Cosmetics FFI News 6 en

Cosmetics FFI News 6 en
Cosmetics, Fragrances,
Food Ingredients
Weighing and Analysis in the Laboratory
Analytical solutions in the laboratory
Edition No. 1 / February 2013
Controlling Heavy Metals in Cosmetics
with Accurate Pipetting
Metals are used in tiny amounts in cosmetics as colorants and preservatives. The test methods used to ensure the levels of these metals fall within
governmental limits require the accurate preparation of calibration and
sample solutions using a pipette. METTLER TOLEDO’s gravimetric solutions
for pipette calibration, supported by Calibry software, ensure pipettes are
always working within specifications.
Lead is well known for its detrimental
effect on mental ability. Some cancer
biopsies have shown increased levels
of chromium, cadmium and mercury.
Even metals, or their related compounds,
that show little or no impact on human
health (e.g. zinc and its oxide) may behave in a toxic manner when absorbed as
nanoparticles through the skin or orally.
As a result of increasing health concerns,
governments have proposed allowable
limits for these substances in cosmetics
(e.g. arsenic: 3-5 ppm).
sis system AAS (FIAS-AAS) and graphite
furnace AAS (GF-AAS). In both methods,
the systems are first calibrated by plotting
the signal response curve using standard
stock solutions of the metals dissolved in
reagents, such as nitric acid. The stock
solutions are typically diluted from a concentration of 1000 µg/ml to a range of
concentrations between 5 and 50 µg/ml. A
solution of the cosmetic sample is then analyzed according to the method used and
the results compared to the calibration
curves to determine the metal content.
Metal detection
Two methods of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) are used to determine the content of heavy metals, such
as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury
in cosmetics; The flow injection analy-
The need for regular
pipette calibration
The calibration and sample solutions are
prepared using pipettes with a nominal
volume of ≤1 ml. The uncertainty of the
obtained concentration is directly linked
Tips & Tricks
The glass evaporation trap
minimizes evaporation of the
dispensed pipette test water.
Pipette Calibration
See how evaporation
traps work for routine
pipette testing
In a professional testing
approach, measurement errors
caused by evaporation must be
kept to an absolute minimum
making the use of evaporation
traps indispensable.
It is very easy to convert a balance to a pipette calibration
station by simply mounting the
corresponding evaporation trap.
to the measurement uncertainty of the
pipette. Inaccurate pipettes may result in
complete product batches being unnecessarily rejected or products being released
despite being above the recommended
limits. This makes regular pipette calibration essential in order to ensure that
correct volumes are being dispensed and
the limits for metal content are not exceeded. Careful process control and documentation is mandatory and critical for
the whole process.
Gravimetric calibration of
pipettes up to 1 ml
Volume is traditionally determined gravimetrically and the process is well standardized and regulated. The pipette
testing standard, ISO 8655, specifies the
balance resolution required for specific
pipette volumes: For 0.1 to 1 ml pipettes,
four decimal places or better is necessary. METTLER TOLEDO offers the perfect
Mettler-Toledo AG
Laboratory Division
Im Langacher
CH-8606 Greifensee, Switzerland
LAB Division Marketing
Global MarCom Switzerland
Subject to technical changes.
© Mettler-Toledo AG 02/13
Printed in Switzerland.
Cosmetics, Fragrances, Food Ingredients 6
pipette calibration solution with an
evaporation trap mounted on an XP204
or XP205 Balance in combination with
Calibry v5.0 pipette calibration software.
The evaporation trap minimizes the evaporation of test water dispensed during the
calibration process ensuring highly accurate results. Calibry supports the entire
calibration process with full user guidance
and comprehensive pipette management
functionalities. The easy-to-use software
not only automatically converts the weight
into a volume but also translates weight
uncertainty into volume uncertainty.
The full calibration history of individual
pipettes is stored in a secure database and
the recalibration dates of individual pipettes are monitored. This offers cosmetics
firms an increased level of process security and helps to ensure that the metal
and heavy metal content is always within
Text: Stefan Christian
Head Market Support Group
(SBU Weighing Solutions)
Watch the video and
see how this works.
Two Phase Titrations
Made Easy with the DP Phototrode™
Quality control is of utmost necessity for surfactants due to their
constant contact with the human body and even the mouth in some
cases. Standard methods of two-phase titrations require long and
tedious analyses steps. Surfactant quality control is made simple
with One Click® titration and the DP5 Phototrode™.
Most surfactants exist in a polar and nonpolar state where one end of the molecule
is ideal for bonding with polar molecules
and the other end of the molecule is ideal
for bonding with water and other nonpolar solvents. These properties make
surfactants ideal for removing oil, grease
and dirt from our bodies or clothes, but
not always ideal for quantitative analysis.
