to its full
capabilities.
Your Yamaha MC monitor mixing console should provide you with years of
trouble-free service, and satisfy your requirements in the widest possible variety of
applications, and is designed to be fully compatible with all professional equipment.
ment. |
INTRODUCTION
FRONT PANEL OPERATIONS:
INPUT SECTION ......eñeoceoseresaorerex. 3
AUX IN 8: MASTER OUT SECTIONS ........... 5
CUE/PHONES OUT, COMM IN &
AUX OUT SECTIONS. ......eceon.enevermer. 7
ТА_ЦКВАСК $ЕСТ1ЮМ ..................... 8
VU METER SECTION .......... 5..5... к... 9
REAR PANEL CONNECTIONS .......erereeer... 9
INSTALLATION .....e.ocoescarororedecrere, 11
OPERATING TIPS .......oe_ecxoresrerecoreo. 12
SYSTEM EXAMPLES .............. eee 14
BLOCK DIAGRAM ......... ee 16
LEVEL DIAGRAM......reec_eocecmoa nene 17
INPUT/OUTPUT SPECIFICATIONS ............. 18
SPECIFICATIONS ........... eee an « 19
INTRODUCTION
The Yamaha MC1608M/2408M Monitor Mixing Consoles are
versatile, portable, and reliable. They aré designed to provide
flexible, efficient stage monitoring for performing musicians.
The ability to be able to hear his own performance blended
with an individually balanced mix of his fellow musicians
gives a performer the opportunity to concentrate on his art
totally, and these units are created to give exactly this
engineer, with their fully professional compatibility, uncom--
promising electronic performance, and highly versatile
control capabilities. |
The mixing console you now own offers eight different
monitor mixes, via eight busses controlled by compact rotary
controls. Two auxiliary channels may be used for a variety of
purposes — patching in echo or signal processing units, feed-
ing a tape deck in order to record a show, two additional
outputs, or providing monitor mixes for the operator, stage
manager, etc. |
Insert patch points on all input channels and out busses
means that you can, for example, compress an individual
vocalist, or use a graphic EQ on each mix, to get maximum
levels without feedback. Judicious equalizing with the three
band EQ and high-pass filter will also greatly assist in elimi-
hating unwanted noise, harmonics, wind noise, or micro-
phone popping. |
The following text contains many similar comments in refer-
ence to each feature, but we encourage you to use your own
creativity to it’s fullest, in discovering new ways of using
your console. Most of the features on Yamaha MC mixing
consoles are designed to be multi-purpose, and this console
can function as the center of an almost unlimited number of
system configurations, to fulfill your specific needs. You
may well find, after using your MC monitor mixing console
for a while, that there is a simpler, more economical way of
connecting the unit into your system. This would certainly
time, for example, if you are on a hectic touring sche-
And, if needed, your MC1608M/2408M can be more than
just a monitor mixing console. This unit can function effi-
ciently in many different mixing situations. No matter how
experienced you are, your new MC monitor mixing console
gives you the opportunity to take mixing techniques a signifi-
cant step further — to where mixing is transformed from a
skilled craft — to a creative art.
*FOR QUICK REFERENCE, THE FRONT PANEL OPERATION SECTIONS ARE ORGANIZED ACCORDING TO THE
FOLLOWING DIAGRAM
* The explanations in this manual are organized into sections corresponding to the diagram below.
VU METER SECTION
CUE/PHONES OUT,
COMM IN 8: AUX OUT
SECTIONS (P. 7)
(P. 9) |
TALKBACK
SECTION (P. 8)
INPUT SECTION -
(P. 3)
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AUX IN & MASTER
OUT SECTIONS (P. 5)
CUE
©
@ Phase Reverse switch
This switch reverses the phase of the XLR connectors. In the normal position (switch up), pin 2
is positive (hot), and pin 3 is negative (cold), and input and output signals are the same. Reverse
phase by depressing this button, making pin 2 negative (cold) and pin 3 positive (hot). Out-of-
phase signals are often caused by differing wiring configurations in microphone or mixing
console cables, especially due to differing national standards.
PAD switch, GAIN control and PEAK LED
These offer complete control over the input sensitivity. The gain control continuously adjusts
the sensitivity. of the transformerless head amplifier between —20 & —60 dB. If this is
insufficient, in the case of particularly high signal levels, depressing the pad switch will insert a
20dB attenuator before the head amplifier.
The red LED peak indicator lights whenever the post-EQ, pre-fader signal comes within 3dB of
clipping, warning the operator of impending channel overload. As a protective measure it is
advisable, when inserting a signal into a channel, to set the gain control to minimum, and
gradually raise the setting to the required level.
HIGH, MID FREQ/MID and LOW CONTROLS
These low-noise, low-distortion equalizers offer three bands of EQ, with +/—15 dB of gain, in
the following ranges:
HIGH: 10 kHz shelving type.
MID: 350 Hz — 5 kHz peaking type.
LOW: 100 Hz shelving type.
Response is flat in the center “0” position.
The variable frequency mid-range control is versatile enough to be used for feedback control.
