Catalogo seguridad-en-el-trabajo-con-as-interface

Catalogo seguridad-en-el-trabajo-con-as-interface
FACTORY AUTOMATION
AS-Interface Safety at Work
Networking Safety
H
ardwired safety systems are the equivalent
of a 30 year time warp—a modern dinosaur
that should go extinct today rather than tomorrow.
Fortunately, there is an alternative that addresses all
the problems safety experts have known about for
decades, without having to deal with the complexity
and cost of a full-fledged and expensive safety PLC.
With the introduction of AS-Interface Safety at Work
in 2001, it was finally possible to utilize the many
features that make AS-Interface the strong player it
is today, and apply them to machine safety up to
safety Category 4.
Part No. SDOCT-1528_US
Helge Hornis, Ph.D.
Intelligent Systems Manager
Networking Safety at Work
S
afety Relays. Auxiliary contacts. Redundant cable runs. These are
products and terms familiar to every safety and control engineer.
And chances are, those automation professionals are not terribly
excited to develop the systems based on these hardwired safety system
technologies.
AS-Interface Safety at Work brings many advantages to the plant floor:
1.
True wiring reduction compared to hardwired solutions while
maintaining (or increasing the safety level to) Category 4 safety
2.
Detailed diagnostics down to the contact level without a single
inch of additional wire
The long list of reasons why plant engineers do not look forward to
working on such safety systems includes complex engineering for all
but the most trivial cases, poor diagnostics, high setup complexity, time
consuming installations, nonexistent flexibility, and only rudimentary
troubleshooting ability to name only a few. Some people still think
that since it is safety is must be complex, cumbersome, and difficult.
Fortunately, nothing could be further from the truth.
3.
The ability to capture nuisance shutdowns due to faulty safety
contacts or wiring connections at the safety device level
4.
The power to immediately identify welded safety contacts
5.
The possibility to expand a safety system in minutes
6.
Just imagine the following situation. A machining center uses a few
illuminated e-stops with redundant safety contacts and auxiliary contacts
for “diagnostics.” Add a number of door interlock switches and even a
couple of safety light curtains. So that it is not too difficult, these safety
input devices control only three motors or drives associated with three
safety zones. Without going into any detail on the particular logic that
needs to be wired up, we just consider a mix of AND and OR logic
between the various devices. This arrangement could also be found
on a typical conveyor-based manufacturing system where downstream
conveyors are not stopped with the activation of an upstream e-stop
or light curtain. A zoned approach increases productivity since it does
not “penalize” the entire manufacturing line if one section must be
temporarily stopped. Assuming this project will keep even an experienced
engineer busy for some time is certainly correct. And once the hardwired
logic is designed, trained electricians must wire it up, test it, and (we all
make mistakes) correct any number of small and large errors.
Enables multiple safety zones, dependent and independent, with
no additional wiring
7.
Connect illuminated, Category 4 e-stops on just two wires
(instead of eight)
Realizing that this sounds like the steps necessary when implementing
relay logic in the days before PLCs increased the flexibility and reliability
of automated machines. Hardwired safety systems are the equivalent
of a 30 year time warp—a modern dinosaur that should go extinct today
rather than tomorrow.
Fortunately, there is an alternative that addresses all the problems
safety experts have known about for decades, without having to deal
with the complexity and cost of a full-fledged and expensive safety PLC.
AS-Interface Safety at Work – CAT 4 safety with ease on any PLC
AS-Interface is the world’s dominant lower-level, bit-oriented networking
technology designed to work with (and enhance), rather than against
the many capable byte-level solutions (DeviceNet, PROFIBUS,
EtherNet/IP …) that are available today. To underline the viability and
popularity of AS-Interface, consider the fact that since its introduction
to the market 15 years ago, automation professionals around the globe
have installed over 14 million AS-Interface I/O nodes with an annual
growth approaching 2 million nodes. With this success in mind, in 1997,
several AS-Interface vendors identified safety as the most antiquated
segment within automation and initiated the Safety at Work initiative.
With the introduction of AS-Interface Safety at Work in 2001, it was
finally possible to utilize the many features that make AS-Interface the
strong player it is today, and apply them to machine safety up to safety
Category 4.
2
Safety on just two wires! How is that possible?
Hardwired safety solutions are based on media redundancy. Redundant
sets of contacts are individually wired back via redundant sets of leads
to redundant terminals on safety relays. This is necessary because,
other than being ON or OFF, the electrical current transmitted over the
wires carries no information. At the safety relay, the signals received via
these two channels is then compared in the safety relay, resulting in a
transition to the SAFE (i.e., OFF) state when necessary.
Networking safety over the two-conductor AS-Interface approaches
this information problem in a different way: more elegantly and much
smarter. While the safety inputs (e-stops, door interlock switches,
light curtains …) are still designed mechanically redundant, they are
now connected to a safe coupling circuit that transmits data over the
network. Once the information is on the network, it is the transmission
protocol that is an integral part of AS-Interface Safety at Work allowing
this solution to be used in SIL 3 and CAT 4 applications. Because each
contact of the safety input device still has only two different states, the
safe protocol needs to transmit only those two states.
