STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY AND BRIDGE

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY AND BRIDGE

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

FOR

HIGHWAY AND BRIDGE

CONSTRUCTION

NEW MEXICO STATE

DEPARTMENT

OF

TRANSPORTATION

2014 EDITION

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section Page

DIVISION 100 – GENERAL PROVISIONS

Division Contents

101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions... ................. 2

102: Bidding Requirements and Conditions. .................................. 19

103: Award and Execution of Contract. .......................................... 24

104: Scope of Work. ....................................................................... 28

105: Control of Work. ..................................................................... 34

106: Control of Materials. ............................................................... 50

107: Legal Relations, Environmental Requirements, and Responsibility to the Public. ............................................ 55

109: Measurement and Payment. .................................................. 81

DIVISION 200 – EARTHWORK

Division Contents

203: Excavation, Borrow, and Embankment .................................. 96

206: Excavation and Backfill for Culverts and Minor Structures ..... 108

209: Blading and Reshaping .......................................................... 112

210: Excavation and Backfill for Major Structures .......................... 113

DIVISION 300 – BASES

Division Contents

302: Processing, Placing, and Compacting Existing Pavement ..... 118

306: Portland Cement or Lime Treated Subgrade ......................... 123

DIVISION 400 – SURFACE TREATMENTS AND PAVEMENTS

Division Contents

401: Pavement Smoothness Measurement ................................... 128

402: Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite

403: Open Graded Friction Course (Non-QLA) .............................. 143

403-A: Warm Mix Asphalt - Open Graded Friction Course (Non-QLA)

........................................................................................... 147

404: Rubberized Open Graded Friction Course ............................. 152

411: Hot-Poured Crack Sealant ..................................................... 163

412: Hot In-Place Recycling Of Asphalt Pavement

(Remixing Method) ................................................................. 165

413: Single-Machine Hot In-Place Surface Repaving .................... 169

415: Pavement Surface Restoration .............................................. 175

423: Hot-Mix Asphalt – Superpave (QLA & Non-QLA) ................... 187

424: Warm Mix Asphalt .................................................................. 208

450: Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (QLA) ......................... 230

451: Portland Cement Concrete Pavement .................................... 242

452: Sealing And Resealing Concrete Pavement Joints ................ 244

454: Cracking and Seating Concrete Pavement ............................ 247

455: Diamond Grinding and Diamond Grooving of Portland Cement

Concrete Pavement (PCCP) .................................................. 249

DIVISION 500 – STRUCTURES

Division Contents

501: Driven Bearing Piles ............................................................... 253

504: Load Testing of Bearing Piles ................................................ 276

505: Pile Integrity Testing ............................................................... 283

506: Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Structures ............... 287

509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs ................................ 294

510: Portland Cement Concrete ..................................................... 312

514: Concrete Barrier Railings for Bridges ..................................... 352

515: Reinforced Concrete for Minor Structures .............................. 354

517: Precast Concrete Structures .................................................. 358

518: Pre-Stressed Concrete Members ........................................... 364

520: Non-Shrink Grout for Post-Tensioned Bridge Members ......... 386

522: Chemical Adhesive Anchors .................................................. 393

529: Pier and Abutment Bearing Modification ................................ 399

530: Bridge Deck and PCCP Preparation for Repair .................... 400

531: Permanent Anti-Graffiti Protective Coating ............................ 403

532: Penetrating Water Repellent Treatment ................................. 404

533: Concrete Structure Repair ...................................................... 406

535: Crack Sealing Using Low-Viscosity, Gravity-Fed Sealers ...... 414

536: Polymer Concrete Bridge Deck Overlay ................................. 417

537: Polyester Concrete Bridge Deck Overlay ............................... 424

544: Protective Coating of New Structural Steel ............................ 460

545: Protective Coating of Miscellaneous Structural Steel ............. 466

547: Safety and Environmental Requirements for Painting

560: Elastomeric Bearing Pads ...................................................... 483

561: Elastomeric Compression Joint Seals .................................... 486

562: Bridge Joint Strip Seals .......................................................... 488

563: Polymer Bridge Joint Seals .................................................... 492

564: Preformed Closed Cell Foam Bridge Joint Seals ................... 495

572: Cast-In-Place Concrete Pipe .................................................. 515

DIVISION 600 – MISCELLANEOUS CONSTRUCTION

Division Contents

601: Removal of Structures and Obstructions ................................ 522

602: Slope and Erosion Protection Structures ............................... 525

603: Temporary Erosion and Sediment Control ............................. 533

604: Soil and Drainage Geotextiles ................................................ 543

606: Metal and Concrete Wall Barrier ............................................ 551

608: Sidewalks, Drive Pads and Concrete Median Pavement ....... 568

609: Curb and Gutter ...................................................................... 572

613: Cleaning of Culverts and Drainage Structures ....................... 579

617: Vibration Monitoring and Video Taping .................................. 582

618: Traffic Control Management ................................................... 586

619: Headgates and Flapgates for Irrigation Ditches ..................... 590

620: Selective/Non-Selective Herbicide Application ....................... 591

622: Field Laboratories and Field Offices ....................................... 597

624: Wire Mesh for Slope Stabilization .......................................... 606

626: Scaling of Rock Slopes .......................................................... 610

660: Excavation, Trenching and Backfilling for Utilities .................. 622

667: Rest Area and Miscellaneous Landscaping Items ................. 639

DIVISION 700 – TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES

Division Contents

701: Traffic Signs and Structures ................................................... 642

702: Construction Traffic Control Devices ...................................... 654

705: General Requirements for Traffic Signal and Highway Lighting

706: Signal and Lighting Systems .................................................. 686

707: Signal and Lighting Standards ............................................... 690

708: Foundations for Signal and Lighting Installations ................... 700

710: Pull Boxes and Splice Cabinets ............................................. 706

714: Traffic Signal Controllers ........................................................ 739

715: Beacons and Temporary Signal Equipment ........................... 758

720: Vehicular Impact Attenuator Units .......................................... 766

721: Pavement Marking Removal .................................................. 769

DIVISION 800 – CONSTRUCTION STAKING AND POST CONSTRUCTION PLANS

Division Contents

801: Construction Staking by the Contractor .................................. 771

802: Post Construction Plans ......................................................... 776

DIVISION 900 – QUALITY CRITERIA

Division Contents

901: Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) .......................... 779

INDEX ................................................................................................. 792

DIVISION 100 – GENERAL PROVISIONS

Division Contents

101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions... ................. 2

102: Bidding Requirements and Conditions. .................................. 19

103: Award and Execution of Contract. .......................................... 24

104: Scope of Work. ....................................................................... 28

105: Control of Work. ..................................................................... 34

106: Control of Materials. ............................................................... 50

107: Legal Relations, Environmental Requirements, and Responsibility to the Public. ............................................ 55

109: Measurement and Payment. .................................................. 81

Division: 100 Page 1

SECTION 101: ABBREVIATIONS, SYMBOLS, TERMS, AND DEFINITIONS

101.1 ACTIVE VOICE, IMPERATIVE MOOD, REFERENCES, USE OF LANGUAGE

The New Mexico Department of Transportation publishes this edition of the Standard

Specifications for Highway and Bridge Construction with an emphasis on the active voice. In a sentence written in the active voice, someone acts on something. For example: “The

Engineer will take a sample.” A similar sentence in the passive voice “A sample will be taken” would be unclear about who was responsible for taking the sample.

This edition of the Standard Specifications also makes use of the imperative mood. The imperative mood is used when the party issuing an instruction and the party receiving it are already understood. In these Standard Specifications, the Department is stating its requirements or directions for Work to the Contractor; such statements have the same force as if they contained the word “shall.” In an imperative sentence such as, “Pour the concrete,” the Department is indicating that it requires the Contractor to pour the concrete. Before an

Award of a Contract, imperative statements are directed to the Bidder. After a Contract has been awarded, imperatives are directed to the Contractor.

The Department will identify parties other than the Bidder or Contractor to whom it gives a responsibility in these Standard Specifications. In phrasings where the responsible party has already been clearly identified or in factual statements when it is not important to do so, the Department may use the passive voice.

The word “shall” is used in a mandatory or imperative sense and signifies that the

Department is imposing a duty on a person or body that is the subject in the sentence. The word “may” is used to signify the conferring of a discretionary power, privilege, or right.

However, use of the term “may not” signifies that a right, privilege, or power is intended to be denied.

The titles or headings of the sections and subsections herein are intended for convenience of reference and shall not be considered as having any bearing on their interpretation.

The Contractor, having an obligation to comply with, observe, and comply with all federal and State law and regulations, any reference to any federal or State law or regulation shall constitute a reference to any applicable amendment or successor law or regulation.

101.2 ABBREVIATIONS

When the following abbreviations are used in the Plans, the Specifications, other

Contract documents, and Department correspondence, their meaning is as follows:

Table 101.2:1

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or short form Full name or meaning

AASHTO

ACI

American Association of State Highway and Transportation

Officials

American Concrete Institute

AMRL

ASTM

AWG

AWPA

AWWA

CBC

CCD

AASHTO Material Reference Laboratory

American Society for Testing and Materials

American Wire Gauge

American Wood Preservers' Association

American Water Works Association concrete box culvert closed circuit detection

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 2

Table 101.2:1

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or short form Full name or meaning

CFR Code of Federal Regulations

CPM

CTR

DBE

ESAL

FHWA

GRT

HDPE critical path method certified test report disadvantaged business enterprise equivalent single axle loading

Federal Highway Administration gross receipt tax high density polyethylene

HMWM

IES

ITE

JMF

LCD high molecular weight methacrylate

Illuminating Engineering Society

Institute of Transportation Engineers job mix formula liquid crystal display

MSDS

MTR

MUTCD

NCHRP

NEC®

Material Safety Data Sheet mill test report

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices

National Cooperative Highway Research Program

National Electrical Code®

NMAC

NMDA

NMED

New Mexico Administrative Code

New Mexico Department of Agriculture

New Mexico Environment Department

NMSA New Mexico Statutes Annotated

NMSSPWC New Mexico Standard Specifications for Public Works Construction

NPDES

NTSC

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

National Transmission Standards Committee

OGFC

OSHA open-graded friction course

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

PCCP

PCI

PCT

PE-P

PTL portland cement concrete pavement

Prestressed Concrete Institute process control technician penetrating emulsified prime private testing laboratory

QCT

QLA

RAP quality control technician quality level assurance reclaimed asphalt pavement

SSPC

Society of Protective Coating (formerly Steel Structures Painting

Council)

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 3

Table 101.2:1

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or short form Full name or meaning

SWPPP

TERO

TTCP storm water pollution prevention plan

Tribal Employment Rights Organization

Technician Training and Certification Program

UBC™ Uniform Building Code™

USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency

UV Ultraviolet

VMA

VTM

WMA voids in mineral aggregate voids in total mix warm mix asphalt

101.3 SYMBOLS

Within the Specifications and Contract, reference to the English system of measurement symbols is a reference to the U.S. Customary (Inch-pound) system.

Some of the symbols for units of measurement used in the Specifications and in the Bid

Form are defined as shown in Table 101.3:1, “Measurement Symbols.” The symbols for other units of measurement used in the Specifications are as defined in the various Specifications and tests referenced in the Specifications.

Table 101.3:1

Measurement Symbols

Physical Characteristic Unit name Symbol

microinch µin mil (0.001 inch) Mil

Length inch foot yard

In

Ft

Yd

Area

Volume

Mass (weight)

Temperature mile square inch square foot square yard square mile

Mi in

2 ft

2 yd

2 mi

2 acre Acre pint Pt quart gallon cubic inch cubic foot cubic yard

Qt

Gal in

3 ft

3 yd

3 ounce Oz pound Lb ton, short (2,000 lb) degree Fahrenheit

Ton

°F

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 4

Physical Characteristic

Speed

Pressure

Power, energy and electricity

Force

Torque

Viscosity, dynamic

Table 101.3:1

Measurement Symbols

Unit name Symbol

second S minute Min hour H miles per hour Mph pound-force per square inch

Psi watt kilowatt milliampere ampere volt voltampere ohm

W kW mA

A

V

VA

Ω hertz joule lumen

Hz

J

Lm footcandle horsepower

Fc

Hp pound-force Lbf

1,000 pounds-force Kip pound-force foot lbf•ft centipoises cP poise P

Viscosity, kinematic

Flow

Concentration centistokes gallons per minute parts per million cSt

Gpm

Ppm

Inductance Henries H

Frequency, concrete consolidation vibrations per minute Vpm

101.3.1 Engineer's Estimate Symbols

The measurement symbols shown on the Engineer's Estimate differ from those found in the rest of Project documents. Table 101.3.1:1, “Symbols for Engineer's Estimate,” lists and defines the symbols.

Symbol

Table 101.3.1:1

Symbols for Engineer's Estimate

Unit of measure or meaning

EACH Each

ALOW Allowance

MILE Mile

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 5

Symbol

Table 101.3.1:1

Symbols for Engineer's Estimate

Unit of measure or meaning

ACRE Acre

LB Pound

TON Ton

If the following terms are used in the Plans, the Specifications, other Contract documents, and Department correspondence, the intent and meaning shall be interpreted as follows:

Acceptance. (Also called Accept, Accepted and Acceptable) 1) The determination by the

Department that Materials and Work are in compliance with the Contract. 2) The process by which the Department determines whether or not the quality of produced

Material or Work is Acceptable pursuant to the Contract, including sampling, testing, certifications and assessment of test results.

Act of God. An unusual, sudden, and unexpected manifestation of the forces of nature, the effect of which could not have been prevented by reasonable human foresight, pains, and care.

Addendum. A change in the Plans or Specifications issued after the Advertisement and before the opening of the Bid.

Advertisement. (Also called Invitation for Bids.) A public announcement inviting Bids for

Work to be performed or Materials to be provided.

Apparent Low Bidder. The Bidder who submits at a Bid Opening a Total Bid Amount that is numerically lower than the Total Bid Amount submitted by other Bidders, but who’s Bid may later be subject to rejection, recalculation or other modification that may change the order of Bidders.

Assistant District Engineer (ADE) - Construction. The Engineer in charge of the construction operations in a designated portion of a Department District.

Award. The written acceptance by the Department of a Contract Bid.

Base Course. The layer or layers of specified Material placed on a Subbase or a Subgrade normally used to support a Surface Course.

Baseline Schedule. A fixed Project schedule that is the standard by which Project performance is measured.

Basis of Payment. The terms under which Work is paid, as a designated Pay Item in accordance with the quantity measured and the Pay Unit.

Bid. The offer of a Bidder, on the prescribed form, to perform the Work at the prices quoted.

Bidder. An individual, partnership, firm, corporation, joint venture, or their authorized representative submitting a Bid.

Bid Form. The approved form on which the Department requires Bidders to prepare and submit Bids.

Bid Guaranty. The security provided with a Bid to guarantee that the Bidder will enter into

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 6

the Contract if the Department accepts its Bid.

Bid Item (Contract Item, Pay Item). A specifically described unit of Work for which a Bidder provides a Bid Item Unit Price and Bid Item Price. The Bid Items become Contract

Items when the Contract is executed. The Contract Items become Pay Items when calculating Progress Payments.

Bid Item Price. The price established by the Contractor for each individual Bid Item on the

Bid Form; the product of the Bid Item quantity, provided on the Bid Form, and the

Bid Item Unit Price.

Bid Item Unit Price. The price established by the Contractor for each unit of an individual

Bid Item on the Bid Form. A Bid Item Unit Price reflects a Bidder’s actual and direct costs for the item plus a reasonable proportionate share of the Bidder's anticipated profit, overhead costs, and other indirect costs.

Bid Opening. A public reading of the properly submitted Bids, on a date established by the

Invitation for Bids.

Bid Package. The Bid documents submitted by a Bidder in accordance with Section 102,

“Bidding Requirements and Conditions.”

Bid Schedule. Listing or table of Bid Items, also referred to as Proposal Schedule.

Borrow Pit. A source outside the Roadway Prism from where suitable Material used primarily for Embankment is obtained.

Breakaway. The ability of a system to yield at a predetermined impact force.

Bridge. A Structure having a length — as measured along the center of the Roadway — of more than 20 ft between undercopings of abutments or extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes or extreme ends of openings for Culverts placed in series with a spacing between Culverts not exceeding ½ the diameter, and carrying a pathway or

Roadway over a depression or obstacle. It includes all appurtenances necessary to its proper use. The length of a Bridge structure is the distance along the line of survey stationing back-to-back of backwalls of abutments, if present, or end-to-end of the

Bridge floor, and in no case less than the total clear opening of the structure. The

Bridge Roadway width is that clear unobstructed width of Bridge deck available for vehicle use measured normal to the centerline of the Bridge.

Business Hours. The Department’s Business Hours are from 7:45 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.,

Monday through Friday, official State Holidays and emergency closures excluded.

Cabinet Secretary. The individual in charge of the Department. Also referred to as the

Secretary.

Calendar Day. Each and every Day shown on the calendar, beginning and ending at midnight.

Certificate of Compliance. A certificate provided by the Contractor proving that the relevant

Material is in accordance with the Contract.

Change Order. A written order issued to the Contractor by the Department covering contingencies, Extra Work, increases or decreases in Contract quantities, payments for items for which there is no Bid Item Unit Price, additions or alterations to the

Plans or Specifications within the scope of the Contract, and establishing the Basis

of Payment and time adjustments for the Work affected by the changes, or adjustments to the original Contract. A Change Order may consist of a

Supplemental Agreement or Field Sheet. A Change Order is the only method authorized for changing the Contract.

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 7

Chief Engineer. The Engineer in charge of the planning and design of Projects for the

Department or the individual’s designee.

Chill Factor. The Chill Factor is the ambient temperature (in degrees Fahrenheit) minus wind velocity (in miles per hour).

Claim. A Contractor request or demand for a Contract adjustment, equitable adjustment, additional time or compensation and other contractual damages, Delay damages, an extension of Contract Time, pass-through Subcontractor Claims, or for any other remedy arising from a dispute, disagreement, or controversy concerning respective rights and obligations under the Contract.

Commercial Material Source. A Material source that has been utilized by a private producer in a commercial operation from which Material has been sold within the last 24 months before the date of the letting.

Completion Dates. Contracts may have the following Completion Dates as defined herein:

Substantial Completion Date

Physical Completion or “Completion” Date

Mandatory Completion Date

Construction Maintenance Easement (CME). A real property interest in land acquired by the Department in conjunction with a Highway, Street, or Road Project to provide permanent access to private property to perform specific construction and maintenance functions.

Construction Zone. The area within the Right of Way from the first traffic control sign announcing the Road work to the last sign announcing the end of Road work within which the Contractor shall perform construction activities.

Contract. The entire and integrated written agreement between the Department and the

Contractor setting forth the obligations of the parties, including, but not limited to, the performance of the Work and the Basis of Payment.

The Contract includes the Advertisement, Bid Form and Contract Bond, Standard

Specifications, Supplemental Specifications, Special Provisions, Addenda,

Notice To Contractors, general and detailed Plans, Standard Drawing serials, and

Notice to Proceed — also any Change Orders and agreements that are required to complete the construction of the Work in an Acceptable manner, including authorized extensions thereof, all of which constitute one (1) instrument.

Contract Bonds. The approved payment and performance bonds — executed by the

Contractor and the Contractor’s Surety or sureties — guaranteeing complete execution of the Contract and all Change Orders pertaining thereto, and the payment of all debts pertaining to the construction of the Project.

Contractor. The individual, partnership, firm, corporation, or joint venture contracting with the

Department for performance of the Work.

Contract Time. The time specified in the Invitation For Bids for completion of the Contract.

This time may be defined as a specified fixed date, a given number of Working Days, or a given number of Calendar Days — or a combination of the above. The Contract

Time may be amended by mutual written agreement to include authorized time extensions as the performance of the Contract requires.

County. The County in which the Work herein specified is to be done.

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 8

Cultural Resource. Any prehistoric or historic period artifact, site, building, structure, material remains, or traditional use area resulting from, or associated with, human cultural activity. Historically important Cultural Resources are those eligible for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places.

Cultural Resource Professional. An individual with at least four (4) years of full-time paid experience in Cultural Resource investigations, including analyzing and preparing documentation needed to meet the requirements of Section 106 of the National

Historic Preservation Act. The individual must be properly permitted to meet the requirements of the NM State historic preservation officer or appropriate tribal preservation officer.

Culvert. Any Structure not classified as Bridge or casing that provides an opening under a

Roadway.

Day. Calendar Day unless otherwise noted.

Delay. Any event, action or factor that extends the time for the performance of the Work or that negatively affects the critical path for the Project, whether it be excusable, inexcusable, nonexcusable, concurrent, compensable or noncompensable.

Deleterious Material. Unsuitable material harmful to final product.

Department. The New Mexico Department of Transportation as constituted under the laws of the State for the administration of transportation Work. Any reference to Contract documents, Plans, Special Provisions, Standard Drawings, Forms, Change

Orders, and any other pertinent written communication in which the terms “New

Mexico State Highway Department” or “New Mexico State Highway and Transportation

Department” appears shall be the same as the term New Mexico Department of

Transportation or its designated agent.

Detour. A temporary route for traffic (vehicular or otherwise) around a closed portion of a

Road.

Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE). As defined in title 49 CFR part 26.

District. A subdivision of the State for the purpose of executing the Department’s construction, maintenance, and administrative activities.

District Engineer. The Engineer in charge of a Department District.

Divided Highway. A Highway with separated Roadways for traffic, generally in opposite directions.

Embankment. The portion of a Roadway that is below the Subbase, Base Course, and

Surface Courses and that is built up in layers consisting principally of soil and broken rock or a combination thereof.

Engineer. The designee of the Cabinet Secretary of the Department.

Entrance Angle (EA). The angle between the reference axis and the axis of incident light

(Counter-clockwise rotation of the reference axis relative to the axis of incident light is considered positive.)

Environmental Professional. An individual qualified to perform hazardous material investigations. This individual must possess the qualifications described in 40 CFR

Part 312(4)(E), the USEPA’s Standards and Practices for All Appropriate Inquiries.

Environmental Program Manager. The individual in charge of the Environmental Bureau of the Department.

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 9

Environmental Resource. The physical and biological components of the human and natural environment.

Environmental Specialist. An individual with at least four (4) years of full-time paid experience in environmental investigations, including analyzing and preparing documentation needed to meet the FHWA approval requirements for the National

Environmental Policy Act and related legislation.

Equipment. All machinery, tools, and Equipment, together with the necessary supplies for upkeep and maintenance, necessary for the construction and completion of the

Contract.

Extra Work. Work not provided for in the Contract but found by the Project Manager to be essential to the satisfactory completion of the Contract within its intended scope.

Extra Work means either 1) an item of Work ordered under the Contract for which there is no Bid Item Unit Price or 2) an increase or decrease of 25% in the original

Contract quantity of a Major Contract Item. (See Section 104.2, “Significant

Changes in the Character of Work.”) Such Work shall be performed as directed and will be paid for only on one (1) of two (2) grounds as provided in Section 109.5,

“Payment for Changes, Differing Site Conditions, and Extra Work,” by Bid Item Unit

Price, negotiated price agreement, or by Force Account.

Fabricator. A Supplier that fabricates or supplies Structural Steel or other structural items.

Field Sheet. A type of Change Order that does not require a Contractor’s signature.

Force Account. The Basis Of Payment for the directed performance of Work, with payment based on the actual cost of labor, Equipment, and Materials, and including various constant additives.

Fractured Face. At least one-half of the projected particle area exhibits a rough, angular, or broken texture with well defined edges.

General Office (GO). The Department’s main headquarters.

Hazardous Materials. Any substance, product, waste, or other Material of any nature whatsoever that is or becomes listed, regulated, or addressed pursuant to all applicable laws all as amended, or any other federal, state, or local statute law, ordinance, resolution, code, rule, regulation, order, or decree regulating, relating to, or imposing liability or standards of conduct concerning any hazardous, toxic, or dangerous waste, substance, or material.

Highway, Street, or Road. A general term denoting a public way for purposes of vehicular or pedestrian travel.

Holiday. Holidays recognized by the State of New Mexico are as follows, unless otherwise provided by the legislature:

1. 1 st

Day of January (New Year’s Day);

2. 3 rd

Monday in January (Martin Luther King Jr. Day);

3. 3 rd

Monday in February (Presidents’ Day);

4. Last Monday in May (Memorial Day);

5. 4 th

Day of July (Independence Day);

6. 1 st

Monday in September (Labor Day);

7. 2 nd

Monday in October (Columbus Day);

8. 11 th

Day of November (Veteran's Day);

9. 4 th

Thursday in November (Thanksgiving Day);

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 10

10. 25 th

Day of December (Christmas Day).

If any Holiday above falls on a Saturday or Sunday, the previous Friday or following

Monday, respectively, shall be considered a Holiday.

Independent Assurance. A construction management tool in which a third party, not directly responsible for process control or Acceptance, provides an independent assessment of the Work, Materials, or the reliability of test results obtained from process control and Acceptance testing.

Incentive/Disincentive Provision. Predetermined adjustments to the Contract price.

Incidental. Occurring or likely to occur at the same time or as a result of other items of Work as specified in the Contract for which no separate or additional payment will be made.

Inspector. The Project Manager’s authorized representative.

Invitation for Bids. See Advertisement.

Job Mix Formula (JMF). The combined aggregate gradation and the percentage of each

Material component in the mix.

Laboratory. A testing Laboratory of the Department, Contractor or any other testing

Laboratory that may be designated by the Engineer and is AASHTO Materials

Reference Laboratory (AMRL) Certified.

Landscape Architect. The Cabinet Secretary’s designee for Landscape Architecture.

Lighting and Signal Engineer. The Engineer in charge of the Department’s signal and lighting design.

Luminarie. A lighting device designed to illuminate the surface of a specific area from a mounting on a Standard, including the housing, optical control, lamps, and necessary ballasts.

Lump. The mathematical quantity for a Lump sum item is one (1).

Machine Vision Vehicle Detection System. A system that tracks vehicles on a Roadway via processing of video images and provides detector outputs to a traffic controller.

Mandatory Pre-Bid Conference. A meeting or conference to be conducted prior to the Bid

Opening at which all Bidders are required to attend. A Mandatory Pre-Bid

Conference is conducted for the purpose of discussing Contract requirements, to inform Bidders of important information relating to the performance of the Work, to answer questions of prospective Bidders in order to better facilitate proper bidding, compliance with the Contract, performance of the Work, to reduce job-in-progress disputes between the Department and Contractor, and to reduce the potential for

Change Orders, Claims, Liquidated Damages, added costs and cost overruns. The requirement to attend a Mandatory Pre-Bid Conference shall be set forth in a Notice to

Contractors, Special Provision or Addendum. A Bidder’s failure to attend shall result in its Bid being rejected as non-responsive.

Maintaining Agency. Public entity such as a City or County responsible for the electrical energy costs and maintenance of the approved and Accepted signal and lighting system.

Major Contract Item. Any item, excluding mobilization, having a Bid Item Price of ten percent (10%) or more of the Total Bid Amount for the Contract, minus the amount

Bid for mobilization.

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 11

Mandatory Completion Date. The date on which the Project shall be completed. This may be either Substantial Completion or Physical Completion as specified in the

Contract. If neither is specified, it shall mean “Substantial Completion.”

Materials. Any substances specified for use in the construction of the Project and its appurtenances.

Median. That portion of a Divided Highway separating the Traveled Way for traffic in opposing directions.

Method of Measurement. The method in which a Pay Item is measured to conform with the

Pay Unit.

Nominal Maximum Sieve. One (1) sieve size larger than the first sieve that retains ten percent (10%) or more of a given Material.

Non-Conformance. Contractor’s failure to comply with the Contract or to provide

Acceptable Work to the Department. Non-Conformances are subject to a withholding of 25% of the Progress Payment. Non-Conformance withholdings will be paid at the subsequent Progress Payment following resolution of all Non-

Conformances.

Notice to Proceed. (Work Order) Written notice to the Contractor to proceed with the

Contract Work including the beginning date of Contract Time.

Notice to Contractors. An addition to the Contract package, made prior to its issuance to the Contractor, indicating changes to the Plans and Specifications.

Observation Angle. The angle between the axis of incident light and the observation axis.

Partial Suspension. The suspension of Work on some, but not all Contract Items.

Pavement Structure. The combination of Subbase, Base Course, and Surface Course placed on a Subgrade to support and distribute the traffic load to the Roadbed.

Pay Adjustment. An adjustment to a payment for a specific portion of the Work based on the quality of the Work performed by the Contractor and Accepted by the Department.

Other Department documents may refer to this term as price adjustments, price reductions, or pay reductions.

Physical Completion. All the Work is physically completed on the Project and is Accepted by the Project Manager. All documentation required by the Contract and by law shall be furnished by this date.

Pit Agreement. An agreement with a property owner to provide borrow or surfacing Material for Highway construction or maintenance.

Plans. The approved Contract drawings showing profiles, typical cross sections, or exact reproductions that show the location, character, dimensions, and general or specific details of the Work to be done.

Post Construction Plans. Final drawings reflecting Work and quantities performed under the Contract.

Pre-Construction Conference. A meeting between the Department and the Contractor prior to any Work taking place to review and discuss Contract requirements, construction details, the Baseline Schedule, Contract administration issues, and any items peculiar to the Project. See Section 108.2 “Notice to Proceed and Pre-

Construction Conference” for specifics associated with the Pre-Construction

Conference.

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 12

Pre-Pave Conference. A meeting between the Department and the Contractor prior to the commencement of paving operations to review, discuss and coordinate the Work associated with paving operations.

Pre-Fabrication Conference. A meeting between the Department and the Contractor prior to any fabrication Work taking place.

Pre-Deck Conference. A meeting between the Department and the Contractor prior to the commencement of deck placement operations to review, discuss and coordinate the

Work associated with the deck placement.

Pre-Bid Due Diligence. The Bidder’s exercise of due diligence before submittal of a Bid which includes the careful, independent examination of the site of the proposed Work, including Materials pits and haul Roads, the Bid Package, all Contract documents including

Standard Specifications, Special Provisions, Supplemental

Specifications, and standard and serial drawings and boring logs which are representative of the condition at the precise location where each boring was made but conditions may vary between boring locations.

Professional Service. A Subcontractor who provides a specialized service requiring professional licensure by the State of New Mexico, e.g. Professional Engineers,

Professional Surveyors and Attorneys.

Profile Grade. The line obtained from the trace of a vertical plane intersecting the top of the surfacing at the locations shown on the Plans and determined in accordance with the criteria set forth in the standard serials and drawings. Profile Grade means either the elevation or the gradient of such trace according to the context. The location of the

Profile Grade will be designated by the Department and shown on the Plans. The

Profile Grade may be used to designate the gradient and elevation of other construction features such as tops of curb, channels, Sidewalks, etc.

Progress Payment. A monthly payment provided by the Department to the Contractor for

Work, subject to withholdings for Non-Conformances and Retainage.

Project. The specific section of the Highway or property on which construction is to be performed as specified in the Contract.

Project Manager. The Department’s representative who is delegated the responsibility for administration of the Project.

Punch List. A list, prepared by the Project Manager, of corrective Work items to be completed by the Contractor after Substantial Completion but before Contractor’s request for final inspection. The Punch List is limited to items of the Work that are necessary to correct minor imperfections, deficiencies and deviations from the requirements of the Contract but which have no material or adverse effect on the full operability of the Project for its intended purpose and may be safely and effectively used by the public without delay, disruption, or impediments.

Quality Assurance (QA). The Department’s sampling, testing, inspection, and other activities to determine payment and make Acceptance decisions.

Quality Control (QC). The Contractor’s actions and considerations necessary to assess production and construction processes so as to control the level of quality being produced in the end product. Quality control includes sampling and testing by the

Contractor to monitor and adjust its process. Quality Control does not include

Acceptance sampling and testing by the Department.

Quality Level Assurance (QLA). Is equivalent to QC/QA.

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 13

R-value. The measurement of the response of a compacted sample of soil or aggregate to a vertically applied pressure under specific conditions.

Required Documents for Bid Submittal. Those documents specified in the Bid Package required for Bid submittal.

Resource Loading. The Contractor’s assigning of resources necessary to develop an

Acceptable CPM for the Project. Resource Loading shall include personnel,

Contract dollars earned, Materials, facilities and Equipment associated with each activity within the CPM.

Responsible Bidder. A Bidder who submits a Responsive Bid and who has furnished, when required, information and data to prove that his financial resources, production or service facilities, personnel, service reputation and experience are adequate to make satisfactory delivery of the services, construction or items of tangible personal property described in the Invitation For Bids as defined in NMSA 1978, § 13-1-82.

Responsive Bid. A Bid which conforms in all material respects to the requirements set forth in the Invitation For Bids and the Contract documents, including Notice to

Contractors, Special Provisions, Supplemental Specifications, and Addenda and which has not been rejected. Material respects of a Bid include but are not limited to price, quality, quantity or delivery requirements as defined in NMSA 1978, § 13-1-84.

Retainage. Five percent (5%) of the Total Original Contract Amount as amended by

Change Order. The five percent (5%) shall be retained when the Progress

Payments equal 95% of the amended Contract amount. The Retainage shall be withheld until Physical Completion to assure that the Contractor shall satisfy its obligations and complete the Work.

Right of Way (ROW). A general term denoting land or property, or interest therein, usually in a strip, acquired for or devoted to transportation purposes.

Roadbed. The graded portion of the Highway with top and side slopes prepared as a foundation for the Subgrade, Pavement Structure, and Shoulders.

Roadway. A general term denoting the Traveled Way and the Shoulders.

Roadway Prism. The Roadway construction limits between the outside limits of the side slopes.

Secretary. See Cabinet Secretary.

Shoulder. The portion of the Roadway contiguous with the Traveled Way for accommodation of stopped vehicles, for emergency use, and for lateral support of

Base and Surface Courses.

Sidewalk. That portion of the Roadway primarily constructed for use by pedestrians.

Signal Assembly. A housing containing the required illuminated Traffic Signal indications

(vehicular and pedestrian) mounted on a Standard.

Small Business. As defined in 5 USC Section 601 and 15 USC Section 632 of the Small

Business Act.

Special Provisions. Additions and revisions to the Standard and Supplemental

Specifications covering conditions applicable to an individual Project.

Specialty Items. Work not usually performed by Highway Contractors and so designated in the Contract.

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 14

Specifications. A general term applied to all written provisions and requirements pertaining to performance of the Work.

Specific Intensity. Candlepower of the returned light at the chosen Observation and

Entrance Angles for each lumen per square meter, foot-candle of illumination at the reflector on a plane perpendicular to the incident light.

Standard. In traffic lighting, a pole-type structure that supports and positions signal and lighting devices, including arms, mounting hardware, and lowering and Breakaway devices as required.

Standard Drawings. Detailed drawings for specific items of Work approved for repetitive use.

Standard Specifications. The Department’s book of Specifications approved for general application and repetitive use.

State. The State of New Mexico acting through its authorized representatives.

State Asphalt Engineer. The Engineer in charge of the Department’s Asphalt Unit of the

State Materials Bureau.

State Bridge Engineer. The Engineer in charge of the Department’s Bridge Design Bureau.

State Concrete Engineer. The Engineer in charge of the Concrete Unit of the State

Materials Bureau.

State Construction Engineer. The Engineer in charge of the State Construction Bureau.

State Geotechnical Engineer. The Engineer in charge of the Geotechnical Unit of the State

Materials Bureau.

State Materials Engineer. The Engineer in charge of the State Materials Bureau.

State Transportation Commission. The six (6) member policy board for the Department.

State Transportation Commissioner. An individual member of the State Transportation

Commission.

Structures. Bridges, Culverts, catch basins, drop inlets, retaining walls, cribbing, manholes, end-walls, buildings, sewers, service pipes, under drains, foundation drains, and other such features that may be encountered in the Work.

Structural Steel. Steel shapes, plates, H-piling and sheet piling. Shapes are pipes, structural tubing and all hot-rolled flanged sections. Hot-rolled flanged section are rails and mill products having AISC shape designations of W, S, M, C, MC, HP, L, WT, ST and MT.

Subbase. The layer or layers of specified Material thickness placed on a Subgrade to support Surface Courses.

Subcontractor. An individual, partnership, firm, corporation, or joint venture, other than a

Trucker, to whom the Contractor subcontracts part of the Contract who meets the requirements of a Subcontractor under Section 108.1, “Subcontracting.” The term

Subcontractor includes first-tier, second-tier and other tiered Subcontractors and

Sub-subcontractors. A Subcontractor has no privity of Contract with the

Department and has no direct or indirect cause of action against the Department for any Claim or cause of action, including nonpayment by the Contractor, arising out of the Project.

Subgrade. The portion of the Roadbed prepared as a foundation for the Pavement

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 15

Structure.

Substantial Completion. The point at which:

1. All critical path activities on the Project have been completed and Accepted; public without delays, disruption, or impediments; the ADE - Construction; and

Substantially Complete.

For conventional Bridge and Highway Work, it is the point at which all the following

Work is complete for the safe and efficient use of the public (or as otherwise defined in the Contract):

1. Bridge deck;

2. Parapet;

3. Pavement Structure;

4. Shoulder;

6. A minimum of one (1) application of striping;

8. Signalization and Lighting; and

Substructure. All of that part of the Bridge Structure below the bearings of simple and continuous spans, skewbacks of arches, and tops of footings of rigid frames, together with the backwalls, wingwalls, and wing protection railings.

Superintendent. The Contractor’s agent authorized in writing to be in responsible charge of the Project.

Superstructure. The entire Bridge Structure except the Substructure.

Supplemental Agreement. A type of Change Order that may require Contractor signature.

Supplemental Specifications. Approved additions and revisions to the Standard

Specifications.

Supplier. Any individual, partnership, firm, corporation, or joint venture that manufactures or supplies Materials to be incorporated into a construction Project but who performs no actual Work on the Project site.

Surety. The corporation, partnership, or individual, other than the Contractor, executing a bond furnished by the Contractor.

Surface Course. Layer or layers of a Pavement Structure designed to accommodate the traffic load, the top layer of which resists skidding, traffic abrasion, and the disintegrating effects of climate.

Surfacing Pit. A source from which suitable Material for the production of Surface Course aggregate is obtained.

Suspension and Debarment. The disqualification of a Bidder or Contractor from bidding or performing construction Work for a period of time determined by Department

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 16

Regulations (18.28.4 NMAC).

System Master. In traffic lighting, an electronic device normally installed in a controller cabinet capable of supervising an interconnected network of local controllers, providing coordinated traffic movement. System Masters in turn may be controlled by a computerized traffic control closed-loop system.

Temporary Construction Permit (TCP). A temporary interest in land acquired in conjunction with a Highway Project to provide for the temporary use of private property for the duration of the construction to perform construction activities in which the improvements are not intended to be permanent.

Termini. A general term used to describe the Project Limits, and including the beginning and end of the Project, its Right of Way, pit sites, haul Roads, and temporary and permanent construction or maintenance easements.

Total Bid Amount. The sum of all the Bid Item Prices on the Bid Form.

Total Original Contract Amount. The total amount Bid as compensation for the Contract.

Town, City, or District. Subdivisions of the State used to designate or identify the location of the proposed Work.

Traffic Lanes. See Traveled Way.

Traffic Services Engineer. The District Engineer’s representative for traffic engineering.

Traffic Signal. The complete installation of a traffic control system at an intersection, including the illuminated signal indications, supports, electrical controls, and distribution system.

Traveled Way. The portion of the Right of Way designated for the movement of vehicles, exclusive of Shoulders and Auxiliary Lanes.

Trucker. (Also called Trucking, Trucking Deliveries, Deliveries and Hauling) A Trucker is an individual, partnership, firm, corporation, or joint venture that transports or delivers

Materials to and from the Project and does not perform Work on the Project site. A

Trucker transports, but does not place, Materials (i.e. pit Materials, plant Materials, fabricated Materials, demolished and milled Materials, trash and waste Materials).

Unbalanced Bid. A Bid which is either materially or mathematically unbalanced. (A)

Materially. A Bid that generates a reasonable doubt that awarding the Contract to the

Bidder submitting a mathematically Unbalanced Bid will result in the lowest ultimate cost to the Department. (B) Mathematically. A Bid containing Lump sum or unit Bid

Items that do not reflect reasonable actual costs plus a reasonable proportionate share of the Bidder’s anticipated profit, overhead costs, and other indirect costs.

Value Engineering Cost Proposal. A Contractor-provided alternative to the Work methods or Materials specified in the Contract that establishes a better or approved-equal product or result without affecting the functional purpose of the Work being revised, and that produce a net savings to the Department. Areas exempted from Value

Engineering Cost Proposals are mix designs and traffic control.

Work. The providing of all labor, Materials, Equipment, and other Incidentals necessary for the successful completion of the Project, the successful completion of Pay Items, and the carrying out of the duties and obligations imposed by the Contract.

Working Day. Every Day except Saturdays, Sundays, and Holidays. Based on a review of weather conditions and the actual Work performed by the Contractor, the Project

Manager will determine (between the end of the Day and noon of the next Day) if the

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 17

Department will charge a Working Day. If the Contractor was able to effectively prosecute Work on a critical path item for six (6) or more hours on a Saturday,

Sunday, or Holiday, a Working Day will be charged.

Working Drawings. Contractor-furnished documents including, but not necessarily limited to:

3. Bending diagrams for reinforcing steel;

4. Plans for erection, false Work, frames Work, cofferdams, and other items; and

5. Such other similar data required for the successful completion of the Work.

Section 101: Abbreviations, Symbols, Terms, and Definitions Page 18

SECTION 102: BIDDING

102.1 INVITATION FOR BIDS

The Department will issue Invitations for Bid for the construction of Projects on the date set for Project Advertisement. The Invitation for Bids will indicate the following:

1. The Project number;

2. The Contract Time;

3. The locations, length, and description of the Work;

4. The date, time and place for the Bid Opening; and

5. Information concerning the cost and availability of Plans and Required Documents for Bid Submittal.

Prequalification of Bidders is a condition for submitting a Bid as authorized by the New

Mexico Procurement Code, NMSA 1978, § 13-1-82 and 13-1-134.

Bidders shall be prequalified in accordance with the requirements of the Department’s prequalification regulations, 18.27.5 NMAC. The failure of a Bidder to be prequalified shall render the Bid non-responsive and the Bid shall be rejected.

The Department may suspend or debar a Bidder in accordance with NMSA 1978, § 13-1-

177 to 13-1-180 and the Department’s Suspension and Debarment rules as per 18.28.4

NMAC. A suspended or debarred Bidder shall be ineligible to Bid or perform any Work on

Department Projects during the period of its Suspension or Debarment.

A Bidder who is suspended or debarred by a federal agency, (i.e. as identified on the federal excluded parties list) shall be ineligible to Bid or and may be ineligible to perform any

Work on any Project subject to federal reimbursement during the period of its Suspension or

Debarment.

The Department will make available to prospective Bidders a Bid Package consisting of the Required Documents for Bid Submittal. The Required Documents for Bid Submittal are comprised of the documents as specified in the Contract’s index of documents, including but not limited to the following: Bid Form, Bid Schedule and Bid Guaranty.

1. Only the Required Documents for Bid Submittal are to be submitted. All forms in this package are considered a part thereof and must not be detached or altered when the Bid is submitted.

2. All requirements for electronic submittals will be specified in the Department's

Invitation for Bids. When specified in the Invitation for Bids, submit a Bid in electronic format.

102.5 REFUSAL OR REJECTION OF BIDS

The Department may refuse to receive or open a Bid, or may reject a Bid, for the following reasons:

1. A Bidder lacks competency, financial stability, or adequate machinery, plants or other Equipment, or the ability to commence the Work within 30 Days of the Notice to Proceed;

2. A Bidder is responsible for uncompleted Work that in the judgment of the

Department might reasonably be expected to hinder or prevent the prompt completion of additional Work;

Section 102: Bidding Page 19

3. A Bidder fails to timely pay, satisfactorily settle, or provide security for the payment of Claims for labor, Equipment, Materials, supplies, or services legally due on previous or ongoing Contracts;

4. A Bidder is not Prequalified;

5. A Bidder defaults under a previous Contract, including Contracts with other public entities;

6. A Bidder performs previous Work unsatisfactorily, or fails to comply with Section

108.3, “Schedule;”

7. The Department issues a notice of Suspension or Debarment to the Bidder;

8. A Bidder submits more than one (1) Bid for the same Work under its own name, or under a different name;

9. Evidence exists of collusion among Bidders or prospective Bidders, in the preparation of a Bid for a Department Project;

10. A Bid Item Unit Price results in an Unbalanced Bid to the potential detriment of the public or the Department. The Department may require the Apparent Low Bidder to detail in writing how its prices were determined, and to justify the basis for its prices;

11. A Bid Item Unit Price or total Contract Bid price differs significantly from the

Engineer’s estimate or from other Bids to the potential detriment of the public or the

Department;

12. A Bid Item Unit Price does not include reasonable actual costs plus a reasonable proportionate share of the Bidder’s anticipated profit, overhead costs, insurance, and other indirect costs including any insurance or overhead expenses necessary to complete that Bid Item to the potential detriment to the public or the Department;

13. A Bidder contacts or communicates with any State Transportation Commissioner or any Department personnel responsible for Bid review and the Award of the Contract in relation to the Bid review or Award process at any time prior to the notification that the Contract has been awarded to the lowest Responsible Bidder, except for exercising a Bidder’s right to file a written protest pursuant to Section 103.3 “Bidding

Dispute Resolution Procedures” or in response to an inquiry from the Bid review committee;

14. A potential benefit to the public or the Department exists if the Contract is readvertised;

15. Failure to attend a Mandatory Pre-Bid Conference when so required by a Notice to

Contractor, Special Provision or Addendum;

16. A Bidder is subject of a judgment or verdict imposing a civil or criminal penalty under either the Federal False Claims Act or the New Mexico Fraud against Taxpayers

Act;

17. To redesign the Project or change Project Specifications;

18. If the Department becomes aware of an error in the quantity of a Bid Item shown in the Bid Schedule, Plans, or other Contract documents which may call into question the Department’s ability to determine which Bid will result in the lowest ultimate cost to the Department; or

19. When it is in the best interests of the public or the Department to do so.

102.6 INTERPRETATION OF QUANTITIES

The quantities appearing in the Bid Schedule, Plans, or other Contract documents are approximate only and are prepared for the comparison of Bids. Payment to the Contractor shall be made only for the actual quantities of Work performed and Accepted, or Materials furnished, or as otherwise specified (e.g., Computed Quantities) in the Contract.

PROVISIONS, AND SITE OF WORK

1. The Department will prepare Plans and Specifications in accordance with acceptable engineering standards and will give such directions as may enable any

Section 102: Bidding Page 20

competent Contractor to construct the Work. The submission of a Bid shall be considered prima facie evidence that the Bidder has exercised Pre-Bid Due

Diligence and accepts the conditions to be encountered in performing the Work and accepts the provisions and requirements of the Contract. The Bidder must so certify on the Bid Form for the Bid to be considered a Responsive Bid;

2. When available, boring logs and other records of subsurface investigations including

Borrow, surfacing Material, and other Materials pits may be inspected by the

Bidders. Bidders are informed that such information is for Department design and estimating purposes only. Such information is made available to Bidders so that they and the Department have identical access to subsurface information. The

Department does not warrant the sufficiency of such subsurface investigation documentation, and the Department furnishing such subsurface investigation documentation does not relieve the Bidder from, at its own expense, performing its own site investigation, considering geotechnical data from previous Projects performed by the Bidder in the vicinity of the Project, and determining how subsurface conditions may affect the means, methods and cost of the Work;

3. Requests for Contract interpretation shall be in writing, addressed to the Chief

Engineer, and must be received by the Chief Engineer at least 48 hours prior to the date fixed for the opening of Bids in order to receive a written response to the request. No interpretation of the meaning of the Contract shall be made to any

Bidder orally. The Contractor shall not rely on oral statements and shall only rely on written responses provided by the Chief Engineer or designate. Any and all such interpretation and any supplemental instructions if issued by the Department will be in the form of an Addendum or posted to Bid Express. Such Addendum will be provided to all prospective Bidders for such purposes and shall, whenever practicable, be issued no later than twenty-four (24) hours prior to Bid Opening. The

Bidder agrees that it will make no Claim because of misinterpretation or misunderstanding of the Contract or because of lack of information; and,

4. The Contractor is not entitled to a written response by the Chief Engineer when

Contract interpretation requests are received less than 48 hours before Bid

Opening. If a written response by the Department to a request for Contract interpretation is not provided, the Bidder shall Bid the Contract according to the

Contract documents.

1. Submit the Bid as provided in the Bid Package, and complete the blank spaces in the Required Documents for Bid Submittal. For each Bid Item, the Bidder shall state in numerals, either in ink or digital format, the Bid Item Unit Price for which the

Bidder proposes to perform each Bid Item;

2. Specify a Bid Item Unit Price for each Bid Item, except when a Bid Item Unit Price is established by the Department. The Bid Item Unit Price shall include, and shall be conclusively presumed to include, reasonable actual costs plus a reasonable proportionate share of the Bidder’s anticipated profit, overhead costs, insurance, and other indirect costs necessary to complete that Bid Item;

3. Show the Bid Item Prices by multiplying the respective Bid Item Unit Prices and quantities, and also show the Total Bid Amount in the space provided on the Bid

Schedule. The Total Bid Amount will be the sum obtained by adding the Bid Item

Prices;

4. For paper Bid submittals make changes to any entry on the Required Documents for

Bid Submittal by marking through the entry in ink and making the correct entry adjacent thereto in ink. Initial the change in ink;

5. Show the amounts for the respective Bid Item Unit Prices to a maximum of three (3) decimal places. Truncate additional decimal places in excess of three (3);

6. Exclude the applicable State GRT and local option tax. The Department will pay the applicable tax;

7. Exclude any Indian business tax, TERO tax, and other tax imposed by a tribal government;

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8. Submit Required Documents for Bid Submittal signed by the president, vicepresident, owner, or other representative of the Bidder authorized in writing to bind the Bidder; and,

9. Except in the exercise of a Bidder’s right to file a written protest pursuant to Section

103.3, “Bidding Dispute Resolution Procedures,” or in response to an inquiry from the Bid review committee, a Bidder shall not contact or communicate with any State

Transportation Commissioner or any Department personnel in relation to the Bid review, Award process, or awarding of the Contract at any time prior to the notification that the Contract has been awarded to the lowest responsive and

Responsible Bidder.

102.9 INNOVATIVE CONTRACT INCENTIVES

The Department may include innovative Contract Incentives in the Special Provisions,

Notice to Contractors, or Addenda. The Department reserves the right, as may be provided in the Contract, to escrow Bid Documents, to request information for informational purposes only, and to use innovative bidding approaches, including requiring Bidders to bid a daily overhead rate (cost / Day) as a Bid Item Unit Price.

A Bid will be deemed irregular and shall be rejected in the event a Bidder.

1. Submits its Bid on forms different than the Required Documents for Bid Submittal;

2. Does not sign its Bid Form in accordance with Section 102.8, “Preparation of Bid,” and thereby fails to bind the Bidder to its Bid;

3. Alters the Required Documents for Bid Submittal;

4. Omits any material portion of the Bid Package when submitting its Bid;

5. Submits a Bid containing irregularities, such as unauthorized additions and conditional or alternate proposals that tend to make the Bid incomplete, indefinite, or ambiguous;

6. Adds provisions reserving its right to accept or reject an Award, or reserving its right to refuse to enter into a Contract after an Award;

7. Omits both a Bid Item Unit Price and a Bid Item Price for each Bid Item;

8. Fails to initial (in ink) changes to Bid Item Unit Prices or Bid Item Prices in accordance with Section 102.8, “Preparation of Bid;”

9. Fails to deliver the Bid in accordance with Section 102.12, “Delivery of Bids;” or,

10. Fails to provide in its Bid the certification required by Section 102.7, “Examination of

Contract, Plans, Specifications, Special Provisions, and Site of Work.”

A Bidder shall submit with the Bid, a Bid Guaranty in the amount of at least five percent

(5%) of the Total Bid Amount. The Bid Guaranty shall be in the form of one (1) of the following:

2. Certified check; or

3. Postal or Bank money order.

A Bidder shall submit the Bid in a sealed envelope and plainly marked with the Project number, control number, location of the Project, and the name and address of the Bidder. If sent by United States Mail or private carrier, mail in accordance with the Invitation for Bids.

The Department must receive the Bid before close of business the Day before the Bid

Opening. In the alternative, a Bid may be hand-delivered by the Bidder prior to the Bid

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Opening to the official designated by the Department to open and read Bids at the Bid

Opening.

Alternatively, the Bidder may submit its Bid electronically in accordance with the Invitation for Bids.

102.13 REVISION OF BIDS

A Bidder may revise its Bid after submitting it to the Department, provided such revision is in writing, facsimile or electronically in portable document format (PDF) and is received by the Department before the Bid Opening in accordance with the Invitation for Bids.

A Bidder may revise electronic Bids anytime before Bid Opening.

102.14 WITHDRAWAL OF BIDS

A Bidder may withdraw its Bid after it has been deposited with the Department and before the time set for Bid Opening by requesting to do so in person, in writing, by facsimile, or electronically in PDF. Once a Bid Opening has commenced at the time and place designated in the Invitation for Bids, a Bidder may not withdraw its Bid, except that an opportunity will be given prior to the opening and reading of the Bids on each Project for a Bidder to withdraw the

Bidder’s own Bid for that Project and for any other Projects which have not yet been opened and read. Withdrawn Bids shall not be resubmitted.

Alternatively, the Bidder may withdraw its Bid electronically in accordance with the

Invitation for Bids.

Bids will be opened and read publicly in the presence of one (1) or more witnesses at the time and place designated in the Invitation for Bids. The amount of each Bid and each Bid

Item, and such other relevant information as may be specified by the Department, together with the name of each Bidder, will be recorded, and the record and each Bid will be open to public inspection.

The Engineer's Estimate shall be confidential and is not subject to the Inspection of

Public Records Act and shall not be disclosed to, or be subject to inspection by, members of the public prior to the Bid Opening. When all Responsive Bids for the Project are received and read during the Bid Opening, the Engineer's Estimate for the Project will be publicly disclosed.

Section 102: Bidding Page 23

SECTION 103:

AWARD AND EXECUTION OF CONTRACT

After the Department opens and reads the Bids, a Bid review committee will check the extended unit prices and the sum of the extended unit prices and item Lump sums for accuracy and compare the resulting Total Bid Amounts. The Department’s Bid Review

Committee shall review and evaluate Bids for a number of factors, which may include: comparison of Bids against the Engineer's Estimate; number of Bids submitted; unbalancing of

Bids; Bid prices for the Project versus Bid prices for similar Projects; Unit Bid Price differences between a Bid, the Engineer’s Estimate, and other Bids; Bid irregularities; whether a Unit Bid

Price substantially reflects reasonable actual costs plus a reasonable proportionate share of the Bidder’s anticipated profit, overhead costs, insurance, and other indirect costs necessary to complete that Bid Item; justification for any differences; and, any other factors the

Department has determined to be in the public’s interest. The results of the completed analysis will be available to the public after preliminary Award of Contract.

If the Bid Item Unit Price is omitted, the Bid Item Price will be divided by the estimated quantity, thereby establishing a Bid Item Unit Price. If both the Bid Item Unit Price and the Bid

Item Price are omitted, the Bid shall be rejected.

If a discrepancy exists between a Bid Item Unit Price and its extension, the Bid Item Unit

Price shall govern. If two (2) Contractors submit identical lowest Total Bid Amounts, the

Department shall determine the successful Bidder by the flip of a coin.

Mathematical errors in Bid Item Prices or Total Bid Amount shall be corrected by the

Department during the review of Bids.

The Department reserves the right to reject any or all Bids, to waive technicalities, or to advertise for new Bids if, in the judgment of the Department, the best interests of the public and the Department would be promoted thereby. Any or all Bids may be rejected when it is in the best interest of the public and the Department at any time prior to execution of the

Contract. If all Bids are rejected the Department may request a new Invitation for Bids. A

Department decision to cancel the Award of Contract or to reject all Bids and issue a new

Invitation for Bids is wholly an exercise of executive discretion not subject to review at an informal hearing pursuant to Section 103.3, “Bidding Dispute Resolution Procedures”.

When required by the Department, the Bidder shall submit written answers to the Bidder

Information Questionnaire. The Department will determine if the Apparent Low Bidder is a

Responsible Bidder using the answers to this questionnaire. The Department will base its decision on whether the Bidder demonstrates adequate financial resources, production or service facilities, personnel, service reputation, and experience to make satisfactory delivery of the construction described in the Invitation for Bids.

Except as described in Section 103.3, “Bidding Dispute Resolution Procedures,” the

Department will Award the Contract within 30 Days after the opening of Bids to the lowest

Responsible Bidder. This Bidder may agree to a later Award time if requested to do so by the

Department.

Unless the Department determines to cancel the Invitation for Bids or to reject all Bids the

Department will notify the lowest Responsible Bidder in writing that its Bid has been accepted and that it has received preliminary Award of the Contract. The Department will provide the

Contract to be executed by the Contractor and returned to the Department.

103.3 BIDDING DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROCEDURES

103.3.1 Pre-Award

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In the event of a Bidding dispute, the following procedure shall control the Award of the

Contract:

1. A Bidder disputing the Bidding or pre-award process must file a written protest with the Cabinet Secretary: a. Disputes arising from the Department’s pre-bid opening process and solicitation of Bids, including issues arising from Invitation for Bids,

Prequalification, irregularities with the Department’s Bid Package, and irregular

Bids must be raised by written protest no later than seven (7) Days from the date of the Bid Opening.

103.3.2 Post-Award

1. A Bidder disputing the preliminary Award process or Award of a Contract must file a written protest with the Cabinet Secretary. a. Disputes relating to the preliminary Award or Award of a Contract or any

Department decision regarding the issuing, receiving, or opening of any Bid, or rejection or non-rejection of any Bid, must be brought within 12 Days of the date of the preliminary Award of Contract; b. The written protest must include facts supporting the protest, any pertinent contractual provisions, law, rules or regulations, and other legal authorities supporting the protest and a requested action; c. Written protests filed prior to the Department’s preliminary Award of Contract may be deferred at the sole discretion of the Department and not considered until the Department has preliminarily Awarded the Contract.

103.3.3 Informal Hearing Procedures

1. Failure to file a timely protest shall constitute a waiver of the Bidder’s right to protest;

2. Service of the written protest shall be made only upon the Cabinet Secretary, with a copy contemporaneously transmitted and separately served upon the Office of

General Counsel for the Department, during the Department’s regular Business

Hours by delivery in person, or by certified mail, postage prepaid, return receipt requested, or by delivery by a nationally recognized overnight or same-day courier service that obtains receipts. Electronic communication (i.e. e-mail, facsimile) shall not be considered. Service of a written protest made after the Department’s regular

Business Hours shall not be effective until the next business Day. Copies of the protest shall be contemporaneously transmitted by the disputing Bidder to every

Bidder when the protest is served upon the Cabinet Secretary and the Office of

General Counsel; and,

3. Any Bidder, other than the disputing Bidder, that considers itself to be an interested party to the Bidding dispute may submit a written response to the protest in advance of the informal hearing. The response shall include a statement of the requested action, a rebuttal of any of the factual matters in the protest, facts supporting the response, and any contractual provisions, laws, rules, or regulations, or other authority supporting the response.

4. When a timely protest is filed, the Cabinet Secretary will not proceed further with the

Award until the dispute is resolved, as detailed below, unless or until the Cabinet

Secretary determines that the Award of the Contract is necessary to protect the substantial interests of the public and the Department. The Cabinet Secretary retains the right to cancel the Award of Contract or to reject all Bids and issue a new

Invitation for Bids when it is in the best interest of the public and the Department;

5. When a timely protest is filed, the Bids of both the Apparent Low Bidder and the next Apparent Low Bidder shall be automatically extended an additional 15 Days.

The Department will, subject to other provisions in the Specifications, Award the

Contract within 45 Days of the Bid Opening;

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6. Within seven (7) Days of receiving a timely Bid protest, the Cabinet Secretary or the

Cabinet Secretary’s designated informal hearing officer will cause to be delivered by mail, postage prepaid, or by facsimile copy or by email transmission a letter notifying all parties to the grievance of the date, time and place to appear with all necessary material evidence for an informal hearing in the Department’s General Office or elsewhere as identified. Such letter shall include a copy of the written protest.

Whenever practicable the parties shall be afforded at least seven (7) Days notice of the scheduled informal hearing. If an informal hearing officer is designated by the

Cabinet Secretary, the designee shall not be a person who made or approved the decision under review or a subordinate of such person during the past 12 months;

7. The informal hearing officer has absolute discretion in establishing the degree of formality for the informal hearing. The formal rules of evidence or civil procedure do not apply to the informal hearing. While parties to an informal hearing may call their own witnesses they are not afforded the opportunity to subpoena or cross-examine witnesses. Parties are permitted to submit documentary evidence and written arguments at the informal hearing. Parties may supplement the record or provide supplemental written arguments after the initial hearing date provided that such

Materials are provided to the informal hearing officer at least three (3) Days prior to the deadline to issue a determination letter. The presentation of evidence and argument may be limited by the informal hearing officer. The informal hearing officer shall have the authority to question any party or witness. The informal hearing officer may limit the time for oral argument; exclude the participation or testimony of any person who becomes belligerent or unruly, or any representative who attempts to harass any witness; and, refuse to hear testimony or argument if it is cumulative, not relevant or is immaterial to the issues. At disposition, the informal hearing officer is not restricted to considering only those documents and testimony introduced at the informal hearing but may consider evidence that is reliable, accurate, and competently obtained from either party. When such information is obtained the hearing officer shall provide it to both parties and provide 24 hours for rebuttal before the final decision. The informal hearing officer is responsible for maintaining a complete record of the informal hearing including all evidence, transcripts of the hearing, and written arguments submitted by the parties. A complete record of the testimony and argument at the informal hearing shall, whenever practicable, be either stenographically or electronically recorded by a certified court reporter or monitor. Transcripts or recordings of the proceeding, if available, may be supplied to any party at their own expense upon request to the court reporter or monitor;

8. Within seven (7) Days of the initial hearing date, the Cabinet Secretary or the

Cabinet Secretary’s designated informal hearing officer will issue a determination letter stating the reasons for the action taken and informing the losing party of its right, under NMSA 1978, § 13-1-183, to file an appeal in Santa Fe District Court within 30 Days of the issuance of the adverse determination. The determination letter shall constitute the final Department decision or order;

9. The Award of the Contract to the lowest Responsible Bidder, based upon the

Department’s determination letter, shall be conditioned upon the unsuccessful party not appealing, under NMSA 1978, § 13-1-183, to the Santa Fe District Court within

30 Days of receiving the determination letter. The Award letter, if it is mailed within

45 Days of the Bid Opening, shall bind the lowest Responsible Bidder to accept the

Contract or to reject the Contract and forfeit the Bid Guaranty it has provided;

10. If an appeal is filed pursuant to NMSA 1978, § 13-1-183, the Department may extend the date of the Award letter to a later date as agreed upon by the

Department and the lowest Responsible Bidder. When such an extension cannot be agreed upon or for any other reason, the Department may proceed with the

Award to the lowest Responsible Bidder if the Cabinet Secretary determines that the

Award of the Contract is necessary to protect the substantial interests of the public and the Department, or may cancel the Award of the Contract, or reject all Bids and issue a new Invitation for Bids when it is in the best interest of the public and the

Department;

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11. If a Bidder successfully prevails on appeal, a Bidder is limited to one (1) of two (2) remedies arising from a Bidding dispute, Award of the Contract or, if the Contract can no longer be practicably awarded to the Bidder or it is not in the best interest of the public and the Department to Award the Contract to the Bidder, the Contractor’s reasonable, documented Bid preparation costs; and,

12. Each party shall bear its own attorneys fees and costs.

The Department may cancel the Award of any Contract or reject all Bids and issue a new

Invitation for Bids at any time prior to the execution of the Contract by all parties without incurring liability where such cancellation is deemed by the Cabinet Secretary to be in the best interests of the public and the Department. No Bidder has a contractual, equitable, implied, or any other right to the Contract until executed by both parties.

103.5 RETURN OF BID GUARANTY

Immediately following the opening and checking of Bids, the Department will return all Bid

Guaranties submitted in the form of a check, except for those of the two (2) lowest Bidders.

The Department will return the Bid Guaranty of the unsuccessful of the two (2) lowest Bidders, if submitted in the form of a check, within ten (10) Days of the Contract Award. The

Department will return the retained Bid Guaranty of the successful Bidder, if in the form of a check, after the successful Bidder has furnished satisfactory Contract bonds and the Contract has been executed. The Department will return Bid Guaranties in the form of Bid bonds only upon the request of an unsuccessful Bidder.

103.6 REQUIREMENT OF CONTRACT BONDS

Return the signed Contract with Contract Bonds. The value of each bond shall equal the

Total Original Contract Amount. The Department must approve the Surety and the form of the

Contract Bonds.

All bonds shall be procured from Sureties with an A.M. Best Company financial strength rating level of A- or better, Class VII or better, unless otherwise approved in writing by the

Department. In no event shall the Department approve the use of a Surety with an A.M. Best

Company financial strength rating level of B or worse.

103.7 EXECUTION AND APPROVAL OF CONTRACT

The successful Bidder shall sign and return the Contract and provide Contract Bonds and lists of all Subcontractors and Suppliers within 15 Days of receiving the Contract. If the

Department fails to execute the Contract within 30 Days of receiving the signed Contract and

Contract Bonds from the successful Bidder, the Bidder may withdraw the Bid without penalty.

No Contract shall be effective until it has been fully executed by the Department and the

Contractor.

103.8 FAILURE TO EXECUTE CONTRACT

Failure by the successful Bidder to return the signed Contract and Contract Bonds within

15 Days of receiving the Contract shall constitute just cause for cancellation of the Award and the forfeiture of the Bid Guaranty which shall become the property of the Department, not as a penalty but as liquidation of reasonable damages sustained. The Department may then

Award the Contract to the Bidder with the next lowest Responsive Bid, reject all bids, reject all bids and issue a new Invitation for Bids or take other actions as the Department may decide.

Section 103: Award and Execution of Contract Page 27

SECTION 104: SCOPE

104.1 INTENT OF THE CONTRACT

The intent of the Contract is to provide for the construction and completion in every manner and detail of the Work described in accordance with the Plans, Specifications, and

Contract terms except for Materials supplied by the Department in accordance with Section

106.8, “Department-Provided Material.”

Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, the Contractor is vested with the discretion and is wholly and solely responsible for selecting and managing the means and methods for performing the Work including determining the suitability of Equipment, experience of labor and staff, construction management and scheduling, production rates, Materials, and compliance with all Federal, State and local laws and regulations.

The Contract is a final, complete and exclusive statement of the written and executed agreement of the parties. No modifications, limitations, waivers or discharge of the Contract or any of its terms shall bind the Department unless made in a written Change Order signed by the Project Manager. A course of performance or course of dealing on this Contract or any other contract between the Department and a contractor shall not constitute a modification or waiver of the Contract and shall not give rise to any Claim including any cause of action based upon promissory estoppel, estoppel, waiver, or detrimental reliance.

104.2 SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN THE CHARACTER OF THE WORK

The Department reserves the right to make, in writing, modifications in quantity and alterations to the Work. Such changes will not invalidate the Contract nor release the

Contractor’s Surety, and the Contractor shall perform the Work as altered.

If modifying the quantities or altering the Work significantly changes the character of the

Work, the Project Manager will make an adjustment to the Contract which excludes additional profit. The Project Manager and the Contractor shall agree upon the adjustment prior to the

Contractor’s performance of the Work. If an agreement is not reached, the Project Manager will determine a fair and equitable adjustment.

If the modifications or alterations do not significantly change the character of the Work, the Department will pay for the altered Work in accordance with the Contract Bid Items.

“Significant change” applies only to modifications or alterations that:

1. Materially change, in kind or nature, the character of the Work including the Critical

Path; or,

2. Increase or decrease a Major Contract Item by twenty-five percent (25%). Adjusted compensation shall apply only to the following: a. For quantity in excess of one hundred twenty-five percent (125%) of the original Contract item quantity, or, b. For the case of a decrease, below seventy five percent (75%) of the original

Contract item quantity, the adjusted compensation will apply to the total quantity placed.

3. Affect Work performed under a Department-approved subcontract. The Department will make adjustments if, prior to the Work, the Contractor demonstrates that the change adversely affects the Subcontractor’s Work or payment.

The Department shall not consider customary increases or decreases in quantities necessary to complete the Work changed by the Contractor’s schedule of operations, his or her planning of the Work, or unscheduled mobilizations.

Section 104: Scope of Work Page 28

The Contractor and the Project Manager shall provide each other with prompt written notice, not to exceed two (2) Working Days, of the following conditions encountered on the

Project during the progress of the Work:

1. Latent physical conditions differing materially from those shown in the Contract; or,

2. Unknown conditions of an unusual nature differing materially from those ordinarily encountered and generally recognized as inherent in the Work.

The party providing notice shall do so before the conditions are disturbed or as soon thereafter as practicable and before the affected Work continues. Pursuant to Section 108.3.2

“Schedule Format,” the Contractor shall provide a revised schedule to the Project Manager within seven (7) Days of the discovery or notice of a differing site condition; this timeframe may be extended in writing by the Project Manager.

The Project Manager will decide, within a, two (2) Working Days, after written notification, whether the conditions materially differ and cause an increase or decrease in the cost or time required to perform the Work. The Project Manager will notify the Contractor of this decision.

The Project Manager will adjust the Contract for differing site conditions in accordance with Section 109.5, “Payment for Changes, Differing Site Conditions, and Extra Work,” and will include the costs of Delays but exclude anticipated profit in accordance with Section 109.11,

“Compensation for Claims.” No Contract adjustment or additional compensation or time which results in a benefit to the Contractor will be allowed if a differing site condition could have been discovered or anticipated by the Contractor through the exercise of Pre-Bid Due Diligence.

The Contractor is not entitled to a Claim due to a differing site condition unless the

Contractor has provided the required written notice pursuant to Section 105.19, “Notice of

Potential Claim.”

If the Contractor or the Project Manager fails to provide prompt written notice which results in additional costs to the Department which could have been mitigated, the Department shall adjust the Contract accordingly.

The Contractor shall perform Extra Work at the Department’s written direction and in accordance with the Specifications. The Department shall pay for Extra Work in accordance with Section 104.2, “Significant Changes in the Character of Work” and Section 109.5,

“Payment for Changes, Differing Site Conditions, and Extra Work.”

104.5 MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC

The Contractor shall provide, erect, and maintain barricades, warning signs, flaggers and pilot cars in accordance with the version of the MUTCD current at the time of letting and the

Accepted vehicular and pedestrian traffic control plan and Division 700, “Traffic Control

Devices.” The Contractor shall provide flaggers with proper training and Equipment in accordance with the MUTCD, current edition. The Contractor shall keep flagging Equipment clean and in good repair. The Contractor shall keep the existing Roadway open with a minimum of inconvenience to the traveling public or provide an approved alternate route.

The Contractor’s Equipment shall enter and leave the open Roadway in the direction of public traffic, except with the approval of the Project Manager. The Contractor shall not endanger the traveling public when moving Equipment on or across the open Roadway.

The Project Manager may direct the Contractor to maintain the pavement surface of open

Traffic Lanes adjacent to the Work zone within the limits of the Project traffic control. The

Department will pay for this Work in accordance with Section 109.5, “Payment For Changes,

Differing Site Conditions, and Extra Work” and will either be negotiated or paid by Force

Account.

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The Department is responsible for snow removal on sections of Roadway open to the traveling public. The Project Manager will coordinate snow removal with the Contractor and the maintenance patrol. The Contractor is responsible for snow removal on sections of the

Roadway not open to the traveling public, as necessary for protection of the Work. The

Contractor shall furnish warning devices, take protective and safety measures provided in this section, and complete Shoulder Work, drainage Structures, or other features of the Work. If the Contractor fails to do so, the Project Manager will notify the Contractor in writing of the deficiency and the Contractor shall take corrective action within the time frame specified by the

Project Manager. If the Contractor does not take corrective action in this period, the Project

Manager may make corrections or terminate the Contract in accordance with Section 108.9,

“Default of Contract.” The Contractor shall reimburse the Department for Department incurred costs of such corrections plus an additional ten percent (10%) for administrative costs.

The Contractor shall provide reasonable vehicular and pedestrian ingress and egress to adjoining properties during the duration of the Contract. The Contractor shall advise and schedule access modifications with local business owners and residences and the Project

Manager at least 24 hours in advance.

The Contractor shall open partially completed sections of the Roadway to traffic under the following conditions:

1. At the Project Manager’s direction;

2. As shown on the Plans; or,

3. If requested by the Contractor and approved by the Project Manager.

Such an opening shall not constitute a full or partial Acceptance of the Work or a waiver of any Contract provisions. The Project Manager will provide written instructions stating any sections not shown on the Plans which are to be opened.

If the Project Manager directs the opening of a Roadway section because of an unforeseen need that is not the fault of the Contractor, the Department will negotiate a Change

Order for additional compensation or additional time, if any, qualifying under Section 104.2,

“Significant Changes in the Character of the Work.”

If a Roadway section is opened at the request of the Contractor, the Contractor shall remain liable for the section until final Acceptance of the Project and must repair, at its own expense, any resultant damage to the section except differing site conditions which shall be paid as Extra Work under Section 104.2, “Significant Changes in the Character of the Work,” and Section 109.5, “Payment For Changes, Differing Site Conditions, and Extra Work.”

104.6 RIGHTS IN AND USE OF MATERIALS FOUND ON THE WORK

The Contractor may use stone, gravel, sand or other Material meeting Contract requirements and found in an excavation required by the Contract. The Department will pay for the excavation at the Bid Item Unit Price for Excavation and will pay for the pay item for which the Contractor uses the Material.

If the excavated Material would have been used to construct Embankments or Bridge approaches or for other purposes, any of which would have been required to complete the

Contract, the Contractor shall replace the excavated Material with Acceptable Material at no additional cost to the Department. The Department will not charge the Contractor for the use of the excavated Material. The Contractor shall obtain written authorization from the Project

Manager before excavating Material that is within the Right of Way but outside the grading limits, as shown by the slope and grade lines. Prior to granting approval, the Project Manager will verify that the requirements of Section 107, “Legal Relations, Environmental

Requirements, and Responsibility to the Public” have been met. If not previously cleared environmentally, meeting these requirements will be the responsibility of the Contractor.

Section 104: Scope of Work Page 30

Unless otherwise provided, the Contractor may temporarily use the Material from existing

Structures in the erection of a new Structure but shall not, without the approval of the Project

Manager, cut or otherwise damage such Materials.

Before final Acceptance, the Contractor shall clean waste (including concrete and asphalt chunks, loose rock, excess Materials, and temporary Structures) from the Roadway and pit sites and ground used in connection with the Work. Leave all parts of the Work in an

Acceptable condition. To avoid the requirement of removal of Equipment from private property before final Acceptance, make appropriate arrangements with private property owners.

The Contractor shall re-vegetate Borrow Pits, haul Roads, and all occupied ground in accordance with Section 632, “Revegetation” and the Contract. Acceptance by the Project

Manager of a letter of intent from the landowner for future use may exempt haul Roads or other areas from this requirement.

The Contractor shall strip Borrow Pits and Surfacing Pits when indicated on the Plans and stockpile topsoil. After construction operations are complete, place stockpiled Materials uniformly over the stripped area to form a seedbed for planting. The Contractor shall spread stockpiled waste that is not covered by a land owner agreement over the stripped area prior to placing the topsoil. Stripping, stockpiling, and replacement of topsoil and spreading of stockpiled waste shall be Incidental to completion of the Work unless a Bid Item for them exists in the Bid.

The Contractor shall not allow Borrow Pits and Surfacing Pits to change the general pattern of existing drainage. Unless Borrow Pits or Surfacing Pits are suitable to develop as ponds or lakes and the property owner has notified the Department in writing that such development is planned, the Contractor shall where practicable leave all pits well drained.

The Contractor shall, when excavation is complete, contour grade pits, except quarry pits, to blend with the natural topography of the surrounding area or in accordance with the

Contract or agreements with the property owners.

Pits located on state or federal land are governed by the appropriate requirements of their agency. The above requirements do not apply to a commercial source.

104.8 VALUE ENGINEERING COST PROPOSAL (VECP)

When the Total Original Contract Amount exceeds $100,000, the Contractor may submit a VECP which does not impair or degrade any of the following:

2. Economy of operation;

3. Ease of maintenance;

5. Safety;

6. Environmental requirements; or,

7. Any other essential functions and characteristics of the Project.

The Contractor shall provide sufficient information, in writing, for a VECP to stand on its own merit and require minimal verification as determined by the Department.

The Contractor shall provide, at a minimum, the following information, in writing, in a

VECP:

1. A statement identifying the submittal as a VECP;

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2. A description of the Work to be performed under the Contract and under the VECP;

3. An engineering analysis including drawings, computations, and other documents necessary for an evaluation by the Department;

4. A list of the Contract requirements that must be changed if the Department adopts the proposal and a recommended way to make these changes;

5. A detailed estimate of the Contractor’s cost to perform the Work under the existing

Contract and under the proposal, including the cost of developing and implementing the change;

6. A list of the pay items affected by the proposal and the resulting difference in quantities;

7. An assessment of the effects that the adoption of the proposal will have on other

Department costs, including future maintenance and operation;

8. A deadline, if any, for the Department to accept the proposal; and,

9. A statement of the effect that adoption of the proposal will have on the Contract

Time and the schedule.

The following requirements and procedures apply to VECP:

1. In order to expedite the processing of a VECP and to minimize costly studies by the

Contractor and Department, the Contractor may submit to the Department, on a

Department form, a summary of the VECP. The Department will evaluate the summary for merit and submit a recommendation to the Contractor. A favorable recommendation to the Contractor shall not be construed as acceptance of all or any part of the submittal;

2. The Department will not accept a VECP if it is similar to a change in the Plans or

Specifications the Department is considering for the Project at the time the proposal is submitted or if the proposal is based upon or similar to the Standard

Specifications, Special Provisions, standard drawing serials, or procedures the

Department adopted after the Advertisement for the Contract;

3. The Department will execute a Change Order with the necessary Contract modifications if it accepts a VECP;

4. If the Department approves a VECP, only the Contractor who initially submitted the proposal will be eligible for payment in accordance with Section 104.8, “Value

Engineering Cost Proposals (VECP).” In this case, the approved VECP will apply only to those Contracts which were awarded to the Contractor before submission of the VECP and for which the proposal was submitted;

5. The Department will deduct from the net savings the costs it incurs implementing the accepted VECP and the changes;

6. The Department will be the sole judge of the estimated net savings resulting from an approved VECP. In determining the estimated net savings, the Department may disregard the Bid Item Unit Price if, in the Department’s judgment, the prices are not a fair measurement of the Work performed or deleted. The Department will also determine the net savings by considering actual JMFs, shrink and swell factors and other actual design criteria used;

7. The Contractor’s share of an approved VECP is 50% of the net savings;

8. The Contractor’s share of 50% of the net savings shall be full compensation for effecting all changes pursuant to the Change Order resulting from an approved

VECP;

9. The Department will not pay for the actual costs of implementing an approved VECP if these costs exceed the Contract amount originally committed;

10. When the District Engineer determines the actual net savings, the Department will execute a Change Order for a Lump sum of the Contractor’s share. The Project

Manager may approve a schedule for Progress Payments of the Lump sum; and,

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11. In preparing a VECP, the Contractor shall perform an independent examination of the affected Work site. The Department will rely exclusively upon the accuracy of the engineering data upon which the VECP is based and will not be required to perform additional investigations, crosschecks, or site examinations. The

Department’s acceptance or adoption of a VECP shall not be construed to alleviate or reduce the Contractor’s full and absolute liability if the implementation of the proposal fails to satisfactorily perform. Except as set forth in Section 109.10,

“Project Closure,” the Contractor’s liability will not extend beyond the Department’s final written acceptance.

Section 104: Scope of Work Page 33

SECTION 105: CONTROL OF WORK

105.1 RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY OF THE DEPARTMENT

105.1.1 The Department has the authority to:

2. Alter the Plans;

3. Modify the Contract by Change Order;

4. Supervise and terminate the Contract as expressly provided in other sections of the

Standard Specifications; and,

5. Wholly or Partially Suspend the Work for cause, e.g., weather conditions, discovery of Cultural Resource, and utility conflicts.

The Project Manager may also wholly or Partially Suspend the Work for reasons beyond the control of the Contractor or not connected to the construction of the Project when the

Project Manager deems such a suspension to be in the best interests of the public and the

Department. Failure by the Contractor to suspend Work immediately may result in the

Contractor being in default of Contract pursuant to Section 108.9, “Default of Contract.” The

Department will pay for Work caused by such a suspension pursuant to Section 104.2,

“Significant Changes in the Character of Work,” and will adjust any Contract Time for such a suspension pursuant to Section 108.6, “Determination and Extension of Contract Time.”

105.1.2 Department Authority to Suspend Work

The Department has the authority to wholly or Partially Suspend the Work and to prepare and post a zero dollar ($0.00) Progress Payment if the Contractor:

1. Fails to correct unsafe conditions;

2. Fails to comply with any term or condition of the Contract;

3. Fails to observe and comply with any Federal or State law or regulation;

4. Fails to carry out directions of the Project Manager; or,

5. Fails to perform satisfactory Work.

Failure by the Contractor to suspend Work immediately may result in the Contractor being in default of Contract pursuant to Section 108.9 “Default of Contract.” The Contractor shall not receive additional compensation or time for these failures.

If, during the course of the Project the Contractor's personnel are not performing satisfactory Work, the Project Manager may order the Contractor to suspend operations until the Contractor corrects the problem, at no cost to the Department.

The Department’s ability to withhold Progress Payments in part or in their entirety as part of a suspension as authorized by this Section, supplements the Department’s ability, pursuant to Section 109.8, “Progress Payments,” until the Contractor complies with the Contract.

105.1.3 Contractor Request for Suspension

The Contractor may request a suspension of the Work wholly or partially, but the

Contractor shall not suspend the Work without written approval from the Project Manager.

105.2 PLANS AND WORKING DRAWINGS

The Contractor shall perform the Work in accordance with the details shown on the Plans prepared by the Department and the approved Working Drawings prepared and submitted by the Contractor. The Contractor shall have the sole responsibility for verifying pertinent dimensions in the field before submitting such Working Drawings to the Department.

Section 105: Control of Work Page 34

The Project Manager will review the Working Drawings although the Project Manager’s review does not relieve the Contractor of the responsibility for the satisfactory completion of the Work. The Contractor shall obtain written approval of the Working Drawings from the

Project Manager before beginning Work covered by the drawings and shall not alter or amend such drawings without the prior written approval of the Project Manager. The furnishing of all

Working Drawings is Incidental.

105.3 COMPLIANCE WITH PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS

The Contractor shall perform the Work and provide Materials in substantial compliance with the lines, grades, cross sections, dimensions, and material requirements as specified by the Contract. If Work does not comply with the Contract, the Project Manager may determine if the nonconforming Work is nonetheless Acceptable. If Accepted, the Project Manager will document the basis of Acceptance by Change Order, and provide an adjustment in the

Contract price for Work or Materials, as necessary. If the Work or Materials do not comply with the Contract and the Project Manager determines they are unacceptable, the Contractor shall remove, replace, and correct the Work or Materials at no additional cost to the

Department.

The Contractor has an affirmative duty to perform all Work and provide Materials in compliance with the Contract. The Department's failure to discover or reject Materials or Work not in accordance with the Contract during the progress of Work shall not be considered an

Acceptance of the Work or Materials, or a waiver of defects. The failure to properly perform inspections, tests or approvals by the Department shall not relieve the Contractor from its obligation to perform the Work and provide Materials in strict conformance with the Contract.

105.4 COORDINATION OF CONTRACT DOCUMENTS

The following documents are essential parts of the Contract, and in their totality constitute the Contract, and are intended to be complementary. In case of a discrepancy, the documents will govern in the following order of importance:

1. Addenda;

2. Required Documents for Bid Submittal;

3. Notice to Contractors;

4. Invitation for Bids;

6. Plans other than Standard Drawings;

8. Standard Specifications; and,

Dimensions given on the Plans or that can be calculated govern over scaled dimensions.

If a Contract or plan discrepancy is discovered after the Award of the Project, the

Contractor shall, upon discovery, promptly notify in writing the Project Manager of errors or omissions in the Plans, contradictions within these documents or contradictions between the

Contract documents and the worksite. Unless otherwise directed by the Project Manager, the

Project Manager will resolve the discrepancy in writing before the Contractor proceeds further with performance of the affected Work.

The Project Manager and the Contractor may agree that the Contractor shall obtain drawings, modifications, or other documents necessary to correct the error or omission. The

Department will pay for this Work pursuant to Section 104.2, “Significant Changes in the

Character of the Work.”

Section 105: Control of Work Page 35

The Contractor shall monitor the Work at all times, select and manage the means and methods for performing the Work, facilitate the timely progress of the Work, and cooperate completely with Department personnel and other Contractors. Regardless of the amount subcontracted, the Contractor shall have on the Project at all times during the course of the

Work, a competent and qualified Superintendent who:

1. Reads and understands the Contract documents as listed in Section 105.4,

“Coordination of Contract Documents;”

2. Possesses substantial experience in the type of Work being performed;

3. Possesses full authority to execute the orders of the Project Manager without delay and to promptly supply such Materials, Equipment, tools, labor, and Incidentals as may be required by the Work;

4. Can be contacted at an office maintained by the Contractor on the jobsite or at a convenient location nearby; and,

5. Attends the Pre-Construction Conference and other meetings associated with the

Project as directed by the Project Manager.

The Department will provide a Project Manager with an adequate staff and crew to keep pace with the Contractor’s progress and will maintain an office at a convenient location.

The Contractor shall recognize the Project Manager as the Department’s contact for all matters relating to the Project and promptly submit all documentation or notice required by the

Contract to the Project Manager.

105.6 COOPERATION WITH UTILITIES

The Contractor shall copy the Project Manager on all communications with affected utilities. For telephonic communications a summary of the communication shall be provided to the Project Manager.

The Department will notify all utility companies, all pipeline owners, or other parties who may be affected by the proposed construction and will endeavor to have all the necessary adjustments of utility fixtures, pipelines, and other appurtenances within or adjacent to the limits of construction made before the Award of the Contract or as soon as practicable thereafter. The Contractor will cooperate with all such relocations and adjustments performed by others during the course of the Contract.

The Contractor shall be responsible for complying with the provisions of NMSA 1978, §

62-14-1, et seq., during the performance of the Work. Those duties include providing telephonic advance notice of the commencement, extent and duration of the excavation work to the one-call notification system operating in the intended excavation area, notifying appropriate one-call notification center or underground facility owner or operator of planned excavation in order to allow the location and marking of the location of underground facilities, requesting owners or operators of underground facilities to reaffirm line locations every ten

(10) Working Days after an initial request to locate, not moving or obliterating utility location markings, and immediately notifying the owner of any underground facilities which may have been damaged or dislocated during the excavation work.

Upon request, the Department will make available to the Contractor all information received from utility companies, pipeline owners and other parties that the Department has notified concerning the proposed construction. This Department-furnished information does not abrogate the Contractor’s responsibility for any further verifications and utility inquiries necessary to properly address permanent and temporary utility appurtenances in the performance of the Work.

The following items which are to be relocated or adjusted will be moved by others at no expense to the Contractor unless otherwise provided for in the Special Provisions or in the

Plans:

1. Potable and non-potable waterlines;

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2. Sanitary sewer or storm drain lines;

3. Electric or communication lines;

4. Gas or petroleum product lines;

5. Irrigation systems and appurtenances;

6. Pumping, generation, microwave, metering, and substation facilities;

7. Individual property service and metering connections;

12. Highway, Street, or Road lighting; and,

If the utilities or others fail to relocate or adjust utility items and the Contract does not impose the responsibility for the relocation or adjustment on the Contractor, the Department may require the Contractor to effect the relocation or adjustment. The relocation or adjustment will be covered by a Change Order, and the Contractor shall perform such Work under Force Account basis in accordance with Section 104, “Scope of Work,” and Section

109.5, “Payment for Changes, Differing Site Conditions, and Extra Work.”

Subject to compliance with Section 105.19 “Notice of Potential Claim,” Section 105.20

“Administrative Remedy,” and Section 108.3.2, “Schedule Format,” the Contractor may receive additional time under Section 108.6 “Determination and Extension of Contract Time,” for delays caused by the failure of a utility owner or others to make a timely relocation or adjustment or for delays caused by utilities not identified by the Contract.

Subject to compliance with Section 105.19 “Notice of Potential Claim,” Section 105.20

“Administrative Remedy,” and Section 108.3.2 “Schedule Format,” the Contractor may receive compensation under Section 109.11 “Compensation for Claims,” for the cost of delays resulting from the failure of a utility owner or others to make a timely relocation or adjustment.

If public or private utility lines or pipelines or other appurtenances unknown to the

Department and the Contractor are encountered during the Work, the Contractor shall immediately suspend construction operations at the site of the utility in question until the

Department and the utility owner negotiate and complete the required relocation or adjustment; Work in other areas of the Project shall continue.

The Contractor shall be responsible for resolving all problems resulting from the

Contractor’s failure to make inquiries or notify all known utility companies, pipeline owners or other parties of any Work or conflicts. In this instance the Contractor shall not be allowed adjustments for delays or extra expense.

105.7 COOPERATION BETWEEN CONTRACTORS

The Department reserves the right at any time to Contract for and have performed other

Work on or near the Project. When the Department anticipates multiple Contractors working within the same Project limits, the Bid documents will include sufficient information to allow

Bidders to reasonably estimate the impact of the concurrent Work. If the Department employs multiple Contractors and conflicts occur which could not have been reasonably anticipated at the time of the Bid Openings, the Department will allow an adjustment in the Contract Time and price in accordance with Section 108.3 “Schedule” and Section 109.6 “Force Account”.

The Contractor shall:

1. Plan, conduct and sequence the Contractor’s Work without unnecessarily interfering with or hindering the progress of other Contractors’ Work;

2. Cooperate with Contractors working on the same or adjacent Project as directed;

Section 105: Control of Work Page 37

3. Integrate the sequence of the Contractor’s Work with the activities of other

Contractors;

4. Arrange the Work and place and dispose of the Materials being used so as not to unreasonably interfere with the operation of other Contractors; and,

5. Protect and hold harmless the Department for all damages or claims as per Section

107.19 “Responsibility for Third Party Claims and Duty to Defend.”

If the Contractor and one (1) or more other Contractors are unable to agree upon the sequence of Work or other matters, the Contractor(s) shall petition the Project Manager in writing for a decision. The Project Manager will allow a reasonable time for all parties to respond and, after reviewing the information received, will issue a decision binding on all parties within seven (7) Days of receiving such information.

105.8 AUTHORITY AND DUTIES OF THE PROJECT MANAGER

The Project Manager is a designee of the Cabinet Secretary with authority commensurate with that of the Secretary and has the following responsibilities:

1. Immediate charge of the details of the Project;

2. Administration and satisfactory completion of the Project; and,

3. Authority to reject unaccepted Work and Material.

105.8.2 Contractor Inquiries to Project Manager

The Contractor shall submit Project issues to the Project Manager who will resolve all questions regarding:

1. The quality and Acceptance of Materials provided;

2. The quality and Acceptance of Work performed or planned;

3. Rate of progress of the Work;

4. Interpretation of the Contract;

5. Acceptable performance of the Contract requirements;

6. Administration of payments; and,

The decision of the Project Manager will be in writing and delivered to the Contractor’s

Superintendent as soon as reasonably practicable.

105.9 DUTIES OF THE INSPECTOR

The Department authorizes its Inspectors to:

1. Inspect the Work;

2. Inspect the preparation, fabrication or manufacture of Materials; and,

3. Reject Work or Materials not in conformance with the Contract until any issues can be referred to the Project Manager for a decision.

The Contractor shall refer questions at issue to the Project Manager for a decision.

The Department does not authorize its Inspectors to:

1. Alter or waive any provision of the Contract;

2. Issue instructions contrary to the Contract;

Section 105: Control of Work Page 38

3. Act as the foreman for the Contractor; or,

4. Suspend the Work, except for safety reasons.

The Contractor shall provide the Department with 48 hour notice for inspection of the

Work. Failure by the Contractor to provide the proper notice may result in the Department directing the Work performed without inspection to be removed at no cost to the Department.

The Contractor shall provide the Department access to the Work and provide all information and assistance requested or required to make a complete and detailed inspection of Materials and Work. All Materials and each part or detail of the Work shall be subject to inspection by the Department. The Department shall be allowed access to all parts of the

Work and shall be furnished with such information and assistance by the Contractor as is required by the Department to make a complete and detailed inspection.

The Project Manager may direct the Contractor to remove or uncover portions of the finished Work, at any time before final Acceptance of the Work. The Contractor shall restore the portions of the Work to the standard required by the Contract after the Project Manager's examination. If the examined Work is Acceptable, the Department will pay for the removal and restoration as Extra Work under Section 104, “Scope of Work,” and Section 109.5, “Payment

For Changes, Differing Site Conditions, and Extra Work.” However, if the examined Work is unacceptable, the Contractor shall remove and restore the Work at no additional cost to the

Department.

The absence or presence of a Department Inspector shall not relieve the Contractor from any responsibility under the Contract for Acceptable Work in conformity with the Contract. The failure to properly perform inspections, tests or approvals by the Department shall not relieve the Contractor from its obligation to perform the Work in strict conformance with the Contract.