{dB}
+15
+10
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RESPONSE
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O AUX 1 & 2 controls
These controls feed a post-EQ signal to the AUX 1 & 2 output busses. They may be used as
“send” controls, to an effects unit or compressor; as outputs to a tape deck; or as extra monitor
outputs for the engineer, stage manager, etc.
NOTE: The AUX signal can be changed from pre-channel volume to post-channel volume by
changing an internal jumper. (See the diagram on the right page.) This modification can be
made at any service center (see SERVICING section).
@ Input Mix Level controls
On each channel, eight smooth-operating rotary controls adjust the level of the signal sent to the
‘master outputs, giving eight independent monitor mixes. Conventionally, the method would be
‘to “assign” each of the level controls to each of up to eight performers, so that when a musician
asks for a change in his monitors, you know exactly which control to go for. Nominal output
level is obtained with the control at position 8 on the scale. |
@ CH ON switch
The CH ON switch turns the channel on (switch DOWN) or off (switch UP) without disturbing
previously set levels, as it intercepts the signal before the mix level controls (after Insert in/out).
This can be helpful in minimising channel noise during quiet musical passages or when all
channels are not being used.
@ CUE Switch
The switch allows a single selected input channel or a group of input channels to be monitored
through the operator’s headphones or monitor speaker, regardless of whether a master CUE
button is on or off. If more than one CUE switch is pressed, the signals from the corresponding
channels are summed and fed to the headphone output. This makes it easy to set EQ or effects
on a channel while other channels are “live”, and to locate unwanted noise or hum from
instruments.
Please note that the input CUE LED indicator will light when any input CUE switch is on, as it
has priority over the master CUE switch.
This switch functions whether the CH on switch is on or off.
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© AUXIN Assign switches
Pressing an AUX IN assign switch will send the auxiliary input signal to the correspondingly
numbered output buss.
In the case of an echo unit connected to the auxiliary input, this would allow any or all of the
players to have echo in their monitor mix. .
AUX IN level control”
This control is used to set the level of the signals received at the auxiliary inputs. Nominal level
is obtained with the control set at 8.
Again, this is useful if the auxiliary inputs are used for echo or signal processing, when it will
function as a “return” and provide exact matching with of output level the effects unit you are
using.
AUX CUE switch
Depressing the auxiliary CUE button mutes all master CUE signals in the headphones,
permitting the engineer’s checking of only the selected auxiliary signal, regardless of whether a
master CUE switch is on or off. Please note that as with the input channel cue switches,
engaging an AUX in cue switch will cause the input CUE indicator to light. This switch can be
used whether the AUX in switch is on or off.
AUX In ON switch
This switch, like the input channel ON switch, provides an instant means for turning the
auxiliary input on or off. it is ON in the DOWN position.
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O / 30 (high pass filter) switch
Depressing this switch inserts a filter on the master output below 80Hz, with a roll-off of 18
dB/octave. Monitor speakers are often compact and unable to handle low frequencies at high
levels. This filter will enable you to roll-off the low end and raise the overall monitor level, as
- well as reducing wind noise, microphone “popping”, and AC mains hum.
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Pressing the master CUE switch permits headphone monitoring of a single master output
(including any signal received at a master insert). If more than one master CUE switch at a time
is pressed, all the corresponding signals may be monitored. This switch will operate whether the
master ON switch is on or off. ’
An indispensable feature which allows the engineer to hear the same monitor mix as any of the
performers, and make necessary adjustments.
NOTE: The master CUE signal will be muted if any input or AUX input CUE switch is
© depressed.
Master ON switch
The master ON button allows instant cancelling of the master output, pre-fader, without
affecting any settings. It is ON in the DOWN position.
A useful feature for cancelling a performer’s mix if he is not required to play in one song,
especially if it is a quiet passage where the onstage sound could affect the sound reaching the
auditorium,
Master fader
Signals from the channel inputs, auxiliary inputs, and submaster inputs are routed via the
master mix busses to a 100 mm smooth linear master fader. Position “6” on the fader scale
(marked with bold arrows) gives nominal output level, which can of course be checked on the
VU meters.
The eight faders also provide a good visual indication of the overall mix levels.
MASTER | INSERT
IN/OUT (-10dB)
MASTER |
MASTER 2
MASTER 3
MASTER 4
MASTER 5
MASTER 6
MASTER 7
MASTER 8
AUX !
INPUT CUE
CUE CONTROL
MASTER CUE
MASTER |
AUX 2
CH INPUT MASTER CUT
MASTER | FADER
MASTER 8 INSERT
IN/OUT {-10dB)
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MASTER OUT 8
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O PHONES
This is the output for the operator's stereo headphones. Low impedance type stereo headphones
should be used. Any CUE’d signal, and any input to the COMM IN jack (normally, the talkback
—, Ф from the house PA console) may be monitored at this output.
