IBT Course Syllabus for Motorcycling

IBT Course Syllabus for Motorcycling
Údarás Um Shábháilteacht Ar Bhóithre
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
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INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
Information for Motorcycle lnstructors / Trainers
Introduction
The course syllabus sets out the training that a novice motorcyclist needs to complete before an
approved Initial Basic Training (IBT) Instructor can issue the learner/trainee with a Certificate of
Satisfactory Completion. The way an Instructor/Trainer teaches or coaches individuals through this
course may vary according to individual teaching styles, as long as the objectives and learning of the
course are achieved to the Road Safety Authority standards. IBT provides for either progression or
direct access to the various Motorcycle licensing categories. You should familiarise yourself with the
new regulations to ensure you guide your customers through the training that they need to do.
How to assess your learner
Each learner is continuously assessed in theory and a practical demonstration to make sure they
achieve the training objectives. This is carried out by the IBT Motorcycle Trainer. Separate guidelines
on how to carry out the continuous assessment will be provided to all IBT approved Motorcycle
Instructors.
You may deliver the enclosed training course if you:
• Are on the Register of Approved Driving Instructors (Category ‘A’)
• Have written approval from the Road Safety Authority to provide IBT
You must have access to a suitable training area with a smooth, level and durable surface. The area
must be free from slip hazards and have a secure perimeter to prevent access by pedestrians or
vehicles during training sessions.
You must have a Health and Safety statement to cover the activity at the location. This is a
longstanding legal requirement for businesses and employers. For more information see www.hsa.
ie/eng/.
All learners must be properly protected by personal protective equipment (PPE) - helmet, jacket,
trousers, boots, gloves, hi-vis, L-tabard.
You must have adequate insurance to cover the business of providing the training, such as public/
professional liability insurance etc.
The training area must have access to toilet facilities close by.
You must have access to suitable accommodation for delivering the theory part of the course.
Each module has a minimum time requirement. If necessary, a trainee may need to repeat a
particular module in order to meet the minimum standard for assessment before moving onto
another module or completing the course.
When delivering training under Module 4 or 5 (the Progression module) both of which contain onroad training, the trainer/learner ratio must not exceed 1:2. This module is to be delivered using an
in helmet radio link between Trainer and trainees.
Keep all training records, including duplicate documents, secure and available for inspection by an
RSA officer or agent.
This syllabus sets out the content of each module. For information on precisely which modules
learners need to do and what progression options they have, they should refer to the IBT
information section at www.rsa.ie
If you would like more information or to apply for approval to provide this training please contact:
The ADI Unit, Road Safety Authority
Primrose Hill, Ballina, Co. Mayo
Tel: (096) 25000
Email: [email protected]
Contents
MODULE 1
Classroom and training area
Objective 1
Personal protective equipment
Page 4
Objective 2 Introduction to motorcycle controls
Page 7
Objective 3 Technical checks
Page 8
Objective 4 Placing motorcycle on and off the stand
Page 9
Objective 5 Walk alongside motorcycle
Page 9
Objective 6 How to start and stop the engine including precautions for dismounting
MODULE 2
Training area
Objective 1
Move off and stop (including on site riding)
Page 11
Objective 2 Use of brakes
Page 12
Objective 3 Use of gears Page 12
Objective 4 Slow riding exercise
Page 13
Objective 5 Figure of eight exercise
Page 13
Objective 6 U-Turn exercise
Page 14
Objective 7 Slalom exercise
Page 14
Objective 8 Rear observation and mirror work
Page 15
Objective 9 Turning left and right
Page 15
Objective 10 Emergency adjustment of speed – Emergency Stop
Page 16
MODULE 3
Classroom and training area
Objective 1
Legal requirements
Page 17
Objective 2 Rules of the road
Page 17
Objective 3 Being seen Page 18
Objective 4 Road surfaces Page 18
Objective 5 Road and lane position Page 18
Objective 6 Rear observation and mirror work