When a unit of government, political subdivision, or a railroad corporation is to pay a portion of the cost of the Work covered by the Contract, its representatives shall have the right to inspect the Work. This inspection shall not make the unit of government or political subdivision or the railroad corporation a party to the Contract and shall not interfere with the rights of either party.

105.11 REMOVAL OF UNACCEPTABLE AND UNAUTHORIZED WORK

Work that does not conform to the requirements of the Contract shall be unacceptable, unless it is determined by the Project Manager to be Acceptable under the provisions of

Section 105.3, “Compliance With Plans and Specifications.”

The Contractor shall remove unacceptable Work resulting from causes existing before the final Acceptance of the Work and replace in an Acceptable manner. The Project Manager will set the time limit for the replacement Work.

The Contractor shall not perform Work before the Department establishes lines and grades. The Department shall not pay for the following under the provisions of the Contract:

1. Work performed contrary to the Project Manager's direction or as provided in the

Contract;

2. Work performed beyond the lines and grades on the Plans; or,

3. Work performed without authority.

The Department may order the Contractor to remove or replace such Work, at no additional cost to the Department.

Upon failure of the Contractor to comply with the removal and replacement of unacceptable or unauthorized Work within the time specified by the Project Manager, the

Project Manager shall have authority to cause unacceptable Work to be remedied or removed

Section 105: Control of Work Page 39

and replaced and unauthorized Work to be removed by others with the costs to be deducted from monies due or to become due to the Contractor.

The Contractor shall observe legal load restrictions when hauling Equipment or Material on public Roads outside of the Project or on Roadways within the Project. The Project

Manager may approve exceptions, in writing, provided the Contractor has obtained the proper oversize and overweight permits. The Contractor is liable for damage that may result from moving Equipment, even with the issuance of a special permit.

The Contractor shall not use Equipment or haul loads that will cause damage to

Structures, Roadway, or any other construction, regardless of legal load allowances.

The Contractor may exceed legal loads on treated base under construction with approval from the Project Manager. The Department will not allow loads over PCC construction before the minimum curing period has expired or specified strength is obtained.

If the Project Manager determines that hauling operations are causing undue damage to existing Roadways or Structures, the Project Manager will issue a written order to the

Contractor to stop operations causing the damage in accordance with Section 105.17,

“Contract Adustments for Suspention of Work.” Within seventy two (72) hours of the notice, the Project Manager will decide on one (1) or more of the following solutions:

1. Change the haul route;

2. Reduce the allowable load limit; and,

3. Allow the operations to continue with the requirement that the Contractor repair all damaged areas at ½ Unit Bid prices.

If the Contract establishes Material sources and haul Roads and the Contractor elects to use others, the Department will not pay the Contractor for corrective actions required to repair damage to existing Roadway and Structures resulting from the Contractor’s sources and hauling operations.

If the Contract specifies that the Contractor use established Material sources and haul

Roads the Department will determine what preservation or restoration of the existing Roadway or Structures is necessary, payment shall be made pursuant to Section 105.13.1, “Corrective

Actions and Methods of Payment.”

If the Contractor’s own Material sources are used but transported on some Contractspecified haul Roads, and the Department determines that preservation or restoration of the existing Roadway or Structures is necessary, the corrective action and method of payment will be as follows:

1. The Contractor shall repair haul Roads not established by the Contract at no additional cost to the Department; and,

2. The Department will pay for repairs to Contract-established haul Roads in accordance with Section 105.13.1, “Corrective Actions and Methods of Payment.”

The Project Manager will determine the extent of the corrective action.

105.13.1 Corrective Actions and Methods of Payment

105.13.1.1 Change in Haul Route

If the Project Manager changes the haul route, the Department will modify the

Contractor’s payment per the following equation:

P

R

t

(

d

1

d

0

)

(1)

Section 105: Control of Work Page 40

Where,

P

is the payment modification (in dollars)

R

is the rate (in dollars per ton mile determined in accordance with Section

109, “Measurement and Payment.”)

t

is the weight of Material hauled from the new stockpile area (in tons)

d

0 is the original haul distance measured from the Roadway access point to the original stockpile area

d

1 is the new haul distance measured from the Roadway access point to the new stockpile area

105.13.1.2 Change in Allowable Load Limit

If the Project Manager reduces the allowable load limit, the Department will pay the

Contractor in accordance with the following equation:

P

QF

R

d

(

LA

LR

)

LA

(2)

Where,

P

is the additional payment (in dollars)

R

is the rate (in dollars per ton mile determined in accordance with Section

109, “Measurement and Payment.”)

QF

is the total quantity of Material hauled at the reduced load limit (in tons)

LA

is the allowable load limit (in tons)

LR

is the reduced load limit (in tons)

d

is the haul distance (in miles)

If the Project Manager allows operations to continue, the Department will pay the

Contractor for the Material used to make the repairs at the Bid Item Unit Price, or in accordance with Section 109, “Measurement and Payment.” If an item is not part of the

Contract, the Department will negotiate a new unit price. If a Structure or existing Roadway must be repaired, the Department may pay the Contractor for hauling repair Materials using a rate requested and justified by the Contractor and approved by the Project Manager.

105.14 RESERVED

105.15 MAINTENANCE DURING CONSTRUCTION

The Contractor shall maintain the Work during construction and until the Department

Accepts the Work, except as otherwise provided in Section 104.5, “Maintenance of Traffic,” and Section 105.18, “Acceptance.” This maintenance shall consist of continuous, daily Work with adequate Equipment and forces so that the Roadway and Structures are kept in satisfactory condition. The Contractor shall be responsible for maintaining the Project free and clear of Deleterious Materials including debris, weather related remnants, snow, loose

Materials and trash. The Department shall be responsible for snow removal operations on travel lanes open and utilized by the public.

In the case of a Contract for placing a course on a previously constructed course or

Subgrade, the Contractor shall maintain the previous course or Subgrade during all construction operations, including when the Plan requires the Contractor to place traffic on the unfinished Roadway.

All maintenance Work during construction and before the Project is Accepted shall be

Incidental. The Department shall not pay the Contractor an additional amount for this Work

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except in accordance with Section 104.5, “Maintenance of Traffic,” and Section 105.18,

“Acceptance.”

105.16 FAILURE TO MAINTAIN ROADWAY OR STRUCTURE

If the Contractor fails to maintain the Project in accordance with Section 105.15,

“Maintenance During Construction,” the Project Manager shall notify the Contractor in writing of the failure. If the Contractor does not begin maintenance after such notice, the Project

Manager may begin maintenance of the Project. If the Contractor does not take corrective action in this period, the Project Manager may make corrections or terminate the Contract in accordance with Section 108.9, “Default of Contract.” For corrective actions implemented by the Project Manger the Contractor shall reimburse the Department for Department incurred costs of such maintenance plus an additional ten percent (10%) for administrative costs.

105.17 CONTRACT ADJUSTMENT FOR SUSPENSION OF WORK

If the Work is suspended by the Project Manager in writing pursuant to Section 105.1.2,

“Department Authority to Suspend Work” for an unreasonable time (not originally anticipated, customary, or inherent to the construction industry), the Contractor may submit to the Project

Manager a Notice of Intent to Claim in accordance with Section 105.19, “Notice of Potential

Claim” which must be accompanied by a proposed revised schedule pursuant to Section

108.3.2 “Schedule Format.”

Upon receipt, the Project Manager will evaluate the Contractor’s request. If the Project

Manager agrees that the cost and time required for the performance of the Contract has increased as a result of such suspension and the suspension was caused by conditions beyond the control of and not the fault of the Contractor, its Suppliers, or Subcontractors at any approved tier, and not caused by weather conditions, the Project Manager will make an adjustment in accordance with Section 109.11 “Compensation for Claims” and modify the

Contract in writing accordingly. The Project Manager will notify the Contractor of the decision.

The Department will not make a Contract adjustment under this clause if the Contract performance would have been suspended or delayed by any other cause. The Department will not make a Contract adjustment under this clause if a Contract adjustment is provided or excluded under any other term or condition of this Contract.

105.18 ACCEPTANCE

The Contractor may request that the Project Manager inspect a portion of the Project

(e.g., a Structure, a section of Road, etc.) at any time during the Work. If the Project Manager finds that portion to be in accordance with the Contract, the Project Manager may Accept that portion as complete, and, without waiving the provisions in Section 105.3, “Compliance with

Plans and Specifications,” and Section 109.10, “Project Closure” the Contractor may be relieved of further responsibility for that portion unless the Department discovers latent defects before final Acceptance of the Work. Such partial Acceptance does not void or alter the

Contract.

The Department will Accept permanent traffic safety and control devices installed in accordance with the Contract (with all ancillary components) and being used by the public upon installation but before Completion of the remaining Work.

Permanently installed items Accepted on this basis are limited to the following:

1. Guardrail;

4. Signs;

5. Lighting;

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6. Raised pavement markers;

7. CWB;

12. Permanent pavement markings; and

13. Fence.

All required performance tests and guarantees shall remain applicable.

The Department or the Contractor will repair or replace any damage, theft, or vandalism to these items after Acceptance in accordance with Section 104.4, “Extra Work.” If the damage to an item requires only partial repair or replacement and the Contractor performs the

Work, the Department will pay the Contractor in accordance with Section 109.4,

“Compensation for Overrun / Underrun Quantities.” The Contractor shall repair or replace items damaged due to the Contractor’s negligence, at no additional cost to the Department.

The Contractor shall erect these items in a logical construction sequence. The

Department shall not Accept prematurely constructed items until they may be used for their intended purposes.

105.19 NOTICE OF POTENTIAL CLAIM

1. The Contractor shall only make Claims in accordance with the Contract pursuant to the exclusive administrative remedy and procedures set forth in this Section and

Section 105.20, “Administrative Remedy.”

2. The Contractor shall not be entitled to pursue a Claim if the Project Manager determines the Work ordered is Extra Work in which case payment shall be made in accordance with Section 109.5, “Payment For Changes, Differing Site Conditions, and Extra Work.”

3. The Contractor shall promptly notify the Project Manager in writing of the intent to make a Claim and shall provide a contemporaneous statement of estimated damages or delay before beginning the Work on which the Claim is based, but, in no event shall notice be given later than seven (7) Days of the Contractor discovering the condition or issue giving rise to the Claim, or within seven (7) Days of receipt of a notice of a differing site condition from the Project Manager, or in the case of termination of Contract under Section 108.10, “Termination of Contract; No

Fault of Contractor” within 30 Days of the effective termination date. A notice of intent to Claim shall include, when relevant to the intended Claim (e.g., when the

Contractor intends to seek a Contract adjustment for time, Delay damages, or reduction in Liquidated Damages, etc.), a revised schedule pursuant to Section

108.3.2, “Schedule Format”; failure to include a revised schedule shall render the notice of intent to Claim incomplete.

4. Such notice of intent to Claim shall be given in order that the Department can assess the situation, make an initial determination as to the causes of the potential

Claim, institute appropriate changes or procedures to resolve the matter, to document issues related to the potential Claim, to track costs and possible Delay, and facilitate resolution of the potential Claim. The failure of the Contractor to provide timely written notice of intent to make a Claim and a contemporaneous statement of estimated damages or Delay shall constitute a waiver or abandonment of the Claim. The Contractor waives the right to assert a Claim if the Contractor fails to provide proper and complete notice of intent to Claim.

5. The Contractor shall provide the Project Manager proper facilities to keep account of the actual cost of a Claim; the Contractor waives the right to assert a Claim if the

Project Manager is not afforded proper facilities to keep account of actual cost. The

Project Manager may, in the Project Manager’s discretion, in writing, waive the

Section 105: Control of Work Page 43

requirement regarding the furnishing of proper facilities to keep account of actual cost upon a showing of adequate justification by the Contractor.

6. This Section and the deadlines stated herein do not modify any of the deadlines for submitting revised schedules as provided in Section 108.3, “Schedule.”

7. Neither proper Notice by the Contractor nor the Project Manager’s accounts of the cost shall be construed to prove or validate the Claim or be construed as an admission of liability.

Once the Contractor has provided timely and proper notice of intent to make a Claim pursuant to Section 105.19, “Notice of Potential Claim” the entire and complete administrative remedy and procedure to resolve all contractual disputes is provided by this Section.

The complete administrative remedy is sequential in nature, exclusive, and consists of the following steps:

Step I.

Step II.

Notice of Intent to Claim;

Submittal of the Claim to the Project Manager;

Step III.

Step IV.

District Level review and decision;

Service of Request for Reconsideration of Claim to Secretary;

Step V. Secretary’s review, which may include referral to Claims Board for an informal hearing, and Secretary’s decision;

Step VI. Service of Request for Arbitration or Service of Summons and Complaint in State District Court.

No contractual dispute or Claim shall be accorded any level of review unless the dispute has been properly submitted, reviewed and decided at the preceding level and the Contractor rejects the decision by providing the requisite notices and submittals in writing to the proper

Department officials or employees within the time periods proscribed in this Section and

Section 105.19, “Notice of Potential Claim.”

The complete terms of a resolved Claim, regardless of the level of the administrative remedy, shall be documented and memorialized via a Change Order executed by the

Contractor and the Department. The executed Change Order shall represent a final agreement to the total amount and time due for any and all Work and items pertaining to the

Work associated with the Change Order. Unless otherwise provided, in writing, in the executed Change Order, the executed Change Order shall operate as an accord and satisfaction of the Claim and shall operate as a bar to any further Claim by the Contractor.

The Department shall dismiss a Contractor’s Claim for failure to comply with the time limitations, requirements and procedures set forth in this Section and Section 105.19, “Notice of Potential Claim.”

Each party shall bear its own attorneys’ fees, costs, and expert fees.

The Contractor shall submit the Claim in writing to the Project Manager and include justification for the Claim and the total amount requested within 30 Days of the date that the

Work associated with the Claim has been completed but, in no event later than within 30 Days of receipt of the Departments proposed final payment statement (estimate) pursuant Section

109.10 “Project Closure”. The Contractor may submit a Claim only once. Once a Claim is submitted to the Project Manager, nothing in this section shall be construed as permitting the

Contractor to revive, modify, supplement, enlarge, or amend the Claim other than providing additional documents and information in support of the Claim. The Contractor shall be prohibited from amending either the bases of entitlement or the amount of any compensation or time stated for any and all issues claimed in the Contractor’s written Claim submitted hereunder, and all further proceedings shall be limited solely to the bases of entitlement and

Section 105: Control of Work Page 44

the amount of any compensation or time stated for any and all issues claimed in the

Contractor’s written Claim submitted hereunder. This shall not, however, preclude a

Contractor from withdrawing or reducing any of the bases of entitlement and the amount of any compensation or time stated for any and all issues claimed in the Contractor’s written

Claim submitted hereunder at any time.

1. The Contractor has the burden of fully justifying and documenting the Claim and shall provide to the Project Manager the following supporting documentation and information in support of the Claim: a. Description of the issue upon which the Claim is based; b. Location where the issue arose; c. Time and date the issue was identified and the dates impacted; d. Clear explanation of why the issue requires additional compensation or time or a change to the Contract, including references to the relevant portions of the

Contract; e. Copies of all written communications including correspondence and emails related to the issue; f. A detailed compilation of the amount of additional compensation sought and a breakdown of the amount sought as follows: documented additional job site labor expenses; documented additional cost of Materials and supplies; a list of additional Equipment costs claimed, including each piece of Equipment and the

Blue Book rental rate claimed for each; any other additional direct costs or damages and the documents in support thereof; any additional indirect costs or damages and all documentation in support thereof; g. Where a Claim seeks additional time, time and compensation for Delay, adjustment of Contract Time, or the reduction or elimination of liquidated damages, previously submitted Baseline Schedule and revised schedules that comply with the requirements of Section 108.3, “Schedule”; h. Invoices identifying the labor, Materials, and Equipment used or proposed to be used; i. Financial Statements. If the amount claimed by the Contractor exceeds

$100,000.00, or if requested by the Project Manager, job cost reports and financial statements for the time periods relevant to the Contract and the performance of the Work. The Contractor shall make the Contractor’s documents available for inspection by the Project Manager at the Contractor’s project office. The Project Manager may waive this requirement; j. Bid Documents. If the amount claimed by the Contractor exceeds $100,000.00, or if requested by the Project Manager, the Contractor shall make the

Contractor’s documents available for inspection by the Project Manager at the

Contractor’s project office, information and calculations used to prepare and determine its bid for the Contract prior to submission of the Bid. The required bid preparation documents, as maintained by the Contractor, to be produced shall include: clear itemization of the costs for each pay item broken down into components sufficient to allow a detailed cost estimate; the costs allocated to each component broken down into the Contractor's usual estimate categories such as direct labor, Equipment, Materials, and Subcontractor cost; indirect costs, including the indirect cost allocations made to each bid item; quantity takeoffs; the construction and progress schedule and any conceptual schedules upon which the Bid was based; rates of production and progress; marked up plans, sheets and Working Drawings ; calculations, copies and quotes from Subcontractors and Suppliers; memoranda, narratives, and all other information used by the Contractor to arrive at all of the prices contained in the Bid. The Project Manager may waive this requirement; k. Total amount of Claim in terms of time and compensation; and, l. The failure of the Contractor to provide the Project Manager all required supporting documentation and information shall constitute a waiver or abandonment of the Claim and a failure to exhaust its administrative remedy.

Section 105: Control of Work Page 45

The Project Manager retains the right to request additional information and documents from the Contractor to support the Claim. The Contractor shall provide such additional information and documents.

2. Subcontractor Claims shall not be considered, except when timely submitted and certified by the Contractor as the Contractor’s Claim.

3. The District Engineer or designee has 30 Days from the date the Claim is received by the Project Manager, or additional time if agreed upon by both parties in writing, to review and render a decision. If the District Engineer or designee does not make a written decision within the 30 Days, or the agreed upon time, the Claim is deemed denied by the District Engineer. The parties may engage in informal mediation to resolve the Claim at the District level prior to the expiration of the time in which the

District Engineer or its designee may render a decision.

Within ten (10) Days of the District Engineer’s or designee’s denial of its Claim or a written notice that the attempted mediation of its Claim was unsuccessful, the Contractor may serve a written request upon the Cabinet Secretary to reconsider the Claim. Service shall not be considered effective unless the request includes all supporting documentation provided at the District Level and, when applicable, a copy of the District Engineer’s written denial of the

Claim. The Cabinet Secretary will provide a written decision on the request or will refer the

Claim to the Department’s Claims Board within 21 Days of service of the request for reconsideration; this deadline may be extended in writing by the Cabinet Secretary. Failure to timely serve a written request to reconsider the Claim constitutes acceptance of the District

Engineer’s decision and a waiver and relinquishment of the Claim. If the Contractor does not timely serve a written request to reconsider the Claim, the Department may, within 30 Days of the District Engineer’s decision, execute a unilateral Change Order implementing the District

Engineer’s decision.

1. Service of Process at the Secretary Level. Service of all notices and required documentation and information at the Secretary Level shall be made upon the

Cabinet Secretary with a copy contemporaneously transmitted to both the District

Engineer and the Department’s Office of General Counsel. Service upon the

Cabinet Secretary shall be made during the Department’s regular Business Hours by delivery in person, or by certified mail, postage prepaid, return receipt requested, or by delivery by a nationally recognized overnight or same-day courier service that obtains receipts. The copy contemporaneously transmitted to the Office of General

Counsel may be served by the means for serving the Cabinet Secretary or, with prior written agreement of the Office of General Counsel, by facsimile copy or by email transmission. Service of notice or documents made after the Department’s regular Business Hours shall not be effective until the next business Day. Service upon the District Engineer may be made by the means for serving the Cabinet

Secretary or by facsimile copy or by email transmission and need not include the documentation previously submitted at the District level.

2. Certification of Claim. The written request to reconsider the Claim shall include a notarized statement from an authorized representative or agent of the Contractor certifying: “under penalty of perjury, I have actual knowledge of the truth and accuracy of the Claim and the supporting information and records; the Claim and submittals are true and correct; the Claim made for Work on this Contract is true and is made in good faith to the best of my personal knowledge; and, the Claim and the remedies sought are supported by the terms of the Contract.” Where a Claim is a

Subcontractor pass-through Claim, the certification shall further include: “the

Contractor certifies that the Claim being passed through to the Department is passed through in good faith, has been independently verified by the Contractor, and is accurate and complete to the best of my knowledge and belief.”

3. Claims Board. If the Claim is referred to a Claims Board, an informal dispute resolution board, by the Cabinet Secretary, the Secretary shall appoint three (3) independent panelists with relevant experience in highway and transportation design, construction management, engineering, surveying, construction contract

Section 105: Control of Work Page 46

administration, construction oversight work, or law. The Claims Board shall not include any current employees of the Department or the Contractor. The Claims

Board shall apply the Contract to the Claim and shall conduct an informal hearing in order to facilitate the expeditious and informal resolution of the Claim. Attorneys representing the parties are permitted to attend the informal hearing; however, attorneys shall not participate in the informal hearing unless the Claims Board specifically addresses an issue to them or unless agreed to by both parties.

Notification shall be provided by both parties a minimum of five (5) Days prior to the hearing if legal representation will be attending the hearing. The Claims Board shall issue a final, written recommendation to the Cabinet Secretary to resolve the Claim.

4. Secretary Decision. If the Claim is referred to the Department’s Claims Board, the

Cabinet Secretary will provide a written decision within 21 Days of the Secretary’s receipt of a final, written recommendation on the Claim from the Claims Board; If the

Cabinet Secretary does not provide a written decision within 21 Days, unless extended by the Secretary in writing prior to expiration of time to issue a decision, the Claims Board’s recommendations shall be deemed to have been adopted by the

Cabinet Secretary and shall operate as the Secretary’s decision.

5. Payment. Contractor is only entitled to payment of its Claim pursuant to the Cabinet

Secretary’s decision if Contractor fully accepts the decision and executes an accompanying Change Order. If the Contractor fails to execute a Change Order within 21 Days of the Cabinet Secretary’s decision, the Department may process a unilateral Change Order implementing the Cabinet Secretary’s decision. The

Contractor’s proceeding with litigation in State District Court or arbitration shall operate as a waiver by the Contractor to recover or receive payment pursuant to the

Cabinet Secretary’s decision.

6. Additional Information. The Secretary retains the right to request additional information from the Contractor to support the Claim including information as is provided by Section 105.20.1, “District Level” (i) and (j), regardless of the Project

Manager’s previous waiver of those subsections.

105.20.3 Arbitration

1. The Contractor and Department may agree to arbitrate the Claim instead of proceeding to litigation in State District Court. Arbitration may only be had at the mutual agreement of the Contractor and the Department. Arbitration shall be conducted in accordance with the New Mexico Uniform Arbitration Act (NMSA 1978,

§ 44-7A-1, et seq.) and this Section.

2. The Contractor may, within ten (10) Days of the issuance of the Cabinet Secretary’s decision pursuant to Section 105.20.2, "Secretary Level,” serve upon the

Department a written request that the Claim be submitted to arbitration. Service of the request to arbitrate the Claim by the Contractor shall be made pursuant to

Section 105.20.2, “Secretary Level.” If either the Contractor or the Department fails to provide written notice agreeing to arbitrate the Claim within ten (10) Days of the request, the request shall be deemed denied. By the parties electing arbitration, the

Contractor waives the right to redress through litigation filed in State District Court.

The Contractor’s proceeding with arbitration shall operate as a waiver by the

Contractor of recovery under any written decision issued by the Cabinet Secretary.

Denial of a request, or failure to agree, to arbitrate a Claim by any party does not modify any of the deadlines contained in this Section.

3. If the Contractor and Department agree to arbitrate the Claim the arbitration panel shall consist of three (3) members.

4. Within 15 Days of the agreement to arbitrate the Claim, the Contractor shall submit the name of a panelist. The Contractor’s panelist shall: a. Not be an employee of the Contractor; b. Have 15 years experience in Highway construction management, methods, techniques, or law; or have an active professional license with the state of New

Mexico as an Engineer, Surveyor or Attorney with ten (10) years experience in

Highway construction management, methods, techniques, or law;

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c. Be either a resident of the state of New Mexico or identify New Mexico as the panelist’s principal place of business; and, d. Agree to serve on the panel;

5. Within 15 Days of receiving notice of the Contractor’s panelist, the Cabinet

Secretary shall submit the name of a panelist. The Cabinet Secretary’s panelist shall: a. Not be an employee of the Department; b. Have 15 years experience in Highway construction management, methods, techniques, or law; or have an active professional license with the state of New

Mexico as an Engineer, Surveyor or Attorney with ten (10) years experience in

Highway construction management, methods, techniques, or law; c. Be either a resident of the state of New Mexico or identify New Mexico as the panelist’s principal place of business; and, d. Agree to serve on the panel;

6. Within 30 Days after the Cabinet Secretary panel appointment, the two (2) panelists will choose a third panelist. The third panelist shall: a. Be a professional arbitrator who is a member or diplomat of a nationally recognized professional arbitration organization, such as the National Academy of Arbitrators or the American Arbitration Association; or is a retired federal or

New Mexico district or appellate judge; or be a former employee of FHWA; b. Not be an employee or a contractor of either the Department or the Contractor; and c. Agree to serve on the panel;

7. If the two (2) panelists are unable to agree, a district judge from the First Judicial

District shall choose the third panelist from a list of four (4) prospective panelists who meet the requirements of the preceding paragraph, two (2) each provided by the Department and the Contractor. Application to the court for this appointment shall be made by either or both parties within 15 Days of the impasse; the parties may agree in writing to extend this deadline.

8. The panel shall hold the arbitration hearing in Santa Fe County, unless otherwise approved by the Department, no later than 90 Days after the panel is selected. If the panel fails to meet this deadline or if the parties agree to extend the deadline, the panel retains jurisdiction to hear and resolve the issues in dispute.

9. Each party will pay the expenses and fees of its chosen panelist and attorney. Both parties will share equally the expenses and fees of the third panelist. If both parties agree, they will share court reporter costs. If not, the party requesting the transcription will pay the full cost.

10. The proceedings and the decision of the panel will be in accordance with the New

Mexico Uniform Arbitration Act, NMSA 1978, § 44-7A-1 et seq. The decision is final and binding and may be vacated, confirmed, or appealed only in accordance with the New Mexico Uniform Arbitration Act (NMSA 1978, § 44-7A-1 et seq.).

105.20.4 Litigation

If the Contractor does not fully accept the Cabinet Secretary’s decision and the

Contractor and the Department do not agree to arbitrate the Claim, the Contractor may, within

45 Days of the issuance of the Secretary’s decision, proceed with litigation in State District

Court by filing a summons and complaint. The Contractor shall properly serve the summons and complaint within 30 Days of the filing of the Complaint in State District Court. The

Contractor shall, however, exhaust the mandatory mediation procedures of the New Mexico

Public Works Mediation Act (NMSA 1978, § 13-4c-1, et seq.) before seeking judicial relief in

State District Court. The Contractor shall provide no less than seven (7) Days notice of the convening of a mediation session. Service of notice of a mediation session shall be made upon both the Cabinet Secretary and the Office of General Counsel and shall otherwise comply with the New Mexico Public Works Mediation Act. Failure to timely notice and

Section 105: Control of Work Page 48

convene a mediation session and to timely file and serve a summons and complaint shall operate as a waiver and abandonment of Contractor’s Claim, shall act as an acceptance of the

Cabinet Secretary’s decision, and shall bar the Contractor from proceeding to litigate the

Claim. Upon expiration of the time in which to mediate and file a summons and complaint, or if a summons and complaint has been filed the expiration of the time in which to properly serve the summons and complaint, the Department may process a unilateral Change Order implementing the Cabinet Secretary’s decision based on the Contractor’s abandonment or waiver of its Claim.

Section 105: Control of Work Page 49

SECTION 106: CONTROL OF MATERIALS

106.1 CONTRACTOR-FURNISHED AGGREGATE AND BORROW SOURCES

The Department may reject Material sources, or specific areas within sources as identified in the Bid Package.

The Contractor shall provide Acceptable Materials and shall notify the Project Manager of the Material source prior to delivery to the Project. The Project Manager may approve

Materials at the source prior to delivery. The Department may reject sources, or specific areas within sources, due to failure to provide Acceptable Materials or due to environmental, social, or cultural concerns. If the Project Manager determines that the sources of previously approved Materials do not produce Acceptable Materials, the Contractor shall provide

Acceptable Materials from other sources, or make changes to the existing source to provide

Acceptable Materials. No additional compensation or time shall be provided to the Contractor for unacceptable Materials or for developing alternate source locations.

If the Department does not list rejected sources in the Bid Package and then rejects a source, or an area within a source, on which the Contractor relied to prepare its Bid on the

Project, the requirements of Section 104.2, “Significant Changes in the Character of the

Work,” shall apply.

Exploration and development of Material sources by the Contractor including related GRT and Tribal Taxes shall be Incidental.

Requests for approval of sources of Material are subject to environmental acceptability requirements. The Contractor shall submit Environmental Resource studies and Cultural

Resource studies to the Project Manager and to the Environmental Program Manager.

Environmental acceptability requirements do not apply to Commercial Material Sources, but do apply to Materials within a Commercial Material Source that the Contractor obtains with its own forces or forces belonging to its Subcontractor.

If the Contractor purchases Material from a Material source established for another

Project by another Contractor working under Contract to the Department, and if the Material source must be expanded beyond the area where environmental and Cultural Resource approvals have previously been obtained pursuant to Section 107.14.1, “Environmental and

Cultural Resource Studies and Approvals,” then the requirements for environmental acceptability shall apply to the additional area and requirements of Section 107.14.1,

“Environmental and Cultural Resource Studies and Approvals” must be completed by the

Contractor.

Prior to delivery of Materials to the Project from an aggregate or borrow source, the

Contractor shall provide the following documentation to the Project Manager:

1. Location of source;

2. Copies of lease agreements, purchase orders, or Pit Agreements the Contractor has made with the pit owner or Supplier;

3. Evidence of environmental acceptability, which includes completing the environmental and Cultural Resource requirements of Section 107.14.1,

“Environmental and Cultural Resource Studies and Approvals.” Such evidence shall, where appropriate, also include completing the environmental and Cultural

Resource management recommendations;

4. Plans for restoration, including contouring and re-vegetation if necessary; and,

5. Testing results from a Department-approved Laboratory.

No Material shall be delivered to the Project until the Project Manager notifies the

Contractor in writing that the Materials source is Acceptable for use.

106.2 SUPPLIER PLANT INSPECTION

Section 106: Control of Materials Page 50

The Department may inspect Materials at the Supplier's plant. In this event, the

Contractor shall:

1. Cooperate and ensure the cooperation of its Materials Supplier;

2. Guarantee unrestricted entry (at reasonable times) to areas where the relevant

Material is being manufactured or produced;

3. Arrange for the necessary facilities to be adequately inspected for the production or fabrication of the Material; and,

4. Ensure adequate safety measures are implemented for the inspection.

The Department may retest Materials, before or during use in the Work, and reject

Materials that, when retested, do not meet the requirements of the Contract, even if the

Materials were tested and Accepted at the plant.

106.3 SAMPLES, TESTS, AND CITED SPECIFICATIONS

The Contractor shall not incorporate into the Work unacceptable or unapproved

Materials. The Project Manager may direct the Contractor to remove unapproved or unacceptable Materials at no additional cost to the Department.

The Department will perform tests in accordance with standards, methods, or

Specifications, current on the Advertisement date. Unless otherwise specified, the

Department will take samples and perform tests at its own expense. The Department will provide test results to the Contractor.

The Contractor shall submit Certificates of Compliance to the Project Manager before incorporating Material in the Work, and shall ensure each Certificate of Compliance contains the following information:

1. The Control Number;

2. The name of the Contractor;

4. The specification satisfied;

5. An item number (if applicable);

6. A description of the item supplied;

8. The shipment number;

9. The heat number, lot number, or batch number (depending on the type of Material);

10. The seal number (if applicable);

11. The manufacturer of Material;

12. The printed name, signature, and job title of the company official who certified the document;

13. Written verification that the described Material is in accordance with the Contract;

14. Written verification that MTRs, manufacturers’ Certificates of Compliance, and other relevant documents are available to the Department; and,

15. Written verification that manufacturing processes associated with the production of steel and iron Materials are in accordance with Section 106.12, “Preference for

Domestic Materials,” or special waivers have been granted.

Electric items meeting UL approval and underground utility Materials meeting ASTM or

AWWA Specifications that are so certified or stamped will require no further certification, unless requested in writing by the Project Manager.

Section 106: Control of Materials Page 51

Materials inspected and stamped during the manufacturing process by a representative of the Department will require the above noted documents for certification.

Materials that appear on pre-approved lists maintained by the Department will require the manufacturer’s certification, literature, and shop drawings before fabrication and installation.

Materials not permanently incorporated into the Work will not require a Certificate of

Compliance unless otherwise stated in the Contract, but the Contractor shall supply Materials that are in accordance with the Contract.

The Contractor may provide Material purchased in bulk or left over from previous Projects by submitting Certificates of Compliance for Materials. The Materials shall be in accordance with standards, methods, or Specifications, current on the Advertisement date.

The Contractor shall replace or repair Materials damaged in transit or during handling at no additional cost to the Department.

Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, the Contractor shall deliver Materials manufactured outside the United States to approved locations within the state, where they shall remain until sampling and testing are complete.

The Contractor shall arrange for testing that the Department is not able to perform, at no additional cost to the Department, and shall test foreign Materials within the state in the presence of the Department.

The Contractor shall provide a Certificate of Compliance for each lot of foreign Material in accordance with Section 106.4, “Certificates of Compliance;” and, if required, provide with the

Certificate of Compliance, certified MTRs for each lot, and clearly identify to which lot they apply.

For structural Material requiring MTRs, the Department will only Accept Material from foreign and domestic manufacturers that have established adequate in-plant Quality Control to the satisfaction of the Project Manager.

The Project Manager may inspect the plant or require the Contractor to submit detailed written proof of adequate Quality Control.

The Department will not Accept structural Materials that do not have Certificates of

Compliance and MTRs.

106.6 STORAGE OF MATERIALS

The Contractor shall store Materials to preserve quality and fitness for the Work and to protect against vandalism or theft. The Contractor shall be responsible for the replacement or repair of Materials affected by inadequate protection. Unless otherwise specified in the

Contract the Contractor may with the written approval of the Project Manager use the ROW for storage of Material for any duration of the Project.

The Contractor shall request from the Project Manager written approval to store

Equipment within the ROW for the adequate execution of the Work.

The Contractor shall handle Materials in a manner that preserves the Acceptability for the

Work. The Contractor shall transport aggregates from the storage site to the Work site in vehicles constructed and operated to prevent loss or segregation of Materials. The Contractor shall ensure the transportation of Materials is in accordance with state and federal regulations,

Section 106: Control of Materials Page 52

and prevent leakage of, scattering of, or damage to Materials. Materials damaged or lost in transportation shall be deemed unacceptable and are not subject to payment by the

Department.

The Department will list Department-provided Materials in the Contract. The Pay Item in which the Contractor uses the Materials includes the cost of hauling, handling and installing the Materials. The Contractor is responsible for loss or damage to Department provided

Materials. The Contractor shall replace lost or damaged Materials at no additional cost to the

Department.

106.9 MATERIALS DESIGNATED BY TRADE NAME

The Contract may require Material or Equipment by trade or manufacturers’ names. The

Department may Accept the substitution of Materials or Equipment of equal or greater quality provided the proposed substitute is fully documented and submitted to the Project Manager, and prior written approval of the Project Manager is given.

If allowed the Contractor shall provide information necessary to establish the comparable quality of the proposed substitute Materials or Equipment, at no additional cost to the

Department. No additional Contract Time or compensation will be allowed for substitution of

Materials.

106.10 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL GUARANTEES AND WARRANTIES

Obtain and assign to the Department manufacturer and producer guarantees or warranties for Materials and Equipment. Warrant, for six (6) months after Material or

Equipment is installed and operational, that mechanical and electrical Equipment without a manufacturer or producer guarantee are free from defects or imperfections in workmanship and Materials. Repair malfunctions or defects that develop during the six-month period.

Supply manuals for Equipment incorporated in the Work providing the following information:

4. Schematics showing test voltage and procedural methods;

5. Functional description of circuits;

7. Cross-references to standard part numbers;

8. Names and addresses of sources for testing procedures where appropriate

9. Flow diagrams; and

10. Other relevant data.

106.11 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS (MSDS)

The Contractor shall submit to the Project Manager the most current MSDSs for all

Materials that require MSDSs upon delivery of the Materials to the Project. The MSDS shall conform to current Federal requirements and contain the following information: a. Name, address, and phone number of chemical manufacturer; b. Trade name of the product; and, c. Chemical name and formula of the product.

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a. Substances present in the product that are listed as hazardous in the Hazard

Communication standard (29 CFR § 1910.1200) (1900 Subpart Z); and, b. Exposure limits for the hazardous ingredient.

3. Physical hazard data: a. Fire and explosion data; and, b. Proper extinguishing Equipment;

4. Health hazard information: a. Estimate of the hazard of the product; b. Routes of entry of the product; c. Acute and chronic health effects of exposure; and, d. Emergency first-aid procedures;

6. Spill and leak procedures;

7. Personal protective Equipment necessary for safe handling of the chemical; and,

106.12 PREFERENCE FOR DOMESTIC MATERIALS

The Contractor shall provide Materials in accordance with the Buy America Requirements

(23 CFR § 635.410) on federal-aid Projects.

The Contractor shall bear the burden of proof and the cost to prove the origin and place of manufacture of iron and steel products and Materials.

Section 106: Control of Materials Page 54

SECTION 107: LEGAL RELATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS, AND

RESPONSIBILITY TO THE PUBLIC

107.1 LAWS TO BE OBSERVED

The Contractor shall be fully informed of all federal and state laws, all local laws, ordinances and regulations, and all orders and decrees of bodies or tribunals having jurisdiction or authority, including those which in any manner control pollution or impacts to the environment, affect those engaged or employed on the Work, or which in any way affect the conduct of the Work. The Contractor shall at all times observe and comply with all such laws, ordinances, regulations, orders, and decrees; and protect and indemnify the State and its officers, employees and agents against all Claims or liability arising from or based on the violation of such laws, ordinances, regulations, orders, or decrees, by the Contractor, or its officers, employees or agents.

The Contractor shall before the start of Work contact the municipal or state agency responsible for air, noise, and water Quality Control regulations to determine the standards that shall be followed during construction.

107.2 PERMITS, LICENSES, AND TAXES

The Contractor shall procure permits and licenses; pay charges, fees, royalties, and appropriate taxes; and give notices necessary and Incidental to the due and lawful prosecution of the Work.

107.3 COMPLIANCE WITH PAYMENT OF TAXES

The Contractor shall pay all lawful taxes imposed by the state of New Mexico or other political entities.

The successful Bidder, upon returning the executed Bid Package, and after receiving the

Preliminary Award of Contract Notice, shall provide to the Department both the Bidder’s

Taxation and Revenue Department tax identification number and the Bidder’s Motor

Transportation Division account number. If either of these numbers is unavailable, the

Contractor shall submit a letter of explanation. A Notice to Proceed will not be issued until the

Contractor submits both numbers or a satisfactory letter of explanation.

107.4 GROSS RECEIPTS, INDIAN BUSINESS ACTIVITY, AND TRIBAL EMPLOYMENT

RIGHTS ORGANIZATION TAXES

107.4.1 New Mexico Gross Receipts Tax

The Department will pay the Contractor for applicable New Mexico GRT and local option tax (including tax increases or decreases effective after the Contract date), and the Contractor shall pay applicable taxes to New Mexico Taxation and Revenue Department. The Contractor shall show the GRT and local option tax as a separate amount added to each request for payment.

The Department shall be promptly reimbursed or repaid for any tax, including GRT, that is refunded to the Contractor, including any refund received by the Contractor after final payment, to the extent such tax was paid by the Department to the Contractor. The

Contractor shall keep and maintain all documents, applications for tax refund, and forms filed with, submitted to, received from, or required by the New Mexico Taxation and Revenue

Department which relate to the payment or refunding of any tax paid pursuant to this Section for five (5) years following final payment. All of the above material shall be made available to the Department or FHWA for review, audit, inspection, and copying and shall be produced, upon request, at the Department General Office, the District in which the Work was performed, or an FHWA office, as directed.

Section 107: Legal Relations, Environmental Requirements, and Responsibility to the Public Page 55

All Bids submitted shall exclude any tribal business tax, TERO tax, and other tax imposed by a tribal government. The Department will pay the tax or will exercise its prerogative to challenge the tribal government’s authority to impose the tax. If the Department exercises its prerogative to challenge the tribal government’s authority to impose the tax, the Department will reimburse the Contractor for such tax only if a court of competent jurisdiction rules the tribe has authority to impose the tax. The Department will reimburse the Contractor only if the final decision of the litigation, or other final disposition of the litigation, results in a determination that the tribe has jurisdiction to impose the tax. The Department will be subrogated to the rights of the Contractor to Claim a refund of, or to contest, any such tax imposed on the Work to the extent any alleged obligation of the Contractor or the Department to pay such tax arises under this section or through the Contractor’s performance of this Contract.

The Department will reimburse the Contractor for payment of any Tribal Tax directly related to the performance of the Work within the Project imposed by a tribe upon tribal verification that the tax was paid by the Contractor.

107.5 PATENTED DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND PROCESSES

The Contractor shall provide a suitable legal agreement with the patentee or owner to cover the use of any patented or copyrighted designs, devices, Materials, processes, or trademarks. The Contractor shall defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Department, its officers, employees or agents, from any and all Claims (including costs, expenses and damages the Department may be obliged to pay) for Contractor’s infringement on such patents, copyrights, and trademarks during prosecution or after completion of the Work.

107.6 RESTORATION OF SURFACES OPENED BY PERMIT

The Department reserves the right to construct or reconstruct utility services in the

Highway, Street, or Road or to grant permits to municipal or County authorities, corporations, firms, or individuals to perform such Work. The Contractor shall allow parties bearing permits granted by the Department for such Work to make openings in the Highway, Street, or Road.

The Department will address time extension requests due to Work by others in accordance with Section 108.6 “Determination and Extension of Contract Time.”

When directed by the Project Manager, the Contractor shall make all necessary repairs due to such openings in the Highway, Street, or Road. The Department will pay for such repairs in accordance with Section 104.2, “Significant Changes in the Character of Work,” and

Section 109, “Measurement and Payment.”

When the FHWA or other federal agency is obligated to reimburse the Department for all or any portion of the cost of a Project, the Contractor shall observe and be subject to federal law applicable to such reimbursement. In such situations, federal requirements supersede conflicting provisions of state and local laws, rules, or regulations. The Work shall be subject to inspection and oversight by the appropriate federal agency. Such inspection or oversight shall not make the U.S. Government a party to this Contract, nor shall the U.S. Government interfere with the rights of the Contract parties.

107.8 SANITARY, HEALTH, AND SAFETY PROVISIONS

The Contractor shall provide and maintain sanitary accommodations for use by

Contractor and Department employees, in accordance with State and local boards of health, or other legal entity with jurisdiction.

The Contractor shall comply with federal, State, and local health rules and regulations.

The Contractor shall ensure that working conditions are sanitary, non-hazardous, and not dangerous to the health or safety of workers or authorized visitors on the Project. The

Section 107: Legal Relations, Environmental Requirements, and Responsibility to the Public Page 56

Contractor shall admit to the Project credentialed Inspectors from OSHA or other agencies responsible for health and safety administration.

107.9 PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND SAFETY

The Contractor shall provide for the convenience and safety of the general public, for reasonable access by local residents and businesses, and for the protection of persons and property, in accordance with Section 104.5, “Maintenance of Traffic.”

107.10 RAILROADS

If the Project affects railroad lines, the Contractor shall observe the requirements of the following Sections and the insurance requirements in accordance with Section 107.25,

“Insurance Requirements.” For the purpose of this Section, the term “Immediate Construction

Site” shall mean the area of the Project within railroad Right of Way.

The Department may be responsible for the costs of the engineering, inspection, and protection of the railroad Right of Way within the Immediate Construction Site unless otherwise required by the Contract. Work accomplished by the Contractor or its

Subcontractors or agents outside the Immediate Construction Site, but within railroad Right of

Way, shall be the financial responsibility of the Contractor.

107.10.2 Notice to the Railroad

The Contractor shall not begin Work in the immediate construction site before accomplishing the following:

1. Notify the owner of the railroad Right of Way in writing 30 Days prior to the anticipated date to begin Work, the anticipated type of Work, and the anticipated length of time required to complete the Work;

2. Verify that the owner of the railroad Right of Way has arranged at the Contractor’s request to provide necessary flaggers or other railroad personnel to protect railroad property at the Immediate Construction Site and minimize interference with the safe and timely operation of railroad Equipment;

3. Receive approval from the owner of the railroad Right of Way and Department for any changes or modifications during construction that affect safety or the railroad’s operations;

4. Provide the Department with a copy of written agreements or directives, if any, between the owner of the railroad Right of Way and the Contractor modifying the

Work to protect the railroad Right of Way;

5. Take protective measures as necessary to keep railway facilities, including track ballast, free of sand, debris, and other foreign objects and Materials resulting from his operations. Any damage to Railway facilities resulting from the Contractor operations will be repaired or replaced by the owner of the railroad Right of Way and the cost of such repairs or replacement shall be paid for by the Contractor;

6. During demolition, removal and construction of the Work, the Contractor shall not drop or lower Material or debris onto the railroad’s property within 50 feet measured from the centerline of an adjacent track or measured from the edge of a railroad maintenance Roadway or measured from any railroad improvement or measured from a railroad Work or staging area; and,

7. Furnish the owner of the railroad Right of Way for approval, five (5) copies of Plans and two (2) sets of calculations for any shoring or cribbing proposed to be used over, under or adjacent to the owner of the railroad Right of Way’s tracks. The use of such shoring or cribbing shall conform to the standard side clearances required by New Mexico regulations or rules. In case the use of such shoring will impair said clearance the Contractor shall ensure that application is made to the appropriate

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state agency, if required, for approval of such impairment during the period of construction of the Project.

107.10.3 Cooperation with Owner of Railroad Right of Way

The Contractor shall cooperate with the owner of the railroad Right of Way. Actions by parties beyond the control of the Department, including the actions of owners of railroad Right of Way, and circumstances beyond the control of the Department, such as unforeseen railroad emergencies, that delay completion of the Project shall result in the Department awarding additional Contract Time but not additional compensation to the Contractor. Actions within the control of the Department, which are not the subject of a concurrent delay shall result in the

Department awarding both additional Contract Time and additional compensation to the

Contractor. A concurrent delay to the completion of the Project by the Department and the

Contractor shall result in the Department awarding additional Contract Time but not additional compensation to the Contractor.

Regardless of the requirements of the Contractor’s construction schedule, the owner of the railroad Right of Way reserves the right to reallocate its labor forces assigned to complete railroad Work in the event of an emergency when the owner of the railroad Right of Way believes such reallocation is necessary to provide for the immediate restoration of railroad operations or to protect persons or property on or near any other property owned by the owner of the railroad Right of Way. Neither the Department nor the owner of the railroad Right of

Way will be liable for any additional costs or expenses of the Project resulting from any such reallocation of the labor forces by the owner of the railroad Right of Way. The Department reserves the right to amend the Contract with the Contractor as may be necessary, subject to advising and coordinating with the owner of the railroad Right of Way.

The Contractor shall coordinate the Work each Day with the owner of the railroad Right of

Way’s operations, prior to commencing any construction activity.

The Contractor shall provide any notice concerning these requirements in writing. Such notices shall be deemed sufficiently given when sent by electronic means including proof of receipt, or certified mail, return receipt requested to the owner of the railroad Right of Way and the Department.

107.10.4 Storage of Materials or Equipment

The Contractor shall not store Material, park or use Equipment, or interfere with the nearest railroad track or overhead line within the following clearance limits, unless the owner of railroad Right of Way provides written permission:

1. Within ten (10) feet horizontally from the centerline of track, 23 feet three (3) inches vertical above top of rail;

2. Construction or maintenance of electric wires: a. For lines carrying less than 750 V, 27 feet vertically above top of rail; b. For lines carrying 750 V, 28 feet vertically above top of rail; c. For lines carrying 15 kV to 20 kV, 30 feet vertically above top of rail; d. For lines carrying more than 20 kV, 34 feet vertically above top of rail.

When the Contractor must maintain or operate Equipment inside the above tolerances, the Contractor shall notify the owner of the railroad Right of Way of said activities, and allow the owner of railroad Right of Way to provide personnel and devices to protect its property.

The Contractor shall notify and obtain approval from the owner of railroad Right of Way whenever there is excavation below the elevation of the track, any activity which may result in settlement or movement of railroad property, or whenever the owner of railroad Right of Way believes the railroad facilities may be endangered, so as to allow the owner of railroad Right of

Way an opportunity to provide personnel and devices to protect its property.

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If, for the convenience of the Contractor, it becomes necessary to move an oversized load across the railroad tracks, the Contractor shall obtain written permission from the owner of railroad Right of Way, if required by the owner of the railroad Right of Way. The Contractor shall obtain a private crossing agreement if required by the owner of railroad Right of Way.

The Contractor shall install all crossings, and provide flagging and protective devices at no additional cost to the Department. The Contractor shall ensure all agreements are in writing; furnish a copy to the Project Manager before beginning any Work under such agreements.

107.10.6 Cleanup

Before requesting final Acceptance of Work accomplished on railroad property, the

Contractor shall remove all tools, implements, and other Materials, and obtain written release from the owner of railroad Right of Way showing that the property is clean, clear, and in a condition acceptable to the owner of railroad Right of Way. If unable to obtain a release from the owner of railroad Right of Way after diligent effort, provide the Project Manager with written evidence of efforts to obtain the release.

When requested by the owner of the railroad Right of Way, the Contractor shall furnish one (1) set of Post Construction Plans, prepared in U.S. customary units to the owner of the railroad Right of Way. The format of the Post Construction Plans shall be discussed and agreed to at the preconstruction meeting. The Post Construction Plans shall include plan and profile, structural Bridge drawings and Specifications, and drainage Plans. All improvements and facilities shall be shown. All Work associated with this Section shall be Incidental.

107.11 ENVIRONMENTAL, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CULTURAL RESOURCES

APPROVAL

The Department will obtain the environmental, hazardous material, and Cultural

Resource approvals for the Project before construction. The Department will describe in the

Contract any special environmental, hazardous material and Cultural Resource requirements developed to protect resources.

107.12 ENVIRONMENTAL, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CULTURAL RESOURCE

DISCOVERIES

The Contractor shall terminate operations in the immediate area of environmental,

Hazardous Materials or Cultural Resources not identified in the Contract and immediately notify the Project Manager. While the Project Manager, Environmental Geology Bureau

Manager, Environmental Program Manager, and regulatory authorities complete appropriate mitigation actions the Contractor shall continue Work in other areas. The Project Manager shall provide written notification to the Contractor when Work may commence in the area of terminated operations. Any adjustments shall be made in accordance with Section 109.5,

“Payment for Changes, Differing Site Conditions and Extra Work,”

107.13 CONTRACTOR’S RESPONSIBILITY FOR DAMAGE TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND

CULTURAL RESOURCES

The Contractor shall restore or mitigate all damage to environmental or Cultural

Resources caused by the Contractor’s failure to abide by requirements included in the

Contract as well as those areas covered under Section 107.14, “Contractor’s Responsibility for

Environmental and Cultural Resource Protection” at no additional cost to the Department. The

Department, in coordination with regulatory authorities, will determine the extent of restoration or mitigation. The Contractor shall pay any fine imposed on the Department by a regulatory agency for a regulatory violation caused by the Contractor. The Project Manager may suspend the Work in areas where environmental or Cultural Resource violations occur.

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107.14 CONTRACTOR’S RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND CULTURAL

RESOURCE PROTECTION

107.14.1 Environmental and Cultural Resource Studies and Approvals

Before beginning soil-disturbing activities (in accordance with Section 106.1, “Contractor-

Furnished Aggregate and Borrow Sources”), the Contractor shall obtain the necessary study permits, and employ an Environmental Specialist and a Cultural Resource Professional to conduct environmental and Cultural Resource studies at any disturbed site, including, but not limited to the following:

7. Surfacing Pits; and,

The Contractor shall obtain the environmental and Cultural Resource approvals regardless of land ownership. For the environmental approval, the Contractor shall use the

Department-furnished checklist Categorical Exclusion form (or equivalent form furnished by the Department), which shall be signed by the Contractor and the Environmental Specialist.

For Cultural Resource reports, use the standard site investigation forms approved by the New

Mexico Historic Preservation Division and the New Mexico Cultural Properties Review

Committee. The Contractor shall ensure that the resource studies meet the standards of the

Department, the State historic preservation officer, and any State, tribal, or federal landmanaging agency or entity with jurisdiction. The Contractor shall ensure that the resource studies are in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. §

4321 et seq.), the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. § 470 et seq.), and the New

Mexico Cultural Properties Act (NMSA 1978, § 18-6-1 to 18-6-17), or any other successor statutes.

The Contractor may use previously-completed environmental and Cultural Resource studies, provided all other requirements of this Section are met.

The Contractor shall complete other coordination required by environmental regulations.

The Contractor shall submit the documentation prepared for the environmental and

Cultural Resource approvals to the Project Manager and the Environmental Program

Manager. The Department will then submit the documentation to the appropriate agencies for approval, and will notify the Contractor when approvals have been obtained. Approvals may take 45 Days or more after the Contractor delivers the resource studies to the Department.

Adjustments shall only be made in accordance with Section 109.5, “Payment for Changes,

Differing Site Conditions and Extra Work,” when the time needed to obtain approvals exceeds

Federal or State law or regulatory requirements containing time limits.

The Contractor shall comply with all conditions and commitments for protection of resources contained in resource agency permits and in the environmental and Cultural

Resource approvals. The environmental approval is the FHWA-approved checklist categorical exclusion, or its equivalent. The Cultural Resource approval is the concurrence letter signed by the State historic preservation officer, or its equivalent.

The Contractor shall repair at the Contractor’s expense all damage to environmental or

Cultural Resources caused by the Contractor’s failure to meet the requirements for environmental acceptability or abide by Department directives issued to protect resources identified during the environmental and Cultural Resource evaluation. The nature and extent of such repairs shall be determined after consultations between the Contractor, Department

Section 107: Legal Relations, Environmental Requirements, and Responsibility to the Public Page 60

representatives, and the regulatory authorities with management jurisdiction over the subject resources.

107.14.2 Parking and Cleaning of Equipment

For Projects that have received environmental and Cultural Resource approvals through programmatic categorical exclusions (e.g., pavement preservation and rehabilitation, guardrail replacements, Bridge deck replacements, signalization upgrades, etc.), environmental and

Cultural Resource studies will not have been completed by the Department. These Projects will be noted as such in the Contract. For these Projects, the Contractor shall take special care when parking and cleaning Equipment, as outlined in the following requirement.

The intent of the following requirement is to ensure the protection of sensitive environmental and Cultural Resources that may be present within the Right of Way and to encourage the Contractor to avoid damaging these resources when parking and cleaning

Equipment. The Contractor shall ensure that parking and cleaning of Equipment within the

Right of Way does not damage environmental and Cultural Resources, in one (1) or a combination of the following manners:

1. Park and clean Equipment in previously disturbed areas only;

2. Identify all parking and cleaning locations in previously undisturbed areas, prior to construction, and complete the environmental and Cultural Resource approvals as described in Section 107.14.1, “Environmental and Cultural Resource Studies and

Approvals;” or

3. Park and clean Equipment in previously undisturbed areas without completing the environmental and Cultural Resource approvals as described in Section 107.14.1,

“Environmental and Cultural Resource Studies and Approvals,” and assume all risk and liability for any damage to environmental or Cultural Resources resulting from these actions.

The Department will apply for and obtain permits and certifications required for construction involving “waters of the United States” as defined by the U.S. Army Corps of

Engineers. The Contractor shall comply with the terms of the permit obtained and shall be fully liable for consequences resulting from its failure to comply. The Department will provide a copy of the permits and certifications in the Contract.

The Contractor shall minimize vegetation removal, soil disturbance, erosion in the vicinity of live streams, water impoundments, wetlands, or irrigation supplies, and crossing of live streams with heavy Equipment. The Contractor shall not refuel or perform maintenance activities on Equipment near watercourses, nor dump or bury demolition concrete, asphalt, or other Materials near watercourses, but these activities shall be conducted in proper containment areas. The Contractor shall comply with the New Mexico Water Quality Act

(NMSA 1978, § 74-6-1 et seq.) and applicable permits and regulations in accordance with the federal Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.).

The Contractor shall comply with the requirements of Section 603, “Temporary Erosion and Sediment Control,” and the requirements of NPDES, and if performing Work along or adjacent to live streams, it shall do so in accordance with the federal Clean Water Act (33

USC § 1251 et seq.), the regulations and requirements of other authorities with jurisdiction.

107.14.4 Minimization of Soil Disturbance

The Contractor shall minimize damage to or removal of vegetation and trees, except as approved in Section 104.6, “Rights in and Use of Materials Found on the Work.” The

Contractor shall not clear, grub, disturb, or excavate land beyond what is authorized by the

Contract. The Contractor shall remediate or replace vegetation due to unnecessary clearing or damage, at no additional cost to the Department.

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107.14.5 Air Quality Requirements and Dust Abatement

The Contractor shall perform dust abatement on the Project. The Contractor shall ensure that burning operations, dust-producing activities, and other operations that produce particulate matter comply with State and federal air quality regulations, as administered by the

Air Pollution Control Bureau of the NMED, applicable local air quality regulations, and the federal Clean Air Act (42 USC § 7401 et seq.).

If specified in the Contract, the Contractor shall not operate Equipment that emits noise above 70 dbA, measured at a distance of 50 ft, in urban or populated rural areas during those hours specified, and shall comply with County or municipal ordinances if they are more stringent than the requirements in the Contract.

107.14.7 Disposal of Removed Asphalt Pavement Material

The intent of the following requirement is to ensure that removed asphalt pavement

Material does not contaminate a natural watercourse or Waters of the United States or

Surface Waters of the State (pursuant to the federal Clean Water Act, section 307; the federal

Clean Water Act, section 404, General Condition 6; the federal Clean Water Act, section 401,

Water Quality Certification; the NM Solid Waste Management Regulations, 20 NMAC 9.1; and the NM Water Quality Control Commission Regulations, 20 NMAC 6.2.2201).

The Contractor shall dispose of removed asphalt pavement Material, not including minor sweepings, belonging to the Department using one (1) or more of the following methods:

1. Recycling and mixing it into Base Course, Subgrade or HMA of the new Roadway, with approval of the Project Manager; or

2. The Contractor shall break down asphalt surfacing removed from the Project to a nominal two (2) inch size, or smaller, haul and stockpile the Material at a location approved by the Project Manager or as indicated in the Contract.

If the Material is to be permanently placed within the Shoulder or Median, it shall betreated by using one (1) of the following methods: b. Sealed with an approved rejuvenating agent.

107.14.8 Disposal of Other Materials and Debris

The Contractor shall move items designated for removal without salvage, unsuitable construction Materials, and debris from clearing and grubbing to an environmentally suitable disposal site secured and coordinated with the appropriate regulatory agencies. The

Contractor shall not place any items in wetland areas or areas that may impact endangered species or Cultural Resources. The Contractor shall obtain an environmental and Cultural

Resource approval in accordance with Section 107.14.1, “Environmental and Cultural

Resource Studies and Approvals.”

107.14.9 Underground Storage Tanks

The Contractor shall comply with applicable New Mexico and federal regulations governing the discovery and removal of underground storage tanks (UST). The Contractor shall report the discovery of USTs within the Right of Way (either temporary or permanent), pits, borrow areas, storage or Equipment yards within timelines required by the NMED

Petroleum Storage Tank Bureau (PSTB). The Contractor shall remove USTs in accordance with NMED PSTB regulations. Any adjustments shall be made in accordance with Section

109.5, “Payment for Changes, Differing Site Conditions and Extra Work,”

107.14.10 Hazardous Waste Material, and Reporting and Cleanup of Spills

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The Contractor shall immediately report all spills regardless of cause or association with the Work to the Project Manager if on the Right of Way, or to the property owner if outside of the Right of Way. The Contractor shall clean up and bear all costs of spills associated with the

Work including gasoline, diesel fuel, motor oils, solvents, chemicals, toxic and corrosive substances, and other Materials that may threaten public health or the environment. Failure to report a pre-existing spill or spill not associated with the Work shall result in the Contractor bearing the full cost of remediation and cleanup.

107.14.11 Prime Coat, Tack Coat, and Soil Sterilants

The Contractor shall not contaminate soils outside the Roadway Prism when applying prime coat, tack coat and soil sterilants. The Contractor shall not contaminate arroyos, irrigation supplies (acequias and ditches), wetlands, water impoundments, and live streams.

107.15 STATE AND FEDERAL LAND-MANAGING AGENCIES

While working within or adjacent to State or federal lands and forests, the Contractor shall comply with all regulations of the State or federal authority having jurisdiction governing the protection of these areas, and observe all sanitary laws and regulations. The Contractor shall keep the areas in an orderly condition, dispose of all refuse, and obtain permits for the construction and maintenance of all construction camps, stores, warehouses, residences, latrines, cesspools, septic tanks, and other Structures in accordance with applicable federal or

State regulations.

107.16 PREVENTION OF FOREST AND GRASS FIRES

The Contractor shall prevent forest and grass fires. The Contractor shall notify appropriate officials at the earliest possible moment of the location and extent of any fire. The

Contractor shall comply with fire regulations applicable to the area of Work, and furnish and maintain firefighting Equipment and tools required in the Contract. The Contractor shall suspend fire-hazardous operations when necessary at the direction of the Project Manager and in accordance with Section 105.17, “Contract Adjustments for Suspension of Work.”

The Contractor shall exercise extreme care when use of explosives is necessary for the prosecution of the Work. The Contractor shall not endanger life or property, including new

Work. The Contractor shall use, handle, load, transport, and store explosives and blasting agents in accordance with applicable laws and ordinances, as well as title 29 CFR Part 1926

Safety and Health Regulations for Construction (OSHA) and 30 CFR Part 15.32 whichever is more restrictive. The Contractor shall clearly mark explosives and store them securely. If no local laws or ordinances apply, the Contractor shall store explosives not closer than 600 feet from Roads, buildings, camping areas, or places of human occupancy. The Contractor shall provide sufficient notice to any public utility and owner of railroad Right of Way having

Structures or facilities near the Project, of the intention to use explosives, so that they may take steps to protect their property before detonation.

107.18 PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PROPERTY

The Contractor shall preserve public and private property including land, governmental survey monuments, and property markers from disturbance or damage until the Project

Manager has witnessed or otherwise referenced their location, and directed their removal.

The Contractor shall restore public or private property damaged by the Contractor directly or indirectly by any act, omission, neglect, or misconduct in the execution of the Work, or by defective Work or Materials, or by non-prosecution of the Work, at no additional cost to the

Department and return such property to a condition equal to that existing before such damage or injury was done, by repairing, rebuilding, or otherwise restoring as directed by the Project

Manager.

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The Contractor shall maintain responsibility for damage until the Work is completed and

Accepted, or until the Department partially Accepts the affected unit in accordance with

Section 105.18.1, “Partial Acceptance,” or until the affected unit is opened to traffic in accordance with Section 104.5, “Maintenance of Traffic.”

107.19 RESPONSIBILITY FOR THIRD PARTY CLAIMS AND DUTY TO DEFEND

The Contractor shall indemnify and hold harmless the Department and its officers, employees and agents from and against any and all Claims and suits, liability, damages, losses or expenses, including attorney fees and costs, to the extent that they arise out of or are in any way connected with any act or omission of the Contractor, or its officers, employees or agents. The Contractor agrees, at its own expense, and upon written request by the

Department, to defend any suit, action or demand brought against the Department on any

Claim or demand covered herein.

Until final Acceptance of the Project by the Project Manager, the Contractor shall have the charge and care thereof and shall take every precaution against injury or damage to any part thereof, by the action of the elements or from other causes, whether arising from the execution or from the non-execution of the Work. The Contractor shall rebuild, repair, restore, and make good all injuries or damages to portions of the Work occasioned by the above causes before final Acceptance and shall bear the expense thereof except as provided in

Sections 104.5, “Maintenance of Traffic” and Section 105.18.1, “Partial Acceptance.”

Should the Contractor be delayed in the prosecution or completion of the Work by

Contractors on contiguous Projects, fire, flood, epidemics, quarantine restrictions, strikes, freight embargoes, acts of public enemy, acts of governmental authorities other than the

Department, Acts of God, or documented unavailability of construction Material, for which the

Contractor is in no way responsible, then the time herein set for the completion of the Work shall be extended for a period equivalent to the Work time lost by reason of any or all of these causes, but the Contractor shall not be entitled to damages for such delay. The extended time period shall be determined and fixed by the Department, which determination shall be final.

In case of suspension of Work from any cause whatever, the Contractor shall be responsible, subject to the provisions of Section 104.5, “Maintenance of Traffic,” and Section

105.18.1, “Partial Acceptance,” for the Project and shall take such precautions as may be necessary to prevent damage to the Project, provide for normal drainage, and erect necessary temporary Structures, signs, or other facilities at the Contractor’s expense. During such period of suspension of Work, the Contractor shall properly and continuously maintain in a growing condition all living Material in newly established plantings, including seeding and sod, furnished under the Contract, and shall take adequate precautions to protect new tree growth and other important vegetative growth against injury.

For physical damage to the Work resulting from unforeseeable causes beyond the control of and without the fault or negligence of the Contractor, including but not restricted to Acts of

God, the public enemy, or governmental authorities, the Contractor will be paid pursuant to

Section 109, “Measurement and Payment.”

107.21 CONTRACTOR’S RESPONSIBILITY FOR UTILITY PROPERTY AND SERVICES

The Contractor shall not begin Work in areas proximate to railroad, telecommunication, or utility company Right of Way or facilities, or other property where damage from the Work might result in expense, loss, or inconvenience to the owner, until arrangements are made with the

Project Manager and the owner of the property for the protection of such property or facilities.

The Contractor shall cooperate with the owners of underground or overhead utility lines to facilitate their removal or relocation, and conduct operations to avoid duplication of Work and unnecessary interruption of utility services.

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Where utility conflicts are present, the Contractor shall provide the Project Manager, on a weekly basis, evidence of adequate coordination and cooperation with utilities. Neither time or compensation will be provided where the Contractor fails to provide the Project Manager, on a weekly basis, evidence of continued cooperation and coordination activities with utilities.

The Contractor shall promptly notify authorities of any interruption to water or utility services resulting from exposure, lack of support, or breakage. The Contractor shall provide continuous repair Work to restore water service if interrupted. The Contractor shall not perform Work near fire hydrants until provision for service has been approved by the local fire authority.

The Contractor shall contact the owner of the railroad Right of Way and the telecommunications companies to determine whether there is any fiber optic cable systems located within the Project boundaries that could be damaged or their service disrupted due to the construction of the Project. The Contractor shall pothole all lines either shown on the

Plans or marked in the field in order to verify their locations. The Contractor shall use all reasonable methods when working with the owner of the railroad Right of Way rail corridor to determine if any other fiber optic lines may exist. Failure by the Contractor to notify, pothole or identify these lines shall be sufficient cause to stop construction at no cost to the State or owner of the railroad Right of Way until these items are completed. The costs for repairs and loss of revenues and profits due to damage to these facilities through negligent acts by the

Contractor shall be the sole responsibility of the Contractor. The Contractor shall defend and indemnify and hold the State and owner of the railroad Right of Way harmless against and from all cost, liability and expense arising out of or in any way contributing to these negligent acts of the Contractor.

107.22 FURNISHING RIGHT OF WAY

The Department will secure necessary Right of Way before construction, except as noted in the Contract.

107.23 PERSONAL LIABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICIALS

Department employees shall bear no personal liability in carrying out the provisions of the

Contract or in exercising powers or authority granted to them by the Contract, it being understood that in such matters they act solely as agents and representatives of the

Department.

The Department and the Contractor specifically agree that the provisions of this Contract do not make anyone, including any Subcontractor or Materials Supplier, a third-party beneficiary or authorize anyone not a party to this Contract to maintain an action for damages under this Contract.

The Contractor shall procure and maintain at no cost to the Department insurance as detailed below, using an insurance company authorized to do business in New Mexico.

Insurance shall cover operations under the Contract, whether performed by the Contractor, the

Contractor’s agents or employees, or Subcontractors. Contractor shall keep insurance in full force and effect for the entire period of the Work, up to and including final Acceptance, and the removal of Equipment and employees, agents and Subcontractors. All insurance required in this Section shall be procured from insurance or indemnity companies with an A.M. Best

Company financial strength rating level of A- or better, Class VII or better, unless otherwise approved in writing by the Department. In no event shall the Department approve the use of an insurance or indemnity company with an A.M. Best Company financial strength rating level of B or worse.

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1. The Contractor shall obtain General Liability (Bodily Injury Liability and Property

Damage Liability) insurance coverage applicable in full to the subject Project in the following minimum amounts: a. Personal and Bodily Injury Liability: $1,000,000.00 each person; $2,000,000.00 each occurrence (annual aggregate); and, b. Property Damage Liability: $2,000,000.00 each occurrence; (annual aggregate);

2. The insurance coverage shall be documented on a Comprehensive General Liability form or Commercial General Liability form, which must include the following: a. Coverage for liability arising out of the operation of independent Contractors; b. Completed Operations Coverage; and, c. Attachment of the Broad Form Comprehensive General Liability Endorsement;

3. If the Work includes the use of explosives, the Contractor’s insurance must include coverage for injury to or destruction of property arising out of blasting or explosion;

4. If the Contract includes Work next to an existing building or structure, the

Contractor’s insurance shall include coverage for injury to or destruction of property arising from the collapse of or structural injury to buildings or Structures due to the following: a. Excavation, including borrowing, filling, or backfilling in connection therewith; b. Tunneling and cofferdam or caisson Work; and, c. Moving, shoring, underpinning, razing, or demolition of buildings or Structures, or removal or rebuilding of structural supports thereof; and,

5. Coverage must include injury to or destruction of property arising out of damage to wires, conduits, pipes, mains, sewers or other similar property or any apparatus in connection therewith below the surface of the ground, if such injury or destruction is caused by or occurs during the use of mechanical Equipment for the purpose of excavating, digging, or drilling.

The Contractor shall provide or ensure that all vehicles used in performance of the

Contract have liability insurance. The Contractor is not responsible for liability insurance for the Department or its agents. The Contractor shall provide limits of liability for automobile liability insurance in the following amounts:

1. Personal and Bodily Injury Liability: $1,000,000.00 each person; $2,000,000.00 each occurrence; (annual aggregate); and,

2. Property Damage Liability: $2,000,000.00 each occurrence; (annual aggregate).

107.25.3 Worker’s Compensation Insurance

The Contractor shall carry worker’s compensation insurance and otherwise fully comply with the New Mexico Worker’s Compensation Act (NMSA 1978, § 52-1-1 et seq.) and the New

Mexico Occupational Disease Disablement Law (NMSA 1978, § 52-3-1 et seq.).

107.25.4 Department as Additional Insured

The Contactor shall name the Department and any third party so designated in the

Contract as an additional named insured on the comprehensive general liability form or commercial general liability form furnished by the Contractor in accordance with Section

107.25.1, “Liability Insurance.” The certificate of insurance shall state that the coverage provided under the policy is primary over any other valid and collectible insurance. The additional insured endorsement shall conform to the most current version of the Insurance

Services Office’s CG 2010, Additional Insured Endorsement Form. The Contractor shall provide to the Department a copy of the Contractor’s standard commercial general liability

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policy showing the Additional Insured Endorsement before the Department issues a Notice to

Proceed.

107.25.5 Certificate of Insurance

The Contractor shall provide evidence of insurance coverage conforming to these

Specifications with a certificate of insurance executed on the form provided by the

Department, to be made part of the Contract. The certificate shall indicate compliance with these Specifications and shall certify that the coverage shall not be changed, canceled, or allowed to lapse without giving the Department 30 Days written notice. The Contractor shall provide a certificate of insurance to the Department on renewal of a policy or policies as necessary during the term of the Contract. The Department shall not issue a Notice to

Proceed until the Contractor meets these requirements.

The insurance limits cited in this Section are minimum limits. The Department does not intend that these Specifications define what constitutes adequate insurance coverage for the individual Contractor. The Department will recognize excess coverage (Umbrella) as meeting the insurance requirements of Section 107.25.1, “Liability Insurance,” if the limits of the

Umbrella coverage meet the individual requirements of this Section.

If required by the Contract, Contractor shall procure and maintain form and types of bailee theft insurance such as, but not limited to, builder’s risk insurance, Contractor’s

Equipment insurance, and rigger’s liability property insurance. If so required, the Contractor shall provide bailee theft insurance in an amount necessary to protect the Department against

Claims, losses, and expenses arising from the damage, disappearance, or destruction of property of others in the care, custody, or control of the Contractor, including property of others being worked upon by the Contractor, its agents, employees or Subcontractors.

If the Work affects railroad property, in addition to the above requirements, unless otherwise specified in the Contract the Contractor shall obtain at its own cost a railroad protective liability policy in the name of the owner of the railroad Right of Way or railroad facilities involved. In addition, on those rails used by the National Railroad Passenger

Corporation (NRPC), the Contractor shall obtain a railroad protective liability policy in the name of the NRPC.

Railroad liability insurance shall be in compliance with 23 CFR 646A. These limits of liability apply to the coverage as set forth in AASHTO’s Railroad Protective Liability

Endorsement form, subject to the terms, conditions, and exclusions found in the form. The policy must afford coverage as provided in the standard Railroad Protective Liability

Endorsement.

107.26 NO WAIVER OF LEGAL RIGHTS

The Department reserves the right to correct measurements, estimates, certificates, or price adjustments made before or after Physical Completion of the Work, and to recover overpayment from the Contractor or its Surety.

The Department’s waiver of breach of part of the Contract does not constitute a waiver of any other breach.

The Contractor, without prejudice to the terms of the Contract, shall be liable to the

Department for latent defects, fraud, or such gross mistakes as may amount to fraud, and for warranty and guaranty.

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107.27 CONTRACTOR’S RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE TRAVELING PUBLIC

The Contractor shall minimize hazards to the traveling public in the Construction Zone from the commencement of the Work until final Acceptance. Minimizing hazards shall include:

1. Keep Equipment, Materials, and workers out of the travel lanes;

2. Remove hazardous construction debris deposited within the Project limits;

3. Inspect and repair the travel lanes (Necessary repairs of damage not caused by the

Contractor will be paid for in accordance with Section 109.5, “Payment For

Changes, Differing Site Conditions, and Extra Work.”); and,

4. Remove obstacles deposited by the public as they transit the Project.

The Contractor shall immediately correct hazards reported by Project inspections,

Department employees, or the public. The Contractor shall maintain and publicly post a 24hour contact number to initiate action quickly.

The Contractor shall assign an individual by the date of the preconstruction conference, readily available during normal working hours, to respond to Claims from the public for losses alleged to have occurred within the Project, whether arising from Contractor or Subcontractor action or inaction. The Contractor shall provide claimants with a written outline of the

Contractor’s Claims procedure, along with a written copy of the Contractor’s name, address, and telephone number together with the name and title of the individual assigned to handle

Claims from the public. The Contractor shall maintain a status report of Claims filed, including the name, address, and telephone number of the claimant, the nature of the Claim, pertinent findings regarding the Claim, and a statement regarding the resolution of the Claim. The

Contractor shall provide the status report to the Project Manager upon request.

The Contractor shall establish a local contact number (with area code) for filing Claims, and clearly post the number. In addition, post the name of the Contractor, address, and telephone number at each approach to the Project. The Contractor shall ensure that construction vehicles (Contractor, Subcontractor, and privately owned) working on the Project have clean, unobstructed license plates, and shall mark vehicles legibly with the appropriate company name.

The Contractor, Subcontractors and all Suppliers shall keep and maintain all documents in a useable format, including communications, books, papers, records, files, accounts, tax records, cost records, reports, schedules, Bid documents with backup data, including electronic data, and all other material relating to the Contract, Project, Contract compliance, or any Claim for five (5) years following Physical Completion of the Work. Unless otherwise specified in the contract all of the above material shall be made available to the Department for review, audit, inspection and copying and shall be produced, upon request by the Assistant

District Engineer – Construction, at the Department General Office, the District in which the

Work was performed, or an FHWA office, as directed. The Contractor shall insert the above requirement in each subcontract and shall also include in all subcontracts a clause requiring

Subcontractors to include the above requirement in any lower-tier subcontract. The

Contractor’s failure to maintain and timely provide all requested documents to the Department waives any Claim the basis of which could have, either in whole or in part, been documented or rebutted by such documents.

Resource Loading documents, financial statements provided by the Contractor, and

Escrowed Bid Documents which have been visibly marked by the Contractor as “Confidential

Trade Secrets” shall be deemed confidential as trade secrets and not subject to inspection pursuant to the Inspection of Public Records Act, NMSA 1978, § 14-2-4. Such information shall not be disclosed by the Department in response to a request made pursuant to the

Inspection of Public Records Act without the written permission of the Contractor. Such documents may be disclosed to the Department, including any Inspector, Project

Superintendent, Project Manager, Claim consultant, investigator, or testifying or consulting expert, as necessary to perform their duties or as otherwise required by law.

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The Contractor may not assign the Contract or assign or delegate any contractual obligation or duty without the prior written consent of the Department and the Surety.

Contractor may not make any assignment, in connection with the Contract, including assignment of any payment due Contractor or any Claim, for the benefit of any creditor.

If any provision of this Contract is held to be invalid or unenforceable, the remaining provisions, or the application of such provision to either party, shall remain in full force and effect and, if possible, the rights and obligations of the parties are to be construed and enforced as if the Contract did not contain that term.

If any provision of the Contract is found to be superseded by any applicable state or federal law or regulation or court order, in whole or in part, then both parties shall be relieved of all obligations under that provision only to the extent necessary to comply with the superseding law or ruling, provided however, that the remaining provisions of the Contract, or portions thereof, shall be enforced to the fullest extent permitted by law.

The Contractor agrees that any rule of construction to the effect that ambiguities are to be resolved against the drafting party shall not be applied in the construction or interpretation of this Contract.

This Contract is governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of

New Mexico.

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SECTION 108: PROSECUTION

The Contractor is wholly and solely responsible and liable for the performance of all Work or any act by its Subcontractors, Truckers, and Suppliers on the Project.

108.1 SUBCONTRACTING

Any individual, partnership, firm, corporation, or joint venture performing Work on the

Project that is not an employee of the Contractor is a Subcontractor unless otherwise excepted in this Section. A Supplier or Fabricator is not a Subcontractor unless Work is being performed on the Project.

The Contractor shall perform with its own organization at least 40% of the Work based on the Total Bid Amount. The Contractor’s organization shall include workers employed and paid directly and Equipment owned or rented by the Contractor but shall not include employees or

Equipment of its Subcontractor, assignee, or agent. The Contractor shall submit to the Project

Manager a request for Subcontractor approval before subcontracting Work and shall not circumvent this requirement by placing a Subcontractor’s employees on its payroll. The

Department will treat a person or group generally operating as an independent Contractor, as independent Contractors for the purposes of this Section.

The Department will provide the required forms for a list of intended Subcontractors and

Material Suppliers in the Bid Package. The Contractor shall submit this list at the preconstruction conference and update the list as the Work progresses. The Contractor is responsible for ensuring that its Subcontractors are prequalified by the Department and are also duly licensed for the Work to be performed on the Project, are registered with all of the state agencies as is required to do business in New Mexico and to perform Work on Public

Works Projects including the New Mexico Taxation and Revenue Department and the New

Mexico Department of Workforce Solutions or successor agencies, and are in compliance with all applicable state and federal laws and regulations including the New Mexico Public Works

Minimum Wage Act. The Contractor shall comply with the New Mexico Subcontractor Fair

Practices Act to the extent it is applicable to the Project.

A Trucker is not a Subcontractor unless the Contractor is using the Trucker to meet the

DBE requirement associated with the Project. A Trucker is an individual, partnership, firm, corporation, or joint venture that transports Materials to and from the Project and does not perform Work on the Project site. Transportation of Materials within the Project site (e.g. never leaves the Project limits) is Work performed by the Contractor or a Subcontractor.

Transportation of Materials on or off the Project site (e.g. leaving the Project) does not require a Subcontract.

Liability of the Contractor and the Contractor’s Surety under the Contract and the

Contract Bonds shall not be waived or diminished by subcontracting or any other assignment of interest.

The Contractor shall promptly pay its Subcontractors and Suppliers for satisfactory performance of their contracts no later than seven (7) Days after receipt of Progress Payment for the Subcontractor’s Work or Supplier’s Materials by the Department. For purpose of this section, a Subcontractor’s portion of the Work is satisfactorily completed when it is Accepted by the Department. In no event shall the Contractor and its Subcontractors fail to promptly pay their Subcontractors and Suppliers the amounts due for undisputed Accepted Work within seven (7) Days of the Contractor receiving a Progress Payment from the Department. The payment by the Department to the Contractor is not a condition precedent for payment by the

Contractor to any Subcontractor or Supplier. A zero dollar ($0.00) Progress Payment by the

Department does not relieve the Contractor from paying the Subcontractor or Supplier for

Accepted Work.

The Contractor’s failure to make timely or prompt Subcontractor or Supplier payments for undisputed Accepted Work is a Non-Conformance and shall result in the Department withholding 25% of the Progress Payment and may result in the Department rejecting the

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Contractor’s future Bids in accordance with Section 102.5, “Refusal or Rejection of Bids.” The

Contractor’s repeated failure to make timely Subcontractor payment may lead to Suspension or Debarment in accordance with Section 102.3, “Suspension and Debarment.”

108.2 NOTICE TO PROCEED AND PRE-CONSTRUCTION CONFERENCE

The Department will issue the Notice to Proceed within 30 Days after Contract execution, unless otherwise agreed to by the parties. The Notice to Proceed will identify the date the

Department expects the Contractor to begin Work and the start of Contract Time. The

Contractor’s commencement of the Work without a Notice to Proceed may be deemed a waiver of this notice and, in the absence of prior written permission from the Project Manager, shall start the Contract Time. In no event shall the Contractor commence Work until after execution of the Contract by all parties.

After the issuance of the Notice to Proceed, the Project Manager shall provide written notice to the Contractor of the date, time and location of the Pre-Construction Conference.

The Contractor shall provide an authorized Contract representative and the Project

Superintendent at the Pre-Construction Conference.

The Contractor shall provide the following at a minimum of ten (10) Days before Pre-

Construction Conference:

1. Acceptable Baseline Schedule;

2. Letters of assignment (official capacity) for Project; b. Company and Project Safety Officer; c. Traffic Control Supervisor (include current certifications and copy of wallet card)

3. A list with samples of authorized signatures and assignments for Supplemental

Agreements (Change Orders), Progress Payments, Payrolls and related items;

4. Additions, revisions deletions to the Traffic Control Plan; a. Proposed changes to the project; b. Potential problems with the construction of the project;

5. List of Subcontractors and Material suppliers;

6. Lump Sum breakdowns;

7. Weighmasters / Deputy Weighmaster certifications (must be maintained throughout the duration of the Project);

8. Progress Payment cutoff date;

9. Company EEO policy statement;

10. Recruitments letters (attachments E-K of the EEO package);

11. Superintendent’s indoctrination letter (attachment D of EEO package);

12. On-the-job training letter (Attachment R of the EEO package); a. The trainee classification letter must include the number of trainees to be trained, the training program to be used, the classification of each trainee and the approximate start date;

13. The completed Civil Rights / EEO Pre-Construction Report. Complete and sign the portions that are applicable Department Project personnel;

14. Pre-Construction safety questionnaire; and

15. Other items and any other documents required by the Contract or as directed in the

Project Manager’s notice of Pre Construction.

Failure by the Contractor to provide the above listed items a minimum of ten (10) Days before the Pre-Construction Conference may result in the Contractor being in default of

Contract pursuant to Section 108.9 “Default of Contract.” Contract Time shall commence as indicated in the Notice to Proceed and no additional Contract Time will be granted. The

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Contractor shall not commence Work until the required items are provided to the Project

Manager and Accepted.

108.3 SCHEDULE

The Project shall utilize a CPM format as the Baseline Schedule unless otherwise specified in the Contract.

The Project Manager will notify the Contractor in writing within ten (10) Days of the submittal of a Baseline Schedule if the schedule is “Accepted,” “Accepted as noted”, or is

“rejected.” Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, the Contractor is wholly and solely responsible for construction means, methods or techniques, therefore the Project Manager’s review of the Baseline Schedule will be for compliance with the Specifications and Contract requirements. Acceptance by the Project Manager shall not relieve the Contractor of any of its responsibilities for the accuracy or feasibility of the schedule. Any Baseline Schedule which alters Contract Time shall be deemed “rejected.” In no event, may approval of a Baseline

Schedule revise the Contract Documents, including Contract Time, unless accompanied by a related Change Order. The Contractor shall not commence Work until the Project Manager

Accepts a Baseline Schedule.

The Department will use the Baseline Schedule to establish major construction operations, to determine Contract Time extensions, and to measure the progress of the Work.

The Contractor shall be responsible for assuring all Work, including all Subcontractor Work, is included in the Baseline Schedule. The Contractor shall be responsible for assuring that all

Work sequences are logical and that the Baseline Schedule indicates a coordinated plan.

Failure by the Contractor to include any element of Work required for performance of the

Contract shall not excuse the Contractor from completing all Work within the required time.

For Baseline Schedules that are “rejected”, the Project Manager shall communicate, in writing, to the Contractor all portions of the schedule that are not in compliance with the

Contract requirements. The Contractor shall, within seven (7) Days of receipt of the reasons for rejection of the schedule, provide a new Baseline Schedule and all additional information necessary for the Project Manager to “Accept” the Baseline Schedule. The Project Manager will notify the Contractor in writing within seven (7) Days of the submittal of the corrected

Baseline Schedule if the schedule is “Accepted,” “Accepted as noted”, or is “rejected.” The

Contractor’s failure to provide a timely and Acceptable new Baseline Schedule in response to a rejected schedule waives any Claim the basis of which would have been documented by an

Acceptable Baseline Schedule.

Unless otherwise specified in the Contract the Contractor shall provide a CPM Baseline

Schedule which clearly describes the following:

1. A reasonable and workable plan to complete the Work within the Contract Time;

2. The order and relationships of activities and the sequence of the Work;

3. Activities in a format prescribed by the Department so the Department can readily identify the Work and measure the progress of each activity;

4. The Project’s critical path;

5. The milestones or other key dates specified in the Contract; and,

The CPM Baseline Schedule shall consist of network diagrams and associated bar graphs and shall include a tabulation of each activity shown on the detailed network diagrams.

Provide, at a minimum, the following information on the CPM Baseline Schedule:

2. Early start date (each activity);

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3. Late start date (each activity);

4. Original duration, in workdays (each activity);

5. Total float and free float (each activity);

6. Sequence and interdependence of activities;

9. Number of shifts per Day;

10. Number of hours per shift;

11. Scheduled Completion Date;

12. Anticipated weather events based on historical data; and

The CPM Baseline Schedule shall include a report of projected Project completion, measured in dollars and time, on a monthly basis or at each Progress Payment cut-off date.

Float contained in the CPM Baseline Schedule is not for the exclusive use or benefit of either the Department or the Contractor.

The Project shall utilize a CPM format as the Baseline Schedule unless otherwise specified in the Contract.

The Contractor shall prepare and submit one (1) electronic copy and two (2) time-scaled color prints of the CPM Baseline Schedule, updated monthly schedule, and revised schedules using a Project scheduling software as directed by the Department that includes the following features:

1. Ability to display the schedule as a Gantt chart;

2. Ability to clearly display the critical path of scheduled activities apart from the noncritical scheduled activities;

3. Ability to calculate and display total float and free float for each activity;

4. Ability to clearly display the early start, late start, early finish and late finish dates for each activity; and,

5. Ability to easily store and transfer the schedule as a file (or files) from one computer to another.

108.3.2.2 Bar Graph Baseline Schedule

If required by the Contract the Contractor shall submit the Baseline Schedule in bar graph form. The Baseline Schedule shall list Contract features or Work activities in sufficient detail to show a reasonable and workable plan to complete the Project within the Contract Time.

The Contractor shall show the following on the bar graph Baseline Schedule:

1. Each Work activity as a bar;

2. Each activity’s planned start and Completion Dates;

3. Each activity’s estimated cost and percent of Total Bid Amount;

4. The overall Project cost;

5. The planned Project Completion Date;

6. The monthly projected percent complete in time and dollars;

7. A plot of the monthly projected percent complete (in dollars) superimposed on the bar chart; and,

8. Any approved Project suspensions and time extensions.

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108.3.3 Monthly and Revised Schedules

For this Section “schedule” refers to CPM or Bar Graph as required by the Contract.

Each activity in a monthly or revised schedule shall contain the same information required for the Baseline Schedule. The Contractor shall include in the schedule a report of projected percent complete, measured in dollars and time. An Acceptable schedule shall conform to

Section 108.3.1 “Baseline Schedule.” In no event may Acceptance of a schedule revise the

Contract Documents, including Contract Time, unless accompanied by a related Change

Order. Any monthly or revised schedule which alters Contract Time shall be deemed

“rejected.”

If the Contractor fails to timely submit an updated or revised and Acceptable schedule, the Department shall withhold 25% of the Progress Payment as a Non-Conformance. The

Department may suspend the Work pursuant to Section 105.1.2 “Department Authority to

Suspend Work” for failure to submit the monthly schedule update or revision. Repeated failure to provide timely and Acceptable monthly or revised schedules may result in the Department rejecting the Contractor’s future Bids in accordance with Section 102.5, “Refusal or Rejection of Bids.” The Contractor’s repeated failure to provide timely and Acceptable monthly or revised schedules may lead to Suspension or Debarment in accordance with Section 102.3,

“Suspension and Debarment.” Failure to timely provide a monthly or revised schedule waives any Claim the basis of which would have been documented by an Acceptable monthly or revised schedule.

Float contained in the updated or revised Schedule is not for the exclusive use or benefit of either the Department or the Contractor, except as follows: float generated on critical path activities due to the acceleration of the Contractor’s performance, at the written direction of the

Project Manager, shall be for the exclusive use of the Department; and, float generated on critical path activities due to the reduction or elimination of items including any time associated with VECP shall be for the exclusive use of the Department.

The Department may grant time extensions only to the extent that the activities on the critical path of the CPM Baseline Schedule in effect at the time of the delay are impacted.

The Contractor shall submit an updated schedule monthly a minimum of five (5) Days before the Progress Payment date. Failure by the Contractor is a Non-Conformance and 25% of the Progress Payment shall be withheld.

108.3.3.2 Contractor’s Independent Duty to Provide Schedule Revisions

The Contractor shall provide a revised schedule and recovery plan to the Project

Manager within five (5) Days of when it becomes apparent, or should have become apparent, to the Contractor that the Contractor cannot complete the Work within the Contact Time, when a noncritical item has become critical, or cannot meet the schedule due to the following:

Section 104.2 “Significant Changes in Character of Work”, Section 104.3 “Differing Site

Conditions”, Section 104.4 “Extra Work”, Section 107.12 “Environmental, Hazardous Materials and Cultural Resource Discoveries”, or any other cause which may give rise to a Claim.

If the Contractor’s Work falls behind schedule the Contractor shall take such steps as may be necessary to mitigate damages and improve its progress including development of a recovery plan. For an Excusable Delay, Noncompensable Delay, Concurrent Delay,

Nonexcusable Delay, or Inexcusable Delay, as those terms are identified in Section 109.11,

“Compensation for Claims,” the Contractor shall consider as a minimum the following potential schedule mitigation techniques: increase the number of shifts, begin overtime operations, work extra days including weekends and holidays, or supplement its construction plant and submit, as provided in this Section, a revised schedule with a proposed recovery plan, as may be deemed necessary to demonstrate the manner in which the agreed rate of progress shall be regained, all at no cost to the Department. If the Delay cannot be mitigated, the Contractor shall promptly submit either a written request for an extension of the Contract Time pursuant

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to Section 105.19, “Notice of Potential Claim,” and Section 105.20, “Administrative Remedy,” or request approval of a late completion schedule and shall be liable for liquidated damages.

The revised schedule shall show Contract Time, Project completion date and all additional information necessary for the Project Manager to “Accept” the revised schedule.

The Contractor’s failure to provide a timely and Acceptable revised schedule waives any Claim the basis of which would have been documented by an Acceptable revised schedule.. The

Project Manager will provide the Contractor with a decision in writing within ten (10) Days of receiving the revised schedule. The revised schedule shall become the current Accepted

Baseline Schedule.

108.3.3.3 Schedule Revisions at Request of Department:

If it becomes apparent to the Department that the Contractor cannot meet the schedule, or that a noncritical item has become critical, the Project Manager may request a schedule revision and recovery plan from the Contractor. The Contractor shall, within five (5) Days of receipt of the request provide a revised schedule showing Contract Time, Project completion date and all additional information necessary for the Project Manager to “Accept” the revised schedule. The Contractor’s failure to provide a timely and Acceptable response waives any

Claim the basis of which would have been documented by an Acceptable revised schedule.

The Project Manager will provide the Contractor with a decision in writing within ten (10) Days of receiving the revised schedule. The revised schedule shall become the current Accepted

Baseline Schedule.