P | .
| @ CUE/PHONES level control |
O o — This control is used to control the signal level at the CUE output, and operator's headphone
; 7 volume. Nominal level is obtained with the control at 8 on the scale. |
CUE/PHONES
UE © INPUT CUE indicator |
© This LED indicator will light when any of the channel input CUE switches, or AUX in CUE
switches are turned on. Please note that this indicator is unaffected by the master CUE
о switches; even if the master CUE switches are engaged, this indicator will not light. |
This indicator is a particularly useful visual reminder if the operator has temporarily removed
© his headphones.
cou IN © COMM IN +4 dB switch
For direct communication with the house PA engineer, the normal procedure is to connect the
talkback or foldback output of the house PA console to the COMM IN jack on the rear of the
MC monitor mixing console. In this case, the —50 dB pad should be inserted (switch DOWN) to
maintain a compatible signal level. If a microphone is connected to the COMM IN jack (for
© example, for use by a stage manager) the +4 dB switch can be turned off (switch UP). When
this switch is in the OFF position, nominal input level is —50 dB; when it is ON, nominal input
O level is +4 dB.
©
oN O COMM IN level control
Й | This control is used to set the headphone monitoring level of the communication input (COMM
ST IN). Rated input level is obtained with the control at position 8.
MASTER |
MASTER 2
MASTER 3
MASTER 4
MASTER 5
MASTER 6
MASTER 7
MASTER 8
AUX !
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@ AUX OUT level control
This controls the level of the signal from the AUX buss, received from the input channel AUX
controls and auxiliary sub inputs. Nominal output level is obtained with the control at position
8. The VU meters allow visual monitoring of the output level.
‚ @ AUX OUT CUE switch
| Depressing this switch allows the AUX signal mix to be monitored via headphones or the
operator's monitor speaker. Regardless of whether the AUX out on switch is on or off, the two
AUX OUT CUE switches may be used singly or together.
This is useful for easy checking of effects levels, or any signals routed to the AUX busses.
AUX SUB IN | >
AUX SUB IN 2 >
OQ AUX OUT ON switch
Putting this switch in the ON position (switch DOWN) turns the auxiliary output channel on. In
the OFF position (switch UP) the signal is cut before the AUX out control, allowing the
channel to be instantly muted.
INPUT CUE
MASTER CUE
AUX |
AUX 2
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MASTER |
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TALKBACK
© Talkback Assign switches
These switches determine to which buss the talkback signal is routed. Talkback may be sent to
any of the eight master outputs, the two auxiliary outputs, and the TB OUT connector.
This provides communication not only with the performers, but also with the house sound
engineer (normally via the TB OUT facility), stage staff or even dressing rooms (the AUX
outputs are suitable for this purpose).
Talkback Input
A low impedance microphone should be connected at this terminal for talkback use. Nominal
input level and impedance are —50 dB/50—250 ohms.
This offers the advantage of being able to use the microphone of your choice, rather than
limiting you to a built-in microphone. One possibility would be to use two-way communica-
tions headset, which would provide greatly increased mobility.
Talkback INPUT LEVEL control
This control allows you to adjust the sensitivity of the TB input channel, to match the
microphone you are using. Nominal output level is obtained with the control at 8 on the scale.
TALKBACK switch
Turning this switch ON (switch DOWN) activates the TB microphone, providing communica-
tion with whichever outputs are selected using the Talkback Assign switches.
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& 2. When the meters read 0 VU, nominal output levels Level (123mV) | (388mV) | (691mV) | (1.23V) | (1.74V)
(+4 dB) are obtained. The peak indicators light at 8 dB
above 0 VU.
A signal which on the VU meter has an acceptable average
level may well have high peaks. The peak indicators will
show this instantaneously, allowing the operator to reduce
the signal level accordingly, to avoid distortion on transients
such as drum sounds or synthesizer attacks.
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O CHANNEL INPUT connectors
Each input channel has an electronically balanced low-
impedance XLR type input connector, for fully profes-
sional microphone compatibility, and a balanced high-
impedance tip-ring-sleeve type 1/4” phone jack for
line inputs. An internal phantom power supply, switch-
able in 4-channel groups, is provided to handle condenser
mircrophones. (See paragraph 3 below). |
Ín a normal monitoring situation, the signals from the
performers are sent via a splitter system to both the house
PA console and to the monitor mixing console at these
input connectors. With the gain control and 20 dB pad
(see FRONT PANEL section) virtually any source—
microphone or line—can be handled with no problem.
(See the diagram at the right.) |
CHANNEL INSERT IN/OUT connectors |
A single tip-ring-sleeve unbalanced jack gives in/out
access to the channel input section between the gain
control and the equalizer section. If no jack is inserted,
the insert circuit avoids the need of a jumper by closing
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automatically. A particularly useful feature allowing
modifications of single instruments or voices. For
example, a noise gate could be used to eliminate monitor
hum from an electric guitar, or a compressor/limiter
would add more clarity and punch to a lead vocal. (See
the diagram below.)
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TRS Wiring Block Diagram
© PHANTOM power switch
These switches turn the internal phantom power supply
on and off in 4 channel groups. Turning the switch on
applies 48 V DC across pins 2 & 3 of the XLR-type
input channel connectors. Be sure to turn the power
supply OFF when it is not in use. Since phantom power is.
not normally required for high-impedance sources, the
phone jacks are not connected to the power supply.
