DATA SHEET

DATA SHEET
DATA SHEET
Order code
73-4286
Manufacturer code
n/a
Description
ATMEGA48-20PU 8-BIT MICRO 4K DIL-28 (RC)
The enclosed information is believed to be correct, Information may change ‘without notice’ due to
product improvement. Users should ensure that the product is suitable for their use. E. & O. E.
Sales: 01206 751166
[email protected]
Technical: 01206 835555
[email protected]
Page 1 of 29
Revision A
04/07/2003
Fax: 01206 7551188
www.rapidelectronics.co.uk
Features
• High Performance, Low Power AVR® 8-Bit Microcontroller
• Advanced RISC Architecture
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
– 131 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution
– 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
– Fully Static Operation
– Up to 20 MIPS Throughput at 20 MHz
– On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier
Non-volatile Program and Data Memories
– 4/8/16K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash (ATmega48/88/168)
Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
– Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program
True Read-While-Write Operation
– 256/512/512 Bytes EEPROM (ATmega48/88/168)
Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles
– 512/1K/1K Byte Internal SRAM (ATmega48/88/168)
– Programming Lock for Software Security
Peripheral Features
– Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler and Compare Mode
– One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode, and Capture
Mode
– Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
– Six PWM Channels
– 8-channel 10-bit ADC in TQFP and QFN/MLF package
– 6-channel 10-bit ADC in PDIP Package
– Programmable Serial USART
– Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
– Byte-oriented 2-wire Serial Interface
– Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
– On-chip Analog Comparator
– Interrupt and Wake-up on Pin Change
Special Microcontroller Features
– Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection
– Internal Calibrated Oscillator
– External and Internal Interrupt Sources
– Five Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, and
Standby
I/O and Packages
– 23 Programmable I/O Lines
– 28-pin PDIP, 32-lead TQFP and 32-pad QFN/MLF
Operating Voltage:
– 1.8 - 5.5V for ATmega48V/88V/168V
– 2.7 - 5.5V for ATmega48/88/168
Temperature Range:
– -40°C to 85°C
Speed Grade:
– ATmega48V/88V/168V: 0 - 4 MHz @ 1.8 - 5.5V, 0 - 10 MHz @ 2.7 - 5.5V
– ATmega48/88/168: 0 - 10 MHz @ 2.7 - 5.5V, 0 - 20 MHz @ 4.5 - 5.5V
Low Power Consumption
– Active Mode:
1 MHz, 1.8V: 240µA
32 kHz, 1.8V: 15µA (including Oscillator)
– Power-down Mode:
0.1µA at 1.8V
8-bit
Microcontroller
with 8K Bytes
In-System
Programmable
Flash
ATmega48/V
ATmega88/V *
ATmega168/V *
* Preliminary
Summary
Rev. 2545GS–AVR–06/06
1. Pin Configurations
Figure 1-1.
Pinout ATmega48/88/168
PDIP
(PCINT14/RESET) PC6
(PCINT16/RXD) PD0
(PCINT17/TXD) PD1
(PCINT18/INT0) PD2
(PCINT19/OC2B/INT1) PD3
(PCINT20/XCK/T0) PD4
VCC
GND
(PCINT6/XTAL1/TOSC1) PB6
(PCINT7/XTAL2/TOSC2) PB7
(PCINT21/OC0B/T1) PD5
(PCINT22/OC0A/AIN0) PD6
(PCINT23/AIN1) PD7
(PCINT0/CLKO/ICP1) PB0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
PC5 (ADC5/SCL/PCINT13)
PC4 (ADC4/SDA/PCINT12)
PC3 (ADC3/PCINT11)
PC2 (ADC2/PCINT10)
PC1 (ADC1/PCINT9)
PC0 (ADC0/PCINT8)
GND
AREF
AVCC
PB5 (SCK/PCINT5)
PB4 (MISO/PCINT4)
PB3 (MOSI/OC2A/PCINT3)
PB2 (SS/OC1B/PCINT2)
PB1 (OC1A/PCINT1)
MLF Top View
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
PD2 (INT0/PCINT18)
PD1 (TXD/PCINT17)
PD0 (RXD/PCINT16)
PC6 (RESET/PCINT14)
PC5 (ADC5/SCL/PCINT13)
PC4 (ADC4/SDA/PCINT12)
PC3 (ADC3/PCINT11)
PC2 (ADC2/PCINT10)
PD2 (INT0/PCINT18)
PD1 (TXD/PCINT17)
PD0 (RXD/PCINT16)
PC6 (RESET/PCINT14)
PC5 (ADC5/SCL/PCINT13)
PC4 (ADC4/SDA/PCINT12)
PC3 (ADC3/PCINT11)
PC2 (ADC2/PCINT10)
TQFP Top View
(PCINT19/OC2B/INT1) PD3
(PCINT20/XCK/T0) PD4
GND
VCC
GND
VCC
(PCINT6/XTAL1/TOSC1) PB6
(PCINT7/XTAL2/TOSC2) PB7
(PCINT21/OC0B/T1) PD5
(PCINT22/OC0A/AIN0) PD6
(PCINT23/AIN1) PD7
(PCINT0/CLKO/ICP1) PB0
(PCINT1/OC1A) PB1
(PCINT2/SS/OC1B) PB2
(PCINT3/OC2A/MOSI) PB3
(PCINT4/MISO) PB4
1.1
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PC1 (ADC1/PCINT9)
PC0 (ADC0/PCINT8)
ADC7
GND
AREF
ADC6
AVCC
PB5 (SCK/PCINT5)
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
PC1 (ADC1/PCINT9)
PC0 (ADC0/PCINT8)
ADC7
GND
AREF
ADC6
AVCC
PB5 (SCK/PCINT5)
NOTE: Bottom pad should be soldered to ground.
(PCINT21/OC0B/T1) PD5
(PCINT22/OC0A/AIN0) PD6
(PCINT23/AIN1) PD7
(PCINT0/CLKO/ICP1) PB0
(PCINT1/OC1A) PB1
(PCINT2/SS/OC1B) PB2
(PCINT3/OC2A/MOSI) PB3
(PCINT4/MISO) PB4
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
(PCINT19/OC2B/INT1) PD3
(PCINT20/XCK/T0) PD4
GND
VCC
GND
VCC
(PCINT6/XTAL1/TOSC1) PB6
(PCINT7/XTAL2/TOSC2) PB7
Disclaimer
Typical values contained in this datasheet are based on simulations and characterization of
other AVR microcontrollers manufactured on the same process technology. Min and Max values
will be available after the device is characterized.
2. Overview
The ATmega48/88/168 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced
RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the
2
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
ATmega48/88/168 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system
designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
Block Diagram
Block Diagram
GND
Figure 2-1.