108.3.3.4 Schedule Update and Revision Information

The Contractor’s updated monthly and revised schedules shall conform to the requirements of Section 108.3.1 “Baseline Schedule” and shall show:

1. Actual start and finish dates of each activity;

2. Remaining duration of activities started but not yet completed;

3. Delays and changes resulting from the addition, deletion or revisions to activities due to the issuance of a Change Order, change to an activity duration, changes to relationship between activities or changes to the planned sequence of work or the method and manner of its performance; and a. Processes during the month; b. Shifts in the critical activities from the previous update; c. Sources of delay; d. Potential problem areas; e. Work planned for the next update period; and f. Changes made to the schedule.

108.4 UNSATISFACTORY PROGRESS OF WORK

The progress of the Work is deemed unsatisfactory when:

1. The dollars earned by the Contractor on the Project are 15% less than the estimated dollars earned, as shown on the current Accepted baseline progress schedule;

2. When the start of an activity on the critical path, as shown on the current Accepted progress schedule, has exceeded its late start date by seven (7) Days;

3. When an activity on the critical path, as shown on the current Accepted progress schedule, has exceeded its original duration by ten (10) or more Days; or,

4. When the Project Manager determines that the progress of work is unsatisfactory.

The Project Manager shall issue a notice of unsatisfactory performance to the Contractor by certified mail and identify the unsatisfactory performance.

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When the progress of the Work is deemed unsatisfactory the Project Manager and the

Contractor shall meet to address the schedule within five (5) Days. The Contractor shall provide a revised schedule with a narrative addressing Project progress compliance or anticipated liquidated damages. The Department’s approval of a late completion schedule will not operate as a waiver of the Department’s right to assess liquidated damages. If a resolution cannot be determined within five (5) Days, the Project Manager will issue a notice to the Contractor and Surety of unsatisfactory performance.

The Contractor shall bring progress into compliance in a time frame determined by the

Project Manager, not to exceed 30 Days and at no additional cost to the Department. Failure to return the Project into compliance may result in any or all of the following:

1. Suspend or debar the Contractor in accordance with Section 102.3, “Suspension and Debarment”;

2. Withhold Progress Payments in the amount of the projected liquidated damages and withhold 25% of Progress Payments pursuant to Section 109.8, “Progress

Payments”;

3. The Contractor being declared in default pursuant to Section 108.9, “Default of

Contract”;

4. Rejection of the Contractor’s bids; and,

5. Other administrative actions that the Project Manager deems appropriate and in the best interest of the public and the Department.

108.5 CHARACTER OF WORKERS, METHODS, AND EQUIPMENT

108.5.1 Character of Workers

The Contractor shall provide the resources necessary to complete the Work as specified.

The Contractor shall ensure workers have the experience and skills to perform assigned Work.

The Contractor shall remove employee(s) who performs the Work in an unskilled manner or who is intemperate or disorderly. The Contractor shall rehire these employees only with the

Project Manager’s written permission.

The Project Manager may suspend Work for failure to remove any employee(s) or to furnish suitable and sufficient personnel necessary to perform the Work.

108.5.2 Methods and Equipment

The Contractor shall use Equipment of the size and mechanical condition to produce the

Work. The Contractor shall ensure that the Equipment does not damage the Roadway, adjacent property or other Highways, Streets, or Roads.

The Contractor shall request permission in writing to use methods or Equipment other than those specified; describe the proposed methods and Equipment to be used and the reasons for the change. The Contractor shall perform Work under original Basis of Payment and Contract Time. The Contractor shall discontinue use of alternate methods or Equipment when Work does not meet Contract requirements. The Contractor shall remove and replace or repair deficient Work at Contractor’s expense.

108.6 DETERMINATION AND EXTENSION OF CONTRACT TIME

The Department will provide the Contract Time in the Invitation for Bids and on the Bid

Form. If the Contract contains a Mandatory Completion Date, the Project must be

Substantially Complete by that date.

The Project Manager will provide the Contractor with a weekly statement showing the

Contract Time, the number of Days charged to the Contract for the preceding week, the accumulated Days charged, and the number of Days remaining to complete the Work. The

Contractor shall have seven (7) Days after receipt of the statement to file a written protest of

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Days charged. If the Contractor fails to timely file a written protest, the statement is deemed accepted by the Contractor.

The Contractor is not entitled to a Partial Suspension during periods of traffic control operations or when working on any critical path activities. Partial suspension shall be lifted if the Contractor works on critical path activities and the Project Manager shall commence the

Day count.

Quantity overruns in Contract Items that do not significantly change the character of the

Work in accordance with Section 104.2 “Significant Changes in the Character of the Work”, shall not result in an extension of Contract Time. If completion of the Contract requires Extra

Work that impacts the critical path, the Contractor shall provide the Department an updated progress schedule and narrative requesting additional Contract Time associated with the Extra

Work. Upon adequate justification by the Contractor the Department will determine if any adjustment in Contract Time is warranted.

Any request for additional Contract Time shall be made pursuant Section 105.19 “Notice of Potential Claim.”

If the Project Manager rejects a time extension request, the Contractor may proceed in accordance with Section 105.20, “Administrative Remedy.”

When the Project Manager completes the final inspection in accordance with Section

109.10 “Project Closure”, the daily time charge will stop on the date the Contractor completes all pay items, as determined by the Project Manager, or in accordance with Section 109.10.3

“Termination of Contract Time”.

108.7 FAILURE TO COMPLETE ON TIME

Liquidated damages shall be assessed for each Day the Work remains incomplete after

Contract Time has expired, including approved time extensions.

The Department may suspend time charges on the Contract when the Project is

Substantially Complete.

For Work that remains incomplete after the Contract Time expires, the Department shall deduct an amount (in accordance with Section 108.8, “Liquidated Damages”) from dollars due the Contractor, not as a penalty but as liquidated damages.

The Department does not waive its rights under the Contract by allowing the Contractor to finish the Work after the expiration of Contract Time, including approved extensions.

Time is an essential element of the Contract, and it is important that the Contractor pursue timely completion of the Work. The Department’s Contract administration costs, including engineering, inspection, and supervision, will be increased as the time to complete the Work increases. The public is impacted and inconvenienced when a Project is incomplete and not available for use.

The Contractor agrees that the following schedule of liquidated damages, unless otherwise specified in the Contract, represents the reasonable projected value of inconvenience and monetary damage to the public and the Department if the Contractor does not complete the Project within the Contract Time and does not operate as a penalty to the

Contractor:

Schedule of Liquidated Damages

Total Original Contract Amount ($) Charge ($) per Day

≤100,000 500

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>100,000–500,00 1,000

>500,000–1,000,000 1,500

>1,000,000–2,000,000 2,000

>2,000,000–4,000,000 2,500

>4,000,000–7,000,000 3,000

>7,000,000–10,000,000 4,000

>10,000,000 5,000

The Department shall withhold payment under the Contract and may seek performance from the Contractor’s Surety to cover the liquidated damages. The Department shall continue to assess liquidated damages until Physical Completion in accordance with Section 109.10

“Project Closure.” When the Project Manager issues the notice of completion and final

Acceptance, further assessment of liquidated damages will stop.

If the amount of Liquidated Damages meets or exceeds the remaining dollar amount of

Work remaining on the Contract the Department shall cease Progress Payments. The

Contractor remains contractually obligated to complete the Work remaining on the Project.

The Contractor shall reimburse the Department for any Liquidated Damages exceeding the dollar amount withheld from the Contractor within 30 Days of Physical Completion.

108.9 DEFAULT OF CONTRACT

The Department may declare the Contractor in default of the Contract if the Contractor:

1. Fails to perform the Work with sufficient resources (supervision, workers,

Equipment, or Materials) to assure the completion of the Work;

2. Performs the Work unsuitably, or neglects or refuses to remove Materials or to correct rejected Work;

3. Fails to begin the Work within the time specified in the Notice to Proceed;

4. Discontinues the Work;

5. Fails to resume discontinued Work after the Department issues a request to resume

Work;

6. Becomes insolvent or is declared bankrupt, or files for reorganization under the bankruptcy code, or commits any act of bankruptcy or insolvency, either voluntarily or involuntarily;

7. Allows a final judgment, in a suit filed in connection with this Contract, to stand unsatisfied for 30 Days;

8. Makes an assignment, in connection with the Contract, for the benefit of its creditors;

9. Fails to carry on the Work in an Acceptable manner in accordance with the Contract;

10. Fails to comply with Contract requirements or willfully violates any term or condition of the Contract;

11. Fails to perform the Work or maintain the Project in compliance with Federal and

New Mexico Occupational Health and Safety laws and regulations ;

12. Fails to observe or comply with Federal and New Mexico laws and regulations, local laws and ordinances,

13. Is debarred or suspended in accordance with the Section 102.3, “Suspension and

Debarment”, or is suspended or debarred by any federal agency;

14. Communicates that the Contractor may not perform under the Contract; or,

15. Fails to promptly pay a Subcontractor or Supplier for undisputed Accepted Work in accordance with Section 108.1., “Subcontracting”.

The Project Manager will provide written notice to the Contractor and the Contractor’s

Surety of Contractor’s delay, neglect, apparent default, or anticipatory repudiation. This notice

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will specify the Contract provisions that the Contractor violated and the corrective measures to be taken by the Contractor. When reasonable grounds for insecurity arise with respect to the performance of the Contract by the Contractor, the Project Manager may, in writing, demand adequate assurance of due performance and until such assurance is received may suspend any Department performance. If the Contractor or Surety does not proceed with the corrective measures within ten (10) Days, or when demanded fails to provide adequate assurance of due performance, after receiving the notice, the Department, upon written notification from the

Project Manager, has full power and authority, without violating the Contract, to declare the

Contractor in default, to remove the corrective measures from the Contractor, and to demand compliance by the Surety of the terms, conditions, and obligations contained in the

Performance Bond.

If the Department determines that the Contractor is in default the Surety shall complete the Work at its own expense pursuant to the Contract and receive the balance of any funds owing to the Contractor. If the Surety fails to complete the Work, the Department may complete the Project with its forces or may obtain another Contractor to complete the Work.

The Department will deduct costs and charges that the Department incurs as a result of the default and the cost of completing the Work from Contract funds due to or which may become due to the defaulting Contractor or Surety. If the total costs for completing the Work exceeds the amount that would have been payable under the Contract, the defaulting Contractor and the Surety shall be jointly and severally liable for the excess costs.

108.10 TERMINATION OF CONTRACT; NO FAULT OF CONTRACTOR

The Department may terminate, by written order, all or part of the Contract, after determining the following:

1. That the Contractor is prevented from proceeding with or completing the Work as originally contracted for reasons beyond the control of the Contractor; or

2. That termination would be in the public interest.

Reasons for termination may include, but are not limited to, the following:

1. Executive orders of the President of the United States relating to war or national defense;

2. A national emergency that creates a serious shortage of Materials, as deemed by the Secretary;

3. Orders from duly constituted authorities relating to energy conservation;

4. Restraining orders or injunctions obtained by third party citizen actions resulting from national or local environmental protection laws or where the issuance of the order or injunction is primarily caused by acts or omissions of persons or agencies other than the Contractor; or,

5. To correct any material errors or omissions in the Plans or to correct any discrepancy or contradictions within the Contract discovered after execution of the

Contract by both parties and which could not have been discovered through the exercise of Pre-Bid Due Diligence, the failure of which to correct is likely to lead to

Contractor Delay, a Claim for additional time, or a Claim for compensation which may exceed the costs recoverable under this Section.

When the Department orders a Contract termination effective on a certain date, it will pay for the actual number of units or items of Work completed at the Bid Item Unit Price or as mutually agreed for items of Work partially completed or not started. For pay items eliminated by the termination, the Department will pay for items eliminated in their entirety in accordance with Section 109.7, “Eliminated Items.”

The Department may obtain from the Contractor, at a negotiated cost, Acceptable unused Materials obtained by the Contractor for but not incorporated into the Work. The

Contractor shall deliver this Material to a prescribed location or dispose of it as mutually agreed.

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After the Contractor receives the termination notice from the Department, the Contractor shall submit any Claim for additional damages or costs within 30 Days of the date of the

Contractor’s termination or shall waive such Claim. The Contractor shall submit the Claim in accordance with Section 105.19 “Notice of Potential Claim,” and Section 105.20

“Administrative Remedy.” The Claim shall be limited to the following cost items:

1. Idle Equipment time using standby-time rental rates at 50% of the Blue Book

Equipment rental rate, without the cost of operating personnel;

2. Actual and direct Mobilization costs;

3. Bidding and Project investigative costs;

4. Accounting charges involved in Claim preparation;

6. Idle labor costs if Work is stopped in advance of termination date;

7. Guaranteed payments for private land usage as part of original Contract; and

8. An additional ten percent (10%) of the total of the above items 1, 2, 5, and 6 to cover home office overhead and salaried labor expenses.

The Contractor shall provide those records required by Section 105.20.1, “District Level,” to the Department to determine the validity and amount of each Claim item. The Contractor shall not be entitled to recover anticipated loss of profits or any category of damages excluded pursuant to Section 109.11, “Compensation for Claim.”

Full or partial Contract termination does not relieve the Contractor of its contractual responsibilities for the completed Work, nor will it relieve the Surety of its obligation for Claims arising out of the completed Work.

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SECTION 109: MEASUREMENT

109.1 MEASUREMENT OF QUANTITY

Work performed under the Contract shall be subject to the definitions of quantity in this

Section. The Department will measure Pay Items in accordance with the Pay Units listed in the respective “Basis of Payment” provisions at the end of each Section within Divisions 200 through 900.

The Department cautions the Bidder to carefully read the Bid Package to determine units of measurement deviating from the following standard terms. If the Bid Package has a special reference to terms for measurement, the Bid Package will supersede the following terms and will control. Otherwise, the following terminology controls:

1. The distance between stations is 100 feet, measured longitudinally;

2. Longitudinal measurements are along and parallel to surfaces, not horizontal. For pay items measured by the square yard, the Department will make no deduction for fixtures in the Work with areas less than one (1) square yard; a. Transverse measurements for areas of Base Course and pavements are the neat line dimensions shown on the Plans based on the average width of the installed Material along the centerline of the Roadway; b. Structures are measured according to the neat lines shown on the Plans or as provided by the Department; c. For pay items measured by the foot, measurements are parallel to the base or foundation;

3. The volume of excavation is calculated by using the average end area method, the prism modular method, or other Project Manager approved methods;

4. A ton equals 2,000 lb; a “barrel” equals 376 lb of cement; a “sack” equals 94 lb of cement;

5. Timber and lumber (permanently incorporated in the Project) is measured by the foot, and measured on nominal widths and thickness and the length of each piece.

The Department will Accept lumber and timber conforming to the American Lumber

Standards for rough and dressed sizes, as specified in the Contract;

6. Standard manufactured items, identified by unit weight or section dimensions, are measured using nominal weights or dimensions. The Department will Accept manufacturing tolerances established by the industries involved, unless otherwise stated in the Contract.

7. Asphalt Materials are measured by the ton. The weight is based on net certified scale weights or weights calculated from certified volumes. The certified weights or volumes are subject to inspection and adjustment at the point of delivery

8. Portland cement is measured by the ton, barrel, or sack in accordance with the Bid

Package. The Department will use the net certified scale weight of portland cement as the basis of measurement, subject to inspection and adjustment at the point of delivery;

9. Materials that are measured by weight shall be measured and proportioned by weight using certified and accurate scales that are within tolerances established by state law; a. The Contractor shall provide scales or use commercial scales; b. Scales shall be sealed at least once every 12 months or each time the scales are relocated, or as directed by the Project Manager; and certified by the NMDA, shall operate the scales. The certified weighmasters shall perform their duties in accordance with the regulations of the NMDA, Division of Standards and Consumers Services. The cost of the certified weighmasters, weighmasters’ scales, scale tickets, scale house, and verification of the scale’s accuracy is included in the Bid Item Price for the weighed Material;

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d. Empty vehicles used to haul Material paid by weight shall be weighed at least twice daily, at a minimum once prior to initial Material delivery and once prior to final Material delivery. The Contractor shall ensure vehicles bear legible identification marks. On a daily basis the Contractor shall provide the Project

Manager with a written list of delivery vehicles showing identification marks, number of axles, the distance between extreme axles and daily tare weights.

The Contractor shall update this information before delivery of the Material and when the Contractor changes vehicles, combination vehicles, or axle length relationships; e. The Department may convert weight to volume, or volume to weight, for payment purposes. The Project Manager will determine the factor(s) for conversion using an acceptable method and obtain the Contractor's agreement before conversion; f. The operator of each weighed vehicle shall obtain a scale ticket (certificate of correct weight) from the weighmaster and deliver the ticket to the Project

Manager or designee at the point of delivery. The following information shall be included on the scale ticket: ii. Date; iv. Truck / Trailer unit number; x. Signature of weighmaster; and xi. Whether the driver was on or off the scale during weighing.

109.2 APPROVED EQUIPMENT RENTAL RATES

date.

Equipment rental rates shall be paid as shown in the Blue Book in effect at Advertisement

The rates in the Rental Rate Blue Book reflect current ownership, overhead and operation costs, based on the average hours of operation per year. The rates do not include operating personnel. The ownership cost represents the total cost of depreciation, interest, insurance, taxes, storage, etc., calculated to an hourly rate. Estimated operating cost per hour includes fuel, lubricants, tires, and other operating expendables, e.g. the percentage of mechanics’ wages chargeable to preventive and field maintenance.

The current Blue Book applies to machinery or special Equipment (other than small tools) and transportation authorized by the Project Manager.

The Blue Book rates shall be used for the actual time the Equipment is in operation. The

Department will add 15% only to the Equipment rental rates. The Department will apply

Equipment rental rates pursuant to the Blue Book and in accordance with the following criteria:

1. The manufacturer’s identification plates on the Equipment will be used to identify the

Equipment and its capacities. If the Equipment does not have these plates, the

Contractor shall provide written statements certifying the Equipment identification and capacity as shown on the Contractor's Equipment inventory. The Contractor shall submit the type, capacity, and horsepower of each piece of Equipment, to correlate with the Blue Book schedule. The Blue Book reflects the maximum rates for Equipment of modern design and in good-working condition;

Section 109: Measurement and Payment Page 82

2. The Blue Book lists common pieces of Equipment. If the Blue Book does not list a piece of Equipment the use of the Blue Book rental rate for a comparable piece of

Equipment shall be used as approved by the Project Manager. If no comparable piece of Equipment is identified in the Blue Book the Project Manager may negotiate a rental rate with the Contractor at a fair market rental rate;

3. If a piece of Equipment, not available on the Project, requires hauling onto the

Project, the Contractor shall include the actual transportation cost (in and out). The

Department will pay the transportation cost for each piece of Equipment once.

Under unusual circumstances the Contractor may provide to the Department written justification for additional transportation costs;

4. The Contractor shall only be paid the operating rate for those hours the Equipment is actually in use. A standby rate for Equipment required to be at the Work site but not operating may by paid by the Department if agreed to in writing in advance by the Project Manager in which case the Department will pay for standby Equipment using standby-time rental rates at 50% of the Blue Book Equipment rental rate, without the cost of operating personnel.

5. The regional difference percentage, as described in the Blue Book does not apply.

However, the factors in the Rate Adjustment Tables of the Blue Book do apply;

6. Overtime, as described in Blue Book does not apply. The Department will pay for

Equipment used on Extra Work at the regular hourly rate in accordance with the rate provided in the Blue Book.

The Contractor shall receive and accept compensation in accordance with the Bid for performing the Work in an Acceptable manner. The compensation associated with the Bid shall include the risks, losses, damages and expenses that, when considering the nature of the Work and having exercised Pre-Bid Due Diligence, should have been reasonably expected by the Contractor in prosecuting the Work.

The Department will pay for the approved actual quantities of Material incorporated into the Work unless otherwise provided in Method of Measurement.

The Department will only pay for Pay Items listed in the Contract in accordance with the

“Basis of Payment” provisions. The Department will not pay separately for Work Incidental to the completion of a Pay Item, or pay for the Incidental Work under another Pay Item; except as provided in Section 104.6, “Rights in and Use of Materials Found on the Work.”

The Contractor shall not receive payment for corrective Work. Corrective work is Work required by the Department to make previously unacceptable Work Acceptable.

The Department may Accept portions of the Work at an adjusted price in accordance with the relevant Pay Adjustment provisions in the Contract. The adjusted price only applies to the specific Accepted portion of Work.

109.4 COMPENSATION FOR OVERRUN / UNDERRUN QUANTITIES

The Department will pay the Contractor for the actual quantities of Material used in the

Work and Accepted by the Project Manager. If the Accepted quantities of Work vary from the quantities in the Contract, the Contractor shall accept, as payment in full, payment based on the Bid Item Unit Price for the Accepted quantity.

109.5 PAYMENT FOR CHANGES, DIFFERING SITE CONDITIONS, AND EXTRA WORK

The Department will pay the Contractor for Extra Work and Work resulting from significant changes in the character of the Work or differing site conditions in accordance with

Section 104.2, “Significant Changes in the Character of Work,” Section 104.3, “Differing Site

Section 109: Measurement and Payment Page 83

Conditions,” or Section 104.4, “Extra Work,” and by Change Order, based on the following order of priority for payment:

1. Bid Item Unit Prices;

2. Negotiated unit prices;

3. Negotiated Lump sum; or

For Items of Work performed by the Contractor, the negotiated unit price or negotiated

Lump sum price shall include all costs associated with the Work. If Subcontractors perform

Work as Extra Work, the Department shall only compensate the Contractor an additional ten percent (10%) of the total actual cost of the subcontracted Work for indirect and administrative costs.

If Work is paid by Force Account, the Department will pay the Contractor in accordance with the following Sections. If Subcontractors perform Work by Force Account, the

Department shall only compensate the Contractor an additional ten percent (10%) of the total cost of the subcontracted Work for indirect and administrative costs.

If the Contractor submits a timely notice of potential Claim in accordance with Section

105.19, “Notice of Potential Claim,” the Project Manager may, without admitting liability for the

Claim, direct the Contractor to keep a complete and accurate account, in detail, of the cost of doing the Work on a Force Account basis. Failure to maintain records on a Force Account basis when so directed by the Project Manager shall waive any associated Claim by the

Contractor.

109.6.1 Labor

The Department will pay the Contractor for labor, the wage rate for Force Account Work actually paid by the Contractor during the pay period ending before the issuance of the

Change Order authorizing the Force Account Work. Such payment shall include Work by supervisors in direct charge of the Force Account Work. If there is no wage rate for a labor classification needed to perform the type of Work required, the Department and Contractor will negotiate and document a new wage rate before beginning the Force Account Work.

Labor shall also include, and the Department will reimburse for, the following actual reasonable costs paid to (or on behalf of) workers:

1. Subsistence and travel allowances;

2. Health and welfare benefits;

3. Pension fund benefits; and

4. Other benefits required by collective bargaining agreements or other employment

Contract, applicable to the class of labor.

The Department will pay an additional 35% of the labor cost for overhead and profit.

109.6.2 Bond, Insurance, and Tax

The Department will pay the Contractor either:

Option 1

The actual cost of the following, plus six percent (6%):

1. Property damage, liability, and worker’s compensation insurance premiums;

2. Unemployment insurance premiums or contributions;

3. Applicable payroll taxes (not including gross receipts taxes); and

4. Social Security taxes.

Section 109: Measurement and Payment Page 84

To recover actual costs, the Contractor shall provide satisfactory evidence of the rate(s) it has paid for bonds, insurance, and taxes.

Option 2

In lieu of supplying the above evidence and recovering actual costs:

1. The Contractor shall receive payment at a rate representing 30% of the labor costs for labor burden; and

2. The Contractor shall also receive payment for one percent (1%) of the total Force

Account amount for the Contract Bonds.

109.6.3 Materials

The Department will pay the Contractor the actual cost of Materials Accepted by the

Project Manager and incorporated into the Force Account Work, including transportation charges paid by the Contractor (exclusive of Equipment rentals), plus 15% of the Material cost.

109.6.4 Equipment

For machinery or special Equipment (other than small tools as defined by the Blue Book), including fuel and lubricants and transportation costs, the Department will pay rental rates as determined in accordance with Section 109.2, “Approved Equipment Rental Rates,” unless otherwise agreed in writing.

109.6.5 Miscellaneous

The Department will not pay for other costs not specifically addressed in Section 109.6

“Force Account.”

109.6.6 Documentation

The Contractor shall compare and reconcile records with the Project Manager daily, or as otherwise directed by the Project Manager, to determine the amount of Force Account Work completed by the Contractor as authorized by the Force Account Change Order.

109.6.7 Statements

The Department will not pay for Work performed by Force Account until the Contractor furnishes the Project Manager with itemized statements of the cost of the Force Account Work detailed as follows:

1. Name, classification, date, daily hours, total hours, rate, and extension for each laborer and foreman;

2. Equipment brand, year of manufacture, attachments, operating Specifications, dates of use, daily hours, total hours, current Blue Book rental rate, and rate of applicable attachment for each piece of Equipment;

3. Quantities of Materials and prices; and,

4. Transportation of Materials.

Statements shall be supported by receipted invoices for all Materials used and for transportation charges. For in-stock Materials, the Contractor shall provide an affidavit certifying that such Materials were taken from the Contractor’s stock, that the quantity claimed was actually used, and that the price and transportation claimed represent the actual cost to the Contractor.

The total payment made as provided above shall constitute full compensation for Force

Account Work authorized in writing by the Department.

Section 109: Measurement and Payment Page 85

Should Pay Items contained in the Contract become unnecessary for the reasonable completion of the Work, the Project Manager may direct the Contractor, in writing, to eliminate

Pay Items from the Contract. This written notification will not invalidate the Contract. The

Department will reimburse the Contractor for actual Work completed before the written notification at Bid Item Unit Price.

The total cost of return freight, handling and restocking for Materials associated with that eliminated Work will then be increased by 15%. If Materials cannot be returned, the

Department will pay for said Materials at Contractor’s actual cost and take ownership.

The Department will make Progress Payments at least once each month as the Work progresses. The Project Manager will prepare and post Progress Payments based on estimates of the value of the Work performed and Materials complete-in-place, and in accordance with Section 109.9, “Stockpile” and minus price reductions within five (5) Days of the estimate cut-off date.

The Department will include in the Progress Payments monies associated with accepted fully executed Change Orders, this shall be included within the next regularly scheduled

Progress Payment or within 60 Days.

The Project Manager shall process a Progress Payment on a monthly basis regardless of the dollar amount, including zero dollar ($0.00), owed the Contractor. The Department will not make a payment when the total value of the Work completed since the last Progress Payment is less than $1,000.00 unless the Contractor requests such payment in writing and the Project

Manager approves such payment.

109.8.1 Retainage

The Department will make Progress Payments to the Contractor in accordance with

Section 109.8 “Progress Payments”. The Department will pay 100% of the value of Work performed and Materials complete in place in accordance with Section 109.9, “Stockpile”, until the sum of the Progress Payments made equals 95% of the Total Original Contract Amount as amended by Change Order. The Department will continue to make additional Progress

Payments in the sum of zero dollars ($0.00) after the Total Original Contract Amount as amended by Change Order equals 95% and until the Contractor completes the Work in an acceptable manner. The five percent (5%) retained when the Progress Payments equals 95% of the Total Original Contract Amount as amended by Change Order is the amount considered necessary to protect the interests of the public and the Department; those interests include ensuring that the Work is Acceptable, on schedule, in compliance with the Contract, and that the Work reaches Substantial Completion and final Acceptance. Subject to other deductions the amount retained shall be provided to the Contractor in accordance with Section 109.10

“Project Closure.”

109.8.2 Non-Conformance

If the Contractor fails to comply with all material terms and conditions of the Contract the

Department shall withhold an additional 25% as a Non-Conformance from each Progress

Payment and subsequent Progress Payments in addition to Retainage until the Contractor fully complies with the Contract. Release of Non-Conformance withholdings shall be processed at the next scheduled Progress Payment after the resolution of the Non-

Conformance.

Nothing in this section prevents the Department from withholding application and certification for payment because of the following: unsatisfactory job progress, defective construction not remedied, disputed Work, third party Claims filed or reasonable evidence that a Claim will be filed, failure of the Contractor to make timely or prompt payments for labor,

Equipment, and Materials, damage to the Department, reasonable evidence that the Work cannot be completed for the unpaid balance of the Contract, or for Retainage.

Section 109: Measurement and Payment Page 86

The Contractor is not entitled to late payment charges, including late payment charges pursuant to NMSA 1978, § 13-1-158, associated with any payment retained under this

Section.

109.9 STOCKPILE

Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, it is the policy of the Department and the intent of this Contract to provide payment for Work for Items that have been Accepted and placed on the Project. However, upon adequate written justification provided from the

Contractor seeking an exemption to this policy, the Project Manager may approve partial

(stockpile) payment for the following Items not yet incorporated and Accepted into the Work and stored in a manner Accepted by the Project Manager.

1. Bid Items Pre-fabricated by a Supplier.

Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, the Project Manager shall not approve partial

(stockpile) payment for the following Items or Materials not yet incorporated and Accepted into the Work.

1. Items Pre-fabricated by the Contractor or Subcontractor unless otherwise specified in the Contract;

2. Items or Materials associated with the typical section e.g. Aggregates, Cement,

Asphalt Binder, Lime etc.;

3. Items associated with SWPPP;

4. Items associated with Signs; and,

5. Any Item or Material stored off the Project.

After measurement, partial (stockpile) payments to the Contractor may be made for Items on hand not to exceed 50% of the Bid Item price under the following conditions:

1. The Items will be incorporated in the Work;

2. The Items are delivered to the Project or to a storage place approved by the Project

Manager;

3. The delivered Items meet the requirements of the Contract;

4. The Items are purchased from a Supplier or Fabricator and are not produced by the

Contractor or a Subcontractor unless otherwise specified in the Contract;

5. The Contractor submits paid invoices, certified by the Supplier or Fabricator, to the

Project Manager; and

6. Unless otherwise specified in the Contract partial (stockpile) payments for Items on hand shall not exceed 50% the Bid Item price.

Step I.

Step II.

Step III.

Step IV.

Step V.

Contractor Notice of Projected Substantial Completion Date

Department Determination of Substantial Completion

Termination of Contract Time

Project Inspection and Development of Punch List

Notice of Punch List Completion and Request of Final Inspection

Step VI.

Step VII.

Final Inspection

Contractor Submittal of Final Documentation

Step VIII. Physical Completion and Release of Retainage and Final Payment

109.10.1 Contractor Notice of Projected Substantial Completion Date

Section 109: Measurement and Payment Page 87

The Contractor shall provide written notification to the ADE-Construction of the projected

Substantial Completion date. This notice shall be provided a minimum of 30 Days prior to the projected date unless otherwise directed by the Project Manager.

109.10.2 Department Determination of Substantial Completion

Prior to the projected Substantial Completion date, the ADE-Construction and the Project

Manager shall conduct a completion conference with the Contractor to review the Project and determine conformance with the Contract. The Department and Contractor will address all outstanding Work needed for Substantial Completion. The Department and Contractor will agree on the schedule for completion of all Work necessary for project closure pursuant to

Section 109.10 “Project Closure”.

Within five (5) Days of the completion conference or as directed by the Project Manager the Contractor shall submit for approval by the Project Manager the Contractor’s proposed updated schedule for project closure.

109.10.3 Termination of Contract Time

The Contractor shall provide to the ADE-Construction a written request to determine

Substantial Completion. Within two (2) Days of receipt of the request for Substantial

Completion the ADE-Construction will issue a determination of Substantial Completion,

Contract Time or, if applicable, Liquidated Damages assessments will cease upon Substantial

Completion.

109.10.4 Project Inspection and Development of Punch List

The Project Manager shall inspect the Project to verify that all Work is complete or develop Punch List items upon the determination of Substantial Completion. The Project

Manager shall provide the Contractor written notice that all Work is complete or shall provide a

Punch List. Contract Time shall resume if the Contractor fails to provide Acceptable Work associated with the Punch List within the agreed upon schedule or does not complete all items of Work by the date specified in the updated schedule. Resumed Contract Time shall continue until all Punch List Work is Accepted.

109.10.5 Notice of Punch List Completion and Request of Final Inspection

The Contractor shall provide written notification to the Project Manager that the Punch

List is complete and request final inspection.

The final inspection by the Project Manager and the ADE - Construction will be scheduled and conducted within five (5) Days of the Contractor written request for final inspection. If the

Project Manager and the ADE - Construction are satisfied that the Work is complete and

Acceptable, that inspection shall constitute the final inspection. The Project Manager shall provide written notification of this Acceptance to the Contractor within two (2) Days.

If the inspection reveals unacceptable or unsatisfactory Work, the Project Manager shall give the Contractor written instructions for correction and set the time limit for the Contractor to comply with these instructions. Upon the Contractor’s correction of the Work, written notification shall be provided to the Project Manager, the Project Manager shall make an additional inspection and notify the Contractor of the findings as soon as reasonably practicable.

The Department will Accept the Project as soon as practicable after completion and inspection of the Work. Acceptance is final and conclusive, except for the following situations:

2. Fraud;

Section 109: Measurement and Payment Page 88

3. Gross mistakes that amount to fraud; or

4. The Department’s warranty or guaranty rights.

109.10.7 Contractor Submittal of Final Documentation

The Contractor shall submit all documents required by the Contract including the Final

Payment Voucher, Certificate of Payment of Claims, Summary to Contractor, Pit Release

Letter, Insurance Bonding Release, Affidavit of Wages Paid and Surety Release.

The Contractor shall furnish a Certificate of Payment of Claims from persons or firms, including the Contractor, who have filed Claims for additional compensation, for labor performed, or for Material, supplies, or services furnished to the Contractor or its

Subcontractors.

The Department shall withhold final payment until the Contractor furnishes all documents required by the Contract.

109.10.8 Physical Completion and Release of Retainage and Final Payment

The Department shall not release retained amounts until Physical Completion and when the Contractor fully complies with all Contract requirements. Upon Acceptance of Punch List, all Work and receipt of all final documentation the ADE-Construction shall provide a written determination of Physical Completion to the Contractor. Within 60 Days of the written determination of the District Engineer or the designee (ADE-Construction) that the Project has reached Physical Completion, the Department may reduce Retainage if final payment has not been made.

The Project Manager shall prepare a proposed final payment statement (estimate). The proposed final payment statement (estimate) shall correct all prior Progress Payments and release Retainage. The Department shall withhold from the proposed final payment statement

(estimate) any disputed amounts, Liquidated Damages and overpayments. Regardless of a disputed or pending Claim, the Contractor will have the right to sign an alternate final payment statement (estimate). With the Department’s approval of the final payment under either the regular form or the alternate form, the Department will pay all remaining undisputed amounts due to the Contractor.

The Contractor shall approve and return the Department’s final payment statement

(estimate) or request an alternate final payment statement (estimate) within 30 Days of receipt. Upon receipt of final payment statement (estimate) from the Contractor or expiration of 30 Days, the Department shall Accept the Work, pay the balance due on the final payment statement (estimate) and close the Project.

A Claim is forever barred if the Claim is not timely and properly submitted pursuant to

Section 105.19, “Notice of Potential Claim” and Section 105.20, “Administrative Remedy” within 30 Days of receipt of the Departments proposed final payment statement (estimate). If the Contractor has a disputed Claim and has fully complied with the Administrative Remedy provisions of Section 105.19 “Notice of Potential Claim” and Section 105.20 “Administrative

Remedy”, the alternate final payment statement (estimate) shall constitute a stipulation by the parties that the acceptance of such payment, the proffering or acceptance of the alternate final payment statement or the making of such refund does not constitute any bar, admission, or estoppel, or waiver of the Claim or any defense thereto, or have any effect as to the pending

Claim between the Contractor and the Department.

The Contractor shall reimburse or refund the Department for any overpayment in response to a request for refund of overpayment within 30 Days of the Department’s demand.

Failure by the Contractor to comply may subject the Contractor to default and to rejection of the Contractor’s Bids in accordance with Section 102.5, “Refusal or Rejection of Bids,” until such time that Contractor complies with this Section.

109.11 COMPENSATION FOR CLAIMS

Section 109: Measurement and Payment Page 89

The Contractor is not entitled to payment for Work or that portion of Work that is the subject of a disputed Claim; the Department shall pay undisputed monies due for Accepted

Work. The Contractor is not entitled to late payment charges, including late payment charges pursuant to NMSA 1978, § 13-1-158, associated with any Claim or disputed construction services and Materials. The Department will pay the Contractor late payment charges as authorized by NMSA 1978, § 13-1-158 for construction services and Materials not the subject of a disputed Claim or subject to Retainage or withheld Progress Payments and that have been certified by the Department to have been received and Accepted. The Department will pay the Contractor late payment charges on undisputed, qualified, delayed Progress

Payments for certified, approved and Accepted Work in accordance with Section 109.8,

“Progress Payments” that are not the subject of a disputed Claim.

The Contractor is barred from seeking a Claim, a remedy, compensation, time, cause of action, or any damages except as provided by Section 105.19, “Notice of Potential Claim,” and

Section 105.20 “Administrative Remedy,” and this Section.

The Contractor shall not be entitled to any consequential, indirect, punitive, exemplary, special, or incidental damages and shall only be entitled to additional compensation and time as specifically provided by the following Sections of these Specifications: Section 104.2,

“Significant Change in the Character of the Work”; Section 104.3, “Differing Site Condition”;

Section 104.4, “Extra Work”; Section 107.10.3, “Cooperation with Owner of Railroad Right of

Way”; Section 108.6, “Determination and Extension of Contract Time”; Section 108.10,

“Termination of Contract; No Fault of Contractor”; Section 109, “Measurement and Payment”; and this Section.

Except as otherwise agreed to by the Contractor and the Department in a written Change

Order, all Claims and causes of action arising out of the performance and administration of the

Contract, including Claims for Delay, Claims for additional compensation and time, Contract adjustment, Claims seeking extension of Contract Time, Claims seeking Delay damages, pass-through Subcontractor Claims, causes of action for breach of Contract, promissory estoppel, equitable estoppel, waiver, detrimental reliance, bad faith breach of contract, breach of the covenant of good faith and fair dealing, or any other cause of action arising out of the performance of the Work or the Contract shall be governed by this Section. The compensation, time and damages provided for in this Section are exclusive, complete, and apply regardless of whether such Claims are to be resolved pursuant to the procedures set forth in Section 105.20, “Administrative Remedy,” or any other legal or administrative procedure, whether or not authorized herein, including arbitration, mediation, or appeal.

Delay. The term “Delay” does not include time extensions granted by the Department by

Change Order in accordance with Section 108.6, “Determination and Extension of Contract

Time” that do not result in any additional compensation.

The Contractor’s entitlement to compensation and time with regard to a Delay is defined, limited to, and provided as follows:

1. Excusable Delay: A Delay beyond the Contractor’s control that negatively impacts the critical path of the Project and is not caused, in whole or in part, by the

Contractor’s fault or negligence and for which a time extension, but not additional compensation, may be granted;

2. Compensable Delay: An Excusable Delay that negatively impacts the critical path of the Project resulting from the neglect or default of the Department or from

Differing Site Conditions. For such Delays, the Department may grant additional time and compensation. Examples of a Compensable Delay includes Delays attributable to design errors not readily discovered through Pre-Bid Due Diligence, failure by the Department to acquire Right of Way, and Department-initiated design changes;

3. Noncompensable Delay: An unforeseen and unanticipated Excusable Delay not caused by the fault of either the Contractor or the Department that negatively impacts the critical path of the Project. For such delays, the Contractor may receive

Section 109: Measurement and Payment Page 90

an extension of time but not additional compensation. Examples of a

Noncompensable Delay includes Delays attributable to utility conflicts, widespread

Materials shortages, extreme weather, war, acts of God, and labor strikes.

4. Concurrent Delay: A Delay for which the Contractor is not entitled to compensation that occurs when both the Contractor and the Department independently Delay work, or that occurs when the Contractor is responsible for an Excusable or

Compensable Delay and also encounters a Differing Site Condition, which negatively impacts critical path activities during approximately the same time period or when separate Delays to the critical path occur at approximately the same time.

The Contractor is not entitled to compensation due to or arising from a Concurrent

Delay. The Contractor is not entitled to an extension of Contract Time for any period in which a Non-excusable Delay is concurrent with an Excusable Delay.

When a Noncompensable Delay is concurrent with a Compensable Delay, the

Contractor may be entitled to an extension of Contract Time but not entitled to compensation for the period the Noncompensable delay is concurrent with the

Compensable Delay.

5. Inexcusable Delay or Nonexcusable Delay: a Delay for which the Contractor is not entitled to compensation or time that was caused by: factors within the Contractor’s control; the fault or responsibility of the Contractor; factors that could or should have reasonably been foreseen by the Contractor; Delays caused by an event that the Contractor could have foreseen and prevented but failed to do so; or failure to reasonably mitigate a Delay. Examples of inexcusable or nonexcusable Delays include those attributable to reasonably expected seasonal inclement weather events, reasonable time periods necessary for reviews of shop drawings by the

Department, for changes or additions to the Work that do not negatively impact the critical path of the Project, inefficient operation, inefficient or ineffective construction management, failure by the Contractor to properly perform Pre-Bid Due Diligence, failure by the Contractor to procure Materials in a timely manner, or failure by the

Contractor to assign sufficient resources to the Project.

6. Non-critical Disruption: a disruption or interference with Contractor’s performance, regardless of cause, that does not negatively impact the critical path of the Project and therefore does not meet the definition of a Delay and for which the Contractor receives neither compensation nor time.

Additional time for Delay. The Department may only extend Contract Time for an

Excusable Delay, Compensable Delay, or a Non-compensable Delay. The Department may only grant an extension of Contract Time for an Excusable Delay using the Acceptable updated monthly or revised schedules current at the time the Delay occurred.

Compensation for Delay. The Department may only compensate the Contractor for a non-Concurrent, Compensable Delay as provided in this Section. In order to receive compensation for a Delay the Contractor shall document costs resulting from the Delay using actual cost records, shall measure expenses using generally accepted accounting principles, and shall comply with Section 108.3.2, “Schedule Format,” and Section 105.20.1, “District

Level.” The compensation which the Contractor may recover for a Delay Claim is limited to:

1. Non-salaried labor expenses;

3. Equipment costs pursuant to Section 109.2 “Approved Equipment Rental Rates”;

4. Costs of extended job site overhead, including bonds; or,

5. An additional ten percent (10%) of the total of items 1, 2, 3, and 4 to cover home office overhead, salaried labor expenses, and profit.

The Department reserves the right to use innovative bidding approaches, as specified in the Contract, as an alternate means of calculating Delay damages including requiring Bidders to bid a daily overhead rate (cost / Working Day) as a Bid Item Unit Price. If the Contract requires that the Contractor escrow its Bid documents, the escrow Bid Documents may be considered in resolving Claims.

Section 109: Measurement and Payment Page 91

If the source of the loss of productivity and Compensable Delay cannot be isolated and priced separately, the method by which the Department shall calculate the extent of an

Excusable Delay caused by a production rate inefficiency shall be made in the following order of priority:

1. Measured Mile analysis by which the Department shall compare actual efficiency

(production rates) in an impacted area to actual efficiency in a comparable nonimpacted area;

2. Comparison of actual efficiency to actual efficiency on a comparable project; and,

3. Comparison of actual efficiency to planned efficiency taking into account the

Contractor’s Baseline Schedule and timely submitted Acceptable updated monthly or revised schedules.

In no event shall the Department make a payment based on application of the Eichleay formula, the Total Cost Method or other formula including original Contract period formula, fixed overhead formula, burden fluctuation method, and comparative absorption rates.

Non-Allowable Damages. Regardless of the basis or cause of the Claim, the Contractor may not recover and is not entitled to recover the following categories of damage:

1. Any compensation except as provided by Section 109.11 “Compensation for

Claims” and for Delay;

2. Loss of anticipated profit, incentives or bonuses;

4. Home office overhead regardless of whether it is characterized as absorbed, unabsorbed, or extended exceeding that provided in Section 109.11 “Compensation for Claims”;

5. Home office overhead, extended home office overhead, or Delay damages calculated using the Eichleay formula or other formula including original Contract period formula, fixed overhead formula, burden fluctuation method, and comparative absorption rates;

6. Any indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages, including, but not limited to, lost or impaired bonding capacity, loss of Bidding and contracting opportunities, loss of credit standing, cost of financing, interest paid, lost Material discounts, economic loss, loss of reputation, loss of other Work, loss of use, loss of business opportunity, loss of product or output, income, loss of profit or revenue, cost of capital, financing, and for loss of management or employee productivity or of the services of such persons, other not Project direct costs, and business devastation, bankruptcy, or insolvency. The Department waives any entitlement to consequential damages from the Contractor other than liquidated damages as provided in the

Contract;

7. Acceleration costs and expenses, except where the Department has expressly and specifically directed the Contractor in writing to accelerate the Work at the

Department’s expense;

8. Indirect costs or expenses;

9. Late payment charges, including late payment charges pursuant to NMSA 1978, §

13-1-158, related to any disputed Claim, or on any judgment or award made to the

Contractor. This provision does not affect the Department’s payment of late payment charges on undisputed, qualified, delayed Progress Payments for certified, approved and Accepted Work in accordance with Section 109.8, “Progress

Payments” that are not the subject of a disputed Claim;

10. Prejudgment or post-judgment interest related to or arising from any disputed Claim or on any Award made to the Contractor; or,

11. Attorneys’ fees and costs, Claim preparation expenses, and litigation or other costs related to or arising from any disputed Claim, or prosecution thereof.

Section 109: Measurement and Payment Page 92

DIVISION 200 – EARTHWORK

Division Contents

203: Excavation, Borrow, and Embankment .................................. 96

206: Excavation and Backfill for Culverts and Minor Structures ..... 108

209: Blading and Reshaping .......................................................... 112

210: Excavation and Backfill for Major Structures .......................... 113

Division: 200 Page 93

201.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of clearing, grubbing, scalping, removing, and disposing of vegetation and debris. This Work includes protecting vegetation designated to remain and removal or control of all State-listed noxious weed species identified in the Contract. Scalping includes the removal of material such as brush, roots, sod, stumps, and the residue of agricultural crops.

201.2

MATERIALS

201.2.1 Paint

Use Department approved asphalt base paint designed for tree surgery.

201.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

201.3.1 General

The Department will establish Right of Way lines, construction limits, and designate trees, shrubs, plants, and other items to remain.

Remove surface debris, trees, stumps, roots, organic matter, and other obstructions.

When approved by the Project Manager, the Contractor may leave undisturbed stumps and other solid objects within the Roadway Prism that do not extend more than six (6) inches above existing ground and will be at least four (4) ft below the finished Subgrade elevation.

Remove hazardous objects and debris from the Project .

Backfill and compact stump holes and other holes in accordance with Section 203.3.5, “Embankments.”

Remove low-hanging branches from trees or shrubs designated to remain. Trim overhanging tree branches to provide a clearance 20 ft above the Roadway surface. Paint the cut or scarred surfaces of trees and shrubs designated to remain in accordance with

Section 201.2.1, “Paint.”

Confine operations including dragging, piling, and burning of debris to Department approved areas.

Remove or control all State-listed noxious weed species within the Right of Way Project limits as identified in the Contract in a manner that prevents their re-growth and spread.

Herbicide use shall comply with all applicable Federal, State, County and Municipal regulations and ordinances.” The current New Mexico Noxious Weed List is available at: http://plants.usda.gov/java/noxious?rptType=State&statefips=35

Fell and cut timber (to the specified length) in accordance with the Contract. Stack cut logs as directed by the Project Manager.

201.3.3 Scalping

Scalp before excavation or placement of Embankment. Remove organic material under pipe Culvert bedding, regardless of Embankment height.

201.3.4 Removal and Disposal of Material

Remove from the Right of Way Materials that cannot be safely or adequately disposed of or burned within the Project and dispose at locations outside the Project.

Obtain written permission from the owners of property used for debris material disposal.

Section 201: Clearing and Grubbing Page 94

Burn Materials:

1. In accordance with applicable laws and regulations;

2. Under the constant care of competent watchmen;

3. Without damage to items designated to remain on the Right of Way, surrounding property, or vegetative cover.

The Roadway and adjacent areas shall have a neat and finished appearance after any removal and disposal of material. Do not accumulate flammable Materials on or adjacent to the Right of Way.

201.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

201.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

201.5.1 Work Included in Payment

The Department will consider the following Work as included in the payment for Clearing and Grubbing and no separate payment will be made:

1. Obtaining disposal locations and in making the disposal;

2. When clearing and grubbing is not established as a pay item;

3. Herbicide applied for noxious weed control;

4. Delivery to storage site if required of salvageable timber.

Section 201: Clearing and Grubbing Page 95

SECTION 203: EXCAVATION, BORROW, AND EMBANKMENT

203.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of performing excavation, providing borrow, constructing

Embankment, hauling, disposing, placing, and compacting Materials.

203.2

MATERIALS

The Department will provide geotechnical investigation and pavement investigation results (when available) in the Contract documents. Use the results for information only.

Rock excavation is material that meets one (1) of the following field test criteria:

1. Ripping Test. Material that can not be broken down by one pass with a single tooth ripper mounted on a crawler-type tractor in low gear with a minimum net flywheel power rating of 255 hp;

2. Seismic Test. Material that has a seismic velocity greater than 6,000 ft/s. Submit the qualifications of the person performing and interpreting the seismic testing for

Project Manager Approval at least 14 Days before testing. Perform the Ripping Test to resolve differences in material classification if seismic velocities fall below

6,000 ft/s;

3. Handling Test. Rock with a volume greater than 1 yd

3

that cannot be readily broken down with excavation Equipment.

Unclassified excavation is material other than rock excavation.

203.2.1.3 Borrow

Material from Contractor-provided sources required for Embankment, subexcavation replacement or other Work approved by the Department.

203.2.1.4 Subexcavation

Subexcavation is existing material that is unsuitable. Unsuitable material is that with an

R-value less than the Contract R-value, or if Deleterious Material is present. Subexcavation shall consist of excavating unsuitable material below established Profile Grade or typical cross-section shown on the Plans, or as designated by the Project Manager. Voids created by subexcavation shall be backfilled with approved material meeting the R-value requirements shown in the Contract.

Unstable Subgrade is defined as Subgrade that is soft, pumping, and/or displaces with applied loading when encountered in non-borrow sections such as cuts or existing grades, due to no fault or neglect of the Contractor.

203.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

203.3.1 General

Finish excavation and Embankment for the Roadway, intersections, and entrances to reasonably smooth and uniform surfaces. Do not remove Materials from the Project limits without the approval of the Project Manager. Ensure the top 2 ft of the finished Subgrade contains material with the design R-value. Preserve the Materials below and beyond the lines

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and grades while conducting excavation operations. Before beginning excavation, grading, and Embankment operations, perform the necessary clearing and grubbing in accordance with

Section 201, “Clearing and Grubbing.” Notify the Project Manager before opening excavation or borrow areas. Take cross section elevations of the ground surface before opening excavation or borrow areas.

Terminate operations in the immediate area of environmental or Cultural Resources not listed in the Contract, until the Department reviews and completes appropriate mitigation

Discoveries.”

Place excess or unsuitable excavated material (including rock and boulders unsuitable for Embankments) in the toe of any fills, or use to flatten slopes of nearby fills. Place at least

2 ft of cover soil over the rocks and boulders. Dispose of excess or unsuitable material in accordance with environmental requirements and as approved by the Project Manager.

203.3.2 Excavation

Within cut sections, remove excavated material from the limits of the cut section to the

Subgrade elevation for the width of the Roadbed. Finish Roadbed cut sections to a smooth and uniform surface. Remove unsuitable or unstable material below finished Subgrade. Take cross-sectional measurements after the removal of unsuitable and unstable material.

Perform proper drilling and blasting operations in accordance with the specified practices.

When required, perform controlled blasting of rock excavation to produce a clean face on the excavated cut. Ensure subsequent blasting and excavation operations do not affect previously excavated faces. Do not excavate more than six (6) inches below the specified

Subgrade elevation for Roadbed cuts in rock, unless directed otherwise. Do not leave undrained pockets on the Roadbed surface. Place and compact Base Course on the rock cut foundation in accordance with Section 304, “Base Course.”

Use controlled blasting to establish a specified backslope with minimal blast damage, and production blasting to facilitate excavation. Before the start of blasting, notify adjacent property owners and occupants.

203.3.3.1.1 Definitions

Blasting Operations. Activities related to blasting including, but not limited to the following:

1. Collaring and drilling blast holes;

2. Preparing, fixing, loading, and firing explosive charges;

3. Assessing the blast after detonation; and

Buffer Row. The first row of production blast holes immediately adjacent and drilled in a plane parallel to the controlled blast line. The explosive load in the buffer row should be reduced from standard production loads to minimize damage to the backslope of the final excavation.

Controlled Blasting. The controlled use of explosives and blasting accessories in carefully spaced and aligned blast holes to provide a free surface or shear plane in the rock along the specified backslope, and to limit fly rock, permanent ground displacement, air concussion, and overbreak. Controlled blasting methods include pre-splitting and cushion blasting.

Cushion Blasting (Trim Blasting). The simultaneous detonation of one (1) line of blast

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holes along a specified excavation backslope after the main excavation is complete.

This method is performed to trim the excavation to the final backslope.

Final Line (Controlled Blast Line). Refers to the row of controlled blast holes drilled in the plane of a specified excavation backslope. The controlled blast holes drilled in this plane constitute the basis for payment under the Controlled Blasting pay item.

The Department considers the blast holes drilled in front of the final line blast holes to be production blast holes, which are Incidental to the Rock Excavation pay item.

Pre-Splitting. The simultaneous detonation of one (1) line of blast holes drilled along a specified excavation backslope before production blast holes are fired.

Production Blasting. Fragmentation blasting in the main excavation area.

203.3.3.1.2 Submittals

Do not begin drilling or blasting Work until the Project Manager approves of the Blaster in

Charge. Submit the name and qualifications of the proposed Blaster in Charge to the Project

Manager for approval at least 30 Days before the delivery of explosive material to the Project.

Provide the following information:

1. Proof of a license by the applicable State and/or local regulatory agencies to possess, transport, and use explosives;

2. A list of, and references, for at least three (3) blasting Projects, of similar complexity, successfully completed within the previous five (5) years.

The Blaster in Charge must be on site during blasting operations.

Submit a General Blasting Plan to the Project Manager for each cut that requires blasting, at least two (2) weeks before the start of drilling and blasting operations on a specified cut. Provide the following information in the General Blasting Plan:

1. Description of the proposed blasting operation;

2. Preliminary design criteria for production and controlled blasting, including blast hole depths and patterns; and

3. Details regarding the proposed explosives and blasting accessories;

Submit a Detailed Blasting Plan at least 48 h before an individual blast. Provide the following information in the Detailed Blasting Plan:

4. Station limits of the proposed location of the blast, including the bench elevation, if applicable;

5. Date and time the blasting will occur;

6. Required removal of overburden, if applicable;

7. Plan and cross section diagrams of proposed drill pattern for controlled and production blast holes, including buffer rows, free face, burden, blast hole spacing, blast hole diameters, blast hole angles, lift height, and subdrill depth. Draw these

Plans and cross sections to scale;

8. Loading diagram showing the type and amount of explosives, primers, and initiators; and the location, depth, and type of stemming;

9. Initiation sequence of controlled and production blast holes, including delay times and the delay system;

10. Manufacturer’s data sheets for the explosives, primers, and initiators to be used.

Submit the blasting Plans to the Project Manager for review and approval. The Project

Manager will review and provide comments to the Contractor. Submit revisions to the blasting

Plans for final review and approval. Do not proceed with drilling and blasting operations

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related to a General Blasting Plan or loading of blast holes associated with a Detailed Blasting

Plan without written approval.

Cease blasting operations and submit revised blasting Plans if the Department determines that the blasting operations under the employed methods are causing property damage in and beyond the Right of Way.

Prepare and submit to the Department a Blasting Record for each blast, on the Day of the blast. Provide the following information in a Blasting Record:

1. Actual dimensions of the shot, including blast hole diameters and depths, burden, spacing, subdrilling depths, stemming, powder loads, powder factors, and timing;

2. A drawing or sketch showing the direction of the face and the physical shot layout;

3. The location of the blast in relation to Project stationing and elevation;

4. The date and time of loading and detonation;

5. The name and signature of the person responsible for loading and firing;

6. Comments by Blaster in Charge regarding misfires, fly rock occurrences, unusual results or effects; and damage to existing facilities, adjacent property, or completed

Work;

7. Vibration and blast monitoring results; and

8. Any complaints received due to the blasting.

203.3.3.1.3 Explosives

Transport, store, handle, and use explosives in accordance with applicable federal, State, and local laws and regulations. Purchase explosives and accessory devices from industry recognized Suppliers and manufactures. Use explosives and accessory devices in accordance with manufacturer instructions. Do not use expired products.

The CFR specifies responsibility for the following federal agencies regarding the administration of regulations involving explosive Materials:

1. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF). Storage and accountability of record keeping and security in accordance with 27 CFR part 555;

2. OSHA. Transportation, worker safety, and health in accordance with title 29 CFR; storage and safe blasting practices in handling and use in accordance with 29 CFR part 1926.900 et seq;

3. Federal Department of Transportation (USDOT). Transportation and public safety,

49 CFR.

The fire marshal, sheriff, or other local officials, may have additional regulations for explosive Materials.

203.3.3.1.4 Safety

Follow safe practices, including the following:

1. Federal, State, and local regulations pertaining to the transportation, storage, and use of explosives must be strictly followed;

2. When required, the Blaster in Charge must obtain a blasting permit from the local regulatory agency before blasting;

3. Only persons authorized and qualified based on training and experience will handle and use explosives;

4. No person will smoke; carry matches or other flame producing devices; or carry firearms or loaded cartridges while in or near a motor vehicle that is transporting explosives;

5. Keep track of explosives at all times. Explosives must be stored and locked in an approved magazine facility in accordance with the applicable provisions of the

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Department, ATF, and OSHA until used in blasting;

6. Post appropriate signs in the required areas and vehicles in accordance with federal regulations;

7. Safely station the necessary guards or flag persons on Highways during blasting to control Highway traffic;

8. Before starting Work in the cut, observe the entire blast area for at least five (5) minutes after each blast. Remove potentially dangerous rocks or other material located beyond the excavation limits. Cease blasting operations if the required slopes are not stable, or if the safety and convenience of the public are being jeopardized.

For each cut that requires blasting, perform a vibration risk survey of nearby buildings,

Structures, utilities, water supplies, or environmentally sensitive areas that may be at risk of blasting or construction damage. Perform the vibration risk survey in accordance with Section

617, “Vibration Monitoring.” Obtain written approval for the vibration risk survey from the

Project Manager before drilling blast holes.

203.3.3.1.6 Blasting Test Sections

Demonstrate the adequacy of proposed Blasting Plan with a blasting test section(s) for material of different geologic characteristics. For Projects involving multiple cuts in similar geologic Materials, the Project Manager may reduce the requirement for a blasting test section in each cut. Blasting test sections include drilling, blasting, and excavating cut sections approximately 100 ft long to determine the optimal combination of method, blast hole spacing, and charge. When field conditions warrant, the Project Manager may direct the Contractor to use test section lengths less than 100 ft long.

Blasting test section requirements include the following:

1. Perform the blasting test section in accordance with Section 203.3.3.1, “Blasting

Requirements.” Prepare and submit a Detailed Blasting Plan for the test section to the Project Manager at least 48 h before the planned time of the blast. Do not start blasting the test section until the Project Manager approves the Detailed Blasting

Plan;

2. Unless the Contractor’s Detailed Blasting Plan indicates otherwise, begin the tests with the controlled blast holes spaced at 30 inches;

3. After blasting, remove a sufficient amount of material from the test section to determine if the blast hole diameter, blast hole spacing, and amount of explosives are adequate to provide the required backslope. Do not continue drilling of the test section area until the test section is excavated and the Department evaluates the results.

If, at any time during the progress of the main blasting operation, the methods of drilling and blasting do not produce the desired results, revise and retest the blasting techniques until a technique produces the required results. The Department will consider the results to be unsatisfactory if:

1. There is an excessive amount of breakage beyond the indicated lines and grade;

2. There is excessive flyrock;

3. The final backslope within the specified tolerances is not uniform;

4. Ground vibration and air blast levels exceed limits as stated in Section 617,

“Vibration Monitoring;”

5. There are violations of other requirements of the Specifications;

6. The slopes are unstable;

7. The safety of the public is jeopardized;

8. Property or natural features are endangered.

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The following requirements will apply to the notification and scheduling of blasting procedures:

1. Coordinate blasting operations with the Project Manager and notify the Project

Manager a minimum of 1.5 h before the blast. Provide a one-hour timeframe for the blast. For example, if the Contactor notifies the Project Manager by 9:00 a.m. the blast may occur between 10:30 a.m. and 11:30 a.m.;

2. Provide notice to the required federal, State, and local agencies before each blast, as required by the blasting permits;

3. Notify occupants of buildings and owners of Structures and utilities of the blast time and location at least 48 h before the start of drilling or blasting;

4. Detonate blasts at the planned time, unless approved otherwise by the Project

Manager.

Cover the blast area with blasting mats, soil, or another equally serviceable material, before firing blasts in areas where flying rock may result in personal injury or damage to property or the Work.

Perform controlled blasting in accordance with the Detailed Blasting Plans that produced acceptable results in blasting test sections. Perform control blasting using either pre-splitting or cushion blasting in accordance with the following requirements:

1. If the overburden does not support the drill holes, completely remove the overburden soil and loose rock along the top of the cut to expose the rock surface before drilling the controlled blast holes;

2. Mechanically monitor the blast hole angles;

3. Drill and space blast holes with a nominal diameter from two (2) inch to three

(3) inch, in accordance with the blasting test sections or the results achieved in similar geologic Materials. Do not exceed three (3) ft;

4. Use proper Equipment and technique to ensure that no blast holes deviate from the plane of the backslope shown in the Plans by more than eight (8) inches, parallel or normal to the slope. The Department will not pay for blast holes exceeding these limits unless the Project Manager approves the obtained slopes;

5. Drill the controlled blast holes at the required slope inclination, to the full depth of the cut, or to a pre-determined stage elevation. The maximum drill depth is 30 ft.

Use shallower holes if the directional control is inadequate. If more than five percent (5%) of the controlled blast holes are misaligned in any one (1) lift, reduce the height of the lifts until the eight (8) inch tolerance is met. The length of controlled blast holes may be incrementally increased once satisfactory directional control and blast results are demonstrated;

6. Drill unloaded and un-stemmed guide holes to the same diameter, in the same plane, and to the same tolerance as the controlled blast holes;

7. The Department will allow a maximum offset of 24 inches from the bottom of each lift to allow for drill Equipment clearances, when the cut requires more than one (1) lift. Begin drilling the control blast hole at a point that allows the necessary offsets, and adjust at the start of lower lifts as necessary to compensate for drift in the upper lifts;

8. Do not use horizontal blast holes for controlled blasting;

9. Use explosive charges, detonating cord, and other items necessary for the blasting operation in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations and instructions;

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10. Before placing charges, ensure the hole is free of obstructions. Use casing if necessary to prevent the walls of the hole from collapsing;

11. Use only standard explosives manufactured especially for the type of controlled blasting (cushion or pre-splitting). Do not load ammonium nitrate and fuel oil in the controlled blast holes. Use explosives and blasting accessories appropriate for the conditions of the blast hole (including water in the holes) and necessary to achieve satisfactory results;

12. Assemble and affix continuous column cartridge-type explosives to the detonating cord in accordance with the explosive manufacturer's instructions;

13. The bottom charge in a blast hole may be larger than the charges above, but not large enough to cause overbreak. Place the top charge far enough below the collar and sufficiently reduced in size to avoid overbreaking or heaving;

14. Use a dry, angular, and granular material that passes a 3/8 inch sieve to stem the controlled blast holes, from the top charge to the hole collar.

Perform pre-split blasting in accordance with Section 203.3.3.1.7.3, “Controlled Blasting

Requirements,” and the following requirements:

1. Detonate the pre-split blast holes before drilling for production blasting; or fire the pre-split blast holes at least 75 ms before the production holes if detonated in the same blast;

2. Fire pre-split blast holes simultaneously, unless ground vibrations, noise, or air blast are excessive. Fire pre-split holes in delayed sections and reduce the charge weight per delay to mitigate excessive effects;

3. The line of pre-split blast holes will extend beyond the limits of the production blast holes to be detonated. The minimum length of this extension will be 30 ft or to the end of the cut, but will not be greater than one-half of the distance of the expected blast advance;

4. Do not perform pre-split blasting if the distance between the controlled blast line and free face is less than 20 ft or less than three (3) times the blast hole depth, whichever is greater.

Perform cushion blasting in accordance with item No. 3 of Section 203.3.3.1.7.3,

Controlled Blasting Requirements,” and the following requirements:

1. Perform cushion blasting as part of the final shot after other blasting is finished;

2. If the final shot includes production blast holes, detonate the cushion blast no more than 75 ms or less than 25 ms after the production blast;

3. Fire cushion blast holes simultaneously, unless ground vibrations, noise, or air blast are excessive. Fire cushion blast holes in delayed sections and reduce the charge weight per delay to mitigate excessive effects.

Perform production blasting in accordance with the Blasting Plan that produced acceptable results in blasting test sections and the following requirements:

1. Minimize blast damage to the final excavation backslope;

2. Drill buffer rows of production blast holes on a plane approximately parallel to the controlled blast line;

3. Place the buffer row of production blast holes no closer than 6 ft to the controlled blast line unless the Contractor can prove the final excavation backslope will not be damaged by the production blast;

4. Where necessary to minimize damage to the excavation backslope, load blast holes in the buffer row lighter than other production holes;

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5. Ensure the bottoms of production blast holes are not lower than the bottom of controlled blast holes, except in the lowest lift;

6. Ensure the diameter of production blast holes does not exceed six (6) inches, unless approved by the Project Manager;

7. Before placing charges, ensure the hole is free of obstructions. Use casing, if necessary, to prevent the walls of the hole from collapsing;

8. Use a dry, angular, and granular material that passes a 3/8 inch sieve to stem the holes, from the top charge to the hole collar;

9. Detonate production blast holes in a controlled delay sequence toward a free face;

10. Do not use horizontal holes for production blasting, except for Equipment access;

11. Use explosives and blasting accessories appropriate for wet or dry blast hole conditions as necessary to achieve satisfactory results.

203.3.3.1.7.7 Scaling and Stabilization of Slopes Established by Controlled Blasting

Perform scaling and stabilization of slopes established by controlled blasting in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Observe the entire blast area following a blast before starting Work in the cut. If any rocks are loose, hanging, or potentially dangerous within a blast area, the

Contractor shall remove them. Scale slopes by hand using a standard steel mine scaling rod. Use other methods to supplement or in lieu of hand scaling, such as, machine scaling, hydraulic splitters, or light blasting, if approved by the Project

Manager;

2. Slopes shall be scaled and stabilized before further construction activities take place. Scale slopes throughout the span of the Contract and as often as necessary to keep the slopes free of hazardous loose rock or overhangs;

3. Cease blasting operations if the following conditions exist:

3.1. There is an excessive amount of breakage beyond the specified lines and grade;

3.2. There is excessive flyrock;

3.3. The final backslope within the specified tolerances is not uniform;

3.4. Ground vibration and air blast levels exceed limits specified in Section 617,

“Vibration Monitoring;”

3.5. There are violations of other requirements of the Specifications;

3.6. The slopes are unstable;

3.7. The safety of the public is jeopardized;

3.8. Property or natural features are endangered.

203.3.4 Borrow

Obtain the borrow source, unless otherwise specified. Use Roadbed excavated Material for Embankment before using borrow Material, unless approved by the Project Manager. If the Contractor places more than the specified amount of borrow and causes a waste of excavation, the Department will deduct the wasted amount from the borrow volume, as measured in the borrow area. After excavation is complete, blade the borrow areas and leave in a condition to allow accurate payment measurements by cross sectioning. Restore Right of

Way fencing removed for borrow operations to its original condition or better. Prevent livestock from entering Right of Way.

203.3.5 Embankments

Do not place Embankment Material on frozen earth, or incorporate frozen soils in

Embankments. Suspend Embankment construction if Embankment Materials become frozen.

Do not resume until the Materials are thawed and suitable for compaction. Before beginning

Embankment construction, perform scalping in accordance with Section 201, “Clearing and

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Grubbing.” Bench new Embankments into the following:

1. Natural slopes including rock;

2. Existing Embankments; or

3. Phased Embankment construction.

Ensure benches are wide enough to allow operation and placement of compacting

Equipment. Re-compact new Embankment Material and Material that is cut out at no additional cost to the Department. Do not place rock, broken concrete, or other solid Materials in Embankment areas where driven pilings, drilled caissons, utility lines, or other Structures are specified in the Plans.

Break up the original ground surface to at least six (6) inches by plowing, scarifying, or stepping up. Compact this area to 95% of maximum density in accordance with

Section 203.3.8, “Moisture and Density Control.” Place Material for Roadbed Embankment in horizontal layers not exceeding eight (8) inches thick and compact in accordance with Section

203.3.8, “Moisture and Density Control.”

The Department will allow rocks no larger than three (3) ft (in any dimension) as long as the Contractor distributes and fills the interstices to form a dense mass. If the interstices between the rock fragments cannot be completely filled and compacted, use bridging geotextile over the top of the rock fragments to prevent the overlying Embankment Material from filling the interstices. Do not use rock fragments that may degrade with time or may be water sensitive (such as shale or gypsum) as rock fill in Roadbed Embankments. The

Department considers this material to be unsuitable.

Place large rocks in the toe of the slope in accordance with the following requirements:

1. No rock is larger than one-half the Embankment height or ten (10) ft;

2. No rock is placed in fill height less than eight (8) ft, measured at the edge of the

Roadway Shoulder;

3. Place rocks inside a line six (6) inches from the slope stake, space a minimum of three (3) ft from edge to edge, and cover with approved Embankment Material.

Construct rock Embankments to a maximum of six (6) inches below Subgrade elevation.

Consolidate rock fills by using the appropriate Equipment and methods approved by the

Project Manager.

Construct non-roadbed Embankments in accordance with Section 203.3.5.1, “Roadbed

Embankments,” except, if the Embankment Material consists of rock, place the rock in layers of sufficient depth to contain the largest rock in the Material, and carefully distribute and fill the interstices to form a dense mass.

203.3.6 Subexcavation

Remove unsuitable Materials from the Subgrade unless an alternative treatment is agreed upon by the Project Manager.

203.3.7 Unstable Subgrade Stabilization

Areas that have been proof rolled and lack sufficient stability in the opinion of the Project

Manager shall be treated as unstable Subgrade.

Prior to placement of the base material, the stabilized Subgrade shall be proof rolled with a roller having a minimum weight of 30 tons and shall exhibit no displacement when proof rolled.

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The Contractor shall stabilize unstable Subgrade using acceptable chemical or mechanical methods meeting an equivalent R-value as approved by the State Pavement

Design Engineer.

203.3.8 Moisture and Density Control

Maximum dry density of all soil types encountered or used will be determined in accordance with AASHTO T 180 (Modified Proctor), Method D (TTCP Modified) and AASHTO

T 224.

Construct Roadbed, Roadbed Embankment, non-roadbed Embankment, and Roadway

Median excavation or Embankment, with moisture and density control. Compact each layer of

Embankment to at least 95% of maximum density. Ensure the moisture content of the soil, at the time of compaction, is not greater than or five percent (5%) less than the optimum level.

For soils with a plasticity index of 15 or greater, ensure the moisture content of the soil at the time of compaction is from optimum moisture to optimum moisture plus four percent (4%). If the moisture content at the time of compaction is not within the specified range, moisten or dry the Material, then thoroughly mix the Material to the full lift depth before re-compacting.

Roadbed Embankments that contain mostly rock or coarse-grained Material (65% or greater retained on the No. 4 sieve) does not require moisture and density control, except the top six

(6) inches of the Embankment; construct in accordance with Section 207.3, “Construction

Requirements.” Non-roadbed Embankments of rock Material will not require moisture and density control unless otherwise specified.

Ensure field densities are in accordance with AASHTO T 310 or other approved methods.

Measure densities at each lift before the next subsequent lift is placed in accordance with

Material Testing Requirements.

203.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Department will measure Rock Excavation based on the estimated percentages if shown in the Contract, unless otherwise requested by the Contractor.

If the Contractor requests, the Department will measure Rock Excavation in its original position for material classified as Rock Excavation in accordance with Section 203.2.1.1,

“Rock Excavation.” Before excavation, the Contractor and Project Manager must agree on the limits of material classified as rock excavation. Calculate volumes in accordance with

Section 203.4.3, “Unclassified Excavation, Borrow, and Subexcavation.” Include in measurements the overbreakage in rock excavation a maximum of ten (10) inches beyond the backslope specified in the Plans or directed by the Project Manager. The Department will use the blaster’s drill-hole log cards to determine the quantities of rock excavation covered by soil or overburden. Provide these log cards as part of the surveying records.

The Department will measure Controlled Blasting by the blast holes drilled along the final line, whether loaded or not; and will measure the lengths from the top of the rock surface to the elevation of the Roadway ditch or to a bench elevation set by the Project Manager. The

Department based the quantities for Controlled Blasting shown in the Plans on assumed blast hole spacing; the actual quantities depend on field conditions and the results from test sections.

203.4.3 Unclassified Excavation, Borrow, and Subexcavation

Measure unclassified excavation, borrow, and subexcavation in its original position. The measurements for subexcavation will include approved excavation of rock, shale, muck, or other unsuitable material, and its placement in the required Embankment or disposal as directed by the Project Manager. Cross-sectional measurements for subexcavation shall be taken before backfill is placed.

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Within cut sections, excavated material removed from the limits of the cut section to the

Subgrade elevation for the width of the Roadbed shall be paid as Unclassified Excavation.

Submit the original ground surface and final surface data for each phase of construction using an electronic XML-compatible format approved by the Project Manager. Submit volume summary reports to the Project Manager based on this electronic data for each phase of construction including a report that summarizes the basis for the final volumes. Use a licensed New Mexico professional Engineer or professional surveyor to certify these volumes.

For borrow from commercial sources, use weight converted to cubic yards at minimum specified density.

203.4.4 Unstable Subgrade Stabilization

Unstable Subgrade stabilization shall be measured by the square yard.

203.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Borrow

Subexcavation

Cubic Yard

Cubic Yard

The Department will pay for stabilization necessitated by existing geological conditions and for Base Course (and geotextile if necessary) as required to backfill rock Subgrade conditions.

The Department will pay for excavated Materials that require more than one (1) handling as identified within the Contract before final placement, including fertile topsoil required to be stockpiled and reserved for later use in the Work:

1. At the Bid Item Unit Price for unclassified excavation, for each handling approved by the Project Manager; or

2. As another item of Work for the second handling if specified in the Contract.

However, if the Contractor handles excavated and borrow Materials more than once, at the Contractor’s request or at the convenience of the Contractor, there will be no additional cost to the Department.

203.5.2 Work Included in Payment for Excavation, Backfill, and Embankments

The Department will consider as included in the payment for the pay item(s) listed in this section and will not measure or pay separately for the following Work:

1. Controlled blasting drill holes through overburden;

3. Scaling within the limits of a final backslope established by controlled blasting;

4. Mobilization of any Equipment and testing of rock in accordance with

Section 203.2.1.1, “Rock Excavation;”

5. Time Delays to perform testing of rock in accordance with Section 203.2.1.1, “Rock

Excavation;”

6. Material required to fill the voids and irregularities in the Subgrade below the tolerance limit from the specified elevation, except where the Project Manager

Section 203: Excavation, Borrow, and Embankment Page 106

requires removal of unsuitable Materials designated as subexcavation;

7. Surveying, for the purpose of payment, is considered Incidental to the excavation

Work and is the Contractor’s responsibility;

8. Hauling related to Rock Excavation, Unclassified Excavation, Borrow, and

Subexcavation;

9. Fence removal and replacement;

10. Damage resulting from blasting.

11. Suitable backfill Material for subexcavation.

12. The removed Materials shall be hauled and disposed of at the site(s) designated in the Contract or as determined by the Project Manager.

13. Proof rolling for Unstable Subgrade Stabilization shall be considered Incidental to the Contract and will not be measured or paid for separately.

Section 203: Excavation, Borrow, and Embankment Page 107

SECTION 206: EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL FOR CULVERTS AND MINOR

STRUCTURES

206.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of excavating, placing and compacting select backfill, and disposing of material related to construction of box and pipe Culverts, storm drains, cattle guards, and other drainage Structures. Excavation includes dewatering, pumping, bailing, draining, sheeting, bracing, and Incidentals required for proper execution of the Work. Ditches required at Culvert inlets and outlets, and other locations indicated in the Plans are included under the item for Unclassified Excavation.

206.2

MATERIALS

206.2.1 Select Backfill

Select backfill Material is composed of stone, crushed stone, crushed or screened gravel, caliche, sand, or a combination of these Materials; and must be free of organic matter, silt, clay balls, lumps or stones (2-inch diameter or greater), and other Deleterious Materials.

Provide Materials that are in accordance with AASHTO soil classifications A-1 or A-2-4as determined by AASHTO M 145, unless otherwise specified in the Contract. Do not use

Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) as select backfill Materials.

206.2.2 Flowable Fill

The Contractor may substitute flowable fill for select backfill in accordance with

Section 516, “Flowable Fill,” at no additional cost to the Department. Secure Culverts and minor Structures to prevent flotation.

206.2.3 Bedding

Bedding Material is composed of loose sand or sandy soil meeting the gradation requirements of Table 206.2.3:1, “Sand Bedding.” The Material shall be non-plastic.

Table 206.2.3:1

Sand Bedding

Standard Sieve Percent Passing

3/8 inch

No. 4

No. 16

No. 30

No. 50

100%

95% - 100%

50% – 85%

25% – 60%

5% - 30%

0% - 10% No.100

206.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

206.3.1 General

Remove unstable foundation material below the specified bottom-of-structure elevation and replace with approved Material, as directed by the Project Manager. Use backfill Material to backfill Culverts in accordance with Section 206.2.1, “Select Backfill,” or Section 206.2.2,

“Flowable Fill,” unless otherwise shown on the Plans. Ensure the moisture content of the soil, at the time of compaction, is not greater than or five percent (5%) less than the optimum level.

Compact the top six (6) inches of existing ground to at least 95% of maximum density in accordance with AASHTO T 180 (Modified Proctor), Method D (TTCP Modified). Maintain the density, approved surface elevation, and shape of the foundation immediately before placing

Structures and forms. Distribute backfill Material in uniform layers, each no more than eight

(8) inches deep (loose measurement), and compact to 95% of maximum density at optimum moisture to optimum moisture +/- three percent (3%) in accordance with AASHTO T 180

(Modified Proctor), Method D (TTCP Modified) and AASHTO T 224. Test for field density and moisture content using nuclear methods in accordance with AASHTO T 310. Before placing

Section 206: Excavation and Backfill for Culverts and Minor Structures Page 108

backfill Material against new masonry or concrete Structures, wait until the concrete has developed its specified design strength as determined in Section 510.3.5.1, “Concrete

Strength.” Maintain Structure alignment and integrity during backfill compaction. Do not place backfill on frozen earth or with frozen Materials. Suspend operations until Material is thawed and dried so that the moisture content meets requirements above. Remove sheeting and bracing before placing backfill.

The Project Manager may reduce the density requirement if the deflections for pipe exceed the manufacturer’s tolerances.

206.3.2 Pipe Culverts, Storm Drains, and Structural Plate Pipe

Remove rock and other unyielding foundation material a minimum of four (4) inches

(maximum 12 inches) below the bottom of the Structure. Backfill this added depth with an approved Material as identified in the Contract. Excavate trenches wide enough to allow for pipe joining and compaction of the bedding and backfill Material under and around the pipe in accordance with Section 206.3.1, “Construction Requirements, General.” Ensure that the trench width for pipes and Culverts conforms to the trench widths requirements in Section

570.3.2. Uniformly compact the trench for its full length and width. If specified in the Plans, provide the longitudinal camber of the specified magnitude for cross drains.

206.3.3 Box Culverts and Other Drainage Structures

Excavate material to the elevations established by the Contract Plans. Do not remove material, except unstable material, below the final grade, if placing footings on excavated surfaces other than rock. Remove rock and other unyielding foundation material a maximum

12 inches below the bottom of the Structure. Clean rock seams and cavities, and fill with concrete or grout. Use concrete (of the same class as the footing) to backfill areas outside the neat lines or below the final grade of the footing bottom, at no additional cost to the

Department. Notify the Project Manager after each footing excavation. Do not place footings until the Project Manager approves the excavation depth and the foundation material.

Maintain the density and the approved surface elevation and shape of the foundation before installing reinforcing steel.

206.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Project Manager will measure the in-place quantity of Unstable Material Excavation below the bottom-of-structure elevation.

206.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Unstable Material Excavation Cubic Yard

“Excavation, Borrow, and Embankment.”

206.5.1 Work Included in Payment

Excavation, disposal of unstable material, backfill and select backfill material, placement and compaction of select backfill for Culverts, storm drains, other drainage Structures, box

Culverts, and minor Structures shall be included in the Contract unit price per linear foot of

Culvert. Excavation shall include all dewatering, pumping, bailing, draining, sheeting, bracing, and Incidentals required for proper execution of the Work. Select backfill shall include the use of Section 516, “Flowable Fill.” Backfilling with concrete of the same class as the footings where the Contractor excavates below the established final elevation for bottom of footings or beyond the neat lines of the footings in rock or other hard foundation material shall be included in the Contract unit price per linear foot of Culvert. Unrippable rock or unyielding material will be defined and paid for as covered in Section 203, “Excavation, Borrow, and Embankment.”

Section 206: Excavation and Backfill for Culverts and Minor Structures Page 109

SECTION 207: SUBGRADE PREPARATION

207.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of compacting and finishing the Subgrade.

207.2 MATERIALS—Reserved

207.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

Maximum dry density of all soil types encountered or used will be determined in accordance with AASHTO T 180 (Modified Proctor), Method D (TTCP Modified) and AASHTO

T 224.

Ensure the top two (2) ft of the finished Subgrade contains material with the design Rvalue. For Subgrade material not meeting design R-value, perform subexcavation in accordance with section 203.3.6.

Compact the top six (6) inches of the Roadbed to 95% of maximum density.

Ensure the soil moisture content (at the time of compaction) is from optimum to optimum minus five percent (5%). For soils with a PI of 15 or greater, ensure the moisture content of the soil at the time of compaction is from optimum moisture to optimum moisture plus four percent (4%).

Conduct field density tests at locations according to Minimum Testing Requirements, in accordance with AASHTO T 310, or by other Department-approved methods.

207.3.1 Tolerances

Ensure the top surface of the finished Subgrade is within 0.10 ft of the Plan Subgrade elevation. The Department will measure tolerances on the finished surface at right angles to the centerline.

207.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

207.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

207.5.1 Work Included in Payment

No payment will be made for rehandling or reworking material to meet moisture and density requirements.

Section 207: Subgrade Preparation Page 110

SECTION 208: LINEAR GRADING

208.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of constructing, or restoring and shaping Roadbeds and side ditches to the specified grade and typical section.

208.2 MATERIALS—Reserved

208.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

208.3.1 General

Use a motor grader to move existing material in the Roadway Prism to bring the existing

Roadbed surfaces to grade and section. Material haul of more than 200 ft is not required.

Use Material that is free of Deleterious Material and frozen lumps for constructing or reshaping the Roadbed.

208.3.2 Compaction

Compact the top six (6) inches of the Roadbed to 95% of maximum density per AASHTO

T180 Method D (TTCP Modified).

208.3.3 Tolerance

The horizontal distance, for a typical section, from the Roadbed centerline to the completed edge of the Shoulder shall not differ by more than six (6) inches from the dimension shown on the Plans.

208.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Project Manager will measure Linear Grading along the Roadbed centerline.

208.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Linear Grading Mile

Section 208: Linear Grading Page 111

SECTION 209: BLADING AND RESHAPING

209.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of restoring existing Roadbed to the specified grade and typical section.

209.2 MATERIALS—Reserved

209.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

Bring the surface of the existing Roadbed to the specified grade with approved Materials.

Reshape Shoulders to the specified width.

209.3.1 Compaction

Perform the following to the top six (6) inches of the Roadbed, after restoring the grade and typical section:

1. Scarify the surface;

2. Water, when required;

3. Compact to 95% of maximum density per AASHTO T180 Method D (TTCP

Modified);

4. Smooth and finish the Roadbed to a uniform grade and typical section.

209.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Department will measure Blading and Reshaping along the Roadbed centerline.

209.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Blading and Reshaping Mile

Section 209: Blading and Reshaping Page 112

SECTION 210: EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL FOR MAJOR STRUCTURES

210.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of excavating, backfilling, and disposing of Materials related to the construction of Bridges, cast in place retaining walls, and CBC’s 20 feet or greater measured along the centerline of the Roadway. All excavation for major Structures below the designed slope or Subgrade lines, as shown on the Plans, is included under this Contract Item.

Excavation for major Structures includes pumping, bailing, draining, sheeting, bracing, and

Incidentals required for proper execution of the Work.

210.2 MATERIALS

Use select backfill Material composed of stone, crushed stone, crushed or screened gravel, caliche, sand, or a combination thereof. Use Material that is free of Deleterious

Materials and that does not contain lumps or stones with diameters larger than two (2) inches.

Provide select backfill Materials in accordance with AASHTO Soil Classifications A-1 or A-2-4 as determined by AASHTO M 145, unless otherwise shown in the Contract.

Use AASHTO Soil Classifications A-1-a Material or Base Course under the approach slab and extending ten (10) feet beyond the end of the approach for the full width of the abutment and to the depth indicated in the Plans and in accordance with Section 210.3.2,

“Compaction”.

Do not use Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) as select backfill Materials.

210.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

210.3.1 General

Excavate material to the elevations established by the Contract Plans. Do not remove material, except unstable material, below the final grade, if placing footings on excavated surfaces other than rock. Remove rock and other unyielding foundation material a maximum

12 inches below the bottom of the Structure. Clean rock seams and cavities, and fill with concrete or grout. Use concrete (of the same class as the footing) to backfill areas outside the neat lines or below the final grade of the footing bottom, at no additional cost to the

Department. The Contractor may use excavated surpluses of suitable Material in the construction of Embankments, but must dispose of unsuitable material. Notify the Project

Manager after each footing excavation. Do not place footings until the Project Manager approves the excavation depth and the foundation material.

Dewater wet pits for inspection and for construction of footings. When necessary, install well-braced cofferdams, built as watertight as practical. Do not use timber or bracing inside cofferdams that cannot be removed without damage to the concrete. Make temporary

Structures large enough to provide ample room for pile driving, form construction, inspection, and sump pumps. Straighten or move cofferdams that threaten to damage the Structure.

Submit to the Project Manager Working Drawings showing proposed methods of constructing cofferdams, cribs, shoring, or similar temporary Structures. The submittal of Working

Drawings does not relieve the Contractor of any responsibility.

Backfill excavated areas not occupied by piers, abutments, or other permanent

Structures to the adjoining finished surface elevation. Do not use rock in backfill that is within

2 ft of the Structure. Place backfill Material in approximately level layers for the length and width of the backfilled area. When necessary to prevent wedge action, bench the slopes bounding the area being backfilled in accordance with Section 203.3.5.1 Roadbed

Embankments. Dispose of unstable excavated material outside of the Roadway Prism as directed by the Project Manager. Before placing backfill Material against new masonry or concrete Structures, wait until the concrete has developed its specified design strength as

Section 210: Excavation and Backfill for Major Structures Page 113

determined in Section 510.3.5.1, “Concrete Strength.” Prevent unbalanced loading while placing backfill Material.

210.3.2 Compaction

Make layers of uncompacted backfill no more than eight (8) inches thick. Before placing the next layer, compact to 95% of the maximum density near optimum moisture content for

AASHTO Soil Classifications A-1-a Material and Roadway Embankment as determined by

AASHTO T 180 (Modified Proctor), Method D (TTCP Modified). Use nuclear methods to determine field densities in accordance with AASHTO T 310.

210.3.3 Contractor Certification of Backfill

Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, provide Contractor Certification of Backfill.

The Certification of Backfill will be required for all backfill placed within 50 feet of the Structure.

Provide an independent New Mexico Professional Engineer’s stamped letter of Certification to include:

1. Oversight of all backfill operations as covered under Section 210 were performed;

2. Compacted lift heights were performed and maintained as specified;

3. Proctor curves developed for material backfill were completed as specified and represent material placed and compacted and;

4. Field densities were performed on each lift height as specified based on Proctor curve for material supplied.

The independent New Mexico Professional Engineer providing the Letter of

Certification to produce Proctor curves and field density tests utilized for the material backfill as covered. Attach to the letter of Certification copies of all daily logs verifying backfill placement lift heights, material properties, Proctor curves, field density tests, and testing frequency.

210.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Department will measure Excavation and Backfill for Major Structures as excavation in its original position from the ground surface after excavation of any overburden material to final Plan grade, to the bottom of the Structure or Structure footings, in accordance with the limits shown in the Standard Drawings. For this measurement, ground surface is defined as the bottoms of channel excavations, the template sections of the Roadway cuts, or the undisturbed natural ground surface. This method applies whether or not the Contractor elects to excavate for the Roadway or channel before making the excavation for the Structure. The

Department will measure Excavation and Backfill for Major Structures for all grade separation

Structures in its original position between the template section of the lower Roadway and the bottom of the footings.

Measure Contractor Certification of Backfill by the Lump Sum for the Certification Letter.

The Certification Letter will cover all backfill specified on the Project to have Contractor

Certification of Backfill.

210.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

The Department will not pay for material excavated outside the area:

1. Bounded by vertical planes 18 inches from, and parallel to, the footings;

2. The neat lines for footings in rock; or

3. For material excavated below the established final elevation.

Section 210: Excavation and Backfill for Major Structures Page 114

The Department will pay for rock excavation in accordance with Section 203,

“Excavation, Borrow, and Embankment”.

210.5.1 Work Included in Payment

Excavation and Backfill for Major Structures includes the following:

1. Compaction to 95% of maximum density as determined by AASHTO T 180

(Modified Proctor), Method D (TTCP Modified) for 50 ft approach to Bridge abutments;

2. Any temporary shoring of excavations required for construction phasing;

3. Contractor Certification of backfill; and

4. Dewatering of excavations for Structure backfill.

Section 210: Excavation and Backfill for Major Structures Page 115

SECTION 213: OBLITERATING OLD ROAD

213.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of obliterating old Road.

213.2 MATERIALS—Reserved

213.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

After the old Road is no longer needed for traffic, remove and stockpile existing surfacing

Materials to Subgrade in an environmentally acceptable manner.

Fill ditches, rough grade the Road (to blend with the surrounding terrain) and form natural rounded slopes (approved by the Project Manager). Next, scarify or plow (to thoroughly mix the remaining surfacing material with earth), harrow, and smooth the Roadbed.

213.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

Measure Obliterating Old Road along the centerline of the old Road.

213.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Obliterating Old Road Mile

SECTION 213: Obliterating Old Road Page 116

DIVISION 300 – BASES

Division Contents

302: Processing, Placing, and Compacting Existing Pavement ..... 118

306: Portland Cement or Lime Treated Subgrade ......................... 123

Division: 300 Page 117

SECTION 302: PROCESSING, PLACING, AND COMPACTING EXISTING PAVEMENT

302.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of processing, placing, and compacting existing pavements.

302.2

MATERIALS

The following gradation requirements apply:

Table 302.2:1

Gradation Requirements

Sieve size (inch) % passing

2 95–100

1 1/2 90–100

302.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

Process the existing pavement in place to a homogeneous mixture and a depth in accordance with the Plans. Mix the existing pavement and underlying aggregate to a homogeneous mixture and a depth in accordance with the Plans.

Place and compact the mixed Materials on the existing Subgrade. Perform compaction and provide a final surface in accordance with Section 303, “Base Course.”

302.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

302.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Processing, Placing, and Compacting Existing Pavement Square Yard

Section 302: Processing, Placing, and Compacting Existing Pavement Page 118

SECTION 303: BASE COURSE

303.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of providing, hauling, and placing Base Course.

303.1.1 Stockpiling

This Work consists of providing, hauling, and stockpiling Base Course at specified locations.

303.1.2 Removing, Processing, and Placing Base Course

This Work consists of removing, hauling, processing, placing existing Base Course material.

303.2 MATERIALS

303.2.1 General

Base Course consists of one (1) or more of the following:

2. Crushed or screened gravel;

3. Caliche;

4. Sand;

5. Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) not to exceed 50%; recycled concrete pavement

(RC) not to exceed 75%; and the combined RAP and RC not to exceed 75% by weight.

Base Course does not contain organic matter or other Deleterious Materials, including silt and clay balls.

The Department will allow a maximum of 10% (by weight) processed glass aggregate, uniformly distributed, in composite Base Course. Processed glass aggregate shall meet physical properties and deleterious substance requirements in accordance with

AASHTO M 318.

303.2.2 Aggregate Acceptance

The Department will accept Base Course based on periodic random samples taken by the Department from the Roadway. Unless the Contract specifies otherwise, combine the aggregate Materials, including processed glass aggregate (if used), in proportions that produce a homogeneous composite blend in accordance with Table 303.2.1:1, “Type I Base

Course Gradation Band.”

Table 303.2.1:1

Type I Base Course Gradation Band

Sieve size % passing

1.0 inch 100

¾ inch 80--100

No. 4

No. 10

No. 200

30-60

20-45

3.0-10.0

Section 303: Base Course Page 119

Sieve size

1.0 inch

Table 303.2.1:2

Type II Base Course Gradation Band

% passing

100

¾ inch

No. 4

85-95

40-70

No. 10 30-55

No. 200 6.0-15.0

Ensure that at least 50% of the Materials retained on or above the No. 4 sieve have at least two (2) Fractured Faces when evaluated in accordance with AASHTO T-335,

“Determining the Percentage of Fracture in Coarse Aggregate”. Provide Base Course from a material source with a maximum AI of 35 when calculated in accordance with Section 901,

"QUALITY CONTROL/QUALITY ASSURANCE (QC/QA)," a maximum LL of 25, and a maximum PI of 6. Determine the AI for the untreated natural aggregate source.