IMPORTANT: The phantom power supply has no effect
on balanced dynamic microphones or line sources, even if
left on. However, unbalanced sources, or transformers
with earthed center taps are liable to hum or even dam-
aged if connected to the phantom power supply when it is
on.
O MASTER INSERT IN/OUT connectors
As with the input channel inserts, a single unbalanced
TRS jack permits access to the signal path between the
master mix buss and the master fader, with an automatic
closing device if this connector is not used. This is ideal
for inserting devices such as graphic equalizers (to reduce
feedback or “customize” the sound of an individual
monitor mix) or a limiter to prevent monitor overload.
MASTER INSERT OUT
MASTER INSERT IN
© SUB IN (MASTER, AUX, CUE) connectors
These unbalanced input connectors allow a second
monitor mixing console to be “cascaded” with the main
monitor console in situations where more inputs are
needed (for example, a big band, orchestra, or a band
using multiple keyboards and complex drum micing). The
master sub, auxiliary sub, and Cue Sub Inputs are con-
nected with the corresponding Outputs of the second
console, enabling the master controls of the main console
to control both units.
If two MC2408M’s were used in this way, a total of 48
inputs would be available—sufficient for virtually any
conceivable situation,
@ AUX IN, AUX OUT connectors
These unbalanced input/output jacks, operating at the
professional level of +4 dB, are provided to allow effects
devices to be patched in. With an echo unit, for example,
they could be considered as echo send/return points, with
the levels adjusted by the controls on the front panel.
The AUX OUTs can also be used to supply two additional
monitor mixes, as AUX OUT controls are incorporated -
into each Input Channel. This feature could, for example,
feed a stereo tape deck, or provide monitor outputs for an
operator's speaker or a dressing room speaker.
@ COMM (IN, TB OUT) connectors
The COMM IN jack enables the foldback or talkback
output of the house PA console to be connected to the
MC monitor mixing console for communication between
the two engineers. In this case, the —50 dB switch would
need to be used to keep the signals compatible.
This input can also be used as a microphone input, e.g.,
for communication with a stage manager, lighting
director, or conductor. The —50 dB switch is not required
for this application. In either case, the communications
input would be headphone monitored by the operator,
adjusting the level with the COMM IN control on the
front panel.
The TB OUT jack enables the monitor operator's talkback
signal to be sent to the house PA console or other loca-
tion, thus completing a 2-way communications setup.
O CUE OUT connector
This unbalanced output terminal supplies the signal for
the operator's monitor speaker system, When cascading
two monitor mixing consoles, it would be connected to
the CUE SUB IN jack of the main console. As it is rated at
+4 dB, it can feed another headphone monitoring system
for use by an assistant engineer, road manager, or even a
video director.
The level at this output is adjusted by the CUE/PHONES
level control on the front panel.
© CUE CONTROL connector
When two Yamaha MC monitor mixing consoles are
cascaded together, connecting the CUE CONTROL
terminals of both consoles, via a standard 1/4” jack cable,
allows operation of the INPUT CUE or AUX IN CUE
functions from either of the units,
This feature allows headphone monitoring of cue’d signals
by both the monitor engineer and an assistant if needed.
{) MASTER OUT connectors
Each master buss has an electrically balanced XL.R-type
output connector, to feed the monitor amplifier systems.
O POWER switch
Turning the switch on supplies power to the unit. The VU
meters illuminate to indicate power is on.
IMPORTANT: This switch should be OFF while connect-
ing the çonsole to the mains.
10
IMPORTANT!
* This unit is designed to operate within +/— 10% of rated
voltage. В
* Ideally, these units should be used in a dust-free environ-
ment, with low humidity. Do not install them near heaters,
or near equipment that causes noise or hum. -
* After you have finished reading this manual, be sure to
store it in a safe place, together with the guarantee certifi-
cate.
AC POWER CONNECTION
(for models with 3-wire power cable)
Mixing consoles provided with a 3-wire power cable should
be AC grounded for safety and optimum shielding against
noise. If a 3-wire AC outlet is not available, or there is any
chance that the AC outlet is not grounded, a separate ground
wire must be connected from the console chassis to an earth
ground. Cold water pipes generally provide a good ground,
unless they are insulated by PVC plastic, or are fitted with a
water meter. Avoid hot water pipes and gas pipes.
When a convenient, confirmed ground is not available, use a
length of copper pipe driven into moist, salted earth to a
depth of at least 1.5 meters (5 feet). Alternatively, use a
chemical type grounding rod.
HOOK-UP CABLES AND HUM AVOIDANCE
The MC monitor mixing console’s primary inputs and
outputs feature electronically balanced circuits and
connectors. When these connectors are used with the
appropriate 2-conductor shielded cables (e.g. standard micro-
phone cables) these circuits provide optimum protection
against hum and noise pickup. The XLR type connectors are
wired with pin 2 as “audio high” and pin 3 as “audio low”,
on accordance with DIN and JIS standards. In the balanced
TRS connectors, the tip is audio high and the ring is audio
low. Pin 1 in the XLR connectors, and the sleeve in the TRS
connectors are ground.