The way this is done is as simple as it is ingenious. During
manufacturing, each safety device is assigned a unique, never-tobe-repeated, 32-bit safety code number. During operation, this code
number is divided into four-bit nibbles, where one nibble is sent over
the network each time the safety device is instructed to communicate.
Consequently, after eight communication cycles the 32-bit code number
has been transmitted. To close the safety loop it takes a SafetyMonitor,
a device not that different from a traditional safety relay, connected
as a participant on the network and constructed in a safe fashion,
with channel redundancy up to the OSSDs. Listening in on all data
exchanges over the network, the SafetyMonitor receives the four -bit
nibbles from the safety devices.
During system configuration, the SafeyMonitor records and stores the
32-bit code numbers from all safety devices that are part of its userdefined configuration. After that, all it has to do is compare the expected
four -bit nibble with the actually received four -bit nibble. As long as
there is no discrepancy, the OSSDs remain in RUN mode1. As soon as
1
In a sense this is a conversation with predetermined content.
the connected safety contacts are interrupted, indicating the need to
safely stop the machine, the safety device transmits a constant stream
of zero bits over the network. The SafetyMonitor receives these 0000
packets and the OSSDs open immediately. Because the safety data
is dynamic, any abnormality in the data channel results in the opening
of the OSSDs thus stopping of the unsafe motion. Understanding
these fundamentals, we can now look at AS-Interface Safety at Work
advantages in more detail.
The details of AS-Interface Safety as Work
1.
True wiring reduction compared to hardwired solutions while
maintaining (or increasing the safety level to) Category 4
safety
Most hardwired safety systems are not designed to satisfy Category
4; instead, safety inputs are often daisy chained, introducing multiple
possible points of failure, reducing these installations to Category 3
at best. When using AS-Interface Safety at Work, each safety device
has its own network address. As a result, the redundant contacts in
the safety device are wired individually to the coupling electronics and
Category 4 can be reached. All the well-known advantages of ASInterface are retained, reducing wiring complexity easily by an order of
magnitude2.
2.
Detailed diagnostics down to the contact level without a
single inch of additional wire
The four-bit nibble contains additional diagnostic information. Since
each connected safety device, an e-stop for instance, has two
redundant sets of contacts, the designers of AS-Interface safety at Work
“assign” two of the four-bit nibble to one contact set and the other two
bits to the other contact. The PLC can easily distinguish the following
four states (see figure 1).
Figure 1 – When instructed to transmit data the safety e-stop will
send the next data nibble. The gateway receives this data and
passes it on to the PLC for diagnostics. This gateway performs
intelligent preprocessing and simplifies the information so that the
PLC program can be even simpler.
2 For instance, wiring 10 illuminated e-stops with auxiliary contacts results in
the 20 terminal connections for the illumination, 20 terminal connections for the
aux contacts and 40 terminal connections for the safe contacts. Any additional
connections required when daisy-chaining the safety contacts have not been
considered. On the other hand, when using Safety at Work, those same 10
illuminated e-stops can be connected to the network without a single terminal
connection (M12 and single mounting screw connections to the AS-Interface
network are utilized.)
•
•
•
•
3.
0000 – The safety device is in STOP mode; OSSDs of the
SafetyMonitor will be opened.
00xx -- One contact is open, one is closed. This can indicate a
welded contact or a contact that erroneously does not open up.
xx00 -- Same as above but for the other contact set of the safety
device.
Dynamic data -- The details of the data are not important to the
user but these states indicate that the safety device is in RUN
mode.
The ability to capture nuisance shutdowns due to faulty
safety contacts or wiring connections at the safety device
level
Using the contact information just discussed, it is clear how faulty
contacts can be found automatically. As the PLC receives the data
transmitted via the network, it is easy to write logic that captures states
indicating unusual contact asynchronism. It is also possible to write
a few rungs of ladder that detect which contact caused the nuisance
shutdown. Just imagine the amount of downtime reduction!
4.
The power to immediately identify welded safety contacts
Welded contacts are a relatively common issue on magnetic door
interlock switches. While the redundant character of the switch still
enables safe deactivation of the unsafe motion when a door is opened,
restarting of the system is, of course, not possible. Specifically, when
using Safety at Work this situation is identified by the PLC observing the
following safety code sequence:
a)
Before opening the safety gate the safety switch will transmit the
aforementioned dynamic safety sequence.
b)
When the door is opened, one contact will be open while the
other contact will remain closed. This is easily detected by the
PLC receiving either 00xx or xx00 data packets3. In fact, because
AS-Interface Safety at Work receives this data immediately, it is
possible to flag the welded contact the second the operator opens
the door. Maintenance can be called right away. The ability to
identify quickly and automatically a welded contact is a significant
diagnostic advancement, allowing fast problem resolution, system
restart, and significant productivity gains.