VCC
2.1
Watchdog
Timer
Watchdog
Oscillator
Oscillator
Circuits /
Clock
Generation
Power
Supervision
POR / BOD &
RESET
debugWIRE
Flash
SRAM
PROGRAM
LOGIC
CPU
EEPROM
AVCC
AREF
DATABUS
GND
8bit T/C 0
16bit T/C 1
A/D Conv.
8bit T/C 2
Analog
Comp.
Internal
Bandgap
USART 0
SPI
TWI
PORT D (8)
PORT B (8)
PORT C (7)
2
6
RESET
XTAL[1..2]
PD[0..7]
PB[0..7]
PC[0..6]
ADC[6..7]
The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the
32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent
registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting
architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.
The ATmega48/88/168 provides the following features: 4K/8K/16K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities, 256/512/512 bytes EEPROM, 512/1K/1K bytes
SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, three flexible
3
2545GS–AVR–06/06
Timer/Counters with compare modes, internal and external interrupts, a serial programmable
USART, a byte-oriented 2-wire Serial Interface, an SPI serial port, a 6-channel 10-bit ADC (8
channels in TQFP and QFN/MLF packages), a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal
Oscillator, and five software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU
while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, USART, 2-wire Serial Interface, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents but
freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.
In Power-save mode, the asynchronous timer continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a
timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the
CPU and all I/O modules except asynchronous timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator Oscillator is running while the rest
of the device is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up combined with low power consumption.
The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The
On-chip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed In-System through an SPI
serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer, or by an On-chip Boot program running on the AVR core. The Boot program can use any interface to download the
application program in the Application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash section will
continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write
operation. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a
monolithic chip, the Atmel ATmega48/88/168 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly
flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The ATmega48/88/168 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development
tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators, In-Circuit Emulators, and Evaluation kits.
2.2
Comparison Between ATmega48, ATmega88, and ATmega168
The ATmega48, ATmega88 and ATmega168 differ only in memory sizes, boot loader support,
and interrupt vector sizes. Table 2-1 summarizes the different memory and interrupt vector sizes
for the three devices.
Table 2-1.
Memory Size Summary
Device
Flash
EEPROM
RAM
Interrupt Vector Size
ATmega48
4K Bytes
256 Bytes
512 Bytes
1 instruction word/vector
ATmega88
8K Bytes
512 Bytes
1K Bytes
1 instruction word/vector
ATmega168
16K Bytes
512 Bytes
1K Bytes
2 instruction words/vector
ATmega88 and ATmega168 support a real Read-While-Write Self-Programming mechanism.
There is a separate Boot Loader Section, and the SPM instruction can only execute from there.
In ATmega48, there is no Read-While-Write support and no separate Boot Loader Section. The
SPM instruction can execute from the entire Flash.
2.3
2.3.1
Pin Descriptions
VCC
Digital supply voltage.
4
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
2.3.2
GND
Ground.
2.3.3
Port B (PB7:0) XTAL1/XTAL2/TOSC1/TOSC2
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB6 can be used as input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB7 can be used as output from the inverting
Oscillator amplifier.
If the Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator is used as chip clock source, PB7..6 is used as TOSC2..1
input for the Asynchronous Timer/Counter2 if the AS2 bit in ASSR is set.
The various special features of Port B are elaborated in ”Alternate Functions of Port B” on page
78 and ”System Clock and Clock Options” on page 27.
2.3.4
Port C (PC5:0)
Port C is a 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
PC5..0 output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
2.3.5
PC6/RESET
If the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed, PC6 is used as an I/O pin. Note that the electrical characteristics of PC6 differ from those of the other pins of Port C.
If the RSTDISBL Fuse is unprogrammed, PC6 is used as a Reset input. A low level on this pin
for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a Reset, even if the clock is not running.
The minimum pulse length is given in Table 9-1 on page 46. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed
to generate a Reset.
The various special features of Port C are elaborated in ”Alternate Functions of Port C” on page
82.
2.3.6
Port D (PD7:0)
Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
The various special features of Port D are elaborated in ”Alternate Functions of Port D” on page
85.
5
2545GS–AVR–06/06
2.3.7
AVCC
AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D Converter, PC3:0, and ADC7:6. It should be externally
connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC
through a low-pass filter. Note that PC6..4 use digital supply voltage, VCC.
2.3.8
AREF
AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.
2.3.9
ADC7:6 (TQFP and QFN/MLF Package Only)
In the TQFP and QFN/MLF package, ADC7:6 serve as analog inputs to the A/D converter.
These pins are powered from the analog supply and serve as 10-bit ADC channels.
3. Resources
A comprehensive set of development tools, application notes and datasheets are available for
download on http://www.atmel.com/avr.
6
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
4. Register Summary
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0xFF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xED)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC6)
UDR0
(0xC5)
UBRR0H
USART I/O Data Register
189
USART Baud Rate Register High
(0xC4)
UBRR0L
(0xC3)
Reserved
–
–
193
USART Baud Rate Register Low
–
Page
193
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC2)
UCSR0C
UMSEL01
UMSEL00
UPM01
UPM00
USBS0
UCSZ01 /UDORD0
UCSZ00 / UCPHA0
UCPOL0
(0xC1)
UCSR0B
RXCIE0
TXCIE0
UDRIE0
RXEN0
TXEN0
UCSZ02
RXB80
TXB80
190
(0xC0)
UCSR0A
RXC0
TXC0
UDRE0
FE0
DOR0
UPE0
U2X0
MPCM0
189
191/205
7
2545GS–AVR–06/06
8
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0xBF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Page
(0xBE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xBD)
TWAMR
TWAM6
TWAM5
TWAM4
TWAM3
TWAM2
TWAM1
TWAM0
–
218
(0xBC)
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
215
(0xBB)
TWDR
(0xBA)
TWAR
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
TWS7
TWS6
TWS5
2-wire Serial Interface Data Register
(0xB9)
TWSR
(0xB8)
TWBR
(0xB7)
Reserved
–
(0xB6)
ASSR
–
(0xB5)
Reserved
–
217
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
218
TWS4
TWS3
–
TWPS1
TWPS0
217
2-wire Serial Interface Bit Rate Register
215
–
–
–
–
–
–
EXCLK
AS2
TCN2UB
OCR2AUB
OCR2BUB
TCR2AUB
TCR2BUB
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
158
(0xB4)
OCR2B
Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Register B
155
(0xB3)
OCR2A
Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Register A
155
(0xB2)
TCNT2
(0xB1)
TCCR2B
FOC2A
FOC2B
–
Timer/Counter2 (8-bit)
–
WGM22
CS22
CS21
CS20
155
154
(0xB0)
TCCR2A
COM2A1
COM2A0
COM2B1
COM2B0
–
–
WGM21
WGM20
151