Some professional audio equipment and microphones are
wired with pins 2 and 3 (XLR) reversed. Generally, this will
cause no problem other than a polarity reversal. However, if
such a piece of equipment uses a balanced-type connector for
an unbalanced input, or an adaptor is used to match an
unbalanced connector to a balanced input, the high side of
the audio circuit could be grounded. In this case, reverse the
audio high and audio low wiring at one end of the connecting
cable, or use a suitable polarity-reversal adaptor. Regardless
of connector polarity, if hum is encountered try cutting the
shield connection at one end of the cable.
All unbalanced phone jacks are intended for use with
standard tip-sleeve 1/4” phone plugs and single-conductor
shielded cable. Do not attempt to reduce hum by cutting the
shield connection on these cables. Rather, restrict unbalanc-
ed cables to about 3 meters (10 feet), and try to set up the
system so that either (a) the equipment involved is all
connected to the same AC circuit, or (b) the third-wire AC
mains ground is used on only one piece of equipment,
typically the mixing console. | |
IMPORTANT: Breaking the ground path can create a
SHOCK HAZARD. When routing cables, especially un-
balanced cables, avoid strong sources of electro-magnetic
interference or radio frequency interference generated by
electric motors, fluorescent lights, dimmer panels, etc. To
avoid crosstalk-induced feedback, never bundle microphone
cables with mixing console output cables: these cables should
cross at right angles where practical.
GROUNDING
Careful grounding procedures are essential for proper
operation, not only of the monitor mixing console, but of
the entire audio system. Many grounding techniques exist,
and a number of books have been written on the subject. The
following are good sources of information on grounding and
related subjects.
THE AUDIO CYCLOPEDIA by Howard M. Tremaine
(Pub. Howard W. Sams)
SOUND SYSTEM ENGINEERING by Don and Carolyn
Davis (Pub. Howard W. Sams)
GROUNDING AND SHIELDING IN INSTRUMENTATION
by Ralph Morrison (Pub. john Wiley & Sons)
“Ground loops” are often caused by multiple paths from the
equipment grounds to the AC mains ground (or earth
ground). Ground loops are a major cause of hum and noise in
an audio system. In severe cases, ground loops can even cause
the equipment involved to break into oscillation. This can
cause distortion and even damage to amplifiers and speakers.
One way to avoid ground loops is to make sure that there is
only one path to the AC ground or the entire audio system.
A popular method is to cut the shield ground of balanced
cables at the input end of the cable. Another technique is to
ground all shields at one piece of equipment, typically the
console, and cut the shields at the other ends of the cables.
(Note: this is NOT possible with unbalanced cables).
CHECK MAINS VOLTAGES
Connect the mixing console to the AC mains only after
confirming that the line voltage and frequency are correct. A
simple check with a voltmeter can save your equipment —
and the show. It is also a good idea to check for proper
polarity at the AC outlet. The power switch on the console
should be OFF before connection to the mains. As a further
precaution, disconnect the console from the mains while
audio cables are being installed.
MATCHING INPUT CHANNEL SENSITIVITY TO
THE SOURCE
The pad switch and gain control on each input channel
permit adjustment of the input sensitivity between —60 dB
‘and O dB. With the pad out, the gain control has a sensitivity
range of —60 dB to —20 dB. With the pad in, this range is
—40 dB to 0 dB. This makes it possible to match the input
sensitivity to a broad range of input sources.
The following setting will generally apply:
Low output dynamic microphones: —50 dB.
Medium output condenser microphones: —40 dB.
Preamplified electric instruments and low level (creative
audio or hi-fi) line sources: —20 dB.
High level (professional) line sources: 0 dB
We suggest the following procedure for setting input levels:
1. Connect all input sources to their respective channels.
Monitor the mix on low-impedance type headphones. DO
NOT connect the console to any power amplifiers yet.
2. Set the CUE/PHONES level control to about “8”. You
Will monitor each input channel by pressing the CUE
button on the respective input channel module.
3. Set master fader #1 to about “6’’—this is the position that
gives rated output level, which can be checked on the
corresponding VU meter.
4. Adjust input channel mix level control #1, on the channel
that you are setting, to position “8”. This will send the
input signal to master output #1, at rated output level.
5. Start with the lowest input sensitivity (PAD switch in the
DOWN position, GAIN at —20 dB). With the input CUE
button on, so that you can monitor the signal on head-
phones, gradually increase sensitivity using the GAIN
control until the signal is clearly audible. If sensitivity is
too low even with the GAIN control at maximum, return
this control to the —20 dB position, set the PAD switch in
the UP position, and slowly bring up the GAIN control
again. |
At the optimum setting, VU meter 41 should be peaking
around 0 VU. If the meter consistently shoots past 0 VU,
or if the signal sounds distorted in your headphones, the
Input sensitivity is too high, and you will need to decrease
it until the levels are correct.