303.3.1 Preparation of Subgrade

Clear the Subgrade of loose and Deleterious Material. Ensure that the top six (6) inches of the Roadbed meets the density requirements of Section 207, "Subgrade Preparation."

Proof-roll the Subgrade with Equipment described in the Contractor’s Quality Control Plan and approved by the Project Manager to expose and correct soft areas.

303.3.2 Mixing and Placing

Mix the Base Course Material to a homogenous mixture. Place maximum six (6) inches

(compacted) lifts, unless specified otherwise. Do not place on frozen Subgrade. Compact

Base Course to at least 96% of maximum density as determined by AASHTO T 180 (Modified

Proctor), Method D (TTCP Modified). The Department will take field density tests and gradation samples at random locations. The Department will use nuclear testing methods to determine in-place densities in accordance with AASHTO T 310 and TTCP procedures.

The Department will allow a surface tolerance of ½ inch within ten (10) feet. If the depth is deficient, the Project Manager can accept the Work and reduce the Contractor's payment, or reject the Work with subsequent replacement by the Contractor.

303.3.4 Plan Base Course and Sub-base Depths

Monitor and record Base Course depth during the placement in accordance with the

Department’s Minimum Testing and Acceptance Requirements. If the placed thickness deviates from the requirements by more than minus ½ inch, the Project Manager may:

1. Accept and approve the payment for the measured quantity only; or

2. Allow Contractor to add material and reprocess to correct the deficiency, to meet specification required in section 303.2.2.

303.3.5 Stockpiled Base Course

Stockpile material at locations shown on the Plans. Prevent segregation of Materials at each stockpile. Maintain each stockpile in accordance with Section 423.2.2.3, "Stockpiling."

303.3.6 Removing and Processing Base Course

Minimize contamination of Base Course Material when removing it from the Roadway.

Section 303: Base Course Page 120

303.3.7 Sampling and Testing

Sample and test the Base Course in accordance with Section 901, Quality

Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA), and the Department’s “Minimum Testing Requirements for Base Course”. Department personnel may test locations other than the random locations generated for statistical analysis. These tests will not be used for pay factor determination, but may be used to determine Acceptance or rejection of localized material.

Develop and administer a Quality Control plan that ensures the product meets the requirements of Section 901.2, "Contractor Quality Control." Ensure that the Quality Control plan addresses the following elements:

1. Contractor management and process control personnel,

2. Testing Equipment and lab facilities,

6. Proportioning,

7. Mixing and processing,

8. Transporting,

9. Placing and spreading,

10. Compaction,

11. Line and grade control, and

12. Criteria for the correction or rejection of unsatisfactory Materials.

Provide copies of TTCP wallet cards or certifications for personnel who are responsible for sampling and testing the Base Course. Update the list as required if personnel substitutions are made. Use test results, inspections, and other Quality Control practices to assure the quality of each material source and to control processes for crushing, mixing, proportioning, processing, transporting, placing, spreading, and compacting quality.

303.3.8 Acceptance

The Department will accept Base Course Materials based on samples taken in accordance with the Departments Minimum Testing Requirements after placement but before compaction. Acceptance will be in accordance with Section 303.3 Construction Requirements.

If necessary, re-work the Base Course until all requirements are met.

303.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

When calculating the square yardage the Department will use the average Base Course width and the station-to-station length along the centerline. The dimensions will show on the typical section of the Plans. When calculating the weight of the material, the Department will deduct the weight of moisture that exceeds the optimum moisture content plus two percent

(2%). No additional payment shall be made for the stockpile pad.

303.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

The Department will pay for the accepted quantities of Base Course as determined in

Section 303.3.8, "Acceptance."

Pay Item Pay Unit

Base Course Cubic Yard or Ton

Remove, Process and Place Base Course

Section 303: Base Course

Square Yard or Ton

Page 121

Stockpiled Base Course Cubic Yard or Ton

Section 303: Base Course Page 122

SECTION 306: PORTLAND CEMENT OR LIME TREATED SUBGRADE

306.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of the following:

1. Preparing the Roadbed;

2. Providing, applying, mixing, and processing Portland Cement or lime; and

306.2 MATERIALS

306.2.1 Portland Cement Treated Subgrade

Provide Portland cement in accordance with Section 509 or 510, “Portland Cement

Concrete Mix Designs”

Provide hydrated lime in accordance with AASHTO M 216. When dry sieved in a mechanical shaker for 10 min ± 30 s, a 0.5 lb test sample of hydrated lime shall conform to the gradation requirement in Table 306.2.2.1:1, “Hydrated Lime Gradation Requirements.”

Table 306.2.2.1:1

Hydrated Lime Gradation Requirements

Sieve size % passing

No. 30 97.0 – 100.0

No. 200 75.0 – 97.0

306.2.2.2 Quicklime

Provide quicklime in accordance with AASHTO M 216. When dry sieved in a mechanical shaker for 10 min, ± 30 s, ensure a 0.5 lb test sample of quicklime is in accordance with

Table 306.2.2.2:1, “Quicklime Gradation Requirements.”

Table 306.2.2.2:1

Quicklime Gradation Requirements

Sieve size % passing

3/4 inch 95 – 100

No. 100 0 – 25

Provide lime-slurry as a suspension of solids in water that can be pumped. The water or liquid portion of the slurry is free of dissolved material. Lime-slurry shall be a mixture of quicklime and water. The hydrated lime solids in the mixture shall meet the following requirements:

1. Chemical Composition. Lime-slurry with a “solids content” of at least 90% (by weight) calcium and magnesium oxides;

2. Residue. Lime-slurry mixture with a retained “solids content” residue in

Requirements;”

Section 306: Portland Cement or Lime Treated Subgrade Page 123

Sieve size

No. 4

Table 306.2.2.3:1

Lime-Slurry “Solids Content” Gradation Requirements

% passing

99 – 100

No. 30 96 – 99

3. Grade. Provide lime-slurry with a minimum “dry solids content,” of 35%.

Treat the Subgrade in accordance with the State Materials Bureau’s mix design.

Identify and correct soft areas, then shape the Subgrade to the grades shown in the

Plans before adding Portland cement or hydrated lime, quicklime, or lime-slurry. Ensure that the scarified depth of the treated Subgrade (shown in the Plans) is free of Deleterious Material and stones retained on a 3.0 inch sieve.

Do not perform Work during wet or inclement weather. Mix and place the Portland cement- or lime-treated Subgrade, only if when the air temperature is at least 40 °F and rising in the shade. Do not mix or place cement- or lime-treated Subgrade on frozen Subgrade.

When the air temperature is forecast to fall below 32 °F within a 48-hour period, cease Work or ensure the Subgrade temperature will not fall below 40 °F.

Proof-roll the material with Equipment, approved by the Project Manager, to expose and correct the soft areas.

Where unstable Subgrade is encountered in cuts or existing grades, due to no fault or neglect of the Contractor, sub-excavation and borrow will be paid for and measured as per

Section 203, “Excavation, Borrow, and Embankment.” Engineered designs will be measured and paid for on an item by item basis or as specified in the Contract. Conduct operations in such a way that the Project Manager can take the necessary cross-sectional measurements before the backfill is placed.

306.3.2 Portland Cement Treated Subgrade

Prior to the addition of Portland cement, pulverize the Subgrade to the specified depth so that at least 80% (by weight) passes through a No. 4 sieve.

Apply Portland cement at the specified application rate and to the depth shown on the

Plans. When processing the Portland cement-treated Subgrade, ensure that cement dust is not a hazard to the public or workers. Perform mixing, placing, compacting, and finishing on the same Day as the cement placement.

306.3.2.1 Mixing

Mix the portland cement, soil, and water with a self-propelled rotary-type mixing machine

(approved by the Project Manager) to provide a uniform mixture. Overlap at least six (6) inches between passes.

The Department will consider streaks and pockets of portland cement as evidence of unacceptable mixing.

Ensure the Material moisture content ranges between optimum to five percent (5%) over optimum within the entire treated depth.

Section 306: Portland Cement or Lime Treated Subgrade Page 124

Compact to 95% maximum density in accordance with AASHTO T 180 (Modified

Proctor), Method D (TTCP Modified), immediately after mixing is complete. Finish to ± 0.1 ft along centerline and ± 0.05 ft at right angles to the centerline. Correct deviations from these tolerances. Final roll the surface to finish the completed Work and prevent hairline cracking.

Finish within four (4) h of adding the Portland cement.

Allow the cement-treated Subgrade to cure for at least seven (7) Days. Maintain a moist, not saturated, condition during the entire curing period, to prevent drying. If permitted by local jurisdiction, the Contractor may use an alternate curing procedure by applying a CSS-1 or

SS-1 emulsified asphalt to the surface so that the surface is fully covered and sealed, as approved by the Project Manager.

Use a distributor that will apply a uniform application and automatically adjust the spread rate for variable travel speeds. Apply hydrated lime or quicklime dry, within ±0.5% of the specified percentage, by weight shown on the approved mix design, onto the prepared scarified Subgrade. Do not use a tailgate spreader. When used, apply quicklime at the equivalent percentage to hydrated lime (1.0 ton quicklime is equivalent to 1.3 tons hydrated lime).

Apply lime-slurry, at the specified percentage of dry solids content onto the prepared scarified Subgrade, with a distributor having a pump and a spray bar. Continuously circulate the slurry in transit and during application. Apply the lime-slurry within 24 h of its production. environmentally-acceptable manner, and do not use it on the Project. Replace lime-slurry that is left exposed on the ground to the open air for more than ten (10) hours and shows excessive moisture loss.

Process the hydrated lime, quicklime, or lime-slurry so as not to present a hazard to the public or workers.

Mix immediately after applying the lime treatment using a self-propelled rotary-type mixing machine. Provide a loose uniform mixture, with clods and lumps no larger than two (2) inch, that, when compacted, will meet the required depth and width shown in the Plans.

Overlap at least six (6) inches between passes.

The Department will consider visible streaks and pockets as evidence of unacceptable mixing.

Immediately following mixing, ensure the entire treated Subgrade depth’s moisture content is three percent (3%) to five percent (5%) above optimum in accordance with

AASHTO T 180 (Modified Proctor), Method D (TTCP Modified). Lightly compact the surface to minimize water loss or gain and lime carbonation.

306.3.3.2 Curing

Allow the treated lightly compacted Subgrade to cure for at least 24 h. Apply a seal during the cure period using either:

1. A water curing seal that maintains moisture content at not less than three percent

(3%), or more than five percent (5%) above optimum as determined by AASHTO T

180 (Modified Proctor), Method D (TTCP Modified); or

2. An SS or CSS emulsified asphalt seal using a rate between 0.10 to 0.20 gal per square yard as determined by the Project Manager.

Treated Subgrade temperature must remain above 40 °F during the entire curing period.

Section 306: Portland Cement or Lime Treated Subgrade Page 125

Ensure, by additional pulverization, the stabilized lime-soil mixture meets the requirements of Table 306.3.3.3:1, “Lime-Treated Subgrade Gradation Requirements” before final compaction.

Sieve size

Table 306.3.3.3:1

Lime-Treated Subgrade Gradation Requirements

% passing

One (1) inch 100.0

No. 4 60.0 – 100.0

Compact immediately after final mixing is complete to 95% of the maximum density in accordance with AASHTO T 180 (Modified Proctor), Method D (TTCP Modified). The Project

Manager will verify the compacted depth of lime-treated Subgrade with a Contractor-provided phenolphthalein indicator chemical or beet juice.

Finish to ± 0.1 ft along the centerline and ± 0.05 ft at right angles from centerline. Lightly roll the completed section to prevent hairline cracking.

306.3.4 Protection of Treated Subgrade

Allow only sprinkling or spraying Equipment, on the treated Subgrade during the curing period, unless otherwise approved by the Project Manager.

Install a base, Sub-base, or wearing surface before opening the Roadway to the public, unless otherwise approved by the Project Manager.

306.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Department will pay for lime as Hydrated Lime using the following conversion:

One (1) ton of quicklime equals 1.3 ton of hydrated lime.

306.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Cement-Treated Subgrade

Portland Cement

Lime Treated Subgrade

Hydrated Lime, per Section 402

Square Yard

Ton

Square Yard

Ton

Section 306: Portland Cement or Lime Treated Subgrade Page 126

DIVISION 400 – SURFACE TREATMENTS AND PAVEMENTS

Division Contents

401: Pavement Smoothness Measurement ................................... 128

402: Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite

403: Open Graded Friction Course (Non-QLA) .............................. 143

403-A: Warm Mix Asphalt - Open Graded Friction Course (Non-QLA)

........................................................................................... 147

404: Rubberized Open Graded Friction Course ............................. 152

411: Hot-Poured Crack Sealant ..................................................... 163

412: Hot In-Place Recycling Of Asphalt Pavement

(Remixing Method) ................................................................. 165

413: Single-Machine Hot In-Place Surface Repaving .................... 169

415: Pavement Surface Restoration .............................................. 175

423: Hot-Mix Asphalt – Superpave (QLA & Non-QLA) ................... 187

424: Warm Mix Asphalt .................................................................. 208

450: Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (QLA) ......................... 230

451: Portland Cement Concrete Pavement .................................... 242

452: Sealing And Resealing Concrete Pavement Joints ................ 244

454: Cracking and Seating Concrete Pavement ............................ 247

455: Diamond Grinding and Diamond Grooving of Portland Cement

Concrete Pavement (PCCP) .................................................. 249

Division:

400

Page 127

SECTION 401: PAVEMENT SMOOTHNESS MEASUREMENT

401.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of providing and using profile testing Equipment that incorporates the

Mean Roughness Index (MRI) measurement for the established categories provided within this Section.

Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, category one (1) Table 401.5.1.1:1, “MRI

Based Profile Pay Adjustment Schedule for Category I HMA/WMA Projects,” will be applicable to all Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)/Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Projects. Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, Table 401.5.1.2:1, “MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment Schedule for Category

I PCCP Projects” will be applicable to all Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (PCCP)

Projects.

This specification applies to all construction Projects, with one (1) opportunity for pavement smoothness. An example of one (1) opportunity for pavement smoothness is a single lift of paving operations for HMA/WMA or PCCP.

401.2 MATERIALS—Reserved

Collect raw profile data utilizing profiler settings used in certification by TTCP

“Certification of Intertila Profilers.” Export all raw profile data to create files conforming to the

University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute’s Engineering Research Division

(ERD) format using an upper wavelength cutoff filter of 300 ft for HMA/WMA. For PCCP data collection use a Butterworth Band-Pass filter short cutoff wavelength of seven (7.0) ft and a long cutoff wavelength of 300 ft, and the current calibration documentation to the accompanying Department representative, within one (1) hour after the data has been collected, on either a CD or Universal Serial Bus (USB) memory storage device. Provide additional data files or text files upon request. If the Contractor does not submit the profile measurements files within this time period, the Department may alter the Pay Adjustments resulting from Table 401.5.1.1:1, “MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment Schedule for Category I

HMA/WMA Projects”, Table 401.5.1.1:2 “MRI Based Pay Adjustment Schedule for Category II

HMA/WMA Projects”, Table 401.5.1.2:1, “MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment Schedule for

Category I PCCP Projects”, or Table 401.5.1.2:2, “MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment

Schedule for Category II PCCP Projects” by applying an additional five percent (5%) price deduction of the total price reduction for the Profiled area in question.

401.3.1.1 Profile Measurement Device

Provide, operate, and maintain a profile measurement device that uses Equipment and computer programs in accordance with AASHTO M 328 “Inertial Profiler”, or an equal approved by the State Materials Bureau.

401.3.1.2 Profile Measurement Device Calibration and Certification

Certify the profile measurement device in accordance with the Department’s Standard

Practice “Certification of Inertial Profilers”. Profile measurement devices used for Acceptance testing on NMDOT Projects shall have a current TTCP annual calibration sticker or manufacturer’s calibration and certification certificate. The manufacturer’s certificate is valid only until the date of the next TTCP sponsored profile measuring device certification.

Verify calibration of the profile measurement device. Verify both horizontal and vertical calibration before each use. Perform verifications in the presence of the Department’s representative as determined by the Project Manager and in accordance with the manufacturer’s approved procedures and maintain copies of the verification documentation

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and manufacturer’s procedures with the machine and provide the calibration documentation and verification documentation to the Project Manager. The Project Manager may require additional calibrations or verifications.

Remove the profile measurement device from the Project if it does not meet manufacturer’s calibration requirements. The Project Manager will report the TTCP profile measurement device certification number to the TTCP Administrator in order to provide notification that the Contractor cannot use the machine on other Projects until the Contractor obtains re-certification. Once the manufacturer re-certifies the profile measurement device, provide a copy of the certificate to the Department’s TTCP Administrator. The TTCP

Administrator will provide a temporary TTCP certification valid until the next scheduled certification.

The Department’s TTCP will certify individuals performing profile measurement. The

Department will base certification on demonstrated ability and a written test. The TTCP will establish the term and expiration date of certification and requirements for renewal. The

Department State Materials Engineer, through the TTCP, will investigate any concerns submitted in writing as to the competence of a certified individual and implement corrective action if necessary in accordance with the TTCP Board of Directors established procedures.

401.3.1.4 Profile Measurement Operations

The Department will consider profile testing as part of the paving operation. Include the proposed frequency and schedule for profile testing with the paving plan submittal at the prepaving conference. Allow the Department’s Representative to witness the collection of raw data by riding in the vehicle while collecting the data.

Obtain the Project Manager’s written approval and sweep the Roadway surface before beginning profile operations.

Final surface is the surface immediately behind the paving operation prior to any surface modification.

Measure the longitudinal smoothness of the final surface of HMA, WMA, OGFC, and

PCCP using a Department certified profile measurement device. Operate the profile measurement device in accordance with AASHTO R 57 “Operating Inertial Profiling Systems” and manufacturer’s recommendations. Using dual-sensors, with single point lasers or bar lasers one (1.0) inch or less, measure the profile traces for each wheel path. Locate outside trace three (3) feet from and parallel to the approximate location of the pavement edge line.

Ensure the centerline distance between sensors is 70.0 inches ± one (1.0) inch. At transverse joints, commence profile traces at the joint location. Operate the device on the driving surface of the Roadway at the manufacturer's recommended speed without interfering with traffic or its own operation.

On HMA/WMA Projects, perform profile measurements and corrective actions on the final surface of HMA/WMA. On PCCP Projects, perform profile measurements and corrective actions on the finished surface after tining or grooving.

Maintain the profile data files. Take additional profiles to retest paved surfaces that have received corrective Work. The Project Manager may require additional profiles to check previously submitted data or to identify the limits of surface irregularities. Include the following information for each data file:

2. Date,

4. Beginning and ending stations,

5. Net total linear feet of each lane,

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6. Filter settings, and

401.3.1.5 ProVal Profile Data Analysis by the Department

The Department will use the FHWA’s current version of “ProVal” software to determine the MRI for each 0.1 mile section of each lane, reported to the nearest 0.1 inch per mile using the average of the two wheel paths’ IRI’s, using Ride Quality Analysis. Using the ProVal software, the Department will not use any further filter settings. Do not use the 250 mm filter in “ProVal”. Data obtained through analysis by the Department will be used for evaluations of all “Must Grind Work”, “Corrective Work”, and “Pay Adjustments.”

401.3.2 Straightedge Measurements (Category III)

Test the final surface of HMA, WMA, or PCCP with an approved ten (10) foot straightedge at both right angles and parallel to the centerline, advancing the straightedge in five (5) foot increments. In lieu of a physical ten (10) foot straightedge measuremet and at the direction of the Project Manager a profile measurement device that complies with Section

401.3.1.1 “Profile Measurement Device” can be used for the ten (10) foot straightedge measurement. Correct surface deviations greater than 1/8 inch within ten (10) ft, as directed by the Project Manager.

401.3.3 Evaluation for Must Grind Work and Corrective Work

Evaluate the pavement in 0.1-mile sections for determining needed Must Grind Work,

Corrective Work and Pay Adjustments.

Diamond grinding equipment uses diamond tipped saw blades, composed of industrial diamonds and metallurgical powder, that are gang mounted on a cutting head ranging in width from 36 inches to 48 inches. The diamond grinding equipment shall use water to cool the cutting head. The slurry or residue resulting from the grinding operation shall be contiuously removed from the pavement with a wet vacuum process. The slury or residue shall not be allowed to flow across lanes occupied by traffic or to flow into gutters or other drainage facilities. Diamond grinding equipment shall be self-propelled, self-contained and without external attachments acting as cutting / grinding devices.

Diamond grinding operations shall not dislodge aggregate or binder creating rock pockets or deviations on pavement surface.

Identify potential must grind locations using “Ride Quality Analysis” under the “Analysis

Type” with the “Continuous” feature of the latest version of the FHWA’s “ProVAL” software.

Use a MRI threshold (inch/mi) of 105.00 and a segment length of 25.00 feet. Identify must grind locations for each lane using the “MRI” Ride Quality Index feature of ProVAL. Any locations with a MRI of 105.00 to 125.00 will be evaluated by the Project Manager and the

Contractor, to determine if diamond grinding is required, final determination will be made by the Project Manager. All locations with an MRI above 125.00 must be included in the corrective action plan.

Develop and submit an appropriate written corrective action plan, including methods and procedures utilized to diamond grind and achieve the specified MRI values proposed by the

Contractor, to the Project Manager for review and written approval. Do not begin must grind

Work until the Project Manager approves the methods and procedures in writing. Failure to submit and obtain approval of the corrective action plan will result in the contractor correcting all locations identified by ProVAL regardless of the smoothness value for the 0.1 mile section.

The Project Manager’s approval does not relieve the Contractor of the responsibility to comply with the Specifications.

Section 401:

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Correct all must grind locations on the Project identified by the approved written corrective action plan then measure and evaluate Roadway profiles for smoothness Pay

Adjustment. Use diamond grinding to bring the reported average measured smoothness value to an acceptable level.

Do not reduce planned pavement thickness by more than 0.3 inches without written approval of the Project Manager.

Grind must grind areas across the lane width to produce a smooth transition to the surrounding pavement. If the must grind area is not the full width of the lane, only half of the lane containing the roughness shall be ground and smoothly feathered into the surrounding pavement.

For HMA/WMA, if the Contract does not require an OGFC, or OGFC will not be placed before Project suspension, apply a fog seal to the ground areas as approved by the Project

Manager. Fog seal and all operations necessary to apply it is included in the Bid Item Unit

Price for HMA/WMA, the Department will make no separate payment.

Develop and submit an appropriate written Corrective Work Plan, including methods and procedures, utilized to diamond grind and achieve the specified MRI values proposed by the

Contractor, to the Project Manager for review and written approval if the measured smoothness value falls within the “Corrective Work Required” (CWR) value of the applicable pay adjustment table and category as indicated in the Contract. If approved, complete elected corrective Work, including necessary traffic control, at no additional cost to the Department.

After completion of the approved corrective Work, re-profile the corrected area to verify compliance with specification requirements.

Limit corrective Work to diamond grinding, overlaying, or removing and replacing rejected

0.1-mile sections. Do not begin corrective Work until the Project Manager approves the methods and procedures in writing. The Project Manager’s approval does not relieve the

Contractor of the responsibility to comply with the Specifications.

Perform corrective Work in accordance with the following:

1. Surface Diamond Grinding.

 

Use diamond grinding to bring the measured smoothness value to an acceptable level in accordance with the applicable table(s) and category(ies) as indicated in the Contract.

Do not reduce planned pavement thickness by more than 0.3 inches without written approval of the Project Manager.

Grind corrective Work areas to produce a smooth transition to the surrounding pavement. If the corrective Work areas are not the full width of the lane, only half of the lane containing the corrective Work area shall be ground and smoothly feathered into the surrounding pavement.

For HMA/WMA, if the Contract does not require an OGFC, or OGFC will not be placed before Project suspension, apply a fog seal to the ground areas as approved by the Project Manager. Fog seal and all operations necessary to apply will be

Incidental to the Bid Item Unit Price for HMA/WMA; the Department will make no separate payment.

For PCCP, perform additional diamond grinding as necessary in the following situations:

1.1. The transverse direction, so the lateral diamond grinding limits are at a constant offset from and parallel to the nearest lane line or pavement edge; and

1.2. The longitudinal direction, so the diamond grinding begins and ends at lines perpendicular to the pavement centerline. Maintain diamond grinding locations as neat rectangular areas of uniform appearance. If tining is eliminated by

Section 401:

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diamond grinding, machine groove the hardened concrete in the same pattern as adjacent tining at no additional cost to the Department.

2. Overlaying.

 

If the Contractor uses an additional lift of HMA/WMA to correct rough pavement, the HMA/WMA shall meet the requirements of the appropriate specification. Extend the overlay lift the full width of the underlying pavement surface to a finished compacted thickness sufficient to correct the existing pavement roughness.

The Department will not allow a second overlay if the first overlay does not meet the longitudinal smoothness requirement.

Correct a corrective overlay that does not meet the smoothness requirement by diamond grinding or removing and replacing as specified in Section 401.3.6

“Corrective Work”.

3. Removing and Replacing. Remove pavement the full width of the lane and the full thickness of the course. The removal area shall begin and end with a transverse saw cut perpendicular to centerline. Use the type of approved HMA, WMA or PCCP as originally specified in the Project Contract as replacement Material.

Re-profile the 0.1 mile section of travel lane after performing corrective Work and use the re-profile’s reported measured smoothness data to represent the particular section for Pay

Adjustment purposes.

401.3.7 OGFC Placement and Profile Measurement

Ensure HMA/WMA profile measurements and corrective Work has been completed before placing OGFC. Pay Adjustment will be based on the MRI of the HMA/WMA unless the measured MRI of the OGFC is greater than the measured MRI of the HMA/WMA on the same

0.1 mile section, then the Department will base the Pay Adjustment for the HMA/WMA section on the OGFC’s measured MRI.

401.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Department will determine smoothness Pay Adjustments on the calculated square yards of the surface area of the travel lane bound by the plan typical section travel lanes and

0.1-mile lane length.

401.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

Surface smoothness testing and corrective Work to bring the final surface within specification smoothness in accordance with the applicable table(s) and category(ies) as indicated in the Contract is Incidental to the Bid Item Unit Price for HMA, WMA or PCCP; the

Department will make no separate payment. All traffic control required to determine and correct pavement smoothness is Incidental to the HMA, WMA or PCCP item.

All adjustments of manhole and utility valves for the facilitation of pavement smoothness shall be performed after paving of the finish grade. This Work shall be paid in accordance with

Section 662 “Manholes” and 663 “Utility Items.”

The Department will calculate a Pay Adjustment for each 0.1 mile section of travel lane.

The Pay Adjustments will apply to the total accepted area of each 0.1 mile section of HMA,

WMA or PCCP constructed for the plan typical section travel lane width and Roadway length.

The Department will not include Shoulder and turnout areas for payment purposes.

If the Pay Adjustment for a 0.1 mile section is not equal to CWR but less than 0.00, the

Contractor shall accept the designated Pay Adjustment.

401.5.1.1 Pay Adjustment for Category I and Category II HMA/WMA Projects

Section 401:

Pavement Smoothness Measurement

Page 132

The Department will base Pay Adjustments on the final MRI for each 0.1 mile section in accordance with Table 401.5.1.1:1, “MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment Schedule for Category

I HMA/WMA Projects” and Table 401.5.1.1:2, “MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment Schedule for Category II HMA/WMA Projects”, after the Contractor performs and measures corrective

Work.

Table 401.5.1.1:1

MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment Schedule

for Category I HMA/WMA Projects

Pay Adjustment ($ per square Yard)

MRI (Mean Roughness Index)

inch/0.1mi

Category I

<52.1 0.00

52.1 to 53.0

53.1 to 54.0

54.1 to 55.0

-0.14

-0.28

-0.42

55.1 to 56.0

56.1 to 57.0

57.1 to 58.0

58.1 to 59.0

59.1 to 60.0

>60.0

-0.56

-0.70

-0.84

-0.98

-1.12

Corrective Work Required

Table 401.5.1.1:2

MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment Schedule

for Category II HMA/WMA Projects

Pay Adjustment ($ per square Yard)

MRI (Mean Roughness Index)

inch/0.1mi

Category II

<62.1 0.00

62.1 to 63.0

63.1 to 64.0

-0.12

-0.24

64.1 to 65.0

65.1 to 66.0

66.1 to 67.0

-0.36

-0.48

-0.60

67.1 to 68.0

68.1 to 69.0

69.1 to 70.0

70.1 to 71.0

71.1 to 72.0

72.1 to 73.0

73.1 to 74.0

>74.0

Section 401:

Pavement Smoothness Measurement

-0.72

-0.84

-0.96

-1.08

-1.20

-1.32

-1.44

Corrective Work Required

Page 133

401.5.1.2 Pay Adjustment for PCC Pavement

The Department will base Pay Adjustments on the final average MRI for each 0.1 mile section in accordance with Table 401.5.1.2:1, “MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment Schedule for Category I PCCP Projects” and Table 401.5.1.2:2, “MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment

Schedule for Category II PCCP Projects,” after the Contractor performs and measures corrective Work.

Table 401.5.1.2:1

MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment Schedule

for Category I PCCP Projects

Pay Adjustment ($ per square Yard)

MRI (Mean Roughness Index)

inch/0.1mi

Category I

<59.3 0.00

59.3 to 60.2 -0.14

60.3 to 61.2

61.3 to 62.3

62.4 to 63.3

63.4 to 64.3

64.4 to 65.4

-0.28

-0.42

-0.56

-0.70

-0.84

65.5 to 66.4

66.5 to 67.5

>67.5

-0.98

-1.12

Corrective Work Required

Table 401.5.1.2:2

MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment Schedule

for Category II PCCP Projects

Pay Adjustment ($ per square Yard)

MRI (Mean Roughness Index)

inch/0.1mi

Category II

<65.0 0.00

65.0 to 66.0

66.1 to 67.0

67.1 to 68.0

-0.12

-0.24

-0.36

68.1 to 69.0

69.1 to 70.0

70.1 to 71.0

71.1 to 72.0

72.1 to 73.0

73.1 to 74.0

71.1 to 75.0

75.1 to 76.0

76.1 to 77.0

-0.48

-0.60

-0.72

-0.84

-0.96

-1.08

-1.20

-1.32

-1.44

Section 401:

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Page 134

Table 401.5.1.2:2

MRI Based Profile Pay Adjustment Schedule

for Category II PCCP Projects

77.1 to 78.0 -1.56

78.1 to 79.0

79.1 to 80.0

>80.0

-1.68

-1.80

Corrective Work Required

Section 401:

Pavement Smoothness Measurement

Page 135

SECTION 402: ASPHALT MATERIALS, HYDRATED LIME, AND ANHYDRITE BASED

MATERIAL

402.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of providing, mixing, and applying asphalt Materials, hydrated lime, or anhydrite based material.

402.2 MATERIALS

402.2.1 Sampling and Testing

The Department will sample and test the Materials, unless otherwise shown in the

Contract. The sampling, testing, and inspecting of Materials will conform to the requirements of Section 105, "Control of Work," and Section 106, "Control of Materials." The Department may waive its testing responsibilities and require the Contractor to provide Certified Test

Reports (CTRs). Sample and test performance-graded asphalt binders in accordance with the

Department’s Standard Practice for Certifying Suppliers of Performance-Graded Asphalt

Binders and in accordance with Section 402.2.5 Performance-Graded Asphalt Binder (PGAB) of the Standard Specifications. The Department will assume no obligation to accept the CTRs and may additionally test the certified Materials. The Department may test asphalt Materials at the manufacture shipping or Project storage location.

402.2.2 Acceptance

The Department will accept asphalt cement in accordance with the Department’s

Standard Practice for Certifying Suppliers of Performance-Graded Binders and in accordance with Section 402.2.5 Performance-Graded Asphalt Binder (PGAB) of the Standard

Specifications.

402.2.3 Shipping

Ship asphalt material in sealed, insulated tank vehicles with convenient access to the material so that it may be sampled. Keep the shipping tanks free of foreign matter. The

Department will reject contaminated asphalt material. The Project Manager may conditionally accept each delivery of asphalt material upon receiving the Loading Certificate Test, which is subject to the provisions of Section 402.2.1, "Sampling and Testing." Ship the performancegraded binder as shown in the requirements of Department’s Standard Practice for Certifying

Suppliers of Performance-Graded Asphalt Binders.

Asphalt cement binders are uncracked petroleum asphalts. Prepare asphalt cement binders by refining petroleum at a maximum temperature of 700 °F. Do not use Materials that are prone to cracking. The asphalt cement will be:

1. Free of thermal decomposition products;

2. Free of residue from non-asphalt sources;

3. Homogeneous and free from water;

4. Non-foaming when heated to 350 °F; and

5. Conforming to the requirements of performance-graded asphalt binder.

402.2.5 Performance-Graded Asphalt Binder (PGAB)

Provide performance-graded asphalt binder in accordance with AASHTO M 320. The

Contractor may substitute a performance-graded asphalt binder with a high-end or low-end temperature grade in excess of that shown in the Plans, at no additional cost to the

Department.

Section 402:

Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material

Page 136

402.2.5.1 Sampling

The Contractor shall perform all Quality Assurance sampling using AASHTO T 40,

Standard Method of Test for Sampling Bituminous Materials under the direct supervision of

TTCP certified sampling personnel, and witnessed by the Project Manager or his designee.

The samples will be taken either from the discharge side of the storage tank or from the delivery trucks. The samples will be taken after a sufficient amount, a minimum of one (1) gallon, of PGAB is run out to clear any residual PGAB or other asphalt material and/or solvent that may have built up in the sampling valve. All approved sample containers shall be identified using Department Form MT-85.

The minimum sampling frequency for PGAB shall be one (1) sample during the test strip operation and every 5000 tons of HMA or WMA thereafter. One (1) sample of PGAB shall be taken representing OGFC operations. A minimum of two (2) samples shall be taken per

Project representing asphalt binder from HMA or WMA, and a minimum of one (1) sample representing asphalt binder for OGFC. A sample shall consist of (3) separate 1-quart subsamples. All samples shall be maintained in a secure, dry location at the Project office or at a pre-agreed upon location that is satisfactory to the Contractor and Project Manager.

402.2.5.2 Testing

One (1) sub-sample shall be tested by NMDOT Chemistry Unit when the test strip is performed. Another randomly selected sub-sample shall be tested by the NMDOT Chemistry

Unit during the course of the Project. If the results of any of the sub-samples designate failing material, the second sub-sample shall be submitted to and tested by the NMDOT Chemistry

Unit. If the second sub-sample does not meet Specifications in accordance with AASHTO M

320, Table 402.2.5.2.1 “Pay Adjustment Factor Based on PGAB Test Results” will be implemented by the Project Manager. The Pay Adjustment Factor will represent the total asphalt binder used for 5000 Tons of HMA or the tonnage of HMA used for the test strip. If there are multiple failures for each binder test on the same sample, the Project Manager will base the adjustment on the lowest pay factor of all the tests. The Price Adjustment will be executed with a Change Order (Field Sheet).

TABLE 402.2.5.2.1

Pay Adjustment Factor

1

Binder Property

Based on Binder Test Results

Measured Value Pay Factor Applied

DSR on Original Binder <1.00 – 0.98 0.98

G*/sin

 (kPa)

<0.98 – 0.96 0.95

Min. 1.00 kPa

<0.96 – 0.94 0.92

<0.94 – 0.90

<0.90

0.85

0.75 or Removal

2

DSR on RTFO Aged Material

G*/sin

 (kPa)

Min. 2.20 kPa

DSR on PAV Aged Material

G* sin

 (kPa)

Max. 5000 kPa

<2.20 – 2.15

<2.15 – 2.09

<2.09 – 2.02

<2.02 – 2.00

<2.00

>5000 – 5100

>5100 – 5250

>5250 – 5400

>5400 – 5600

>5600

0.98

0.95

0.92

0.85

0.75 or Removal

2

0.98

0.95

0.92

0.85

0.75 or Removal

2

BBR Slope value (m) of PAV Aged Binder <0.300 – 0.298

Min. 0.300

<0.298 – 0.293

Section 402:

Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material

0.98

0.95

Page 137

TABLE 402.2.5.2.1

Pay Adjustment Factor

1

Based on Binder Test Results

<0.293 – 0.290

<0.290 – 0.285

<0.285

BBR Stiffness of PAV Aged Binder

S (MPa)

Max. 300 MPa

>300 – 306

>306 – 315

>315 – 324

>324 – 330

>330

<65 – 60 % Elastic Recovery on RTFO

Aged Material

3

Min 65%

<60

0.92

0.85

0.75 or Removal

2

0.98

0.95

0.92

0.85

0.75 or Removal

2

0.95

0.75 or Removal

2

1

Price Reduction will be applied to contactor’s invoice price of asphalt binder.

2

The Assistant District Engineer-Construction will determine if the non-compliant HMA material will be removed. Removal and replacement will be at no additional cost to the department. If the non-compliant material is accepted, a price reduction factor of 0.75 will apply.

3

Elastic-Recovery is only applicable to PG+ and PGR+ Binders.

402.2.5.3 Appeal Procedure (Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Base

Materials - Only)

If desired, the Contractor at no expense to the Department may submit the third subsample (referee) to a mutually agreed upon Independent Laboratory. The Independent

Laboratory shall be currently accredited to perform such testing by the AASHTO Accreditation

Program (AAP).

If the Contractor desires to appeal the price adjustment for a particular PGAB grade production lot (5000 Tons of HMA or WMA), the Contractor shall submit a written request to the Project Manager, with a copy to the QC Engineer, within ten (10) Calendar Days of the reported test results. The request must describe in full the grounds of circumstances for the appeal. The appeal request will be reviewed by the Project Manager and Assistant District

Engineer-Construction and either accepted or denied. If the appeal is denied, a letter from the

Project Manager stating the grounds for denial will be sent to the Contractor and the price adjustment will be executed with a Change Order (Field Sheet).

Provide a Polymer-Modified Asphalt Binder that meets the requirements for a PG 70-28 per AASHTO M 320 in addition to the requirements in Table 402.2.6:1, “OGFC Polymer-

Modified Asphalt Binder.”

Table 402.2.6:1

OGFC Polymer-Modified Asphalt Binders

Properties

Requirements

PG 70-28+ PG 70-28R+

Terminal-Blended Tire Rubber Content, % minimum

Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) Polymer

Content by Weight of Total Formulation, % minimum

Solubility in Trichloroethylene, % minimum

(Note 1), ASTM D 2042

------ 5.0

------ 2.0

97.5 97.5

Section 402:

Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material

Page 138

Table 402.2.6:1

AASHTO T 301

OGFC Polymer-Modified Asphalt Binders

Elastic Recovery @ 77 o

F, % minimum,

65 65

Note 1: If the solubility of the binder is less than 97.5 percent, test the base asphalt binder.

The solubility of the base asphalt binder shall be greater than 99 percent.

Emulsified asphalt consists of uncracked petroleum asphalt uniformly emulsified with water and an emulsifying or stabilizing agent. Ensure that emulsified asphalt is homogenous after mixing. Provide anionic emulsified asphalt in accordance with AASHTO M 140 and cationic emulsified asphalt in accordance with AASHTO M 208.

Provide high-float emulsions (HFE-60, HFE-90, HFE-150, and HFE-300) in accordance with Table 402.2.7.1:1, “High-Float Emulsions Requirements.”

Table 402.2.7.1:1

High-Float Emulsions Requirements

HFE-

Test

Viscosity, Saybolt Furol at 122 °F, Seconds 50+ 50+ 50+ 50+

Sieve Test, Retained on No. 20 Sieve, %

Settlement, 5 Days, %

Storage Stability Test, 1 Day, %

0.10-

5-

1-

0.10-

5-

1-

0.10-

5-

1-

0.10-

5-

1-

Demulsibility, 1.2 fl oz 0.10 N, CaCl, %

Residue from Distillation Test to 500 °F

Oil Distillate by Volume of Emulsion, %

Coating Test, 3 minutes

30+

65+

1-

30+

65+

3-

65+

7-

65+

7-

Grades, stones coated thoroughly

Tests on Residue from Distillation Test

Penetration at 77 °F, 3.5 oz., 5 sec, 0.1 mm 60–90 90–150 150–300 300+

Float Test at 140 °F, Seconds 1,200+ 1,200+ 1,200+ 1,200+

402.2.7.2 Polymer-Modified High-Float Emulsions

This material is a high-float emulsion containing polymer-modified asphalt and water in

Emulsions Requirements.”

Table 402.2.7.2:1

Polymer-Modified High-Float Emulsions Requirements

Test

HFE-

60P

HFE-

100P

HFE-

150P

HFE-

300P

Seconds

Sieve Test, Retained on No. 20 Sieve, %

Storage Stability Test, 1 Day, %

Demulsibility, 1.2 fl oz 0.10 N, CaCl, %

Residue from Distillation Test to 400 °F

Oil Distillate by Volume of Emulsion, %

Tests on Residue from Distillation Test

50+ 50+ 50+ 50+

0.10-

1-

30+

65+

1-

0.10-

1-

30+

65+

3-

Section 402:

Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material

0.10-

1-

65+

7-

0.10-

1-

65+

7-

Page 139

Table 402.2.7.2:1

Polymer-Modified High-Float Emulsions Requirements

Test

Penetration at 77 °F, 3.5 oz., 5 s, 0.1 mm

HFE-

60P

60–90

HFE-

100P

90–150

HFE-

150P

150–300

HFE-

300P

300+

Ductility 77 °F, 2 inch/min

Elastic Recovery, %

40+ 40+ 40+ —

55+ a

58+ a

25+ b

25+ b

Float Test @ 140 °F, Seconds 1,200+ 1,200+ 1,200+ a

Test in accordance with AASHTO T 301 at a test temperature of 50 °F.

1,200+ b

Test in accordance with AASHTO T 301 at a test temperature of 39.2 °F.

402.2.7.3 Polymer-Modified High-Float Emulsion, Rapid Set

Provide a high-float rapid-set, polymerized emulsion (HFRS-2P) that contains polymermodified asphalt, water, and an emulsifier. Provide high-float rapid-set, polymerized emulsion

(HFRS-2P) in accordance with Table 402.2.7.3:1, “Rapid-Set Polymer-Modified High-Float

Emulsion Requirements.”

Table 402.2.7.3:1

Rapid-Set Polymer-Modified High-Float Emulsion Requirements

Test HFRS-2P

Viscosity, Saybolt Furol at 122 °F, Seconds 100–400

Sieve Test, Retained on No. 20 Sieve, %

Demulsibility, 1.2 fl oz 0.02 N, CaCl, %

0.10

40+

Residue from Distillation Test to 450 °F

Oil Distillate by Volume of Emulsion, %

Tests on Residue from Distillation

65+

3.0-

Penetration at 77 °F, 3.5 oz., 5 s, 0.1 mm

Ductility 39.2

F, 2 inch/min

90–150

20+

Elastic Recovery, % a

58+

Float Test at 140 °F, Seconds a

Test in accordance with AASHTO T 301 at a test temperature of 50 °F

1,200+

402.2.7.4 Asphalt-Emulsified Prime (AE-P)

Provide AE-P designated asphalt-emulsified prime in accordance with Table 402.2.7.4:1,

"Asphalt Emulsified Prime.”

Table 402.2.7.4:1

Asphalt Emulsified Prime

Test AE-P

Viscosity Saybolt Furol at 122 °F, Seconds 15–150

Settlement 24 h, %

Residue from Distillation Test, %

Oil Distillate by volume of Emulsion, %

1-

65+

25-

Tests on Residue from Distillation

Solubility in Trichloroethylene, % 97.5+

402.2.7.5 Penetrating Emulsified Prime (PE-P)

Provide PE-P designated penetrating emulsified prime in accordance with

Table 402.2.7.5:1, “Penetrating Emulsified Prime.”

Section 402:

Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material

Page 140

Table 402.2.7.5:1

Penetrating Emulsified Prime

Test PE-P

Viscosity, Saybolt Furol at 122 °F, Seconds 75-

Sieve Test, Retained on 0.35 in Sieve, %

Residue from Distillation Test, %

0.1-

38+

Oil Distillate by volume of Emulsion, % 0–4

402.2.8 Cutback Asphalts (Medium-Curing Type)

Provide cutback asphalt in accordance with AASHTO M 82. Do not use MC-30.

Provide hydrated lime in accordance with ASTM C 1097, with the following exception:

1. Delete ASTM C 1097, section 4.1, and

2. Substitute the following: “Hydrated lime, dry or slurry, will have a maximum of three percent (3%) retained on a No. 30 sieve and a maximum of 25% retained on a No.

200 sieve.”

Determine the fineness of hydrated lime in accordance with AASHTO T 219. Use a ¼pound sample to perform tests in accordance with AASHTO T 219 sections 6.1 and 6.1.1.

402.2.10 Anhydrite Based Material

Provide anhydrite based material in accordance with Tables 402.2.10:1 “Anhydrite Based

Material Chemical Composition” and Table 402.2.10:2 “Anhydrite Based Material Physical

Properties.” Use ASTM C 114 for the chemical analysis.

Chemical Compound

Table 402.2.10:1

Anhydrite Based Material Chemical Composition

Percent by Weight

SiO

2

Al

2

O

3

Fe

2

O

3

MgO

CaO

SO

3

32.3 to 42.3

Table 402.2.10:2

Anhydrite Based Material Physical Properties

Property Range

LOI, %

Passing #200 Sieve, %

Passing #325 Sieve, %

Specific Gravity

6.7 to 10.7

1.0 to 3.0

1.0 to 1.4

0.2 to 1.2

44.5 to 54.5

0.37 to 1.37

98.8 to 100.0

98.0 to 100.0

2.970 to 3.030

Submit the Material Supplier’s name and address to the Project Manager. If required by the Project Manager, submit representative samples of each grade or classification of asphalt

Materials for testing. Mix and apply asphalt Materials within the approved temperature range.

Do not make changes in the crude stock source, manufacture method, or the Supplier without written approval from the Project Manager.

402.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

Section 402:

Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material

Page 141

If asphalt Materials are not stored in tanks for exclusive use on the Project, the

Department will determine the acceptable quantity of Virgin Asphalt Material, per lot, based on the following equation:

Q

T

X

(1)

Where,

Q

is the quantity of Virgin Asphalt Material (in tons)

T

is the quantity of placed and accepted asphalt pavement (in tons)

X

is the average percent virgin asphalt content in the asphalt pavement (per lot)

402.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Virgin Asphalt Material Ton

Hydrated Lime

Ton

Anhydrite Based Material

Ton

Section 402:

Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material

Page 142

SECTION 403: OPEN-GRADED FRICTION COURSE (NON-QLA)

403.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of constructing an open-graded friction course (OGFC) on a prepared surface.

403.2 MATERIALS

403.2.1 General

Provide OGFC composed of aggregate, asphalt binder, and hydrated lime or anhydrite based Material.

403.2.2 Aggregate

The aggregate is crushed stone or crushed gravel, composed of hard durable pebbles or fragments. Ensure the aggregate meets the grading requirements in Table 403.2.2:1, “OGFC

Gradation Requirements,” when tested in accordance with AASHTO T 11 and AASHTO T 27.

The Department will determine aggregate acceptance by testing samples of the combined aggregates and lime taken before adding asphalt Materials.

Table 403.2.2:1

OGFC Gradation Requirements

Sieve size % passing

1/2 inch

3/8 inch

No. 4

No. 10

No. 40

No. 200

100

90 – 100

25 – 55

0 – 12

0 – 8

0 – 4

Accepted aggregate Material must also meet the following requirements:

1. At least 75% of the Material retained in the No. 4 sieve will be composed of particles that have at least two (2) Fractured Faces. Fractured Faces will be determined in accordance with NMDOT Method FF-1, Fractured Face Determination for Coarse

Aggregate;

2. The aggregate is free of organic matter, lumps of clay, or other Material that prevents thorough coating with asphalt Material;

3. The aggregate is obtained from a source with an AI of 20 or less when calculated in accordance with Section 901, "QUALITY CONTROL/QUALITY ASSURANCE

(QC/QA).";

4. The Department will allow the combination of Materials from two (2) or more sources to produce coarse aggregate only when each source independently meets the requirements of item three (3), above.

Use either a PG 70-28+ or PG 70-28R+ as specified in the Contract, in accordance with

Section 402, “Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material.”

403.2.4 Hydrated Lime or Anhydrite Based Material

Provide hydrated lime or Anhydrite based Material in accordance with Section 402,

“Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material.”

The District Laboratory will develop the OGFC mix design. The JMF gradation will be

Section 403: Open Graded Friction Course (NON-QLA) Page 143

within the master range for the specified type of OGFC. The mix design will establish a single percentage of aggregate passing each required sieve size and a single percentage of asphalt

Material to be added to the aggregate. The mix design will specify whether to add hydrated lime or anhydrite based Material and how much to use. If hydrated lime or anhydrite based

Material is added, include it in the gradation for establishing the mix design. If liquid anti-strip is required, compensation will be by Change Order.

403.3.1 General

Use the “strap method” to determine the quantity of asphalt Material, and maintain the percentage of asphalt Material specified in the mix design, within ±0.3%.

Before placing OGFC, clean Deleterious Materials from the existing surface.

403.3.3 Temperature and Weather Limitations

Do not place OGFC on wet surfaces or when the Project Manager determines that the weather conditions prevent proper handling and finishing. Place OGFC when the Chill Factor is at least 60 °F. If the air temperature is 90 °F or warmer, do not consider the Chill Factor.

Ensure that:

1. Hot mix plants conform to the requirements of Section 423, “Hot-Mix Asphalt —

Superpave (QLA & Non-QLA),” and are of a size that is proportional to the scale of the Work;

2. The mineral aggregate is free of oily or carbonaceous coatings;

3. The moisture content of the mixed Material does not exceed one percent (1%), by weight, of the dry aggregate;

4. The aggregate is mixed with asphalt Material until the aggregate particles are thoroughly and uniformly coated;

5. The mixture temperature does not vary by more than 20 °F from the placement temperature established by the Project Manager;

6. The placement temperature for the mixture does not exceed the asphalt binder

Supplier’s recommendation, or fall below 220 °F;

7. If the Contract requires hydrated lime or anhydrite based Material, add it to the aggregate in accordance with Section 423, “Hot-Mix Asphalt — Superpave (QLA &

Non-QLA)” within the production tolerances specified.”

403.3.5 Placement and Finishing

Place the OGFC with a paving machine in accordance with Section 423.3.4.3, “Pavers.”

The Project Manager may require an external reference of at least 40 ft to improve the rideability. Immediately following the OGFC placement, roll the surface with a steel-wheeled, self-propelled roller that weighs enough to achieve adequate consolidation of the aggregate without excessive breakage. The finished surface shall be smooth and in accordance with

Section 401.3.1.4, “Profile Measurement Operations.” Use a ten (10) foot straightedge to ensure the surface is free of irregularities larger than 1/8 inch. Immediately remove low and defective areas, replace them with new, hot OGFC, and compact the corrected Work to conform to the surrounding area.

Monitor and record plan depths throughout the surfacing operations at intervals specified

Section 403: Open Graded Friction Course (NON-QLA) Page 144

by the Project Manager. The Department will not pay for any excess course depth. Courses will be rejected, if less than 1/2 inch.

403.3.6 Sampling and Testing

Sample the stockpiled aggregate at a point agreed to by the Project Manager and shall conduct testing on those samples in accordance with applicable test procedures. This sampling and testing will be accomplished by qualified testing personnel using Equipment furnished by the Contractor that meets all applicable ASTM and AASHTO requirements. The applicable test procedures, performed as described in the NMDOT Technician Training and

Certification Manual, are as follows:

AASHTO T 2 Sampling Aggregates

AASHTO T 11

AASHTO T 27

Materials Finer than No. 200 Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by

Washing

Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates

AASHTO T 248 Reducing Field Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size

NMDOT FF-1 Fractured Face Determination for Coarse Aggregate

Sample test at the rate of at least one (1) test per 250 tons of Material produced for the first 2000 tons of production, and test at least 500 tons of Material produced thereafter.

403.3.6.1.1 Suspension of Operations

If one (1) or more properties listed in Subsection 403.6.3, Department Quality Assurance

Testing, fail to meet the specification requirements for a period of one (1) Day or a maximum production of 1000 tons; the production will be halted by the Project Manager. Use the gradation information to determine causes or factors that may be a contribution to the problem and prepare a plan to solve the problem. Approval of the plan must be obtained from the

Project Manager before resumption of paving operations. Upon approval of the proposed plan, the Contractor may resume operations to determine if the actions taken have corrected the problem. Limit production to 1000 tons that will be tested in 500 ton increments. If that testing indicates that the problem has been corrected, the Contractor may resume full operations. If the problem has not been corrected, further trial runs and testing as described herein will be required. Take corrective action to remedy any property of the mix that is out of specification. Contractors who elect to produce Material that is not within the specification limits do so at their own risk. Price reductions due to out of specification Material being placed will be deducted from the unit price of the item in accordance with the Department’s current

Acceptance and Price Reduction Procedures. All Material that is rejected shall be removed and replaced with specification Material at the Contractor’s expense. Material that is improperly graded or segregated or fails to meet the requirements herein provided shall be corrected or removed and disposed of immediately as directed by the Project Manager at the

Contractor’s expense.

403.3.6.2 Department Quality Assurance

403.3.6.2.1 Acceptance

After the mix design has been issued and approved, control the mixture production on the project such that the tolerances of Table 403.3.7:1 are met. The Department will conduct

Quality Assurance sampling, testing, and monitoring to ensure that the Contractor provides a mix that meets the tolerances. Acceptance for gradation will be based on testing of samples obtained from combined aggregates and lime, if used, before addition of asphaltic Materials.

Acceptance for asphalt content will be based on strap method. Acceptance for lime content will be based on daily strap totals. The testing will be conducted in accordance with the

Department’s minimum Acceptance Testing Requirements. Acceptance test results will be provided to the Contractor’s Quality Control Representative or designee by the end of the

Section 403: Open Graded Friction Course (NON-QLA) Page 145

Workday after the samples are taken.

Table 403.3.7:1

Acceptance Limits and Factors

Asphalt Content

Hydrated Lime or Anhydrite based

Material Content (If Required by the Mix

Design)

1/2 inch

3/8 inch

± 0.3%

± 0.2% a a

Gradation Band

Gradation Band

No. 4

No. 10

No. 40

Gradation Band

Gradation Band

Gradation Band

No. 200 a

Percent difference from TV of approved JMF.

Gradation Band

403.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

403.4.1 OGFC

OGFC will be measured by the square yard or ton. The average width of the OGFC in place will be used in computing the quantities. The length used in computing the area shall be station to station along the centerline of the Roadway. All dimensions shall be as shown on the typical section of the Plans.

403.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

The accepted quantities of the OGFC will be paid for at the contract unit price per square yard or ton. The accepted quantities complete in place will be considered full compensation for furnishing all Materials, labor, tools, Equipment, testing, and any appurtenances necessary to complete the Work as directed by the Project Manager. Materials shall be considered to include all aggregate, bituminous Material, and hydrated lime. The checking of the depth of the course(s) for process control and cutting of the test cores that include the refilling and compacting with acceptable Materials shall be done by and at the expense of the Contractor under the direct supervision of the Project Manager.

Payments will be made under:

Pay Item Pay Unit

Open-Graded Friction Course Square Yard or Ton

A price reduction in accordance with the Department’s Price Reduction Guidelines will be applied if the OGFC, bituminous Material, or hydrated lime are not produced, mixed, or placed in accordance with the contract requirements.

Section 403: Open Graded Friction Course (NON-QLA) Page 146

SECTION 403-A: WARM MIX ASPHALT – OPEN GRADED FRICTION COURSE (NON-

QLA)

Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a generic term used to describe the reduction in production, paving, and compaction temperatures achieved through the use of one (1) of the NMDOT approved WMA technologies.

Some modification to HMA plants may be necessary to accommodate the WMA technologies as noted in Section 424.3 Construction Requirements.

403-A.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of constructing a warm-mix asphalt open-graded friction course

(WMA-OGFC) on a prepared surface with a warm-mix additive or technologies, approved by the New Mexico Department of Transportation, and included the most current Approved

Products List (APL).

Warm-Mix Asphalt shall be produced in a mixing plant and stored, hauled, placed and compacted in accordance with the requirements of this Section and as shown on the Plans.

A technical representative of the Warm Mix Additive Supplier, including contact information, shall be provided in writing to the District prior to mix design process. The representative is expected to ensure that the Warm-mix additive is handled properly. This representative does not have the authority to allow any deviation from the Department Specifications and Project requirements.

403-A.2 MATERIALS

403-A.2.1 General

Provide WMA-OGFC composed of aggregate, asphalt binder, and hydrated lime or anhydrite based material.

WMA may be produced by one (1) or a combination of several technologies which may include WMA plant foaming processes and Equipment, mineral additives or chemicals that allow the reduction of the production temperatures.

403-A.2.2 Aggregate

The aggregate is crushed stone or crushed gravel, composed of hard durable pebbles or fragments. Ensure the aggregate meets the grading requirements in Table 403-A.2.2:1,

“OGFC Gradation Requirements,” when tested in accordance with AASHTO T 11 and

AASHTO T 27. The Department will determine aggregate Acceptance by testing samples of the combined aggregates and lime taken before adding asphalt Materials.

Sieve size

Table 403-A.2.2:1

OGFC Gradation Requirements

% passing

1/2 inch 100

3/8 inch

No. 4

No. 10

No. 40

No. 200

90 – 100

25 – 55

0 – 12

0 – 8

0 – 4

Accepted aggregate Material must also meet the following requirements:

1. At least 75% of the Material retained in the No. 4 sieve will be composed of particles that have at least two (2) Fractured Faces. Fractured Faces will be determined in

Section 403-A:

Warm Mix Asphalt - Open Graded Friction Course (NON-QLA)

Page 147

accordance with NMDOT Method FF-1, Fractured Face Determination for Coarse

Aggregate;

2. The aggregate is free of organic matter, lumps of clay, or other material that prevents thorough coating with asphalt Material;

3. The aggregate is obtained from a source with an AI of 20 or less when calculated in accordance with Section 901, "QUALITY CONTROL/QUALITY

ASSURANCE (QC/QA)";

4. The Department will allow the combination of Materials from two (2) or more sources to produce coarse aggregate only when each source independently meets the requirements of item three (3), above.

Use either a PG 70-28+ or PG 70-28R+ as specified in the Contract, in accordance with

Section 402, “Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material.”

403-A.2.4 Hydrated Lime or Anhydrite Based Material

Provide hydrated lime or Anhydrite based Material in accordance with Section 402,

“Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material.”

A Department approved Private Testing Lab will develop the WMA -OGFC mix design in accordance with ASTM D 7064, “Standard Practice for Open Graded Friction Course (OGFC)

Mix Design”, as modified by the New Mexico Department of Transportation State Asphalt

Engineer. The mix design shall be signed by a professional Engineer licensed by the NM

Board of Registration for Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors. The JMF gradation will be within the master range for the specified type of WMA-OGFC. The mix design will establish a single percentage of aggregate passing each required sieve size and a single percentage of asphalt Material to be added to the aggregate. The mix design will specify whether to add hydrated lime or anhydrite based material and how much to use. The Mix

Design shall identify the minimum and maximum mixing and placement temperatures of the mix. Add a minimum of one percent (1%) hydrated lime or anhydrite based material, include it in the gradation for establishing the mix design.

403-A.2.6 Warm Mix Additive or Technology

Only Warm Mix additives or technologies approved by the Product Evaluation Program and currently listed on the Approved Products List can be used on Department Projects. To be placed on the Approved Products list, the WMA additive Supplier shall verify that the binder with the additive meets the PG grade of the specified binder. The potential additive Supplier shall demonstrate this to the Department by evaluating the Asphalt Binder and WMA additive for compliance with the rheological properties for low and high temperatures for the specified

PG grade in accordance with AASHTO M320, Table 1 and Section 402.2.6, Polymer-Modified

Asphalt Binder. The type and dosage of Warm Mix Additives shall comply with the requirements of the Warm Mix additive Supplier. The type and/or dosage of the WMA additives shall be provided to the Project Manager two (2) weeks prior to the commencement of pavement operations. Warm Mix additive dosage rates shall not deviate from those designated by the Warm Mix Additive Supplier. If a terminal blend Warm Mix additive is used, the dosage rate shall be shown on the Materials Certificate of Compliance.

After the Warm Mix Additive is introduced, the PG grade of the binder shall comply with the PG grade as specified in the Contract.

For foamed asphalt systems, water used as directed by the foamed asphalt system manufacturer shall be considered to be the Warm Mix additive. Only foam systems on the

Department’s Approved Products List shall be used.

Section 403-A:

Warm Mix Asphalt - Open Graded Friction Course (NON-QLA)

Page 148

403-A.3.1 General

Use the “strap method” to determine the quantity of asphalt Material, and maintain the percentage of asphalt Material specified in the mix design, within ±0.3%.

Before placing WMA-OGFC, clean Deleterious Materials from the existing surface.

403-A.3.3 Temperature and Weather Limitations

Do not place WMA-OGFC on wet surfaces or when the Project Manager determines that the weather conditions prevent proper handling and finishing. Place WMA- OGFC when the

Chill Factor is at least 55 °F. If the air temperature is 90 °F or warmer, do not consider the

Chill Factor.

1. Hot mix plants conform to the requirements of Section 423, “Hot-Mix Asphalt —

Superpave (QLA & Non-QLA),” and are of a size that is proportional to the scale of the Work. Some modification to HMA plants may be necessary to accommodate the

WMA technologies as noted in Section 424.3 “Construction Requirements”;

2. The mineral aggregate is free of oily or carbonaceous coatings;

3. The moisture content of the mixed Material does not exceed 1% (by weight) of the dry aggregate;

4. The aggregate is mixed with asphalt Material until the aggregate particles are thoroughly and uniformly coated;

5. The mixing and placement temperature for the mixture do not exceed or fall below the temperatures established in the approved mix design, and

6. Indicate which warm mix technologies are to be incorporated into the mix design.

The Mix Design will specify whether to add hydrated lime or anhydrite based material and how much to use.

403-A.3.5 Placement and Finishing

Place the WMA-OGFC with a paving machine in accordance with Section 424.3.4.3,

“Pavers.” The Project Manager may require an external reference of at least 40 ft to improve the ride ability. Immediately following the OGFC placement, roll the surface with a steelwheeled, self-propelled roller that weighs enough to achieve adequate consolidation of the aggregate without excessive breakage. The finished surface shall be smooth and in accordance with Section 401.3.1.4, “Profile Measurement Operations.” Use a ten (10) foot straightedge to ensure the surface is free of irregularities larger than 1/8 inch. Immediately remove low and defective areas, replace them with new, hot OGFC, and compact the corrected Work to conform to the surrounding area.

403-A.3.5.1 Plan Surfacing Depths

Monitor and record plan depths throughout the surfacing operations at intervals specified by the Project Manager. The Department will not pay for any excess course depth. Courses will be rejected, if less than 1/2 inch.

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Sample the stockpiled aggregate at a point agreed to by the Project Manager and shall conduct testing on those samples in accordance with applicable test procedures. This sampling and testing will be accomplished by qualified testing personnel using Equipment furnished by the Contractor that meets all applicable ASTM and AASHTO requirements. The applicable test procedures, performed as described in the NMDOT Technician Training and

Certification Manual, are as follows:

AASHTO T 2 Sampling Aggregates

AASHTO T 11 Materials Finer than No. 200 Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by Washing

AASHTO T 27 Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates

AASHTO T 248 Reducing Field Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size

NMDOT FF-1 Fractured Face Determination for Coarse Aggregate

Sample test at the rate of at least one (1) test per 250 tons of material produced for the first 2000 tons of production, and test at least 500 tons of material produced thereafter.

If one (1) or more properties listed in Subsection 403-A.3.6.2, Department Quality

Assurance Testing, fail to meet the specification requirements for a period of one (1) Day or a maximum production of 1000 tons; the production will be halted by the Project Manager. Use the gradation information to determine causes or factors that may be a contribution to the problem and prepare a plan to solve the problem. Approval of the plan must be obtained from the Project Manager before resumption of paving operations. Upon approval of the proposed plan, the Contractor may resume operations to determine if the actions taken have corrected the problem. Limit production to 1000 tons that will be tested in 500 ton increments. If that testing indicates that the problem has been corrected, the Contractor may resume full operations. If the problem has not been corrected, further trial runs and testing as described herein will be required. Take corrective action to remedy any property of the mix that is out of specification. Contractors who elect to produce material that is not within the specification limits do so at their own risk. Price reductions due to out of specification material being placed will be deducted from the unit price of the item in accordance with the Department’s current

Acceptance and Price Reduction Procedures. All material that is rejected shall be removed and replaced with specification material at the Contractor’s expense. Material that is improperly graded or segregated or fails to meet the requirements herein provided shall be corrected or removed and disposed of immediately as directed by the Project Manager at the

Contractor’s expense.

403-A.3.6.2.1 Acceptance

After the mix design has been issued and approved, control the mixture production on the

Project such that the tolerances of Table 403-A.3.6.2.1:1 are met. The Department will conduct Quality Assurance sampling, testing, and monitoring to ensure that the Contractor provides a mix that meets the tolerances. Acceptance for gradation will be based on testing of samples obtained from combined aggregates and lime, if used, before addition of asphaltic

Materials. Acceptance for asphalt content will be based on strap method. Acceptance for lime content will be based on daily strap totals. The testing will be conducted in accordance with the Department’s minimum Acceptance Testing Requirements. Acceptance test results will be provided to the Contractor’s Quality Control Representative or designee by the end of the

Workday after the samples are taken.

Table 403-A.3.6.2.1:1

Acceptance Limits and Factors

Asphalt Content ± 0.3% a

Hydrated Lime or Anhydrite based ± 0.2% a

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Table 403-A.3.6.2.1:1

Acceptance Limits and Factors

Material Content (If Required by the Mix

Design)

1/2 inch

3/8 inch

No. 4

No. 10

No. 40

Gradation Band

Gradation Band

Gradation Band

Gradation Band

Gradation Band

No. 200 Gradation Band a

Percent difference from TV of approved JMF.

403-A.4.1 WMA-OGFC

WMA-OGFC will be measured by the square yard or ton. The average width of the

WMA-OGFC in place will be used in computing the quantities. The length used in computing the area shall be station to station along the centerline of the Roadway. All dimensions shall be as shown on the typical section of the Plans.

403-A.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

The accepted quantities of the WMA-OGFC will be paid for at the Contract unit price per square yard or ton. The accepted quantities complete in place will be considered full compensation for furnishing all Materials, labor, tools, Equipment, testing, and any appurtenances necessary to complete the Work as directed by the Project Manager.

Materials shall be considered to include all aggregate, bituminous material, and hydrated lime.

The checking of the depth of the course(s) for process control and cutting of the test cores that include the refilling and compacting with acceptable Materials shall be done by and at the expense of the Contractor under the direct supervision of the Project Manager.

Payments will be made under:

Pay Item

Open-Graded Friction Course

Pay Unit

Square Yard or Ton

A price reduction in accordance with the Department’s Price Reduction Guidelines will be applied if the WMA-OGFC, bituminous material, or hydrated lime are not produced, mixed, or placed in accordance with the Contract requirements.

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SECTION 404: RUBBERIZED OPEN GRADED FRICTION COURSE

404.1.0 DESCRIPTION

Rubberized Open Graded Friction Course (ROGFC) shall consist of furnishing all

Materials, mixing at a plant, hauling and placing a mixture of open graded aggregate

Materials, and asphaltic cement binder to form a permeable pavement Surface Course.

Section 403 Open Graded Friction Course (NON-QLA) shall be complied with except as modified herein:

404.2.0 MATERIALS

404.2.1 General

Terminal blended asphalt rubber binder shall consist of a uniform homogeneous mixture of tire rubber obtained from recycled tires, and compatible PG 70-28

+

asphalt binder. All binder components shall be thoroughly blended and reacted prior to use.

404.2.2 Asphalt Cement

The PG 70-28

+

asphalt cement for the asphalt rubber binder shall comply with the requirements of Section 402 “Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based

Materials” for PG 70-28R

+

.

404.2.3 Tire Rubber Modifier

Tire rubber modifier (TRM) shall be produced from the recycling of automobile and/or truck tires. The specific gravity of the TRM shall be 1.15 +/- 0.05. The fiber content shall be less than 0.5% by weight for all other applications. The TRM shall contain no metal particles.

Mineral contaminates shall be less than 0.25% by weight.

The metal content shall be determined by thoroughly stirring a 50 gram sample of the

TRM with a magnet.

Determine the mineral contaminate by Saline Float Separation Method:

Stir a 50 gram sample of TRM into a one (1) liter glass beaker filled with a saline solution (1 part table salt into 3 parts distilled water) and allow the sample to stand undisturbed for 30 minutes. The mineral contaminate is that material which does not float to the top of the solution.

404.2.4 Asphalt Rubber Binder Formulation Design

The asphalt rubber binder shall contain a minimum of ten percent (10%) TRM and a minimum of two percent (2%) styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer by weight of total formulation that shall comply with the requirements of Table A. The design for the asphalt rubber binder formulation shall be performed by the asphalt rubber Supplier.

The terminal-blended asphalt rubber binder shall conform to the requirements of

AASHTO M320, as well as the requirements in Table A. If the solubility of the terminalblended asphalt rubber binder is less than 97.5%, the base asphalt binder shall be tested.

The solubility of the base asphalt binder shall be greater than 99%.

The Contractor shall provide the Project Manager with a copy of the terminal-blended asphalt rubber binder formulation design at least 15 Calendar Days prior to use. The design shall include: a. Source; b. Grade; c. Type;

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d. Proportion expressed as a percentage of total weight of the formulation for each component material; e. Physical properties of the asphalt rubber binder in accordance with Table 404.2.4:1; and f. Recommended mixing and compaction temperatures for intended use.

Test Properties

Table 404.2.4:1

Specification

Whole Ground Tire Rubber Content, % 10.0

COC Flash Point, ºC (ºF) 230 (446) AASHTO T48

Elastic Recovery, 10 ºC (50 ºF), %,

5cm/min, hold 5 minutes and cut, % recovery after 1 hour

Solubility in Trichloroethylene, %

65 AASHTO

98.0 AASHTO T44

Original DSR, G*/sin

δ@ 70 ºC, 10 rad/sec,KPa

1.00

RTFO Aging, G*/sin

δ@ 70 ºC, 10 rad/sec,KPa

2.20

PAV Aging, G*/sin

δ@ 25 ºC, 10 rad/sec,KPa

5000

AASHTO T315

AASHTO T240

AASHTO T315

Creep stiffness, S, MPa

M-Value @60s, ºC 0.300

300 AASHTO T313

AASHTO T313

A Department approved Private Testing Lab will develop the Rubberized OGFC mix design in accordance with ASTM D 7064, “Standard Practice for Open Graded Friction Course

(OGFC) Mix Design”, as modified by the New Mexico Department of Transportation State

Asphalt Engineer. The mix design shall be reviewed and signed by a professional Engineer licensed by the New Mexico Board of Registration for Professional Engineers and Land

Surveyors. The JMF gradation will be within the master range for the specified type of OGFC.

The mix design will establish a single percentage of aggregate passing each required sieve size and a single percentage of asphalt Material to be added to the aggregate. The mix design will specify either hydrated lime or anhydrite based material as an anti-strip, at a minimum of one (1) percent, by weight. The mix design shall indicate the amount used and it shall be included in the aggregate gradation for establishing the mix design. The Mix Design shall identify the minimum and maximum mixing and placement temperatures of the mix.

Mix aggregate with asphalt at three (3) asphalt contents in 0.5% increments. Three (3) specimens should be compacted to optimum and three (3) specimens each at both 0.5% above and 0.5% below the estimated optimum asphalt content. Estimate the optimum asphalt content as follows:

For <3 % aggregate absorption, use estimated optimum AC = 6.5%;

For >3 % aggregate absorption use estimated optimum AC = 7.0%.

Determine the maximum specific gravity (Gmm) of the loose mix in accordance with

AASHTO T 209 using a companion sample mixed with the middle increment of AC content.

Perform the drain down test in accordance with AASHTO T305. If the sample has a drain down in excess of 0.3 %, make the necessary adjustments in the AC content or aggregate gradation and repeat the test.

Evaluate the stripping potential in accordance with the Static Immersion Test described below. If less than 95% of the binder is retained, repeat the test using an appropriate

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Rubberized Open Graded Friction Course

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adjustment to the type of anti-strip agent used and/or the amount of anti-stripping agent.

Retention greater than 95% of the binder is required in order for the ROGFC mix to be approved for use on this Project.

The Mix Design shall provide the terminal-blended asphalt rubber binder formulation design, including: a. Source; b. Grade; c. Type; d. Proportion expressed as a percentage of total weight of the formulation for each component material; e. Physical properties of the asphalt rubber binder in accordance with Table 402.2.6.1; and f. Recommended mixing and compaction temperatures for intended use.

404.2.6 Static Immersion Test Procedure

404.2.6.1 Scope

This method describes coating and static immersion procedures for determining the retention of a bituminous film on an aggregate surface in the presence of water.

404.2.6.2 Significance and Use

The purpose of the test is to evaluate the effectiveness of an anti-strip additive in the asphalt coating of aggregate used for Open Graded Friction Course (OGFC).

This test evaluates the effectiveness of the anti-strip additive with specific asphalt and a specific aggregate. Different asphalts and aggregates will give variable response to this test with the same additive.

This procedure is to be used as a go/no-go test at the ninety-five percent (95%) level. No attempt shall be made to evaluate the retention of a film below 95%.

If both hydrated lime and anhydrite based material provide retention of 95% or greater, the Contractor may choose which anti-strip material will be used.

This test is a static immersion test and should not be confused with the immersioncompression test.

404.2.6.3 Apparatus

1. Containers for mixing such as stainless steel bowls or seamless tin cans.

2. Hot Plate or Oven for bringing the asphalt and aggregate to suitable mixing temperatures.

3. Oven or Water Bath capable of maintaining a constant temperature of 140 o

F for 24 hours.

4. Pyrex Beakers or other suitable glass containers, 600 ml capacity.

5. Spatula for mixing.

Select a representative sample of the aggregate passing the 3/8” sieve and retained on the No. 4 sieve. Dry and weigh the aggregate, then add sufficient water (2 to 4%) to obtain proper coating of the aggregate with the proposed anti-strip material. When aggregate is thoroughly moistened, weigh in one percent (1%) anti-strip, by weight of dry aggregate and thoroughly mix to coat all aggregate surfaces with the anti-strip material. Air or oven dry as time permits.

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Place 100 +/- 1 grams of the anti-strip treated minus 3/8 inch plus #4 material into a clean mixing container and heat in the oven or on the hot plate to proper mixing temperature.

Add sufficient heated PG 70-28R

+

to completely cover all aggregate surfaces. Mix asphalt and aggregate with heated spatula until aggregate is thoroughly coated.

Place mixed material into a Pyrex beaker and allow cooling for at least two (2) hours.

404.2.6.5 PROCEDURE

Cover mixed material in the beaker with about 2 1/2 inches of distilled water at room temperature.

Place the beaker in an oven or water bath at 140 o

F for 24 hours.

Remove the beaker from the oven or water bath and without disturbing or agitating the coated aggregate; remove any film on the surface of the water.

Place the beaker in an area with good light and position it to eliminate glare from the surface of the water. By observation through the water from above estimate the percentage of the total visible are of the aggregate which remains coated as greater than, or less than 95%.

Report the estimated coated area as “greater than 95%” or “less than 95%”.

404.3.1 Placement and Finishing

Place the ROGFC with a paving machine in accordance with Section 423.3.4.3, “Pavers.”

The Project Manager may require an external reference of at least 40 ft to improve the ride ability. Immediately following the ROGFC placement, roll the surface with a steel-wheeled, self-propelled roller that weighs enough to achieve adequate consolidation of the aggregate without excessive breakage. The finished surface (ROGFC) shall be smooth and in accordance with Section 401.3.1.4, “Profile Measurement Operations.” Use a ten (10) foot straightedge to ensure the surface is free of irregularities larger than 1/8 inch. Immediately remove low and defective areas, replace them with new, hot ROGFC, and compact the corrected Work to conform to the surrounding area.

Note: All requirements for OGFC “Section 401 Pavement Smoothness Measurement” shall apply to ROGFC.

ROGFC will be measured by the square yard or ton. The average width of the ROGFC in place will be used in computing the quantities. The length used in computing the area shall be station to station along the centerline of the Roadway. All dimensions shall be as shown on the typical section of the Plans.

The accepted quantities of the ROGFC will be paid for at the Contract unit price per ton.

The accepted quantities complete in place will be considered full compensation for furnishing all Materials, labor, tools, Equipment, testing, and any appurtenances necessary to complete the Work as directed by the Project Manager. Materials shall be considered to include all aggregate, bituminous Materials, binders, modifiers, asphalt cement, hydrated lime, and anhydrite based material if required.

The checking of the depth of the course(s) for process control and cutting of the test cores that include the refilling and compacting with acceptable Materials shall be done by and at the expense of the Contractor under the direct supervision of the Project Manager.

Section 404:

Rubberized Open Graded Friction Course

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Payments will be made under:

Pay Item Pay Unit

Rubberized Open Graded Friction Course Complete Ton

A price reduction in accordance with the Department’s Price Reduction Guidelines will be applied if the ROGFC, bituminous material, hydrated lime, or anhydrite based material are not produced, mixed, or placed in accordance with the Contract requirements.

Section 404:

Rubberized Open Graded Friction Course

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SECTION 405: DETOUR PAVEMENTS

405.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of the following:

1. Providing and placing surfacing Materials, including Subgrade preparation, Base

Course, prime coat, asphalt Material, tack coat, and OGFC, if required;

2. Maintaining, removing, hauling, and disposing of Detour pavements in an environmentally-acceptable manner;

3. Hauling and stockpiling salvageable Detour pavements as directed by the Project

Manager.

Unless otherwise noted in the Contract, Detour pavements do not include Detour

Embankments, drainage, and major Structures. Embankment, drainage, and major Structures will conform to their applicable sections.

405.2

MATERIALS

405.2.1 General

Obtain surfacing Material for the Detour construction from a suitable source in accordance with Section 106, “Control of Materials.”

405.2.2 Approval of Pavement Section

The Department based the Detour pavement section in the Contract on the Subgrade design R-value for the Project. If the Contractor or Department finds that the Subgrade

R-value of the existing material is different from the Subgrade design R-value shown in the

Contract, the Contractor shall use Material with a suitable Subgrade R-value. The Department will use the Contractor-proposed Subgrade R-value to determine the appropriate new structural number using the structural coefficients shown in Table 405.2.3:1, “Acceptance

Testing Tolerances,” and adjust the thickness of the Detour section accordingly. (The structural number of a pavement layer is the thickness multiplied by the structural coefficient.)

Detour section Material within two (2) ft of the finished Subgrade will meet or exceed the

Subgrade design R-value specified by the State Materials Bureau.

405.2.3 Alternate Pavement Section

Two (2) weeks before constructing the Detour, submit the pavement section proposal to the Project Manager for approval. The proposal shall include the surfacing thickness and the types of Materials.

The approved alternate Detour pavement section must have at least the same structural number specified in the Contract.

Determine the structural number in accordance with the structural coefficients in

Table 405.2.3:1, “Acceptance Testing Tolerances.”

Table 405.2.3:1

Acceptance Testing Tolerances

Base Course

Hot-mix asphalt (HMA)

0.11

0.44

Cold-mixed asphalt pavementª 0.15

ªThe Contractor may use cold-mixed asphalt pavement in low-traffic areas, with the District Construction Engineer’s written approval.

Section 405:

Detour Pavements

Page 157

405.3.1 General

Construct the Detour pavement in accordance with the following applicable

Specifications:

1. Section 207, “Subgrade Preparation;”

2. Section 304, “Base Course;”

3. Section 403, “Open Graded Friction Course;”

4. Section 407, “Tack Coat;” and

5. Section 408, “Prime Coat.”

Detours shall include a final surface of OGFC, if specified in the Contract.

405.3.2 Contractor Testing/Design Requirements

Provide Subgrade R-values for the top two (2) ft of the Detour Subgrade. Use the

Department’s procedures to determine the Subgrade R-values from sieve analysis and

Atterberg limits. Obtain referenced documents and manuals from the Department's State

Materials Bureau web site.

405.3.3 Maintenance of Detour Section

Ensure that the maintenance and repair of the Detours do not impact the public. Maintain safe traffic flow during construction.

If the Project Manager determines that the Detour surfacing is damaged, correct the problem immediately. If the Project Manager determines that the corrective actions failed, overlay the Detour with additional HMA at no additional cost to the Department.

If the Contractor does not immediately fix the Detour surfacing as directed by the Project

Manager, the Department will assess liquidated damages in accordance with Section 108,

“Prosecution and Progress,” for each Day that the Detour remains unacceptable to the Project

Manager.

405.3.4 Removal of Detours

When removing the Detour, dispose of the surfacing material in an environmentally acceptable manner, or salvage the material as shown in the Contract.

The salvage of the Detour pavement Material includes hauling and stockpiling.

405.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Department will measure the Detour Pavement Construction actually placed and maintained on the top width and length of the detour if paid by the unit of the Contract Item. If no Contract Item exists for Detour Pavement Construction, payment will be Incidental to

Section 618, “Traffic Control Management” and Section 702, “Construction Control Devices.”

405.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

405.5.1 Work Included in Payment

The following Work or items will be considered as included in the payment for Detour

Pavement Construction and will not be measured or paid for separately: Submittals;

Maintenance of Detours; Furnishing and placement of HMA/WMA, OGFC on Detours, if designated in the Contract; Base course; Removal of Detour Materials including surfacing,

Section 405:

Detour Pavements

Page 158

earthwork, and drainage Structures; Furnishing and placement of prime and tack coat;

Subgrade preparation; Testing; Hauling and stockpiling of salvageable Materials.

Section 405:

Detour Pavements

Page 159

SECTION 407: TACK COAT

407.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of providing and applying asphalt Material to an existing hot-mix asphalt or portland cement concrete pavement surface.

407.2 MATERIALS

Use one (1) of the following asphalt Materials types for the tack coat:

1. CSS-1, CSS-1H, or SS-1, or SS-1H emulsified asphalt;

2. Performance-graded asphalt binder; or

3. Project Manager approved selection from the Department’s Approved Products List.

Provide the asphalt Materials in accordance with Section 402, “Asphalt Materials,

Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material.”

The Project Manager will determine the tack coat application rate.

407.3.1 Temperature and Weather Limitations

Do not apply tack coat on a wet surface. Do not apply emulsified asphalt when the air temperature is below the manufacturer’s recommended application temperature.

407.3.2 Equipment

The Equipment shall include an asphalt distributor and Equipment for heating asphalt

Material. Provide Equipment that is in accordance with Section 408, “Prime Coat.”

407.3.3 Preparation of Surface

The surfaces and edges to be tack coated shall be dry, patched, cleaned, and free of dirt, surface moisture, vegetation and other Deleterious Materials or irregularities.

407.3.4 Application of Asphalt Material

Uniformly apply asphalt Material with a pressure distributor at a rate determined by the

Project Manager (to provide a “residual” asphalt cement content of from 0.04 gal per square yard to 0.08 gal per square yard). Ensure that the nozzles on the pressure distributor are fully open and at the same angle from the spray bar, approximately 30°. Keep the spray bar at a height above the pavement surface to provide for a double or triple lap of the applied asphalt

Material. Keep traffic off of the tack coat, unless otherwise approved by the Project Manager.

If the Roadway being paved is closed to traffic, the Contractor may place tack coat a maximum of 24 h ahead of the laydown operation. If the Roadway being paved is open to traffic, place the tack coat only over the area that can be paved during that Day’s laydown operation. If the Contractor uses an emulsified asphalt tack coat, the Contractor may begin paving operations after the emulsified asphalt is cured. Reapplication of tack coat damaged by traffic or construction Equipment will be at no cost to the Department.

407.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Department will consider any water added to further dilute emulsified asphalts

Incidental to Asphalt Material for Tack Coat and no separate payment will be made.

407.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Section 407:

Tack Coat

Page 160

SECTION 408: PRIME COAT

408.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of providing and applying asphalt Material and blotter material (if required) to an existing surface.

408.2

MATERIALS

Provide one (1) of the following types of prime coat asphalt Material:

1. Asphalt emulsified prime (AE-P);

2. Penetrating emulsified prime (PE-P);

4. Other Material approved by the Project Manager.

Provide prime coat asphalt Material in accordance with Section 402, “Asphalt Materials,

Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material.”

408.2.1 Certification

Provide a manufacturer’s written certification that the prime Material is chemically identical to those identified on the Department’s Approved Products List.

Provide fine aggregate (sand) blotter material in accordance with Table 408.2.2:1,

“Blotter Material,” unless otherwise approved by the Project Manager.

Table 408.2.2:1

Blotter Material

Sieve size % passing

3/8 inch 100

No. 4 80 – 100

No. 16

No. 50

No. 100

408.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

408.3.1 Temperature and Weather Limitations

Do not apply the prime Material in the following conditions:

45 – 80

10 – 30

2 – 10

1. If the surface has standing water;

2. If the air temperature is less than manufacturer’s recommendation; or

3. If weather conditions prevent the proper placement of the prime coat.

The Project Manager may waive these temperature and weather limitations due to wet weather conditions or to protect Work in progress during Department approved suspensions.

408.3.2 Equipment

Provide a distributor and Equipment for heating bituminous Material.

Ensure the distributor is capable of maintaining the prime Material at an even temperature and can uniformly distribute the Material on variable widths with uniform pressure.

Ensure that the distributor can apply the Material as required.

Section 408:

Prime Coat

Page 161

Ensure that the distributor circulates the prime Material within the tank, the spray bar, and other accessories when not spraying.

Ensure that the distributor has a hand spray gun with a precise-control single or double nozzle and a positive shut-off valve.

Ensure that the distributor has the following Equipment:

3. Accurate volume-measuring devices or a calibrated tank;

4. A thermometer that measures the temperature of tank contents;

5. A power unit for the pump; and

6. Laterally and vertically adjustable spray bars.

408.3.3 Preparation of Surface

Shape the surface to be primed in accordance with the Plans, and ensure that it is free of ruts, corrugations, segregated Materials, or other irregularities. Uniformly compact the surface in accordance with Section 304, “Base Course.” Ensure that the surface is slightly moist but not saturated when applying the prime.

408.3.4 Application of Prime Material

Do not apply the prime coat until the Project Manager has approved the quantities, application rates, Material temperature, and locations.

Apply the prime Material in a uniform and continuous layer using a pressure distributor.

Ensure the nozzles on the pressure distributor are fully open and at the same angle from the spray bar, approximately 30°. Keep the spray bar at a height above the pavement surface to provide a double or triple lap of the prime Material. If using a hand-held wand, ensure the application is uniform.

If distribution irregularities occur, cease operations and take corrective action.

If the Department allows traffic on the surface, maintain one-way traffic on the untreated section of the Roadbed until the treated surface has absorbed the prime Material, then transfer traffic to the treated portion and prime the untreated section.

Perform Work and procedures in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.

408.3.5 Application of Blotter Material

If the prime Material fails to penetrate the surface within 24 h after its application, spread blotter material to absorb the excess Material. The Project Manager may approve the use of blotter material on Roadway sections that must be opened to traffic before the 24 h waiting period.

408.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Department will consider any water added to further dilute emulsified asphalts

Incidental to Asphalt Material for Prime Coat and no separate payment will be made.

408.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Prime Coat Material Ton

Section 408:

Prime Coat

Page 162

Section 411: HOT-POURED CRACK SEALANT

411.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of preparing and cleaning cracks and joints in the existing Roadway surface and sealing these cracks with hot-poured sealant.

411.2 MATERIALS

For crack and joint seals, use hot-poured sealant in accordance with the general and physical requirements of ASTM D 6690, as specified in the Contract.

The Contractor shall have the Supplier sample and test the sealant in accordance with

ASTM D 6690 and provide certified test results for each lot or batch of sealant supplied.

Provide sealant packaged in containers and labeled in accordance with ASTM D 6690. Bulk shipments of sealant must be accompanied by documents that state the following:

2. Trade name of the sealant;

3. Batch or lot number;

4. Pouring temperature; and

5. Safe heating temperature.

Do not mix more than one (1) lot or batch within a bulk shipment of sealant.

411.3.1 Temperature and Weather Limitations

Apply the sealant in the following conditions:

1. When the air temperature is at least 40 °F and rising; and

2. When the temperature of the existing pavement surface is above 32 °F during application.

Do not place the sealant during inclement weather, on wet surfaces, or when the wind conditions prevent satisfactory sealing.

411.3.2 Equipment

Provide router bits of at least 1/2-inch diameter that cut to one (1) inch deep.

Use air compressors that provide uncontaminated air at a pressure capable of cleaning approved cracks. Equip air compressors with traps to prevent oil and moisture from entering the air stream.

The Equipment for heating and preparing the sealant mixture shall provide a continuous supply of the prepared mixture and maintain a continuous, uniform and homogeneous mixture during the sealing operation. Provide continuous mechanical agitation as necessary to maintain homogeneity.

Use application devices that provide uniform application of the sealant Materials without clogging, or causing other irregularities in distribution. Application devices and Equipment shall meet the requirements of the sealant manufacturer.

Route and clean cracks to the satisfaction of the Project Manager.

Route cracks with an average clear opening less than 1/2 inch to provide a minimum sealant reservoir of 1/2 inch wide and to a depth of from 3/4 inch to one (1) inch, unless

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Hot-Poured Crack Sealant

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otherwise directed by the Project Manager. Center routers over the cracks during routing operations.

Clean cracks with an average clear opening 1/2 inch or greater with high-velocity compressed air to a depth of from 3/4 inch to one (1) inch, unless otherwise directed by the

Project Manager.

Immediately before placing the sealant, clean loose particles, dust, and other Deleterious

Materials from the sealant reservoirs with high-velocity compressed air.

411.3.4 Application of Sealant

Control the application to confine sealant within the reservoirs. Apply sealant to the clean, dry-surfaced reservoirs to a depth of from 3/8 inch to 1/4 inch below the existing surface of the Roadway. If the Project Manager determines that the method of filling results in an excessive amount of sealant on the pavement surface, stop filling and change the method.

Clean excess sealant Material from the pavement surface.

If application devices clog or irregularities in the application occur, halt operations until corrective action is taken.

Follow special preparation or placement requirements indicated by the manufacturer.

411.3.5 Resumption of Traffic

Cure sealant in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements, before placing traffic on the pavement surface.

411.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

411.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Hot-Poured Crack Sealing Pound

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Hot-Poured Crack Sealant

Page 164

SECTION 412: HOT IN-PLACE RECYCLING OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT (REMIXING

METHOD)

412.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of recycling the existing in-place asphalt surface in a multi-step process of cleaning, heating, milling, rejuvenating (if required), spreading, and leveling. This

Work also consists of placing and compacting the new HMA/WMA over the recycled surface.

The Contract may require the Contractor to blend recycled Material with an asphaltrejuvenating agent.

412.2 MATERIALS

Provide an agent that will rejuvenate the existing Roadway’s binder properties. The existing Roadway’s asphalt Material shall be extracted, recovered, and combined with a virgin asphalt binder per AASHTO M 323, Appendix A such that the combination of the rejuvenating requirements for the required PG asphalt grade in the approved mix design.

412.2.2 HMA/WMA

Provide the HMA Material and mix design in accordance with Section 423, “Hot-Mix

Asphalt (QLA & Non-QLA)” or WMA Material and mix design in accordance with Section 424,

“Warm Mix Asphalt (QLA & Non-QLA).

412.3.1 Equipment

412.3.1.1 General

At the Pre-Construction Conference, notify the Project Manager of the necessary types of

Equipment. Deliver the Equipment to the Project in time for the Project Manager’s evaluation.

Demonstrate the rate, depth, and recycling operations on a Roadway test section before beginning production operations. Submit a Quality Control Plan in accordance with the most recent Department’s Contractor Quality Control Guidelines for the Project Manager’s approval.

If Equipment or recycling operations do not meet requirements, correct or replace the deficiency.

412.3.1.2 Heating Units

Ensure the heating units can heat the existing asphalt pavement high enough to mill the

Material to the minimum specified depth without the following results:

1. Breaking aggregate particles;

2. Charring the existing asphalt; or

3. Producing undesirable pollutants.

Apply the heat under an enclosed or shielded hood. Do not heat the pavement surface with a direct flame.

Use milling units that can mill to the specified depth. Equip the units with automatic height controls to clear utility manholes and other obstructions in the pavement surface. Use units with enough power to mill through high spots and create a leveled surface.

412.3.1.4 Rejuvenating Agent Storage Unit

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Use a thermostatically-controlled storage unit to maintain the rejuvenating agent at a constant, Supplier-specified temperature.

412.3.1.5 Metering Unit

Use a unit that can uniformly apply the rejuvenating agent to the milled Material. The unit shall incorporate a meter for continuous quantity verification. Vary the applied amount in direct proportion to the recycling system’s operating speed and synchronize with the amount of Material milled. Do not vary the rejuvenating agent’s application tolerance by more than

0.5% of the specified application rate.

412.3.1.6 Blending Unit

Use a twin-shaft pugmill unit that can uniformly mix the milled Material, rejuvenating agent, and virgin HMA/WMA.