(0xAF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9E)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9B)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x99)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x98)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x97)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x96)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x95)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x94)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x93)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x92)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x91)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x90)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8E)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8B)
OCR1BH
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register B High Byte
134
(0x8A)
OCR1BL
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register B Low Byte
134
(0x89)
OCR1AH
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register A High Byte
134
(0x88)
OCR1AL
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register A Low Byte
134
(0x87)
ICR1H
Timer/Counter1 - Input Capture Register High Byte
135
(0x86)
ICR1L
Timer/Counter1 - Input Capture Register Low Byte
135
(0x85)
TCNT1H
Timer/Counter1 - Counter Register High Byte
134
(0x84)
TCNT1L
Timer/Counter1 - Counter Register Low Byte
134
(0x83)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x82)
TCCR1C
FOC1A
FOC1B
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x81)
TCCR1B
ICNC1
ICES1
–
WGM13
WGM12
CS12
CS11
CS10
132
(0x80)
TCCR1A
COM1A1
COM1A0
COM1B1
COM1B0
–
–
WGM11
WGM10
130
(0x7F)
DIDR1
–
–
–
–
–
–
AIN1D
AIN0D
240
(0x7E)
DIDR0
–
–
ADC5D
ADC4D
ADC3D
ADC2D
ADC1D
ADC0D
256
–
133
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0x7D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x7C)
ADMUX
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
–
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
252
(0x7B)
ADCSRB
–
ACME
–
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
255
(0x7A)
ADCSRA
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
(0x79)
ADCH
ADC Data Register High byte
Page
253
255
(0x78)
ADCL
(0x77)
Reserved
–
–
–
ADC Data Register Low byte
–
–
–
–
–
255
(0x76)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x75)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x74)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x73)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x72)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x71)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x70)
TIMSK2
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE2B
OCIE2A
TOIE2
156
(0x6F)
TIMSK1
–
–
ICIE1
–
–
OCIE1B
OCIE1A
TOIE1
135
(0x6E)
TIMSK0
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE0B
OCIE0A
TOIE0
106
(0x6D)
PCMSK2
PCINT23
PCINT22
PCINT21
PCINT20
PCINT19
PCINT18
PCINT17
PCINT16
70
(0x6C)
PCMSK1
–
PCINT14
PCINT13
PCINT12
PCINT11
PCINT10
PCINT9
PCINT8
70
(0x6B)
PCMSK0
PCINT7
PCINT6
PCINT5
PCINT4
PCINT3
PCINT2
PCINT1
PCINT0
70
(0x6A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x69)
EICRA
–
–
–
–
ISC11
ISC10
ISC01
ISC00
(0x68)
PCICR
–
–
–
–
–
PCIE2
PCIE1
PCIE0
(0x67)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x66)
OSCCAL
(0x65)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x64)
PRR
PRTWI
PRTIM2
PRTIM0
–
PRTIM1
PRSPI
PRUSART0
PRADC
(0x63)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x62)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x61)
CLKPR
CLKPCE
–
–
–
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
37
(0x60)
WDTCSR
WDIF
WDIE
WDP3
WDCE
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
54
0x3F (0x5F)
SREG
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
11
0x3E (0x5E)
SPH
–
–
–
–
–
(SP10) 5.
SP9
SP8
13
0x3D (0x5D)
SPL
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
13
0x3C (0x5C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x3B (0x5B)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x3A (0x5A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x39 (0x59)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x38 (0x58)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x37 (0x57)
SPMCSR
SPMIE
(RWWSB)5.
–
(RWWSRE)5.
BLBSET
PGWRT
PGERS
SELFPRGEN
0x36 (0x56)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x35 (0x55)
MCUCR
–
–
–
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
0x34 (0x54)
MCUSR
–
–
–
–
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
0x33 (0x53)
SMCR
–
–
–
–
SM2
SM1
SM0
SE
0x32 (0x52)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x31 (0x51)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x30 (0x50)
ACSR
ACD
ACBG
ACO
ACI
ACIE
ACIC
ACIS1
ACIS0
0x2F (0x4F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x2E (0x4E)
SPDR
0x2D (0x4D)
SPSR
SPIF
WCOL
–
–
–
–
–
SPI2X
168
0x2C (0x4C)
SPCR
SPIE
SPE
DORD
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
166
0x2B (0x4B)
GPIOR2
General Purpose I/O Register 2
0x2A (0x4A)
GPIOR1
General Purpose I/O Register 1
0x29 (0x49)
Reserved
0x28 (0x48)
OCR0B
Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Register B
0x27 (0x47)
OCR0A
Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Register A
0x26 (0x46)
TCNT0
0x25 (0x45)
TCCR0B
FOC0A
FOC0B
–
–
WGM02
CS02
CS01
CS00
0x24 (0x44)
TCCR0A
COM0A1
COM0A0
COM0B1
COM0B0
–
–
WGM01
WGM00
0x23 (0x43)
GTCCR
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
PSRASY
PSRSYNC
0x22 (0x42)
EEARH
(EEPROM Address Register High Byte) 5.
0x21 (0x41)
EEARL
EEPROM Address Register Low Byte
21
0x20 (0x40)
EEDR
EEPROM Data Register
21
Oscillator Calibration Register
34
SPI Data Register
–
–
–
–
67
41
271
39
238
168
26
26
–
–
–
–
Timer/Counter0 (8-bit)
0x1F (0x3F)
EECR
0x1E (0x3E)
GPIOR0
–
–
EEPM1
EEPM0
0x1D (0x3D)
EIMSK
–
–
–
–
0x1C (0x3C)
EIFR
–
–
–
–
EERIE
139/160
21
EEMPE
EEPE
EERE
21
–
–
INT1
INT0
68
–
–
INTF1
INTF0
68
General Purpose I/O Register 0
26
9
2545GS–AVR–06/06
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0x1B (0x3B)
PCIFR
–
–
–
–
–
PCIF2
PCIF1
PCIF0
Page
0x1A (0x3A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x19 (0x39)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x18 (0x38)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x17 (0x37)
TIFR2
–
–
–
–
–
OCF2B
OCF2A
TOV2
156
0x16 (0x36)
TIFR1
–
–
ICF1
–
–
OCF1B
OCF1A
TOV1
136
0x15 (0x35)
TIFR0
–
–
–
–
–
OCF0B
OCF0A
TOV0
0x14 (0x34)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x13 (0x33)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x12 (0x32)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x11 (0x31)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x10 (0x30)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0F (0x2F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0E (0x2E)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0D (0x2D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0C (0x2C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0B (0x2B)
PORTD
PORTD7
PORTD6
PORTD5
PORTD4
PORTD3
PORTD2
PORTD1
PORTD0
88
0x0A (0x2A)
DDRD
DDD7
DDD6
DDD5
DDD4
DDD3
DDD2
DDD1
DDD0
88
0x09 (0x29)
PIND
PIND7
PIND6
PIND5
PIND4
PIND3
PIND2
PIND1
PIND0
89
0x08 (0x28)
PORTC
–
PORTC6
PORTC5
PORTC4
PORTC3
PORTC2
PORTC1
PORTC0
88
0x07 (0x27)
DDRC
–
DDC6
DDC5
DDC4
DDC3
DDC2
DDC1
DDC0
88
0x06 (0x26)
PINC
–
PINC6
PINC5
PINC4
PINC3
PINC2
PINC1
PINC0
88
0x05 (0x25)
PORTB
PORTB7
PORTB6
PORTB5
PORTB4
PORTB3
PORTB2
PORTB1
PORTB0
88
0x04 (0x24)
DDRB
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
88
0x03 (0x23)
PINB
PINB7
PINB6
PINB5
PINB4
PINB3
PINB2
PINB1
PINB0
88
0x02 (0x22)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x01 (0x21)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0 (0x20)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Note:
1. For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory addresses
should never be written.