Some surfactants and appropriate indicators, such as an anionic dye, are more
soluble in polar solvents, like chloroform,
yet the titrant is most soluble in water.
Standard method
Widely recognized by ASTM, DIN and BPI,
two phase titrations involve a layer of water and chloroform where the sample and
indicator are in the chloroform and the
titrant is added to the water layer. After
a small addition, the two-phase solution
is vigorously mixed to allow the titrant
to come into contact with the sample in
the chloroform and then allowed to sit
and separate for observation. Once all
the sample has reacted with the counterionic titrant, the dye moves to the aqueous
phase, leaving the chloroform clear with
an observable end point.
Two phase automation
Adding a small amount of titrant, vigorously shaking or stirring the solution,
letting it rest and separate for observation then repeating the process can lead
to long and tedious analyses of up to
30 minutes in length. METTLER
TOLEDO’s Excellence Line Titrators and
the DP5’s ‘2-phase’ titration method can
completely automate titration freeing up
valuable operator time. The method automatically incorporates the sequence of
titrant addition, vigorous stirring for a set
time and a settling period with a very slow
stir rate before the DP5 optically measures
the color of the chloroform.
With the One Click titration concept, twophase titrations are as easy as a single
button click. The titrator completely automates the solvent addition, titration and
calculations unattended.
Text: Matthew Eby,
Product manager, Titration
Stages of a two-phase titration using specialized two-phase titration
beaker, the DP5 Phototrode™ on an Excellence Line Titrator.
A) prior to equivalence point
B) at equivalence point
C) after equivalence point
Cosmetics, Fragrances, Food Ingredients 6
The Ergonomics of Pipetting
Minimize Force with Correct Pipette Selection
In the lab, pipettes are ubiquitous and used throughout most workflows from preparing
starting liquid samples to introducing the sample into a final analysis system. The ergonomic factors associated with a variety of pipettes and applications are an important consideration – poor ergonomics can lead to fatigue, pain and the risk of injury.
Several critical areas have been identified
as key to degrading the comfort level of
the pipette and the subsequent development of various painful ailments, collectively known as Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSIs). This information has been
published by ergonomics scientists in an
effort to create awareness of the usability
issues associated with pipetting.
A common theme among all studies is
that pipetting is a forceful and repetitive
activity that is strongly associated with
RSIs. In fact, pipetting just over an hour
a day over the course of a year is enough
to put someone at risk and the chances
increase exponentially with workload
and age.
A key reference point is the amount of
force, such as depressing the plunger or
ejecting tips, most of which is transmitted through the thumb. Generally speaking, pipette manufacturers strive to lower
pipetting forces in order to improve their
ergonomic impact.
Rainin recently published a literature review that cites the work of researchers in
seven recent papers related to pipetting
ergonomics. Here’s an excerpt:
Tip loading and ejection
Loading a tip on the pipette requires a
certain amount of force to ensure an adequate seal – too little force risks leakage
and volumetric error. A typical user will
adopt a technique that provides reasonable assurance that the tip has sealed and
will stay with that technique for most of
Ejection Force (kg)
Tip Ejection Forces at Increasing Tip Loading Forces
Brand X Traditional Tip vs. Rainin LTS
Brand X Tip, 250 µL
Rainin LTS Tip, 250 µL
Insertion Force (kg)
Figure 1: The relationship between tip loading and ejection forces – a traditional conical tip compared with a Rainin LTS tip.
Cosmetics, Fragrances, Food Ingredients 6
Figure 3
Mechanics of Rainin LTS tip sealing system
compared to traditional conical tip sealing
their working life. Unfortunately, for traditional conical tip systems, there is a
strong correlation between the amount
of force needed to load the tip and the
amount of force required to eject it. So
for those who adopt a technique that uses
high force to load the tip, a high force will
be required to eject it (Figure 1).
In a recent paper by Lichty et al1, a number of different manufacturer’s pipettes
are reviewed and force measurements
compiled for plunger forces and tip ejection forces. It is clear that tip ejection
forces are the most significant force associated with the many steps involved in
pipetting, but there is great variation in
tip ejection forces between pipettes (Figure 2).
Large seal
Friction fit
Free review on
pipetting ergonomics
Small seal
Positive Stop
Other factors, including plunger
forces, the twisting force
required to change the aspiration volume and the cumulative effects of repetition also
contribute greatly to the painful
and often debilitating effects
RSIs. Yet, like LTS, practical solutions exist that can substantially
reduce a researcher’s risk of
Rainin solved this problem with its LiteTouch System (LTS) of pipettes and tips
(See Figure 3). With LTS, both the distal
end of the pipette and the inside of the
tip have a closely matched cylindrical
surface. LTS tips also have a sealing system close to the entry point and a hard
stop end point inside the tip to limit the
maximum sealing force, while still guaranteeing that there will be no leakage.