412.3.1.7 Spreading and Leveling Unit

Use a unit with automatic grade controls capable of spreading and leveling the Material uniformly over the specified surfaces.

412.3.1.8 Compaction Equipment

Use compaction Equipment in accordance with Section

Equipment.”

412.3.2.1 Cleaning of Existing Pavement Surface

Before beginning hot in-place recycling, clean the existing pavement surface of nonasphalt Materials by blading and brooming or use methods approved by the Project Manager.

412.3.2.2 Heating, Milling, and Processing

Heat, mill, and process the in-place asphalt surface in a uniform manner to the widths and depths in accordance with the Plans. Control the heat to assure a uniform heat penetration without the following results:

1. Differential softening of the pavement;

2. Breaking of the aggregate particles;

3. Charring of the asphalt; or

4. Producing undesirable pollutants.

If required, uniformly apply the rejuvenating agent to the milled Material before the addition of new HMA or WMA. Determine the actual amount of rejuvenating agent needed to address field conditions and to optimize the properties of the in-place pavement. Uniformly mix the milled Material, rejuvenating agent, and HMA or WMA to produce a homogeneous mixture.

412.3.2.3 Placing and Compacting

Uniformly spread and level the recycled mixture to the width, grade, and slope specified in the Plans. Immediately after leveling the recycled Material, compact the Material in accordance with Section 423.3.5, “Placement Operations.”

412.3.2.4 Temperature Requirements

Ensure the temperature of the asphalt Materials immediately behind the laydown machine is between 225 °F and 300 °F.

Section 412:

Hot In-Place Recycling of Asphalt Pavement (Remixing Method)

Page 166

412.3.2.5 Joints

The heating unit shall heat a minimum of four (4) inches beyond the width of recycling.

Construct joints in accordance with Section 423.3.5.4, “Joints.”

412.3.2.6 Debris and Waste Material Disposal

Dispose of debris and waste material in an environmentally safe manner at locations approved by the Project Manager.

412.3.2.7 Weather Limitations

Do not perform hot in-place recycling of asphalt pavement when the Roadway surface is wet or when weather conditions prevent the proper handling, finishing, and compacting of the asphalt mixture.

Provide a compacted surface in accordance with Section

Tolerances.”

Monitor and record the depth of the compacted recycled pavement Material (including new HMA Material, if specified) during the placement operations. Perform this task in accordance with the Department’s Minimum Testing and Acceptance Requirements and as approved by the Project Manager. The Project Manager will address deficiencies of more than 0.5 in by:

1. Accepting the in-place compacted thickness at an adjusted price; or

2. Rejecting the in-place mixed Material and requiring the Contractor to remove and replace.

412.3.3.1 Contractor Quality Control for Materials

Provide new HMA or WMA Materials in accordance with Section 423.3.6.1, “Contractor

Quality Control;” except take random test samples from the HMA windrow before the Material goes through the paver.

412.3.3.2 Contractor Quality Control for Compaction

See Section 423.3.6.1.2, “Contractor Quality Control for Compaction.”

412.3.3.3 Suspension of Operations

See Section 423.3.6.2.1, “Acceptance.”

412.3.3.4 Project Verification Testing

Place new HMA Materials in accordance with Section 423.3.6.4, “Independent Assurance

Testing” or WMA Materials in accordance with Section 424.3.6.4, “Independent Assurance

Testing.”

412.3.4.1 Department Quality Assurance Testing for HMA Mix

New HMA Materials shall meet the requirements of Section 423.3.6, “Sampling and

Testing,” with the exception that the Department will base Acceptance on random test

Section 412:

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samples taken from the HMA windrow before the Material goes through the paver. New WMA

Materials shall meet the requirements of Section 424.3.6, “Sampling and Testing,” with the exception that the Department will base Acceptance on random test samples taken from the

WMA windrow before the Material goes through the paver.

412.3.4.2 Department Quality Assurance Testing for HMA or WMA Compaction

The Department will test in accordance with Section 423.3.6, or 424.3.6, “Sampling and

Testing.” The target density is a mean density of at least 93% of the theoretical maximum density. The Project Manager will grant an exception to the target if the Contractor can demonstrate that the target density is not reasonably obtainable because of the conditions of the existing Pavement Structure or Subgrade Materials.

If the Department grants this exception, construct a Roadway test strip and develop a

HMA compaction process to obtain the highest possible target density based on an approved roller’s density gain per pass, in accordance with Section 423.3.4.4, “Compaction Equipment.”

Do not begin paving operations (except for the Roadway test strip) until the Project Manager approves the process. The in-place density shall not exceed 98% of the theoretical maximum density or be more than three percent (3%) below the target density. If a lot’s mean density does not meet this density requirement, the Project Manager may do the following:

1. Require the Contractor to remove and replace the defective lot of HMA or WMA at no additional cost to the Department; or

2. Accept the HMA or WMA Material and pay the Contractor 50% of the Bid Item Unit

Price.

If the Project Manager determines that the mean measured densities are consistently higher, not exceeding 93% of the theoretical maximum density, or lower than the current lot’s target density, the Project Manager may establish a new Acceptance lot on the Project.

412.3.4.3 Department Quality Assurance Testing for HMA/WMA Smoothness

If the Contract requires two (2) or more layers of new HMA/WMA Material, place in accordance with Section 401, “Pavement Smoothness Measurement.” For the purposes of this section, Hot Recycled insitu material is not defined as HMA.

412.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Department will measure HMA in accordance with Section 423.4, “Method of

Measurement” or WMA in accordance with Section 424.3, “Method of Measurement”.

412.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

The Department will pay for new HMA Material in accordance with Section 423.5, “Basis of Payment” or WMA Material in accordance with Section 424.5, “Basis of Payment.”

Pay Item Pay Unit

Rejuvenating Agent Gallon

Section 412:

Hot In-Place Recycling of Asphalt Pavement (Remixing Method)

Page 168

SECTION 413: SINGLE-MACHINE HOT IN-PLACE SURFACE REPAVING

413.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of recycling the existing asphalt surface in a simultaneous multi-step process of cleaning, heating, milling, scarifying, rejuvenating (if required), spreading, and leveling. This Work also consists of placing and compacting new HMA or WMA Material over the recycled surface. The Contract may require the Contractor to blend the recycled Material with an asphalt-rejuvenating agent.

413.2 MATERIALS

Provide an agent that will rejuvenate the existing Roadway binder properties. Extract, recover, and combine the existing Roadway’s asphalt Material with a virgin asphalt binder per

AASHTO M 323, Appendix A, such that the combination of the rejuvenating agent with the existing Roadway asphalt binder will meet the AASHTO M 320 requirements for the required

PG asphalt grade in the approved mix design.

413.2.2 HMA

Provide HMA Material in accordance with Section 423, “Hot-Mix Asphalt — (QLA & Non-

QLA)” Or WMA Material in accordance with Section 424, “Warm Mix Asphalt (QLA & non-

QLA).”

Provide a HMA mix design in accordance with subsection 423.2, “Materials” or a WMA mix design in accordance with subsection 424.2, “Materials”. The State Materials Bureau must approve the HMA or WMA mix design before the beginning of the Work.

413.3.1 Equipment

413.3.1.1 General

At the Pre-Construction Conference, notify the Project Manager of the type of Equipment that will be used. Deliver the Equipment to the Project in time for the Project Manager’s evaluation. Submit a Quality Control Plan in accordance with the most recent Department’s

Contractor Quality Control Guidelines for the Project Manager’s approval. Provide a machine with a single, self-propelled mobile unit capable of heating, scarifying, rejuvenating, mixing, leveling the existing surface Material, and immediately laying new hot-mix Material over the recycled surface. Demonstrate the rate, depth, and recycling capabilities on the Roadway before beginning operations. If Equipment or recycling operations do not meet requirements, correct or replace the deficiency.

Use a height-adjustable heating unit that is specifically designed to heat the upper layer of asphalt pavement. The unit shall heat the asphalt pavement in a manner that:

1. Will not burn, char, coke, or scrub the recycled mix;

2. Will meet State and local air quality requirements;

3. Will not pose health risks or damage to property;

4. Will not break aggregate particles; and

5. Will produce enough heat to soften the pavement to at least a depth of one (1) inch.

Apply the heat under an enclosed or shielded hood so that blasting or scrubbing of the existing pavement is eliminated. Use Equipment that can apply heat uniformly under controlled atmospheric conditions to eliminate free oxygen under the heating chamber.

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Single-Machine Hot In-Place Surface Repaving

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Use a unit that can remove pavement to a minimum depth of one (1) inch. The unit shall loosen the in-place asphalt pavement to a minimum depth of one (1) inch without excessively breaking the aggregate. Use a unit equipped with automatic height, grade, and cross slope controls with enough power to push the scarifiers through the high spots and create a leveled surface.

413.3.1.4 Rejuvenating Agent Storage Unit

Use a thermostatically-controlled storage unit to maintain the rejuvenating agent at a constant, Supplier-specified temperature.

Use a unit that can uniformly apply the rejuvenating agent to the milled and scarified material. The unit shall incorporate a meter for continuous quantity verification. Vary the applied amount in direct proportion to the recycling system’s operating speed and synchronize with the amount of material milled or scarified. Do not vary the rejuvenating agent’s application rate by more than

 0.5% of the rate defined in the mix design.

Use a unit that can mix the scarified Material with the rejuvenating agent to produce a uniform, consistent final product.

413.3.1.7 Spreading and Leveling Unit

Use a unit equipped with automatic grade controls, capable of uniformly spreading and leveling the blended recycled Material. Use a unit equipped with a leveling blade and auger capable of moving recycled Material in a transverse direction to the center of the windrow.

Equip the unit with a recycling screed to partially compact the recycled mix before placing the top layer of new HMA or WMA.

Coordinate the repaver speed with the production of the HMA or WMA plant to achieve a continuous operation.

Use Equipment in accordance with Section 423.3.4, “Equipment.”

413.3.2.1 Cleaning of Existing Pavement Surface

Before beginning hot in-place recycling, clean the existing pavement surface of nonasphalt Materials by blading and brooming or other methods approved by the Project

Manager.

413.3.2.2 Heating, Milling/Scarifying, and Processing

Evenly heat, mill, scarify, and rework the in-place asphalt surface to a minimum depth of one (1) inch, in accordance with the Plans. Heat the existing pavement surface with continuously moving heaters to scarify the pavement to at least a one (1) inch average depth in a single pass. Keep the surface temperature of the remaining in-place pavement below

475 °F and produce reclaimed mix at a temperature of at least 225 °F. Extend the heating operation at least four (4) inches beyond the width of scarification on both sides. Immediately scarify the heated pavement with scarifying shanks spaced so that they cover the surface without leaving ridges. Mount the shanks to allow control from the operator’s platform.

Scarification shall cut through the pavement at a level that comes within 1/4 inch of the

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finished pavement’s grade and cross slope. If required, uniformly apply the rejuvenating agent to the material immediately after milling and scarifying.

413.3.2.3 Placing and Compacting

Uniformly spread and level the recycled mixture to the width, finished grade, and cross slope, shown in the Contract. After partially compacting the recycled mixture with the recycling screed, place a new layer of HMA or WMA on top of the recycled paving material using a four-section vibratory screed. Perform this in one (1) continuous operation while the temperature of the recycled mix is at least 225 °F. Compact the Material in accordance with

Section 423.3.5, “Placement Operations.”

Maintain the temperature of the asphalt Material between 225 °F and 300 °F when measured immediately behind the laydown machine.

413.3.2.5 Joints

The heating unit shall heat a minimum of four (4) inches beyond the width of recycling.

Construct joints in accordance with Section 423.3.5.4, “Joints.”

413.3.2.6 Debris and Waste Material Disposal

Dispose of debris and waste material in an environmentally safe manner at locations approved by the Project Manager.

Do not perform hot in-place recycling of asphalt pavement when the Roadway surface is wet or when weather conditions prevent the proper handling, finishing, and compacting of the asphalt mixture.

Place the compacted surface of recycled pavement material or new HMA Material in accordance with Section 423.3.5.5, “Surface Tolerances.”

Monitor and record the material depth of the compacted recycled pavement material or new HMA or WMA Material throughout the placement operations. Perform this task in accordance with the Department’s Minimum Testing and Acceptance Requirements and as approved by the Project Manager. The Project Manager will address a deficiency of more than 0.5 inches in-place compacted thickness as follows:

1. Accept the in-place compacted thickness at a reduced payment; or

2. Reject the in-place mixed Material.

413.3.3.1 Contractor Quality Control for Materials

Place new HMA Materials in accordance with Section 423.3.6.1, “Contractor Quality

Control” or WMA Materials in accordance with Section 424.3/6.1, Contractor Quality Control,” except take random test samples from the HMA or WMA windrow before the Material goes through the paver.

413.3.3.2 Contractor Quality Control for Compaction

See Section 423.3.6.1.2, Contractor Quality Control for Compaction.”

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413.3.3.4 Project Verification Testing

New HMA Material is subject to Independent Assurance Testing in accordance with

Section 423.3.6.4, “Independent Assurance Testing. New WMA Material is subject to

Independent Assurance Testing in accordance with Section 424.3.6.4. “Independent

Assurance Testing.”

413.3.4.1 Department Quality Assurance for HMA

New HMA Materials shall meet the requirements of Section 423.3.6.2.1, “Acceptance,” and new WMA Materials shall meet the requirements of Section 424.3.6.2.1, “Acceptance,” with the exception that the Department will base Acceptance on random test samples taken from the HMA or WMA before the Material goes through the paver.

413.3.4.2 Department Quality Assurance Testing for HMA Compaction

Meet the requirements of Section 423.3.6.2.1 “Acceptance” Or Section 424.3.6.2.1,

“Acceptance.” The Project Manager will grant an exception to the mean density requirement of at least 93% of the theoretical maximum density if the Contractor can demonstrate that a minimum of 93% cannot be reasonably obtained because of the conditions of the existing

Pavement Structure or Subgrade Materials. If the Project Manager grants this exemption, construct a Roadway test strip and develop a HMA or WMA compaction process to get the highest possible density based on an approved roller’s density gain per pass, in accordance with Section 423.3.4.4, “Compaction Equipment.” The Project Manager will approve the process (except for the Roadway test strip) before paving operations begin. In no case shall the percentage of theoretical maximum density exceed 98% nor fall more than 3 percentage points lower than the target density. If a lot does not meet either of these density requirements, the Project Manager will do the following:

1. Accept and pay for the lot of HMA or WMA Material at 50% of the Bid Item Unit

Price; or

2. Reject the in-place material and require the Contractor to remove and replace.

If the Project Manager determines that the mean measured densities are consistently higher, but not to exceed 93%, or lower than the current lot’s target density, the Project

Manager may establish a new Acceptance lot on the Project.

413.3.4.3 Department Quality Assurance Testing for HMA/WMA Smoothness

If the Contract requires two (2) or more lifts of new HMA/WMA Material, place in accordance with Section 401, “Pavement Smoothness Measurement.” For the purposes of this section, Hot Recycled Insitu material is not defined as HMA.

413.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

If the Contract requires HMA, the Department will measure it in accordance with

Section 423.4, “Method of Measurement.”

413.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

The Department will pay for new HMA Material in accordance with Section 423.5, “Basis of Payment.”

Pay Item Pay Unit

Rejuvenating Agent Gallon

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Single-Machine Hot In-Place Surface Repaving

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SECTION 414: COLD MILLING

414.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of cold milling pavement surfaces and removing, hauling, and disposing of cold-milled Materials.

414.2 MATERIALS—Reserved

414.3.1 Equipment

Use a pavement profiler that has cross slope elevation controls and can accurately control Profile Grades and cross slopes within a 1/4 inch tolerance, unless otherwise shown in the Contract. The Equipment must control Profile Grades by using an independent grade control or a 40 ft minimum external reference.

Use Equipment that provides an enclosed cutting area and dust control.

The milling Equipment must produce a uniform milled surface. Maintain the Equipment’s teeth and spacing to produce the desired texture. Immediately replace broken, damaged, or excessively worn teeth.

414.3.2 Operations

Cold mill the existing pavement surface in accordance with the Contract.

Adjust the specified depth in maximum increments of 1/4 inch, as directed by the Project

Manager.

Minimize gouges, grooves, and ridges to create a uniform surface without deviations greater than 1/2 inch when measured with a ten (10) ft straightedge. Keep the milled surface free of loose material.

Perform milling operations in accordance with the Department’s Pavement Drop-Off

Guideline. Immediately remove any standing water.

Do not expose the milled surface to traffic for more than 48 hours before beginning further surface operations.

Correct unacceptable Work and damage to adjacent Structures caused by the operations. Obtain Project Manager’s approval of corrected Work.

Perform additional milling or patching to repair damage to the milled surface, as directed by the Project Manager. If the Project Manager determines that damage is due to conditions beyond the Contractor’s control, the Department will pay for the required milling or patching for milled surfaces, at the Bid Item Unit Price.

Remove the cold milled pavement material and dispose of the surfacing material in an environmentally acceptable manner or stockpile in accordance with the Contract.

The Contractor may also use cold milled pavement Material as RAP or recycled concrete

(RC) in accordance with the Contract.

414.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

inch.

The Department will measure Cold Milling to the nearest 1/4 inch, if by the square yard-

414.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

Section 414:

Cold Milling

Page 173

Pay Item

Cold Milling (Asphalt)

Pay Unit

Square Yard-Inch or Square Yard

Cold Milling (Concrete)

Square Yard-Inch or Square Yard

Patching of Milled Surface Ton

Section 414:

Cold Milling

Page 174

SECTION 415: PAVEMENT SURFACE RESTORATION

415.1 DESCRIPTION

415.1.1 General

This specification covers the requirements for:

1. Option A: In-Situ Cold Recycling of Existing Surfacing; and

2. Option B: Cold Milling with Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) or Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA)

Inlay.

Choose either option. The Contractor may change options once during the Project at no additional cost to the Department.

415.1.2 Option A: In-Situ Cold Recycling of Existing Surfacing

This Work consists of the following:

1. Pulverizing the existing surfacing;

2. Mixing an emulsified binder agent with the pulverized surfacing;

3. Mixing hot hydrated lime slurry with the pulverized surfacing;

4. Spreading and compacting the mixture; and

5. Sealing the compacted surface.

415.1.3 Option B: Cold Mill with HMA Inlay

This Work consists of the following:

2. Applying a tack coat; and

3. Placing an inlay of HMA or WMA.

415.2 MATERIALS

415.2.1 Option A: In-Situ Cold Recycling of Existing Surfacing

Use an emulsified binder agent that is polymerized high-float emulsion HFE-150P, unless otherwise specified. Changing one (1) grade up or down will change the Bid Item Unit Price based on the difference in invoice prices between the grades of emulsion. Change the grade only with the approval of the Project Manager and District Laboratory supervisor. Use polymerized high-float emulsion in accordance with Section 402, “Asphalt Materials, Hydrated

Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material.” Use cold recycled Material that meets the following gradation requirements:

Sieve size

1 1/4 inchª

Table 415.2.1:1

Cold Recycled Pavement Gradation Requirements

% passing

100

One (1) inch 90–100

ªAllow 1 1/2 inch if pavement with fabric is recycled.

Use sealing emulsion that is diluted high-float emulsion, CSS-1, or another approved equal. Use hot hydrated lime slurry meeting the following requirements:

1.

2.

High-calcium pebble quicklime meeting the requirements of ASTM C 977;

Clean water in accordance with Section 509.2.6, “Water;” and

3. Slurry with a minimum dry solids content of 35% by weight and consisting of a uniform, pumpable suspension of solids in water.

Section 415: 175

Provide a Laboratory mix design developed and tested in accordance with the

Department’s procedures. The mix design will establish the initial target addition rate for the emulsified binder agent and for the hot hydrated lime slurry. Provide copies of the Laboratory mix design, along with supporting documentation, to the Project Manager, the District

Laboratory supervisor, and the State Materials Bureau. Do not use the mix design without

State Materials Bureau approval. The Department will consider the Laboratory mix design a starting point only. The Contractor may adjust the target addition rates for emulsified binder agent and hot hydrated lime slurry as necessary, with the Project Manager’s approval.

415.2.2 Option B: Cold Mill with HMA Inlay

Cold millings removed during the surface restoration process will become the property of the Department, unless used on the Project or otherwise specified. The Contractor may use cold milling Material from this Project as RAP in the HMA or WMA inlay. Provide HMA or

WMA in accordance with a Department-recognized HMA/WMA mixture type, with a nominal size of at least 3/4 inch or greater, and Section 423, “Hot-Mix Asphalt — (QLA & Non-QLA) Or

Section 424, “Warm Mix Asphalt.” Use a tack coat in accordance with Section 407, “Tack

Coat.” Use HMA mixture containing performance-graded asphalt Material in accordance with

Section 402, “Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material.”

415.2.2.1 Option B Mix Design

Provide a mix design developed and approved in accordance with Section 423, “Hot-Mix

Asphalt (QLA & Non-QLA)” or Section 424, “Warm Mix Asphalt (QLA & Non-QLA).”

415.2.3 Equipment

415.2.3.1 Option A: In-Situ Cold Recycling of Existing Surfacing

415.2.3.1.1 Cold In-Situ Machinery

Use a self-propelled machine capable of pulverizing in-situ asphalt Materials to the specified depth in one (1) pass. Ensure that the machine provides a minimum rotor cutting width of 12 ft with automatic grade and slope control. Use a machine with screening and crushing capabilities to reduce or remove oversized particles before mixing with emulsion.

The Department will allow the removal of a maximum of two percent (2%) oversize material before adding emulsion, with the Project Manager’s approval. Use a mixing machine capable of mixing the pulverized Material and the emulsified binder agent in a homogeneous mixture and placing in a windrow while preventing segregation. Use a positive displacement pump capable of accurately metering the required quantity of emulsified binder agent into the pulverized Material. Equip the pump with a positive interlock system that will permit addition of the emulsified binder agent only when the pulverized Material is present in the mixing chamber, and that will automatically shut off when the Material is not in the mixing chamber.

Equip each mixing machine with a meter capable of registering the rate of flow and total delivery of the emulsified binder agent introduced into the mixture. Calibrate the meter in the presence of the Project Manager before beginning recycling operations and check or calibrate the meter as directed by the Project Manager.

415.2.3.1.2 Lime Slurry Equipment

Produce lime slurry at the job site using a batch type process. Ensure the Equipment accurately proportions the quicklime and water, mixes the two (2) to obtain proper slaking, and maintains homogeneous slurry. Provide horizontal mixing shafts in the transports used to convey the slurry to maintain a homogenous mixture. Add the lime slurry to the pulverized surfacing with a spray bar located at the cutting head on the milling machine. Use a metering device that accurately measures the amount of slurry delivered to within ± ten percent (10%) by weight.

415.2.3.1.3 Pavers

Section 415: 176

Place the recycled asphalt Base Course with a self-propelled asphalt paver in accordance with Section 423.3.4.3, “Pavers,” except do not heat the screed. Use Equipment capable of spreading the recycled asphalt base in one (1) continuous pass, without segregation, to the section shown on the Plans. When using a pick-up machine to feed the windrow into the paver’s hopper, ensure that it is capable of picking up the entire windrow, down to the underlying Materials.

415.2.3.1.4 Rollers

Provide rollers in accordance with Section 423.3.4.4, “Compaction Equipment.” Ensure that the number, weight, and types of rollers are sufficient to obtain the required compaction while the mixture is in a workable condition. Use a pneumatic roller that weighs at least 30 ton for the breakdown roller. Equip rollers with pads and water systems that prevent the recycled mixture from sticking to the roller wheels.

415.2.3.1.5 Brooms

Maintain a working rotary power broom on site capable of removing aggregate that dislodges from the recycled surface.

415.2.3.2 Option B: Cold Mill with HMA or WMA Inlay

Provide and use Equipment in accordance with Section 423, “Hot-Mix Asphalt (QLA &

Non-QLA),” Section 424, “Warm Mix Asphalt (QLA & Non-QLA) Section 407, “Tack Coat,” and

Section 414, “Cold Milling.”

Before beginning the pre-paving conference, submit a paving schedule to the Project

Manager for pavement surface restoration operations (Option A or Option B). Begin paving operations only after the Project Manager has given written approval. Monitor and record plan depths throughout the pavement surface restoration operations and at intervals directed by the

Project Manager. The Department will not pay for any depth in excess of the Contractspecified depth.

415.3.1 Option A: In-Situ Cold Recycling of Existing Surfacing

Ensure that Option A Work has a minimum depth of four (4) inches and the specified width, or as directed by the Project Manager. Begin placing the HMA or WMA overlay of the in-situ cold recycled layer within one (1) week of completing the in-situ cold recycled layer.

Remove Deleterious Materials within the width of the pavement to be recycled before beginning recycling operations or other relevant Work. Dispose of the debris as directed by the Project Manager. Control water to the pulverized Material to facilitate uniform mixing with the emulsified binder agent. The Contractor may add water before or with the emulsified binder agent. Provide a means to accurately meter and register the rate of flow of water into the pulverized Material. If the typical section to be recycled is on a super elevated or sloped section, begin the initial pass of the milling Equipment at the lowest portion of the section and proceed in succession towards the higher side of the slope. Remove fillets of fine, pulverized

Material that form adjacent to a vertical face before spreading the recycled mix. The

Contractor shall not remove fillets adjacent to existing pavement if the Contractor is to remove the fillets by overlapping during subsequent milling operation. If segregation occurs either in the windrow or behind the paver, the Project Manager may require the Contractor to make changes to the Equipment or operations.

If a section of recycled pavement contains a paving fabric, as identified in the Plans, waste oversized material as directed by the Project Manager. This may require changes in

Equipment and procedures to obtain an acceptable end product.

Make these changes at no additional cost to the Department.

Section 415: 177

When a section of recycled pavement contains a paving fabric not identified in the Plans, or if the vertical location of the fabric varies by more than one (1) inch from that specified, submit a written proposal to the Project Manager describing in detail the recommendations for addressing the fabric. Address the size of shredded fabric pieces, the removal of oversize fabric pieces, the removal of oversize RAP, and any anticipated changes to the emulsion addition rate.

Proposals that incorporate a reduction of the existing pavement thickness or a decrease in the depth of cold recycling must include an analysis addressing the structural adequacy of the proposed new pavement section. Submit the proposal to the State Materials Bureau for their review. Do not begin the Work until the Project Manager approves the proposal in writing.

Spread the recycled asphalt base in one (1) continuous pass, without segregation, in accordance with the typical section.

Ensure that the final surface of recycled asphalt base does not deviate more than 1/4 inch when measured with a ten (10) ft straightedge.

415.3.1.2 Temperature and Weather Limitations

Do not perform recycling operations in the following conditions:

1. The average daily air temperature is below 55 °F;

2. The Chill Factor is below 35 °F;

3. The weather is foggy or rainy; or

4. The weather conditions are such that proper mixing, spreading, and compaction requirements of the recycled material cannot be accomplished.

Apply the emulsified binder agent to the pulverized Material at the target addition rate in accordance with Section 415.2.1.1, “Option A Mix Design.” Maintain an allowable tolerance of

± 0.2% from the target binder content.

Add water to the quicklime and incorporate it uniformly into the pulverized surfacing

Material at a rate that will result in 1.5% hydrated lime by dry weight of pulverized surfacing

Material. Control the addition of lime slurry by continuously weighing the pulverized surfacing

Material.

415.3.1.5 Density and Rolling Requirements

Establish a rolling pattern to obtain a minimum of 96% of the maximum theoretical density of a Laboratory briquette, prepared in accordance with Department molding and testing procedures. The Project Manager may require a re-demonstration of rolling capabilities for the following reasons:

1. The Project Manager observes a change in the recycled Materials;

2. The Contractor changes the rolling Equipment; or

3. The Contractor does not obtain proper densities.

Perform initial rolling with a pneumatic roller until the mixture has no visible displacement.

Perform the final rolling, to eliminate pneumatic tire marks and achieve density, with steel wheel rollers, either in static or vibratory mode. Perform rolling in accordance with

Section 423.3.5, “Placement Operations.” Suspend rolling operations that result in cracking, movement, or other types of pavement damage, and correct the problem. The Project

Manager will make suspension and resumption of rolling operations decisions.

Section 415: 178

Do not permit vehicles on the completed recycled asphalt base for at least two (2) hours after the recycled Material is spread and compacted. Allow traffic on the recycled Material when approved by the Project Manager. Allow the recycled Material to cure so that the free moisture in the recycled Material reduces to a maximum of one percent (1%) above the inherent moisture content of the existing pavement by the total weight of the mix. Determine the inherent moisture content of the existing pavement from samples taken at a maximum of

1-mile intervals, or as approved by the Project Manager.

The State will determine the free moisture content of the recycled pavement from samples taken from the same areas and same intervals sampled for the inherent moisture content. Take the samples and determine the free moisture immediately before sealing or overlaying operations. If the free moisture content of the recycled Material is one percent (1%) or less above the inherent moisture of the Material, seal the surface with emulsion at an approximate rate of 0.05 gal per square yard to 0.10 gal per square yard, in order to control surface raveling. Repair unacceptable recycled Material, as directed by the Project Manager, before placing a subsequent surfacing course. Ensure that the surface of the recycled pavement is safe for traffic. Remove loose aggregate that develops on the surface of the recycled pavement with a power-broom.

415.3.2 Option B: Cold Mill with HMA or WMA Inlay

Ensure that Option B Work has a minimum depth of three (3) inches, unless otherwise specified in the Plans, and a width as specified in the Plans, or as directed by the Project

Manager. If required, mill the pavement surface to the grades, depths, and widths specified in the Plans. Remove dirt and other objectionable material from the surface of the pavement with blades, brooms, or other methods approved by the Project Manager in accordance with

Section 423, “Hot-Mix Asphalt - Superpave (QLA & Non-QLA),” Section 407, “Tack Coat,” and

Section 414, “Cold Milling.”

415.3.3.1 Contractor Quality Control for Materials

Place new HMA Materials in accordance with Section 423.3.6.1, “Contractor Quality

Control” or WMA in accordance with Section 424.3.6.1, “Contractor Quality Control”except take random test samples from the HMA windrow before the Material goes through the paver.

415.3.3.2 Contractor Quality Control for Compaction

See Section 423.3.6.1.2, Contractor Quality Control for Compaction.

415.3.3.4 Project Verification Testing

Place new HMA Material in accordance with Section 423.3.6.4, “Independent Assurance

Testing” or WMA Material in accordance with Section 424.3.6.4, “Independent Assurance

Testing.”

415.3.4.1 Department Quality Assurance for HMA/WMA

New HMA Materials shall meet the requirements of Section 423.3.6.2.1, “Acceptance” and new WMA Materials shall meet the requirements of Section 424.3.6.2.1, “Acceptance,” with the exception that the Department will base Acceptance on random test samples taken from the HMA or WMA before the Material goes through the paver.

415.3.4.2 Department Quality Assurance Testing for HMA or WMA Compaction

Section 415: 179

Meet the requirements of Section 423.3.6.2.1, “Acceptance” Or Section 424.3.6.2.1,

“Acceptance,” as appropriate. The Project Manager will grant an exception to the mean density requirement of at least 93% of the theoretical maximum density if the Contractor can demonstrate that a minimum of 93% cannot be reasonably obtained because of the conditions of the existing Pavement Structure or Subgrade Materials. If the Project Manager grants this exemption, construct a Roadway test strip and develop a HMA or WMA compaction process to get the highest possible density based on an approved roller’s density gain per pass, in accordance with Section 423.3.4.4, “Compaction Equipment.” The Project Manager will approve the process (except for the Roadway test strip) before paving operations begin. In no case shall the percentage of theoretical maximum density exceed 98% nor fall more than three (3) percentage points lower than the target density. If a lot does not meet either of these density requirements, the Project Manager will do the following:

1. Accept and pay for the lot of HMA Material at 50% of the Bid Item Unit Price; or

2. Reject the in-place material and require the Contractor to remove and replace.

If the Project Manager determines that the mean measured densities are consistently higher, but not to exceed 93%, or lower than the current lot’s target density, the Project

Manager may establish a new Acceptance lot on the Project.

415.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

415.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

All Process Control and Quality Control Testing required shall be Incidental to Pavement

Surface Restoration.

Pay Item Pay Unit

415.5.1 Option A: In-Situ Cold Recycling of Existing Surfacing

If the actual quantity of polymerized high-float emulsion varies outside the range of one percent (1%) to two percent (2%), the Department will pay for or credit the actual amount of variation at the invoice cost for emulsion (per ton).

Section 415: 180

SECTION 416: MINOR PAVING

416.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of constructing one (1) or more courses of HMA or WMA pavement on a prepared base in accordance with the Plans or as directed by the Project Manager. All

Projects with less than 5,000 tons of HMA or WMA shall be paid as Minor Paving. Projects with less than 15,000 tons may be designated as Minor Paving in the Plans.

Examples of minor paving locations may include the following:

3. Auxiliary lanes; and

4. Turnouts.

416.2 MATERIALS

Use HMA or WMA of the type and gradation shown in the Contract for minor paving.

HMA and WMA are a mixture of asphalt binder, aggregate, blending sand, mineral filler, hydrated lime, or anhydrite based material, WMA additive or process, as appropriate. Use

Materials for minor paving in accordance with Section 423.2, “Materials” or 424.2, “Materials.”

Perform minor paving in accordance with Section 423.3.1, “Construction Requirements,

General,” Section 423.3.2, “Mix Temperature Requirements,” Section 423.3.3, “Addition of

Section 423.3.5, “Placement Operations” or in accordance with the appropriate 424 Sections.

No referee testing will be required for Minor Paving. Referee Testing may be used if both parties agree in writing prior to commencing placement operations for Minor Paving.

416.3.1 Sampling and Testing

Provide the Materials, Equipment, and personnel necessary for Quality Control.

Submit a proposed quality control plan in accordance with Section 423 “Hot Mix Asphalt –

Superpave.”

Provide the Department with Quality Control test results, Quality Control charts, and other documentation of the Quality Control efforts. Submit changes to the approved Quality Control plan to the Project Manager before performing Work affected by the change. Failure to submit a Quality Control plan or failure to follow the approved Quality Control plan constitutes grounds for suspending the operations.

416.3.1.2 Department Quality Assurance

416.3.1.2.1 Acceptance

The Department will accept the constructed product based on inspection and on

Laboratory testing for conformance with the Contract. The Department will test samples of

HMA taken from the Roadway before compaction, and on cut pavement samples (cores). The

Department will accept the constructed product based on the following criteria:

1. Air voids as determined from Laboratory-compacted specimens in accordance with

AASHTO T 166 and AASHTO T 209;

2. Asphalt content as determined by the tank strap method;

3. Final thickness of the compacted Material as measured from cores in accordance with ASTM D 3549;

Section 416:

Minor Paving

Page 181

4. Density of the compacted Roadbed as determined in accordance with

AASHTO T 310, Standard Method of Test for In-Place Density and Moisture

Content of Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth). Contractor shall provide cores from three (3) locations designated by the Project Manager for correlation with the Nuclear Densometer.

Department representatives, certified in the relevant test procedures by the State

Materials Bureau through TTCP, will perform Acceptance testing in accordance with AASHTO or Department methods, using the test methods and modifications in the current TTCP

Manual.

416.3.1.2.1.1 Acceptance Lots and Pay Factor Determination

The Department will accept density based on the average of all density tests per Project, taken at a minimum of ten (10) density tests per 5,000 tons, and will accept air voids and asphalt content based on a minimum of three (3) tests per 5,000 tons.

The Department will determine pay factors in accordance with Table 416.3.1.2.1:1, “Price

Table 416.3.1.2.1:3, “Price Adjustments for Asphalt Content,” and Table 416.3.1.2.1:4 “Price

Adjustment for Thickness.” The Department will obtain the TVs for asphalt content and air voids from the approved JMF and will determine payment for each Acceptance lot by multiplying the Bid Item Unit Price by the average of the pay factors per lot and multiplying the result by the total lot area.

Table 416.3.1.2.1.1:1

Price Adjustments for Density

Percent density Pay factor (%)

> 97.99 Reject

97.0 – 97.99

96.0 – 96.99

90

95

– 95.99

93.0 –

92.0 – 92.99

91.0 – 91.99

100

100

95

90

90.0 – 90.99

< 90.00

80

Reject

Percent deviation from TV

< 1.3

1.31 – 1.69

Table 416.3.1.2.1.1:2

Price Adjustment for Air Voids

Pay factor (%)

100

90

1.7 – 1.99 75

≥ 2.0

Reject

Table 416.3.1.2.1.1:3

Price Adjustment for Asphalt Content

Percent deviation from TV Pay factor (%)

< 0.29 100

0.30 – 0.49 90

≥0.5 Reject

Section 416:

Minor Paving

Page 182

Table 416.3.1.2.1.1:4

Price Adjustment for Thickness

Deficiency from plan minimum thickness Pay factor (%)

None (Plan Minimum or Thicker) 100

<1/4 inch

1/4 inch–1/2 inch

100

90

1/2 inch–3/4 inch

3/4 inch–one (1) inch

75

50

>one (1) inch Corrective action

Remove and replace rejected Material identified in Table 416.3.1.2.1:1, “Price Adjustment for Density,” Table 416.3.1.2.1:2, “Price Adjustment for Air Voids,” and Table 416.3.1.2.1:3,

“Price Adjustments for Asphalt Content.” Instead of removing and replacing rejected Material, the Project Manager may allow the Material to remain in place at 50% of the Bid Item Unit

Price, if in the best interest of the Department.

Take corrective action if specified in Table

Thickness.” Corrective action includes removal and replacement of the unacceptable Material, overlay of the unacceptable Material, or other corrective actions approved by the Project

Manager. Thin or feathered edge surface patching is not acceptable. Overlay lift thicknesses must meet the requirement of Table 416.3.1.2.1:5, “HMA Lift Thickness.”

Table 416.3.1.2.1.1:5

HMA Lift Thickness

Lift Thickness (Inches)

HMA Type

Minimum Maximum

SP-III 2.5 3.5

SP-IV 1.5 3.0

The Department will perform Independent Assurance sampling and testing in accordance with Section 901.1.3, “Acceptance Sampling and Testing.”

416.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

416.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

The Department will adjust payment for minor pavement in accordance with Section

416.3.1.2.1.1, “Acceptance Lots and Pay Factor Determination.”

Pay Item Pay Unit

Section 416:

Minor Paving

Page 183

Section 417: MISCELLANEOUS PAVING

417.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of constructing one (1) or more courses of asphalt paving on a prepared surface.

Examples of miscellaneous paving include ditch paving, Median paving, slope paving, guardrail pads, bicycle/pedestrian paths and trails, asphalt curbs, or as designated in the

Plans.

417.2 MATERIALS

The asphalt paving consists of coarse and fine aggregates, asphalt binder, mineral filler, and hydrated lime or anhydrate based material.

417.2.1 Aggregate

Use aggregate that meets the requirements in Table 417.2.1:1, “Aggregate Gradation

Requirements.”

Sieve size

Table 417.2.1:1

Aggregate Gradation Requirements

% passing

3/4 inch 100

No. 4 40 – 70

No. 200 < 10

Coarse aggregate shall have an AI of 30 or less in accordance with Section 901,

"QUALITY CONTROL/QUALITY ASSURANCE (QC/QA)." The combined aggregate shall have a minimum sand equivalent of 45.

Use the type and grade of asphalt Material specified in the Contract. If no grade is specified, use any performance-graded asphalt binder in accordance with Section 402,

“Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material.”

Use asphalt mixture with sufficient asphalt binder to produce a design air voids of four percent (4%) or less, except for ditch paving, which shall have a design air voids of three percent (3%) or less. Use the superpave gyratory compactor at N (design) of 75 gyrations to determine the percentage. Use asphalt Material content that meets requirements for workability and desired surface texture.

417.2.3 Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)

The Contractor may use RAP miscellaneous paving in any amount up to 35% of the total weight of the mix, providing the other provisions of this specification are met.

417.2.4 Job Mix Formula

Submit a JMF proposal to the Project Manager for approval at least 14 Days before paving. The JMF shall include the following:

1. Stockpile combination percentages and resulting gradation;

2. Source, grade, and percentage of asphalt binder; and

3. Any other information that will assist the Project Manager in evaluating the appropriateness of the mix design.

Do not begin miscellaneous paving until the Project Manager has approved the JMF.

Section 417:

Miscellaneous Paving

Page 184

The Contractor may substitute any approved mix design that complies with the requirements of Section 423, “Hot Mix Asphalt — Superpave (QLA & Non-QLA)” or Section

424, “Warm-Mix Asphalt (QLA & Non-QLA)” instead of the requirements of this section.

Submit proposed changes to the approved JMF to the Project Manager for approval before placement.

Prepare HMA for miscellaneous paving in an asphalt plant of typical configuration and in good repair. The Contractor may use drum or batch mixing plants in accordance with

Section 423.3.4, “Equipment.” No referee testing will be required for Miscellaneous Paving.

Referee Testing may be used if both parties agree in writing prior to commencing placement operations for Miscellaneous Paving.

Use haul Equipment in accordance with Section 423.3.4.2, “Haul Equipment.”

Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, prepare the surface by compacting the top six

(6) inches of soil to 95% of maximum density in accordance with AASHTO T 180 (Modified

Proctor), Method D (TTTCP Modified). Place asphalt mixtures in accordance with the Plans, or as directed by the Project Manager. The surface of the placed mix shall be smooth and uniform in texture. Compact with a mechanical roller of suitable type and size to obtain the density and surface texture specified in the Plans. Cross-roll ditch paving with a pneumatic roller or by other approved means to produce a corrugated texture. Roll and consolidate

Median and slope paving, and guardrail pads to a uniform texture.

417.3.4 Temperature and Weather Limitations

Perform miscellaneous paving in accordance with Section 423.3.5.1, “Temperature and

Weather Limitations.”

417.3.5 Acceptance

Correct or remove Material that the Project Manager determines is improperly coated or segregated or that otherwise fails to meet the requirements of this specification.

The Department will base Acceptance of miscellaneous paving on visual examination, verification of line and grade, and by density testing (if required). The Department will require density testing on guardrail pads and bicycle/pedestrian paths and trails.

Evaluate density with nuclear methods and calibrate with the test area produced at the beginning of paving. For the test area, place the HMA at the proper compaction temperature and thickness (as shown on the Plans). Run three (3) passes on the placed hot mixture with a smooth steel-surface roller that has a minimum weight of 250 lb per inch of drum width.

Acceptance lots for density will be a maximum of 500 yd

2

, or per guardrail pad. Take three (3) nuclear density readings at random locations within the first test area, and use the average of the three (3) tests or determination of the maximum density to be used for

Acceptance and pay factor. The Department will determine the pay factor for each lot in accordance with Table 417.3.5:1, “Price Adjustments for Density”:

Section 417:

Miscellaneous Paving

Page 185

Density, percent of test area

≥ 98

Table 417.3.5:1

Price Adjustments for Density

Pay factor (%)

100

95.0 – 97.9

92.0 – 94.9

95

80

< 92.0 Reject

Remove and replace rejected Material identified in Table 417.3.5:1, “Price Adjustment for

Density.” Instead of removing and replacing rejected Material, the Project Manager may allow the Material to remain in place at 50% of the Bid Item Unit Price, if in the best interest of the

Department.

417.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

417.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

The Department will adjust payment for miscellaneous paving in accordance with

Section 417.3.5, “Acceptance.”

Pay Item Pay Unit

Section 417:

Miscellaneous Paving

Page 186

SECTION 423: HOT MIX ASPHALT — SUPERPAVE (QLA and Non-QLA)

423.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of constructing one (1) or more courses of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) on a prepared base.

423.2 MATERIALS

423.2.1 General

HMA is a mixture of asphalt binder, aggregate, blending sand, mineral filler, and hydrated lime or anhydrite based material. Unless otherwise prohibited in the Contract, the Department will allow Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in HMA mixtures as long as the resulting mixture conforms to all specification requirements.

Size, uniformly grade, and combine aggregate fractions in accordance with the Contract.

Test Materials in accordance with applicable AASHTO methods, as modified by the

Department (if applicable) or other test procedures as directed by the Department. The State

Materials Bureau will decide all questions pertaining to the interpretation of test procedures.

423.2.2 Aggregate

Ensure the aggregate gradation of the HMA mixture meets the requirements of

Table 423.2.2.1:1, “HMA Aggregate Gradation Control Points.” The Project Manager may require, at no additional cost to the Department, wet preparation, per AASHTO T 146, Method

A, if the Project Manager determines there are Deleterious Materials present in the aggregate stockpiles before aggregate gradation testing. The Contract will specify the type of HMA the

Contractor is to use. The Department will allow the Contractor to combine Materials from two

(2) or more sources to produce aggregate only when each individual aggregate source meets all applicable quality requirements.

423.2.2.1 Gradation and Quality Requirements

Table 423.2.2.1:1

HMA Aggregate Gradation Control Points

Sieve size

% passing per HMA type

SP-II SP-III SP-IV

Min Max Min Max Min Max

two (2) inch — — — — — —

1 1/2 inch

One (1) inch

3/4 inch

1/2 inch

100

90

100

90

100

90

100

90

100

90

100

3/8 — — — — — 90

19 45 23 49 28 58

1.0 7.0 2.0 8.0 2.0 10.0

For each Material source, ensure the HMA coarse aggregate has an AI of 25 or less when calculated in accordance with Section 901, "QUALITY CONTROL/QUALITY

ASSURANCE (QC/QA)."

Regulate the crushing of aggregate stockpiles so that the minimum Fractured Faces content of the plus No. 4 Material complies with the requirements of Table 423.2.2.1.2:1, “Fractured

Faces, Sand Equivalent, and Fine Aggregate Angularity,” and evaluation by NMDOT

Section 423:

Hot Mix Asphalt – Superpave (QLA & Non-QLA)

Page 187

Method FF-1, “Fractured Face Determination for Coarse Aggregate.” Ensure the plus 3/8 inch material contains no more than 20% flat, elongated particles with a dimensional ratio of 3:1 or greater as determined by ASTM D 4791 (TTCP Modified). Ensure the combined material, excluding RAP, passing the No. 40 sieve is non-plastic. Ensure that before the addition of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material, the minimum sand equivalent value and the minimum fine aggregate angularity value of the combined aggregate, excluding RAP, complies with the requirements of Table 423.2.2.1.2:1, “Fractured Faces, Sand Equivalent, and Fine

Aggregate Angularity.” Determine the sand equivalent value in accordance with accordance with AASHTO T 304, Method A.

The Department will consider a face to be fractured when at least one-half of the projected particle area exhibits a rough, angular, or broken texture with well defined edges.

Table 423.2.2.1.2:1

Minimum Fractured Faces, Sand Equivalent, and Fine Aggregate Angularity for Virgin

Aggregates

Design Traffic, ESALs a

x 10

6

Sand

Equivalent

(%)

Fine

Aggregate

Angularity

< 3.0 75.0 / — 45.0 40.0

> 3.0 – < 10.0

> 10.0 – < 30.0

85.0 / 80.0

95.0 / 90.0

45.0

45.0

45.0

45.0

> 30.0 99.0 / 95.0 a

ESALs are based on a 20-year design life for all scenarios.

50.0 45.0 b

Under “Fractured Faces”, 85.0 / 80.0 denotes that 85.0% of the coarse aggregate has at least

1 Fractured Face and 80.0% has at least two (2) Fractured Faces.

Ensure RAP provided from sources outside the Project has at least 75% Fractured Faces (one

(1) Fractured Face); however, Sand Equivalent and Fine Aggregate Angularity do not apply.

423.2.2.2 Production

When producing aggregates for HMA, remove natural fines by screening and stockpiling separately. Use a No. 4 screen, minimum, or a larger screen if needed to properly control the crushing and screening operation. Crush the aggregate retained on the scalping screen and separate the crushed Material into at least two (2) stockpiles of fine and coarse aggregates.

Regulate crushing operations to produce Material within the specified gradation band.

423.2.2.3 Stockpiling

The following requirements apply to stockpiles:

1. Place stockpiles upon prepared sites;

2. Make stockpiles neat and regular to prevent segregation;

3. Provide enough storage space for each size of aggregate;

4. Separate the aggregate stockpiles far enough apart to prevent mixing, or with walls or partitions;

5. Prevent contamination (store stockpiles away from vehicular and Equipment traffic);

6. Keep the storage yard neat and orderly and keep the stockpiles accessible for sampling; and

7. Keep the aggregate sizes separated until delivered to the cold feed system that feeds the drier.

423.2.2.4 Combining

Section 423:

Hot Mix Asphalt – Superpave (QLA & Non-QLA)

Page 188

When combining crushed Materials from different stockpiles, including RAP (if in the mixture); ensure the product is in accordance with the mix design gradation requirements.

Use controlled feeders from each stockpile to combine crushed Material.

The Contract will specify the type and grade of asphalt binder. Provide asphalt binders in accordance with Section 402, “Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based

Material.” Do not change the asphalt source after approval of the mix design without written approval of the State Materials Bureau.

423.2.4 Hydrated Lime or Anhydrite Based Material

Provide hydrated lime or anhydrite based material in accordance with Section 402,

“Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material.”

Blending sand consists of the following:

1. Natural fines from the scalping process;

3. Sandy Material; or

4. A combination of these, graded to the mix design requirements.

Determine the need for and percentage (a maximum of 20.0%) of blending sand using mix design tests on samples taken from stockpiles during crushing operations and submitted to an approved testing Laboratory.

Provide mineral filler in accordance with AASHTO M 17 and approved by the State

Materials Bureau. The Department will not allow fly ash as mineral filler for HMA.

Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, the Contractor may use RAP removed under the Contract consisting of salvaged, milled, pulverized, broken, or crushed asphalt pavement.

The Contractor may use RAP produced from outside sources provided evidence of ownership is supplied and the following is met: After the Contractor obtains sufficient quantities of RAP aggregate samples in accordance with AASHTO T 308, the Department will accept RAP for which each fraction of coarse aggregate has a percent wear of 40.0 or less, at 500 revolutions, when tested in accordance with AASHTO T 96. Provide plus No. 4 RAP Material with a minimum of 75% Fractured Faces content (one (1) face).

The Contractor may use a maximum of 15% RAP (by weight) in the production of HMA mixtures without changing the asphalt binder. For quantities greater than 15% to 25% RAP, either lower the asphalt binder’s high and low temperature grades by one (1) grade (e.g. lower a PG 76-22 to a PG 70-28) or extract, recover, and combine the RAP’s asphalt binder with a virgin asphalt binder per AASHTO M 323, Appendix A, ensuring the resultant binder meets the entire AASHTO M 320 required Project PG asphalt binder properties indicated on the approved mix design. For quantities greater than 25% to 35% RAP, extract, recover, and

Appendix A. Ensure the resultant binder meets the entire AASHTO M 320 required Project

PG asphalt binder properties indicated on the approved mix design. The Department will not allow the Contractor to use more than 35% RAP in the production of HMA mixtures. For

Projects of entirely new construction, limit the RAP to 15% in the top mat or extract, recover and combine the RAP’s asphalt binder with a virgin asphalt binder per AASHTO M323,

Appendix A. Ensure the resultant binder meets the entire AASHTO M320 required Project PG asphalt binder properties indicated on the approved mix design.

Section 423:

Hot Mix Asphalt – Superpave (QLA & Non-QLA)

Page 189

Process RAP so that 100% passes a 1-1/2-inch sieve. For HMA mixtures containing greater than 15% RAP, maintain adequate stockpile management (i.e. sufficient quantities and shaping of the stockpiles) and fractionation (divide the RAP into a minimum of two (2) stockpiles), so they are uniform throughout the stockpiles. Address in the Quality Control Plan how RAP will be controlled, such as which screen will be used to split into two (2) stockpiles, or by what method the RAP will be controlled to keep the resultant mix within acceptable limits. Account for the weight of the binder in the RAP when batching aggregates. Provide

RAP that is free of Deleterious Materials. If the Contractor decides to use RAP in the production of HMA mixtures, the Department will make no additional payment for the asphalt binder in the RAP or asphalt binder due to asphalt binder grade adjustment. As RAP is produced and prepared for inclusion in the HMA, perform Process Control testing in accordance with Section 901, “Quality Control/Quality Assurance,” Table 901.7:3, Minimum

Process Control Guidelines for Aggregates and Base Course.

If problems with HMA consistency or compliance with Project Specifications occur, additional efforts taken to achieve acceptable levels of consistency and compliance with

Contract Specifications, at the Contractor’s discretion (at no additional cost to the

Department), include, but are not limited to:

Reduce the top size of the RAP from 1-1/2” to 1”;

Fractionate the aggregates on a second screen, such as the 3/8” or 1/4” Screen so that the RAP is maintained in three (3) stockpiles, one being Rap larger than 1-1/2” to 2”, Coarse RAP and the third being Fine RAP;

Ensure that the RAP used in the HMA mix design is representative of the RAP available on the Project;

Cover the RAP pile(s) so that ambient moisture is not absorbed; and

 Process and maintain the stockpiles so that the RAP material is equally and uniformly distributed throughout the entire stockpile(s) and is withdrawn such that uniform, non-segregated RAP is delivered to the hoppers.

Provide a mix design developed by a Department-approved testing Laboratory, reviewed and signed by a professional Engineer licensed by the New Mexico Board of Registration for

Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors. A list of approved private testing laboratories is available from the State Materials Bureau. Develop the mix design at no additional cost to the

Department. The Contractor may develop the mix design at any time prior to the Project Pre-

Paving Conference. Submit at least five (5) independent aggregate gradation test results from each stockpile to the Project Manager.

Provide the Department with a copy of the request to the testing Laboratory to develop a mix design, along with supporting documents in accordance with AASHTO R 35, to the Project

Manager and the State Asphalt Engineer. Include the proposed aggregate combination and copies of all stockpile test results. Summarize the mix design results from the Departmentapproved testing Laboratory in a format approved by the State Materials Bureau and submit them to the Project Manager and State Asphalt Engineer for review and concurrence by the

State Asphalt Engineer. Include the results and design worksheets of testing calculations in accordance with AASHTO R 35, for the mix components as well as the mixture itself and in accordance with State Materials Bureau procedures. Department concurrence of a mix design will not relieve the Contractor of full responsibility for producing an acceptable mixture. The mix design may require adjustment in accordance with Section 423.2.8.1, “Mix Design

Adjustment.”

Create the JMF gradation in accordance with Table 423.2.2.1:1, “HMA Aggregate

Gradation Control Points.” The Department will require at least one percent (1.0%) hydrated lime or anhydrite based material in all mix designs. Include the hydrated lime or anhydrite based material in the gradation for developing the mix design. The mix design shall establish a single percentage of the aggregate passing each sieve size and a single percentage of asphalt binder the Contractor is to add to the aggregate. Develop the mix design using the

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Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) gyratory compactor in accordance with

AASHTO R 35. AASHTO TP 77 may be used in lieu of AASHTO T 84/T 85. The mix design shall be in accordance with Table 423.2.8:1, “HMA Superpave Design Requirements for

Aggregates with Less Than three percent (3.0%) Absorption,” or Table 423.2.8:2, “HMA

Superpave Design Requirements for Aggregates with three percent (3.0%) or Greater

Absorption.”

Test the HMA with at least one percent (1.0%) hydrated lime or anhydrite based material in accordance with AASHTO T 283, as modified below:

Use six (6) inch by 3.75 inch specimens for all prisms;

Compact all test specimens in accordance with AASHTO T 312 to an air content of seven percent (7%) +/- 0.5%;

On the AASHTO T283 Section 11.3 scale of 0-5, with 5 exhibiting the most damage from moisture, visually estimate the amount of damage caused by moisture on the interior surfaces of each broken prism.

Use a minimum of one percent (1%) hydrated lime or anhydrite based material and ensure the design amount results in a tensile stress ratio of at least 85%, and that no visual rating is greater than one (1), as determined by AASHTO T283 Section

11.3. Provide a mixture that meets all applicable criteria. If tests indicate the need for additives or modifiers not specified in the Contract or a change in source of binder to satisfy mix design requirements, perform the required changes at no additional cost to the Department.

Table 423.2.8:1

HMA Superpave Design Requirements for Aggregates with Less Than 3.0% Absorption

Percent Voids in the Mineral

Aggregate (VMA) per

aggregate size

Filled with

Asphalt

(VFA)

Range, %

(c)

Dust to

Binder

Ratio

Range

< 0.3 <91.5

0.3–

<3.0 <90.5

12.5

14.0

13.5

15.0

14.5

16.0

72.0–80.0

68.0–78.0

0.6 to

1.4

≥3.0 <89.0 a

In Millions

68.0–75.0 b

Design Air Void Content of four percent (4%) c

For one (1) inch nominal maximum size mixtures, the specified lower limit of the VFA shall be

70% for the design traffic level <0.3 million ESALs.

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Table 423.2.8:2

HMA Superpave Design Requirements for Aggregates with 3.0% or Greater Absorption

Percent Voids in the Mineral

maximum aggregate size

Filled with

Asphalt

(VFA)

Range,

% (c)

Dust to

Binder

Ratio

Range

<0.3 <91.5

0.3–

<3.0 <90.5

12.0

14.0

13.0

15.0

14.0–

16.0

70.0–

80.0

65.0–

78.0

0.6 to

1.4

≥3.0 <89.0 a

In Millions b

Design Air Void Content of 3.5%

65.0–

78.0 c

For one (1) inch nominal maximum size mixtures, the specified lower limit of the VFA will be

70% for the design traffic level <0.3 million ESALs.

When Department Reviewed Commercial Mix Designs are used on the Project, submit a copy of proposed commercial mix design to the State Materials Bureau with Project information to verify the proposed commercial mix design is appropriate to use and meets all the requirements for the specific Project. .If the proposed commercial mix design meets all the requirements for the specific Project; the State Materials Bureau may re-issue the proposed commercial mix design for that specific Project.

The State Materials Bureau may allow the Contractor to use a mix design for one (1) year from the date of review by the State Materials Bureau. The Contractor may use or re-submit the design before the expiration of the one (1) year time frame. Do not use a Mix Design beyond one (1) year after the State Materials Bureau’s review date. Submit acceptable evidence to the State Materials Bureau verifying that the component Materials have not changed. Submit a new mix design if changing the source of Materials. Obtain concurrence from the State Materials Bureau before using the new Materials.

423.2.9 Job Mix Formula

The Job Mix Formula (JMF) must be in accordance with all aggregate gradation requirements and result in a mix that meets all specified mix design requirements. The

Department will refer to the result of the Laboratory mix design developed in accordance with

Section 423.2.8, “Mix Design,” as JMF1.

Prepare the aggregate gradation of the calibration samples for analysis per accordance with the State Materials Bureau’s, Ignition Oven Calibration Factors procedure including a set for the Referee Lab. Provide a minimum of five (5) sets of calibration samples.

Do not combine the elements of the calibration samples prepared for the Referee Lab, and provide them, with the Project Number, Contractor and Project Manager clearly identified to the Project Manager who will forward them to the State Asphalt Engineer. All Quality Control,

Quality Assurance and Independent Assurance ovens must be calibrated by this procedure prior to start of production of a JMF. New calibration samples may be required for new JMF’s, as determined by the District Lab Supervisor or the State Asphalt Engineer. The Project

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Manager will suspend paving operations until calibration of the ovens has been completed.

No additional time or compensation will be granted for completion of this requirement.

The Contractor may request a modification to the JMF based on field testing of Material produced through the plant. It is expected that minor adjustments will be necessary and the

Project Manager (with the concurrence of the Department’s District Laboratory Supervisor) may approve a new JMF if the adjustment results in a new TV that is within the tolerance from the design TV. (Example: If design TV for No. 4 sieve is 30%, then a new TV may be approved in the field from 23% - 37%). Test results and calculations that verify a proposed

JMF adjustment complies with the Specifications will be required prior to being reviewed by the Project Manager and concurred by the State Materials Bureau. Review and concurrence of a JMF adjustment can only be made after:

The Quality Control Plan (including checks on specific gravity) has been submitted and concurred by the Project Manager and the District Lab Supervisor for use on the Project;

 Confirmation by the Project Manager that the Quality Control Plan is being followed;

 Concurrence of the proposed changes from Project Manager and District Lab

Supervisor,

Submittal by the Testing Laboratory responsible for the original mix design to the

Project Manager with a copy to the State Asphalt Engineer.

If the JMF is adjusted after the Shakedown Period, terminate the previous lot when the adjusted JMF has been reviewed and concurred with by the Project Manager, Assistant

District Engineer for Construction and the State Materials Bureau. Terminated lot will be added to the previous lot for evaluation by QLA. Begin a new lot for the QLA with the adjusted JMF.

During the Shakedown Period, make JMF adjustments in accordance with Section 423.3.5.7,

Test Strip and Shakedown Period.

423.3.1 General

Provide sufficient storage space for each size of aggregate and RAP. Keep the different sizes separate until delivery to the cold feed system feeding the drier. While storing and moving the coarse and fine aggregate, ensure that segregation, degradation, or combination of Materials of different grades does not occur. Re-screen or waste segregated or degraded

Material. Provide separate storage and bin feeder for mineral filler if the Contract requires mineral filler. Stockpile aggregates and RAP that contain gravitational water and allow them to drain before mixing. After introducing the required amounts of aggregate, RAP (if used), and asphalt binder into the mixer, mix them until the aggregate particles are completely and uniformly coated with asphalt binder. If the Project Manager determines that uncoated aggregate exists, take corrective action. Ensure that the moisture content of the HMA at discharge from the mixer does not exceed 0.5%.

Do not allow the temperature of the HMA discharged from the mixer into the transport vehicle to be greater or less than the target mixing temperature specified in the mix design by more than ten percent (10%) F, not to exceed 350° F, unless written concurrence by the oil

Supplier and design lab are provided to the Project Manager. HMA delivered to the Project with mix temperatures outside the acceptable range shall, at the sole discretion of the Project

Manager, be removed and replaced at no cost to the Department.

423.3.3 Addition of Hydrated Lime or Anhydrite Based Material

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Add the hydrated lime or anhydrite based material to the aggregate in an enclosed pug mill immediately after leaving the cold feed and just before introduction into the drier drum or aggregate drier. Minimize the loss of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material while adding to the aggregate. Use an enclosed conveyor belt to prevent blowing or loss of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material if necessary. During production, if necessary to counteract loss, increase the percentage of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material.

Equip the out feed of the hydrated lime or anhydrite based material silo with a vane feeder and install a flow sensor on the discharge from the vane feeder. Ensure that the sensor activates audible and visual signals at the control panel upon interruption of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material flow.

Equip the hydrated lime or anhydrite based material silo with an approved means of metering the addition of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material to the mix at typical discharge rates with an accuracy of ± 3.0 %, by weight. Approved means of metering hydrated lime or anhydrite based material include load cell weighing devices placed beneath each leg of the silo, or a weigh belt feeder between the silo discharge and the pug mill. Obtain

Project Manager’s approval for other means of metering the addition of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material before use. Do not use external strain gauges affixed to the legs of the silo. If the Contractor uses load cell weighing devices for hydrated lime or anhydrite based material metering, use a foundation system to support the silo in accordance with the silo manufacturer’s recommendations. Control the hydrated lime or anhydrite based material content such that at a minimum the amount added is equal to the Target Value on the Job Mix

Formula.

When mixing the aggregate and hydrated lime or anhydrite based material, maintain the moisture content of the combined aggregate at the recommended saturated surface dry moisture content, plus an additional 1.5 % ± 0.5 %, by weight. The Project Manager may increase the moisture content of the coarse and fine aggregates to properly coat the aggregates with hydrated lime or anhydrite based material and to eliminate dust pollution.

Provide a method to measure the amount of moisture added to the hydrated lime or anhydrite based material-aggregate mix. On a daily basis, record the average amount of added moisture to verify specification compliance. Supply the recorded moisture information to the

Project Manager upon request.

423.3.4 Equipment

Ensure that the scales are accurate to 0.5% of the maximum allowable load in accordance with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) publication. A licensed scale serviceman must certify the scales. Submit a copy of the certification to the

Project Manager.

423.3.4.1.2 Equipment for Preparation of Asphalt Materials

Provide storage tanks for asphalt binder capable of heating and holding the asphalt at the required temperatures and measuring the temperature of the asphalt in the tank. Use approved heating methods that do not allow flames in contact with the tank. Design the circulating system for the asphalt binder to ensure proper and continuous circulation during the operating period. Allow measuring and sampling of asphalt binder from the delivery truck upon arrival.

423.3.4.1.3 Feeder for Drier

Equip the plant with an accurate feeding mechanism to deliver the aggregate into the drier and maintain uniform production and temperature.

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423.3.4.1.4 Drier

Equip the plant with a system to continuously agitate the aggregate during the heating and drying process. Use a drier that can dry and heat the aggregate and prevent fuel oil or carbon from coating the aggregate. Take corrective action if the aggregate becomes coated with burner fuel.

423.3.4.1.5 Bins

Equip the plant with storage bins large enough to supply the mixer when it is operating at full capacity. Arrange the bins to ensure separate and adequate storage of the appropriate fractions of the mineral aggregates. When necessary, use separating boards. Provide separate dry storage for hydrated lime or anhydrite based material. Ensure that the gates on the bins do not leak. Equip the bins with warning devices that notify the control panel when the bins are low.

423.3.4.1.6 Asphalt Binder Control Unit

Equip the plant with the following:

1. A scale or meter to obtain the proper amount of asphalt binder in the mix, within the allowable tolerances; and

2. A meter for checking the quantity or rate of flow of asphalt binder put in the mixer.

423.3.4.1.7 Thermometers

Equip the asphalt feed line, near the charging valve at the mixer unit, with an approved recording thermometer with a range of from 100 °F to 400 °F. Equip the discharge chute of the drier with an approved recording thermometer to automatically register the temperature of the heated aggregates or mix, as necessary. Provide the Project Manager with a record of discharge temperatures at the end of each week’s production and when requested by the

Project Manager during the course of production.

Weigh the HMA on approved scales (provided by the Contractor) or public scales in accordance with Section 109.1, “Measurement of Quantity.”

423.3.4.1.9 Requirements for Batching Plants

423.3.4.1.9.1 Weigh Box or Hopper

Provide a batching plant that can accurately weigh aggregate in a weigh box or hopper suspended on scales. Use a weigh box or hopper that can hold a full batch. Ensure that the gate of the weigh box or hopper does not allow material to leak into the mixer while being weighed. Test the scales in accordance with Section 109.1, “Measurement of Quantity.”

423.3.4.1.9.3 Mixer

Provide a batch mixer with a capacity of at least 2,000 lb, capable of producing a uniform mixture within specified tolerances.

423.3.4.1.9.4 Control of Mixing Time

Equip the mixer with an accurate timing device that signals the end of the mixing time.

423.3.4.1.10 Drum Mix Plants

Equip the drum mix plant with the following auxiliary Equipment and capabilities:

1. Separate cold feed controls for each Material.

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2. An automatic interlocking device for cold feed, asphalt, and additive.

3. A means for determining moisture content of aggregate so the dry weight of cold feed can be determined for proper setting of asphalt and additive flow. Determine the moisture content of the aggregate at least twice daily and adjust the moisture correction Equipment accordingly.

4. A means for sampling individual cold feeds and provisions for sequential sampling of aggregate, RAP, asphalt binder, and additives while under full production.

5. Measure the temperature of the mix at the discharge and the automatic burner controls.

6. A surge storage system having a minimum capacity of 40 ton, designed and equipped to prevent segregation. Equip the surge storage system bins with mechanical or electrical devices that provide an audible or visual warning when the bins are less than 1/4 full.

7. Equip the bin containing fine aggregate and filler, if required, with a device that prevents material hang-up during plant operation.

8. A minimum of one (1) cold feed bin for each aggregate fraction in the mix.

9. Equip the cold feed with mechanical or electrical devices that indicate when the bins are empty or when the cold feed belt is not carrying the proper amount of Material.

The device shall automatically lock the cold feed belt and provide an audible or visual warning.

10. A separate cold feed for RAP Material. Introduce RAP so that it does not come into direct contact with the burner flame.

11. Equip the feeding mechanism with an individual belt feeder with a variable speed feeder drive controlled by electronically operated actuators. Couple the asphalt feed control with the total-aggregate-weight measurement device to automatically vary the asphalt feed rate to maintain the required proportion.

Haul asphalt mixtures with trucks that have tight, clean, smooth metal beds and a thin coat (a minimal amount) of a Department-approved release agent to prevent the mixture from adhering to the bed. Do not use release agents derived from petroleum derivatives, including but not limited to diesel fuel that contaminate or alter the characteristics of the mix.

Be prepared to cover and insulate hauling beds. Equip each truck with a waterproof and windproof cover of suitable material and sufficient size to protect the mix from the weather.

Securely fasten covers when necessary to maintain temperature. Ensure that covers do not allow water to enter the bed, paver or mix material transfer device during mix unlading. Use insulated truck beds when necessary to maintain temperature.

423.3.4.3 Pavers

Use self-contained, self-propelled pavers, with activated screeds or strike-off assemblies, heated if necessary, and capable of spreading and finishing courses of HMA in accordance with the Plans.

Provide a sufficient number, weight, and type of rollers to obtain the required compaction and specified pavement density while the HMA is in a workable condition. All rollers must be capable of reversing direction without shoving or tearing the mixture.

For cold milled surfaces, prepare the surface in accordance with Section 414, Cold

Milling. Clean the existing surfaces and apply a tack coat in accordance with Section 407,

“Tack Coat.”

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When placing HMA on Base Course, Proof Roll the Base Course with a 27 ton roller or other approved Equipment and correct any soft areas, as directed by the Project Manager.

Correct deficient areas at the Contractor’s expense. Place the HMA on the approved surface, then spread, and strike off to the specified grade and elevation. Spread and compact the

HMA in layers in accordance with the Plans.

For new construction and reconstruction, prepare the Subgrade or Base Course as follows:

1. Clean of loose or Deleterious Materials;

2. Free of frozen material;

3. Meet the moisture and density requirements; and

4. Place prime coat, as required in the Plans unless otherwise approved by the Project

Manager, in accordance with Section 408, Prime Coat.

Unless otherwise specified in the Plans, for construction on NMDOT Projects using State approved HMA designs utilizing greater than 25% RAP the use of a Materials Transfer Vehicle is required.

Materials Transfer Vehicle (MTV): Use a MTV with storage and remixing capabilities on all mainline construction when placing HMA State approved designs. The MTV will independently remix and deliver mixture from the hauling Equipment to the paving Equipment.

Furnish an MTV with the following capabilities:

1. An unloading system to receive mixtures from the hauling Equipment.

2. A minimum storage capacity of 13 tons with a remixing system in the MTV storage bin.

3. A discharge conveyor to deliver the mixture to the paver hopper.

4. The MTV system cannot exceed maximum legal loading on Structures.

Pick-up machines, hopper inserts and material transfer devices are not considered

MTVs.

In the event the MTV malfunctions during paving operations, the Contractor can finish the

Day without the MTV. Do not resume further mainline mix placement until the MTV is operational.

Consistently overloading the HMA mix into the paving machine is not acceptable.

Coordinate the speed of the paving machine with the production of the plant and keep enough haul Equipment available to achieve continuous operation.

Use the control system on the paving machine to control the grade and the transverse slope by either of the following methods:

1. One end directly and the other indirectly through controlling the transverse slope; or

2. Each end independently, including screed attachments.

Suspend operations if the control system does not achieve the typical section in accordance with the Plans. Place, spread, and finish the courses of HMA according to the following:

1. Without segregation or tearing ;

2. True to the line, grade, and crown in accordance with the Plans; and

3. With self-propelled pavers, except as otherwise directed.

On areas where irregularities or unavoidable obstacles make the use of mechanical spreading and finishing Equipment impracticable, dump, spread, and level the HMA by other methods to achieve the required compacted thickness.

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Do not place HMA on wet or frozen surfaces or if weather conditions prevent proper handling, finishing, and compacting. Place HMA when the Chill Factor is at least 40 °F and rising. If the air temperature is 60 °F or warmer, do not consider the Chill Factor.

423.3.5.2 Compaction

Compact the HMA thoroughly and uniformly immediately after placement. Operate rollers at speeds slow enough to minimize displacement of the HMA, including the lines and grades of the asphalt edges. Remove marks from pneumatic rollers and immediately correct any displacement. The Department will not allow the use of Equipment that crushes the aggregate excessively.

Prevent the HMA from sticking to the roller wheels by keeping the wheels moistened with water; water mixed with very small quantities of detergent or other approved material. Do not use diesel fuel or other petroleum diluents. At locations inaccessible to the rollers, compact the HMA with hot hand tampers, smoothing irons, or mechanical tampers. The Contractor may use a trench roller or cleated compression strips under the roller to transmit compression to depressed areas.

Remove areas that become loose, broken, mixed with dirt, segregated or defective, replace with fresh HMA, and compact to match the surrounding area, at no additional cost to the Department. Immediately correct areas that have excessive or deficient asphalt binder.

423.3.5.4 Joints

Place the HMA as continuously as possible. Do not pass rollers over the unprotected end of a freshly laid mixture. When placing open-graded friction course over HMA, stagger longitudinal joints at least six (6) inches relative to the longitudinal joints of the underlying course.

Unless otherwise specified, taper transverse and longitudinal joints as follows:

1. At least a three (3) ft taper for transverse joints, with a taper slope no steeper than

24:1.

2. At least a one (1) ft taper or a notched taper, for longitudinal joints, with a taper slope no steeper than 6:1 or a notched taper with a one (1) inch vertical edge at the top of the taper connected to a slope no steeper than 6:1.

3. Cut and square off transverse tapers before commencing new Work.

4. Clean and tack coat longitudinal joints from previous operations.

5. Avoid placing longitudinal joints in the wheel paths, unless approved by the Project

Manager.

Completely bond joints. Smooth the surface of each course at the joints. The

Department will not allow deviations greater than 3/16 inch when tested with a ten (10) ft straightedge in any direction. When paving under traffic, schedule the daily surfacing operations so that tapered longitudinal joints are not exposed for longer than seven (7) Days.

Smooth the surface of each completed course and prevent deviations larger than 1/8 inch using a ten (10) ft straightedge in any direction. Immediately correct deviations exceeding this tolerance. Provide a final HMA surfacing course that conforms to Section 401, “Pavement

Smoothness Measurement”.

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Provide pavement at the depth specified in the Contract. Monitor depths by calculating continuous production yields using the formula found in the MT-1, as maintained by the State

Construction Bureau. Calculate the required yield and the corresponding yields for 0.25 inch increase (upper limit) and decrease (lower limit). The Project Manager may adjust the required yield to fit field conditions. If adjusted, the new target yield will be communicated to the Contractor in writing. Control production to keep yield within the upper and lower limits.

Correct deficiencies at no cost to the State. Correct deficient depths during placement.

Address Plan Surfacing Depths in the Quality Control Plan.

423.3.5.7 Test Strip & Shakedown Period

Construct a maximum 1,000 ton test strip for each HMA mix design with a minimum of three (3) Contractor and three (3) agency samples to evaluate the JMF, process control, and placement operations. Construct test strip on Shoulder, low volume segments of the pavement, or area approved by the Project Manager. Correct and modify non-complying placement operations and produce necessary process control adjustments. Develop a revised

JMF if necessary based on the results of the test strip. Production and placement operations prior to approval of the revised JMF and placement operations are at the Contractor’s risk.

For purposes of payment, the test strip will be evaluated in conformance with Section 416,

Minor Paving. If accepted, the test strip will have a pay factor of 1.0. If rejected, said material shall be handled in accordance with Section 423.3.6.1.3 Adherence to Specifications and

Rejection of Non-specification Material. Remove unaccepted test strip material placed within the Roadway Prism at no cost to the Department. If the Contractor disagrees with removing and replacing unacceptable material placed in test strips outside the Roadway Prism, the

Assistant District Engineer for Construction, based on engineering judgment, will decide if the material can remain in place with a maximum pay factor of 50%, or shall be removed and replaced at no cost to the Department. If the test strip is rejected, construct a subsequent test strip. Do not proceed to full production until an accepted test strip is produced. After the test strip is placed, continue to evaluate the mix properties and the JMF during the placement of the first two (2) sublots in the first lot. Changes may be made to either the JMF or the mix proportions and/or properties with the concurrence of the Assistant District Engineer for

Construction. For changes made prior to the completion of the first two (2) sublots, the adjustments will be applied to the entire lot for purposes of payment.

The Project Manager may waive test strip requirements for the Project, if requested by the Contractor based on prior experience with the JMF.

For QLA Projects, the Shakedown Period is defined as the first two (2) sublots produced in the first lot.

For Non-QLA Projects, the Shakedown Period is defined as the test strip. As the test strip is placed, evaluate the mix properties and the JMF. Changes may be made to either the

JMF or the mix proportions and/or properties with the concurrence of the Project Manager,

State Materials Bureau and the Assistant District Engineer for Construction.

423.3.6 Sampling and Testing

Sample and test the aggregate production and HMA mixture in accordance with Section

901, Quality Control /Quality Assurance (QC/QA), and the Department’s “Minimum Testing

Requirements.” Department personnel may test locations other than the random locations generated for statistical analysis. These tests will not be used for pay factor determination, but may be used to determine Acceptance or rejection of localized material.

Administer a Quality Control Plan, referred to hereafter as “the Plan,” to provide a product in accordance with the Contract. Ensure the Plan conforms to Section 901.2, “Contractor

Quality Control.” Submit the Plan a minimum of two (2) weeks prior to commencement of crushing operations and at a minimum comply with “Contractor Quality Control Plan

Guidelines”. No HMA operations are allowed until the Plan has been approved by the Project

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Manager and the District Lab Supervisor. Address changes in the Job Mix Formula in conformance with Section 423.2.9.1, Job Mix Formula Adjustments.

The Plan shall do the following:

1. Address elements that affect the quality of the asphalt concrete including, but not limited to, the following:

1.2. Sampling and Testing;

1.3.1. Gradation,

1.3.2. Minus 200 wash,

1.3.5.

1.3.6.

1.3.7.

Fine aggregate angularity,

Flat and elongated particles count, and

Fractured Face count.

1.4. RAP (if used);

1.5. Quality of components;

1.7. Proportioning;

1.7.1. Gradation,

1.7.2. Minus 200 wash,

1.7.5.

1.7.6.

Fine aggregate angularity,

Flat and elongated particles count, and

1.7.7. Fractured Face count.

1.8. Mixing, including addition of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material, and/or asphalt additive, if required;

1.9. Transporting;

1.10. Placing and finishing;

1.11. Joints;

1.12. Compaction;

1.13. Smoothness;

1.14. Plan Surfacing Depths;

1.16. Corrective Action Processes; and

1.17. Proposed lot size and sublot size in accordance with Section 423.3.6.3 QLA.

For the properties listed in 1.3 above, specifically address the requirements of Table

423.2.2.1.2:1 in the Plan. Define planned corrective action if the requirements are not met.

1.3.1 and 1.3.2 are for informational purposes during aggregate production.

1.3.3 through 1.3.7, if three (3) consecutive tests fail, address what will change in production. Failure to adjust will result in ceasing operations until a corrective action plan is approved by the Project Manager.

For the properties listed in 1.7 above, specifically address the requirements of Table

423.2.2.1.2:1 in the Plan. Define planned corrective action if the requirements are not met.

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1.7.1 and 1.7.2 are to be evaluated against the Job Mix Formula.

For properties listed in 1.7.3 through 1.7.4, if any three (3) consecutive tests fail, the Contractor is to cease operations until a corrective plan is approved by the Project Manager and implemented.

For properties listed in 1.7.5 through 1.7.7, any test failing by more than 5 percentage points, or if three (3) consecutive tests fail by an average of 0 to 5 percentage points, cease operations until a corrective plan is approved by the

Project Manager and implemented.

2. Employ sampling and testing personnel who are either under the direct supervision of a TTCP certified technician or who are themselves currently certified to perform the required Quality Control testing. Provide the Project Manager with a listing of all testing personnel that summarizes their TTCP certifications or, if they are not TTCP certified to perform a particular test, which TTCP certified technician is supervising their testing. Keep the Project Manager notified, by providing an updated listing, of any changes.

Provide testing Equipment that meets all applicable ASTM and AASHTO requirements to accomplish required sampling and testing. Establish a Laboratory for the Project separate and distinct from the Department’s Laboratory and Quality

Assurance facilities. Submit verification that all Quality Control and assurance testing Equipment meets the applicable standards and has been calibrated per the requirements of AASHTO R-18. Remove any Equipment that does not meet the applicable standards or calibration requirements.

On Projects designated as QLA Projects, sample and test HMA in accordance with

Section 901, “Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA).”

2.1. The Contractor is responsible for inspection performed at the crushing operations, hot mix plant and at the Contractor’s field Laboratory; using the

Laboratory test results and other Quality Control practices to ensure the quality of aggregate sources and other mix components. Adjust and control mix proportioning to meet the mix design. Be responsible for periodically inspecting all Equipment used in proportioning and mixing to ensure its proper operating condition and to ensure that proportioning and mixing is in conformance with the mix design and other requirements.

2.2. Be responsible for inspection, sampling, and testing performed at the paving site, ensuring that the delivered Materials meet Contract requirements and for periodically inspecting all Equipment used in transporting, placing, finishing, and compacting to ensure its proper operating condition. Ensure that placing, finishing, joint construction, compaction, and thickness, when required, are as specified.

3. Define and document the coordination of activities between the Contractor’s management and all Contractor testing personnel including the frequency of each type of test, the criteria used by the Contractor’s management and technicians to recognize deficiencies and reject or correct unacceptable Materials, and a description of proposed corrective actions.

4. In the Plan, describe, in detail, the proposed process control sampling and testing programs. Include the method by which random sampling locations are to be determined. Develop sample locations for process control tests so that the center of the sample is at least 12 inches from a joint or edge of the pavement layer.

423.3.6.1.1 Contractor Quality Control of Aggregate

Obtain samples in accordance with Section 901.2.4 Sampling.

Take representative samples as required, either at the stockpile or after the aggregate material is combined but before the addition of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material and

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mixing with asphalt binder. Test these samples for conformance with the approved Job Mix

Formula and: (excluding RAP)

1. Gradation,

2. Minus 200 wash,

5. Fine aggregate angularity,

6. Flat and elongated particles count, and

7. Fractured Face count.

The Project Manager may sample and test the aggregate at any time during production or stockpiling, or may request to split samples with the Contractor. If testing indicates corrections are necessary, make corrections in conformance with the Plan. The Department will base evaluation of RAP aggregate in accordance with Section 423.2.7, “Reclaimed

Asphalt Pavement.”

423.3.6.1.2 Contractor Quality Control for Compaction

Monitor the compaction process by determining the density of the HMA with a portable densometer in accordance with the Plan. Establish calibration of the portable densometer from cut pavement samples. Determine the density readings of the cut pavement samples in accordance with AASHTO T 166 (weight, volume method) and determine the density readings of the pavement with the portable densometer. Correlate these test results. Conduct Quality

Control testing in accordance with Section 901, “Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA),” and provide test results to the Project Manager. Perform Quality Control density testing while the asphalt mixture is hot enough to permit further compaction. Do not roll for compaction when it becomes ineffective or damages the HMA. Do not use vibratory mode when the temperature of the mix is below 200 °F.

423.3.6.1.3 Adherence to Specifications and Rejection of Non-specification Material

Produce Material in compliance with all specification requirements. Evaluate test results for specification compliance and treatment of Material that does not meet Specifications in accordance with Section 423 in its entirety. All Material that is rejected shall, at the sole discretion of the Department, be removed and replaced with specification Material at the

Contractor’s expense.

423.3.6.2 Department Quality Assurance

423.3.6.2.1 Acceptance

The Department will evaluate Materials for Acceptance in accordance with this section.

Sample and test the mixture and pavement on a statistically random basis in accordance with

Table 901.7:6, “Minimum Acceptance Guidelines.” The Project Manager may reject material that appears to be defective based on visual inspection.

Characteristic

Table 423.3.6.2.1:1

Acceptance Testing Tolerances a

Specification limit, percentage points from

TV

Air Voids, %

Pavement Density % c

± 1.4

± 2.5

Hydrated Lime or Anhydrite Based Material

% e

Asphalt Content % a,b

Minimum of JMF Target Value

Voids in the Mineral Aggregate (VMA), % a,d

1.6

± 0.50

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Table 423.3.6.2.1:1

Acceptance Testing Tolerances a

a

All gradation, Asphalt Content, VMA, and VFA values shall be determined using the

AASHTO T 308 testing results. b

HMA will not be rejected based on Asphalt Content Determined by AASHTO T 308 c

Density payment will be adjusted in accordance with Section 901.5 d

If Gmm fluctuates more than ±0.03 on a consistent basis, it is recommended that the Specific

Gravity of the aggregates be checked in order to verify VMA. e

If Hydrated Lime or Anhydrite Based Material is below Design TV cease hot mix production, investigate and correct.

423.3.6.2.1.1 Non-QLA

The Department will evaluate (QA) test results from Projects with Bid quantities less than

15,000 tons for specification compliance in accordance with the following procedures: If the mean of the test results for each property is within the Acceptance Tolerances as listed in

Table 423.3.6.2.1:1, “Acceptance Testing Tolerances,” the Material will be accepted at full

Contract price except that Roadway density will be adjusted in price in accordance with

Section 901.5, Quality Level Analysis. If the mean of the test results for any of the listed properties is outside of the tolerances as listed in Table 423.3.6.2.1:1, “Acceptance Testing

Tolerances,” then the Department will determine Acceptance of the Material in accordance with 901.1.3, “Acceptance Sampling and Testing,” and Section 901.5, “Quality Level Analysis.”

A composite pay factor of more than 1.00 is not allowed for Projects with Bid quantities less than 15,000 tons. Remove and replace rejected Material with specification Material at no additional cost to the Department.

423.3.6.2.1.1.1 Acceptance of Pavement Density

The target density for Acceptance of HMA will be 94.5% of the theoretical maximum density as determined from AASHTO T 209. For determination of maximum specific gravity, obtain and test a minimum of two (2) samples and ensure the Department obtains and tests a minimum of one (1) sample for each Day that the HMA is placed. Each individual density test value obtained must be from 92.0% to 97.0% of the theoretical maximum density.

To be prepared for dispute resolution, the Contractor is to provide one (1) additional core for each core tested by the Department for Acceptance of density. The additional core is to be from the same lot as the initial core and shall be generated from the random sample plan. If the Contractor believes the Department’s cut pavement samples have been damaged they may invoke Section 423.3.7 Dispute Resolution. The Referee Lab results will replace the initial core in determining pay factor. The Assistant District Engineer for Construction will make the final decision on accepting or rejecting material, based on the Referee Laboratory’s result(s) by:

1. Accepting the section or sublot if the density falls between 92.0% - 97.0%;

2. Determining that a portion, based on visual determination, or all of the Material in that section or sublot shall be removed or replaced at no additional cost to the

Department;

3. Determining that a portion, based on visual determination, of the Material in that section or sublot will be paid for at a 50% pay factor.

For purposes of Acceptance and pay factor determination, determine the density from cut pavement sections (cores) with 6-inch diameters extending through the full thickness of the

HMA. Determine the pay factor in accordance with Section 901.5, Quality Level Analysis.

Use a minimum of ten (10) cores to determine the pay factor, unless otherwise directed by the

Assistant District Engineer for Construction. Determine the theoretical maximum density using an average of the maximum specific gravity values obtained by the Department and the

Contractor the Day the core’s Material was placed. If a composite pay factor of more than

1.00 is calculated, the composite pay factor will be a 1.00 for the purposes of payment.

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For Projects consisting of single lift overlays or mill and inlay with a single lift of two and a half inches or less, the Project Manager may grant an exception to the mean density target requirement of at least 94.5% of the theoretical maximum density if the Contractor can demonstrate that a minimum of 92.0% cannot be reasonably obtained because of the existing conditions of the Pavement Structure or Subgrade Materials. The Contractor demonstrates this by providing density results obtained during paving operations witnessed by a State

Inspector at the location in question. If the Project Manager grants this exemption, construct a

Roadway test strip and develop an HMA compaction process to get the highest possible density based on an approved roller’s density gain per pass, in accordance with Section

423.3.4.4, Compaction Equipment. The Project Manager will approve the process, establish a new target value for density and establish a new Acceptance lot only for the portion of the

Project addressed herein (except for the Roadway test strip) before paving begins or continues. Density shall not fall below 91%. If a lot does not meet either of the revised density requirements, the Project Manager will, with the concurrence of the Assistant District

Engineer for Construction, do the following:

1. Accept and pay for the lot of HMA at 50% of the Bid Item Unit Price; or

2. Reject the in-place material and require the Contractor to remove and replace.

423.3.6.3 QLA

On Projects with Bid quantities of 15,000 tons or more, the Department will determine

Acceptance of the Materials in accordance with Section 901.5, “Quality Level Analysis,” using the Acceptance limits in Table 423.3.6.2.1:1, “Acceptance Testing Tolerances”. Acceptance lots shall be between 15,000 tons and 30,000 tons, as determined at the pre-paving conference. Table 423.3.6.2.1:2 indicates properties that will be tracked for purposes of

Quality Assurance. For all QLA Projects, if a composite pay factor of more than 1.00 is calculated, the composite pay factor will be a 1.00 for the purposes of payment.

423.3.6.3.1 Acceptance of Pavement Density

The target density for Acceptance of HMA will be 94.50% of the theoretical maximum density as determined from AASHTO T 209. For determination of maximum specific gravity, obtain and test a minimum of two (2) samples and ensure the Department obtains and tests a minimum of one (1) sample for each Day that the HMA is placed, in accordance with the random sampling plan. Each individual density test value obtained must be from 92.0% to

97.0% of the theoretical maximum density.

For purposes of Acceptance and pay factor determination, determine the density from cut pavement sections (cores) with 6-inch diameters extending through the full thickness of the

HMA. Determine the pay factor in accordance with Section 901.5, Quality Level Analysis.

Use a minimum of ten (10) cores to determine the pay factor, unless otherwise directed by the

Assistant District Engineer for Construction. To be prepared for dispute resolution, the

Contractor is to provide one (1) additional core for each core tested by the Department for

Acceptance of density. The additional core is to be from the same lot as the initial core and shall be generated from the random sample plan. If the Contractor or Department believes the

Department’s cut pavement samples have been damaged they may invoke Section 423.3.7

Dispute Resolution. The Referee Lab results will replace the initial core in determining pay factor. Determine the theoretical maximum density using an average of the maximum specific gravity values obtained by the Department and the Contractor the Day the core’s Material was placed. If a composite pay factor of more than 1.00 is calculated, the composite pay factor will be a 1.00 for the purposes of payment.

For Projects consisting of single lift overlays or mill and inlay with a single lift of two and a half inches or less, the Project Manager may grant an exception to the mean density target requirement of at least 94.5% of the theoretical maximum density if the Contractor can demonstrate that a minimum of 92.0% cannot be reasonably obtained because of the existing conditions of the Pavement Structure or Subgrade Materials. The Contractor demonstrates this by providing non-destructive density results obtained during paving operations witnessed by a State Inspector at the location in question. If the Project Manager grants this exemption, construct a Roadway test strip and develop an HMA compaction process to get the highest

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possible density based on an approved roller’s density gain per pass, in accordance with

Section 423.3.4.4, Compaction Equipment. The Project Manager will approve the process, establish a new target value for density and establish a new Acceptance lot only for the portion of the Project addressed herein (except for the Roadway test strip) before paving begins or continues. Lot density shall not fall below 91%. If a lot does not meet either of the revised density requirements, the Project Manager will, with the concurrence of the Assistant District

Engineer for Construction do the following:

1. Accept and pay for the lot of HMA at 50% of the Bid Item Unit Price; or

2. Reject the in-place material and require the Contractor to remove and replace at no cost to the Department.

The Department will perform Independent Assurance sampling and testing in accordance with Section 901.3, “Independent Assurance Testing.”

For any test incorporated into the pay factor, if a dispute exists the Project Manager and

Contractor will investigate to determine why and make corrections if possible. If the discrepancy cannot be resolved, then either party may invoke a referee lab. The State Asphalt

Engineer will maintain a list of labs that are willing and capable of performing referee testing.

All referee labs shall be AASHTO Materials Reference Laboratory (AMRL) certified for the test(s) to be performed. Neither the Department’s Project staff, nor the Contractor will know who is performing the referee testing. The State Asphalt Engineer will select a Laboratory, without disclosing the name of the lab to Department Project Personnel or Contractor personnel, from the following, not in priority order:

1. A District Laboratory not from the District in which the Project resides; or

2. A private Laboratory currently listed on the State Material’s Bureau’s list of approved private labs not involved in the subject Project in any manner, such as mix design submittal, preliminary testing for design, etc. Only laboratories that are in the routine business of providing testing and designs will be considered. Contractor owned laboratories will not be allowed.

When a referee lab is used, the referee lab’s test results will be used in determining the pay factor. The referee lab must be invoked in writing within ten (10) Calendar Days of receiving the test results from the other party. If not invoked within ten (10) Calendar Days, the test results are deemed accepted. The results will be used to determine pay factors. The

Department’s prior test results or the Contractor’s prior test results for the test in question will be discarded. If the composite pay factor decreases from applying the referee lab’s results, the Contractor shall pay for the testing performed by the referee lab. If the composite pay factor increases from applying the referee lab’s results, the Department will pay for the testing performed by the referee lab. If the composite pay factor remains unchanged, the cost shall be split with each party responsible for 50% of the total cost.

For all testing incorporated into the pay factor, each party shall generate an additional sample from the Department’s Acceptance Samples and the Contractor’s Quality Control

Samples used in pay factor analysis. Failure to provide the referee samples prior to testing the initial sample will result in the Project Manager suspending the Project at no cost to the

Department. Additional time will not be added to the Contract for Project suspension caused by failure to comply with Dispute Resolution Process. Work shall not resume until the

Contractor provides the delayed sample(s) and satisfies the Project Manager, in writing, that future samples will be provided in compliance with this requirement. The extra sample(s) is

(are) to be retained by the Department. The Department will retain the samples at the Project location inside a locked cargo container, provided by the Contractor at no cost to the State.