As a visual aid, the peak LED on the VU meter should
only light on occasional loud peaks. If it is on longer than
this, the input sensitivity should be reduced.
6. Repeat this procedure for each input channel, until all
channels are set for proper input sensitivity. Turn the
mixing console power OFF, and connect your outputs.
Turn the power ON again. You are now ready to adjust
the remaining mix controls on each channel.
IMPORTANT: The console, and all signal processing
devices connected to it, MUST be turned on BEFORE the
power amplifiers are turned on. If this procedure is not
followed, the console turn-on transient could easily cause
damage to your loudspeakers. This procedure should be
reversed when the system is turned off.
12
13
USING THE EQ CONTROLS
The HIGH, MID and LOW EQ controls on each input
channel have no effect (“flat response”) when centered.
Turning the controls clockwise boosts the frequency
response, while an anti-clockwise rotation from the center
position reduces frequency response. A full +/—15 dB. of
filtering is available in each frequency range. The use of EQ
controls on a monitor mixing console is quite different than
a auditorium or studio console. Two important factors need
to be considered:
1. The particular needs of each performer are of course the
concern of the monitor mixing console operator. This unit
offers eight independent mixes (ten, if the AUX channels
are used for this purpose). A musician may desire his
instrument or voice to stand out above the other instru-
ments; he may prefer a homogeneous blend of sounds,
with nothing particularly prominent; or in special circum-
stances may wish to hear only a few selected instruments.
In each case, judicious equalizing can help to improve
clarity in any balance of sounds.
2. With several monitors on stage, pointing in various direc-
tions, feedback is always a concern. The careful use of
EQ, particularly the MID section, can help to reduce
peaks at the feedback frequency, and enable you to set
the overall level higher without risk of feedback. If
graphic equalizers are used (see SYSTEMS EXAMPLES)
fine feedback control can be carried out on individual
monitors.
A few pointers on the individual EQ controls:
HIGH |
The HIGH EQ control adjusts frequency response above 10
kHz (Shelving Буре, +15 dB). Boosting this control adds
more “edge” or “bite” to string instruments, and more
“attack” to percussion sounds. Reducing high EQ can assist
in removing unwanted sibilance (lisping) from vocals, and
lessen string noise on guitars, breath noise on wind instru-
ments, and general hiss in the system. High EQ cut can make
a performer sound further away, particularly if used with
reverb, and help his sound to blend in with the accompani-
ment. It can also greatly reduce high-frequency feedback.
MID
The MID control permits peaking type boost or cut by #15
dB at the frequency determined by the setting of the MID
FREQ control. The range of this control is 350 Hz — 5 kHz.
Boosting mid-range (especially at around 2.5 or 3 kHz) can
greatly increase the “presence” of a sound. On vocals, this
will make the singer “stand out’ from the backing, almost as
if they were closer to the listener. This control is ideal for
making any single instrument more prominent (a common
request from performers who wish to hear themselves in their
monitor) without increasing the overall level and risking feed-
back. Cutting the mid-frequencies has the opposite effect —
the sound will seem to recede and become “thinner”. This
can help to reduce the power of the instrumental backing,
should a vocalist desire this. | |
LOW
Operating below 100 Hz (shelving type +15 dB), the LOW
control can add more ‘fullness’ to vocals, guitars, and key-
boards, and give a more “mellow” quality to horns and
woodwinds. Cutting low frequencies can remove boominess,
reduce excessive energy from drums, and decrease AC mains
hum and stage rumble. When using compact monitor
speakers that are unable to handle powerful bass frequencies,
reducing the low EQ response on certain instruments can per-
mit high monitoring levels without distortion or system
damage. |
HIGH PASS FILTERS
The high pass filters incorporated into each master output
can also assist greatly in the reduction of bass boominess, and
protect your monitor speakers. The use of these filters will
give a clearer, brighter tone to the monitor mixes, which is
often highly desirable, particularly in large reverberant halls
or outdoor concerts where extraneous noise and wind can
make monitoring difficult.
(The MC1608M mixing console is shown here. The MC2408M could equally well be used for any of these applications).
1. STAGE MONITORING SETUP
The following diagram illustrates a possible monitoring
situation, using a second sub-monitor mixing console
“cascaded” with the first console, in order to accomodate a
‘large number of inputs. For example, cascading an MC2408M
console with an MC1608 would provide a total of 40 inputs.
The CUE CONTROL terminals of both consoles are
connected, providing full-function cueing from the main unit.
An echo unit is patched into the AUX 1 circuit. The AUX 1
controls on the input channels will function as individual
echo sends for each instrument, and the AUX 1 OUT control
is the master echo send. Echo return is adjusted using the
AUX IN level control, and the echo can be assigned to any of
the eight monitor mixes, according to the performers’ wishes,
using the AUX OUT ASSIGN switches. A mono tape deck is
patched into the AUX 2 input. For setting the overall level of
each monitor when the performers are not present, a tape
HOUSE P.A.