By limiting sealing force LTS ensures a
minimal ejection force (Figure 1). This
simple design provides a tool that significantly reduces one of the major sources of
muscle fatigue and causes of RSI.
Download Rainin’s recent
literature review on pipetting
ergonomics at:
Text: Noah Saederup,
Ph.D., Product Manager
1Lichty MG, Janowitz IL, Rempel DM. Ergonomic
evaluation of 10 single-channel pipettes. Work.
2.1 kg - Female
Pipet-Lite (LTS)
3.O kg - Male
Manuf. 3’s
Manual Pipette
Manuf. 2’s
Manual Pipette
Manuf. 4’s
Manual Pipette
kg Force
Data from Work, 39, (2011), 177-185. Lichty et al
Figure 2: Comparison of ejection forces from four popular pipettes. The maximum recommended thumb exertion force
is 2.1 kgf for females and 3.0 kgf for males.
Cosmetics, Fragrances, Food Ingredients 6
Multiparameter Measurement
Joined Forces
for Efficient Multiparameter Measurement
The fully automatic analysis of samples saves time, increases throughput and avoids data transcription errors. METTLER TOLEDO and KONICA
MINOLTA have joined forces in a strategic partnership to combine
color measurement solutions with density, refractive index and pH
measurement to offer a dedicated automatic multi-parameter analysis
system for flavor & fragrance industries.
Results are displayed on
the screen with color
coded passed/failed
analysis and can be
exported to LIMS or ERP.
During the raw material quality monitoring of intermediate and finished products
for flavors & fragrances, it is essential that
the density, refractive index and pH values
are accurately determined. In addition,
sample color often has to be determined.
These measurements are used for identity
verification. They ensure that the correct
raw materials have been used and that the
correct product has been manufactured.
A common requirement
Most samples require the determination of several parameters. Therefore,
it makes sense to automate the process
and determine all parameters in a single
process. A vast range of different products are used in the flavors & fragrances
Cosmetics, Fragrances, Food Ingredients 6
industry, which means that manufacturers have to work with a large number
of samples. Sample changers are usually used in order to handle the flow of
samples and results efficiently and reliably and the measurement results are
transferred directly to ERP systems, such
as SAP. Measuring systems, where a computer controls several measuring devices
from different manufacturers in addition
to an auto-sampler, have been used for
several years to record and export results.
Such solutions are usually developed at
the customer's request and can, therefore,
be very expensive.
A sound solution
METTLER TOLEDO designed the new
Multi-parameter system with Minolta.
LiquiPhysics™ Excellence Density Meters and Refractometers with the strict
requirements necessary for the quality
monitoring of flavors & fragrances. These
instruments enable measuring devices to
directly control external density oscillation and refractive index cells, including
Meters, without the need for a computer.
If the color also needs to be determined,
a CM-5 or CR-5 spectrophotometer from
Konica Minolta can be connected directly
to the devices. Depending on the number
of samples, the LiquiPhysics™ Excellence
measuring devices can be operated by
powerful automation units to measure either individual samples or sample series.
If bar codes are used for entering sample
data, these can be read with a handheld
scanner or automatically on the sample
changer itself. A wide range of samples
can be measured, from low to highly viscous products.
Seamless integration into SAP
The LabX laboratory software enables the
LiquiPhysics™ Excellence measuring systems to be integrated seamlessly into ERP
systems. There is only one minor difference for operators of the measuring system. In contrast to conventional solutions,
the measuring system is not operated on
a PC. With LiquiPhysics™ Excellence, the
PC is remote controlled via the measuring device. This allows the measurement
of sample series to be started directly on
the device’s user-friendly touch-screen.
The PC does not have to be located in the
direct vicinity of the measuring system –
LabX performs the import of sample lists
and data exports reliably and discretely.
Text: Christian Iserland, Manager Business Area
Density and Refractometry
Cosmetics, Fragrances, Food Ingredients 6
Good Measuring Practices
Good Measuring Practices
Reliability Throughout the Lifecycle
Good Measuring Practices by METTLER TOLEDO is a global program supporting you in laboratory
and production environments with quality assurance recommendations for weighing, pipetting and
chemical analysis. The five steps of every Good Measuring Practices guideline cover the entire lifecycle of your instruments. By focusing on your processes and its associated requirements and risks,
we provide you with effective measures to maximize operational security and minimize testing
­efforts and process risk.
GWP® – Good Weighing Practice™
GTP® – Good Titration Practice™
GPP™ – Good Pipetting Practice™
Guaranteed better weighing
Reliable results and dependable
titration in practice
Optimize workflows for more
reliable and repeatable results
GWP® helps ensuring consistent
product quality and avoiding outof-spec results or bad production
batches. With GWP® you comply
with all regulations relevant to your
industry for a minimal time and
financial investment.