The State will provide the lock for the cargo container. Once the pay factor is determined dispose of the unused samples at no cost to the Department. In no case will the unused samples be disposed of prior to the ten (10) Calendar Day period in which the Dispute

Resolution process may be invoked.

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For Pavement Density, the Contractor shall provide an additional core only for each core provided to the Department for Acceptance. The additional core will be stored and retained in the provided container. Should the Contractor invoke the Dispute Resolution Process for

Density, the second core will be provided to the Referee Lab. The density pay factor for the material in question will be based solely on the Referee Lab result, not including Department or Contractor results.

Failure to comply with the requirements contained herein will result in the pay factor being calculated in accordance with the applicable Sections of 423, Superpave (QLA and Non-

QLA), and 901, Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA). No test results will be replaced by referee results.

423.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

If the Department measures HMA by the square yard, the Department will use the average width of the HMA in place and the length from station to station along the centerline of the Roadway when calculating quantities.

423.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

HMA Complete Ton or Square Yard

HMA Ton or Square Yard

The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the Bid Item Unit Price, adjusted in accordance with Section 423.5.1, “Price Adjustments.” Providing and transporting all cores, samples and storage containers shall be Incidental to the Pay Items above.

423.5.1 Price Adjustments

423.5.1.1 Projects with Bid Quantities of 15,000 Tons or Greater

The Department will pay for accepted quantities of HMA or HMA Complete at the Bid

Item Unit Price, adjusted in accordance with Section 901.5, “Quality Level Analysis.” The

HMA will be evaluated on a lot-by-lot basis at a price determined by multiplying the Bid Item

Unit Price by the weighting factor. The Department will use Table 423.5.1.1:1, “Weighting

Factors,” to calculate each lot’s composite pay factor. The pay factor for the entire Project will be calculated by applying weighted averages, based on tonnage contained within each lot, to each lot’s composite pay factor. If the composite pay factor for a lot is greater than 1.0, the pay factor will be set at 1.0.

Table 423.5.1.1:1

Weighting Factors

Mat Density

Air voids

Voids in the mineral aggregate (VMA)

35

35

20

Asphalt Content* 10

*If the individual pay factor for asphalt content is less than 0.75, it will be set at 0.75 for the purpose of calculating payment.

423.5.1.2 Projects with Bid Quantities Less than 15,000 Tons

The Department will pay for accepted quantities of HMA or HMA Complete at the Bid

Item Unit Price if the mean of the test results for each property is within the testing tolerances as listed in Table 423.3.6.2.1:1, “Acceptance Testing Tolerances.” If the mean of the test results for any of the listed properties is outside of the testing tolerances as listed in

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Table 423.3.6.2.1:1, “Acceptance Testing Tolerances,” then the Department will determine the price adjustment for the Material in accordance with the Department’s Price Reduction

Procedures current at the time of the Project letting. In no case will the pay factor be greater than 1.00.

423.5.1.2.1 Price Adjustment for Pavement Density (Bid Quantities Less than 15,000

Tons)

The Department will also adjust the Bid Item Unit Price for the HMA or HMA Complete

Pay Item, based on the Roadway density, in accordance with Section 901, Quality

Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA), specifically Section 901.5, Quality Level Analysis, steps one (1) through nine (9). If the density pay factor for a lot is greater than 1.0, the density pay factor will be set at 1.0 for purposes of payment. The Department will apply the price adjustments to the HMA Bid Item unit price for each lot.

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SECTION 424: WARM MIX ASPHALT

Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is a generic term used to describe the reduction in production, paving and compaction temperatures achieved through the use of one (1) of the approved

WMA technologies.

Some modification to WMA plants may be necessary to accommodate the WMA technologies as noted in Section 424.3 Construction Requirements.

424.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of constructing one (1) or more courses of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) pavement courses on a prepared base produced with a warm-mix additive or technologies, approved by the New Mexico Department of Transportation, and included the most current

Approved Products List (APL).

Warm-Mix Asphalt shall be produced in a mixing plant and stored, hauled, placed and compacted in accordance with the requirements of this Section and as shown on the Plans.

A technical representative of the Warm Mix Additive Supplier, including contact information, shall be designated in writing via the mix design submittal process. The representative is expected to ensure that the Warm-mix additive is handled properly. This representative does not have the authority to allow any deviation from the Department Specifications and Project requirements.

424.2 MATERIALS

424.2.1 General

WMA may be produced by one (1) or a combination of several technologies which may include WMA plant foaming processes and Equipment, mineral additives or chemicals that allow the reduction of the production temperatures.

WMA is a mixture of asphalt binder, Warm Mix Additive (or technologies), aggregate, blending sand, mineral filler, and hydrated lime or anhydrite based material. Unless otherwise prohibited in the Contract, the Department will allow Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in

WMA mixes as long as the resulting mixture conforms to all specification requirements.

Size, uniformly grade, and combine aggregate fractions in accordance with the Contract.

Test Materials in accordance with applicable AASHTO methods, as modified by the

Department (if applicable) or other test procedures as directed by the Department. The State

Materials Bureau will decide all questions pertaining to the interpretation of test procedures.

424.2.2 Aggregate

Ensure the aggregate gradation of the WMA mixture meets the requirements of

Table 424.2.2.1:1, “WMA Aggregate Gradation Control Points.” The Project Manager may require, at no additional cost to the Department, wet preparation, per AASHTO T 146, Method

A, if the Project Manager determines there are Deleterious Materials present in the aggregate stockpiles before aggregate gradation testing. The Contract will specify the type of WMA the

Contractor is to use. The Department will allow the Contractor to combine Materials from two

(2) or more sources to produce aggregate only when each individual aggregate source meets all applicable quality requirements.

424.2.2.1 Gradation and Quality Requirements

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Table 424.2.2.1:1

WMA Aggregate Gradation Control Points

Sieve size

% passing per WMA type

SP-II SP-III SP-IV

Min Max Min Max Min Max

Two (2) inch — — — — — —

1 1/2 inch 100 — — — — —

One (1) inch

¾ inch

½ inch

90

100

90

100

90

100

90

100

90

100

3/8 — — — — — 90

19 45 23 49 28 58

1.0 7.0 2.0 8.0 2.0 10.0

For each Material source, ensure the WMA coarse aggregate has an AI of 25 or less when calculated in accordance with Section 901, "QUALITY CONTROL/QUALITY

ASSURANCE (QC/QA)."

Regulate the crushing of aggregate stockpiles so that the minimum Fractured Faces content of the plus No. 4 Material complies with the requirements of Table 424.2.2.1.2:1,

“Fractured Faces, Sand Equivalent, and Fine Aggregate Angularity,” and evaluation by

NMDOT Method FF-1, “Fractured Face Determination for Coarse Aggregate.” Ensure the plus

3/8 inch material contains a maximum of 20% flat, elongated particles with a dimensional ratio of 3:1 or greater as determined by ASTM D 4791 (TTCP Modified). Ensure the combined material, excluding RAP; passing the No. 40 sieve is non-plastic. Ensure that before the addition of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material, the minimum sand equivalent value and the minimum fine aggregate angularity value of the combined aggregate, excluding RAP, complies with the requirements of Table 424.2.2.1.2:1, “Fractured Faces, Sand Equivalent, and Fine Aggregate Angularity.” Determine the sand equivalent value in accordance with accordance with AASHTO T 304, Method A.

The Department will consider a face to be fractured when at least one-half of the projected particle area exhibits a rough, angular, or broken texture with well defined edges.

Table 424.2.2.1.2:1

Minimum Fractured Faces, Sand Equivalent, and Fine Aggregate Angularity for Virgin

Aggregates

Design Traffic, ESALs a

x 10

6

Sand

Equivalent

(%)

Fine

Aggregate

Angularity

< 3.0 75.0 / — 45.0 40.0

> 3.0 – < 10.0

> 10.0 – < 30.0

85.0 / 80.0

95.0 / 90.0

45.0

45.0

45.0

45.0

> 30.0 99.0 / 95.0 a

ESALs are based on a 20-year design life for all scenarios.

50.0 45.0 b

Under “Fractured Faces”, 85.0 / 80.0 denotes that 85.0% of the coarse aggregate has at least

1 Fractured Face and 80.0% has at least two (2) Fractured Faces.

Ensure RAP provided from sources outside the Project has at least 75% Fractured Faces (one

(1) Fractured Face); however, Sand Equivalent and Fine Aggregate Angularity do not apply.

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424.2.2.2 Production

When producing aggregates for WMA, remove natural fines by screening and stockpiling separately. Use a No. 4 screen, minimum, or a larger screen if needed to properly control the crushing and screening operation. Crush the aggregate retained on the scalping screen and separate the crushed Material into at least two (2) stockpiles of fine and coarse aggregates.

Regulate crushing operations to produce Material within the specified gradation band.

424.2.2.3 Stockpiling

The following requirements apply to stockpiles:

1. Place stockpiles upon prepared sites;

2. Make stockpiles neat and regular to prevent segregation;

3. Provide enough storage space for each size of aggregate;

4. Separate the aggregate stockpiles far enough apart to prevent mixing, or with walls or partitions;

5. Prevent contamination (store stockpiles away from vehicular and Equipment traffic);

6. Keep the storage yard neat and orderly and keep the stockpiles accessible for sampling; and

7. Keep the aggregate sizes separated until delivered to the cold feed system that feeds the drier.

424.2.2.4 Combining

When combining crushed Materials from different stockpiles, including RAP (if in the mixture) ensure the product is in accordance with the mix design gradation requirements. Use controlled feeders from each stockpile to combine crushed Material.

The Contract will specify the type and grade of asphalt binder. Provide asphalt binders in accordance with Section 402, “Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based

Material.” Do not change the asphalt source after approval of the mix design without written approval of the State Materials Bureau.

424.2.3.1 Warm Mix Additive or Technology

Only Warm Mix Additives or Technologies approved by the Product Evaluation Program and currently listed on the Approved Products List can be used on Department Projects. To be placed on the Approved Products List, the WMA additive Supplier shall verify that the binder with the additive meets the PG grade of the specified binder. The potential additive Supplier shall demonstrate this to the Department by evaluating the Asphalt Binder and WMA additive for compliance with the rheological properties for low and high temperatures for the specified

PG grade in accordance with AASHTO M320, Table 1 and Section 402.2.5, Performance

Graded Asphalt Binder. The type and dosage of Warm Mix Additives shall comply with the requirements of the Warm Mix Additive Supplier. The type and/or dosage of the WMA additives shall be provided to the Project Manager two (2) weeks prior to the commencement of paving operations. Warm Mix Additive dosage rates shall not deviate from those designated by the Warm Mix Additive Supplier. If a terminal blend Warm Mix Additive is used, the dosage rate shall be shown on the Materials Certificate of Compliance.

After the Warm Mix Additive is introduced, the PG grade of the binder shall comply with the PG grade as specified in the Contract.

For foamed asphalt systems, water used as directed by the foamed asphalt system manufacturer shall be considered to be the Warm Mix Additive. Only foam systems on the

Department’s Approved Product List shall be used.

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424.2.4 Hydrated Lime or Anhydrite Based Material

Provide hydrated lime or anhydrite based material in accordance with Section 402,

“Asphalt Materials, Hydrated Lime, and Anhydrite Based Material.”

Blending sand consists of the following:

1. Natural fines from the scalping process;

3. Sandy Material; or

4. A combination of these, graded to the mix design requirements.

Determine the need for and percentage (a maximum of 20.0%) of blending sand using mix design tests on samples taken from stockpiles during crushing operations and submitted to an approved testing Laboratory.

Provide mineral filler in accordance with AASHTO M 17 and approved by the State

Materials Bureau. The Department will not allow fly ash as mineral filler for WMA.

Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, the Contractor may use RAP removed under the Contract consisting of salvaged, milled, pulverized, broken, or crushed asphalt pavement.

The Contractor may use RAP produced from outside sources provided evidence of ownership is supplied and the following is met: After the Contractor obtains sufficient quantities of RAP aggregate samples in accordance with AASHTO T 308, the Department will accept RAP for which each fraction of coarse aggregate has a percent wear of 40.0 or less, at 500 revolutions, when tested in accordance with AASHTO T 96. Provide plus No. 4 RAP Material with a minimum of 75% Fractured Faces content (one (1) face).

The Contractor may use a maximum of 15% RAP (by weight) in the production of WMA mixtures without changing the asphalt binder. For quantities greater than 15% to 25% RAP, either lower the asphalt binder’s high and low temperature grades by one (1) grade (e.g. lower a PG 76-22 to a PG 70-28), or extract, recover, and combine the RAP’s asphalt binder with a virgin asphalt binder per AASHTO M 323, Appendix A, ensuring the resultant binder meets the entire AASHTO M 320 required Project PG asphalt binder properties indicated on the approved mix design.. For quantities greater than 25% to 35% RAP, extract, recover, and

Appendix A. Ensure the resultant binder meets the entire AASHTO M 320 required Project

PG asphalt binder properties indicated on the approved mix design. The Department will not allow the Contractor to use more than 35% RAP in the production of WMA mixtures. For

Projects of entirely new construction, limit the RAP to 15% in the top mat or extract, recover and combine the RAP’s asphalt binder with a virgin asphalt binder per AASHTO M323,

Appendix A. Ensure the resultant binder meets the entire AASHTO M320 required Project PG asphalt binder properties indicated on the approved mix design.

Process RAP so that 100% passes a 1-1/2-inch sieve. For WMA mixtures containing greater than 15% RAP, maintain adequate stockpile management (i.e. sufficient quantities and shaping of the stockpiles) and fractionation (divide the RAP into a minimum of two (2) stockpiles), so they are uniform throughout the stockpiles. Address in the Quality Control Plan how RAP will be controlled, such as which screen will be used to split into two (2) stockpiles, or by what method the RAP will be controlled to keep the resultant mix within acceptable limits. Account for the weight of the binder in the RAP when batching aggregates. Provide

RAP that is free of Deleterious Materials. If the Contractor decides to use RAP in the production of WMA mixtures, the Department will make no additional payment for the asphalt binder in the RAP or asphalt binder due to asphalt binder grade adjustment. As RAP is

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produced and prepared for inclusion in the WMA, perform Process Control testing in accordance with Section 901, “Quality Control/Quality Assurance,” Table 901.7:3, Minimum

Process Control Guidelines for Aggregates and Base Course.

If problems with WMA consistency or compliance with Project Specifications occur, additional efforts taken to achieve acceptable levels of consistency and compliance with

Contract Specifications, at the Contractor’s discretion (at no additional cost to the

Department), include, but are not limited to:

Reduce the top size of the RAP from 1-1/2” to 1”;

Fractionate the aggregates on a second screen, such as the 3/8” or 1/4” Screen so that the RAP is maintained in two (2) stockpiles, one being Coarse RAP and the second being Fine RAP;

Ensure that the RAP used in the WMA mix design is representative of the RAP available on the Project;

Cover the RAP pile(s) so that ambient moisture is not absorbed; and

 Process and maintain the stockpiles so that the RAP material is equally and uniformly distributed throughout the entire stockpile(s) and is withdrawn such that uniform, non-segregated RAP is delivered to the hoppers.

Provide a mix design developed by a Department-approved testing Laboratory, reviewed and signed by a Professional Engineer licensed by the New Mexico Board of Registration for

Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors. A list of approved private testing laboratories is available from the State Materials Bureau. Develop the mix design at no additional cost to the

Department. The Contractor may develop the mix design at any time prior to the Project Pre-

Paving Conference. Submit at least five (5) independent aggregate gradation test results from each stockpile to the Project Manager.

Provide the Department with a copy of the request to the testing Laboratory to develop a mix design, along with supporting documents in accordance with AASHTO R 35, to the Project

Manager and the State Asphalt Engineer. Include the proposed aggregate combination and copies of all stockpile test results. Summarize the mix design results from the Departmentapproved testing Laboratory in a format approved by the State Materials Bureau and submit them to the Project Manager and State Asphalt Engineer for review and concurrence by the

State Asphalt Engineer. Include the results and design worksheets of testing calculations in accordance with AASHTO R 35, for the mix components as well as the mixture itself and in accordance with State Materials Bureau procedures. Department concurrence of a mix design will not relieve the Contractor of full responsibility for producing an acceptable mixture. The mix design may require adjustment in accordance with Section 424.2.8.1, “Mix Design

Adjustment.”

Create the JMF gradation in accordance with Table 424.2.2.1:1, “WMA Aggregate

Gradation Control Points.” The Department will require at least 1.0% hydrated lime or anhydrite based material in all mix designs. Include the hydrated lime or anhydrite based material in the gradation for developing the mix design. The mix design shall establish a single percentage of the aggregate passing each sieve size and a single percentage of asphalt binder the Contractor is to add to the aggregate. Develop the mix design using the

Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) gyratory compactor in accordance with

AASHTO R 35. AASHTO TP 77 may be used in lieu of AASHTO T 84/T 85. The mix design shall be in accordance with Table 424.2.8:1, “WMA Superpave Design Requirements for

Aggregates with Less Than 3.0% Absorption,” or Table 424.2.8:2, “WMA Superpave Design

Requirements for Aggregates with 3.0% or Greater Absorption.”

Test the WMA with at least 1.0% hydrated lime or anhydrite based material in accordance with AASHTO T 283, as modified below:

Use six (6) inch by 3.75 inch specimens for all prisms;

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Compact all test specimens in accordance with AASHTO T 312 to an air content of seven percent (7%) +/- 0.5%;

On the AASHTO T283 Section 11.3 a scale of 0-5, with 5 exhibiting the most damage from moisture, visually estimate the amount of damage caused by moisture on the interior surfaces of each broken prism;

Use a minimum of one percent (1%) hydrated lime or anhydrite based material and ensure the design amount results in a tensile stress ratio of at least 85%, and that no visual rating is greater than 1, as determined by AASHTO T283 Section 11.3.

Provide a mixture that meets all applicable criteria. If tests indicate the need for additives or modifiers not specified in the Contract or a change in source of binder to satisfy mix design requirements, perform the required changes at no additional cost to the Department.

Table 424.2.8:1

WMA Superpave Design Requirements for Aggregates with Less Than 3.0% Absorption

Percent Voids in the Mineral

aggregate size

Asphalt

(VFA)

Range, %

(c)

Dust to

Binder

Ratio

Range

< 0.3 <91.5

0.3–

<3.0 <90.5

12.5

14.0

≥3.0 <89.0 a

In Millions b

Design Air Void Content of four percent (4%)

13.5

15.0

14.5

16.0

72.0–80.0

68.0–78.0

68.0–75.0

0.6 to

1.4 c

For one (1) inch nominal maximum size mixtures, the specified lower limit of the VFA shall be

70% for the design traffic level <0.3 million ESALs.

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Table 424.2.8:2

WMA Superpave Design Requirements for Aggregates with 3.0% or Greater Absorption

Percent Voids in the Mineral

maximum aggregate size

Filled with

Asphalt

(VFA)

Range,

% (c)

Dust to

Binder

Ratio

Range

<0.3 <91.5

70.0–

80.0

0.3–

<3.0 <90.5

12.0

14.0

13.0

15.0

14.0–

16.0

65.0–

78.0

0.6 to

1.4

≥3.0 <89.0

65.0–

78.0 a

In Millions b

Design Air Void Content of 3.5% c

For one (1) inch nominal maximum size mixtures, the specified lower limit of the VFA will be

70% for the design traffic level <0.3 million ESALs.

When Department Reviewed Commercial Mix Designs are used on the Project, submit a copy of proposed commercial mix design to the State Materials Material Bureau with Project information to verify the proposed commercial mix design is appropriate to use and meets all the required Specifications for the Project. If the proposed commercial mix design meets all the requirements for the specific Project, the State Materials Bureau may re-issue the proposed commercial mix design for that specific Project.

The State Materials Bureau may allow the Contractor to use a mix design for one (1) year from the date of review by the State Materials Bureau. The Contractor may use or re-submit the design before the expiration of the one (1) year time frame. Do not use a Mix Design beyond one (1) year after the State Materials Bureau’s review date. Submit acceptable evidence to the State Materials Bureau verifying that the component Materials have not changed. Submit a new mix design if changing the source of Materials. Obtain concurrence from the State Materials Bureau before using the new Materials. Provide documentation confirming that the WMA additive blended with the asphalt binder results in asphalt cement that meets the specified PG Grade Asphalt Binder.

The WMA Additive Supplier and the Asphalt Binder Supplier will recommend mixing, compaction and maximum allowable temperatures to be used for the development of the mix design. The WMA mix design signed and submitted by a Department Approved Testing

Laboratory will be reviewed by the State Asphalt Engineer in accordance with Department procedures, and if found to comply with all requirements, sent to the Project Manager for final

Acceptance for use by the Department.

424.2.9 Job Mix Formula

The Job Mix Formula (JMF) must be in accordance with all aggregate gradation requirements and result in a mix that meets all specified mix design requirements. The

Department will refer to the result of the Laboratory mix design developed in accordance with

Section 424.2.8, “Mix Design,” as JMF1.

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Prepare the aggregate gradation of the calibration samples for analysis per accordance with the State Materials Bureau’s, Ignition Oven Calibration Factors procedure including a set for the Referee Lab. Provide a minimum of five (5) sets of calibration samples.

Do not combine the elements of the calibration samples prepared for the Referee Lab, and provide them, with the Project Number, Contractor and Project Manager clearly identified, to the Project Manager who will forward them to the State Asphalt Engineer. All Quality Control,

Quality Assurance and Independent Assurance ovens must be calibrated by this procedure prior to start of production of a JMF. New calibration samples may be required for new JMF’s, as determined by the District Lab Supervisor or the State Asphalt Engineer. The Project

Manager will suspend paving operations until calibration of the ovens has been completed.

No additional time or compensation will be granted for completion of this requirement.

The Contractor may request a modification to the JMF based on field testing of Material produced through the plant. It is expected that minor adjustments will be necessary and the

Project Manager (with the concurrence of the Department’s District Laboratory Supervisor) may approve a new JMF if the adjustment results in a new TV that is within the tolerance from the design TV. (Example: If design TV for No. 4 sieve is 30%, then a new TV may be approved in the field from 23% - 37%). Test results and calculations that verify a proposed

JMF adjustment complies with the Specifications will be required prior to being reviewed by the Project Manager and concurred by the State Materials Bureau. Review and concurrence of a JMF adjustment can only be made after:

The Quality Control Plan (including checks on specific gravity) has been submitted and concurred by the Project Manager and the District Lab Supervisor for use on the Project;

 Confirmation by the Project Manager that the Quality Control Plan is being followed;

 Concurrence of the proposed changes from Project Manager and District Lab

Supervisor,

Submittal by the Testing Laboratory responsible for the original mix design to the

Project Manager with a copy to the State Asphalt Engineer.

If the JMF is adjusted after the Shakedown Period, terminate the previous lot when the adjusted JMF has been reviewed and concurred with by the Project Manager and the State

Materials Bureau. Terminated lot will be added to the previous lot for evaluation by QLA.

Begin a new lot for the QLA with the adjusted JMF. During the Shakedown Period, make JMF adjustments in accordance with Section 424.3.5.7, Test Strip and Shakedown Period.

424.3.1 General

Provide sufficient storage space for each size of aggregate and RAP. Keep the different sizes separate until delivery to the cold feed system feeding the drier. While storing and moving the coarse and fine aggregate, ensure that segregation, degradation, or combination of Materials of different grades does not occur. Re-screen or waste segregated or degraded

Material. Provide separate storage and bin feeder for mineral filler if the Contract requires mineral filler. Stockpile aggregates and RAP that contain gravitational water and allow them to drain before mixing. After introducing the required amounts of aggregate, RAP (if used), and asphalt binder into the mixer, mix them until the aggregate particles are completely and uniformly coated with asphalt binder. If the Project Manager determines that uncoated aggregate exists, take corrective action. Ensure that the moisture content of the WMA at discharge from the mixer does not exceed 0.5%.

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Do not allow the temperature of the WMA discharged from the mixer into the transport vehicle to be greater than 275 degrees F or less than 215 degrees F unless written recommendations by the asphalt cement Supplier, the Warm Mix Additive Supplier and the

Mix Design Laboratory are provided to the Project Manager. WMA delivered to the Project with mix temperatures outside the acceptable range shall, at the sole discretion of the Project

Manager, be removed and replaced at no cost to the Department.

424.3.3 Addition of Hydrated Lime or Anhydrite Based Material

Add the hydrated lime or anhydrite based material to the aggregate in an enclosed pug mill immediately after leaving the cold feed and just before introduction into the drier drum or aggregate drier. Minimize the loss of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material while adding to the aggregate. Use an enclosed conveyor belt to prevent blowing or loss of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material if necessary. During production, if necessary to counteract loss, increase the percentage of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material.

Equip the out feed of the hydrated lime or anhydrite based material silo with a vane feeder and install a flow sensor on the discharge from the vane feeder. Ensure that the sensor activates audible and visual signals at the control panel upon interruption of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material flow.

Equip the hydrated lime or anhydrite based material silo with an approved means of metering the addition of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material to the mix at typical discharge rates with an accuracy of ± 3.0 %, by weight. Approved means of metering hydrated lime or anhydrite based material include load cell weighing devices placed beneath each leg of the silo, or a weigh belt feeder between the silo discharge and the pug mill. Obtain

Project Manager’s approval for other means of metering the addition of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material before use. Do not use external strain gauges affixed to the legs of the silo. If the Contractor uses load cell weighing devices for hydrated lime or anhydrite based material metering, use a foundation system to support the silo in accordance with the silo manufacturer’s recommendations. Control the hydrated lime or anhydrite based material content such that at a minimum the amount added is equal to the Target Value on the Job Mix

Formula.

When mixing the aggregate and hydrated lime or anhydrite based material, maintain the moisture content of the combined aggregate at the recommended saturated surface dry moisture content, plus an additional 1.5 % ± 0.5 %, by weight. The Project Manager may increase the moisture content of the coarse and fine aggregates to properly coat the aggregates with hydrated lime or anhydrite based material and to eliminate dust pollution.

Provide a method to measure the amount of moisture added to the hydrated lime or anhydrite based material-aggregate mix. On a daily basis, record the average amount of added moisture to verify specification compliance. Supply the recorded moisture information to the

Project Manager upon request.

424.3.4 Equipment

Use Equipment and WMA technologies capable of producing an asphalt mixture that meets specification requirements and is workable at the minimum placement and compaction temperatures desired, regardless of storage or haul distance considerations.

Modify the asphalt mixing plant as required by the manufacturer to introduce the WMA technology.

Ensure that the scales are accurate to 0.5% of the maximum allowable load in accordance with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) publication. A

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licensed scale serviceman must certify the scales. Submit a copy of the certification to the

Project Manager.

424.3.4.1.2 Equipment for Preparation of Asphalt Materials

Provide storage tanks for asphalt binder capable of heating and holding the asphalt at the required temperatures and measuring the temperature of the asphalt in the tank. Use approved heating methods that do not allow flames in contact with the tank. Design the circulating system for the asphalt binder to ensure proper and continuous circulation during the operating period. Allow measuring and sampling of asphalt binder from the delivery truck upon arrival.

424.3.4.1.3 Feeder for Drier

Equip the plant with an accurate feeding mechanism to deliver the aggregate into the drier and maintain uniform production and temperature.

424.3.4.1.4 Drier

Equip the plant with a system to continuously agitate the aggregate during the heating and drying process. Use a drier that can dry and heat the aggregate and prevent fuel oil or carbon from coating the aggregate. Take corrective action if the aggregate becomes coated with burner fuel.

424.3.4.1.5 Bins

Equip the plant with storage bins large enough to supply the mixer when it is operating at full capacity. Arrange the bins to ensure separate and adequate storage of the appropriate fractions of the mineral aggregates. When necessary, use separating boards. Provide separate dry storage for hydrated lime or anhydrite based material. Ensure that the gates on the bins do not leak. Equip the bins with warning devices that notify the control panel when the bins are low.

424.3.4.1.6 Asphalt Binder Control Unit

Equip the plant with the following:

1. A scale or meter to obtain the proper amount of asphalt binder in the mix, within the allowable tolerances; and

2. A meter for checking the quantity or rate of flow of asphalt binder put in the mixer.

424.3.4.1.7 Thermometers

Equip the asphalt feed line, near the charging valve at the mixer unit, with an approved recording thermometer with a range of from 100 °F to 400 °F. Equip the discharge chute of the drier with an approved recording thermometer to automatically register the temperature of the heated aggregates or mix, as necessary. Provide the Project Manager with a record of discharge temperatures at the end of each week’s production and when requested by the

Project Manager during the course of production.

Weigh the WMA on approved scales (provided by the Contractor) or public scales in accordance with Section 109.1, “Measurement of Quantity.”

424.3.4.1.9 Requirements for Batching Plants

424.3.4.1.9.1 Weigh Box or Hopper

Provide a batching plant that can accurately weigh aggregate in a weigh box or hopper suspended on scales. Use a weigh box or hopper that can hold a full batch. Ensure that the

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gate of the weigh box or hopper does not allow material to leak into the mixer while being weighed. Test the scales in accordance with Section 109.1, “Measurement of Quantity.”

424.3.4.1.9.3 Mixer

Provide a batch mixer with a capacity of at least 2,000 lb, capable of producing a uniform mixture within specified tolerances.

424.3.4.1.9.4 Control of Mixing Time

Equip the mixer with an accurate timing device that signals the end of the mixing time.

424.3.4.1.10 Drum Mix Plants

Equip the drum mix plant with the following auxiliary Equipment and capabilities:

1. Separate cold feed controls for each Material.

2. An automatic interlocking device for cold feed, asphalt, and additive.

3. A means for determining moisture content of aggregate so the dry weight of cold feed can be determined for proper setting of asphalt and additive flow. Determine the moisture content of the aggregate at least twice daily and adjust the moisture correction Equipment accordingly.

4. A means for sampling individual cold feeds and provisions for sequential sampling of aggregate, RAP, asphalt binder, and additives while under full production.

5. Measure the temperature of the mix at the discharge and the automatic burner controls.

6. A surge storage system having a minimum capacity of 40 ton, designed and equipped to prevent segregation. Equip the surge storage system bins with mechanical or electrical devices that provide an audible or visual warning when the bins are less than 1/4 full.

7. Equip the bin containing fine aggregate and filler, if required, with a device that prevents material hang-up during plant operation.

8. A minimum of one (1) cold feed bin for each aggregate fraction in the mix.

9. Equip the cold feed with mechanical or electrical devices that indicate when the bins are empty or when the cold feed belt is not carrying the proper amount of Material.

The device shall automatically lock the cold feed belt and provide an audible or visual warning.

10. A separate cold feed for RAP Material. Introduce RAP so that it does not come into direct contact with the burner flame.

11. Equip the feeding mechanism with an individual belt feeder with a variable speed feeder drive controlled by electronically operated actuators. Couple the asphalt feed control with the total-aggregate-weight measurement device to automatically vary the asphalt feed rate to maintain the required proportion.

Haul asphalt mixtures with trucks that have tight, clean, smooth metal beds and a thin coat (a minimal amount) of a Department-approved release agent to prevent the mixture from adhering to the bed. Do not use release agents derived from petroleum derivatives, including but not limited to diesel fuel, that contaminate or alter the characteristics of the mix.

Be prepared to cover and insulate hauling beds. Equip each truck with a waterproof and windproof cover of suitable material and sufficient size to protect the mix from the weather.

Securely fasten covers when necessary to maintain temperature. Ensure that covers do not allow water to enter the bed, paver or mix material transfer device during mix unlading. Use insulated truck beds when necessary to maintain temperature.

424.3.4.3 Pavers

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Use self-contained, self-propelled pavers, with activated screeds or strike-off assemblies, heated if necessary, and capable of spreading and finishing courses of WMA in accordance with the Plans.

Provide a sufficient number, weight, and type of rollers to obtain the required compaction and specified pavement density while the WMA is in a workable condition. All rollers must be capable of reversing direction without shoving or tearing the mixture.

For cold milled surfaces, prepare the surface in accordance with Section 414, Cold

Milling. Clean the existing surfaces and apply a tack coat in accordance with Section 407,

“Tack Coat.”

When placing WMA on Base Course, Proof Roll the Base Course with a 27 ton roller or other approved Equipment and correct any soft areas, as directed by the Project Manager.

Correct deficient areas at the Contractor’s expense. Place the WMA on the approved surface, then spread, and strike off to the specified grade and elevation. Spread and compact the

WMA in layers in accordance with the Plans.

For new construction and reconstruction, prepare the Subgrade or Base Course as follows:

1) Clean of loose or Deleterious Materials;

2) Free of frozen material; and

3) Meet the moisture and density requirements.

4) Place prime coat, as required in the Plans unless otherwise approved by the Project

Manager, in accordance with Section 408, Prime Coat.

Unless otherwise specified in the Plans, for construction on NMDOT Projects using State approved WMA designs utilizing greater than 25% RAP the use of a Materials Transfer

Vehicle is required.

Materials Transfer Vehicle (MTV): Use a MTV with storage and remixing capabilities on all mainline construction when placing WMA State approved designs. The MTV will independently remix and deliver mixture from the hauling Equipment to the paving Equipment.

Furnish an MTV with the following capabilities:

1. An unloading system to receive mixtures from the hauling Equipment.

2. A minimum storage capacity of 13 tons with a remixing system in the MTV storage bin.

3. A discharge conveyor to deliver the mixture to the paver hopper.

4. The MTV system cannot exceed maximum legal loading on Structures.

Pick-up machines, hopper inserts and material transfer devices are not considered

MTVs.

In the event the MTV malfunctions during paving operations, the Contractor can finish the

Day without the MTV. Do not resume further mainline mix placement until the MTV is operational.

Consistently overloading the WMA mix into the paving machine is not acceptable. Coordinate the speed of the paving machine with the production of the plant and keep enough haul

Equipment available to achieve continuous operation.

Use the control system on the paving machine to control the grade and the transverse slope by either of the following methods:

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1. One end directly and the other indirectly through controlling the transverse slope; or

2. Each end independently, including screed attachments.

Suspend operations if the control system does not achieve the typical section in accordance with the Plans. Place, spread, and finish the courses of WMA according to the following:

1. Without segregation or tearing;

2. True to the line, grade, and crown in accordance with the Plans; and

3. With self-propelled pavers, except as otherwise directed.

On areas where irregularities or unavoidable obstacles make the use of mechanical spreading and finishing Equipment impracticable, dump, spread, and level the WMA by other methods to achieve the required compacted thickness.

Do not place WMA on wet or frozen surfaces or if weather conditions prevent proper handling, finishing, and compacting. Place WMA when the Chill Factor is at least 35 °F and rising. If the air temperature is 55 °F or warmer, do not consider the Chill Factor.

424.3.5.2 Compaction

Compact the WMA thoroughly and uniformly immediately after placement. Operate rollers at speeds slow enough to minimize displacement of the WMA, including the lines and grades of the asphalt edges. Remove marks from pneumatic rollers and immediately correct any displacement. The Department will not allow the use of Equipment that crushes the aggregate excessively.

Prevent the WMA from sticking to the roller wheels by keeping the wheels moistened with water; water mixed with very small quantities of detergent or other approved material. Do not use diesel fuel or other petroleum diluents. At locations inaccessible to the rollers, compact the WMA with hot hand tampers, smoothing irons, or mechanical tampers. The Contractor may use a trench roller or cleated compression strips under the roller to transmit compression to depressed areas.

Remove areas that become loose, broken, mixed with dirt, segregated or defective, replace with fresh WMA, and compact to match the surrounding area, at no additional cost to the Department. Immediately correct areas that have excessive or deficient asphalt binder.

424.3.5.4 Joints

Place the WMA as continuously as possible. Do not pass rollers over the unprotected end of a freshly laid mixture. When placing open-graded friction course over WMA, stagger longitudinal joints at least six (6) inches relative to the longitudinal joints of the underlying course. Unless otherwise specified, taper transverse and longitudinal joints as follows:

1. At least a three (3) ft taper for transverse joints, with a taper slope no steeper than

24:1.

2. At least a one (1) ft taper or a notched taper, for longitudinal joints, with a taper slope no steeper than 6:1 or a notched taper with a one (1) inch vertical edge at the top of the taper connected to a slope no steeper than 6:1.

3. Cut and square off transverse tapers before commencing new Work.

4. Clean and tack coat longitudinal joints from previous operations.

5. Avoid placing longitudinal joints in the wheel paths, unless approved by the Project

Manager.

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Completely bond joints. Smooth the surface of each course at the joints. The

Department will not allow deviations greater than 3/16 inch when tested with a ten (10) ft straightedge in any direction. When paving under traffic, schedule the daily surfacing operations so that tapered longitudinal joints are not exposed for longer than seven (7) Days.

Smooth the surface of each completed course and prevent deviations larger than 1/8 inch using a ten (10) ft straightedge in any direction. Immediately correct deviations exceeding this tolerance. Provide a final WMA surfacing course that conforms to Section 401, “Pavement

Smoothness Measurement.”

Provide pavement at the depth specified in the Contract. Monitor depths by calculating continuous production yields using the formula found in the MT-1, as maintained by the State

Construction Bureau. Calculate the required yield and the corresponding yields for 0.25 inch increase (upper limit) and decrease (lower limit). The Project Manager may adjust the required yield to fit field conditions. If adjusted, the new target yield will be communicated to the Contractor in writing. Control production to keep yield within the upper and lower limits.

Correct deficiencies at no cost to the Department. Correct deficient depths during placement.

Address Plan Surfacing Depths in the Quality Control Plan.

424.3.5.7 Test Strip & Shakedown Period

Construct a maximum 1,000 ton test strip for each WMA mix design with a minimum of three (3) Contractor and three (3) agency samples to evaluate the JMF, process control, and placement operations. Construct test strip on Shoulder, low volume segments of the pavement, or area approved by the Project Manager. Correct and modify non-complying placement operations and produce necessary process control adjustments. Develop a revised

JMF if necessary based on the results of the test strip. Production and placement operations prior to approval of the revised JMF and placement operations are at the Contractor’s risk.

For purposes of payment, the test strip will be evaluated in conformance with Section 416,

Minor Paving. If accepted, the test strip will have a pay factor of 1.0. If rejected, said material shall be handled in accordance with Section 424.3.6.1.3 Adherence to Specifications and

Rejection of Non-specification Material. Remove unaccepted test strip material placed within the Roadway Prism at no cost to the Department. If the Contractor disagrees with removing and replacing unacceptable material placed in test strips outside the Roadway Prism, the

Assistant District Engineer for Construction, based on engineering judgment, will decide if the material can remain in place with a maximum pay factor of 50%, or shall be removed and replaced at no cost to the Department. If the test strip is rejected, construct a subsequent test strip. Do not proceed to full production until an accepted test strip is produced. After the test strip is placed, continue to evaluate the mix properties and the JMF during the placement of the first two (2) sublots in the first lot. Changes may be made to either the JMF or the mix proportions and/or properties with the concurrence of the Assistant District Engineer for

Construction. For changes made prior to the completion of the first two (2) sublots, the adjustments will be applied to the entire lot for purposes of payment.

The Project Manager may waive test strip requirements for the Project, if requested by the Contractor based on prior experience with the JMF.

For QLA Projects, the Shakedown Period is defined as the first two (2) sublots produced in the first lot.

For Non-QLA Projects, the Shakedown Period is defined as the test strip. As the test strip is placed, evaluate the mix properties and the JMF. Changes may be made to either the

JMF or the mix proportions and/or properties with the concurrence of the Project Manager,

Assistant District Engineer for Construction and the State Asphalt Engineer.

424.3.6 Sampling and Testing

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Sample and test the aggregate production and WMA mixture in accordance with Section

901, Quality Control /Quality Assurance (QC/QA), and the Department’s “Minimum Testing

Requirements.” Department personnel may test locations other than the random locations generated for statistical analysis. These tests will not be used for pay factor determination, but may be used to determine Acceptance or rejection of localized material.

Administer a Quality Control Plan, referred to hereafter as “the Plan,” to provide a product in accordance with the Contract. Ensure the Plan conforms to Section 901.2, “Contractor

Quality Control.” Submit the Plan a minimum of two (2) weeks prior to commencement of crushing operations and at a minimum comply with “Contractor Quality Control Plan

Guidelines”. No WMA operations are allowed until the Quality Control Plan has been approved by the Project Manager and the District Lab Supervisor. Address changes in the

Job Mix Formula in conformance with Section 424.2.9.1, Job Mix Formula Adjustments.

The Plan shall do the following:

1. Address elements that affect the quality of the asphalt concrete including, but not limited to, the following:

1.2. Sampling and Testing;

1.3.1. Gradation,

1.3.2. Minus 200 wash,

1.3.5.

1.3.6.

Fine aggregate angularity,

Flat and elongated particles count, and

1.3.7. Fractured Face count.

1.4. RAP (if used)

1.5. Quality of components;

1.7. Proportioning;

1.7.1. Gradation,

1.7.2. Minus 200 wash,

1.7.5. Fine aggregate angularity,

1.7.6.

1.7.7.

Flat and elongated particles count, and

Fractured Face count.

1.8. Mixing, including addition of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material, and/or asphalt additive, if required;

1.9. Transporting;

1.10. Placing and finishing;

1.11. Joints;

1.12. Compaction;

1.13. Smoothness;

1.14. Plan Surfacing Depths;

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1.16. Corrective Action Processes; and

1.17. Proposed lot size and sublot size in accordance with Section 424.3.6.3 QLA.

For the properties listed in 1.3 above, specifically address the requirements of Table

424.2.2.1.2:1 in the Plan. Define planned corrective action if the requirements are not met.

1.3.1 and 1.3.2 are for informational purposes during aggregate production.

1.3.3 through 1.3.7, if three (3) consecutive tests fail, address what will change in production. Failure to adjust will result in ceasing operations until a corrective action plan is approved by the Project Manager.

For the properties listed in 1.7 above, specifically address the requirements of Table

424.2.2.1.2:1 in the Plan. Define planned corrective action if the requirements are not met.

1.7.1 and 1.7.2 are to be evaluated against the Job Mix Formula.

For properties listed in 1.7.3 through1.7.4, if any three (3) consecutive tests fail, the Contractor is to cease operations until a corrective plan is approved by the

Project Manager and implemented.

For properties listed in 1.7.5 through 1.7.7, any test failing by more than 5 percentage points, or if three (3) consecutive tests fail by an average of 0 to 5 percentage points, cease operations until a corrective plan is approved by the

Project Manager and implemented.

2. Employ sampling and testing personnel who are either under the direct supervision of a TTCP certified technician or who are themselves currently certified to perform the required Quality Control testing. Provide the Project Manager with a listing of all testing personnel that summarizes their TTCP certifications or, if they are not TTCP certified to perform a particular test, which TTCP certified technician is supervising their testing. Keep the Project Manager notified, by providing an updated listing, of any changes.

Provide testing Equipment that meets all applicable ASTM and AASHTO requirements to accomplish required sampling and testing. Establish a Laboratory for the Project separate and distinct from the Department’s Laboratory and Quality

Assurance facilities. Submit verification that all Quality Control and assurance testing Equipment meets the applicable standards and has been calibrated per the requirements of AASHTO R-18. Remove any Equipment that does not meet the applicable standards or calibration requirements.

On Projects designated as QLA Projects, sample and test WMA in accordance with

Section 901, “Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA).”

2.1. The Contractor is responsible for inspection performed at the crushing operations, hot mix plant and at the Contractor’s field Laboratory; using the

Laboratory test results and other Quality Control practices to ensure the quality of aggregate sources and other mix components. Adjust and control mix proportioning to meet the mix design. Be responsible for periodically inspecting all Equipment used in proportioning and mixing to ensure its proper operating condition and to ensure that proportioning and mixing is in conformance with the mix design and other requirements.

2.2. Be responsible for inspection, sampling, and testing performed at the paving site, ensuring that the delivered Materials meet Contract requirements and for periodically inspecting all Equipment used in transporting, placing, finishing, and compacting to ensure its proper operating condition. Ensure that placing, finishing, joint construction, compaction, and thickness, when required, are as specified.

3. Define and document the coordination of activities between the Contractor’s management and all Contractor testing personnel including the frequency of each type of test, the criteria used by the Contractor’s management and technicians to

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recognize deficiencies and reject or correct unacceptable Materials, and a description of proposed corrective actions.

4. In the Plan, describe, in detail, the proposed process control sampling and testing programs. Include the method by which random sampling locations are to be determined. Develop sample locations for process control tests so that the center of the sample is at least 12 inches from a joint or edge of the pavement layer.

If the WMA additive Supplier indicates that the additive makes mix properties time dependent; the plan must include how all of the required testing will be completed in the designated time frame. This plan will include how the Contractor will comply with the required testing within the Supplier specified time frames. It will also include how the Department will be supported, if necessary, to complete their tests within the time frame required if the testing cannot be performed at established Department facilities. This plan must be reviewed and approved by the Department’s Project Manager and by the District Laboratory Supervisor prior to the placement of any WMA on the Project. If the Job Mix Formula changes, it shall be addressed in conformance with Section 424.2.9.1, Job Mix Formula Adjustments.

424.3.6.1.1 Contractor Quality Control of Aggregate

Obtain samples in accordance with Section 901.2.4 Sampling. Take representative samples as required, either at the stockpile or after the aggregate material is combined but before the addition of hydrated lime or anhydrite based material and mixing with asphalt binder. Test these samples for conformance with the approved Job Mix Formula and:

(excluding RAP)

1. Gradation,

2. Minus 200 wash,

5. Fine aggregate angularity,

6. Flat and elongated particles count, and

7. Fractured Face count.

The Project Manager may sample and test the aggregate at any time during production or stockpiling, or may request to split samples with the Contractor. If testing indicates corrections are necessary, make corrections in conformance with the Plan. The Department will base evaluation of RAP aggregate in accordance with Section 424.2.7, “Reclaimed

Asphalt Pavement.”

424.3.6.1.2 Contractor Quality Control for Compaction

Monitor the compaction process by determining the density of the WMA with a portable densometer in accordance with the approved Quality Control Plan. Establish calibration of the portable densometer from cut pavement samples. Determine the density readings of the cut determine the density readings of the pavement with the portable densometer. Correlate these test results. Conduct Quality Control testing in accordance with Section 901, “Quality

Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA),” and provide test results to the Project Manager. Perform

Quality Control density testing while the asphalt mixture is hot enough to permit further compaction. Do not roll for compaction when it becomes ineffective or damages the WMA.

424.3.6.1.3 Adherence to Specifications and Rejection of Non-specification Material

Produce Material in compliance with all specification requirements. Evaluate test results for specification compliance and treatment of Material that does not meet Specifications in accordance with Section 424 in its entirety. All Material that is rejected shall, at the sole discretion of the Department, be removed and replaced with specification Material at the

Contractor’s expense.

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424.3.6.2 Department Quality Assurance

424.3.6.2.1 Acceptance

The Department will evaluate Materials for Acceptance in accordance with this section.

Sample and test the mixture and pavement on a statistically random basis in accordance with

Table 901.7:6, “Minimum Acceptance Guidelines.” The Project Manager may reject material that appears to be defective based on visual inspection.

Table 424.3.6.2.1:1

Acceptance Testing Tolerances a

Characteristic Specification limit, percentage points from

TV

Air Voids, %

Pavement Density % c

± 1.4

± 2.5

Hydrated Lime or Anhydrite Based Material

% f

Minimum of JMF Target Value

Voids in the Mineral Aggregate (VMA), % a,d

1.6

Asphalt Content % a,b

± 0.50 a

All gradation, Asphalt Content, VMA, and VFA values shall be determined using the

AASHTO T 308 testing results. b

WMA will not be rejected based on Asphalt Content Determined by AASHTO T 308 c

Density payment will be adjusted in accordance with Section 901.5 d

If Gmm fluctuates more than ±0.03 on a consistent basis, it is recommended that the Specific

Gravity of the aggregates be checked in order to verify VMA. e

If Hydrated Lime or Anhydrite Based Material is below Design TV cease hot mix production, investigate and correct.

424.3.6.2.1.1 Non-QLA

The Department will evaluate (QA) test results from Projects with Bid quantities less than

15,000 tons for specification compliance in accordance with the following procedures: If the mean of the test results for each property is within the Acceptance Tolerances as listed in

Table 424.3.6.2.1:1, “Acceptance Testing Tolerances,” the Material will be accepted at full

Contract price except that Roadway density will be adjusted in price in accordance with

Section 901.5, Quality Level Analysis. If the mean of the test results for any of the listed properties is outside of the tolerances as listed in Table 424.3.6.2.1:1, “Acceptance Testing

Tolerances,” then the Department will determine Acceptance of the Material in accordance with 901.1.3, “Acceptance Sampling and Testing,” and Section 901.5, “Quality Level Analysis.”

A composite pay factor of more than 1.00 is not allowed for Projects with Bid quantities less than 15,000 tons. Remove and replace rejected Material with specification Material at no additional cost to the Department.

424.3.6.2.1.1.1 Acceptance of Pavement Density

The target density for Acceptance of WMA will be 94.5% of the theoretical maximum density as determined from AASHTO T 209. For determination of maximum specific gravity, obtain and test a minimum of two (2) samples and ensure the Department obtains and tests a minimum of one (1) sample for each Day that the WMA is placed. Each individual density test value obtained must be from 92.0% to 97.0% of the theoretical maximum density.

To be prepared for dispute resolution, the Contractor is to provide one (1) additional core for each core tested by the Department for Acceptance of density. The additional core is to be from the same lot as the initial core and shall be generated from the random sample plan. If the Contractor believes the Department’s cut pavement samples have been damaged they

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may invoke Section 424.3.7 Dispute Resolution. The Referee Lab results will replace the initial core in determining pay factor. The Assistant District Engineer for Construction will make the final decision on accepting or rejecting material, based on the Referee Laboratory’s result(s) by:

1. Accepting the section or sublot if the density test falls between 92.0% - 97.0% ;

2. Determining that a portion, based on visual determination, or all of the Material in that section or sublot shall be removed or replaced at no additional cost to the

Department;

3. Determining that a portion, based on visual determination, of the Material in that section or sublot will be paid for at a 50% pay factor.

For purposes of Acceptance and pay factor determination, determine the density from cut pavement sections (cores) with 6-inch diameters extending through the full thickness of the

WMA. Determine the pay factor in accordance with Section 901.5, Quality Level Analysis.

Use a minimum of ten (10) cores to determine the pay factor, unless otherwise directed by the

Assistant District Engineer for Construction. Determine the theoretical maximum density using an average of the maximum specific gravity values obtained by the Department and the

Contractor the Day the core’s Material was placed. If a composite pay factor of more than

1.00 is calculated, the composite pay factor will be a 1.00 for the purposes of payment.

For Projects consisting of single lift overlays or mill and inlay with a single lift of two and a half inches or less, the Project Manager may grant an exception to the mean density target requirement of at least 94.5% of the theoretical maximum density if the Contractor can demonstrate that a minimum of 92.0% cannot be reasonably obtained because of the existing conditions of the Pavement Structure or Subgrade Materials. The Contractor demonstrates this by providing density results obtained during paving operations witnessed by a State

Inspector at the location in question. If the Project Manager grants this exemption, construct a

Roadway test strip and develop a WMA compaction process to get the highest possible density based on an approved roller’s density gain per pass, in accordance with Section

424.3.4.4, Compaction Equipment. The Project Manager will approve the process, establish a new target value for density and establish a new Acceptance lot only for the portion of the

Project addressed herein (except for the Roadway test strip) before paving begins or continues. Density shall not fall below 91%. If a lot does not meet either of the revised density requirements, the Project Manager will, with the concurrence of the Assistant District

Engineer for Construction, do the following:

1. Accept and pay for the lot of WMA at 50% of the Bid Item Unit Price; or

2. Reject the in-place material and require the Contractor to remove and replace.

424.3.6.3 QLA

On Projects with Bid quantities of 15,000 tons or more, the Department will determine

Acceptance of the Materials in accordance with Section 901.5, “Quality Level Analysis,” using the Acceptance limits in Table 424.3.6.2.1:1, “Acceptance Testing Tolerances”. Acceptance lots shall be between 15,000 tons and 30,000 tons, as determined at the pre-paving conference. Table 424.3.6.2.1:2 indicates properties that will be tracked for purposes of

Quality Assurance. For all QLA Projects, if a composite pay factor of more than 1.00 is calculated, the composite pay factor will be a 1.00 for the purposes of payment.

424.3.6.3.1 Acceptance of Pavement Density

The target density for Acceptance of WMA will be 94.5% of the theoretical maximum density as determined from AASHTO T 209. For determination of maximum specific gravity, obtain and test a minimum of two (2) samples and ensure the Department obtains and tests a minimum of one (1) sample for each Day that the WMA is placed, in accordance with the random sampling plan. Each individual density test value obtained must be from 92.0% to

97.0% of the theoretical maximum density.

For purposes of Acceptance and pay factor determination, determine the density from cut pavement sections (cores) with 6-inch diameters extending through the full thickness of the

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WMA. Determine the pay factor in accordance with Section 901.5, Quality Level Analysis.

Use a minimum of ten (10) cores to determine the pay factor, unless otherwise directed by the

Assistant District Engineer for Construction. To be prepared for dispute resolution, the

Contractor is to provide one (1) additional core for each core tested by the Department for

Acceptance of density. The additional core is to be from the same lot as the initial core and shall be generated from the random sample plan. If the Contractor or Department believes the

Department’s cut pavement samples have been damaged they may invoke Section 424.3.7

Dispute Resolution. The Referee Lab results will replace the initial core in determining pay factor. Determine the theoretical maximum density using an average of the maximum specific gravity values obtained by the Department and the Contractor the Day the core’s Material was placed. If a composite pay factor of more than 1.00 is calculated, the composite pay factor will be a 1.00 for the purposes of payment.

For Projects consisting of single lift overlays or mill and inlay with a single lift of two and a half inches or less, the Project Manager may grant an exception to the mean density target requirement of at least 94.5% of the theoretical maximum density if the Contractor can demonstrate that a minimum of 92.0% cannot be reasonably obtained because of the existing conditions of the Pavement Structure or Subgrade Materials. The Contractor demonstrates this by providing non-destructive density results obtained during paving operations witnessed by a State Inspector at the location in question. If the Project Manager grants this exemption, construct a Roadway test strip and develop a WMA compaction process to get the highest possible density based on an approved roller’s density gain per pass, in accordance with

Section 424.3.4.4, Compaction Equipment. The Project Manager will approve the process, establish a new target value for density and establish a new Acceptance lot only for the portion of the Project addressed herein (except for the Roadway test strip) before paving begins or continues. Density shall not fall below 91%. If a lot does not meet either of the revised density requirements, the Project Manager will, with the concurrence of the Assistant District

Engineer for Construction, do the following:

1. Accept and pay for the lot of WMA at 50% of the Bid Item Unit Price; or

2. Reject the in-place material and require the Contractor to remove and replace at no cost to the Department.

The Department will perform Independent Assurance sampling and testing in accordance with Section 901.3, “Independent Assurance Testing.”

For any test incorporated into the pay factor, if a dispute exists between the Department and the Contractor about the validity of the test result, either party may invoke a referee lab.

The State Asphalt Engineer will maintain a list of labs that are willing and capable of performing referee testing. All referee labs shall be AASHTO Materials Reference Laboratory

(AMRL) certified for the test(s) to be performed. Neither the Department’s Project staff, nor the Contractor will know who is performing the referee testing. The State Asphalt Engineer will select a Laboratory, without disclosing the name of the lab to Department Project

Personnel or Contractor personnel, from the following, not in priority order:

1. A District Laboratory not from the District in which the Project resides; or

2. A private Laboratory currently listed on the State Material’s Bureau’s list of approved private labs not involved in the subject Project in any manner, such as mix design submittal, preliminary testing for design, etc. Only laboratories that are in the routine business of providing testing and designs will be considered. Contractor owned laboratories will not be allowed.

When a referee lab is used, the referee lab’s test results will be used in determining the pay factor. The referee lab must be invoked in writing within ten (10) Calendar Days of receiving the test results from the other party. If not invoked within ten (10) Calendar Days, the test results are deemed accepted. The results will be used to determine pay factors. The

Department’s prior test results or the Contractor’s prior test results for the test in question will

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be discarded. If the composite pay factor decreases from applying the referee lab’s results, the Contractor shall pay for the testing performed by the referee lab. If the composite pay factor increases from applying the referee lab’s results, the Department will pay for the testing performed by the referee lab. If the composite pay factor remains unchanged, the cost shall be split with each party responsible for 50% of the total cost.

For all testing incorporated into the pay factor, each party shall generate an additional sample from the Department’s Acceptance Samples and the Contractor’s Quality Control

Samples used in pay factor analysis. Failure to provide the referee samples prior to testing the initial sample will result in the Project Manager suspending the Project at no cost to the

Department. Additional time will not be added to the Contract for Project suspension caused by failure to comply with Dispute Resolution Process. Work shall not resume until the

Contractor provides the delayed sample(s) and satisfies the Project Manager, in writing, that future samples will be provided in compliance with this requirement. The extra sample(s) is

(are) to be retained by the Department. The Department will retain the samples at the Project location inside a locked cargo container, provided by the Contractor at no cost to the State.

The State will provide the lock for the cargo container. Once the pay factor is determined dispose of the unused samples at no cost to the Department. In no case will the unused samples be disposed of prior to the ten (10) Calendar Day period in which the Dispute

Resolution process may be invoked. .For Pavement Density, the Contractor shall provide an additional core only for each core provided to the Department for Acceptance. The additional core will be stored and retained in the provided container. Should the Contractor invoke the

Dispute Resolution Process for Density, the second core will be provided to the Referee Lab.,

The density pay factor for the material in question will be based solely on the Referee Lab result, not including Department or Contractor results.

Failure to comply with the requirements contained herein will result in the pay factor being calculated in accordance with the applicable Sections of 424, Superpave (QLA and Non-

QLA), and 901, Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA). No test results will be replaced by referee results.

424.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

If the Department measures WMA by the square yard, the Department will use the average width of the WMA in place and the length from station to station along the centerline of the Roadway when calculating quantities.

424.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

WMA Complete Ton or Square Yard

WMA Ton or Square Yard

The Department will pay for accepted quantities at the Bid Item Unit Price, adjusted in accordance with Section 424.5.1, “Price Adjustments.” Providing and transporting all cores, samples and storage containers shall be Incidental to the Pay Items above.

424.5.1 Price Adjustments

424.5.1.1 Projects with Bid Quantities of 15,000 Tons or Greater

The Department will pay for accepted quantities of WMA or WMA Complete at the Bid

Item Unit Price, adjusted in accordance with Section 901.5, “Quality Level Analysis.” The

WMA will be evaluated on a lot-by-lot basis at a price determined by multiplying the Bid Item

Unit Price by the weighting factor. The Department will use Table 424.5.1.1:1, “Weighting

Factors,” to calculate each lot’s composite pay factor. The pay factor for the entire Project will be calculated by applying weighted averages, based on tonnage contained within each lot, to each lot’s composite pay factor. If the composite pay factor for a lot is greater than 1.0, the pay factor will be set at 1.0.

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Table 424.5.1.1:1

Weighting Factors

Mat Density 35

Air voids

Voids in the mineral aggregate (VMA)

35

20

Asphalt Content* 10

*If the individual pay factor for asphalt content is less than 0.75, it will be set at 0.75 for the purpose of calculating payment.

424.5.1.2 Projects with Bid Quantities Less than 15,000 Tons

The Department will pay for accepted quantities of WMA or WMA Complete at the Bid

Item Unit Price if the mean of the test results for each property is within the testing tolerances as listed in Table 424.3.6.2.1:1, “Acceptance Testing Tolerances.” If the mean of the test results for any of the listed properties is outside of the testing tolerances as listed in

Table 424.3.6.2.1:1, “Acceptance Testing Tolerances,” then the Department will determine the price adjustment for the Material in accordance with the Department’s Price Reduction

Procedures current at the time of the Project letting. In no case will the pay factor be greater than1.00.

424.5.1.2.1 Price Adjustment for Pavement Density (Bid Quantities Less than 15,000

Tons)

The Department will also adjust the Bid Item Unit Price for the WMA or WMA Complete

Pay Item, based on the Roadway density, in accordance with Section 901, Quality

Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA), specifically Section 901.5, Quality Level Analysis steps one (1) through nine (9). If the density pay factor for a lot is greater than 1.0, the composite pay factor will be set at 1.0 for purposes of payment. The Department will apply the price adjustments to the WMA Bid Item Unit Prices for each lot.

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SECTION 450: PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT (PCCP) (QLA)

450.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of constructing Portland cement concrete pavement (PCCP) on a prepared Subgrade, Base Course or HMA/WMA.

450.2 MATERIALS

Portland cement, air-entraining admixtures, chemical admixtures, mineral pozzolans, water, and aggregate will meet the requirements of Section 509, "Portland Cement Concrete."

450.2.1 Dowels and Tie Bars

Dowels and tie bars will meet the applicable requirements of Section 540.2, "Steel

Reinforcement Materials."

450.2.2 Joint Sealing Material

Joint sealing material will meet the requirements of Section 452, "Sealing and Resealing

Concrete Pavement Joints."

Use curing compound that complies with the requirements of AASHTO M 148 for Class

2, Type 1-D or Type 2 pigmented curing compounds.

450.2.4 Sheet Materials for Curing and Protecting Concrete

Sheet Materials for protecting concrete will meet the requirements of AASHTO M 171.

The Contractor shall only use the white reflective type.

450.3.1 Proportioning

Use a Class F-LS concrete mix that has been reviewed and approved in accordance with

Section 509 by the State Concrete Engineer. If the concrete is not slip-formed, an approved

Class AA-HPD concrete mix shall be used instead of Class F.

Mix and place all concrete in accordance with Section

Requirements.”

Use a concrete mix that has been approved for use in the Freeze-Thaw zone, as defined in Section 509.2.8.2, “Freeze-Thaw Risk Zones” in which the Project is located.

Keep a copy of the approved mix design available on the jobsite when using the concrete mix.

450.3.2 Equipment

Use batching plants and Equipment that meet the requirements of Section 510.3.2.1,

“Batching Plant.”

450.3.2.2 Mixers

Use mixers that meet the requirements of Section 510.3.2.6, "Mixing."

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450.3.2.3 Transporting

Use truck mixers, truck agitators or non-agitating trucks that comply with Section 510.3.2,

“Transporting.”

Place the concrete with an approved slip-form paver designed to spread, consolidate screed, float, and finish the concrete in one (1) complete pass to create a dense and homogeneous pavement. Minimize the use of hand finishing.

The vibrators of the slip-form paver must be located behind the auger. Do not use pavers with vibrators in front of the auger.

Equip slip-form pavers with internal vibrators that meet or exceed the following

Specifications at 10,000 cycles per minute (cpm) under no-load conditions:

1. Amplitude (peak to peak) = 0.070 inch; and

2. Centrifugal force = 1,200 lb

Equip the slip-form paver with an electronic monitoring device capable of the following:

1. Displaying the operating frequency of each internal vibrator;

2. Continuously recording at a minimum the following: a. Time of Day, c. Paver track speed, and d. Operating frequency of each vibrator.

Store all information captured by the electronic monitoring system throughout the Project.

This information is to be used only for Project information by the Department, and will be provided to the Project Manager at his request during the course of the Project and at the completion of the Project.

Position the vibrators no further apart than the manufacturer’s recommendations for horizontal spacing of the vibrators; but do not exceed 18 inches, center-to-center. Ensure that the space from the outer edge of the pavement to the center of the outside vibrator does not exceed nine (9) inches, or ½ the maximum recommended spacing, whichever is less.

450.3.2.5 Concrete Jointing Equipment

Provide enough sawing Equipment and/or joint insertion Equipment to complete the Work within the allotted time. The Contractor may use a water-cooled diamond edge saw blade, an abrasive wheel, an “early entry dry cut” type with a skid plate, as defined by ACI 302 or a control joint insertion system approved by the Project Manager and State Materials Bureau.

Provide at least one (1) additional saw or insertion tool in good working order. Keep an ample supply of saw blades (and skid plates, if the "early entry dry cut" saws are used) at the Work site during sawing operations.

450.3.2.6 Curing Compound Application Equipment

Apply curing compounds with Equipment that uses a pressure tank or pump. Ensure that the Equipment has a feed tank agitator that provides continuous agitation of the compound during spraying operations. Use a nozzle that contains enough air to thoroughly atomize the compound.

450.3.3 Operations

For slip-form paving, construct the Subgrade of sufficient width to accommodate the slipform Equipment.

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Provide enough lateral support to construct the section in accordance with the Contract.

Maintain the smoothness and compaction of the Base Course in the specified condition until the concrete placement is completed.

Moisten untreated aggregate base layer, if used, before paving.

450.3.3.1 Handling, Measuring, Batching, and Mixing Materials

Handle, measure, batch, and mix the Materials in accordance with Section 510, "Portland

Cement Concrete." The maximum mixing time for either truck mixers or non-agitating mixers is specified in Section 510.3.4.2, “Mixing Time."

450.3.3.2 Placing, Spreading, and Consolidating Concrete

Place concrete with the specified thickness along the full width of the lane or area being paved. Prevent segregation and minimize redistribution. Place the concrete continuously between transverse joints without using intermediate bulkheads.

When using dowel baskets do not end-dump the concrete directly onto the dowel baskets. The Contractor may use end-dumps to transfer the concrete to the Equipment designed to place it completely across the grade. Do not windrow the concrete.

When placing concrete adjacent to a newly constructed PCCP lane, do not operate

Equipment or traffic on the lane until the concrete has achieved a compressive strength of at least 3,000 psi, as determined by the Maturity Method, as described in Section 510.3.5.2.

When working on existing pavement, use Equipment with protective pads on crawler tracks or rubber-tire wheels. Set the crawler tracks or rubber-tire wheels far enough from the pavement edge to prevent damage to the pavement.

Use a slip-form paver that complies with Section 450.3.2.4 to distribute the concrete uniformly. Vibrate the full width and depth of the concrete to produce maximum consolidation without segregation. Ensure that the vibration produces uniform concrete that will stand normal to the surface with sharp well-defined edges.

Coordinate concrete mixing, delivering, and spreading operations in order to provide uniform progress and to eliminate stopping and starting the paver. If it is necessary to stop the paver, also stop the vibratory and tamping elements immediately. Do not apply external tractive force to the machine: the machine must be propelled only by its own mechanisms.

For paving operations that are not slip formed, the Contractor will place Class AA-HPD concrete pavement between stationary side forms. Consolidate the concrete by internal vibration and finish it to the required surface smoothness using the hand-float method or other suitable means. Cure the concrete with approved methods.

Leave wood or metal forms in place at least 12 hours after placing the concrete. If necessary, take additional efforts to prevent thermal cracking of the concrete. Clean and oil the forms each time they are used. Apply a curing compound to the concrete surfaces exposed by removal of the forms immediately after removing the forms.

Check the form’s alignment and grade elevations and make the necessary corrections before placing the concrete. If a form is disturbed or if the Base Course under a form becomes unstable, reset and recheck the form, as directed by the Project Manager.

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450.3.3.3 Temperature and Weather Limitations

Temperature and weather limitations are defined in Section 511.3.4, "Temperature and

Weather Limitations." Keep the concrete temperature between 50 °F to 90 °F at the time of placement. In addition for cold weather placement refer to Section 511.3.3.1 “Cold Weather

Concrete.”

450.3.3.4 Rate of Evaporation Limitations

The Contractor shall continuously monitor the evaporation potential at a height not to exceed 5 feet above the surface of the concrete as determined from Figure 511.3.3.5:1,

"Surface Evaporation from Concrete" at the actual placement location. Computerized

Equipment, furnished by the Contractor, is set to automatically take the required readings shall be used for this purpose. Readings shall be taken at least once every 5 minutes beginning at least 15 minutes before the placement begins, and continuing until the final application of the curing compound has been completed. All readings shall be graphically plotted on a continuous time scale.

Do not place (or continue to place) PCCP if the average evaporation potential over any

10 minute period of time is greater than 0.2 lb per square foot per hour. If the evaporation exceeds the 0.15 lb per square foot per hour, one (1) or more of the following actions shall be implemented to reduce the rate of evaporation, as approved by the Project Manager:

1. Use an evaporation retarder (If used, this cannot be used as a finishing aide);

2. Erect windbreaks to reduce the wind velocity over the concrete surface.

3. Place concrete during nighttime or early morning hours.

4. Lower the fresh concrete temperature during hot weather. This can be accomplished by using cool aggregate and chilled water, by adding ice as part of the mixing water, or by adding liquid nitrogen to the concrete mix after all mix ingredients have been placed into the ready mix truck.

5. Increase the relative humidity at the site with a fog spray maintained over the entire concrete surface until the final finish has been achieved and the curing system has been applied.

450.3.3.5 Change in Atmospheric Conditions

During marginal weather placement of any PCCP by the Contractor is at his own risk.

Repair or replace concrete that is determined to be damaged due to weather conditions by the

Assistant District Engineer (Construction), at no additional cost to the Department.

450.3.4 Joints

Submit the proposed joint layout plan in .pdf format to the Project Manager, State

Pavement Engineer and the State Materials Bureau for review and approval at least four (4) weeks before starting concrete slab construction. The proposed joint layout plan shall have the lane markings clearly depicted. Attempts shall be made in the submitted jointing plan for mainline paving not to place longitudinal joints in the wheel path. After receiving the recommendations and/or responses from the State Pavement Engineer and from the State

Materials Bureau, the Project Manager will either approve or reject the submittal within 10

Working Days from the date of submittal.

Construct joints at the locations, intervals, and dimensions shown in the approved joint layout plan, and seal them in accordance with Section 452, "Sealing and Resealing Concrete

Pavement Joints." Ensure no re-entrant corners. For typical slabs the longitudinal joint spacing shall not exceed 12 feet and the transverse joint spacing shall not exceed 15 feet.

The maximum slab length-to-width ratio shall not be greater than 1.25:1 for the primary traveled lanes and longitudinal joints shall be placed within the lane stripe or as approved by the Project Manager and NMDOT Pavement Engineer. Avoid tapered joints if possible. If a tapered joint is formed, place a control joint at:

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1. One-half the distance between the end of the taper and the opposite end, if the base leg is less than or equal to ten (10) ft and longer than five (5) ft; or

2. Third points along the base leg, if the base leg is longer than ten (10) ft.

3. No slabs will have angles less than 60 degrees.

4. Joints shall be “dog-legged” through curve radius points. Dog leg should be at least

24 inches in length to the radius point.

5. Construct joint faces perpendicular to the PCCP surface.

Install dowels at any joints added to control cracking in exactly the same way as the standard joints.

Construct transverse and longitudinal contraction joints by inserting control joints while the concrete is still plastic, or by sawing the freshly hardened concrete as soon as possible after placing it. Make the initial sawcut at least one third the pavement depth. Do not allow the saw to cut so deep that any reinforcement is damaged.

Begin sawing of the joints as soon as possible after the concrete has hardened enough to permit a person to stand on the surface without leaving visible tracks or indentations. All sawcutting must be completed no later than four (4) hours after the concrete has hardened enough that a person can stand on the surface without leaving visible tracks or indentations.

In all cases, regardless of setting characteristics, all sawcutting must be completed before the concrete is seven (7) hours old.

Make transverse contraction and longitudinal joints in two-phases. Make the initial saw cut or inserted joint wide enough and deep enough to ensure that a sufficiently weakened cross-section exists, but not less than 1/3 the thickness of the concrete. Make the second sealant reservoir-shaping saw cut in accordance with the details shown in the Plans. Do not damage the steel reinforcement with any saw cut.

All PCCP panels containing uncontrolled cracks shall be removed and replaced at no cost or additional time to the Department. The Project shall not be granted final Acceptance until all panels containing uncontrolled cracks have been removed and replaced.

Change saw blades (and the skid plates, when using the early entry dry cut method) as often as required to control and minimize spalling. Maintain a sufficient supply of replacement saw blades and skid plates at the Project site to insure that the sawing operations will proceed without interruption until completed.

Saw joints sequentially. However, the Contractor may saw control transverse joints at intervals shown in the Contract, or at intervals that will most effectively minimize the possibility of uncontrolled cracking.

If necessary, perform the sawing operations Day and night, regardless of weather conditions. Do not saw a joint if a crack occurs at or near the joint location before sawing.

Immediately discontinue sawing of a joint when a crack develops ahead of the saw.

Place tie bars perpendicular to the longitudinal joints using approved Equipment, or secure the joints with chairs or baskets. Do not place tie bars within 15 inches of transverse joints. Only paint or coat tie bars if it is necessary to repair the corrosion-resistant coating.

The combined width of all concrete slabs tied together shall be not more than 40 feet.

Should the tie bars be found to be closer than one (1) inch to the bottom of the sawed joint, or closer than two (2) inches to the bottom of the slab, or if the spacing between tie bars is found to be greater than 30 inches, the Contractor shall cease paving operations until it can be successfully demonstrated that the required tolerances will be met. The control joint shall

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then be made by sawing in hardened concrete in accordance with the plan details and with

Section 450.3.4.

Use a two-part threaded tie bar and splice coupler system, or bend the tie bars, unless otherwise directed by the Project Manager. Only bend tie bars made of Grade 420 steel.

Bend tie bars at right angles against the form of the first lane constructed and then straighten them into final position before placing the concrete of the adjacent lane.

If construction of PCCP abuts existing pavement, drill the holes at mid-depth of the thinner slab. Drill the face of the existing PCCP to accept half of the tie bar length. Ensure that the drill holes are a diameter that provides a close fit for the tie bars to be epoxied into the drill holes. Construct joints with tie bars as shown on the Plans.

Construct transverse contraction joints with load transfer devices (dowels). Hold dowels in position parallel to the surface and centerline of the slab with chairs or other approved supports as approved by the Project Manager. Submit shop drawings of the welded dowel assemblies to the Project Manager for approval by State Pavement Engineer. Do not place concrete until the Department approves the welded dowel assemblies.

Dowel bars shall be installed within the tolerances and of the size, grade and spacing specified. Horizontal support wires or shipping braces shall be non-deformed bars or wires with a diameter less than or equal to 0.307 inches (gauge 0 wire). The number of horizontal support wires or shipping braces shall be limited to a maximum of five (5) per assembly. The center of the dowel assembly or insertion location shall be marked on both sides of the pavement slab for reference in sawing the joint. Dowel bars shall be furnished in a rigid welded assembly or, when the Contractor demonstrates that the placement can be made within required tolerances, placed by a dowel insertion machine. Assembly should be securely fastened to the base/subbase and constructed to firmly hold all the centerline of all dowel bars at T/2 depth with a minimum of three (3) inches cover, parallel to each other and to the pavement grade and alignment. See Detail indicated in the Contract Plans or standard

Plan serials for the applicable section. Dowel placement tolerances are:

Horizontal translation = two (2) inches

Horizontal Skew = 3/8 inch

Vertical Translation = 1/4 inch

Vertical Skew = 3/8 inch

Longitudinal Side Shift/Translation = one (1) inch

The Contractor is responsible for ensuring that the dowels remain properly aligned and in the proper locations before and during the placing procedure. Do not cut the tie wires holding the baskets together before placing the concrete.

Thoroughly and uniformly coat each dowel and each tie wire along its full length with an approved form release agent not more than twelve (12) hours before concrete placement. Do not use grease to lubricate the dowels. If the concrete placement is postponed or delayed the dowels will be re-coated.

450.3.4.3 Transverse Construction Joints

Make construction joints with approved corrosion resistant dowels. Use a dowel size and spacing that is adequate for the joint, and is approved by the Project Manager.

If construction of PCCP abuts existing pavement, drill the holes at mid-depth of the thinner slab. Drill the face of the existing PCCP to accept half of the dowel length.

Do not construct a transverse construction joint within five (5) foot of a control joint or weakened plane. If concrete placement stops, the final slab must measure at least five

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(5) foot. If the final slab is less than five (5) foot, remove the excess concrete to the preceding joint, as directed by the Project Manager. Unanticipated construction joints need to be tied.

The Contractor is responsible for preventing uncontrolled cracking and/or loss of pavement durability by whatever means necessary, including but not limited to placing construction joints and/or contraction joints wherever necessary.

450.3.4.4 Final Location of Dowels and Tie Bars

Within 72 hours of concrete placement confirm that the final location of the transverse dowel bars and the longitudinal tie bars comply with the specified location and placement tolerances for every transverse joint and longitudinal joint in the first 120 linear feet of paving, or as otherwise specified. Equipment used to determine the final location shall be a Magnetic

Tomography (i.e.: MIT Scan 2) or Magnetic Field Detection (i.e.: Hilti Ferroscan FS 10) or

Ground Penetrating Radar equipped with dual side-by-side antennas or approved equal approved by the Project Manager and State Concrete Engineer.

If all of the dowels and tie bars are properly located and aligned on the first 120 linear feet, then the frequency used to confirm the final location of the dowels can be reduced to one

(1) randomly selected longitudinal and transverse joint for within each 1000 linear feet for the duration of the Project and/or as directed by the Project Manager. Paving can only proceed when all surveyed steel and dowels are confirmed by the Project Manager to be in proper location for each 1000 foot increment.

1. If the dowel bars or the tie bars do not comply with the Project Requirements, then all placement of concrete must stop until the Contractor can provide a corrective action plan to ensure the dowel bars and the tie bars are located in accordance with

Project requirements. At the discretion of the Assistant District Engineer for

Construction, either remove and replace the dowels and/or tie bars that do not comply with this specification or allow the non-complying bars to remain at a reduced price determined by the Assistant District Engineer. Do not resume placement of concrete operations until approved by the Assistant District Engineer

(Construction) in concurrence with the State Pavement Engineer and State

Concrete Engineer. When the placement operations are resumed, the final location of the dowel bars and tie bars shall be confirmed in accordance with Paragraph 1 above.

The Contractor will be responsible for providing the appropriate Equipment and qualified personnel to provide the specified test and report to the Project Manager. This Work will be

Incidental to concrete pavement.

450.3.5 Finishing

After the concrete has been discharged from the truck, no additional water will be added to the concrete.

Provide a final surface finish that complies with the Project requirements for MRI, measured in accordance with Section 401 “Pavement Smoothness Measurement.”

Correct pavement edge slumping (exclusive of specified edging) in excess of ¼ inch before the concrete hardens. If edge slump exceeds ¼ inch within 10 feet, or less, of hardened concrete, replace the entire panel between the transverse and longitudinal joints.

Before the concrete’s initial set, work the edges and joints with the appropriate tools to produce a well-defined and continuous radius with a smooth and dense mortar finish that is not segregated nor prematurely sealed. Minimize disturbance of the slab surface during finishing operations. It is the Contractor’s responsibility not to over-work the surface of the fresh concrete. Any plastic shrinkage cracks that occur shall be repaired or replaced at the discretion of the Project Manager at no cost in time or money to the department.

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Thoroughly clean the sawed area and, after completion of the sawing process. Seal the joint immediately, if required by the Project Manager.

Give the pavement a final wearing surface by tining or grooving as required in Section

450.3.5.1 “Texturing of PCCP.”

When tining, use a mechanical device such as a wire broom or comb having a single row of tines 1/8 inch +/-1/64 inch width. The depth of groove in the plastic concrete shall be 1/8 inch +/- 1/16 inch. Tining will be Longitudinal unless otherwise specified in the Contract.

Longitudinal Tining: The tines shall be uniformly spaced at ¾ inch intervals. Use

Equipment with horizontal and vertical controls to ensure straight, uniform depth grooves. A two (2) inch to three (3) inch wide strip of pavement surface shall be protected from longitudinal surface grooving for the length of and centered over the longitudinal joint.

Transverse Tining: The tines shall be randomly spaced from 3/8 inch to 1 5/8 inch with no more than 50% of the spacing exceeding one (1) inch. Leave a four (4) inch to six (6) inch wide un-tined strip of pavement surface centered over each transverse joint.

Perform the tining operation at such time and manner that the desired surface texture will be achieved while minimizing displacement of the larger aggregate particles and before the surface permanently sets. Where abutting pavement is to be placed, the texturing shall extend as close to the edge as possible without damaging the edge. If abutting pavement is not to be placed, the six (6) inch area nearest the edge or one (1) foot from the face of the curb shall not be textured. All uniform width slabs of 20 feet or narrower and less than 600 feet in length, as well as mainline and ramp pavement during Equipment breakdowns, may be textured by hand methods.

When diamond grooving is specified or allowed in the Contract Plans, allow concrete to cure, but no sooner than 48 hours groove the surface of the concrete in accordance with

Section 455, "Diamond Grinding and Grooving of Portland Concrete Cement Pavement."

Unless otherwise approved by the Project Manager, make grooves as required by the Project

Specifications.

Stamp the concrete surface near the right hand edge of the panel at the start and end of paving each Day, indicating the date, month, and year of placement.

Stamp the concrete surface at 500-foot intervals near the right-hand edge of the pavement indicating the Roadway station.

450.3.5.2 Protection of Fresh Concrete

To protect the fresh concrete from unanticipated storm events, keep enough waterproof sheeting at the placement location to cover the maximum anticipated amount of pavement that can be placed in a three (3)-hour period. Reserve this sheeting exclusively to protect the pavement.

450.3.5.3 Surfacing Smoothness Requirements

Test the longitudinal smoothness of the PCCP finished surface in each through traffic lane and passing lane with an approved Profile, in accordance with Section 401, "Pavement

Smoothness Measurement."

The Department will exclude the following locations from the Profiler measurement.

Evaluate them using a straightedge in accordance with Section 401, "Pavement Smoothness

Measurement."

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1. Shoulders, ramps, tapers, holding lanes, turn-outs, Medians, concrete pavement slab removal and replacement Projects, intersections not paved integrally with the mainline, and other non-mainline pavement.

Measure the surface of PCCP not subject to Profiler measurements using an approved

10-foot straightedge at both right angles and parallel to the centerline. Correct surface deviations greater than ¼ inch within ten (10) feet.

450.3.6 Curing

Begin application of the approved curing system as soon as possible after the concrete is placed.

Do not wait until the bleed water has disappeared.

Do not wait until all of the concrete has been placed if the curing system can be applied sooner.

No further finishing operations shall be performed after the curing system has been applied.

Ensure that the entire surface of the newly placed concrete has been completely covered by applying the approved curing system at the earliest opportunity.

The use of an Evaporation Retarder is permitted. The Evaporation Retarder must be used in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s directions. Once the Evaporation Retarder has been evenly applied to the concrete, do not touch or finish any portion of the coated concrete until it is ready for the final surfacing treatment. The Evaporation Retarder may not be used as a finishing aide or in any manner to facilitate finishing the surface of the concrete.

450.3.6.1 Application of Curing Compound

Before placing the curing compound in the spray tank, thoroughly agitate it with compressed air, or other approved means, until the pigments in the original container are uniformly suspended. Do not dilute or alter the curing compound in any way.

Place the curing compound directly into the spray tanks from the manufacturer’s original containers bearing the manufacturer’s name, brand, and lot number.

If, because of cold temperature, the curing compound becomes too viscous for proper stiffening or application, or if portions of the curing compound have been precipitated from solution, follow the manufacturer’s recommendations to restore proper fluidity and dispersion.

Apply curing compound to the entire area of the exposed concrete surface with an approved mechanical spray machine. Protect the fog spray from the wind with an adequate shield and apply uniformly until it completely covers the entire surface without gaps or openings in the coverage, at an application rate equal or greater than the minimum rate recommended by the manufacturer. Provide the actual rate of application to the Project

Manager. Immediately reapply the curing compound over any control joints that were cut through previously applied coatings of curing compound.

If rain falls on freshly applied curing compound before it has dried enough to resist damage, or if the surface is otherwise damaged, apply an additional coat of curing compound.

Protect the applied curing compound areas from automobile and pedestrian traffic for at least 7 Calendar Days, or the concrete has achieved an in-place compressive strength of 3000 psi, as determined by the Maturity Method.

450.3.6.2 Use of Sheeting Materials

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When chosen, place sheeting Materials over the pavement immediately after completing finishing operations.

Place the sheeting so that individual sheets overlap at least 24 inches. Weigh down the overlapped areas with earth or boards to prevent movement by the wind. Extend the sheeting to completely cover the edges of the pavement, and the surface of the Subgrade to a distance of at least 12 inches beyond the edge of the pavement and secure them to the Subgrade with a continuous bank of earth or surfacing material.

Protect sheeting from damage and keep in place for at least 7 Calendar Days or until the compressive strength has reached 3000 psi, as determined by the Maturity Method.

Immediately patch holes in the sheeting.

450.3.8 Protections from and Opening to Traffic

Protect new pavement against public traffic and operational and employee traffic.

Provide personnel to direct traffic. Erect and maintain warning signs, lights, pavement

Bridges, or crossovers in accordance with the Contract’s traffic control requirements.

Do not open to traffic for a least seven (7) Calendar Days or until the concrete has reached a compressive strength of 3,000 psi as determined by the Maturity Method, in accordance with Section 510.3.4.2.2 In-Place Concrete Strength Measurements," unless the

Project Manager directs otherwise.

Clean the pavement of loose Materials and debris before opening to traffic.

Sample and test the aggregate production and PCC mixture in accordance with Section

901, Quality Control /Quality Assurance (QC/QA), and the Department’s “Minimum Testing

Requirements for QLA Portland Cement Concrete Pavement”. Department personnel may test locations other than the random locations generated for statistical analysis. These tests will not be used for pay factor determination, but may be used to determine Acceptance or rejection of localized material.

450.3.10.1 Contractor Quality Control

Administer a Quality Control Plan, referred to hereafter as “the plan” to provide a product in accordance with the Contract. Ensure the plan conforms to Section 901.2, "Contractor

Quality Control." Submit the Plan a minimum of two (2) weeks prior to PCCP pre-placement meeting and at a minimum comply with the “Contractor Quality Control Plan Guidelines”. The

“Contractor Quality Control Plan Guidelines” are available from the Project Manager or State

Construction Bureau. No PCCP operations are allowed until the Plan has been approved by the Project Manager and District Lab Supervisor.

Ensure the plan addresses all elements that affect the quality of the portland cement concrete paving, including but not limited to:

3. Quality of components;

5. batching;

6. Mixing;

7. Transporting;

8. Placing;

9. Vibration and consolidation;

10. Finishing;

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11. Joints;

12. Smoothness;

13. Thickness;

15. Rumble strips if required; and

16. Non Destructive Testing Methods (including Project calibration process).

Make sure the plan identifies personnel responsible for sampling and testing of PCCP, and how to contact them at any time. Make sure that qualified sampling and testing personnel perform PCCP sampling and testing in accordance with Section 901, "Quality Control/Quality

Assurance (QC/QA)." Provide at least two (2) qualified technicians, as follows:

1. The Process Control Technician (PCT) is responsible for performing inspection, sampling, and testing at the concrete batching facility and at the Contractor’s field

Laboratory. The PCT shall use Laboratory test results and other Quality Control practices to assure the quality of aggregate sources and other mix components, and adjust and control mix proportioning to meet the mix designs. The PCT shall periodically inspect Equipment used in proportioning and mixing to assure its proper operating condition and to assure that the Contractor performs proportioning and mixing in accordance with the mix design and other requirements.

2. The Quality Control Technician (QCT) is responsible for inspection, sampling, and testing at the paving site. The QCT shall assure that the delivered Materials comply with the requirements of the Contract. The QCT shall periodically inspect

Equipment used to transport, place, and finish the concrete to assure its proper operating condition, and to assure that the Contractor provides a final constructed product in accordance with the Contract.

The plan must coordinate and document the activities of the PCT and QCT. This includes the frequencies for each test, the criteria to reject or correct unsatisfactory Materials, and a description of what corrective actions can be taken, and how and when the actions will be initiated.

The plan will detail the sampling and testing programs, including methods to determine and apply random sampling locations. Perform sampling and testing in accordance with

Table 901.7:3, "Minimum Process Control Guidelines, Aggregates and Base Courses," and

Table 901.7:5, "Minimum Process Control Guidelines, Portland Cement Concrete Pavement."

450.3.10.2 Department Quality Assurance

450.3.10.2.1 Acceptance

Sample and test the material on a statistically random basis in accordance with

Section 901, "Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA)." See Table 901.7:6, "Minimum

Acceptance Guidelines," for Acceptance guidelines. The Department will determine

Table 450.3.10.2.1:1, “Acceptance Limits.”

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Table 450.3.10.2.1:1

Acceptance Limits

Specification limits, from TV Characteristic

Entrained air (from the appropriate

Freeze/Thaw Risk Zone) ± 1.5%

*Target Compressive Strength

(From approved mix design) ± 1,000 psi

Thickness (From Project

Specifications) + 1 inch/-1/4 inch

Unless otherwise provided in the Contract, target values for Acceptance shall be as follows:

Entrained air

Target Air Content for the Freeze/Thaw Risk Zone in which the Project is located

Compressive strength Target strength from mix design

Thickness Nominal plan thickness +1 inch/-1/4 inch

*Target Compressive Strength will be the average compressive strength of the first thirty

(30) tests from the Contractor’s QLA testing program. If the Contractor’s data does not validate with the departments data, the Target Compressive Strength will be the average of the first ten (10) department tests.

The Department will perform Independent Assurance sampling and testing in accordance with Section 901.3, "Independent Assurance Testing."

450.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

450.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

The Department will adjust the Concrete Pavement unit Bid price in accordance with

Section 901.5, "Quality Level Analysis." The Department will pay for Concrete Pavement on a lot-by-lot basis at a price determined by multiplying the unit Bid price by the composite pay factor. The Department will use Table 450.5:1, “Composite Pay Factor,” to calculate the composite pay factor. Composite Pay factors greater than 1.0 will be paid for as 1.0.

Measured characteristic

Table 450.5:1

Composite Pay Factors

Factor “f”

Entrained air 50

Compressive strength 50

Thickness 50

Pay Item Pay Unit

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SECTION 451:

PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT (PCCP) (Non-QLA)

451.1

DESCRIPTION

See Section 450.1, “Description.”

451.2

MATERIALS

See Section 450.2, “Materials.”

451.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

451.3.1

Proportioning

See Section 450.3.1, “Proportioning.”

451.3.2

Equipment

See Section 450.3.2, “Equipment.”

451.3.3

Operations

See Section 450.3.3, “Operations.”

451.3.4

Joints

See Section 450.3.4, “Joints.”

451.3.5

Finishing

See Section 450.3.5, “Finishing.”

451.3.6

Curing

See Section 450.3.6, “Curing.”

451.3.7

Grooving of PCCP

See Section 450.3.5.1, “Texturing of PCCP.”

451.3.8

Protection from, and Opening to, Traffic

See Section 450.3.8, “Protection from, and Opening to, Traffic.”

451.3.9

Sampling and Testing

451.3.9.1

Contractor Quality Control—Reserved

451.3.9.2

Department Quality Assurance

451.3.9.2.1

Acceptance

The Department will accept the finished pavement, with respect to strength, in accordance with Section 510.3.4.3, “Concrete Sampling and Testing.” The Department will accept the finished pavement, with respect to thickness, based on test areas less than

2,400 yd2 in size, randomly selected by the Project Manager. The Department will make thickness determinations either using cores located in a random pattern with at least two (2) cores in each test area or by drilling holes greater than ½ inch diameter completely through the PCCP and determining the thickness from the drilled hole. Core holes shall be filled with self-leveling sealant material as specified in Section 452 “Sealing and Resealing Concrete

Pavement Joints” including round closed-cell bondbreaker as described in Section 452.2.3

Section 451: 242

“Bondbreaker.” These repairs shall be considered Incidental. The Contractor shall complete

Requirements,” before the Department determines pavement thickness.

The Department will accept test areas when an average of the measurements is not less than 1/4 inch from the required thickness, and when any measurement is not less than 3/4 inch from the required thickness.

451.3.9.3

Independent Assurance Testing

The Department will perform Independent Assurance sampling and testing in accordance with Section 901.3, “Independent Assurance Testing.”

451.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

451.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Concrete Pavement __ inch Square Yard

The Department will only pay for the average thickness of pavement in accordance with the Plans.

The Department considers dowels, tie bars, joint Materials, and required coring, including filling the core holes with concrete, Incidental to the Work in accordance with Section 452,

“Sealing and Resealing Concrete Pavement Joints.”

451.5.1.1 Thickness

The Department will apply price adjustment for concrete pavement with deficient thickness based on a structural engineering analysis conducted by the Department that will determine the percent loss of traffic carrying ability based on the original design ESAL.

451.5.1.2 Strength

See Section 510.3.5.5, “Price Adjustments.”

451.5.1.3 Final Adjustment in Bid Item Unit Price per Lot

When test results allow price adjustments, the resultant adjustment will be cumulative.

Section 451: 243

SECTION 452: SEALING AND RESEALING CONCRETE PAVEMENT JOINTS

452.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of cleaning, priming, and sealing concrete pavement joints. This

Work also consists of removing joint sealant, sawing, cleaning, priming, and resealing joints.

Seal only joints between adjacent portland cement concrete surfaces. Seal joints between PCCP and asphalt pavement in accordance with Section 411, “Hot-Poured Crack

Sealant,” unless otherwise shown on the Plans.

452.2

MATERIALS

452.2.1 Sealant

Joint sealant Material will either be a Type NS or SL single component silicone formulation meeting the requirements of ASTM D 5393 or a single component low modulus polyurethane formulation meeting the requirements of ASTM C 920 and Table 452.2.2:1,

“Polyurethane Sealant Physical Requirements.”

Provide a qualified manufacturer’s representative on the Project for at least the first Day of sealant application. Prepare and seal the joints in accordance with proper procedures approved by the manufacturer’s representative.