2. I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these
registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
3. Some of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVRs, the CBI and SBI
instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such Status Flags. The
CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
4. When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O
Registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The ATmega48/88/168 is a
complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location reserved in Opcode for the
IN and OUT instructions. For the Extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD
instructions can be used.
5. Only valid for ATmega88/168
10
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
5. Instruction Set Summary
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS
ADD
Rd, Rr
Add two Registers
Rd ← Rd + Rr
Z,C,N,V,H
ADC
Rd, Rr
Add with Carry two Registers
Rd ← Rd + Rr + C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
ADIW
Rdl,K
Add Immediate to Word
Rdh:Rdl ← Rdh:Rdl + K
Z,C,N,V,S
2
SUB
Rd, Rr
Subtract two Registers
Rd ← Rd - Rr
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SUBI
Rd, K
Subtract Constant from Register
Rd ← Rd - K
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBC
Rd, Rr
Subtract with Carry two Registers
Rd ← Rd - Rr - C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBCI
Rd, K
Subtract with Carry Constant from Reg.
Rd ← Rd - K - C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBIW
Rdl,K
Subtract Immediate from Word
Rdh:Rdl ← Rdh:Rdl - K
Z,C,N,V,S
2
AND
Rd, Rr
Logical AND Registers
Rd ← Rd • Rr
Z,N,V
1
ANDI
Rd, K
Logical AND Register and Constant
Rd ← Rd • K
Z,N,V
1
OR
Rd, Rr
Logical OR Registers
Rd ← Rd v Rr
Z,N,V
1
ORI
Rd, K
Logical OR Register and Constant
Rd ← Rd v K
Z,N,V
1
EOR
Rd, Rr
Exclusive OR Registers
Rd ← Rd ⊕ Rr
Z,N,V
1
1
COM
Rd
One’s Complement
Rd ← 0xFF − Rd
Z,C,N,V
1
NEG
Rd
Two’s Complement
Rd ← 0x00 − Rd
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBR
Rd,K
Set Bit(s) in Register
Rd ← Rd v K
Z,N,V
1
CBR
Rd,K
Clear Bit(s) in Register
Rd ← Rd • (0xFF - K)
Z,N,V
1
INC
Rd
Increment
Rd ← Rd + 1
Z,N,V
1
DEC
Rd
Decrement
Rd ← Rd − 1
Z,N,V
1
TST
Rd
Test for Zero or Minus
Rd ← Rd • Rd
Z,N,V
1
CLR
Rd
Clear Register
Rd ← Rd ⊕ Rd
Z,N,V
1
SER
Rd
Set Register
Rd ← 0xFF
None
1
MUL
Rd, Rr
Multiply Unsigned
R1:R0 ← Rd x Rr
Z,C
2
MULS
Rd, Rr
Multiply Signed
R1:R0 ← Rd x Rr
Z,C
2
MULSU
Rd, Rr
Multiply Signed with Unsigned
R1:R0 ← Rd x Rr
Z,C
2
FMUL
Rd, Rr
Fractional Multiply Unsigned
R1:R0 ← (Rd x Rr) <<
1
R1:R0 ← (Rd x Rr) << 1
R1:R0 ← (Rd x Rr) << 1
Z,C
2
Z,C
2
Z,C
2
2
FMULS
Rd, Rr
Fractional Multiply Signed
FMULSU
Rd, Rr
Fractional Multiply Signed with Unsigned
BRANCH INSTRUCTIONS
RJMP
k
IJMP
Relative Jump
PC ← PC + k + 1
None
Indirect Jump to (Z)
PC ← Z
None
2
JMP(1)
k
Direct Jump
PC ← k
None
3
RCALL
k
Relative Subroutine Call
PC ← PC + k + 1
None
3
Indirect Call to (Z)
PC ← Z
None
3
Direct Subroutine Call
PC ← k
None
4
RET
Subroutine Return
PC ← STACK
None
4
RETI
Interrupt Return
PC ← STACK
I
4
ICALL
CALL(1)
k
CPSE
Rd,Rr
Compare, Skip if Equal
if (Rd = Rr) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
CP
Rd,Rr
Compare
Rd − Rr
Z, N,V,C,H
1
CPC
Rd,Rr
Compare with Carry
Rd − Rr − C
Z, N,V,C,H
1
CPI
Rd,K
Compare Register with Immediate
Rd − K
Z, N,V,C,H
SBRC
Rr, b
Skip if Bit in Register Cleared
if (Rr(b)=0) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
1/2/3
1
SBRS
Rr, b
Skip if Bit in Register is Set
if (Rr(b)=1) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIC
P, b
Skip if Bit in I/O Register Cleared
if (P(b)=0) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIS
P, b
Skip if Bit in I/O Register is Set
if (P(b)=1) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
BRBS
s, k
Branch if Status Flag Set
if (SREG(s) = 1) then PC←PC+k + 1
None
1/2
BRBC
s, k
Branch if Status Flag Cleared
if (SREG(s) = 0) then PC←PC+k + 1
None
1/2
BREQ
k
Branch if Equal
if (Z = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRNE
k
Branch if Not Equal
if (Z = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCS
k
Branch if Carry Set
if (C = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCC
k
Branch if Carry Cleared
if (C = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRSH
k
Branch if Same or Higher
if (C = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLO
k
Branch if Lower
if (C = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRMI
k
Branch if Minus
if (N = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRPL
k
Branch if Plus
if (N = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRGE
k
Branch if Greater or Equal, Signed
if (N ⊕ V= 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLT
k
Branch if Less Than Zero, Signed
if (N ⊕ V= 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHS
k
Branch if Half Carry Flag Set
if (H = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHC
k
Branch if Half Carry Flag Cleared
if (H = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTS
k
Branch if T Flag Set