GTP® forms the basis of dependable and risk-free titration. The
appropriate titration system is
selected based on user requirements, and professionally commissioned and installed.
Improve your data quality with
GPP™ – our comprehensive, systematic approach to maximizing
pipetting accuracy and repeatability.
provides documentation to
verify the accuracy of your balances
and recommends optimal testing
Cosmetics, Fragrances, Food Ingredients 6
GTP® helps protecting your investment far into the future, supporting you with tailored training and
equipment qualification. It also proposes schedules for regular inspection and preventive maintenance.
GPP™ is grounded in 40+ years of
expertise working side-by-side with
researchers in order to achieve the
highest level of accuracy and precision across all applications.
GDRP™ – Good Density and
Refractometry Practice™
GEP™ – Good Electrochemistry
Minimize risk and improve
Optimized pH results from
the beginning
GDRP™ is based on our expertise
in density and refractive index
measurement. Understanding the
reasons and sources of measurement errors helps improving quality while reducing risks and costs.
GEP™ assists with professional
tools and documentation to get reliable results for your laboratory pH,
conductivity, DO, ion and redox
Professional commissioning, training, qualification and seamless
documentation guarantee compliance with your process requirements from the very first step.
Use GEP™ to select the correct
calibration solutions to comply with
regulations, perfectly maintain your
sensors to optimize product lifespan and reduce costly measurement mistakes to a minimum.
Check your risks in weighing,
titration and chemical analysis
Risk Check
All of the Good Measuring Practices
guidelines start with an evaluation
of your measurement processes and
an assessment of their associated
risks. Based on this information, you
are provided with straightforward
recommendations for selecting,
installing, calibrating and operating
your devices.
For more Information:
Good Measuring Practices
Cosmetics, Fragrances, Food Ingredients 6
Product Highlight
Precise and Secure pH Measurements
with SevenExcellence™
The SevenExcellence™ easily
deals with the demanding data
input, measurement and archiving
tasks that are so important during
production and for the QC of raw
materials and finished products. It
has an ingenious method concept
ensuring that each particular analysis is always performed with the
identical, SOP compliant settings.
Its professional user management
system eliminates the risk of unintentional or unauthorized changes
to settings and deletion of results.
Start a method with OneClick™
The intuitive touch screen menu speeds
up and simplifies the instrument‘s
Flexible peripherals
Choose from a vast collection of peripherals to increase efficiency and optimize
workflow even further.
Modular expansion
New measurement parameters can be
added to the instrument at any time to
make it flexible and expandable enough
to cope with any measurement requirements.
Cosmetics, Fragrances, Food Ingredients 6
Verifying Moisture Analyzer Performance
within 10 Minutes
It takes just 10 minutes to perform a SmartCal test and confirm
if your moisture analyzer is working correctly. Testing temperatures correspond to those you use
every day for your cosmetic and
fragrance samples.
Regular testing with SmartCal
provides seamless QC documentation of instrument performance
to ensure compliance with industry standards such as ISO 9001
and ISO 22716.
Ensure valid moisture results
SmartCal is a granular test substance of
known moisture content which reliably
indicates whether the moisture analyzer
is working within specifications.
Testing in just 10 minutes
The test is as easy to perform as a regular measurement. Simply pour SmartCal into the sample pan and press start.
Results are available in 10 minutes.
Certified and traceable
Proper moisture analyzer verification
guarantees accurate performance.
SmartCal ensures accurate results and
assists with the demands of industry
regulations and company audits.
Order your free SmartCal sample:
Cosmetics, Fragrances, Food Ingredients 6
Everything in Our Lab
Works With Just One Click®
Bob, production assistant:
"All I have to do to analyze
the intermediate product
every hour is press a
Joanne, laboratory assistant:
"Thanks to my personalized
Homescreen, I can perform all
the different analyses very
quickly and efficiently."
Clark, quality assurance:
"The individual user rights
feature means that I can
make sure that users stick
to our quality guidelines."
The One Click operation provides unsurpassed
user guidance, secure navigation and easily
selectable and adaptable methods.
Learn more and see One Click in action:
Key benefits of One Click operation:
Know one – know all
One Click is a common interface
for all your lab instruments. This
means, if you can program and run
analyses on a balance, you can
also do it on a titrator, without extra
information required.
Mettler-Toledo AG
Laboratory Division
Im Langacher
CH-8606 Greifensee, Switzerland
See only what is relevant to you
User screen individualization permits you to adapt your home screen
to your requirements: You only see
what you need and avoid confusion
by unneeded functionalities.
Play by the rules
Adherence to SOPs is now a functionality of your instrument via the
pre-programming of methods.
Transcription and calculation errors
a thing of the past.
For more information
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