Obtain the manufacturer’s written verification of primer, backer, and sealant compatibility.

452.2.2 Certification

For each lot of sealant applied to concrete pavement joints, the Contractor shall provide certified test results in accordance with ASTM D 5893 or ASTM C 920 and Table 452.2.2:1,

“Polyurethane Sealant Physical Requirements,” except as otherwise provided in the Contract.

Provide sealant test results and verification that the product is currently within the manufacturer’s recommended shelf life to the Project Manager at least 10 Days before sealant installation. Certification will show areas of primer use.

Table 452.2.2:1

Polyurethane Sealant Physical Requirements

Tensile Stress, 150% Elongation, 21 Day cure @ 77oF and 45 – 55% R.H., psi

Tack-Free Time, h, maximum

ASTM D 412 Die C

ASTM C 679

150 - 200

2 - 6

Adhesion & Cohesion under cyclic movement

Artificial Weathering

Weight (mass) Loss, %, maximum

ASTM C 719

ASTM C 793

ASTM C 792

Pass

Pass

10

Ozone and U.V. Resistance ASTM C 793 Note 1

Movement Capability and Adhesion Note 2

Note 1: The sealant shall show no chalking, cracking, or bond loss after 250 hours.

Note 2: The sealant shall show no adhesive or cohesive failure after 10 cycles of ± 50% of joint width with the rate of extension or compression being no greater than 1/8-in per hour.

452.2.3 Bondbreaker

The bondbreaker is a round closed cell, nonabsorbent material compatible with the sealant Material, that is at least 1/8 inch larger in diameter than the width of the joint being sealed. If primer is required, ensure that no adverse reaction occurs between the bondbreaker and sealant or primer.

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452.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

452.3.1 General

Repair damage to the pavement surface, at no additional cost to the Department.

Perform these repairs to the concrete surfaces before beginning sealing operations, as directed by the Project Manager.

Dispose of old sealant Materials in accordance with Section 107, “Legal Relations,

Environmental Requirements, and Responsibility to Public.

452.3.2 Temperature and Weather Limitations

Perform joint sealing or resealing only under the following conditions:

1. The air and pavement temperatures are 40 °F or higher;

2. The pavement temperature is above the dew point;

3. The pavement and joint faces are dry and frost free; and

4. Weather conditions are dry.

Saw the transverse and longitudinal joints to the specified width, depth, and configuration.

Use a router to follow the path of random cracks and widen the top of the crack to the required section.

Sandblast joints and clean with compressed air.

Provide a one (1) inch wide border of clean, dry, newly exposed concrete before applying the bondbreaker and sealant at the joint and adjacent pavement.

Use cleaning wands that provide compressed air with at least 100 psi of pressure at the outlet nozzle. Ensure that the compressed air is free of oil and moisture.

Apply the sealant according to the manufacturer’s recommendations, unless otherwise specified and approved by the Project Manager. Obtain Project Manager approval of the manufacturer’s sealant application instructions before beginning Work.

Place the bondbreaker to maintain the specified depth of the sealant Material.

Provide a finished joint seal surface that is concave and 1/4 inch ± 1/8 inch below the surface of the concrete pavement.

The Project Manager will cease operations if the Contractor seals joints inconsistently.

Correct inconsistencies in joint sealing operations and remove and replace non-conforming sealant at no additional cost to the Department.

452.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

452.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Section 452:

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Section 452:

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SECTION 454: CRACKING AND SEATING CONCRETE PAVEMENT

454.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of cracking and seating existing portland cement concrete pavement.

454.2

MATERIALS—Reserved

454.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

454.3.1 Equipment

Use impact hammers capable of cracking the pavement’s full depth. Equip the breaker with a plate-type shoe or use one designed to prevent penetration, spalling, and shattering of the existing surface, use other Equipment approved by the Project Manager. Do not use a headache, drop ball, or whip hammer.

If required, provide a screen to protect vehicles in the adjacent lane from flying chips during the cracking process.

Use pneumatic tire rollers that weigh a minimum of 50 ton.

Before cracking the concrete, remove existing asphalt patches. Before cracking, the

Project Manager will designate test sections. Crack the test sections using varying energy and striking patterns to establish an optimum pattern for cracking the pavement. Wet the pavement surface test section to determine the extent and pattern of cracking.

Use the established pattern to crack the pavement on the remainder of the Project, provided the cracked pavement continues to meet the specified size requirements. Adjust the energy and striking pattern as directed by the Project Manager. Wet pavement surfaces at least once an hour to determine the extent and pattern of cracking.

Crack the existing concrete pavement so that the dimensions of the majority of pieces of pavement are from 18 inches to 24 inches, with a maximum dimension of 30 inches. Ensure that 80% of pavement pieces are smaller than 24 inch. The Project Manager will determine the adequacy of pavement breakage.

Perform cracking one (1) lane at a time with an impact hammer.

Prevent damage to underground utilities, drainage facilities, Bridge approach slabs, and

Bridge decks. Repair damage at no additional cost to the Department.

After cracking the concrete pavement, clean the surface of loose and spalled concrete and foreign material.

Roll the cracked concrete with a pneumatic tire roller within 24 h before overlaying with

HMA until it is well seated and thoroughly and uniformly compacted. Crack slab sections (that do not seat well under the roller) into smaller sections and roll them again. The Project

Manager will determine when the pavement is properly cracked and seated.

The Department will allow traffic on the cracked pavement before overlaying. When routing traffic over the cracked pavement, ensure the pavement’s condition is satisfactory to carry the traffic.

454.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

Section 454:

Cracking and Sealing Concrete Pavement

Page 247

454.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Section 454:

Cracking and Sealing Concrete Pavement

Page 248

SECTION 455: DIAMOND-GRINDING AND DIAMOND-GROOVING OF PORTLAND

CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT (PCCP)

455.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of diamond-grinding and/or diamond-grooving PCCP, and includes the removal of slurry and residue resulting from the Work.

Diamond grinding is a pavement preservation technique that corrects a variety of surface imperfections on both concrete and asphalt pavements. The diamond blades used for grinding are composed of industrial diamonds and metallurgical powder.

455.2

MATERIALS—Reserved

455.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

455.3.1 Equipment

Use power-driven, self-propelled machines equipped with diamond blades specifically designed to grind, groove, and texture PCCP. Ensure the grinder has a depth control device to detect variations in the concrete surface and adjust the cutting head height to maintain the depth of the specified groove. Equip the diamond grinding machine with alignment control devices.

Ensure the Equipment grinds and grooves the pavement surface to the specified smoothness tolerances and textures, without causing excessive raveling of the joints or cracking or fracturing of the aggregates.

455.3.2 Diamond Grinding and Grooving Operations

Begin and end longitudinal diamond grinding and grooving at lines normal to the pavement centerline, unless otherwise specified in the Contract.

Grind designated areas until the pavement surfaces on both sides of transverse joints and cracks are on the same plane. Ensure that diamond grinding produces a uniform finished surface, eliminates joint or crack faults, and provides positive lateral surface drainage by maintaining a constant cross-slope within the diamond grinding limits of each lane.

Grind auxiliary or ramp lane transitions from the mainline edge to provide positive drainage and an acceptable riding surface.

Make grooving patterns in accordance with Section 512.3.10.3, “Grooving of Hardened

Concrete,” unless otherwise specified in the Contract.

Continuously remove the slurry from the Work.

Do not allow the slurry to flow across lanes open to traffic or into gutters or other drainage facilities.

Smoothness Requirements.”

Ensure the texture has parallel longitudinal corrugations that present a narrow ridge corduroy-type appearance. Make the peaks and grooves approximately 0.08 inch apart in elevation. Make the grooves from 0.08 inch to 0.16 inch wide, and the peaks from 0.08 inch to

0.12 inch wide. Determine the appropriate number of grooves per yard to produce the specified surface requirements.

Section 455:

Diamond Grinding and Diamond Grooving of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Page

455.3.5 Acceptance

Inspect transverse joints and random cracks to ensure that adjacent surfaces are in the same plane. Regrind as directed by the Project Manager, at no additional cost to the

Department.

455.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Department will measure the Diamond Grinding and Diamond Grooving of Portland

Cement Concrete Pavement actually ground or grooved on the top width and length of the pavement if paid by the unit. If no Bid Item exists for Diamond Grinding and Diamond

Grooving of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement, payment will be Incidental to Section 450,

“Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (QLA)” or Section 451, “Portland Cement Concrete

Pavement”, as applicable.

455.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Section 455:

Diamond Grinding and Diamond Grooving of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Page

DIVISION 500 – STRUCTURES

Division Contents

501: Driven Bearing Piles ............................................................... 253

504: Load Testing of Bearing Piles ................................................ 276

505: Pile Integrity Testing ............................................................... 283

506: Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Structures ............... 287

509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs ................................ 294

510: Portland Cement Concrete ..................................................... 312

514: Concrete Barrier Railings for Bridges ..................................... 352

515: Reinforced Concrete for Minor Structures .............................. 354

517: Precast Concrete Structures .................................................. 358

518: Pre-Stressed Concrete Members ........................................... 364

520: Non-Shrink Grout for Post-Tensioned Bridge Members ......... 386

522: Chemical Adhesive Anchors .................................................. 393

529: Pier and Abutment Bearing Modification ................................ 399

530: Bridge Deck and PCCP Preparation for Repair .................... 400

531: Permanent Anti-Graffiti Protective Coating ............................ 403

532: Penetrating Water Repellent Treatment ................................. 404

533: Concrete Structure Repair ...................................................... 406

535: Crack Sealing Using Low-Viscosity, Gravity-Fed Sealers ...... 414

536: Polymer Concrete Bridge Deck Overlay ................................. 417

537: Polyester Concrete Bridge Deck Overlay ............................... 424

544: Protective Coating of New Structural Steel ............................ 460

545: Protective Coating of Miscellaneous Structural Steel ............. 466

547: Safety and Environmental Requirements for Painting

Division:

500

Page 251

560: Elastomeric Bearing Pads ...................................................... 483

561: Elastomeric Compression Joint Seals .................................... 486

562: Bridge Joint Strip Seals .......................................................... 488

563: Polymer Bridge Joint Seals .................................................... 492

564: Preformed Closed Cell Foam Bridge Joint Seals ................... 495

572: Cast-In-Place Concrete Pipe .................................................. 515

Division:

500

Page 252

SECTION 501: DRIVEN BEARING PILES

501.1

DESCRIPTION

The Work consists of providing and driving bearing piles, including splicing additional pile lengths and cut-offs.

501.2

MATERIALS

501.2.1 Standards

Provide Materials in accordance with Table 501.2.1:1, “Applicable Pile Standards.”

Table 501.2.1:1

Applicable Pile Standards

Material description

Structural Steel piles and columns (HP)

Standard

ASTM A 572, Grade 50

Splice plates for Structural Steel piles AASHTO M 270, Grade 50

ASTM A 148 Castings for pile shoes

Steel pipe (longitudinal or continuous spiral welded) piles and columns

Backing rings for steel pipe pile splices

End plate for closed end pipe piles

Portland cement concrete, Class G

ASTM A 252, Gr. 3

ASTM A 252, Gr. 3

AASHTO M 270, Grade 50

Section 509, “Portland Cement

Concrete Mix Designs.”

Precast pre-stressed concrete piles

Paint

Section 518, “Pre-Stressed

Concrete Members.”

Section 544, “Protective Coating of New Structural Steel.”

501.2.2 Piles

Use no more than one (1) field splice to make steel piles that are from 30 ft to 80 ft long.

Use no more than two (2) field splices to make steel piles longer than 80 ft. The minimum acceptable splice length is five (5) ft. Do not use more than two (2) splices per steel pile. The

Department will not accept camber and sweep more than the mill tolerance.

501.2.2.2 Continuous Spiral Weld Pipe Piles

Provide longitudinal or spiral welded pipe, on the Department’s Approved Products List, with only complete full joint penetration welds conforming to the requirements of AWS D1.1 –

Structural Welding Code.

501.2.2.3 Pre-cast Pre-stressed Concrete Piles

Manufacture pre-cast pre-stressed concrete piles in accordance with Section 518, “Pre-

Stressed Concrete Members.”

Provide Materials in accordance with Table 501.2.1:1, “Applicable Pile Standards.” Use prefabricated splices only when specified. If the Contract requires additional length due to inadequate bearing, construct splices in accordance with Section 501.3.5.5, “Splices.”

Perform field welding inspection in accordance with 541.3.7.4 Field Welding.

Section 501: Driven Bearing Piles Page 253

501.2.3 Submittals

Submit the following to the Project Manager:

1. Three (3) certified copies of MTRs for the following:

1.1. Structural Steel piles;

1.3. Steel pipe piles and pipe pile columns;

Indicate heat numbers on test reports and on each pile provided.

2. Welder Certification in accordance with Section 541, “Steel Structures,” sufficient for welding field splices and end plates;

3. Class G concrete mix design approved by the State Concrete Engineer in accordance with Section 509, “Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs;”

4. Pre-cast pre-stressed concrete piles certification and testing in accordance with

Section 518, “Pre-Stressed Concrete Members;" and

5. Paint certification in accordance with Section 544, “Protective Coating of New

Structural Steel.”

501.2.3.1 Pile Driving Equipment Submittals

Submit pile driving Equipment information to the Project Manager 30 Days before beginning pile driving. Submit the information on the Department’s Pile and Driving

Equipment Data Form. Provide information required on the form including the following:

1. Pile hammer make, model number, and serial number;

2. Driving head assembly, type, model number, and weight;

3. Hammer cushion, material, size, and thickness; and

4. Pile cushion, material, size, and thickness.

The Department has 10 Days to accept or reject the proposed pile driving Equipment after the Project Manager receives the Pile and Driving Equipment Data Form. Acceptance will be in accordance with Section 501.3.1.4, “Approval of Driving System.”

If the Department rejects the Equipment, modify or replace the pile driving Equipment and revise and resubmit the form. The Department will have seven (7) Days to accept or reject the revised Pile and Equipment Data Form.

Submit the manufacturer’s chart showing stroke and blows per minute when proposing the use of open-end (single-acting) diesel hammers.

Submit a chart equating bounce chamber pressure and hose length to either equivalent energy or stroke when proposing use of closed-end (double-acting) diesel hammers. Specify hose lengths for closed-end hammers. Calibrate the chart to atmospheric pressure based on the Project site elevation to the nearest 1,500 ft elevation.

Submit a chart equating the plant operating pressure to the equivalent delivered energy of the hammer, including losses in the hose, when proposing the use of double acting or differential acting air/steam hammers. Calibrate the chart to atmospheric pressure based on the Project site elevation to the nearest 1,500 ft elevation.

Submit a certificate of calibration to the Project Manager for the pressure gauge required for double acting hammers or for delivered energy for hydraulic hammers. Provide certificate of calibration from a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable Laboratory

Section 501: Driven Bearing Piles Page 254

performed no more than six (6) months before use.

501.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

501.3.1 Equipment

Use steam, air, diesel, or hydraulic hammers for driving piles. Only use gravity hammers where specified for use in dynamic testing of drilled shafts.

501.3.1.1.1 Steam and Air Hammers

Provide the plant and Equipment with pressure gages that are easily accessible to the

Inspector. Use air and steam hammers with striking parts that weigh at least 1/3 the weight of drive head and pile or 2,750 lb, whichever is more.

Use open-end diesel hammers that allow the Inspector to see the hammer stroke during pile driving operations, unless accompanied by a saximeter stroke measurement device.

Use closed-end diesel hammers equipped with a bounce chamber pressure gauge, mounted with a hose long enough for the Inspector to read.

Use hydraulic hammers equipped with a digital display of delivered hammer energy for each stroke. Provide certification of hammer energy measurement read-out to the Project

Manager.

Equip impact pile driving Equipment (except gravity and hydraulic hammers) with hammer cushion material to prevent damage to the hammer or pile and to ensure uniform driving. Use hammer cushions made in accordance with the hammer manufacturer’s guidelines. Do not use wood, wire rope, or asbestos hammer cushions. Place a manufacturer-recommended striker plate on the hammer cushion to ensure uniform compression of the cushion material.

Equip impact hammer driven piles with a steel drive head to distribute the hammer blow.

Align the drive head axially with the hammer and the pile. Ensure that it is guided by leads and not free-swinging.

Use a drive head that fits around the pile head to maintain the proper alignment of the hammer and pile and not transfer the torsional forces during driving. Cut pile heads squarely.

Provide a drive head insert to fit the pile type and dimensions, as recommended by the hammer manufacturer.

For pre-cast concrete and pre-stressed concrete piles, use a pile head that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the pile to prevent eccentric impacts.

Before driving, place a plywood pile cushion that is at least four (4) inches thick on the pile head. Greater thicknesses may be required if the Wave Equation Analysis (per Section

501.3.2.1.1, “Wave Equation Analysis”) or dynamic testing (per Section 501.3.2.1.2, “Dynamic

Formula”) determines that the pile compressive or tensile stresses are unacceptable.

Section 501: Driven Bearing Piles Page 255

501.3.1.2.4 Leads

While being driven, support piles in line and position with leads. Construct pile driver leads to allow the hammer free movement while maintaining alignment of the hammer and the pile to ensure concentric impacts.

Do not extend the pile section being driven above the leads. Embed the leads in the ground or restrain by a rigid brace to maintain alignment. Ensure that the leads are long enough to make a follower unnecessary, and design the leads to permit alignment of batter piles.

Use fixed or swinging leads. Fit swinging leads with a pile gate at the bottom. For batter piles, use a horizontal brace between the crane and the leads.

Do not use followers. Where required and approved by the Foundation Engineer, use an extra length pile with splices (if necessary) and ensure that the leads are of adequate length so that followers will not be required. After cut-off, undamaged extra length pile may be reused as a production pile.

501.3.1.2.6 Templates

Use securely anchored heavy metal templates to maintain pile positions when driving a pile bent.

Use pre-boring Equipment in accordance with Section 501.3.3.2, “Pre-Boring.”

Provide and use Equipment to illuminate the entire interior length of pipe piles after they are driven.

501.3.1.3 Minimum Manufacturer’s-Rated Hammer Energy

Unless the Contract specifies a minimum hammer energy, use a manufacturer-rated hammer at or above the appropriate minimum energy level corresponding to the required nominal pile capacity in accordance with Table 501.3.1.3:1, “Required Hammer Energy.”

Section 501: Driven Bearing Piles Page 256

Table 501.3.1.3:1

Required Hammer Energy

Nominal Pile Capacity (Kips)

Minimum Manufacturer’s Rated

Hammer Energy (Ft - lb)

≤ 225

45,000

226 – 350

351 – 400

50,000

55,000

401 – 450 60,000

≥ 451

Wave Equation Analysis required

501.3.1.4 Approval of Driving System

The Foundation Engineer will approve the driving system. The driving system includes the hammer and driving apparatus proposed on the Department’s Pile and Driving Equipment

Data Form. Transporting the driving system to the Project site before it is approved will be done at the Contractor’s risk.

The driving system will be approved based on the following:

1. The driving system meets the requirements of Sections 501.3.1.1, “Pile Hammers,” and 501.3.1.2, “Driving Apparatus;”

2. The manufacturer’s rated hammer energy meets or exceeds the minimum hammer energy requirements established in Section 501.3.1.3, “Minimum Manufacturer’s-

Rated Hammer Energy;”

3. The Wave Equation Analysis indicates that the expected driving resistance (required nominal capacity) can be achieved at less than ten (10) blows per inch;

4. The Wave Equation Analysis indicates that the pile stresses will not exceed the allowable stresses at the expected driving resistance (required ultimate capacity) as indicated in Table 501.3.1.4:1, “Wave Equation Analysis Allowable Driving Stress;”

5. When dynamic tests are specified in accordance with Section 504, “Load Testing of

Bearing Piles,” Acceptance of the hammer system will be based on the measured

Approved Driving Systems.”

Table 501.3.1.4:1

Wave Equation Analysis Allowable Driving Stress

Compressive stress

Steel piles

90% of yield strength (0.90 F y

)

Concrete piles

85% of the compressive strength c

minus the effective pre-stress

Compressive stress (0.85 F’ c

- effective pre-stress)

Tensile stress (3

F’ c

+ effective pre-stress) a

If the pile stresses determined by Wave Equation Analysis exceed the allowable stresses, the Department may approve the hammer system if a heavier pile section approved by the Foundation Engineer is substituted. If necessary, provide heavier piles at no additional cost to the Department. b

If the pile stresses determined by Wave Equation Analysis exceed the allowable stresses, the Department may approve the hammer system if additional static or dynamic testing is performed and verifies that pile driving resistances will produce stresses in the pile within acceptable ranges. Perform additional testing at no additional cost to the Department.

c

Compressive strength at 28 Days.

501.3.2 Driven Pile Capacity

Section 501: Driven Bearing Piles Page 257

The nominal pile capacity will generally be the required factored design resistance of the pile divided by the specified AASHTO LRFD resistance factor, unless specified otherwise.

The specified AASHTO resistance factor depends on the specified pile testing and the specified method for monitoring the pile capacity. Determine resistance factors in accordance with Table 501.3.2:1, “LRFD Resistance Factors for Driven Piles,” unless otherwise specified.

Table 501.3.2:1

LRFD Resistance Factors for Driven Piles

Capacity monitoring test method Method

LRFD

Resistance

Factor

Static load test Wave Equation Analysis 0.8

Dynamic load test

None performed

Wave Equation Analysis

Wave Equation Analysis

0.65

0.5

None performed Dynamic Formula 0.4

In some cases, the required nominal pile capacity shown may be higher than the factored pile design resistance divided by the specified LRFD resistance factor. In these cases, the required nominal pile capacity includes resistance to be encountered penetrating unsuitable layers in addition to the required factored design resistance divided by the specified LRFD resistance factor.

501.3.2.1 Determination of Pile Capacity with Impact Hammer

The Foundation Engineer will determine the nominal pile capacity based on a Wave

Equation Analysis.

Drive piles to the required resistance based on the operating energy of the hammer. The

Pile Driving Acceptance Chart will indicate the resistance criteria.

Obtain pile penetration by achieving the Wave Equation resistance criteria in accordance with Section 501.3.5.2, “Minimum Penetration Elevation,” and Section 501.3.5.3, “Estimated

Penetration Elevation.” If the predicted pile penetration varies from the Plan length by ± 25% or more, the Foundation Engineer will perform a revised Wave Equation Analysis in accordance with Section 501.3.4.2, “Revised Wave Equation Analysis.”

Use the dynamic formula to determine nominal pile capacity only if specified or approved by the Foundation Engineer. Drive piles to the depth necessary to obtain the nominal pile capacity according to the following equation and in accordance with Section 501.3.5.2,

“Minimum Penetration Elevation”:

R n

= 2 × F × E × Ln ( 10 N )

(1)

Where,

R n

= nominal bearing resistance, (kips)

F = a constant that varies with hammer and pile type

Air/Steam hammers; all piles

Open ended diesel hammers with concrete

Open ended diesel hammers with steel piles

Closed ended diesel hammers

F = 1.8

F = 1.2

F = 1.6

F = 1.2 driving

Section 501: Driven Bearing Piles Page 258

Unless otherwise shown, and before driving the abutment bearing piles, place and compact the approach Embankment Material underneath and adjacent to the abutment to the required density. After compaction, ensure that the surface of the approach Embankment is not lower than the elevation of the bottom of the abutment.

501.3.3.2 Pre-Boring

If specified, pre-bore holes at pile locations to the depths and size in accordance with the

Plans. If the Contract does not specify pre-bored, but the Foundation Engineer approves the use of pre-bored holes, drill the holes to the depth established by the Foundation Engineer.

Ensure that the depth permits the piles to be driven to the minimum penetration elevation and required bearing capacity without overstress or damage to the piles. Pre-bore holes in the presence of the Inspector. After placing pile, fill voids remaining around the pile with sand or other approved material.

501.3.3.2.1 Application of Pre-Bored Holes

Only use pre-bored holes as specified, or when demonstrated to the satisfaction of the

Foundation Engineer that a pile cannot be driven to the minimum penetration elevation in accordance with Section 501.3.5.2, “Minimum Penetration Elevation.”

The Department will determine the need for pre-bored pile holes based on the following driving resistances:

1. Steel piles: when, in ten (10) blows, the set is less than 3/4 inch with the hammer delivering the minimum energy required;

2. Pre-cast concrete piles: when, in ten (10) blows, the set is less than one (1) inch with the hammer delivering the minimum energy as required in the Contract;

3. All piles: if the resistance is sufficient to overstress the pile as indicated by the Wave

Equation Analysis Field Acceptance Chart for the approved hammer system.

501.3.3.2.2 Diameter of Pre-bored Holes

The Foundation Engineer will establish the diameter of pre-bored holes. In general, the diameter established will be as shown in Table 501.3.3.2.5:1, “Diameter of Pre-Bored Holes in

Soil,” or Table 501.3.3.2.5:2, “Diameter of Pre-Bored Holes in Rock, Shale, or Conglomerate.”

501.3.3.2.3 Obstructions

If the Contractor encounters subsurface obstructions, the Contractor may increase the borehole diameter to the smallest dimension adequate for pile installation. Penetrate obstructions in accordance with Section 502.3.4.2.2, “Obstructions.”

If the Contract requires the Contractor to drive a pile in a rock socket and the bore hole is larger than the diameter of the pile, fill around that part of the pile in solid material with Class G concrete. Place concrete in accordance with Section 502.3, “Construction Requirements.” Fill the part of the pile above the rock socket with sand or other suitable material.

Temporary casing may be required if the soil sloughs or caves into the hole or if a hole is required to be kept dry from groundwater, such as socketed holes into shale. Increase the diameter of the drilled hole as necessary to place the temporary casing. Pull the casing after driving the pile and after the hole is backfilled with the appropriate Material.

Section 501: Driven Bearing Piles Page 259

Pile type

Table 501.3.3.2.5:1

Diameter of Pre-Bored Holes in Soil

Diameter

Cylindrical concrete piles two (2) inch smaller than the outside pile diameter

Square concrete piles

H-piles

Minimum pile width two (2) inch smaller than the diagonal measurement of pile

Table 501.3.3.2.5:2

Diameter of Pre-Bored Holes in Rock, Shale, or Conglomerate

Pile type Diameter

Cylindrical concrete and pipe piles Outside pile diameter

Square concrete piles and H-piles

501.3.3.3 Pile and Hammer Cushion Preparation

Diagonal measurement of pile

Before the drive head is attached, make the pile heads plane and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the pile. Protect pre-cast concrete pile heads with a pile cushion in accordance with Section 501.3.1.2.3, “Pile Cushion.” Provide a new pile cushion for each precast concrete pile. Replace the pile cushion if it is either compressed more than one-half of the original thickness or begins to burn during driving.

Inspect the hammer cushion with the Inspector present when beginning pile driving at each Structure or after each 100 h of pile driving, whichever is less. If the hammer cushion thickness is reduced by more than 25% of the original thickness, replace the cushion before proceeding with driving.

501.3.3.4 Conditions to Proceed

The Contractor shall not drive production piles until it meets the following conditions:

1. The Foundation Engineer approves the driving system in accordance with

Section 501.3.1.4, “Approval of Driving System;”

2. The Inspector completes the Pile Driving Field Inspection Form and the form is then approved by the Project Manager;

3. All required load testing is complete as specified and in accordance with

Section 504, “Load Testing of Bearing Piles;” seal by the Foundation Engineer and approved by the State Geotechnical Engineer and submitted to the Project Manager;

5. The hammer and leads are aligned with the pile plan in vertical or battered position; and

6. The Inspector is present before beginning operations.

501.3.4 Variations of Approved Driving Systems

Only use the approved pile driving system. Submit a new Pile and Driving Equipment

Data Form to the Project Manager for variations to the approved driving system. The Project

Manager will notify the Contractor of Acceptance or rejection within 72 h of the receipt of the data form. The time required for submission, review, and approval of a variation in the driving system will not constitute a basis for a Contract Time extension.

501.3.4.1 Variations Due to Dynamic Testing

The Foundation Engineer will reject the hammer if the hammer is unable to transfer sufficient energy to perform the dynamic testing in accordance with Section 504, “Load Testing

Section 501: Driven Bearing Piles Page 260

of Bearing Piles.” Reasons for rejection include pre-ignition from overheating or malfunctioning of the injection system and poor hammer or capblock maintenance. After rejection, repair or replace the hammer.

501.3.4.2 Revised Wave Equation Analysis

The Department will perform a revised Wave Equation Analysis to establish revised driving resistance criteria when the following conditions occur:

1. Variations in the driving system;

2. Pre-boring not originally specified in the Contract is used to facilitate pile penetration; or

3. The pile penetrations are considerably more or less than that estimated in the

Contract.

Do not drive piles until the Project Manager receives the revised Pile Acceptance Chart.

501.3.5 Pile Driving Operations

Approval of a pile hammer relative to allowable driving stresses will not relieve the

Contractor of responsibility for damaged piles for the following reasons:

1. Misalignment of the leads;

2. Failure of capblock or cushion material;

3. Failure of splices;

4. Malfunctioning of the pile hammer; or

5. Other improper construction methods.

If the Foundation Engineer determines that damage caused by one (1) of the above reasons impairs the pile strength, or questions the measured resistance, replace the piles at no additional cost to the Department.

Schedule pile driving to prevent vibrations and pressure from damaging piles or other inplace concrete structural components that have reached their initial set, but that do not have sufficient strength to resist damage.

Replace the hammer cushion and pile cushion when necessary in accordance with

Section 501.3.3.3, “Pile and Hammer Cushion Preparation,” to avoid excessive compression or damage.

501.3.5.1 Pile Measurement and Recording

Ensure that the first pile driven at each Substructure element is accessible so the

Inspector can measure and mark the pile in 12-inch increments. On the first pile driven, the

Inspector will record blows per 12 inches of penetration until the pile tip is within five (5) ft of the specified penetration elevation or until the pile begins to set up, whichever comes first.

Then, the Inspector will measure and record the penetration in inches per ten (10) or 20 blows, as directed by the Foundation Engineer, until the Contractor achieves the specified set.

501.3.5.2 Minimum Penetration Elevation

If the Contract specifies a “Minimum Penetration Elevation” and the driven piles do not develop the required nominal bearing capacity at that elevation, the Contractor shall continue driving the piles until the required resistance is obtained. If the piles develop a set, determined in accordance with Section 501.3.3.2.3, “Application of Pre-Bored Holes,” before the pile tip reaches the minimum penetration elevation, the Contractor shall perform drilling to prevent damaging the pile while driving to the minimum penetration elevation.

501.3.5.3 Estimated Penetration Elevation

Section 501: Driven Bearing Piles Page 261

If the Contract specifies an estimated penetration elevation, drive the piles to the required nominal capacity. If the piles attain the required resistance above the estimated penetration elevation, terminate driving and the Department will accept the piles at the shallower penetration.

If driving multiple rows of piles for pile cap foundations, drive the piles to the estimated or minimum penetration elevation, before determining pile capacity for Acceptance. After driving the piles in the group to the required tip elevation, re-strike to determine the pile nominal capacity. If the piles do not develop the required nominal bearing capacity at that elevation, continue to drive until the required resistance is attained.

501.3.5.5 Splices

Ensure that steel pile splices are in accordance with Section 541, “Steel Structures.”

Make splices for closed-end pipe piles watertight.

Use the cement dowel method to make splices for pre-cast concrete piles unless the

Foundation Engineer approves an alternate splice detail. Select mechanical splices for concrete or steel piles from the Department’s Approved Products List.

Cut off the tops of all permanent piles at the elevation shown or as directed. Remove the cut off lengths from the Project.

501.3.5.7 Filling Closed-End Pipe Piles

After driving closed-end steel-pipe piles, inspect for water or other Deleterious Material inside the piles. Remove water and foreign substances from inside the piles. After the Project

Manager approves the piles, fill them with Class A (any risk zone) concrete with a 4 1/2 inch to eight (8) inch slump. Provide a superplasticizer in accordance with 510.3.4.4 from the

Department’s Approved Products List to achieve the slump. Place the concrete in accordance with Section 502.3.4.4, “Concrete Placement.”

501.3.5.8 Filling Open-End Pipe Piles

After driving open-end steel pipe piles, inspect for water inside the piles. If water is present, place pea gravel in the pile to an elevation of three (3) feet above the water level. If the Project Manager approves the piles, fill them with Class A (any risk zone) concrete with a

4 ½ inch to six (6) inch slump. , Provide a superplasticizer in accordance with 510.3.4.4 from the Department’s Approved Products List to achieve the slump. Place the concrete in at least the upper ten (10) ft of the piles in accordance with Section 502.3.4.4, “Concrete Placement.”

501.3.6.1 Pile Load Capacity and Penetration

Drive piles to the required nominal capacity as determined by the specified capacity monitoring method in accordance with Section 501.3.2, “Driven Pile Capacity.”

If specified, install piles to the penetration elevation in accordance with Section 501.3.5.2,

“Minimum Penetration Elevation.”

Do not pull laterally on piles to correct misalignment or splice a properly aligned section on a misaligned section to meet tolerances.

501.3.6.2.1

Trestle and Abutment Beam Piling

Section 501: Driven Bearing Piles Page 262

Drive trestle piling and abutment beam piling with a maximum variation of 1/4 inch per foot from the vertical or batter shown. The pile variance will be no more than three (3) inches from the Plan position at any point along its length.

501.3.6.2.2

Foundation Piling

Drive foundation piling capped below grade with a maximum variation of 1/4 inch per foot from the vertical or batter shown, with the tops of the piles at cut off elevation varying no more than three (3) inches from the Plan position.

501.3.6.2.3

Edge Distance

Do not place piles within nine (9) inches of an edge of a cap or beam. Increase the size of the cap or beam to meet this edge distance requirement at no additional cost to the

Department.

501.3.6.2.4

Pile Orientation

Ensure that H-piles do not rotate more than 15° out of Plan orientation of the strong axis and weak axis of the pile shown.

501.3.6.2.5

Pile Tops

Cut off the tops of piles perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the pile or to a specified bevel, and within the specified tolerance.

The Department will reject damaged piles based on the following criteria:

1. Piles that are broken, cracked, or split;

2. Pre-cast concrete piles that show signs of crushing and spalling of the concrete, splitting, or visible cracks that affect the strength or service life of the pile;

3. Steel piles bent or deformed during installation and exceed mill tolerances for sweep and camber; or

4. Closed-end pipe piles that show evidence of groundwater infiltration, or breaks or deformation that would impair the strength of the completed piles.

Correct piles damaged during driving because of internal defects or improper driving with methods approved by the Project Manager, at no additional cost to the Department.

If the Contractor exceeds the location or alignment tolerances, and the Foundation

Engineer determines that corrective measures are necessary, the Contractor shall design and construct corrective measures at no additional cost to the Department. The State

Geotechnical Engineer will approve the design.

Corrective methods may include the following:

1. Removing and replacing the pile with a new, and when necessary, longer pile;

2. Driving additional piles next to the defective piles; or

3. Extending the footing to properly embed the pile.

501.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Project Manager will include any approved extension lengths in the pile measurement.

Section 501: Driven Bearing Piles Page 263

The Department will measure Driven Piles below the cut-off elevation to the nearest foot.

The Department will calculate Pile Cut-Offs to the nearest foot by subtracting the total lengths of the in-place piles (after cut-off) from the total Plan lengths.

501.4.4 Pre-bored Holes for Bearing Piles

The Department will only measure that portion of Pre-Bored Holes for Bearing Piles below the Plan grade elevation. The Department will not measure that portion of pre-bored holes drilled through soil or rock layers (overburden) that the Contractor later excavates.

The Department will measure Pile Splices required for piles driven deeper than the estimated penetration elevation to achieve the required nominal capacity. The Department will only measure up to two (2) splices per pile in order to drive the piles beyond the specified penetration elevation to meet the required resistance.

501.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Driven Piles (type) Foot

Pre-bored Holes for Bearing Piles, ___in diameter Foot

Pile Splices Each

Pile Shoes Each

Pile Cut-Offs Foot

501.5.1 Work Included In Payment

The following Work will be considered as included in the payment for the main item(s) and will not be measured or paid for separately:

A. Extra length pile used as a follower;

B. Material and backfill placement for prebored holes for bearing piles, including Class

G concrete in rock sockets;

C. Temporary casing and oversizing of prebored holes to accommodate temporary casing;

D. Steel reinforcement required in steel pipe piles filled with concrete;

E. Furnishing and driving pile to replace piles which were previously accepted by the

Project Manager and are subsequently damaged through improper handling, driving, or construction operations prior to completion of the Contract;

F. Increases to the Contract quantity of prebored holes for bearing piles which are not called for in the Contract, but are approved by the Foundation Engineer, will be paid for at a negotiated unit price per foot as established by the Project Manager;

G. Piles that have been driven or partially driven and are subsequently rejected by the

Project Manager and are pulled or left in place;

H. Class A concrete and placement in pipe piles;

I. Mobilization and time lost due to re-mobilization of new hammer due to poor hammer performance or as determined by dynamic testing;

J. Restriking of piles in pile groups to determine pile capacity.

K. Pile splices provided within the Plan pile length.

Section 501: Driven Bearing Piles Page 264

SECTION 502: DRILLED SHAFTS

502.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of constructing drilled shafts. Drilled shaft construction, with or without under-reamed bottoms (“bell bottoms”), includes excavation, bottom hole cleaning, reinforcing steel placement and concrete.

502.1.1 Work Experience

Demonstrate to the State Geotechnical Engineer that the Contractor is able to perform the Work in accordance with the Contract. Provide evidence of two (2) Projects within two (2) years of the Bid date involving drilled shaft construction for the conditions expected and use a

Superintendent with experience from one (1) of those Projects who will provide all oversight responsibility of all aspects of drilled shaft construction covered in Section 502. Provide the latest NMDOT drilled shaft inspection form of each drilled shaft element signed by the Drilled

Shaft Superintendent indicating drilled shaft construction completed in accordance with

Section 502 requirements.

502.1.2 Submittals

Submit construction and field designs to the Project Manager for review and approval by the State Geotechnical Engineer.

502.2

MATERIALS

502.2.1 General

Provide Materials in accordance with Table 502.2.1:1, “Applicable Bearing Pile

Standards.”

Table 502.2.1:1

Applicable Bearing Pile Standards

Material description Standard

Portland cement concrete, Class G Section 510, “Portland Cement Concrete”

Reinforcing steel cage

Reinforcing steel HP pile

Section 540, “Steel Structures”

ASTM A 572, Grade 50

Steel pipe (longitudinal or continuous spiral welded) piles and columns ASTM A 252, Grade 3

502.2.2.1 Concrete

For Class G concrete requirements see Section 509, “Portland Cement Concrete Mix

Designs.”

Provide temporary steel casings with an inside diameter equal to or greater than the shaft size in accordance with the Contract. Ensure the casings are smooth, clean, watertight, and of ample strength to withstand both handling and driving stresses, pressures of concrete, and the surrounding soils.

Provide permanent casing with a wall thickness that is at least the thickness specified for the shaft construction. Provide a greater wall thickness if necessary to withstand handling and installation stresses. The casing dimensions are subject to the American Pipe Institute tolerances applicable to regular steel pipe. If approved by the Project Manager, the Contractor

Section 502: Drilled Shafts Page 265

may use casings larger than specified, at no additional cost to the Department.

502.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

502.3.1 Equipment

502.3.1.1 Excavation and Drilling Equipment

Use excavation and drilling Equipment that can excavate a hole of the specified diameter

20% deeper than what is shown in the Contract. Use excavation Equipment that can complete a flat shaft bottom. Ensure that the cutting edges are normal to the vertical axis of the Equipment within a tolerance of 0.25 in per foot of diameter. Ensure that under-reaming tools do not allow the base diameter to exceed three (3) times the specified shaft diameter.

The Foundation Engineer may approve a change in other under-reaming Plan dimensions to accommodate the Equipment. When the Foundation Engineer requires over-reaming of the shaft sidewall, use an over-reaming bucket, grooving tool, or other approved Equipment. Use an over-reaming tool that over sizes the shaft diameter from 0.5 inch to three (3) inch. If the

Contractor cannot drill the material with conventional earth augers, the Contractor shall use special drilling Equipment, such as core barrels, rock tools and other Equipment, as necessary. Blasting is not allowed.

Use desanding Equipment to keep the slurry sand content to less than eight percent (8%) by volume for mineral slurry and less than one percent (1%) by volume for polymer slurry.

This is required during shaft excavation to maintain mix consistency of the slurry in the shaft.

Use slurry tanks for slurry circulation, storage, and treatment. Do not use excavated slurry pits in place of slurry tanks without the written permission of the Project Manager. Use a slurrysampling tool to conduct the slurry control tests in accordance with Section 502.3.4.1.3.3,

“Slurry Control Tests.” Use a slurry sampler capable of sampling slurry from the bottom of the hole and withdrawing the sample without loss or contamination of sample fluid.

Depending on the type of shaft construction, place the concrete in the excavated shaft with a rigid tremie pipe, a concrete pump line, or a drop chute.

502.3.1.3.1 Tremies

Use a rigid tremie pipe that can deposit concrete at the shaft bottom. Do not use a tremie with aluminum parts that will have contact with the concrete. Ensure the inside diameter is at least ten (10) inch. Ensure the tremie’s inside and outside surfaces are clean and smooth.

Ensure that the tremie is watertight. In slurry displacement shafts use a plug initially placed at the top of the tremie to separate the concrete from the displacement fluid until the concrete is flowing through the orifice. Ensure that plugs left in the shaft concrete are made of material approved by the Project Manager. Construct the discharge end of the tremie to permit the free radial flow of concrete during placement operations.

502.3.1.3.2 Concrete Pumps and Lines

Use watertight pump lines with a diameter of at least five (5) inch. Use schedule-40 steel pipe or heavier. Use plugs in accordance with Section 502.3.1.3.1, “Tremies.”

Use rigid-pipe drop chutes that are either one-piece or sectional. Ensure they can be added and removed from a metal hopper. Do not use flexible trunk line hose.

502.3.2 Submittals

Provide the required drilled shaft submittals to the Project Manager for the State

Section 502: Drilled Shafts Page 266

Geotechnical Engineer’s review and approval. The Contractor may use documented Work experience (per Section 502.3.2.1, “Work Experience”) and proposed construction procedure submittals (per Section 502.3.2.2, “Proposed Construction Procedure”) approved on previous

Department Projects of similar size, difficulty, and geology, in lieu of the detailed submittal requirements listed below.

Submit documentation verifying the required Work experience in accordance with

Section 502.1.1, “Work Experience.” Include the names and phone numbers of references that can verify successful completion of the listed Projects.

At least 30 Days before the drilled shaft concrete bearing pile Work begins, submit a complete written proposal of the construction procedure. The following information is required:

1. Superintendent name and experience record;

2. List of proposed Equipment including: cranes, drills, augers, bailing buckets, final cleaning Equipment, desanding Equipment, slurry pumps, core sampling

Equipment, tremies or concrete pumps, casing, etc.;

3. Description of construction operation sequence;

4. Description of shaft excavation methods;

5. Details of mixing, circulating, and slurry desanding methods;

6. Manufacturer and type of apparatus for testing slurry;

7. Description of methods for cleaning the shaft excavation;

8. Details for placing reinforcement including support and centralization methods; and

9. Details for placing concrete including operational procedures for free fall, tremie or pumping methods.

The State Geotechnical Engineer will evaluate the proposed construction procedure and will notify the Contractor if additional information is required and changes are necessary within

14 Days after receiving the proposed construction procedure. Administrative approvals are subject to field verification of performance.

502.3.3.1 Site and Subsurface Conditions

The Department’s test results and rock core samples are available for examination upon request.

502.3.3.2 Protection of Existing Structures

If specified, submit a preventative-measures plan to the Project Manager, at least

14 Days before the construction of the shaft.

If footings are present, excavate to the footings' bottom elevation before beginning shaft construction, unless the Contract or Project Manager allows otherwise. If the Contractor drills shafts in conjunction with placing Embankment, drill the shafts after placing the fill, unless the

Contract or Project Manager allows otherwise.

502.3.3.4 Proof Drilled Shafts

Construct a proof drilled shaft, when specified, at the location shown in the Contract.

Section 502: Drilled Shafts Page 267

Construct the shaft after the State Geotechnical Engineer approves the Equipment and methods. If specified in the Contract, load test the proof shaft in accordance with the Contract and Section 504, “Load Testing of Bearing Piles.” Drill the shaft to the maximum depth of any production shaft unless otherwise shown in the Contract. Underream the proof shaft to establish the feasibility of under-reaming in a specific soil strata or rock. Fill the proof shaft with concrete in the same way as the production shafts. If the methods and Equipment produce inadequate results as determined in 502.3.7 Acceptance, the Project Manager will require the Contractor to demonstrate acceptable results with another proof shaft. Once the proof shaft is approved, construct production shafts using the same means and methods. Do not change the means or methods without written approval from the State Geotechnical

Engineer. Cut off the proof shafts five (5) ft below finished grade and leave in place. Restore the proof shaft sites to their original condition.

502.3.3.5 Safety

Do not allow workers to enter the excavation for any reason.

502.3.4 Construction of Drilled Shafts

502.3.4.1.1 Dry Construction Method

The State Geotechnical Engineer will approve the dry construction method when the following occurs:

1. The shaft accumulates less than 12 inches of water above the base over a one

(1) hr period without pumping;

2. The shaft remains stable without caving, sloughing or swelling over a four

(4) hr period immediately following excavation;

3. The Contractor can remove loose material and water before inspection and concrete placement; and

4. Use of low strength grout collars to stabilize running sands or unstable zones within the drilled shaft excavation.

Use the slurry-displacement construction method or the casing construction method for shafts that do not meet these requirements.

The dry method consists of the following:

1. Drilling the shaft;

2. Removing accumulated water and loose material from the excavation;

3. Approval of bottom hole conditions by Certified Drilled Shaft Inspector;

4. Placing the reinforcing cage; and

5. Concreting the shaft.

502.3.4.1.2 Casing Construction Method

Use the casing construction method when called for in the Contract or where the dry construction method is inadequate. If necessary, use the casing method combined with the slurry displacement or dry construction method. Place the casing by twisting, driving, or vibrating into the ground before cleaning it out, unless the Contract requires the Contractor to place the casing in a predrilled hole. If the Contractor elects to use casings or shafts larger than those specified the Contractor shall provide the concrete necessary to fill the additional volume, at no additional cost to the Department.

The Department will consider subsurface casing to be temporary unless shown as permanent in the Contract. Remove the temporary casing when placing concrete for the

Section 502: Drilled Shafts Page 268

drilled shaft when the concrete is in a fluid state. If the Contractor removes a casing or replaces it with a longer or larger diameter casing through caving soils, the Contractor shall stabilize the excavation with slurry before installing the new casing. Other methods to control the stability of an excavation require approval of the Foundation Engineer. Before withdrawing the casing, ensure that the level of concrete in the casing is at least ten (10) ft above either the hydrostatic water level or the drilling fluid level, whichever is higher. Maintain a concrete level in the casing as it is removed so that fluid trapped behind it is displaced upward and discharged without contaminating or displacing the shaft concrete. Temporary casings that become bound or fouled during shaft construction, and cannot be practically removed, constitute a defect. Repair defective shafts in accordance with 502.3.8 Correction of Defective

Drilled Shafts.

Make permanent casing continuous from top to bottom. Cut off the permanent casing at the prescribed elevation after installation. Complete the shaft by placing the reinforcing steel and concrete in the casing. If using temporary casings in conjunction with permanent casings, keep the temporary inner casing aligned with the permanent outer casing. Maintain a water-tight seal between the two (2) casings during excavation and concrete placement where an oversized hole or temporary casing is approved by the Project Manager. When approved by the Foundation Engineer to allow drilling an oversize hole to aid in the placement of the permanent casing, post grout the exterior annular space outside of the permanent casing, such that the direct contact between casing and the surrounding soil/rock is created.

502.3.4.1.3 Slurry Displacement Construction Method

Use the slurry displacement method at sites where maintaining a dry excavation is not possible. Use a mineral or polymer slurry, or water to maintain stability around the hole's perimeter while advancing excavating, placing the reinforcing cage, and placing concrete.

Displace the slurry during final cleaning of the excavation with a bailing bucket, air lift, or submersible pump. Place concrete with a tremie or concrete pump beginning at the shaft bottom. During construction, keep the slurry level in the shaft excavation high enough to prevent caving and at least five (5) ft above the highest expected piezometric pressure head along the depth of the shaft. If not using permanent casings, provide temporary surface casings to aid shaft alignment and to prevent sloughing, unless otherwise approved by the

Foundation Engineer. If the slurry construction method does not produce the necessary results, discontinue operations and make corrective modifications to the procedures and

Equipment.

502.3.4.1.3.1 Polymer Slurry Requirements

Use polymer slurry that will stabilize the hole and inhibit the influx of ground water. Table

502.3.4.1.3.1:1, “Polymer Slurry Requirements, Emulsified or Dry Phpa Polymer,” lists acceptable ranges of values for slurry viscosity and gel.

Table 502.3.4.1.3.1:1

Polymer Slurry Requirements, Emulsified or Dry PHPA Polymer

Property (units)

Requirements

(at time of introduction or before concreting)

Test

Method

Density (pcf) 62.4 – 64.0 Density Balance

Viscosity

Sand Content

(% by volume) 0–1 API Method

Note: Perform tests when the slurry temperature is above 40 °F.

Premix the polymer slurry according to the manufacturer’s directions. Prevent the slurry from losing the required viscosity and gel characteristics in the shaft. Neutralize expended

Section 502: Drilled Shafts Page 269

polymer slurry with bleach and remove from Project to a site approved by the Project

Manager.

502.3.4.1.3.2 Mineral Slurry Requirements

Use Attapulgite, in lieu of Bentonite, where saline or chemically contaminated groundwater occurs. Use mineral slurry with a grain size that remains in suspension and has sufficient viscosity and gel characteristics to transport excavated material to the screening system. Provide mineral slurry in accordance with Table 502.3.4.1.3.2:1, “Mineral Slurry

Requirements, Sodium Bentonite or Attapulgite in Fresh Water.”

Table 502.3.4.1.3.2:1

Mineral Slurry Requirements, Sodium Bentonite or Attapulgite in Fresh Water

Property (units)

At time of slurry introduction

In hole at time of concreting

Test method

Density (pcf) N/A 64.0 – 75.0 Density Balance

Viscosity (seconds/quart) 28–45 N/A Marsh Cone

Sand Content N/A 0–4

Note: Perform tests when the slurry temperature is above 40 °F.

API Method

Premix the slurry according to the manufacturer’s directions. Prevent the slurry from

“setting up” in the shaft. Dispose of the slurry offsite in accordance with Section 107.14.8,

“Disposal of Other Materials and Debris.”

502.3.4.1.3.3 Slurry Control Tests

Perform control tests on the mineral slurry to determine density, viscosity, pH, and sand content. Do not place concrete unless the Certified Drilled Shaft Inspector has approved the bottom hole test results and after test results show acceptable values. Provide test reports to the Project Manager upon completion of each drilled shaft.

Perform tests to determine viscosity and pH before pumping the slurry into the excavation. Take at least two (2) sets of tests during the first 8 h of slurry processing.

Decrease the testing frequency to one (1) set every eight (8) hours when the results are consistent.

502.3.4.1.3.3.2 Bottom Hole Tests

Test slurry samples taken from the shaft base before placing concrete in any shaft excavation. Test until samples produce acceptable values for density, pH, and sand content.

Extend drilled shaft tip elevations when the Foundation Engineer determines that the material encountered during excavation is unsuitable. Dispose of Materials from the shaft excavation as directed by the Project Manager.

When using vibrating casing, do not place adjacent casings or excavate shafts until 48 h after pour completion of an adjacent shaft, or when concrete from the adjacent shaft pour breaks at least 2,000 psi, whichever comes first. This requirement applies to excavating any shaft within four (4) shaft diameters of another.

Use sidewall overreaming when the Foundation Engineer determines the sidewall has: softened due to excavation methods; swelled due to concrete placement Delays; or, degraded

Section 502: Drilled Shafts Page 270

because of slurry cake build-up. The Foundation Engineer will direct the thickness and elevation of sidewall overreaming.

502.3.4.2.2 Obstructions

Remove surface and subsurface obstructions. Obstructions may include manmade

Materials, such as old concrete foundations, or natural Materials, such as boulders or nested cobble zones that are not anticipated in the Contract. The Department’s Foundation or

Geotechnical Report includes the soil boring and rock core information, as well as groundwater conditions present at the time of the field investigation. Use this information to anticipate conditions. When obstructions are encountered, notify the Department Certified

Drilled Shaft Inspector as shown in Section 502.4.3, “Obstruction Removal.”

502.3.4.2.3 Soil Samples and Rock Cores

Take soil samples or rock cores at the locations shown in the Contract or as directed by the Foundation Engineer to determine the character of material directly below the bottom shaft elevation. Perform soil borings before excavating the shafts. Perform rock cores before excavating the shaft from the bottom of an exploration hole at no additional cost to the

Department. Extract and ship the core samples in accordance with the Department’s Manual

of Highway Structure Foundation Investigation and Subsurface Exploration. Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, begin bore holes or rock cores at the top of the rock socket elevation to at least ten (10) ft below the bottom of the drilled shaft excavation. Record the rock quality designation, percent recovery, joint orientation and infilling, and joint water from the rock cores extracted. After exploration, fill the core holes with grout, slurry, or mortar having a minimum compressive strength of 3,000 psi at 28 Days. Deliver the geologist’s field log cards to the

Project Manager after completing the logs. The Department will not require the Contractor’s geotechnical consultant to perform Laboratory testing on soil samples or rock cores unless specifically specified in the Contract. The Foundation Engineer will notify the Contractor of the final required shaft depth after receiving the geologist’s field log sheets and the lab testing results. This notification may take as long as 48 h from the time the Foundation Engineer receives the field log sheets or the soil and rock samples test results.

502.3.4.2.4 Shaft Excavation Inspection

Measure the final shaft depths. Ensure that at least 50% of each shaft base has less than 1.0 in of sediment when placing the concrete. Ensure that the sediment depth or debris at any place on the shaft base does not exceed 1.5 inches. For dry shafts, ensure that the water depth does not exceed three (3) inches before pouring concrete. Inspect slurry displacement shafts using the methods that the Foundation Engineer deems appropriate.

Receive approval of bottom hole conditions from Certified Drilled Shaft Inspector prior to continuing with the Work.

The Project Manager will notify the Contractor which procedures will be used for the shaft inspections. Supply Equipment and labor, the Project Manager will need to inspect the shaft.

Inspection procedures may include:

1. Inserting a casing in the shaft excavation temporarily for alignment, cleanliness, and dimension checks;

2. Inserting a rigid rod assembly with several 90° offsets equal to the shaft diameter;

3. Using Department video Equipment; or

4. Using a weighted tape and evaluation of results of desanding and density tests for slurry displacement excavations.

502.3.4.2.4.2 Remedial Work for Substandard Excavation

If the Foundation Engineer determines that a shaft excavation is substandard, develop, propose, and implement corrective measures. Corrective measures may include:

Section 502: Drilled Shafts Page 271

1. Overdrilling to a larger diameter to permit reinforcing steel placement with the required minimum cover;

2. Overreaming sidewalls of the shaft;

3. Increasing steel reinforcement bar number and size; or

4. Enlarging the underream within allowed tolerance.

502.3.4.3 Reinforcing Steel Unit Placement

The reinforcing steel unit consists of longitudinal bars and circular ties or a Structural

Steel shape. Place the structural shape or the reinforcing steel cage as a unit immediately after the Certified Drilled Shaft Inspector approves the shaft excavation and before placing concrete. Tie and support the reinforcing steel unit in the shaft so that it remains within allowable tolerances given in Section 502.3.5, “Location and Alignment Tolerances.” Use concrete spacers or other approved non-corrosive spacing devices at sufficient intervals, near the bottom and at maximum intervals of ten (10) ft up the shaft, to ensure concentric spacing for the entire reinforcement unit length. Use spacers equal in quality and durability to the concrete specified for the shaft. Inspect the bottom of the shaft immediately before placing of the cage to ensure that there is no sloughing.

Check the top elevation of the reinforcement unit before and after placing the concrete. If the reinforcement unit is not maintained within the specified tolerances, make corrections. Do not construct additional shafts before modifying the reinforcement unit support to the satisfaction of the Project Manager. Maintain the reinforcement unit at the proper elevation and orientation with an approved support mechanism at the ground surface. Place shaft concrete immediately after installing the cage. If more than 24 h elapses between the placement of the cage and concrete placement, remove the cage and inspect the shaft for sloughing or other damage.

Place concrete in accordance with Section 511, “Concrete Structures.” Place concrete as soon as possible after placing reinforcing steel.

Ensure that the time from when the concrete is batched at the plant to placement does not exceed 2 h. The Project Manager may approve a longer time period if the concrete mixture remains workable and plastic. Use admixtures for the job conditions so the concrete remains in a workable plastic state through the approved placement limit.

502.3.4.4.1 Concrete Placement by Free Fall

Use free fall placement in relatively dry holes where the maximum water depth does not exceed three (3) inches. Ensure that free fall-placed concrete falls directly to the base without contacting either the rebar cage or hole sidewall. Use a hopper at the top of the shaft or a rigid pipe extension from the hopper. Ensure that free fall placement does not exceed 60 ft below the bottom of the hopper or the rigid pipe extension. Do not use free fall in slurry displacement shafts. If the Project Manager determines that concrete cannot be placed using the free fall method, use either a tremie or pumping to accomplish the pour.

502.3.4.4.2 Concrete Placement with Tremie or by Pumping

Use rigid tremie pipe or concrete pumps for concrete placement in either dry or slurry displacement shafts. Place plug within tremie or pump line to ensure concrete does not segregate prior to developing concrete pressure head within tremie or pump line and that plug does not discharge from tremie or pump line prior to concrete developing continuous flow. Do not begin underwater placement before placing the tremie or pump line within one (1) tremie or pump line diameter of the shaft base elevation. Remove plugs from the excavation if the

Project Manager does not specifically approve them to remain in the shaft. Keep the discharge end continually immersed at least five (5) ft in concrete after starting the flow of concrete. Keep the concrete flow continuous. Maintain the concrete in tremies or pump lines continuously at a positive pressure differential to prevent water or slurry intrusion into the shaft

Section 502: Drilled Shafts Page 272

concrete. When lifting pump lines during concrete placement, temporarily reduce the line pressure until the orifice has been repositioned at a higher level in the excavation. If at any time during the concrete pour, the orifice is removed from the fluid concrete column and discharges concrete above the rising concrete level, the Department will consider the shaft defective. The Contractor may at its own risk and cost, remove the reinforcing cage and concrete to complete the necessary sidewall removal as directed by the Foundation Engineer.

The Department will base final Acceptance in accordance with Section 502.3.7, “Acceptance.”

502.3.5 Location and Alignment Tolerances

Adhere to the following construction tolerances unless otherwise stated in the Contract or directed by the Project Manager:

1. Ensure the drilled shaft and the concentric reinforcement steel unit is within three

(3) inches of Plan position at the top of the shaft;

2. Do not vary the vertical alignment of a vertical drilled shaft from the Plan alignment by more than 1/4 inch per foot of depth. Do not vary alignment of a battered drilled shaft by more than 0.5 inch per foot of depth from the specified batter;

3. Ensure that the top of the reinforcing steel unit is no more than six (6) inches above and no more than three (3) inches below Plan elevation; and

4. Ensure that the top elevation has a tolerance of +1 inch or

−3 inch from the Plan top of shaft elevation.

When the Contract includes load testing, complete the testing before construction of production shafts, unless otherwise approved by the State Geotechnical Engineer. Allow three (3) Working Days after the last load test is completed before receiving tip elevations of the production shafts from the State Geotechnical Engineer and proceeding with the construction of production shafts. After testing is completed, cut off the test shafts and reaction shafts at an elevation of five (5) ft below the finished ground elevation.

502.3.7 Acceptance

The Department will accept drilled shafts after the 28-Day compressive strength is verified. If the Contractor does not achieve the 28-Day compressive strength, the Department may completely reject the shafts or accept them in place in accordance with subsection 510.3.5.5, “Price Adjustments.”

The Department will accept drilled shafts if the construction tolerances are satisfied in accordance with Section 502.3.5, “Location and Alignment Tolerances.” If the shafts exceed the location or alignment tolerances, the Department will reject the shafts. If the State

Geotechnical Engineer determines that the extent of overloading is not detrimental to the performance of the shaft, the Department will accept the shaft.

If applicable, the Department will accept shafts when the pile integrity testing reports verify the structural integrity of the piles. The Department may reject a shaft if integrity testing shows conclusive evidence that a defect exists in the shaft that may result in inadequate or unsafe performance under service loads. If the report is inconclusive, the State Geotechnical

Engineer may require the Contractor to drill a core hole in the shaft. If the core hole confirms the defect, the Department will not pay the coring costs. If the core hole does not find a defect, the Department will pay for coring costs, including pressure grouting.

502.3.8 Correction of Defective Drilled Shafts

Section 502: Drilled Shafts Page 273

If the Department determines that a shaft is unacceptable, submit a plan for remedial action to the Project Manager for approval. Provide calculations and Working Drawings, stamped by a New Mexico registered professional Engineer for all foundation elements affected by the proposed corrections. Make corrections to drilled shafts r, at no additional cost to the Department.

502.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Department will not measure additional shaft depth or additional shafts used due to defective procedures.

The Department will only measure the first proof shaft constructed in place.

502.4.2 Soil Borings and Rock Cores

The Department will measure Soil Borings from the bottom of the exploration hole to existing grade.

The Department will measure Rock Cores from the point at which rock cores are recovered to the bottom of the rock coring.

502.4.3

Obstruction Removal

The Department will measure an obstruction vertically beginning where it is encountered and ending where conventional drilling Equipment adequately advances the hole. To qualify for Obstruction Removal measurement, get the Certified Drilled Shaft Inspector’s authorization and meet the following requirements:

1. Hole advancement requires special procedures and tools, such as: chisels; boulder breakers; percussion hammers; core barrels; air tools; hand excavation; temporary casing; or increasing hole diameter; or

2. The rate of auger advancement is decreased to where the drilling rate through the obstruction is less than 50% of the drilling rate above the obstruction.

Obstruction Removal cost will include Delay costs. The Department will not allow additional Contract Time unless the Project Manager approves a detailed schedule analysis establishing the critical path of the additional time required to complete the Obstruction

Removal. The Department will not measure Obstruction Removal outside the specified shaft diameter.

502.4.4 Certified Drilled Shaft Inspector

Provide a Certified Drilled Shaft Inspector to oversee and inspect all aspects of the drilled shaft construction and sign the NMDOT Drilled Shaft Inspection Reports. Provide certification through NMDOT TTCP or International Association of Foundation Drilling, also identified as

ADSC.

502.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Drilled Shaft Foundation____Diameter Foot

Permanent Casing____Diameter Foot

Steel Shape Reinforcement Pound

Soil Borings Foot

Rock Cores Foot

Obstruction Removal Foot

Section 502: Drilled Shafts Page 274

Steel Reinforcement in the drilled shaft is paid for under Section 540 except for overhead sign structures which are address in Section 701.

502.5.1 Work Included in Payment

The following Work and items will be considered as included in the payment for the main item(s) and will not be measured or paid for separately:

A. Methods employed by the Contractor to maintain stability of the shaft, including the use of temporary casings, slurry assisted shaft excavation, or use of grout collars;

B. All Work associated with sidewall overreaming;

C. Drilled shaft concrete required to fill shafts including oversized excavations, underreams, and overreams;

D. Excavation of anticipated Materials shown in the Contract of different densities and character including employment of special tools and procedures necessary to accomplish the excavation through bedrock;

E. Additional wall thickness required for handling and installation of permanent casing;

F. The Equipment and labor required for the shaft inspection procedure; and

G. Certified Drilled Shaft Inspection.

Section 502: Drilled Shafts Page 275

SECTION 504: LOAD TESTING OF BEARING PILES

504.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of static axial compressive load tests (pile load test), static axial tensile load tests (pile pullout tests), and high strain dynamic measurements (dynamic measurements) of piles for the purpose of determining ultimate bearing capacity and pile pullout capacity.

For driven piles, dynamic measurements determine driving stresses, pile integrity, and hammer efficiency. For cast-in-place concrete piles (drilled shafts), dynamic measurements verify pile integrity.

Provide labor, Equipment, and Materials necessary to drill the dynamic test piles holes and for mounting transducers. Provide the analysis Equipment power supply.

Where dynamic measurements are to be made on cast-in-place piles, provide a gravity drop hammer and pile cushioning. Excavate around the pile, cut the permanent casing, drill holes in the test pile(s) and provide impacts on cast-in-place dynamic test piles as required.

504.1.1.2 Pile Load and Pile Pullout Tests

Provide everything necessary to perform pile load or pile pullout tests. Record load measurement and pile movement readings, and produce a report(s) showing the load displacement curve(s).

The Department will provide the Equipment to perform dynamic measurements. The

Department will provide personnel to take the dynamic measurements.

504.1.2.2 Pile Load and Pile Pullout Tests

The Contract will specify the anchor pile requirements. The Department will provide personnel to observe and monitor the Contractor’s test apparatus, test methods, and data collection.

Mobilize testing Equipment as needed and as designated by the Contract or authorized by the State Geotechnical Engineer. Mobilize testing Equipment only after receipt of written authorization.

504.2

SUBMITTALS

504.2.1 Load Test Frame

Submit the proposed load test frame and anchorage method, details, and design computations 30 Days before the start of pile load tests and pile pullout tests. Use a professional Engineer licensed in New Mexico to prepare and seal the proposed loading apparatus detail Plans.

504.2.2 Certificates of Calibration

Submit a calibration certificate and a calibration chart relating pressure to load for the

Section 504: Load Testing of Bearing Piles Page 276

load pressure gauge(s) from a certified Laboratory before use. Calibrate each jack and its gauge as a unit. Submit a calibration certificate for load cell(s). Calibrate gauges and cells within six (6) months before use.

504.2.3 Pile and Equipment Data Form

Submit a Pile and Driving Equipment Data Form as required in Section 501.2.3.1, “Pile

Driving Equipment Submittals,” when proposing a gravity drop hammer for dynamic measurements of cast-in-place piles.

504.3

EQUIPMENT

504.3.1 Equipment for Dynamic Testing

Provide dynamic test Equipment electric power that supplies 10 A, 115 V, 55 Hz to

60 Hz, A.C. only. If a field generator is used as the power source, provide functioning voltage and frequency level monitoring meters.

504.3.1.2 Gauge Mounting Equipment

Provide a power drill, bits, taps, and expandable masonry anchor studs to drill holes in the dynamic test piles for bolting transducers to the piles. Provide a six (6) lb rubber mallet hammer when dynamic testing is specified on precast concrete piles.

To assist the Department’s installation of instruments, provide a hydraulic, telescopingarm personnel lift. Provide a personnel lift with adequate length to reach the top of the pile located in the leads.

The Contractor may use an alternative to a personnel lift in accordance with Section

504.3.4.1.2, “Preparation for Testing.”

504.3.1.4 Gravity Drop Hammer

Provide a gravity drop hammer and pile cushion when cast-in-place piles dynamic testing is specified. Provide the minimum hammer ram weight and free fall height and cushion thickness specified in the Contract. Equip gravity hammers with guides to ensure concentric drive head impact.

If approved by the State Geotechnical Engineer, the Contractor may use a diesel hammer with the minimum required ram weight and impact energy. Cut-off the fuel flow.

504.3.2 Equipment for Pile Load Test

Provide testing Equipment and measuring systems in accordance with ASTM D 1143, except as modified within these Specifications.

Provide a load system capable of applying 250% of the required ultimate pile capacity.

Provide a load test frame design compatible with the anchor pile requirements in accordance with Section 504.3.4.2.1, “Test Pile and Anchor Pile Requirements.”

Construct the apparatus so that it is possible to place load increments gradually without causing test pile or load test frame vibration.

Section 504: Load Testing of Bearing Piles Page 277

Use hydraulic jacks to apply the load. When using multiple jacks, fit each jack with a pressure gauge in addition to the master hydraulic pressure gauge. Use jacks from the same manufacturer with the same rated capacity. Connect jacks to a common manifold with pressure supplied by one (1) hydraulic pump.

504.3.2.3 Load Measuring System

Provide a dual load measuring system (gauge and load cell) to verify the test pile load.

Calibrate the load cell and mount it between the load frame and the pile head to confirm the load recorded from the pressure gauge.

504.3.2.4 Settlement Measuring System

Use a dual settlement measuring system. Provide two (2) dial gauges bearing on the reference beams at opposite sides of the pile, below the test plate. Support the reference beams outside of pile-soil movement influences. Provide two (2) linear variable differentiating transformers, with remote digital read-outs bearing on reference beams on opposite sides of the pile.

504.3.3 Equipment for Pile Pullout Test

Use testing Equipment and measuring systems in accordance with Section 504.3.2,

“Equipment for Pile Load Test,” except as modified within these Specifications.

Provide a load system capable of applying 200% of the required ultimate pile pullout capacity.

It is permissible to use suitable cribbing or other bearing plates for reaction points instead of anchor piles. Use cribbing or bearing plates of sufficient size and stiffness to limit undesirable reaction frame movement.

504.3.4

Testing Requirements

504.3.4.1 Dynamic Pile Testing Requirements

Perform dynamic testing during the pile driving as described in the Contract as “Dynamic

Test Piles.” The State Geotechnical Engineer may decide to designate additional piles shown in the Contract as dynamic test piles.

Notify the Project Manager at least 21 Days before commencing dynamic test pile testing.

Confirm the testing schedule with the Project Manager 3 Days before the testing date. Notify the Project Manager promptly of any changes in the schedule. Test dynamic test piles before any other piles are driven or installed, unless the Project Manager approves otherwise.

504.3.4.1.2 Preparation for Testing

Prepare dynamic test piles as follows:

1.

Drilling for Mounting Transducers.

 

Drill holes for mounting the transducers.

Bolt the instruments near the head of the pile at the location and using a bolt pattern designated by the State Geotechnical Engineer.

Drilling requirements for each test pile include the following:

1.1. Steel pipe piles: Seven (7) holes drilled with a 7/32 inch diameter bit, tapped to accommodate ¼ in bolts;

1.2. Steel HP piles: Five (5) holes drilled with a 5/16 inch diameter bit through the

Section 504: Load Testing of Bearing Piles Page 278

web;

1.3. Precast concrete or cast-in-place concrete piles: Seven (7) ¼ inch x 1 ½ inch holes with ¼ inch expandable anchor studs set in the holes to accommodate

¼ inch bolts;

2.

Wave Speed Measurements.

 

When precast concrete piles are specified as dynamic test piles, place the pile horizontally on wooden sleepers so that it is not in contact with the ground or with other piling. The State Geotechnical Engineer will take wave speed measurements for the Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) by hitting the pile with a six (6) lb rubber mallet hammer.

The Department will not require wave speed measurements for steel piles;

3.

Transducer Installation.

 

Install the instruments while the pile is in the leads using a man-lift raised to the top of the pile.

As an alternative to the man-lift requirement, the State Geotechnical Engineer may install the instruments after the pile is driven to a tip elevation of ten (10) ft above the Plan tip elevation.

504.3.4.1.3 Procedure for Testing Driven Piles

The following are the procedures for testing driven piles:

1. Drive the test pile in accordance with Section 501.3.5, “Pile Driving Operations,” while the State Geotechnical Engineer monitors the dynamic measurements;

2. Monitor the test pile stresses that result from the driving to ensure that the compressive or tensile stresses do not exceed the allowable driving stresses as defined in Table 501.3.1.4:1, “Wave Equation Analysis Allowable Driving Stress.” If the monitored pile stresses exceed these criteria, stop driving. Perform necessary modifications to the driving operation to ensure that pile damage does not occur;

3. Monitor the test pile stresses on individual gauges to determine if non-axial driving is indicated. If the pile bends beyond acceptable allowances, stop driving and realign the driving system;

4. If the Contract specifies an estimated penetration elevation, drive the first dynamic test pile until the required ultimate capacity or the estimated penetration elevation is achieved;

If the Contract specifies a minimum penetration elevation, drive the first dynamic test pile to that elevation;

If the test pile does not achieve the required ultimate capacity at the estimated or minimum penetration elevation, splice the test pile with additional length of pile.

Remove and relocate the instruments to the spliced section. Proceed with driving until the ultimate driving capacity is achieved;

5. Forty-eight hours after the initial drive, restrike each test pile previously driven with the dynamic measuring Equipment installed. The State Geotechnical Engineer may allow shorter wait periods depending on soil and test conditions. Alternatively, the

Contract may require longer wait periods, multiple restrike intervals, or both on a given test pile. Use a “warm” hammer that has previously driven at least one (1) pile other than the test pile(s), to restrike the test pile(s). The maximum total number of hammer blows for the restrike is 40.

504.3.4.1.4 Procedure for Testing Cast-in-Place Piles

The following are the procedures for testing cast-in-place piles:

1. When the Contractor casts the dynamic test pile(s), the Inspector will make three (3) test cylinders of concrete or grout for each test pile in accordance with

AASHTO T 23M.

Provide concrete that will achieve a compressive strength at seven (7) Days of

3,000 psi;

2. After seven (7) Days, weigh the three (3) concrete test cylinders and report the average unit weight to the State Geotechnical Engineer.

Section 504: Load Testing of Bearing Piles Page 279

Test one (1) concrete cylinder at seven (7) Days. If the compressive strength is at least 3,000 psi, test the other two (2) cylinders. Report the average of the three (3) breaks to the State Geotechnical Engineer.

Perform the dynamic test on the test pile the same Day that the cylinders are broken;

3. If the first test cylinder breaks at less than 3,000 psi, report the result to the State

Geotechnical Engineer. The State Geotechnical Engineer may decide either to have the last two (2) cylinders tested the same Day or to wait up to a maximum of

14 additional Days before breaking the last two (2) cylinders. The Day the last two

(2) cylinders are tested, re-weigh the cylinders and determine the average unit weight of the concrete.

Perform the dynamic test on the test pile the same Day the last two (2) cylinders are broken;

There will be no added compensation to the Contractor and no time extension to the

Contract if Delays occur because the concrete does not achieve the required strength at seven (7) Days.

4. Use the average compressive strength and the average unit weight of the concrete to estimate the modulus of elasticity and the wave speed of the concrete for input into the PDA;

5. Perform excavation around the test pile as needed to mount the gauges. Typically, the required depth of excavation will be twice the diameter of the pile;

6. Attach the instruments to the pile head and impact the pile with the ram at the free fall height directed by the State Geotechnical Engineer. Each test pile will not require more than 40 blows.

Monitor the pile stresses that result from the ram impact to ensure that the compressive or tensile stresses do not exceed the allowable pile driving stresses defined in Table 501.3.1.4:1, “Wave Equation Analysis Allowable Driving Stress.” If the monitored pile stresses exceed these criteria, the Department will direct the

Contractor to reduce the ram free fall height or add pile cushioning.

504.3.4.1.5 Case Pile Wave Analysis

After re-striking a dynamic test pile, the State Geotechnical Engineer may phone an approved firm and transmit a record of a representative blow from the dynamic test pile.

The firm must have proven experience using the Case Pile Wave Analysis Program model and be capable of returning analysis results to the State Geotechnical Engineer within one (1) Working Day from the time of transmission.

At the option of the State Geotechnical Engineer, Department personnel may perform the

Case Pile Wave Analysis Program.

504.3.4.2 Pile Load and Pile Pullout Testing Requirements

504.3.4.2.1 Test Pile and Anchor Pile Requirements

 

Apply the load to a production pile driven in the final Plan location, unless otherwise specified in the Contract, and apply the test frame against anchor

(tension) piles;

Use production piles driven in final Plan locations for the anchor piles unless the layout of the test frame reaction points is fixed and inconsistent with the production pile layout or unless an alternative pile type is required to develop adequate pullout resistance. The Project Manager will decide if anchor piles that are not final production piles may be cut-off below final grade or pulled after the testing is completed;

 

Apply the load to a production pile located in the final Plan location, unless otherwise shown in the Contract. Use either driven piles or cast-inplace piles as anchor piles. Do not use anchor piles as final production piles.

Section 504: Load Testing of Bearing Piles Page 280

Provide cast-in-place anchor piles with reinforcement capable of carrying the pile tension force.

504.3.4.2.2 Commencement of Load Test

Unless otherwise specified in the Contract, wait a minimum of 24 h between driving or installing anchor piles or the test pile and commencing with the pile load or pile pullout test.

When testing pipe piles filled with concrete or cast-in-place concrete piles, begin load tests after the concrete has attained a compressive strength of 2,500 psi.

504.3.4.2.3 Load Testing Procedures

Conduct pile load tests and pile pullout tests in accordance with the following requirements:

ASTM D 1143, but take the load test to the first of either failure of the test pile or capacity of the load system;

2. Test pile failure is defined as total vertical pile movement equal to the greater of either five percent (5%) of the pile diameter or two (2) inches;

3. If failure occurs, remove the test load in four (4) approximately equal amounts with a five-minute interval between removals;

4. For pile load tests where piles are 24 inch or less in diameter or width, the ultimate capacity is the load that produces a settlement of the pile head in accordance with the following equation:

Sf

S

( 0 .

15

0 .

008

D

)

(1)

Where,

Sf

is the settlement at the ultimate pile capacity in inches

D

is the pile diameter or width in inches

S

is the elastic deformation of pile length in inches

Use the following equation for piles with diameters or widths greater than 24 inches:

Sf

S

D

30

(2)

Where,

Sf

is the settlement at the ultimate pile capacity in inches

D

is the pile diameter or width in inches

S

is the elastic deformation of pile length in inches

5. For pile pullout tests, the State Geotechnical Engineer will determine when the ultimate pile capacity is attained.

504.3.4.3 Completion of Dynamic Testing of Driven Piles

After completing the dynamic test pile(s) at a Substructure element, prepare the pile(s) for any specified pile load or pile pullout test(s).

If no load testing is required as determined in Section 501.3.6, “Pile Acceptance,” the required field Acceptance criteria for the production piles is dynamic testing. When dynamic testing alone is specified, the State Geotechnical Engineer will require up to 36 h after completion of the last test pile to provide the driving criteria.

Drive production piles no deeper than the estimated or minimum penetration elevation

Section 504: Load Testing of Bearing Piles Page 281

before receiving the field Acceptance criteria. Record the average hammer stroke and pile set after driving of each pile to determine pile Acceptance once the driving criteria is established.

After receiving the field Acceptance criteria, drive piles until attaining the required ultimate capacity.

504.3.4.4 Completion of Dynamic Testing of Cast-in-Place Piles

Base the required production pile tip elevation on the dynamic testing and load testing results if specified. The State Geotechnical Engineer will require up to 36 h after completion of the last test pile to provide the pile tip elevation.

Unless the State Geotechnical Engineer directs otherwise, place no other piles until receiving the production pile tip elevation.

504.3.4.5 Completion of Load Testing

After completing the specified load test(s) to the Project Manager’s satisfaction, dismantle the test apparatus and Equipment and remove from the site. Use the load test results to determine the ultimate pile capacity Acceptance criteria of driven piles as established under

Section 501.3.6, “Pile Acceptance,” and to confirm ultimate pile capacities determined by dynamic pile tests.

Pulled anchor piles of the same type as the production piles may be reused as production piles if not rejected by the Project Manager due to damage as covered in Section 501.3.6.3,

“Damaged Pile Limitations.”

For cast-in-place piles, use the load test results to determine the pile penetration requirements if no subsequent dynamic testing is specified.

The State Geotechnical Engineer will require up to 36 h after completion of the last test pile to provide the pile tip elevation.

Re-drive production piles used as anchor piles in accordance with Section 501.3.6, “Pile

Acceptance.”

504.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

504.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

Pile Load Test Each

Pile Pullout Test Each

Pile Dynamic Test Each

Case Pile Wave Analysis Test Each

504.4.1 Work Included in Payment

The following Work will be considered as included in the payment for the mail item(s) and will not be measured or paid for separately: Non-production anchor and test piles which will not remain in use as part of the permanent structure.

Section 504: Load Testing of Bearing Piles Page 282

505.1

DESCRIPTION

505.1.1 General

SECTION 505:

 

PILE INTEGRITY TESTING

This Work consists of pile integrity testing for verifying structural integrity and determining the extent and location of pile defects. Defects may include internal voids, necking of the pile’s perimeter, transverse cracks, soil intrusions, weak concrete or grout in drilled shaft foundations.

505.1.2 Test Methods

Use crosshole sonic logging (CSL) or low strain integrity (LSI) testing for integrity testing.

The Department may require LSI testing to corroborate the results of CSL testing that show potential defects. Only an approved Integrity Testing Consultant or Department personnel will perform CSL or LSI Testing.

505.1.3 Consultant Integrity Testing

If an Integrity Testing Consultant is required, the consultant’s qualifications must meet the requirements of the Geotechnical Design Section and the Equipment used must meet the requirements of Section 505.3.1.1, “CSL Testing Equipment,” and Section 505.3.1.2, “LSI

Testing Equipment.” Perform field testing with an experienced technician or Engineer having at least one (1) year of experience with the integrity testing methods. Use a licensed professional Engineer having at least three (3) years of experience in the integrity testing methods performed to interpret the recorded measurements.

Department personnel will only perform integrity testing when the Contract specifies CSL or LSI Department testing. Department personnel will use Department-owned Equipment to perform testing.

505.1.5 Assistance

Provide additional labor to perform the testing if required by the testing consultant or

Department personnel. Provide access to the piles. If required, provide a 110 V, 55 Hz to

60 Hz, AC power supply.

505.2

MATERIALS

Use two (2) inch internal diameter (ID) access tubes of schedule 40 PVC with a round, regular ID free of defects or obstructions to allow passage of the source and receiver probes.

Provide watertight tubes with clean internal and external surfaces to ensure a good bond between the concrete and tubes. Fit the tubes with glued caps at the bottom and threaded caps at the top.

505.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

505.3.1 Equipment

Use CSL Equipment in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Use ultrasonic source and receiver probes capable of producing records with strong signal amplitude and energy through uniform, high quality concrete. Use probes with a diameter and cabling that will descend freely through two (2) inch ID pipe for the full pile depth;

Section 505: Pile Integrity Testing Page 283

2. Record probe depth;

3. Use a microprocessor-based CSL measurement system for analog-digital conversion and data recording, individual record display, receiver response analysis, and log printing;

4. Ensure that the CSL system has filter/amplification of data and cables;

5. Use a CSL system that has a synchronized triggering feature with the ultrasonic pulse for the recording system.

505.3.1.2 LSI Testing Equipment

Use LSI Testing Equipment that meets the following requirements:

1. Use Equipment that has a digital data acquisition system with a dynamic signal analyzer, magnetic disk storage and hardcopy plotting capabilities. Ensure that the analyzer has both signal conditioning and power supply with high signal-to-noise ratios and variable frequency filtering to mitigate steel reinforcing and surface waves vibration noise. Ensure that the data is displayed in the field so that a preliminary data quality evaluation is possible;

2. Provide a receiver that is a suitable velocity transducer or accelerometer and place on the pile head.

505.3.2 CSL Testing Requirements

505.3.2.1 Preparation of CSL Access Tubes

Place access tubes in drilled shafts where the wet-hole construction method was used, or as directed by the State Geotechnical Engineer. Install access tubes as shown in the Plans.

Fasten the tubes to the exterior reinforcement cage, so the tube bottoms are six (6) inches above the shaft bottom and the tube tops are 12 inches above the shaft top. Tie the tubes to the cage and glue the tubes together while lowering the cage into the shaft. Immediately after concrete or grout placement, fill the tubes with clean water and cap.

Before construction of the Substructure above the foundation, direct the CSL consultant to test the completed piles from two (2) Days to ten (10) Days after completing concrete or grout placement. Provide information about the pile’s bottom and top elevations, tube lengths and positions, and construction dates to the Integrity Testing Consultant or Department personnel before logging.

Log between each adjacent pair of tubes in the pile. Place the source and receiver probes in the same horizontal plane unless test results indicate potential defects. If potential defects are indicated, evaluate the area further using angled tests with the source and receiver vertically offset in the tubes. Additional testing of other untested tube pair combinations may be required.

Simultaneously pull the probes from the tube bottom of the over the depth wheel or other measuring device, once the slack is taken out of the cables, to provide accurate depth measurements. Take the CSL measurements at 2 3/8 inch intervals or less from the bottom to top of the pile. Report defects indicated by longer pulse arrival times and significantly lower amplitude/energy signals to the State Geotechnical Engineer. The State Geotechnical

Engineer may require further tests to evaluate the extent of the defects.

Refill CSL tubes with water after testing the shafts containing defects indicated by the initial CSL testing.

Report the results of completed CSL testing at a given Substructure element within

5 Days after testing completion for that element. Provide report copies to the State

Section 505: Pile Integrity Testing Page 284

Geotechnical Engineer and the Project Manager that contain the following information:

1. CSL logs (indicate defect zones on the CSL logs);

2. Initial pulse arrival time versus depth and pulse amplitude/energy versus depth analyses; and

3. Narrative.

505.3.3 LSI Testing Requirements

Ensure that the pile head is perpendicular to the pile’s vertical axis and is made of sound concrete. Remove weak, poor quality, or broken concrete from the pile head to expose sound concrete. Clearly expose the pile head and free it of debris and water. Ground the pile head center impacted by the impulse hammer smooth along with the pile edge area where transducers are attached to provide a flat, horizontal surface for the LSI test.

505.3.3.2 LSI Testing Procedure

Perform LSI testing only when specified or when required by the State Geotechnical

Engineer due to potential defects indicated by CSL testing results. Impact the pile head with a hammer that can produce a compression wave capable of being reflected from the pile toe.

LSI testing may only be effective to depths of 20 times to 30 times the pile diameter. Take LSI testing measurements in both the time and frequency domains.

Display the motion record (pile top velocity) on a hard copy as a function of time. High soil friction may require velocity signal magnification using integration with exponentially increasing magnitude to enhance the pile toe reflection. Average several consistent records.

In addition to the velocity records as a function of time, the amplified and averaged difference between velocity and force may be displayed to provide additional information about the pile top quality, including dynamic stiffness.

Use transient response or impulse response, using hammer force in the frequency domain (mobility) to provide additional defect determination of the pile.

505.3.3.3 LSI Testing Results

Report LSI testing results completed at a given Substructure element within 10 Days after completing testing for that element. Provide report copies to the State Geotechnical Engineer and the Project Manager that contain the following information:

1. Pile length and concrete quality analyses;

2. Pile integrity opinions based on LSI testing;

3. Correlation of potential defects to those indicated by the CSL test results, if performed;

4. Pile head dynamic stiffness;

5. Mobility, a measure of cross-sectional area and concrete quality;

6. Plots of the averaged, amplified velocity and acceleration versus time, and, if required, the mobility versus frequency; and

7. Narrative.

505.3.4 Acceptance and Rejection of Piles

The Department will accept piles if pile integrity testing reports verify the structural integrity of the piles. Pile rejection will require conclusive evidence that a defect exists that may result in inadequate or unsafe performance under service loads. If the report is inconclusive, the State Geotechnical Engineer may require the Contractor to drill a core hole into the defective pile.

The Department will reject shafts where velocities are less than 10,000 ft per second and

Section 505: Pile Integrity Testing Page 285

the anomalous velocity is less than 25% of the baseline velocity of the CSL record. Such rejection may be due to tubes not being tied in a plumb position and with equal offsets from adjacent tubes.

If a pile is unacceptable, submit a remedial action plan to the State Geotechnical

Engineer. Provide calculations and Working Drawings stamped by a registered professional

Engineer for foundation elements affected by modifications to the foundation piles and load transfer mechanisms caused by the remedial action.

505.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT—Reserved

505.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

CSL Consultant Testing Each

CSL Department Testing Each

LSI Consultant Testing Each

LSI Department Testing Each

505.5.1 Work Included in Payment

The following Work and items will be considered as included in the payment for the main items and no direct payment will be made therefore;

A. Furnishing all Materials, labor, tools and Equipment necessary to complete the

Work;

B. Assistance to the consultant or Department personnel necessary to complete the

Work;

C. CSL Access tubes; and

D. Calculations and Working Drawings stamped by a registered professional Engineer for all foundation elements requiring remedial action, and all labor and Materials necessary to complete corrections for rejected piles. If a defect is confirmed by coring of the concrete, Materials and labor for coring will be at the expense of the

Contractor. If no defects are found, the Department will pay for all coring costs, including pressure grouting of the core holes. The time period allowed to perform testing shall be no less than 48 hours to no more than 10 Days from time of completion of the construction of the pile.

Section 505: Pile Integrity Testing Page 286

SECTION 506: MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES

506.1

DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of designing, providing, and constructing mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining Structures.

506.2

MATERIALS

506.2.1 Precast Concrete Elements

Provide precast concrete elements conforming with Section 517, “Precast Concrete

Structures.” Provide Class AA concrete. The precast concrete Supplier shall prepare the mix design and the State Materials Bureau will approve it.

506.2.1.2 Casting

Place the precast concrete face panels on a horizontal surface with the front face of the panel at the bottom of the form. Set connection hardware in the rear face. Place the concrete in each precast concrete panel without interruption and consolidate it with an approved vibrator and hand tamping to force the concrete into the corner of the forms and eliminate the formation of stone pockets or cleavage planes. Use clear form oil throughout the casting operation.

506.2.1.3 Finish

Screed the rear faces of precast concrete panels to create a uniform surface texture that is free of open pockets of aggregates and surface distortions greater than 3/16 inch. Apply a

Class I finish, per Section 511 “Concrete Structures,” to other non-exposed surfaces.

Provide the type of finish on the exposed surface per the Contract. If the Contract requires an exposed aggregate finish, produce as follows:

1. Before placing concrete, apply a set retarder to the casting forms in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions;

2. After removing the forms and after the concrete has set sufficiently to prevent dislodging, expose the aggregate with a combination of brushing and washing

(using clean water) to a depth of between 3/8 inch and 1/2 inch; and

3. Apply an acrylic resin sealer, consisting of 80% thinner and 20% acrylic solids by weight, to the exposed aggregate surface at a rate of one (1) gal per 250 ft

2

.

506.2.1.4 Tolerances

Manufacture the precast concrete elements in accordance with the following tolerances:

1. Dimensions within precast concrete panels, ± 0.2 inch;

2.1. Smooth formed surfaces not greater than ± 3/16 inch within five (5) feet;

2.2. Textured-finish surfaces not greater than ± 5/16 inch within five (5) feet.

3. Differences in diagonal lengths not greater than 1/2 inch.

506.2.1.5 Identification and Markings

Inscribe the manufacture date, the production lot number, and the piece mark on a nonexposed surface of each element.

Section 506: Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Structures Page 287

506.2.1.6 Handling, Storage, and Shipping

Handle, store, and ship units in a manner that eliminates damage and discoloration.

Do not ship or place elements in the wall until the design strength is reached. Cast wall panels on a flat area and fully support them until the concrete reaches a minimum compressive strength of 1,000 psi as determined by the Maturity Method detailed in

Section 510.3.5.2, “In-Place Concrete Strength Measurements.” Unless otherwise specified by the wall manufacturer, do not handle the elements until they reach a compressive strength of 1,000 psi.

506.2.1.8 Rejection

The following defects are sufficient cause for rejection:

1. Connection defects and out-of-tolerance connection imbeds/inserts;

2. Defects indicating imperfect molding;

3. Defects indicating honeycombing or open texture concrete;

4. Cracked or severely chipped panels;

5. Color variation on front face of panel due to excess form oil or other reason; and

6. Presence of oil on panels.

Provide reinforcing steel in accordance with Section 540, “Steel Reinforcement.”

Do not use geosynthetics for soil reinforcement. Galvanize steel connection hardware in accordance with AASHTO M 111. Support the soil reinforcement while lifting and placing so that the galvanization remains intact and does not crack.

Hot roll reinforcing strips from bars to the required shape and dimensions. Provide reinforcing strips with physical and mechanical properties in accordance with

AASHTO M 223M, Grade 65, or equivalent. Provide shop-fabricated tie strips of hot rolled steel in accordance with ASTM A 1011, Grade 50, or equivalent. The minimum-bending radius of the tie strips is one (1) inch. Apply galvanization after strip fabrication.

Provide reinforcing bar mats of cold-drawn steel wire in accordance with AASHTO M 32 and weld the mats into the finished mesh fabric in accordance with AASHTO M 55. Form mesh button heads so that variations between the longest and shortest wire in any mesh is less than one (1) inch. Apply galvanization after mesh fabrication. Provide a 1-inch coil embed of cold drawn steel wire in accordance with AISI C 1035.

Provide connector pins and mat bars from A-36 steel and weld to the soil reinforcement mats. Provide connector bars of cold drawn steel wire in accordance with AASHTO M 32.

506.2.4 Fasteners

Provide fasteners in accordance with the Contract or the approved Working Drawings.

Cast fasteners in the precast concrete panels so that the fasteners are in alignment. This will result in fasteners transferring a full and even load to the grid or strap reinforcement. The

Section 506: Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Structures Page 288

tolerance between the fastener and the reinforcement grid or straps for field installation is

3/16 inch. Galvanize and provide fasteners in accordance with AASHTO M 164.

506.2.5 Precast Concrete Panel Joints

Where walls wrap around a corner, provide a corner block panel with flange extensions that will allow differential movement without exposing the panel joints. Provide joint filler, bearing pads, and filter fabric in accordance with the wall manufacturer’s recommendations and the approved Working Drawings.

If required, provide flexible foam strips for filler in vertical joints between panels, and in horizontal joints where pads are used, in accordance with the Plans.