if (T = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTC
k
Branch if T Flag Cleared
if (T = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVS
k
Branch if Overflow Flag is Set
if (V = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVC
k
Branch if Overflow Flag is Cleared
if (V = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
11
2545GS–AVR–06/06
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
BRIE
k
Branch if Interrupt Enabled
if ( I = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRID
k
Branch if Interrupt Disabled
if ( I = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BIT AND BIT-TEST INSTRUCTIONS
SBI
P,b
Set Bit in I/O Register
I/O(P,b) ← 1
None
2
CBI
P,b
Clear Bit in I/O Register
I/O(P,b) ← 0
None
2
LSL
Rd
Logical Shift Left
Rd(n+1) ← Rd(n), Rd(0) ← 0
Z,C,N,V
1
LSR
Rd
Logical Shift Right
Rd(n) ← Rd(n+1), Rd(7) ← 0
Z,C,N,V
1
ROL
Rd
Rotate Left Through Carry
Rd(0)←C,Rd(n+1)← Rd(n),C←Rd(7)
Z,C,N,V
1
ROR
Rd
Rotate Right Through Carry
Rd(7)←C,Rd(n)← Rd(n+1),C←Rd(0)
Z,C,N,V
1
ASR
Rd
Arithmetic Shift Right
Rd(n) ← Rd(n+1), n=0..6
Z,C,N,V
1
SWAP
Rd
Swap Nibbles
Rd(3..0)←Rd(7..4),Rd(7..4)←Rd(3..0)
None
1
BSET
s
Flag Set
SREG(s) ← 1
SREG(s)
1
BCLR
s
Flag Clear
SREG(s) ← 0
SREG(s)
1
BST
Rr, b
Bit Store from Register to T
T ← Rr(b)
T
1
BLD
Rd, b
Bit load from T to Register
Rd(b) ← T
None
1
SEC
Set Carry
C←1
C
1
CLC
Clear Carry
C←0
C
1
SEN
Set Negative Flag
N←1
N
1
CLN
Clear Negative Flag
N←0
N
1
SEZ
Set Zero Flag
Z←1
Z
1
CLZ
Clear Zero Flag
Z←0
Z
1
SEI
Global Interrupt Enable
I←1
I
1
CLI
Global Interrupt Disable
I←0
I
1
SES
Set Signed Test Flag
S←1
S
1
CLS
Clear Signed Test Flag
S←0
S
1
SEV
Set Twos Complement Overflow.
V←1
V
1
CLV
Clear Twos Complement Overflow
V←0
V
1
SET
Set T in SREG
T←1
T
1
CLT
Clear T in SREG
T←0
T
1
SEH
CLH
Set Half Carry Flag in SREG
Clear Half Carry Flag in SREG
H←1
H←0
H
H
1
1
Rd ← Rr
Rd+1:Rd ← Rr+1:Rr
None
1
None
1
1
DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS
MOV
Rd, Rr
Move Between Registers
MOVW
Rd, Rr
Copy Register Word
LDI
Rd, K
Load Immediate
Rd ← K
None
LD
Rd, X
Load Indirect
Rd ← (X)
None
2
LD
Rd, X+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd ← (X), X ← X + 1
None
2
2
LD
Rd, - X
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
X ← X - 1, Rd ← (X)
None
LD
Rd, Y
Load Indirect
Rd ← (Y)
None
2
LD
Rd, Y+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd ← (Y), Y ← Y + 1
None
2
LD
Rd, - Y
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Y ← Y - 1, Rd ← (Y)
None
2
LDD
Rd,Y+q
Load Indirect with Displacement
Rd ← (Y + q)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z
Load Indirect
Rd ← (Z)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd ← (Z), Z ← Z+1
None
2
LD
Rd, -Z
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Z ← Z - 1, Rd ← (Z)
None
2
LDD
Rd, Z+q
Load Indirect with Displacement
Rd ← (Z + q)
None
2
LDS
Rd, k
Load Direct from SRAM
Rd ← (k)
None
2
ST
X, Rr
Store Indirect
(X) ← Rr
None
2
ST
X+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(X) ← Rr, X ← X + 1
None
2
ST
- X, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
X ← X - 1, (X) ← Rr
None
2
ST
Y, Rr
Store Indirect
(Y) ← Rr
None
2
ST
Y+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(Y) ← Rr, Y ← Y + 1
None
2
ST
- Y, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Y ← Y - 1, (Y) ← Rr
None
2
STD
Y+q,Rr
Store Indirect with Displacement
(Y + q) ← Rr
None
2
ST
Z, Rr
Store Indirect
(Z) ← Rr
None
2
ST
Z+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(Z) ← Rr, Z ← Z + 1
None
2
ST
-Z, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Z ← Z - 1, (Z) ← Rr
None
2
STD
Z+q,Rr
Store Indirect with Displacement
(Z + q) ← Rr
None
2
STS
k, Rr
Store Direct to SRAM
(k) ← Rr
None
2
Load Program Memory
R0 ← (Z)
None
3
LPM
LPM
Rd, Z
Load Program Memory
Rd ← (Z)
None
3
LPM
Rd, Z+
Load Program Memory and Post-Inc
Rd ← (Z), Z ← Z+1
None
3
Store Program Memory
(Z) ← R1:R0
None
-
IN
Rd, P
In Port
Rd ← P
None
1
OUT
P, Rr
Out Port
P ← Rr
None
1
PUSH
Rr
Push Register on Stack
STACK ← Rr
None
2
SPM
12
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
Mnemonics
POP
Operands
Rd
Description
Pop Register from Stack
Operation
Rd ← STACK
Flags
#Clocks
None
2
MCU CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS
NOP
No Operation
None
1
SLEEP
Sleep
(see specific descr. for Sleep function)
None
1
WDR
BREAK
Watchdog Reset
Break
(see specific descr. for WDR/timer)
For On-chip Debug Only
None
None
1
N/A
Note:
1. These instructions are only available in ATmega168.
13
2545GS–AVR–06/06
6. Ordering Information
6.1
ATmega48
Speed (MHz)
10(3)
20(3)
Note:
Ordering Code
Package(1)
1.8 - 5.5
ATmega48V-10AI
ATmega48V-10PI
ATmega48V-10MI
ATmega48V-10AU(2)
ATmega48V-10PU(2)
ATmega48V-10MU(2)
32A
28P3
32M1-A
32A
28P3
32M1-A
Industrial
(-40°C to 85°C)
2.7 - 5.5
ATmega48-20AI
ATmega48-20PI
ATmega48-20MI
ATmega48-20AU(2)
ATmega48-20PU(2)
ATmega48-20MU(2)
32A
28P3
32M1-A
32A
28P3
32M1-A
Industrial
(-40°C to 85°C)
Power Supply
Operational Range
1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information
and minimum quantities.