MIXING CONSOLE
can be played through each monitor by pressing the AUX
ASSIGN switches and adjusting the appropriate master levels.
Each master output is connected to a monitor amp via a
graphic equalizer, for accurate equalization of each monitor,
and for ‘ringing out” (controlling feedback by lowering
frequency response at feedback peak frequencies) the system.
These equalizers could also be connected to the master
INSERT terminals. Two of the input INSERTS are connect-
ed to effects units — a compressor (useful for adding punch
to vocals, for example) and a noise gate (which could be used -
to eliminate hum from a guitar). Any effects units could be
used, in the input inserts for individual instruments, or in the
master inserts for individual monitor mixes.
The operator can monitor on headphones or via an amplifier/
speaker system connected to the CUE OUTPUT, by pressing
the appropriate cue switches.
MONO
TAPE
DECK
SECOND MC MONITOR
MIXING CONSOLE paa COMPRESSOR
у af QUE OUT
oP QUE CTRL
AUX OUT MASTER NOISE
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OPERATOR'S
MONITOR
PERFORMERS'
MONITORS (x 8)
POWER AMP (x 9)
GRAPHIC EQ (x 9)
16 MIC/LINE INPUTS
RECEIVED FROM P.A.
CONSOLE OR FROM
SPLITTER BOXES
15
Communication between the monitor operator and the house
soundman is provided in the following manner: the monitor
operator plugs his TB microphone into the TB input
connector on the front panel. The signal from this input is
sent out via the TB OUT connector, to the ECHO RETURN
input of the main house console (e.g., a Yamaha MC2404).
If the echo return input is not available, an input channel
could be used to receive the monitor TB. This signal would
not be assigned to any output on the house console, merely
q 7 um o Qu
y
TALKBACK
(ALTERNATIVE DIRECT CONNECTION)
CUE'd for headphone monitoring by the engineer. The house
soundman sends his TB signal via his foldback output to the
COMM IN connector of the monitor console. In this case the
+4 dB pad should be inserted, and the COMM IN level
contro! adjusted to maintain a correct signal level.
If communication were required with a stage manager,
conductor, or dressing room, a microphone could be
connected directly with the COMM IN jack. In this case, the
+4 dB pad would not be needed.
COMM IN «== PHONES |
INPUT
ECHO
vrac ec
PHONES RTN
lla P.A. MIXING CONSOLE
(e.9. YAMAHA MC2404)
mami FB OUT mr
TB OUT BACK IN
MC MONITOR
MIXING CONSOLE
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INSERT IN/OUT
AUX OUT
PHONES
SUN" ——— № o
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VIICUE ouT
CLIPPING LEVEL
TB OUT
ELECTRONIC BALANCED OUTPUTS ONLY
-= те
— И = ———/БэЯт«.
10 de
METER PEAK — y
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8dB MASTER OUT
AUX OUT
—— Cue our
TB OUT
CH INPUT
HI-2
AUX IN В
AUX IN
COMMUNICATION
-50 IN
COMMUNICATION IN | {> su
+4
INPUT LEVEL
AR
TALKBACK IN (0,9) HA f >
SUB IN
30 -
20- — - -
3 3dB
о PEAK LED TURN ON
a
10 o AUX IN
= COMMUNICATION IN
8 (+4d8 SW ON) SUB IN
x
PAD ON a
0+ - Lo 4
LJ
| I
|
-10- г
\
"20 INPUT
(GAIN —20)
-30—
до PAD ON
\
7507 TALKBACK IN
\ COMMUNICATION IN
(+4dB SW OFF)
-60
CH INPUT
(GAIN -60)
TALKBACK
, |
L ~— PHONES
(80)
= INPUTS
4002 Phones
| - | —_ | | 1e | | © Input levels a.