Provide the following for horizontal joints between panels:

1. Pre-formed Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) rubber pads in accordance with ASTM D 2000 for 4AA, 812 rubbers;

2. Neoprene elastomeric pads having a Durometer Hardness (ASTM D 2240) of 55

± 5; or

3. High-density polyethylene pads with a minimum density of 60 lb per cubic foot in accordance with ASTM D 1505.

Cover the joints between panels on the backside of the wall with a geotextile meeting the requirements for filtration applications in accordance with Section 604.2.4 Separator

Geotextile, Class 3. Provide a minimum lap width of one (1) ft.

506.2.6 Reinforced Soil Backfill Material

Provide backfill that is free of shale, organic matter, and other soft particles of poor durability. Provide backfill with a soundness loss of 30 or less if tested in accordance with

AASHTO T 104 using a magnesium sulfate solution with a test duration of four (4) cycles.

Gradation Requirements,” unless otherwise specified.

Table 506.2.6:1

Backfill Gradation Requirements

Sieve size % passing

Four (4) inch

No. 40

100

0

60

No. 200 0

15

Provide backfill with a PI, no greater than 6 in accordance with AASHTO T 90.

The Department defines “rock backfill” as the Material described in Section 506.2.6,

“Backfill Material,” that is composed primarily of rock fragments (Material having less than 15% passing a 1/2 inch sieve and no more than five percent (5%) passing a No. 4 sieve). If using

“rock backfill,” place a separator geotextile over the top of the backfill Material before placing the top two (2) ft of backfill. Also place a separator geotextile between the rock backfill and the random fill as the reinforced soil backfill is placed. Provide a separator geotextile in accordance with the minimum requirements for filtration applications in AASHTO M 288 and

Section 604, “Soil and Drainage Geotextiles.” Ensure the upper two (2) ft of backfill does not contain stones larger than three (3) inches at their greatest dimension and is free of rock backfill.

506.2.6.1 Internal Friction Angle Requirement

Provide backfill that exhibits an angle of internal friction of at least 34° in accordance with

AASHTO T 236 unless otherwise specified in the Contract. Run the test on the backfill

Material passing the No. 10 sieve. Compact the sample in accordance with Section 506.3.5.1,

“Compaction,” at optimum moisture content, to 95% of maximum density. The Department will

Section 506: Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Structures Page 289

not require direct shear testing for backfills when the gradation is less than 20% passing a 3/4 inch sieve.

Provide backfill in accordance with Table 506.2.6.2:1, “Electrochemical Requirements,” when using steel soil reinforcement.

Table 506.2.6.2:1

Electrochemical Requirements

Resistivity >2,500 ohm/cm AASHTO T 288

Organic content <one percent (1%) AASHTO T 267

The Department will not require electrochemical testing for backfills when the gradation is less than 20% passing a 3/4 inch sieve and less than five percent (5%) passing the No. 200 sieve. Recycled concrete aggregate is not allowed.

Provide cast-in-place concrete in accordance with Section 509, “Portland Cement

Concrete Mix Designs,” Section 510, “Portland Cement Concrete,” and Section 511, “Concrete

Structures.” Unless otherwise approved, use Class A concrete for cast-in-place concrete.

506.2.8 Submittals

Ensure a New Mexico registered Engineer signs and seals Working Drawings and design calculations.

Submit Working Drawings to the State Bridge Engineer for review and approval at least

40 Days before beginning Work on MSE retaining Structures. Submit three (3) complete sets of half-size prints for preliminary review. The State Bridge Engineer will return one (1) set of prints to the Contractor with notations. Make necessary corrections and submit eight (8) sets of prints for final review, approval and distribution. Do not begin fabrication or erection before receiving written notification that the drawings are approved. Working Drawings shall include the following:

1. Layout of the wall including plan and elevation views;

2. Existing ground elevations field verified by the Contractor for each location that will involve wall construction wholly, or in part, on natural ground;

3. Complete details of elements and component parts required for the proper construction of the system;

4. A complete listing of Materials Specifications;

5. Earthwork requirements, including Specifications for Material and compaction; and

6. Other information required by the Contract or requested by the State Bridge

Engineer.

Approval of the final Working Drawings covers the requirements for strength and detail, and the Department assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions in the Working

Drawings. Provide three (3) sets of the manufacturer’s written erection instructions with the final Working Drawings submittal.

Section 506: Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Structures Page 290

Along with the Working Drawing submittals, submit complete design calculations, including those required to establish service life, to the State Geotechnical Engineer for approval. Ensure the calculations confirm that the proposed design satisfies the design parameters in accordance with the Contract and AASHTO’s Standard Specifications for

Highway Bridges, or FHWA Standards Publication, FHWA-NHI-00-043, Mechanically

Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes Design and Construction Guidelines, whichever is more restrictive. Provide Structures in accordance with Table 506.2.8.2:1,

“Design Parameters,” unless otherwise specified in the Contract.

Table 506.2.8.2:1

Design Parameters

Description Value

Factor of safety against overturning 2.0

Factor of safety against sliding

Service life

1.5

75 years

Service life (supporting structure loads)

Soil unit weight (retained )

Soil unit weight (reinforced)

Friction angle (retained soil)

100 years

120 lb/ft

3

125 lb/ft

3

30°

Friction angle (reinforced soil)

Coefficient of sliding friction

34° a

Allowable bearing pressure a

In accordance with the Contract.

506.2.8.3 Certificates of Compliance

a

Provide the Project Manager with a Certificate of Compliance for the Material (excluding backfill and concrete) that certifies that the Material is in accordance with the Contract and the approved Working Drawings.

506.2.8.4 Exposed Surface Finish Panel Sample

If the Contract requires an exposed aggregate or other architectural finish, deliver a

36 inch × 36 inch panel, finished as specified, to the Project for approval by the Landscape

Architect.

506.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

506.3.1 Excavation

Conduct wall construction excavation as unclassified excavation in accordance with

Section 203, “Excavation, Borrow, and Embankment.”

Grade the foundation for the structural volume level for the entire area of the base of the

Structure plus 12 inches on all sides, or as shown in the Contract. Before wall construction, proof-roll the foundation with a minimum of three (3) passes of an eight (8) ton smooth-sheet vibratory roller, or equal, as approved by the Project Manager. Remove unacceptable foundation material, replace with suitable Material, and compact in accordance with this paragraph, unless otherwise approved by the State Geotechnical Engineer.

506.3.3 Concrete Leveling Pad

Provide a leveling pad in accordance with the approved Working Drawings. Cure the pads at least 12 hours before placement of wall panels.

Section 506: Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Structures Page 291

Erect walls in accordance with the manufacturer’s written instructions. Ensure that a field representative from the manufacturer is available during the erection of the first ten percent

(10%) of the wall (and as directed by the Project Manager) to assist the Fabricator, Contractor, and Project Manager. Place panels so that their final position is vertical or battered in accordance with the Contract. Sequence the placement of panels in successive horizontal lifts during backfill placement in accordance with the Working Drawings.

When placing backfill Material, maintain the panels in the specified vertical alignment with temporary wedges or bracing as recommended by the manufacturer. Ensure that vertical and horizontal alignment tolerances do not exceed .75 inch if measured with a ten (10) ft straightedge. Ensure that the overall horizontal tolerance (plumbness) of the vertical wall does not exceed .5 inch per ten (10) ft. Ensure that the offset at any panel joint does not exceed

0.4 inch.

506.3.4.2 Placement of Reinforcement Elements

Place the reinforcement elements normal to the face of the wall, unless otherwise shown on the Plans. Ensure that the reinforcement bears uniformly on the compacted reinforced soil from the connection to the wall to the end of the reinforcing elements. Do not cut the reinforcement elements to accommodate obstructions within the reinforced soil zone. Do not weld soil reinforcements (shop or field welds) to extend lengths of longitudinal reinforcements.

The Department will allow approved shop welds at the connections and approved spot-welds at the transverse and longitudinal intersections of bar mats.

Perform backfill placement immediately after erecting each level of wall panels. Place backfill carefully to avoid damage or disturbance of the wall Materials, misalignment of wall panels, or damage to soil reinforcement. Replace wall Materials damaged during backfill placement at no additional cost to the Department. If backfill placement causes misalignment or distortion of wall panels, correct at no additional cost to the Department.

506.3.5.1 Compaction

Compact backfill in accordance with AASHTO T 180 (Modified Proctor), Method D (TTCP

Modified), Note 7, to 95% of the maximum density, except as modified in accordance with

“Compaction Against Faces of Walls.”

506.3.5.1.1 Compaction of Bridge Approaches

Compact the backfill to 95% of maximum density as determined by AASHTO T 180

(Modified Proctor), Method D (TTCP Modified), within 50 ft of the centerline of a Bridge abutment. Control this density adjacent to and around pile or casing penetrations through the reinforced soil mass at the abutment.

506.3.5.1.2 Compaction Against Faces of Walls

Compact the backfill to 90% density as determined by AASHTO T 180 (Modified Proctor),

Method D (TTCP Modified), within 3.3 ft of the wall. Compact with a minimal number of passes using a lightweight mechanical tamper, roller, or vibratory system. Determine the number of passes with a test section before compaction against the wall, as approved by the

Project Manager. Use approved compaction Equipment from the test section for production

Work. If changing Equipment, create a new test section to determine the number of passes for the Project Manager’s approval.

Section 506: Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Structures Page 292

Uniformly distribute the moisture content of the backfill Material throughout each layer before and during compaction. Ensure that backfill Materials have an in-place moisture content of three percent (3%) less than optimum to optimum. Remove backfill Material with in-place moisture content greater than optimum and rework, or replace with acceptable backfill

Material.

Ensure that the maximum lift thickness after compaction does not exceed eight

(8) inches. Decrease the lift thickness, if necessary, to obtain the specified density.

506.3.5.4 Protection of the Work

At the end of each Day’s operation, slope the last level of backfill away from the wall to direct runoff away from the Structure. Do not allow surface runoff from adjacent areas to enter the wall construction site.

506.4

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

The Department will measure the face of MSE Walls based on the dimensions shown in the Contract or approved modifications.

The Department will measure authorized Excavation of Unsuitable Foundation Material from the foundation surface to the depth of excavation in its original location. The Department will not measure material excavated outside the area bounded by vertical planes two (2) ft beyond the limits of the material designated for removal.

506.5

BASIS OF PAYMENT

Pay Item Pay Unit

506.5.1 Work Included In Payment

The Department will consider the following Work as included in the payment for MSE

Walls and will not pay for it separately:

1. Excavation for MSE retaining Structures other than authorized excavation of unsuitable foundation material, and including any required temporary shoring;

2. Placement and compaction of suitable Material for excavation of unsuitable foundation material;

3. Dewatering for excavation of MSE retaining Structures or authorized unsuitable foundation Materials;

4. Leveling pads, facing elements, reinforcing bars, soil reinforcements, attachment devices, backfill, coping, foundation preparation, and geotextile fabric; and

5. Providing the manufacturer’s field representative.

Section 506: Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Structures Page 293

SECTION 509: PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE MIX DESIGNS

509.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of developing, submitting and getting approval to use PCC mix designs on Department Projects.

509.2 MATERIALS

Test Materials in accordance with AASHTO and ASTM methods or other test procedures designated by the Department. The State Materials Bureau will decide questions about test procedure interpretation. Correct or remove and dispose of improperly graded or segregated material that fails to meet the requirements as directed by the Project Manager and at no additional cost to the Department.

Use pre-approved Materials in accordance with the current Department's Approved

Products List. The Department will not allow changes in the source or character of the

Materials without notifying the State Materials Bureau and obtaining written approval.

509.2.1 Reserved

Use Type II, low-alkali portland cement in accordance with ASTM C 150 unless otherwise specified. If the results of the alkali-silica reactivity (ASR) mitigation tests required in

Section 509.2.4.5 “Alkali-Silica Reactivity” are less than 0.10% for each of the individual aggregates in the mixture, the Department will waive the low-alkali requirement.

509.2.2.1 Source Approval and Acceptance

The Department will accept portland cement based on certification of the approved sources and satisfactory test results from Project verification samples. The State Materials

Bureau must approve cement from a particular source or Contractor before use. Include the following information in the request for source approval:

1. The Supplier or company;

2. Cement plant location;

3. Storage facility type and capacity;

4. Average and maximum production capabilities;

6. Details regarding the in-house Quality Control program information:

6.1. Routine sampling and testing frequency;

6.2. Documentation that the Laboratory responsible for the certified ASTM C 150,

ASTM C 595, and ASTM C 1157 test results is currently participating in the

Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory (CCRL) proficiency sample and the pozzolan inspection programs;

6.3. A copy of the Laboratory letter authorizing CCRL to send copies of the CCRL inspection programs and proficiency result reports directly to the State

Materials Bureau;

6.4. Documentation of measures taken to ensure that the Supplier keeps unacceptable cement separated from acceptable cement;

7. Copies of Quality Control program test reports for the previous six (6) months, including at least one (1) comprehensive ASTM C 150 analysis for each month.

The Department will maintain a list of approved sources.

509.2.2.2 Sources on Approved List

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 294

Provide the following information from approved sources to the State Materials Bureau monthly:

1. Copies of routine Quality Control program test results; and

2. A certified ASTM C 150 or ASTM C 595 analysis for each lot tested. An average over a period of time or over several different test lots will not be acceptable.

509.2.2.3 Withdrawal of Source Approval

The State Materials Bureau may withdraw source approval for any of the following reasons:

1. A change in Equipment or production procedure from that on the original request for approval;

2. Project sample failure to comply with specification requirements;

3. Chemistry or physical properties that vary more than allowed;

4. A source becomes inactive for a period of 3 months; or

5. A source does not provide cement to the Department for a period of 1 year;

6. The appropriate mill certificates are not regularly received.

Manufacture cement at the same production facility unless otherwise approved by the

State Materials Bureau. Obtain approval for changes in cement sources. Submit a written source change request to the Project Manager. The State Materials Bureau will issue a written decision within seven (7) Days of receipt.

Provide documentation that the proposed source will provide cement that produces concrete with hardened properties equal to or better than the original source. Compliance with

ASTM C 150 is not sufficient documentation.

509.2.2.4 Blended Portland-Fly Ash Cement

Use blended portland-fly ash cement in accordance with ASTM C 595 or ASTM C 1157.

Blend or inter-grind portland cement with fly ash. Provide proof that the blended portland-fly ash cement contains the appropriate percentage of the proper fly ash by weight of the cement only, to mitigate ASR concerns for the aggregates used.

509.2.2.4.1 Approval of Blended Portland-Fly Ash Cement Source

Provide test data showing that the proposed source can provide blended portland fly ash cement that produces concrete in accordance with Table 509.2.8.1:1 “Concrete Classes for

Laboratory Design of Concrete Mixtures” and Section 509.2.8.4, “Concrete Mix Design

Development.”

509.2.2.5 Packaging

Mark portland cement and blended portland-fly ash cement packages with the name brand, the source manufacturing facility, and the cement type. Provide the same information on the shipping documents for bulk cement deliveries.

509.2.2.6 Storage

Protect cement from moisture. Store different brands or types of cement, or cement from different production facilities separately. Provide separate, identifiable blended portland-fly ash cement storage at the Project or plant site. Store portland cement and portland-fly ash cement separately.

The Department will reject cement if it:

1. Has come in contact with moisture, fly ash, or other cements; or

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 295

2. Has partially set or is lumpy.

Use fly ash that complies with the physical and chemical requirements of ASTM C 618 and the optional requirements for available alkalis and reactivity with cement alkalis as modified by Table 509.2.3:1, “Fly Ash Requirements.” Use Class F fly ash if either the coarse or the fine aggregate is reactive. If both the coarse and the fine aggregate are non-reactive, the Contractor may use a C/F blend fly ash or a Class C fly ash.

Table 509.2.3:1

Fly Ash Requirements

Characteristics Class C Class F

Sum of Al

2

O

3

, SiO

2

, and Fe

2

O

3

Moisture content, maximum %

Loss on ignition, maximum %

1.0

3.0

1.0

3.0

Magnesium Oxide (MgO), maximum % 5.0 5.0

Available Alkalis, maximum % 1.5 1.5

Calcium Oxide (CaO), maximum % a a

NMDOT will only consider a fly ash as Class F if the CaO is less than eight percent (8%). Fly ash meeting the requirements of ASTM C 618 and containing more than eight percent (8%) by weight of bulk CaO is considered as Class C fly ash and can only be used in concrete that is not exposed to sulfate environments or with “potentially reactive”, or “reactive” aggregate.

Use waterproof and clearly labeled bags when supplying fly ash in bags. Label with the name brand, the manufacturer, type, and source. Provide an executed Certificate of

Compliance with each fly ash shipment. Permission for blending Class C and Class F fly ash depends upon approval by the State Materials Bureau. Ensure the blended fly ash is in accordance with ASTM C 618 and is limited to concrete mixes in which the coarse and fine aggregates are non-reactive.

509.2.3.1 Source Approval and Acceptance

The Department will accept fly ash based on certification of approved sources and satisfactory test results on Project verification samples. Obtain approval from the State

Materials Bureau before using fly ash from a particular source or Supplier in PCC. Include the following in source approval requests:

1. Supplier or company name;

2. Source power plant location;

3. Coal type and origin;

5. Storage facilities and capacity;

7. Details regarding the Supplier’s Quality Control program including the following:

7.1. Routine sampling and testing frequency;

7.2. Documentation showing that the Laboratory responsible for the certified

ASTM C 618 test results is currently participating in the CCRL proficiency sample and pozzolan inspection programs. Submit a letter authorizing CCRL to send the Laboratory’s inspection and proficiency reports directly to the

State Materials Bureau; and

7.3. Measures taken to ensure that fly ash not meeting specification requirements are kept separate from Material meeting the requirements;

8. Copies of the Quality Control program test reports for each lot tested for the previous six (6) months including at least one (1) complete ASTM C 618 analysis for

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 296

each month.

The Department will maintain an approved products list. Do not substitute the approved

Material source for a different source without prior Department approval. The Department will consider a fly ash source change only after receiving a written request. The State Materials

Bureau will review the request and provide written approval once they have verification of the equivalency of the proposed Material. Compliance with ASTM C 618 is not sufficient documentation to permit a change of sources. Provide information that verifies the proposed source Material performs equally as Material from the original source.

509.2.3.2 Sources on Approved List

Sources on the approved list are required to provide the State Materials Bureau with the following information on a monthly basis:

1. Test results obtained in their routine Quality Control program; and

2. A certified ASTM C 618 analysis for each lot tested.

509.2.3.3 Withdrawal of Source Approval

The Department may withdraw source approval for any of the following reasons:

1. If there is a change in Equipment or production procedures from what was shown in the original request for approval;

2. If a Project sample fails to comply with specification requirements;

3. If a source becomes inactive for 3 consecutive months or more; or

4. If a source does not furnish fly ash to the Department for a period of 1 year.

509.2.3.4 Storage

Protect fly ash from moisture. Store different brands or types of fly ash, or fly ash from different production facilities separately. Provide separate, identifiable blended portland-fly ash cement storage at the Project or plant site. Store portland cement and portland-fly ash cement separately.

509.2.4 Aggregate

The Department will allow the Contractor to combine aggregates from two (2) or more approved sources based on the following criteria:

1. Each source complies with Material requirements other than gradation; and

2. The blended Material meets all requirements.

Test coarse and fine aggregate in accordance with the methods shown in

Table 509.2.4.1:1, “Aggregate Test Methods.” Concrete mixture design approval involving a designated source will remain in effect as long as annual test results for specific gravity, absorption, gradation, and sand equivalent (for fine aggregate only) and annual tests for other requirements (except ASR) demonstrate Material compliance.

Table 509.2.4.1:1

Aggregate Test Methods

Aggregate test Method

Clay lumps

Amount of Material passing No. 200 sieve

Absorption & Specific Gravity of Coarse

Aggregate

AASHTO T 112

AASHTO T 11

AASHTO T-85 or TP 77

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 297

Table 509.2.4.1:1

Aggregate Test Methods

Aggregate test

Absorption & Specific Gravity of Fine

Aggregate

Method

AASHTO T-84 or TP 77

Sieve analysis

Soundness with magnesium sulfate

Sand equivalent

AASHTO T 27

AASHTO T 104

AASHTO T 176

Soft fragments

Flat and elongated pieces

Alkali-Silica Reactivity

AASHTO T 112

ASTM D 4791

AASHTO T303 or ASTM C1293

Coarse aggregate is crushed stone, crushed gravel, or natural washed gravel. Unless otherwise specified, ensure that at least 50% of the aggregate by weight has a minimum of 1

Fractured Face. Ensure that Class G mixes are composed of at least 50% particles with no

Fractured Faces. The Department may waive the Fractured Face requirement for mixes other than Class G mixes if less than 1.0% of the Material passes the No. 200 sieve.

Do not exceed the deleterious substance tolerances in accordance with

Table 509.2.4.2.1:1, “Deleterious Materials Tolerances for Coarse Aggregate.” Perform tests in accordance with Table 510.2.4.1:1, “Aggregate Test Methods.”

Table 509.2.4.2.1:1

Deleterious Materials Tolerances for Coarse Aggregate

Substance Maximum % by weight

Soft fragments 2.0

Coal and lignite

Clay lumps

0.25

2.5

Materials passing No. 200 sieve 2.0

Flat and elongated pieces a a

Ensure that Material larger than 3/8 inch contains no more than 15% flat or elongated particles with a 3:1 or greater dimensional ratio in accordance with TTCP. Add the percentage of flat pieces to the percentage of elongated pieces to determine specification compliance. Count pieces that are both flat and elongated only once.

Provide aggregate that is free of organic matter. The Department will reject contaminated aggregate.

Provide coarse aggregate with an AI of 25 or less, calculated in accordance with Section

901, "QUALITY CONTROL/QUALITY ASSURANCE (QC/QA)." The Department will reject aggregates with an AI greater than 25.

Gradation” has been chosen by the Contractor, then the gradation requirements specified below do not apply. Comply with all other aggregate properties and characteristics, including the amount of Material passing the No. 200 sieve.

Use coarse aggregate that complies with Table 509.2.4.2.3:1, “Coarse Aggregate

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 298

Gradation Requirements.”

Table 509.2.4.2.3:1

Coarse Aggregate Gradation Requirements

% of aggregate passing sieve

Sieve size 1.5 in 1.0 in 0.75 in 0.5 in

2.0 inch 100 — — —

1.5 inch

1.0 inch

95–100

100

95–100

100

3/4 inch

0.5 inch

3/8 inch

35–70

10–30

25–60

90–100

20–55

100

90–100

40–70

Class G

100

90–100

20–55

No. 4

No. 8

No. 200

0–5

0.0–2.0

0–10

0–5

0.0–2.0

0–10

0–5

0.0–2.0

0–15

0–5

0.0–2.0

0–10

0–5

0.0–2.0

Provide coarse aggregate that meets the following:

1. 50% of the Material has at least 1 Fractured Face; and

2. 2.0% or less (by weight) of the Material passes a No. 200 sieve.

The Department may accept coarse aggregate with more than the maximum percent passing the No. 200 sieve if the combined gradation of the coarse and fine aggregate percent passing the No. 200 sieve does not exceed 3.0%.

509.2.4.2.4 Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (PCCP) Gradations

“Coarse Aggregate Gradation Requirements,” for PCCP, unless using the combined gradation procedure. Additionally, except when the gradation of the coarse and fine aggregate combined has less than one percent (1.0%) passing the No. 200 sieve, all of the particles retained on or above the 3/8 inch sieve must have at least one (1) Fractured Face. The

Contractor may eliminate the Fractured Face requirement by washing the aggregate to produce a combined aggregate of which less than one percent (1.0%) passes a No. 200 sieve.

Provide proof that the mix design meets performance and minimum specified hardened properties. both.

Use fine aggregate that consists of natural sand, manufactured sand, or a combination of

Provide fine aggregates in accordance with Table 509.2.4.3.1:1, “Deleterious Material

Tolerances for Fine Aggregate.”

Table 509.2.4.3.1:1

Deleterious Material Tolerances for Fine Aggregate

Substance Maximum % by weight

Soft fragments 2.0

Coal and lignite 1.0

Clay lumps

Materials passing No. 200 sieve

509.2.4.3.2 Fine Aggregate Quality Requirements

Provide fine aggregate with the following properties:

3.0

3.0

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 299

1. A soundness loss of 12 or less when tested in accordance with AASHTO T 104 using magnesium sulfate solution and a test duration of five (5) cycles; and

2. A sand equivalent of at least 75 when tested in accordance with AASHTO T 176.

509.2.4.3.3 Fine Aggregate Gradation Requirements

If the combined gradation procedure detailed in Section 509.2.8.3.1, “Combined

Gradation” has been chosen by the Contractor, then the gradation requirements specified below do not apply. Comply with all other aggregate properties and characteristics, including the amount of Material passing the No. 200 sieve.

Use well-graded fine aggregate in accordance with Table 509.2.4.3.3:1, “Fine Aggregate

Gradation Requirements.” The gradation requirements represent the limits that the

Department will use to determine source acceptability.

The Department will not approve fine aggregate that has more than 45% passing any sieve and retained on the next finer sieve shown in Table 509.2.4.3.3:1, “Fine Aggregate

Gradation Requirements.” Use a fineness modulus, calculated in accordance with

AASHTO M 6, to determine the degree of uniformity between representative samples. If the combined gradation procedure has not been chosen, the Department may reject fine aggregate from designated sources with variation in fineness modulus greater than 0.20 above or below the fineness modulus shown on the approved concrete mix designs.

Variations in excess of these tolerances may be cause for rejection. The Department may accept the aggregate once the Contractor assures the State Materials Bureau that the source maintains the designated production tolerances.

Table 509.2.4.3.3:1

Fine Aggregate Gradation Requirements

Sieve size % Passing

3/8 inch 100

No. 4 90–100

No. 8

No. 16

No. 30

No. 50

70–95

45–80

25–60

5–30

No. 100 0–8

No. 200 0.0–3.0

The Department may accept fine aggregate with more than three percent (3%) percent passing the No. 200 sieve, but not more than five percent (5%) passing the No. 200 sieve if the combined fine and coarse aggregates passing the No. 200 sieve does not exceed three percent (3.0%).

Prevent damage from ASR in accordance with the following procedures.

Perform the initial proof-of-reactivity-potential test using standard Rio Grande Type I-II low alkali cement from the Rio Grande Cement plant located at Tijeras, New Mexico. Use cement with an alkali content of from 0.5% to 0.6%. The Department considers aggregates with mean mortar bar expansions of greater than 0.10% at 14 Days potentially reactive and those less than 0.10% as non-reactive. Expansions greater than 0.20% are considered

“Reactive.” If tested using ASTM C 1293, the Department will consider aggregate nonreactive if the average expansion at the end of one (1) year is less than 0.04%. Once the

State Materials Bureau decides a particular aggregate source is non-reactive, it will not require the source to reevaluate for three (3) years unless concerns arise from possible aggregate source changes. Obtain a list of reactive, potentially reactive, and non-reactive aggregate sources tested to date from the State Materials Bureau.

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 300

If the results of the initial proof-of-potential-reactivity test show the aggregate to be

“potentially reactive” or “reactive”, repeat the test procedure using the actual cement, fly ash and, if desired, any of the ASR inhibiting admixtures shown in Table 509.2.4.4:1 “ASR

Inhibiting Admixtures.” Report the minimum amount of Class F fly ash, and the minimum amount of ASR inhibiting admixture required to provide a maximum expansion at 14 Days that is less than 0.10%. Report the Fly Ash required as a percentage of the cement weight.

Table 509.2.4.4:1

ASR Inhibiting Admixtures

Material Requirement

Fly ash (Class F) Section 510.2.9, “Fly Ash”

Blended cement (Only Class F Fly Ash may be used)

Ground granulated blast furnace slag

(GGBFS), Grade 100 and 200

Section 510.2.4.4, “Blended Portland

Fly-Ash Cement”

AASHTO M 302

Silica fume AASHTO M 307

Lithium nitrate (LiNO

3

) Section 510.2.11, “Lithium”

Use admixtures in accordance with Table 509.2.4.4:2, “ASR Mitigation Dosage Rate

Requirements,” unless it is determined that larger dosages are required to control the expansion.

Table 509.2.4.4:2

ASR Mitigation Dosage Rate Requirements

Fly ash (Class F)

As required to mitigate ASR expansion, but not less than 20% by weight of cement only for binary blends; not less than 12% by weight for ternary blends as long as the total pozzolan dosage is at least 20%

Blended cement

As required, but not less than 20% by weight of cement only

As required, but not less than 25% by weight of cement only GGBFS

Silica fume

As required, but not less than ten percent (10%) by weight of cement only

Lithium nitrate

0.55 gal/yd³ of solution for each pound of cement sodium equivalent

509.2.4.4.1 ASR Mitigation Evaluation Criteria

The Department will consider an admixture effective if the mean mortar bar expansion at

14 Days is less than or equal to 0.10%, when tested in accordance with Section 509.2.4.4

“Alkali-Silica Reactivity.” Retest aggregates classified as “potential reactive” or “reactive” for

ASR mitigation each time the comprehensive mix evaluation is performed. If the test results from AASHTO T 303 or ASTM C 1293 indicate “potentially reactive” or “reactive” Material, but the Contractor believes that the aggregates are non-reactive, submit the following documentation as proof of non-reactivity:

1. A letter signed and sealed by an Engineer registered in New Mexico confirming direct knowledge of the fundamentals of ASR in concrete and stating that the subject aggregates have never caused ASR concrete deterioration; and

2. A report from an approved petrographer. The report will confirm that at least two (2) different concrete core samples obtained from different 15-year old exposed

Structures that used the subject aggregates in a cement-only mixture were examined and that there is no evidence of ASR reactivity.

After receipt of a stamped letter from the registered professional Engineer indicating no

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 301

evidence of ASR gel found in either of the cores, the Department will consider the aggregate sources non-reactive.

509.2.5 Admixtures

Ensure the total admixture, or combinations of admixtures, of soluble and insoluble chloride content does not exceed 1,000 ppm. Use only admixtures on the Department’s

Approved Products List.

Use air-entraining admixtures that comply with AASHTO M 154.

Use water-reducing and set-controlling admixtures set retarding admixtures, and nonchloride set accelerating admixtures, that comply with Section 509.2.5, “Admixtures,” and

AASHTO M 194.

509.2.6 Water

Test non-potable water before use in accordance with AASHTO T 26. Use water for mixing and curing concrete or washing concrete aggregates that does not contain acid, oil, alkali, organic matter, or other Deleterious Material that will adversely affect the concrete. Use water with a pH value of from 6.0 to 8.5 in accordance with AASHTO T 26. Do not use water with a sulfate content or chloride content that exceeds 1,000 ppm. Prevent contamination from silt, clay, organic matter, or other Deleterious Material. Do not use residual water, wash water, or recycled water generated by Equipment, mixer trucks, or central mixers in concrete mixtures.

509.2.7 Fibrous Concrete Reinforcement

Use fibers in the concrete mix at a minimum dosage rate of 1.5 lb per cubic yard of concrete. Use only 100% virgin polypropylene fibrillated fibers, containing no reprocessed olefin Materials, and specifically manufactured for use in PCC.

509.2.8 PCC Mixture Design and Approval

509.2.8.1 Classifications

The classes of PCC are shown in Table 509.2.8.1:1, “Concrete Classes for Laboratory

Design of Concrete Mixtures,” and as specified:

Table 509.2.8.1:1

Concrete Classes for Laboratory Design of Concrete Mixtures

Specified compressive strength

Class Use at 28 Days, (psi)

Laboratory design slump a

(in)

Percent air content b

3,000 4.5 to 5.5 — structural

4.5 to 5.5 —

D

E

F

F-LS

4,000 structural

Non-structural 2,500

Slip form structural 2,500 c

Slip form structural 3,000 c

PCCP Low

Shrinkage 3,000

4.5 to 5.5

2.0 to 2.5

2.0 to 2.5

2.0 to 2.5

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 302

Table 509.2.8.1:1

Concrete Classes for Laboratory Design of Concrete Mixtures

Class Use

Specified compressive strength at 28 Days, (psi)

Laboratory design slump a

(in)

Percent air content b

G Drilled shafts 3,000 — No entrained air agent allowed

4,000 4.5 to 5.5 — and other low shrinkage applications

The Contract Requirements for the individual Project will address special mix a

Special requirements.

As determined by AASHTO T 119. b

Project risk zone requirements apply; see Section 510.3.2, “Freeze-Thaw Risk Zones.” c

The specified age for Class E and Class F is 14 Days.

509.2.8.1.1 Details for Table 510.2.9.1:1, “Concrete Classes for Laboratory Design of

Concrete Mixtures”

Use Table 509.2.8.1:1, “Concrete Classes for Laboratory Design of Concrete Mixtures,” only for designing concrete mixes. Do not use to evaluate concrete delivered to Department

Projects.

Use the minimum air content shown below in the Laboratory mix:

1. High Risk Zones: 7.0%

2. Medium Risk Zones: 6.5%

3. Low Risk Zones: 6.0%

Use a minimum compressive strength over-design at least 1,200 psi greater than the specified compressive strength for new mixes if there is no additional information available.

For existing mixes with at least 15 compressive strength tests, or for plants which can provide at least 15 consecutive compressive strength tests for a similar mix (same entrained air and same specified compressive strength), determine the minimum allowable average compressive strength using one (1) of the following equations. Use the equation that produces the largest value to determine the minimum allowable compressive strength.

f

'

cr

f

'

c

( 1 .

34

k

s

)

(1)

f

'

cr

f

'

c

( 2 .

33

k

s

)

500

(2)

Where,

f '

cr

is the minimum Laboratory compressive strength at the specified age

f '

c

is the specified compressive strength

k

is the k-factor from Table 509.2.8.1.1:1, “k-factor for increasing standard deviation,” for standard deviation increase if the total number of tests is less than 30, but equal to or greater than 15

s

is the standard deviation for the compressive strength tests submitted of the same specified strength

Table 509.2.8.1.1:1 k-Factor for Increasing Standard Deviation

Total number of tests k-Factor

15 1.16

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 303

Table 509.2.8.1.1:1 k-Factor for Increasing Standard Deviation

Total number of tests k-Factor

20 1.08

25 1.03

≥30 1.00

The Department will allow linear interpolation for an intermediate number of tests. A mix that was developed from a history of 15 or more test results from the preceding 12-month period is considered an existing mix. A mix developed without historical test results is considered a new mix.

Class E and Class F concrete must attain minimum strength at 14 Days. The minimum

Class F over-design is 800 psi at 14 Days unless a lower value is calculated using the greater value from either Equation (1) or Equation (2). The minimum Class E over-design is 600 psi at

14 Days, unless a lower number is calculated using the greater value from either Equation (1) or Equation (2).

Class G shall have the following characteristics:

1. A minimum cementitious content of at least 611 lb;

2. A maximum water/cementitious ratio no greater than 0.44;

3. A maximum sized aggregate no greater than 0.75 inch;

4. A sand/aggregate ratio between 40% and 42% by total aggregate volume;

5. A maximum air content no greater than three percent (3.0%);

6. No air entrainment agent;

7. A slump range of seven, 7.0 inch ± one, 1.0 inch, except when placing under a drilling fluid;

8. A slump range of eight, 8.0 inch ± one, 1.0 inch for placement under a drilling fluid; and

9. Adjust admixtures for the job site conditions encountered so that the concrete remains workable and plastic for the two (2) h placement limit.

509.2.8.2 Freeze-Thaw Risk Zones

Design the concrete mixture for use in the freeze-thaw zone in which the Project is located. One freeze/thaw cycle is defined as a Day in which the lowest recorded temperature is equal to or less than 25 °F as recorded on the Western Regional Climate Center database.

The web address is www.wrcc.dri.edu. The risk levels are defined as follows:

1. Low-Risk.

 

The annual average number of freeze/thaw cycles is equal to or less than 30 cycles per year;

2. Medium-Risk.

 

The annual average number of freeze/thaw cycles is greater than

30 but less than or equal to 130 cycles per year;

3. High-Risk.

 

The annual average number of freeze/thaw cycles is greater than

130 cycles per year.

Obtain the number of freeze/thaw cycles using the closest weather station to the Project with the most similar environmental conditions. Use Table 509.2.8.2:1, “Statewide Concrete

Risk Zones,” to determine the required risk zone.

District no.

Table 509.2.8.2:1

Statewide Concrete Risk Zones

County name Station name Concrete risk zone

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 304

District no.

Table 509.2.8.2:1

Statewide Concrete Risk Zones

County name Station name Concrete risk zone

(County Medium

2 De (County

(County Medium

(County Medium

5 Rio Arriba El Vado Dam High

5 Rio Arriba Tres Piedras

5 San (County

High a

Except as otherwise listed

The minimum allowable air content for mix design submittal purposes is:

1. 6.0% for low-risk zones;

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 305

2. 6.5% for medium-risk zones;

Confirm these contents by the pressure method and the volumetric method in accordance with Section 509.2.8.4.3, “Mix Design Submittal.”

3. 7.0% for high-risk zones.

Submit representative samples of all proposed Materials to a PTL that is pre-approved to design PCC mixtures by the State Materials Bureau. Provide a professional civil Engineer licensed by the State of New Mexico with a minimum of three (3) years experience in proportioning and testing PCC mixes to directly supervise all testing.

The combined gradation procedure is optional for all concrete mixes except for Class F-

LS and High Performance Deck (HPD) mixes. Class F-LS and HPD mixes must be prepared using the combined gradation procedure. Evaluate aggregates for concrete mixtures prepared for the combined gradation procedures in accordance with the following:

1.

Coarseness Factor.

 

Determine the Coarseness Factor in accordance with the following equation:

CF

Q

Q

I

100

(3)

Where,

CF

is the Coarseness Factor

Q

is the weight of the aggregate retained on or above the 3/8-inch sieve

I

is the weight of the aggregate passing the 3/8 inch sieve, but retained on the No. 8 sieve

2.

Workability Factor.

 

The weight of the aggregate passing the No. 8 sieve divided by the weight of the combined gradation, represented as a percent.

3.

Mortar Factor.

 

The volume of the cement, fly ash, water, air, other pozzolans, and aggregate passing the No. 8 sieve divided by the volume of the entire concrete mixture, represented as a percent.

4.

Paste Factor.

 

The volume of the cement, fly ash, water, air, and other pozzolans divided by the volume of the entire concrete mixture, represented as a percent.

Combine aggregates to produce a uniform gradation. Ensure that combined aggregates comply with the required individual physical and chemical properties. Individual gradation requirements will not apply. Use the .45 Power Curve to blend the aggregates to achieve the densest grading possible. Approximate targets for the Coarseness Factor and the Workability

Factor are shown in Table 509.2.8.3.1:1, “Recommended Workability Factor and Coarseness

Factor Targets,” for concrete mixtures designed using combined gradation.

Table 509.2.8.3.1:1

Recommended Workability Factor and Coarseness Factor Targets

Nominal Maximum Aggregate

3/4 inch 32 - 36 65 - 75

1/2 inch 40–42 10–20

509.2.8.4 Concrete Mix Design Development

Use fly ash in all concrete mixtures. If fly ash is the only pozzolan used, add at a minimum of 20%, by weight of cement only. Only use Class C or C/F blended fly ash with non-reactive aggregate. When using Class C or C/F blended fly ash instead of the Class F fly

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 306

ash, use at a minimum dosage rate of 25%, by weight of cement. When using additional pozzolans, such as silica fume, metakaolin, or GGBFS, the minimum amount of fly ash required is 12% for mixtures using Class F fly ash and 15% for mixtures using Class C fly ash.

When using multiple pozzolans, ensure that the total pozzolan content is at least 20% with

Class F fly ash and 25% with Class C or C/F blend fly ash.

509.2.8.4.1 Concrete Mix Design Documentation

Submit documentation to the State Materials Bureau that verifies:

1. All Materials used comply with Section 510.2, “Materials;”

2. The PTL prepared and tested a proof mix using the designated Materials and batch weights;

3. A complete companion set of compressive strength test cylinders was delivered to the Department District Laboratory for comparison testing; and

4. The cylinders were cured for at least 48 h after casting, and the cylinders were transported upright in protected and cushioned containers to the Department District

Laboratory.

509.2.8.4.2 Concrete Mix Design Designing & Proportion

Design and proportion the concrete mixtures to comply with the following performance requirements:

1. Except for concrete mixtures to be used exclusively in pre-stressed applications, all structural concrete mixtures must demonstrate strength gain characteristics as follows:

1.1 28-Day strength of at least 130% of the seven (7)-Day strength;

1.2 56-Day strength at least 108% of the 28Day test;

2. For Class F-LS Concrete mixtures, the minimum average flexural strength for three

(3) beams cast in the Laboratory shall be 650 psi at 28 Days, when tested in accordance with AASHTO T-97

3. Structural concrete mixtures must achieve a minimum durability index:

3.1 Greater than or equal to 85 for Low-Risk Zones;

3.2 Greater than or equal to 90 for Medium-Risk Zones; and

3.3 Greater than or equal to 95 for High-Risk Zones;

4. Determine the durability index from at least one (1) prism tested at 28 Days for

300 cycles, in accordance with ASTM C 666, Method A. Cure prisms tested for durability index by bathing in lime saturated water at a temperature of 73.3 °F ±

3.0 °F for the first seven (7) Days followed by 21 Days in lime saturated water at a temperature of 100.0 °F ± 3.0 °F.

5. If the specimen cannot be tested immediately after curing, place immediately in a freezer at a maximum temperature of 10.0 °F until testing;

6. Hardened air void system characteristics required of all structural concrete classes, when examined in accordance with the ASTM C 457 linear traverse method include:

6.1 A minimum air content of five percent (5.0%);

6.2 A specific surface greater than 600 in-1; and

6.3 A spacing factor less than 0.008 inch;

7. Ensure that concrete complies with Section 509.2.4.4, “Alkali-Silica Reactivity,” and

Section 509.2.4.5.1, “ASR Mitigation Evaluation Criteria,” as determined by the

State Materials Bureau;

8. Provide chloride ion permeability at 28 Days for structural concrete tested in accordance with ASTM C 1202 that is:

8.1 Less than or equal to 3,000 coulombs for Low-Risk Zones; or

8.2 Less than 2,500 coulombs for Medium-Risk Zones; or

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 307

8.3 Less than 2,000 coulombs for High-Risk Zones;

9. Cure concrete for chloride ion permeability the same way as the durability index specimens in accordance with #2, above;

10. The maximum shrinkage value for Class F-LS concrete mixtures and for HPD concrete mixtures is 0.05% at 56 Days when tested with three (3) inch x four

(4) inch x 16 inch prism or three (3) inch x three (3) inch x ten (10) inch prism and cured in a standard cure for the first seven (7) Days. Following the seven (7) Day initial cure, cure in a relative humidity of 50% and test in accordance with

AASHTO T 160;

11. For Class G mixtures, provide trial mix and slump loss test results that verify compliance with the concrete slump requirements for Class G.

Only technicians who are currently certified by TTCP-Concrete or ACI Concrete Field

Technician, Level I shall determine concrete fresh properties in accordance with the appropriate AASHTO procedures. Laboratories approved by the Department’s State Materials

Bureau shall determine hardened properties. Technicians performing tests on aggregates and aggregate gradations shall be certified by TTCP or ACI Concrete Laboratory Level I. Those technicians performing strength tests on hardened concrete must be certified as an ACI Level

I Laboratory Technician or by TTCP for Compressive Strength Testing of Concrete.

Develop concrete mixtures with compressive strengths as close as possible to the over-

Table 509.2.8.1:1, 'Concrete Classes for Laboratory Design of Concrete Mixtures.'“ Concrete with strengths substantially in excess of these over-design strengths will be rejected and returned to the submitting Laboratory for the appropriate adjustments.

509.2.8.4.3 Mixture Design Submittal

Submit a completed electronic copy of the NMDOT Concrete Mix Design Submittal Form to the Concrete Unit of the State Materials Bureau. Ensure that the following information is included:

1. Company name of the requestor;

2. Company address, telephone number and e-mail address;

3. PTL’s name and signature; and

4. The New Mexico registration number of the professional Engineer who is responsible for the concrete mixture design Work;

4.1. Ensure that the following information and the required documentation are provided electronically and through back-up documentation:

5. A comprehensive Materials list and the properties of each component, including:

5.1. Aggregates:

5.1.1. Source names;

5.1.2. Specific source locations;

5.1.3. For sources not on the Department approved list, provide a complete

ASTM C 295 “Petrographic Examination of Aggregates for Concrete” and an ASTM C 294, Constituents of Natural Mineral Aggregates for both the coarse and fine aggregate Material after completing processing and manufacturing procedures and the aggregate is ready for use; include the geologic origin of the Material; perform and certify the analysis using a petrographer previously approved by the

Department;

5.1.4. Soundness loss with calculations;

5.1.5. Percent of Fractured Faces for the coarse aggregate;

5.1.6. Gradations, including AASHTO T 11;

5.1.7. Bulk saturated surface dry specific gravities;

5.1.8. Los Angeles wear abrasion;

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 308

5.1.9. Fineness modulus;

5.1.10. Aggregate absorption;

5.1.11. Aggregate correction factor;

5.1.12. Sand equivalent of fine aggregate;

5.1.13. Dry-rodded coarse aggregate unit weight;

5.1.14. Fine aggregate clay lumps content; and

5.1.15. Organic impurity content, including soft fragments, coal and lignite, flat or elongated pieces, and other deleterious substances.

5.2. Cement:

5.2.1. ASTM C 150 Analysis;

5.2.2. Chemical and physical cement properties, including the amount of C3S,

C2S, C3A, the amount finer than the No. 325 sieve, and the Blaine

Fineness; and

5.2.3. Cube strengths;

5.3.1. ASTM C 618 Analysis;

5.3.2. Specific gravity;

5.3.3. Material retained on a No. 325 sieve;

5.3.4. Moisture content;

5.3.5. Loss on ignition;

5.3.6. Magnesium oxide content; and

5.3.7. Calcium oxide content.

5.4.1. ASTM C 595 and ASTM C 1157 analyses;

5.4.2. Chemical and physical cement properties, including the percent of C3S,

C2S, C3A, the amount finer than a No. 325 sieve, and the Blaine

Fineness;

5.4.3. Total alkalis;

5.4.4. ASTM C 618 Analysis; and

5.4.5. Percent of fly ash;

5.5. Admixtures:

5.5.1. Documentation of compliance with appropriate ASTM requirements; and

5.5.2. Verification of supply availability;

5.6. Water:

6. Concrete mixture proportions; state clearly if submitting request under the combined gradation provisions;

8. Type and amount of admixtures; use admixtures on the Department’s Approved

Products List;

9. Water source and location; include pH, available alkalis, and a full chemical analysis, if the water source is not a certified NMED public potable water supply;

10. Plastic Concrete Properties:

10.1. Air temperature;

10.2. Concrete temperature;

10.3. Slump; when using super-plasticizer, document the slump before and after addition of the super-plasticizer;

10.4. Unit weight; and

10.5. Air content measured in accordance with AASHTO T 152 or AASHTO T 121;

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 309

10.6. When using super-plasticizer, document the measured air content before and after adding the super-plasticizer);

11. Hardened Concrete Properties:

11.1. New Concrete Mixtures:

11.1.1. Compressive strength tests (the average of three (3) cylinders tested at seven (7) Days, 28 Days, and 56 Days, except for Class E ,Class F and

Class F-LS mixes which shall have two (2) cylinders tested at 7, 14, 28 and 56 Days);

11.1.2. Type of fracture of each cylinder; beams)

11.1.4. Durability index (for structural mixes only);

11.1.5. Hardened air void analysis (for structural mixes only);

11.1.6. Rapid Chloride Permeability (for structural mixes only); and

11.1.7. Expansion data from AASHTO T 303;

11.2. Existing Concrete Mixtures:

11.2.1. Consecutive compressive strength data with individual specimen test results from seven (7) Days, 28 Days, and 56 Days (at least 15 tests required); Present this data in chronological order;

11.2.2. Durability index (for structural mixes only);

11.2.3. Hardened air void analysis (for structural mixes only);

11.2.4. Rapid Chloride Permeability (for structural mixes only); and

11.2.5. Expansion data from AASHTO T 303:

11.3. Incidental Concrete Mixtures (Only for specific Projects) Concrete mixes intended for Projects that anticipate less than 300 yd

3

of each concrete class, but not more than 750 yd

3

for concrete used on the Project: within the previous 12 months, or Laboratory mix performance data not using it in the field); and

11.3.2. Air content, as measured by the pressure method or the volumetric method; when using superplasticizer, show the air content before and after adding superplasticizer.

The Department will require at least 14 Days to review the submittal packages after receipt by the State Materials Bureau of all required information. The Department will approve designs for a period of 1 year from the date of issuance if the documentation verifies compliance with all requirements. At least 30 Days before the 1-year approval expires, the

Contractor may request that the mix design be reissued. The Contractor must provide test reports showing that the mix design met specification requirements during the issue period.

Mix designs may be re-approved for no more than 4 additional years. The Department will grant each approval period if the documentation verifies the following:

1. Constituent Material sources and the Material’s properties remain the same;

2. The compressive strength performance data verifies compliance with Section

510.3.5.3, “Acceptance of Concrete Based on Cylinders;”

3. Compliance with other fresh and hardened properties is verified where the mixture was used;

4. The coefficient of variation (CV), determined in accordance with ACI 214, is less than 12%; and

5. When field performance data shows the CV exceeds 12%, a “Comprehensive

Operations QC/QA Manual” that shows how the Contractor will reduce the variability and improve the consistency of its production process will be required.

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 310

At the discretion of the State Concrete Engineer, a mixture can be adjusted without rebatching by using “cement efficiency” calculations to determine the amount of change to the cement and the total cementitious content that is necessary to achieve the desired level of performance. When this procedure is allowed, the ratio of pozzolan to cement ratio will remain unchanged, the water content will remain unchanged, and the aggregates will be adjusted without changing the overall gradation to accommodate the changes in volume from changes made to the cement. All changes made by this method must be approved by the State

Concrete Engineer before being implemented in the field.

If the constituent Materials change, immediately provide documentation to the State

Materials Bureau describing how to resolve the problem. Return the affected Material to an approved condition or submit a new concrete mixture design package. If the compressive strengths do not comply with Department requirements, describe the needed adjustments.

Submit a written summary of the adjustments to achieve compressive strength to the State

Materials Bureau for approval. Do not use the concrete mixture on Department Projects before receipt of written approval from the State Materials Bureau.

The Department will not consider the addition of more cement a sufficient explanation or resolution without additional documentation explaining why other measures are not appropriate.

509.3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS – Reserved

509.4 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT – Reserved

509.5 BASIS OF PAYMENT

The Department will pay for concrete in accordance with the section of these Standard

Specifications for which the concrete is used.

Section 509: Portland Cement Concrete Mix Designs Page 311

SECTION 510: PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE

510.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of placing Portland Cement Concrete (PCC).

510.2 MATERIALS

Test Materials in accordance with AASHTO and ASTM methods or other test procedures designated by the Department. The State Materials Bureau will decide questions about test procedure interpretation. Correct or remove and dispose of improperly graded or segregated material that fails to meet the requirements as directed by the Project Manager and at no additional cost to the Department.

Use pre-approved Materials in accordance with the current Department's Approved

Products List. The Department will not allow changes in the source or character of the

Materials without notifying the State Materials Bureau and obtaining written approval.

510.2.1 Portland Cement Concrete Mixture

Use a portland cement concrete mixture that has been reviewed and approved in accordance with Section 509 for the freeze-thaw risk zone in which the Project is located.

510.2.2 Aggregate

Use aggregates that are the same as those used on the approved mixture design. Do not use aggregate from a different source as that shown on the approved mix design.

If the concrete mixture is approved under the conventional stockpile procedures, ensure the gradations comply with Table 509.2.4.2.3:1 “Coarse Aggregate Gradation Requirements” and Table 509.2.4.3.3:1 “Fine Aggregate Gradation Requirements.”

If the concrete mixture is approved under the combined gradation procedures, ensure that the most current gradations have been reviewed, and the Coarseness Factor and the

Workability Factor comply with Section 509.2.8.3.1 “Combined Gradations.”

510.2.3.1 Liquid Membrane Forming Compounds

Use Type 1-D or Type 2 liquid membrane-forming concrete curing compounds that comply with AASHTO M 148.

510.2.3.2 Linseed Oil Emulsion

Do not use linseed oil emulsion-curing agent.

510.2.3.3 Sheet Materials for Curing Concrete

Department will only allow the white reflective type.

Use a fogging system which uniformly applies a constant uniform fog of water comprised of droplets that are too small visually discern any individual droplets, and that does not splash or mark the surface of the concrete.

510.2.4 Water

See Section 509.2.6, “Water.”

Section 510: Portland Cement Concrete Page 312

510.3.1.1 Freeze-Thaw

Use a concrete mixture which has been approved for use in a freeze-thaw zone of equal or greater risk than the zone in which the Project is located.

The Contractor may substitute an approved structural class of concrete with a higher compressive strength than that of the specified class of concrete, as long as the design slump characteristics remain the same (i.e. Class AA for Class A, Class F for Class E). Do not substitute Class A for Class E or Class AA for Class F concrete mixtures.

Perform concrete field-testing with Concrete Field Testing Technicians certified by ACI or

TTCP.

510.3.1.3 Alternate Batching Facilities

A request may be made to the State Materials Bureau to allow a currently approved concrete mixture to be batched out of facilities not under the direct control of the Contractor to whom the concrete mixture approval is granted. The Department will permit off-site batching of an approved concrete mixture when the following occur:

1. Use the same Materials as those used at the plant where the mixture is approved and as shown on the approved mix design;

2. Use the same admixtures as those used at the plant where the mixture is approved and as shown on the approved mix design;

3. Prepare a written QC plan for the alternate batch facilities, personnel and operations that adequately addresses how the alternate batch plant will assure the quality of the mixture;

4. The operations at the alternate batch facility has confirmed compliance with the approved QC plan with other mixtures;

5. Provide concrete performance statistics that assure the same level of performance can be achieved from the alternate batch facilities.

The allowable slump range for non-superplasticized Class AA, Class HPD and Class A concrete is 3.5 inches ± 1.0 inch. The allowable slump range for Class E and Class F Slip-

Formed Concrete is 1.5 inches ± 1.0 inch. All test procedures and frequencies will be performed in accordance with the Minimum Testing Requirements. Measure the air content in accordance with AASHTO T 121. The air content determined by AASHTO T 121 will be used to confirm compliance with the specified air content for structural concrete.

1. Low Risk Freeze/Thaw Zone – from 4.5% to 8.0%; or

2. Medium Risk Freeze/Thaw Zone – from 5.0% to 8.0%; or

3. High Risk Freeze/Thaw Zone – from 6.0% to 8.0%.

510.3.1.5 Troubleshooting

If the approved mixture design fails to meet requirements, the Project Manager will immediately contact the PTL that designed the mixture and the State Concrete Engineer. The

PTL shall work with the State Concrete Engineer to make the necessary changes to resolve

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the problems. Efforts to evaluate problems with the concrete does not relieve the Contractor of the responsibility to provide a concrete mixture that meets Project requirements.

510.3.2 Batching

Produce ready-mixed concrete and site-mixed concrete in accordance with

AASHTO M 157, Section 9 to 11. Ensure that production facilities are certified in accordance with the National Ready Mix Concrete Association (NRMCA) criteria for concrete production facilities.

The Department will review and approve facilities and Equipment before batching operations begin.

Ensure that batching plants have clearly separated aggregate bins or stockpiles; silos for cement and fly ash; weighing hoppers; and scales. Ensure that the batch plants are equipped to proportion aggregates, bulk cement and fly ash using calibrated weighing devices. Weigh aggregates on separate scales or accumulatively on a single scale. If weighing fly ash on the same scale as the portland cement, weigh the cement first, then add the fly ash.

Ensure that the batch plant operator has a direct view or live video of each scale and admixture sight tube while preparing batches of concrete. It is not sufficient to be able to see only the computer measurements. Ensure that the batch plant is capable of:

1. Accurately weighing and batching Materials for the portland cement or portland cement/fly ash concrete mixture within the tolerances specified;

2. Providing readily visible scale dials or instrumentation devices for admixture bottles, beam scales and load cells, even if using a computer to prepare the batch;

3. Using weighing hoppers of sufficient size to contain the material without loss or spillage; and

4. Properly combining and re-combining various mixture components to obtain the required uniformity and consistency.

Use weighing hoppers that efficiently discharge weighed Materials for each batch.

Ensure that the material charging Equipment can deliver the batch to the mixer without loss or spillage. Provide scales for weighing aggregates, cement, water, and fly ash in accordance with Section 109.1, “Measurement of Quantity.”

510.3.2.2 Portland Cement and Fly Ash

Use cement and fly ash in bulk or in sacks. Weigh fractions of sacks before using cement or fly ash in a concrete batch. Measure cement and fly ash by weight. Weigh bulk cement and fly ash on an approved scale, except when using continuous proportioning and mixing Equipment.

Provide cement, and combined cementitious weights within ± one percent (1.0%) of the required weights. If the weight of cementitious Materials is expected to weigh less than

1,000 lb, ensure that those Materials weigh within 30 lb of the target weight.

If the material varies from the target weight by more than ± one percent (1.0%), the

Department will immediately notify the Contractor to take corrective action. If the weight is no more than two percent (2.0%) above or 1.5% below the target weight, the Department may, at the Project Manager’s discretion, accept a maximum of five (5) loads out of the first ten (10) consecutive loads of concrete delivered of any continuous placement with these weight discrepancies, regardless of whether the discrepancies are for the same material or for other weighed Materials. Any batches of concrete produced after the first ten (10) have been batched that have cement or total cementitious weights that are more than ± one percent

Section 510: Portland Cement Concrete Page 314

(1.0%) will be rejected and not allowed to be placed on the Project. Dispose of rejected loads at no additional cost to the Department.

Equip cement and fly ash scales and hoppers with a device that indicates the complete discharge of cement and fly ash into the mixer. Contain bulk cement and fly ash in weather tight bins and weighing hoppers. Do not suspend discharge chutes from the weighing hoppers. Arrange the discharge chutes so that cement and fly ash do not lodge in or leak from them.

Protect cement and fly ash from moisture. Store different brands or types of cement/fly ash, or cement/fly ash from different production facilities separately. Provide separate, identifiable blended portland-fly ash cement storage at the Project or plant site. Store portland cement and portland-fly ash cement separately.

510.3.2.3 Water

Mixing water consists of free water, ice added to the batch and surface moisture on the aggregates. Measure the added water by weight or volume to ensure that the amount of water in the mixture design is not exceeded. Measure added ice by weight. For truck mixers, discharge the wash water before loading the next batch of concrete.

510.3.2.4 Aggregates

510.3.2.4.1 Stockpiles

Ensure the separation of stockpiles of different sizes or from different sources. Stockpile aggregates so that the coarse and fine particles do not separate. Provide stockpiles that can produce enough concrete for the section constructed during a scheduled operation. Ensure that aggregates are not contaminated by material from adjacent stockpiles or from contact with the ground, dust, or other Deleterious Materials. Do not use aggregates that become segregated or mixed with Deleterious Material. Do not use frozen lumps of aggregate in concrete batching.

Ensure that a “sacrificial” layer of the same size aggregate at least six (6) inches deep is maintained below the bottom of the stockpile so that the front-end loader will not pick up noncomplying Materials that would contaminate the concrete mixture.

510.3.2.4.2 Gradations

All gradation tests performed to fulfill the requirements of this section must be performed by TTCP certified technicians.

The Project Manager may cancel concrete placements that have gradation data that is more than seven (7) Days old.

1. If the mixture design is approved with the Conventional Stockpile Procedure, ensure that the stockpile gradations comply with the standard gradation requirements for

Requirements," and Table 509.2.4.3.3:1, "Fine Aggregate Gradation Requirements."

2. If the mixture design is approved with the combined gradation procedure, it is the

Contractor’s responsibility to continuously monitor the gradation of each of the stockpiles. Provide new gradation results to the Project Manager, in one (1) of the following ways:

2.1. If placing more than 1000 yd

3

per week, provide new gradation results every

1000 yd

3

;

2.2. If regularly making placements that total less than 1000 yd

3

per week, provide new gradation results once per week.

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2.3. If placements are irregular and limited to no more than two (2) placements in a single week, provide new gradation results at least 24 hours before the first scheduled placement in any week.

3. The Contractor’s responsibilities to monitor gradations are not related to the QC/QA testing requirements. The Department considers these responsibilities to be part of the standard operation and maintenance of the batching facilities.

4. Determine if the combined gradation is within the following limits:

4.1. Coarseness factor is ± 3 percentage points of the value in the approved mixture design;

4.2. Workability factor is ± 2 percentage points of the value in the approved mixture design;

5. The aggregate batch weights will automatically be adjusted when the gradation information determined by the Supplier is entered into the Field Report form. The supplier will be required to use the most recent gradations to determine if the

Coarseness Factor or the Workability Factor does not comply with 4.1 or 4.2 above.

If the Coarseness Factor or the Workability Factor does not comply with 4.1 or 4.2 above, the mix batch weights must be adjusted to bring these factors into compliance. When adjusting these factors, adjust them to the tolerances in 5.1 and

5.2, below.

5.1. Coarseness factor is ± 2 percentage points of the value in the approved mixture design;

5.2. Workability factor is ± 1.5 percentage points of the value in the approved mixture design;

6. If the gradation tolerances in 4.1 and 4.2 can not be met, do not place concrete until the gradations are corrected to meet the designated tolerances.

Batch aggregate target weights over 1,000 lb to within ± two percent (2%) of the target weight. For target weights less than 1,000 lb, batch to within ± 50 lb of the target weight.

If any of the first ten (10) loads of concrete have a fine or coarse aggregate weight that differs from the target weight by more than two percent (2%), but not more than ± three percent (3%), the Department may, at the Project Manager’s discretion accept the concrete.

The Department will allow no more than five (5) loads out of the first ten (10) consecutive loads of concrete of any continuous placement to exceed the maximum allowable weight tolerances. Any batches produced after the first ten (10) that differ from the target weight by more than ± two percent (2%) will be rejected from the Project and can not be placed on the

Project. Dispose of rejected loads at no additional cost to the Department.

1. For a manually operated facility or for hoppers not equipped with automatic moisture sensors, measure the moisture content of each stockpile not monitored by automatic moisture sensors at least every four (4) hours, or as required by changing moisture conditions within the stockpiles

2. For plants equipped with automatic moisture probes, for each stockpile monitored by an automatic moisture probe, measure moisture content manually at least once a

Day. Compare the manual measurement immediately before preparing the first concrete load to the measurement shown by the moisture sensing Equipment. If the measurements differ by more than 0.5%, re-correlate the moisture probe.

2.1 For stockpiles not monitored by an automatic moisture probe, follow the requirements of 510.3.2.4.4(1).

3. Send a certificate showing the moisture content determined by manual methods in accordance with Paragraph 4 below, and the moisture correlation to the Project

Manager with the first load of concrete. If this information is not included with the

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first load of concrete delivered to the Project, that load of concrete and all subsequent loads of concrete are subject to rejection until the information is received at the Project.

4. Determine the aggregate moisture content to the nearest 0.5% in accordance with one (1) of the following procedures:

4.1 AASHTO T 217: The shelf life of the calcium carbide is relatively short. Closely monitor the age of the calcium carbide and replace it in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations methods for this purpose, as long as no material is lost and the pan is continuously agitated during the drying process.

5. Provide the following information on the moisture certificate to the Project Manager:

5.1 Pan weight (it is not acceptable to tare out the pan weight on scales equipped to do so);

5.2 Wet weight of the pan and the sample;

5.3 First dry weight of the pan and the sample;

5.4 Second dry weight of the pan and the sample;

5.5 Third dry weight of the pan and the sample (if necessary);

5.6 Absolute moisture content of the sample;

5.7 The moisture probe reading from the tested sample (if equipped); and

5.8 The calculated difference between the actual moisture content test and that shown by the moisture sensing Equipment.

Allow washed aggregates to drain before use. The Project Manager may require the aggregates to remain in the stockpile or storage area for longer, if the moisture contents are excessive.

Store admixtures in separate containers to avoid contamination, evaporation, and damage. Protect liquid admixtures from freezing and from damaging temperatures. For admixtures used as suspensions in non-stable solutions, provide agitating Equipment to ensure the thorough distribution of the ingredients. Measure liquid admixtures within ± three percent (3%) of the target amount.

510.3.2.6 Mixing

Ensure that the uniformity of the concrete mixture complies with AASHTO M 157,

Section 10.2. If using a central plant mixer it must have a rated mixing capacity of at least

3 yd³. Batch and deliver concrete in accordance with NRMCA Standards.

510.3.3 Transporting

Transport mixed concrete in non-agitating trucks only when the slump is less than two (2) inches. Revolving-drum mixer trucks must be used to transport concrete with a slump in excess of two (2) inches. Transport concrete produced in a dry-batched concrete plant in revolving-drum mixer trucks.

Use only non-agitating trucks with bodies that are smooth, mortar-tight metal containers capable of discharging the concrete at a satisfactory controlled rate without segregation.

Provide covers needed for protection.

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510.3.3.2 Truck Mixers and Agitators

Equip agitator trucks with a plate directly attached to the truck in a readily visible location, labeled with the specific truck properties, including the designated drum mixing speed.

Keep documentation for review by Department personnel upon request to show that the mixers and agitators have been inspected in accordance with NRMCA Guidelines within the last 12 months.

Department personnel will check the water tank site tube when the truck arrives at the

Project site. If there is water missing from the tank, the Department will reject the truck unless the Driver can account for the missing water.

510.3.3.3 Upon Arrival at the Project

Re-mix the concrete that arrives at the Project site in agitator trucks as follows:

1. For concrete mixed in a central mix plant: mix at the designated mixing speed for a minimum of two (2) min, before discharging;

2. For concrete mixed inside an Agitator Truck: mix at the designated mixing speed for a minimum of five (5) min, before discharging;

3. If any water, water-reducing admixtures, entrained air, or other ingredients are added to the concrete, mix the additional material at the designated mixing speed for at least five (5) min before discharging.

510.3.4 Placing

510.3.4.1 Temperature and Weather Limitations

See Section 511.3.3, "Temperature and Weather Limitations."

"Mixing time" is the elapsed time from when the cement is exposed to the aggregates until the concrete has been placed into its final location. Do not use concrete mixed less than the minimum specified time. The maximum mixing time for concrete hauled in truck mixers or truck agitators is 90 min. Do not exceed 60 min of mixing time when:

1. The concrete temperature is 80 °F or above for Bridge decks or approach slabs,

2. The concrete temperature is 85 °F for other concrete.

When hauling the concrete in non-agitating trucks, all concrete must be placed into its final location within 45 min of initial mixing. If the concrete temperature is 80 °F or above, place concrete within 30 min from initial mixing.

Concrete arriving at the Project with a temperature greater than 90 o

F can not be used.

510.3.4.2.1 Extended Mixing Time

In rural and remote areas of the State where mixing time cannot be met, submit a written request to the Assistant District Engineer for additional time. Include the following information:

1. The reason for requesting additional time;

2. The additional time needed in excess of the specified mixing time;

3. The proposed procedures, methods, and type of Materials or admixtures to be used so that the concrete will meet required fresh and hardened properties; and

4. Documentation to prove that the additional time will not damage the quality of the concrete.

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This information will be forwarded to the State Concrete Engineer for review. The State

Concrete Engineer will issue a written recommendation within 10 Working Days from receipt of the request.

If the Department allows a mixing time extension, prepare a trial batch consisting of at least one (1) full load of concrete at the designated production facility and haul to the Project site. Batch the concrete in the same quantities as anticipated for the Project. Place the trial batch in a non-critical application to assess the mixture. If the dosage used is found to provide a final setting time within 20 – 30 minutes after the concrete has been unloaded, then the

Contractor will be approved for the use of the designated hydration stabilizer at the dosage determined from this trial.

510.3.4.3 Concrete Sampling and Testing

The Contractor shall test for Quality Control; and the Department will test for Acceptance.

1. Measure concrete for specification compliance only by the test methods shown in the Minimum Testing Requirements. The Department will not accept results from the in-place test methods described in Section 510.3.5.2, "In-Place Concrete

Strength Measurements" as an alternative to these requirements. Obtain representative samples of concrete from the approximate middle of the truck being tested for the required properties from the point of discharge into the structure being placed. The Department will provide test results to the Contractor after the final compressive strength tests for each set of test specimens is completed with a copy to the Supplier on a weekly basis;

2. Mold and cure concrete cylinders for compressive strength tests in accordance with

AASHTO T 23, Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field using four

(4) inch × eight (8) inch single use plastic cylinder molds with plastic lids. Use cylinder molds that are six (6) inch × 12 inch if the nominal maximum size of the aggregate is equal to or greater than 1.5 inch

3. Use a rod to consolidate the concrete for all slump, air content and unit weight tests and all compressive strength test cylinders cast with normal slump concrete (Class

A, Class AA, Class G and Class D). Use a vibrator to consolidate the concrete in all air content and unit weight tests and all test cylinders cast from slip form concrete

(Class E and Class F). Do not use a rod to consolidate slip-form concrete

4. Provide all necessary support for all testing and to maintain sufficient safe storage space, including but not limited to water bath container, water for initial curing of concrete cylinders, heating or cooling as necessary, generators (and alternate power sources, as needed) and all vibratory Equipment and all Equipment required to operate the vibratory Equipment as required by Section 510.3.4.3.

5. Immediately after molding, begin curing of test cylinders by submerging in a water bath with a temperature of 70 °F ± 10 °F. Do not exceed 25 min from the time the concrete was sampled to the start of initial curing. Use water that complies with

Section 510.2.4, "Water," for the initial curing.

All cylinder curing containers for testing of the concrete must be in the same location, and within 50 ft of the testing site, chosen in advance by Department inspection personnel unless an alternative location has been approved by the

Project Manager prior to the placement. The Project Manager can not authorize any location that does not provide sufficient time for the casting of the test specimens and subsequent delivery to the initial curing location within the 25 minutes allowed to begin initial curing of the test specimens.

Maintain the water-filled containers with the test cylinders undisturbed for a minimum of 21 h, but not more than 48 h, from the time of placement. Ensure that the level of water never drops below the tops of the cylinders.

6. After initial curing, strip the concrete cylinders and place into a standard curing tank

(or moist room) in accordance with AASHTO T 23, Section 10.1.3. If the cylinders are to be shipped to an off-site Laboratory for testing, maintain the cylinders in the standard curing environment at a temperature of 73 +/- 3 o

F until they are ready to be transported. Do not ship test cylinders until they are at least 48 h old.

Section 510: Portland Cement Concrete Page 319

7. The party that prepared the test specimens is responsible for transporting them from the initial curing environment to the final curing location. Protect the test specimens from being damaged in any way. Specific attention will be paid to protection from sun, wind, rain, vibrations, moisture loss and any sudden drops or impacts during transport.

Department personnel will perform all testing in accordance with the Minimum Testing

Requirements.

510.3.4.3.2 Continuous Concrete Placements

It is common practice to place and test concrete at the same time, therefor:

As concrete is being placed and tested, concrete tests which are outside the allowable concrete test ranges may be encountered and are to be immediately reported to the Project

Manager. Concrete that has already been placed shall be removed if the slump is more than one (1)inch over the specified limits and air is more than ½% below the minimum air specified.

The Project Manager then can determine to place or halt the placement of the remaining concrete. The Project Manager can determine if the placed concrete needs to be removed or if it can remain. In the event that two (2) consecutive trucks or any two (2) out of six (6) trucks are outside the allowable testing ranges, concrete shall not be placed in the structure until the concrete testing is performed prior to the placement operation and the allowable concrete test ranges are shown to be in the allowable range. If concrete from five (5) consecutive trucks are delivered within allowable concrete testing parameters, then the placement and testing of concrete can once again be performed concurrently.

Payment of concrete that deviated from required parameters will receive a $50/cu yd pay reduction in addition to the outcome of the final pay factors for the concrete.

510.3.4.4 Superplasticizers

If using a superplasticizer, measure the initial slump before adding the superplasticizer, and again immediately after the super-plasticizer has been properly mixed into the load. Do not exceed slump Specifications defined on the approved mixture design before introducing the super-plasticizer. Do not exceed a slump of eight (8) inches after adding the superplasticizer. Check super-plasticized concrete for segregation before and during placement.

Do not place segregated concrete.

510.3.5 Acceptance

Determine the compressive strength for compliance by averaging two (2) or more concrete cylinder test results from the same concrete sample and tested at the specified age.

Make, handle, and store in accordance with AASHTO T 23 and test in accordance with

AASHTO T 22. Consider the result from a single cylinder only as an indicator. It will not be considered an actual strength measurement.

510.3.5.1.1 Individual Strength Test

Unless otherwise specified, verify compliance with the Specifications by determining the concrete strength at the age designated in Table 509.2.8.1:1, “Concrete Classes for

Laboratory Design of Concrete Mixtures.” Make at least 4 cylinders for each set. Test the first cylinder at seven (7) Days for use as an early concrete compressive strength indicator.

Test the second and third cylinders to determine the Individual Strength Test result. Reserve the fourth cylinder for testing if the Within-Test-Coefficient-of-Variation exceeds five percent

(5%), in accordance with ACI 214.3.4.1. If the fourth cylinder is tested, average all of the

Section 510: Portland Cement Concrete Page 320

cylinders tested at that age to determine the Individual Strength Test, unless any of the following conditions exist:

1. There is a visible cylinder defect or a defect in the capping.

2. A significant irregularity occurred while loading the test specimen to failure, such as a sudden load burst, cyclic or pulsating loads, or a loading rate not in accordance with AASHTO T 22.

510.3.5.2 In-Place Concrete Strength Measurements

If the Contractor requests measurement of in-place concrete strength for constructionrelated purposes, the Contractor must provide testing Equipment and perform strength tests at no additional cost to the Department. Field cured test cylinders will be tested by a PTL approved by the State Materials Bureau. Use one (1) of the following procedures to determine the in-place concrete strength:

1.

Core Testing.

 

Perform in accordance with AASHTO T 24, and Section 510.3.5.4,

"Investigation of Low Strength Cylinder Test Results";

2. The Maturity Method, ASTM C1074.

 

Integrates the heat of hydration and the time since the concrete was batched, correlated for the specific concrete mixture before use in the field;

3. The Windsor Probe, ASTM C803.

 

Measures the penetration depth of a specially fabricated probe into the concrete, calibrated to the concrete mixture;

4. The Pull-Out Test, ASTM C900.

 

Measures the pull-out resistance of a plug cast into the concrete, calibrated to the concrete mixture;

5. The Match-Cure Method.

 

Places additional cylinders into a specially controlled chamber that maintains the temperature of the cylinders to that of the concrete represented;

6. The Cast-in-Place Cylinder Method, ASTM C873.

 

Tests a cylinder that was cast into the concrete being evaluated and subsequently removed for testing. The hole remaining after removal of the cast-in-place-cylinder must be filled with a non-shrink grout or a Type K cement;

7. The Rebound Test, ASTM C 805 (as modified herein) This procedure must be performed in accordance with directions from the State Concrete Engineer. At a minimum, a test shall consist of at least 14 credible rebounds obtained from an area approximately 18 inches in diameter. The highest two (2) and the lowest two (2) rebounds will be deleted and the remaining 10 rebound results averaged to determine the rebound number from the test location.

8. Field Curing.

 

Cast cylinders in accordance with AASHTO T 23, and cure in accordance with AASHTO T 23, Section 10.2.1.

Before using any method of measuring in-place concrete strength in the field (with the exception of Method 8 - “Field Curing”), submit complete supporting documentation for the method proposed for use and intended procedures to be followed to the Project Manager for approval by the State Materials Bureau.

Do not use field cured cylinders to determine the in-place strength for any structural applications. The Department will not permit any test samples to be extracted from Bridge decks, prestressed members or approach slabs. Prohibited testing for these Structures includes core testing, pull-out tests, or cast-in place cylinder test methods.

If the in-place compressive strength is at least equal to the strength required for the intended application, the Contractor may strip forms or allow traffic on the structure or pavement.

510.3.5.3 Compressive Strength Compliance of Concrete Based on Cylinders

The Department will accept concrete based on the compressive strength cylinder tests when the compliance tests equal or exceed the specified strength. If the compliance test is

Section 510: Portland Cement Concrete Page 321

less than the specified strength, the test will be considered acceptable if both of the following requirements are met:

1. The running average of three (3) consecutive individual strength tests meets or exceeds the specified strength; and

2. No Individual Strength Test as defined in 510.3.5.1.1 falls below the specified strength by more than 500 psi.

If the compliance test does not meet cylinder-based Acceptance requirements, the

Department will review the strength tests and notify the Contractor whether the concrete will be accepted at a reduced price, or if the Contractor has to replace it.

510.3.5.4 Investigation of Low Strength Cylinder Test Results

Do not use the following test procedures as a substitute for the compliance test program in Section 510.3.4.3, "Concrete Sampling and Testing." The procedures described below will not be allowed more than twice during the course of the Project.

If problems with low strength cylinder tests persist, the Department may suspend the

Project at no additional cost or time to the Department and require the Contractor to comply with Section 510.3.1.5, “Troubleshooting”. If the corrective actions taken by the Contractor are insufficient, the Department may suspend Work again, at no additional cost or time to the

Department, until the Project Manager determines acceptable action as proposed by the

Contractor.

The Contractor may use any of the in-place strength-test methods in accordance with

Section 510.3.5.2, "In-Place Concrete Strength Measurements," to investigate areas of concern if normal Acceptance tests do not comply with Section 510.3.5.3, "Acceptance of

Concrete Based on Cylinders." However, the Schmidt Hammer test shown in Section

510.3.5.2.7 can not be used for final Acceptance or to determine the pay factor. Do not use core testing, pull-out testing, or cast-in place cylinder test methods for any investigation of concrete contained in Bridge decks, prestressed members or approach slabs.

510.3.5.4.1 Testing Cores

If the Contractor uses cores to determine in-place compressive strength, obtain cores in accordance with AASHTO T 24, and immediately seal each core in an air tight plastic bag.

Test cores in accordance with AASHTO T 22.

If the concrete structure will be dry under normal service conditions, cure the cores inside the plastic bags at a temperature range between 60 °F to 80 °F for seven (7) Days before testing. Test the cores dry.

If the concrete structure will be more than superficially wet under normal service conditions, cure the cores in lime-saturated water for at least 40 h before testing. Test the cores wet.

Obtain the cores 49 Days after concrete placement (21 Days for Class E or Class F concrete). Take at least three (3) cores from any area of concern to evaluate the area of that had low strength test results. The Department will approve core locations before the cores are obtained. Test for compressive strength of the concrete cores at 56 Days (28 Days for Class

E or Class F concrete).

For Bridge concrete (exclusive of Bridge decks) with low strength test results, the Bridge

Design Section will develop a coring plan within 38 Days of the initial concrete placement.

Obtain, cure and test cores in accordance with the previous paragraph.

The Department will accept the concrete when the average of the cores representing each area of concern equals or exceeds the specified strength.

Section 510: Portland Cement Concrete Page 322

As an alternative to using cores for testing in-place compressive strength, Method 2, 3, 4,

5, 6 or 7 can be used to investigate the in-place strength of the concrete in question. For

Bridge decks, prestressed members and approach slabs, use only in-place strength-test

Measurements." Submit a written request to the Project Manager for permission to use the selected method. Do not proceed until receipt of written approval from the State Materials

Bureau. Method 7 can only be used to investigate the areas of concern, and can not be used for final Acceptance of for determination of the pay factor.

The Department will accept the concrete when the average of the tests is equal to or greater than the 108% of the specified strength.

510.3.5.4.3 State Concrete Engineer Analysis

If the in-place strengths are not adequate for Acceptance at full price, the State Concrete

Engineer will evaluate the concrete. After reviewing the State Concrete Engineer’s recommendations, the Department will take one (1) of the following actions:

1. Direct the Contractor to remove and replace the failed concrete at no additional cost to the Department; or,

2. Pay the Contractor for the concrete in accordance with Flow Chart 510.3.5.5.1:1,

"Price Adjustment Percentages for Low Strength Concrete Based on Lab-Cured

Cylinders."

The Department will make price adjustments for non-compliance with concrete strength

Specifications based on lab-cured strength tests unless alternate in-place strength tests have been previously approved.

If the compliance strength test is 85% or more of the specified strength then the

Contractor may choose to have a Hardened Air Content Test on a core obtained from the concrete in question performed by a Department approved Petrographer in accordance with

ASTM C-457, linear traverse method. If the result of the hardened air content analysis meets the requirements below, the concrete will be paid for at full price.

1. A minimum air content of 50%;

2. A specific surface greater than 600 in-1; and

3. A spacing factor less than 0.008 inch.

510.3.5.5.1 Cylinder Based Price Adjustments

If low strength concrete is accepted based on lab-cured cylinders, the Department will pay for concrete in the lot represented by the low strength tests in accordance with Flow Chart

A:, "Price Adjustment Percentages for Low Strength Concrete Based on Lab-Cured Cylinders."

510.3.5.5.2 Price Adjustments based on In-Place Strength Tests

1. If the Department accepts low strength concrete based on core tests, the

Department will pay for the concrete represented by the cores in accordance with

"Flowchart B: Pay Factor Determination for Portland Cement Concrete by In-Place

Strength Tests”

2.

If the concrete strength is based on one (1) of the in-place test methods specified in

Section 510.3.5.2, "In-Place Concrete Strength Measurements”, methods 2 through

6, The Price Adjustment Factor will be determined by first multiplying the specified strength by 1.08. This value will then be used as the denominator to determine the percentage of the measured in-place strength compared to the adjusted specified strength. The pay factor shown in Flow Chart B: Price Adjustment Percentages for

Low Strength Concrete Based on In-Place Strength Tests for that percentage will be

Section 510: Portland Cement Concrete Page 323

applied to all of the affected concrete. The Department will not allow use of field cured cylinders to determine price adjustments.

Section 510: Portland Cement Concrete Page 324

wchart A: Price rcentages for Lo rs ual to or

Yes

No ete

00%. strength test

Yes strength

No

Pay Fact tor Determined from In-Place

Tests in ction

No Yes

Hardened

Yes

Hardened Air

System in compliance with

510.3.5.5

Yes

No

In-Pla ace Strength surements s more than 500 psi below Specified

No

Compress ive Strength of

(including this test) is

Strength

No

Yes

Pay Fact pressive

Strength

> 700

Compressive S cified

Strength

75 –79.9% 50%

< 75

Section 510: Portland Cement Concrete Page 325

gth Tests a Bridg ge deck, prestressed er or approach slab s

No

Onl y Methods 2, 3, or 5 from Section

51 0.3.5.2 can be used

In-Plac e Strength Determin ed from

10.3.5.2: represented xpressed as ultiplied by

1.08.

% of or

N o Yes

Pay Factor for all concrete represen by test is 100%.

nted

Yes han

Yes

No rength ed area equals or exceeds spec Days

Yes

No resented by Core

% of F’c

75 –79.9%

< 75

95%

90%

85%

75%

65%

50%

Remo ove & Replace

< 75% eterminations.

Refe rmitted for Pay r to Flow Chart A.

cations for which

Specificati

ions for which th used. e in accordance with the section

Section 510: Portland Cement Concrete Page 326

SECTION 511: CONCRETE STRUCTURES

511.1 DESCRIPTION

This Work consists of constructing concrete box Culverts, headwalls, retaining walls, abutments, bents, piers, slabs, girders, and Incidental Structures requiring the use of concrete, except pre-stressed members.

511.2 MATERIALS

511.2.1 General

Use concrete mixes that have been designed in accordance with Section 509 and approved for use on NMDOT Projects by the State Materials Bureau for the freeze/thaw risk zone in which the Project is located. A higher risk zone concrete may be substituted.

511.2.2 Joint Sealing Materials

Provide premolded expansion joint sealing Material in accordance with the Contract.

Provide nonextruding and resilient expansion joint filler in accordance with AASHTO M 153.

Provide preformed asphalt expansion joint filler in accordance with AASHTO M 213. Provide

Compression Joint Seals.”

Use curing material in accordance with 510.2.3.

511.2.3.2 Certificates of Compliance for Curing Materials

Materials”.

Provide steel reinforcing bars and epoxy-coated steel reinforcing bars in accordance with

Section 540, “Steel Reinforcement.”

511.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

Concrete shall be placed and tested for compliance with the Project Specifications in accordance with Section 510.

511.3.2 Falsework and Falsework Foundation

Construct Superstructure in accordance with Section 511, “Concrete Structures,” and

Section 512, “Superstructure Concrete.”

Design, construct, and maintain falsework and falsework foundation to provide the required strength and rigidity, and to support loads without settlement. Have a professional

Engineer licensed in the State of New Mexico design the falsework and its foundation. The design of the falsework and foundation will be required if one (1) or more of the following conditions apply:

1. If the height of the Structure is greater than ten (10) ft, (excluding concrete Culverts with bottom slabs);

2. Where the supported span is greater than 15 ft;

3. Where traffic, other than workmen involved in constructing the Structure, will travel under the falsework.

Section 511: Concrete Structures Page 327

Place the falsework on an adequate foundation. The maximum foundation bearing pressure is 2,000 pounds per square foot unless a Geotechnical investigation indicates a higher value can be used. Provide methods for measuring settlement or movement of falsework and forms under load. If falsework shows settlement of no greater than 3/8 inch of the vertical supports, stop the Work and correct the settlement or movement.

If pilings are used for falsework, pull or cut off falsework pilings. Ensure the cut-off elevations are one (1) ft below the low water level, natural ground, or bottom of proposed channel.

If required, submit Plans for falsework to the State Bridge Engineer for approval. Submit proposed changes to existing Structures required for maintenance of traffic to the Project

Manager for approval. The approval process may require up to 38 Days.

Make forms mortar tight and sufficiently rigid to prevent deformation due to the pressure of the concrete and other loads Incidental to the construction operations, including vibration.

Construct and maintain forms to prevent the joints from opening. Construct and maintain forms used on surfaces in public view with a smooth surface of uniform color and texture. Do not weld reinforcing or Structural Steel, except as required in the Contract.

Remove loose dirt, laitance and miscellaneous debris from the bottom of the forms before placing concrete.

Fillet forms and chamfer them 3/4 inch, unless required otherwise in the Contract, and give them a bevel or draft for easy removal of projections such as girders and copings.

Use lumber that is planed on at least one (1) side and the two (2) edges for exposed concrete surfaces. Place the planed face so that it will be the formed surface for the concrete being placed.

Construct metal ties and anchorages within the forms to permit the removal of a portion of the tie connections without damaging the concrete, and provide at least 1/2 inch depth of cover from the concrete surface.

511.3.3.3 Surface Treatment of Forms

Ensure that all forms have been properly treated with an approved form release agent before placing reinforcing steel. Ensure that forms have been properly wetted before placing concrete.

Do not use form oil that adheres to or discolors the concrete.

Provide metal forms thick enough to prevent bending and maintain their shape. Use countersunk bolts and rivet heads. Use clamps, pins, and other connecting devices designed to hold forms rigidly together and for removal without damaging the concrete. Use metal forms that have a smooth surface and line up properly.

The Contractor may use metal forms that remain part of the Structure in accordance with the

Contract or as approved by the State Bridge Engineer. Use permanent steel Bridge deck forms in accordance with Section 512.3.4.1, “Permanent Steel Deck Forms.”

Section 511: Concrete Structures Page 328

Continuously maintain the shape, strength, rigidity, water tightness, and surface smoothness of reused forms. Resize warped or bulged lumber before reusing it.

511.3.4 Temperature and Weather Limitations

Keep the concrete mixture temperature between 50 °F to 90 °F at the time of placement.

Do not place concrete directly onto any surface that is less than 40 °F unless otherwise approved by the Project Manager. Do not place concrete on frozen ground.

Place cold weather concrete in accordance with ACI 306, Cold Weather Concreting.

If placing concrete at or below air temperatures of 35 °F, provide suitable enclosures and heating devices. Vent exhaust from combustion type heating devices outside the placing area so that the exhaust fumes can not come in contact with the freshly placed concrete.

Ensure the concrete surface temperatures never fall below 45 °F during placement and the first three (3) Days after placing. Do not let the surface temperature fall below 40 °F during the next four (4) Days after placing, or until the in-place strength determined by the Maturity

Method, as described in Section 510, “Portland Cement Concrete” indicates that 75% of the design strength is achieved.

Monitor the minimum concrete temperatures at various locations including edges and corners of slabs or other Structures, and check immediately before placing insulating material over the concrete.

If heating the aggregates or water, use heating methods and Equipment that can heat the

Material uniformly. Do not heat the Materials to more than 110 °F. During the heating or mixing process, do not add cement to water and aggregate combinations that are hotter than

90 °F.

If air temperatures are likely to fall below 35 °F during the placement or curing periods, submit a cold weather concreting and curing plan to the Project Manager for approval by the

State Concrete Engineer before concrete placement. Allow 14 Days for review. Ensure that the plan details the methods and Equipment to maintain the required concrete temperatures.

Information submitted will include, but not be limited to: o

Whether or not outside heating sources will be used (and how the exhaust will be vented away from the fresh concrete); o

What the target mix temperature will be; o

How the concrete will be protected from the ambient conditions; o

How soon after the placement the protection from the ambient conditions will be implemented; o

Who will be responsible for insuring that the proper protection from the environment is properly implemented; o

How the actual temperature of the concrete will be monitored; o

How often will this be checked; o

Who will do the checking; o

What actions will be taken if the temperatures fall below the target points; o

Who will be responsible for taking the necessary actions; o

Who the contact will be if Department Personnel need to talk transmit notices or information about the cold weather conditions.

Place hot weather concrete in accordance with ACI 305, Hot Weather Concreting.

Section 511: Concrete Structures Page 329

If a wind break is used, the wind break shall be a minimum height of eight (8) ft- 0 inches and constructed in a perimeter enclosing the Bridge deck, approach slabs, sleeper footings and/or transition slabs (if applicable). All areas of the freshly placed concrete must be protected by the wind break. The nature and type of windbreak to be used shall be approved by the Project Manager prior to placement of any Superstructure concrete.

If a fogging system is used, a water fog shall be continuously applied over the surface of the freshly placed concrete in such a manner that the entire surface is kept at a relative humidity of 90% or greater and the surface of concrete is kept at an evaporation potential of

0.15 pound/square foot/hour or less, as determined from Figure 511.3.3.5:1. The evaporation potential shall be determined prior to fogging and outside the wind protection, and continuously monitored with evaporation potential measurements taken and recorded at least once every five (5) min throughout the entire placement, and continuing until the concrete curing system has been completely installed. If a wind break and/or fogging are being used, obtain these readings from the protected area at a height of approximately five (5) feet above the protected concrete.

The area to be fogged shall be the entire area of the freshly placed concrete, which has not had the final finish applied. This fog shall be delivered through a network of nozzles, which are properly spaced to provide a uniform fog at the surface of the concrete. The nozzles used shall be of the type, which atomizes the water so that there are no visually discernible droplets of water. The area of coverage from each nozzle shall overlap all adjacent nozzle coverage by at least one (1) ft. It shall be demonstrated prior to the placement of the concrete that the intended system is capable of delivering the required fogging environment for at least twice the anticipated required time. Do not finish or otherwise mix any of the fogging water into the fresh concrete.

The intended system must be properly field tested, and approved by the State Materials

Bureau before being used on any Superstructure concrete. Fogging shall continue until the surface is covered with an approved curing compound. The wet burlap shall not be applied over the curing compound until the Superstructure concrete can receive the wet burlap and any placement loads without deformation.

The use of a Mono-Molecular Film (MMF) evaporation retarder shall only be used in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. If used, it shall be applied and no further finishing efforts will be permitted in any location that has received the MMF. Under no circumstances shall the MMF be used as a finishing aid in the working of the concrete surface.

D

O

not place concrete until the Project Manager approves the reinforcing steel and forms.

Ensure that forms are clean and free of rust, grease, and other Deleterious Material immediately before placing the concrete. Remove wooden form spacers immediately before placing concrete in that area.

Vibrate the concrete during placement to force the coarse aggregate from external surfaces and to bring mortar against the forms to produce a smooth finish significantly free of water, air pockets, and honeycombs.

Place concrete in girders, walls, and other similar Structures in horizontal layers. Ensure that the concrete is not too thick for the vibrator to consolidate and merge it with the previous layer. Do not pour concrete layers deeper than two (2) ft.

Do not place concrete faster than the rate used for the design of the forms. Adjust the rate for the temperature of the concrete being placed.

511.3.4.5 Rate of Evaporation Limitations (applies to Bridge decks, approach slabs,

Sidewalks, curbs, CBC (top and bottom slabs), slipped formed concrete Structures, all

PCCP, structural shotcrete, and concrete slope paving) (review listing of Structureshow to match top paragraph)

Section 511: Concrete Structures Page 330

Do not place concrete unless the average combination of air temperature, temperature of fresh concrete, relative humidity, and wind velocity (Evaporation Potential) at the site over any ten (10) minute period is less than 0.20 lb per square foot per hour in accordance with

Figure 512.3.7.5:1, “Surface Evaporation from Concrete,” by using a continuous reading computerized weather station set to intervals not greater than five (5) minutes apart.

Measurements of the wind speed, relative humidity and ambient air temperature used to determine the Surface Evaporation from the Concrete shall be taken at a height of approximately five (5) feet above the deck. Utilize an automated system that does not require any human support or effort after its initial set-up. Continue obtaining and recording the

Surface Evaporation from the Concrete after all of the concrete has been placed until the final curing system has been physically applied.

Do not place concrete during periods of high air temperature, low humidity, or high winds unless one (1) or more of the following measures have been taken upon by the Contractor at his expense and maintained to the satisfaction of the Proje