2. Pb-free packaging alternative, complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive).Also Halide free and fully Green.
3. See Figure 27-2 on page 305 and Figure 27-3 on page 305.
Package Type
32A
32-lead, Thin (1.0 mm) Plastic Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
28P3
28-lead, 0.300” Wide, Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP)
32M1-A
32-pad, 5 x 5 x 1.0 body, Lead Pitch 0.50 mm Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF)
14
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
6.2
ATmega88
Speed (MHz)
10(3)
20(3)
Note:
Ordering Code
Package(1)
1.8 - 5.5
ATmega88V-10AI
ATmega88V-10PI
ATmega88V-10MI
ATmega88V-10AU(2)
ATmega88V-10PU(2)
ATmega88V-10MU(2)
32A
28P3
32M1-A
32A
28P3
32M1-A
Industrial
(-40°C to 85°C)
2.7 - 5.5
ATmega88-20AI
ATmega88-20PI
ATmega88-20MI
ATmega88-20AU(2)
ATmega88-20PU(2)
ATmega88-20MU(2)
32A
28P3
32M1-A
32A
28P3
32M1-A
Industrial
(-40°C to 85°C)
Power Supply
Operational Range
1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information
and minimum quantities.
2. Pb-free packaging alternative, complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive).Also Halide free and fully Green.
3. See Figure 27-2 on page 305 and Figure 27-3 on page 305.
Package Type
32A
32-lead, Thin (1.0 mm) Plastic Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
28P3
28-lead, 0.300” Wide, Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP)
32M1-A
32-pad, 5 x 5 x 1.0 body, Lead Pitch 0.50 mm Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF)
15
2545GS–AVR–06/06
6.3
ATmega168
Speed (MHz)(3)
10
20
Note:
Ordering Code
Package(1)
1.8 - 5.5
ATmega168V-10AI
ATmega168V-10PI
ATmega168V-10MI
ATmega168V-10AU(2)
ATmega168V-10PU(2)
ATmega168V-10MU(2)
32A
28P3
32M1-A
32A
28P3
32M1-A
Industrial
(-40°C to 85°C)
2.7 - 5.5
ATmega168-20AI
ATmega168-20PI
ATmega168-20MI
ATmega168-20AU(2)
ATmega168-20PU(2)
ATmega168-20MU(2)
32A
28P3
32M1-A
32A
28P3
32M1-A
Industrial
(-40°C to 85°C)
Power Supply
Operational Range
1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information
and minimum quantities.
2. Pb-free packaging alternative, complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive).Also Halide free and fully Green.
3. See Figure 27-2 on page 305 and Figure 27-3 on page 305.
Package Type
32A
32-lead, Thin (1.0 mm) Plastic Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
28P3
28-lead, 0.300” Wide, Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP)
32M1-A
32-pad, 5 x 5 x 1.0 body, Lead Pitch 0.50 mm Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF)
16
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
7. Packaging Information
7.1
32A
PIN 1
B
PIN 1 IDENTIFIER
E1
e
E
D1
D
C
0˚~7˚
A1
A2
A
L
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
–
–
1.20
A1
0.05
–
0.15
SYMBOL
Notes:
1. This package conforms to JEDEC reference MS-026, Variation ABA.
2. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion. Allowable
protrusion is 0.25 mm per side. Dimensions D1 and E1 are maximum
plastic body size dimensions including mold mismatch.
3. Lead coplanarity is 0.10 mm maximum.
A2
0.95
1.00
1.05
D
8.75
9.00
9.25
D1
6.90
7.00
7.10
E
8.75
9.00
9.25
E1
6.90
7.00
7.10
B
0.30
–
0.45
C
0.09
–
0.20
L
0.45
–
0.75
e
NOTE
Note 2
Note 2
0.80 TYP
10/5/2001
R
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
32A, 32-lead, 7 x 7 mm Body Size, 1.0 mm Body Thickness,
0.8 mm Lead Pitch, Thin Profile Plastic Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
DRAWING NO.
REV.
32A
B
17
2545GS–AVR–06/06
7.2
28P3
D
PIN
1
E1
A
SEATING PLANE
L
B2
B1
B
A1
(4 PLACES)
e
E
0º ~ 15º
C
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
REF
SYMBOL
eB
Note:
1. Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold Flash or Protrusion.
Mold Flash or Protrusion shall not exceed 0.25 mm (0.010").
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
–
–
4.5724
A1
0.508
–
–
D
34.544
–
34.798
E
7.620
–
8.255
E1
7.112
–
7.493
B
0.381
–
0.533
B1
1.143
–
1.397
B2
0.762
–
1.143
L
3.175
–
3.429
C
0.203
–
0.356
eB
–
–
10.160
e
NOTE
Note 1
Note 1
2.540 TYP
09/28/01
R
18
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
28P3, 28-lead (0.300"/7.62 mm Wide) Plastic Dual
Inline Package (PDIP)
DRAWING NO.
28P3
REV.
B
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
7.3
32M1-A
D
D1
1
2
3
0
Pin 1 ID
E1
SIDE VIEW
E
TOP VIEW
A3
A2
A1
A
K
0.08 C
P
D2
1
2
3
P
Pin #1 Notch
(0.20 R)
K
e
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
0.80
0.90
1.00
A1
–
0.02
0.05
A2
–
0.65
1.00
A3
E2
b
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
L
BOTTOM VIEW
0.20 REF
b
0.18
0.23
0.30
D
4.90
5.00
5.10
D1
4.70
4.75
4.80
D2
2.95
3.10
3.25
E
4.90
5.00
5.10
E1
4.70
4.75
4.80
E2
2.95
3.10
3.25
e
Note: JEDEC Standard MO-220, Fig. 2 (Anvil Singulation), VHHD-2.
NOTE
0.50 BSC
L
0.30
0.40
0.50
P
–
–
0.60
o
12
0
–
K
0.20
–
–
–
5/25/06
R
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
32M1-A, 32-pad, 5 x 5 x 1.0 mm Body, Lead Pitch 0.50 mm,
3.10 mm Exposed Pad, Micro Lead Frame Package (MLF)
DRAWING NO.
32M1-A
REV.
E
19
2545GS–AVR–06/06
8. Errata
8.1
Errata ATmega48
The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATmega48 device.
8.1.1
Rev. B
No errata.