5.
The possibility to expand a safety system in minutes
Safety at Work inherits all implementation advantages of AS-Interface.
This means that safety devices – a new e-stop button or cable-pull
switch for instance – can be added just as fast as any standard I/O
node. To make this new e-stop available for safety shutdowns, it only
needs to be added to the safety configuration, which is then downloaded
to the SafetyMonitor and activated. Typically, these simple changes
take only a few minutes, making safety changes possible during lunch
breaks or between shifts. This level of flexibility is simply impossible with
other, more traditional solutions.
3 Technically this is not exactly correct as a single data packet in the form 00xx
and xx00 is always allowed. To further reduce the burden on PLC programmers
several, AS-Interface gateways pre-analyze the safety data, making contact level
diagnostics even simpler.
3
Networking Safety at Work
6.
Enables multiple safety zones, dependent and independent,
with no additional wiring
Constructing safety systems where multiple safety devices ensure
the shutdown of a hazardous motion, while cumbersome and wiring
intensive, has always been structurally simple; at least when the
system does not require CAT 4 operation. Daisy chaining the redundant
contacts was the most common wiring practice in these cases.
Unfortunately, when a particular e-stop has to activate multiple safety
relays things get tricky fast. This is unfortunate, because this type
of configuration is needed to construct zoned safety, which has the
potential of increasing machine uptime and productivity gains. Now
it is necessary to run additional wires between multiple safety relays.
Consequently, few safety engineers implement such zone-controlled
systems; instead, they opt for global shutdowns, being fully aware of the
efficiency consequences.
A standard SafetyMonitor with two independent OSSDs is inherently
able to perform independent logic operations for each CAT 4 safety
channel. Even more complex safety shut-down operations are possible
without additional wiring. All it takes is another SafetyMonitor, configured
to evaluate the safety code sequences of those safety input devices
needed in its safety logic (see figure 2.)
offering a lower cost point. Its diagnostic capabilities are comparable
to those of full-fledged safety PLC solutions without the added cost.
The question “where does it make financial sense” depends on many
installation details. Some users found this technology advantageous
with only two safety devices and a small number of standard I/O points.
Even if the economics are less favorable, an AS-Interface installation
with approximately three safety devices and 20 to 40 standard I/O
points will be economically beneficial with lower initial installation cost,
faster commissioning and startup time, and increased operational
availability. Let your AS-Interface hardware supplier help you evaluate
your particular needs. Many have 15 years of experience and can offer
valuable tips to get the best possible solution at the most attractive
price.
Where is Safety-at-Work going next?
AS-Interface Safety at Work was the first fully-approved dual use (i.e.,
safety inputs and standard I/O) network available on the market. Since
its initial introduction, the vendor community has added products that
make Safety at Work even better. Integrated e-stops with illumination
or safety door interlock switches that take only minutes to add and
configure on the network, are now readily available. The ability to
connect a large variety of safety light curtains with electronic outputs
and then use them in situations where muting/supervisory overwrite
is necessary signifies that the technology has undergone constant
improvements.
The next innovative enhancement comes with the introduction of safe
outputs and allows the realization of even more powerful, decentralized
safe control over the simplest, most flexible and by far most successful
low-level industrial I/O network available (see figure 3.)
Figure 2 – The data from the two e-stops are processed by the
SafetyMonitor on the left; this functionality is equivalent to daisychaining contact in a traditional hardwired safety installation.
Additionally, the SafetyMonitor on the left also processes the data
from the safety e-stop on the right. This shows how simple a twozone configuration is when using Safety at Work.
7.
Connect illuminated, Category 4 e-stops on just two wires
(instead of eight)
AS-Interface is a two-wire data and power network. Therefore, safety
devices like e-stops not only transmit data over the two leads but also
receive the necessary power to operate illumination.
With these significant installation, implementation, and diagnostic
advantages, it is easy to understand why AS-Interface Safety at Work
is a dominate player in the safety network arena. Its simplicity in terms
of installation ease make it far superior to traditional hardwiring while
Figure 3 – A safety light curtain is connected to a safety module
designed to accept electronic safety inputs. As long as the light
curtain is not interrupted the safety module transmits the safety
data and the OSSDs on the SafetyMonitor remain closed. This
network also contains a safe output module. As long as the
OSSDs on the SafetyMonitor are closed it sends safety data which
in turn is received by the safety output module. The safe contacts
on the safe output module follow the state safe contacts on the
SafetyMonitor. This makes installation of motors even simpler
as three-phase power does not have to be brought back to safe
contacts in the main control cabinet.
www.pepperl-fuchs.com
Subject to modifications • © 2008 PEPPERL+FUCHS, INC. • Printed in USA • Part No. SDOCT-1528_US 5/08 00
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