re bam В nput “Source a — _
Input : PAD | GAIN impedance impedance Sensitivity* | Râted "| Maximum non-| Connector type
| | о | | level | clipping level
TT На 16008 50 - 2500 —72dB —60dB —30dB ,
CHINPUT | OFF (0dB) * LO Z 4kQ Microphones (0.195mV) | (0.775mV)} | (24.5mV) "Bar type
MC1608M 1 +16) | — or. —32dB —20dB +10dB alanced)
(Coos 118) __ 1 o0gg | HIZ 10k9Q 60082 Lines | (19.6mV) | (77.5mV) (2.45V) Phone Jack (TRS)
LS ON (2008) | 7° 8009 Lines —12dB “ OdB +20dB (Balanced)
_ ESS (195mV) (775mV) (7.75V)
A « (MC1608M 1 16 , —22dB —10dB +20dB Phone Jack (TRS)
CH INSERT IN (MC2a08M 1224) 10kQ 6009 Lines | (51 6mv) | (245mV) (7.75V) (Unbalanced)
Rom ta A5 . —16dB —10dB +20dB Phone Jack (TRS)
MASTER INSERT IN (1-8) 10k9 600 Lines | (123mV) | (245mV) | 1(7.75V) (Unbalanced)
O nl TA | | . — 8dB + 4dB +20dB Phone Jack
AUX IN (1,2) 10k9 600% Lines | (399mv) | (1.23V) (7.75V) (Unbalanced)
| ny / MASTER 1-8, CUE Y — 2dB + 4dB +20dB Phone Jack
SUB IN (MONTE 2 | ) 10k82 6008 Lines | (616mv) (1.23V) (7.75V) (Unbalanced)
a | . a. о 50 72500 —62dB —50dB —10dB XLR type
TALKBACK IN — | 10ко Microphones | (0.616mV) | (2.45mV) | (245mV) (Unbalanced)
Co | ne 50 ~ 2508 —62dB —50dB —10dB
OT —50dB 10k 2 Microphones | (0.616mV) | (2.45mV) | (245mV) Phone Jack
COMMUNICATION IN ; 7
o + дав 10kQ 600% Lines — 8dB + 4dB +20dB (Unbalanced)
a | | (309mV) (1.23V) (7.75V)
= OUTPUTS
| | a. - Output levels |
Output Output Load | E Connector type
A . Rated Maximum non-
o impedance impedance level clipping level ВЕ
| e o XLR type
MASTER OUT (1 | 8) 15082 60002 Lines + 4dB (1.23V) +22dB (9.76V) (Balanced)
IN pa . Phone Jack
AUX OUT (1, 2) 1502 600 Lines + 4dB (1.23V) +18dB (6.16V) (Unbalanced)
| . Phone Jack
TB OUT 15092 6000 Lines + 4dB (1.23V) +18dB (6.16V) (Unbalanced)
; Phone Jack
CUE OUT | В 1502 6002 Lines + 4dB (1.23V) +18dB (6.16V) (Unbalanced)
- - — MC1608M 1 ~ 16 Phone Jack (TRS)
CH INSERT OUT(MC240EM 1 218) ; 10082 10k© Lines —10dB (245mV) +20dB (7.75V) (Unbalanced)
MASTER INSERT OUT (1 ~8) 6002 10k9 Lines —10dB (245mV) | +20dB (7.75V) Phone Jack (TRS)
_ | (Unbalanced)
PHONES OUT В 1008 8% Phones TmW 20mW Stereo Phone Jack
a | 3mW 130mW (Unbalanced)
* Input leve] required to produce rated +4dB output level.
e0dB.=0.775V r.m.s.
FREQUENCY RESPONSE 20Hz ~ 20kHz +1/—3dB
(@600 ohms, +4dB)
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION Less than 0.05% (20Hz ~
20kHz @600 ohms, +4dB)
NOISE LEVELS*
Equivalent input noise —128dB (Rs = 150 ohms)
Residual output noise —95dB (balanced output)
Master Out —70dB (Master fader — nominal! ** All input volumes
— minimum) |
—64dB (Master fader — nominal ** One input volumes
— nominal * *)
—67dB {Aux output volume — nominal** All AUX
input volumes — minimum)
—62dB (Aux output volume — nominal** One Aux
- input volume — nominal **)
MAXIMUM VOLTAGE GAIN
Aux Out
CH INPUT > MASTER OUT 76dB
CH INPUT > AUX OUT 76dB
AUX IN >MASTER OUT 12dB
TALKBACK INPUT > MASTER OUT 66dB
MASTER SUB IN >MASTER OUT 6dB
AUX SUB IN > AUX OUT : 6dB
CUE SUB IN >CUE OUT 6dB
EQUALIZER CHARACTERISTICS
LOW +/—15dB (100 Hz shelving)
MID +/—15dB (350Hz ~ 5kHz peaking)
HIGH +/—15dB {10kHz shelving)
CROSSTALK {measured at 1kHz)
MIXBUSS to MIXBUSS |
INPUT CH to INPUT CH
Less than -60dB
Less than —60dB
VU METERS
MASTER 1 78, AUX 1, 2 (0 VU = 4dB)
PEAK INDICATORS
INPUT {red} Lights 3dB below clipping
VU (red) Lights 8dB above 0 VU
POWER REQUIREMENTS (Usable voltage range)
US & Canadian models 120V (105V - 130V), 60HZ
General model 110V ~120V (115V + 15%)
220V - 240V (230V 15%), 50/60Hz
POWER CONSUMPTION
US & Canadian models 70W
General model 80W
DIMENSIONS (WxHxD)
MCIGOSM 919 mm x 185.5 mm x 654.3 mm
(36-3/16" x 7-5/16"" x 25-3/4"")
MC2408M 1232 mm x 185.5 mm x 654.3 mm
(48-1/2" x 7-5/16"" x 25-3/4”)
WEIGHT
MC1608M 26 kg (57 Ibs. 3 oz.)
MC2408M 33 kg {72 Ibs. 10 0z.)
* Measured with a —6dB/octave LPF @12.7kHz,
**Nominal = 6dB below maximum.
0dB =0.775V r.m.s.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
@ YAMAHA
NIPPON GAKKI CO., LTD. HAMAMATSU, JAPAN
84110.5 [9 @ Printed in Japan.
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