8.1.2
Rev A
•
•
•
•
•
•
Part may hang in reset
Wrong values read after Erase Only operation
Watchdog Timer Interrupt disabled
Start-up time with Crystal Oscillator is higher than expected
High Power Consumption in Power-down with External Clock
Asynchronous Oscillator does not stop in Power-down
1. Part may hang in reset
Some parts may get stuck in a reset state when a reset signal is applied when the internal
reset state-machine is in a specific state. The internal reset state-machine is in this state for
approximately 10 ns immediately before the part wakes up after a reset, and in a 10 ns window when altering the system clock prescaler. The problem is most often seen during InSystem Programming of the device. There are theoretical possibilities of this happening also
in run-mode. The following three cases can trigger the device to get stuck in a reset-state:
- Two succeeding resets are applied where the second reset occurs in the 10ns window
before the device is out of the reset-state caused by the first reset.
- A reset is applied in a 10 ns window while the system clock prescaler value is updated by
software.
- Leaving SPI-programming mode generates an internal reset signal that can trigger this
case.
The two first cases can occur during normal operating mode, while the last case occurs only
during programming of the device.
Problem Fix/Workaround
The first case can be avoided during run-mode by ensuring that only one reset source is
active. If an external reset push button is used, the reset start-up time should be selected
such that the reset line is fully debounced during the start-up time.
The second case can be avoided by not using the system clock prescaler.
The third case occurs during In-System programming only. It is most frequently seen when
using the internal RC at maximum frequency.
If the device gets stuck in the reset-state, turn power off, then on again to get the device out
of this state.
2. Wrong values read after Erase Only operation
At supply voltages below 2.7 V, an EEPROM location that is erased by the Erase Only operation may read as programmed (0x00).
Problem Fix/Workaround
20
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
If it is necessary to read an EEPROM location after Erase Only, use an Atomic Write operation with 0xFF as data in order to erase a location. In any case, the Write Only operation can
be used as intended. Thus no special considerations are needed as long as the erased location is not read before it is programmed.
3. Watchdog Timer Interrupt disabled
If the watchdog timer interrupt flag is not cleared before a new timeout occurs, the watchdog
will be disabled, and the interrupt flag will automatically be cleared. This is only applicable in
interrupt only mode. If the Watchdog is configured to reset the device in the watchdog timeout following an interrupt, the device works correctly.
Problem fix / Workaround
Make sure there is enough time to always service the first timeout event before a new
watchdog timeout occurs. This is done by selecting a long enough time-out period.
4. Start-up time with Crystal Oscillator is higher than expected
The clock counting part of the start-up time is about 2 times higher than expected for all
start-up periods when running on an external Crystal. This applies only when waking up by
reset. Wake-up from power down is not affected. For most settings, the clock counting parts
is a small fraction of the overall start-up time, and thus, the problem can be ignored. The
exception is when using a very low frequency crystal like for instance a 32 kHz clock crystal.
Problem fix / Workaround
No known workaround.
5. High Power Consumption in Power-down with External Clock
The power consumption in power down with an active external clock is about 10 times
higher than when using internal RC or external oscillators.
Problem fix / Workaround
Stop the external clock when the device is in power down.
6. Asynchronous Oscillator does not stop in Power-down
The Asynchronous oscillator does not stop when entering power down mode. This leads to
higher power consumption than expected.
Problem fix / Workaround
Manually disable the asynchronous timer before entering power down.
8.2
Errata ATmega88
The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATmega88 device.
8.2.1
Rev. D
No errata.
8.2.2
Rev. B/C
Not sampled.
21
2545GS–AVR–06/06
8.2.3
Rev. A
• Writing to EEPROM does not work at low Operating Voltages
• Part may hang in reset
1. Writing to EEPROM does not work at low operating voltages
Writing to the EEPROM does not work at low voltages.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Do not write the EEPROM at voltages below 4.5 Volts.
This will be corrected in rev. B.
2. Part may hang in reset
Some parts may get stuck in a reset state when a reset signal is applied when the internal
reset state-machine is in a specific state. The internal reset state-machine is in this state for
approximately 10 ns immediately before the part wakes up after a reset, and in a 10 ns window when altering the system clock prescaler. The problem is most often seen during InSystem Programming of the device. There are theoretical possibilities of this happening also
in run-mode. The following three cases can trigger the device to get stuck in a reset-state:
- Two succeeding resets are applied where the second reset occurs in the 10ns window
before the device is out of the reset-state caused by the first reset.
- A reset is applied in a 10 ns window while the system clock prescaler value is updated by
software.
- Leaving SPI-programming mode generates an internal reset signal that can trigger this
case.
The two first cases can occur during normal operating mode, while the last case occurs only
during programming of the device.
Problem Fix/Workaround
The first case can be avoided during run-mode by ensuring that only one reset source is
active. If an external reset push button is used, the reset start-up time should be selected
such that the reset line is fully debounced during the start-up time.
The second case can be avoided by not using the system clock prescaler.
The third case occurs during In-System programming only. It is most frequently seen when
using the internal RC at maximum frequency.
If the device gets stuck in the reset-state, turn power off, then on again to get the device out
of this state.
8.3
Errata ATmega168
The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATmega168 device.
8.3.1
Rev C
No errata.
8.3.2
Rev B
• Part may hang in reset
1. Part may hang in reset
22
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
Some parts may get stuck in a reset state when a reset signal is applied when the internal
reset state-machine is in a specific state. The internal reset state-machine is in this state for
approximately 10 ns immediately before the part wakes up after a reset, and in a 10 ns window when altering the system clock prescaler. The problem is most often seen during InSystem Programming of the device. There are theoretical possibilities of this happening also
in run-mode. The following three cases can trigger the device to get stuck in a reset-state:
- Two succeeding resets are applied where the second reset occurs in the 10ns window
before the device is out of the reset-state caused by the first reset.
- A reset is applied in a 10 ns window while the system clock prescaler value is updated by
software.
- Leaving SPI-programming mode generates an internal reset signal that can trigger this
case.
The two first cases can occur during normal operating mode, while the last case occurs only
during programming of the device.
Problem Fix/Workaround
The first case can be avoided during run-mode by ensuring that only one reset source is
active. If an external reset push button is used, the reset start-up time should be selected
such that the reset line is fully debounced during the start-up time.
The second case can be avoided by not using the system clock prescaler.
The third case occurs during In-System programming only. It is most frequently seen when
using the internal RC at maximum frequency.
If the device gets stuck in the reset-state, turn power off, then on again to get the device out
of this state.
8.3.3
Rev A
• Wrong values read after Erase Only operation
• Part may hang in reset
1. Wrong values read after Erase Only operation
At supply voltages below 2.7 V, an EEPROM location that is erased by the Erase Only operation may read as programmed (0x00).
Problem Fix/Workaround
If it is necessary to read an EEPROM location after Erase Only, use an Atomic Write operation with 0xFF as data in order to erase a location. In any case, the Write Only operation can
be used as intended. Thus no special considerations are needed as long as the erased location is not read before it is programmed.
2. Part may hang in reset
Some parts may get stuck in a reset state when a reset signal is applied when the internal
reset state-machine is in a specific state. The internal reset state-machine is in this state for
approximately 10 ns immediately before the part wakes up after a reset, and in a 10 ns window when altering the system clock prescaler. The problem is most often seen during InSystem Programming of the device. There are theoretical possibilities of this happening also
in run-mode. The following three cases can trigger the device to get stuck in a reset-state:
23
2545GS–AVR–06/06
- Two succeeding resets are applied where the second reset occurs in the 10ns window
before the device is out of the reset-state caused by the first reset.
- A reset is applied in a 10 ns window while the system clock prescaler value is updated by
software.
- Leaving SPI-programming mode generates an internal reset signal that can trigger this
case.
The two first cases can occur during normal operating mode, while the last case occurs only
during programming of the device.
Problem Fix/Workaround
The first case can be avoided during run-mode by ensuring that only one reset source is
active. If an external reset push button is used, the reset start-up time should be selected
such that the reset line is fully debounced during the start-up time.
The second case can be avoided by not using the system clock prescaler.
The third case occurs during In-System programming only. It is most frequently seen when
using the internal RC at maximum frequency.
If the device gets stuck in the reset-state, turn power off, then on again to get the device out
of this state.
24
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
9. Datasheet Revision History
Please note that the referring page numbers in this section are referred to this document. The
referring revision in this section are referring to the document revision.
9.1
Rev. 2545G-06/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
9.2
Rev. 2545F-05/05
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
9.3
Added Addresses in Registers.
Updated ”Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator” on page 33.
Updated Table 7-12 on page 35, Table 8-1 on page 39, Table 9-5 on page 54, Table
12-3 on page 78.
Updated ”ADC Noise Reduction Mode” on page 40.
Updated note for Table 8-2 on page 43.
Updatad ”Bit 2 - PRSPI: Power Reduction Serial Peripheral Interface” on page 44.
Updated ”TCCR0B – Timer/Counter Control Register B” on page 104.
Updated ”Fast PWM Mode” on page 121.
Updated ”Asynchronous Operation of Timer/Counter2” on page 157.
Updated ”SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface” on page 161.
Updated ”UCSRnA – USART MSPIM Control and Status Register n A” on page 204.
Updated note in ”Bit Rate Generator Unit” on page 213.
Updated ”Bit 6 – ACBG: Analog Comparator Bandgap Select” on page 239.
Updated Features in ”Analog-to-Digital Converter” on page 241.
Updated ”Prescaling and Conversion Timing” on page 244.
Updated ”Limitations of debugWIRE” on page 258.
Added Table 27-5 on page 309.
Updated Figure 14-7 on page 122, Figure 28-44 on page 333.
Updated rev. A in ”Errata ATmega48” on page 350.
Added rev. C and D in ”Errata ATmega48” on page 350.
Added Section 3. ”Resources” on page 6
Update Section 7.6 ”Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator” on page 33.
Updated Section 26.8.3 ”Serial Programming Instruction set” on page 299.
Table notes in Section 27.2 ”DC Characteristics ATmega48/88/168*” on page 302
updated.
Updated Section 8. ”Errata” on page 20.
Rev. 2545E-02/05
1.
2.
3.
4.
MLF-package alternative changed to “Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame Package
QFN/MLF”.
Updated ”EECR – The EEPROM Control Register” on page 21.
Updated ”Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator” on page 33.
Updated ”External Clock” on page 35.
25
2545GS–AVR–06/06
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
9.4
Rev. 2545D-07/04
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
9.5
Speed Grades changed: 12MHz to 10MHz and 24MHz to 20MHz
Updated ”Maximum Speed vs. VCC” on page 304.
Updated ”Ordering Information” on page 14.
Updated ”Errata ATmega88” on page 21.
Rev. 2545B-01/04
1.
2.
3.
4.
26
Updated instructions used with WDTCSR in relevant code examples.
Updated Table 7-5 on page 31, Table 9-2 on page 48, Table 25-9 on page 280, and
Table 25-11 on page 281.
Updated ”System Clock Prescaler” on page 36.
Moved “TIMSK2 – Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Mask Register” and
“TIFR2 – Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flag Register” to
”8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 151.
Updated cross-reference in ”Electrical Interconnection” on page 208.
Updated equation in ”Bit Rate Generator Unit” on page 213.
Added ”Page Size” on page 286.
Updated ”Serial Programming Algorithm” on page 298.
Updated Ordering Information for ”ATmega168” on page 16.
Updated ”Errata ATmega88” on page 21 and ”Errata ATmega168” on page 22.
Updated equation in ”Bit Rate Generator Unit” on page 213.
Rev. 2545C-04/04
1.
2.
3.
4.
9.6
Updated Table 9-1 on page 46, Table 27-3 on page 307, Table 27-1 on page 304and
Table 26-16 on page 299
Added ”Pin Change Interrupt Timing” on page 66
Updated ”8-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram” on page 90.
Updated ”SPMCSR – Store Program Memory Control and Status Register” on page
261.
Updated ”Enter Programming Mode” on page 288.
Updated ”DC Characteristics ATmega48/88/168*” on page 302.
Updated ”Ordering Information” on page 14.
Updated ”Errata ATmega88” on page 21 and ”Errata ATmega168” on page 22.
Added PDIP to “I/O and Packages”, updated “Speed Grade” and Power Consumption
Estimates in 9.”Features” on page 1.
Updated ”Stack Pointer” on page 13 with RAMEND as recommended Stack Pointer
value.
Added section ”Power Reduction Register” on page 41 and a note regarding the use
of the PRR bits to 2-wire, Timer/Counters, USART, Analog Comparator and ADC
sections.
Updated ”Watchdog Timer” on page 51.
ATmega48/88/168
2545GS–AVR–06/06
ATmega48/88/168
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Updated Figure 14-2 on page 130 and Table 14-3 on page 131.
Extra Compare Match Interrupt OCF2B added to features in section ”8-bit
Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous Operation” on page 140
Updated Table 8-1 on page 39, Table 22-5 on page 256, Table 26-4 to Table 26-7 on
page 283 to 285 and Table 22-1 on page 246. Added note 2 to Table 26-1 on page
282. Fixed typo in Table 11-1 on page 67.
Updated whole ”ATmega48/88/168 Typical Characteristics – Preliminary Data” on
page 310.
Added item 2 to 5 in ”Errata ATmega48” on page 20.
Renamed the following bits:
- SPMEN to SELFPRGEN
- PSR2 to PSRASY
- PSR10 to PSRSYNC
- Watchdog Reset to Watchdog System Reset
Updated C code examples containing old IAR syntax.
Updated BLBSET description in ”SPMCSR – Store Program Memory Control and
Status Register” on page 271.
27
2545GS–AVR–06/06
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