Page 19
Objective 7 Speed
Page 19
Objective 8 Anticipation and Reaction including dealing with emergency service Vehicles Page 20
Objective 9 Weather conditions including Modal choice and Route planning
(including modal choice and route planning)
Page 20
Objective 10
Fatigue
Page 20
MODULE 4
On the Road
Objective 1
Gradients
Page 21
Objective 2 Junctions Page 22
Objective 3 Traffic lights Page 22
Objective 4 Roundabouts Page 23
Page 10
Objective 5 Safe distance
Page 23
Objective 6 Anticipation and reaction to hazards including dealing with
emergency service vehicles
Page 24
Objective 7 Pedestrian and Rail crossings (rail where possible)
Page 24
Objective 8 Bends
Page 25
MODULE 5
Progression Module
Objective 1
Move off and stop (Including on-site Riding)
Page 27
Objective 2 Use of brakes Page 27
Objective 3 Use of gears Page 28
Objective 4 Slow riding (exercise) Page 28
Objective 5 Figure of eight (exercise)
Page 29
Objective 6
U-Turn (exercise)
Page 29
Objective 7
Slalom (exercise)
Page 30
Objective 8
Rear observations and mirror work
Page 30
Objective 9
Turning left and right
Page 31
Objective 10
Obstacle avoidance
Page 31
Objective 11
Emergency adjustment of speed - emergency stop
Page 32
Objective 12
Overtaking
Page 32
Objective 13
Carrying pillion passengers
Page 32
Objective 14
Using a side car/towing trailer
Page 33
Objective 15
Gradients
Page 33
Objective 16
Junctions
Page 33
Objective 17
Traffic lights
Page 34
Objective 18
Roundabouts
Page 35
Objective 19
Safe Distance
Page 35
Objective 20
Anticipation and Reaction including dealing with emergency service Vehicles Page 36
Objective 21
Pedestrian and rail crossing (rail where possible)
Page 36
Objective 22
Bends
Page 37
Objective 23
Socially responsible riding/driving
Page 37
The direct access chart
Page 40
The progressive access chart
Page 42
Examples of progression
Page 44
MODULE 1
How long will it take?
About three hours to cover all learning points.
Information you will need
This is Your Bike
Essential Skills – the official motorcycling manual
The Rules of the Road
Learning to Ride a Motorcycle – RSA
Equipment
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – helmets, clothing, boots, gloves, mitts and gauntlets for you
and the trainee. Motorcycle for demonstration purposes, high-viz L–tabard, foot pump, tyre pressure
gauge, tyre tread depth gauge, rags or paper (for oil level, fluids check), visor cleaning materials.
Teaching styles
You may use various teaching styles to achieve the objectives. A practical demonstration and
student practice will be needed for some objectives. You may use a simulator if appropriate.
OBJECTIVES
By the end of this session a trainee will:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Have a clear understanding on the role of the motorcyclist’s personal protective equipment
(PPE) – helmet, visor and goggles, jacket, trousers, boots, gloves, wet gear and motorcycle
fairings.
Know the primary and secondary controls of the motorcycle.
Be able to carry out the basic technical checks.
Know how to take the bike off and on both stands (where fitted).
Know the basic safety checks (P-O-W-D-E-R).
Know how to move the bike without the use of the engine.
Know what precautions are needed before starting the engine – Fuel, Ignition, Gear,
Start (F-I-G-S).
Know how to start and stop the engine.
OBJECTIVE 1:
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
To understand the role of the motorcyclist’s protective equipment – helmet, visor and goggles,
jacket, trousers, boots, gloves, wet gear and motorcycle fairings.
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INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
Helmet
Learning Points
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Different types of helmets (full face, open) and their purpose, including the various material
types. The safety standards – BSI kitemarks and UNECE regulations.
The trainee must buy a new helmet.
Do not use a helmet that is cracked, scratched or that has been dropped.
Do not paint or apply stickers onto helmets.
How to use the various helmet fastenings – D ring, clips and buckle, quick release. By law they
must have the helmet properly fastened.
How to clean the helmet – do not use solvents or petrol to clean the helmet as these will
damage the structure of the helmet.
What a proper fitting helmet is and the importance of having a good firm fit.
Visor and Goggles
Learning Points
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The purpose and various types of visor and goggles.
The various safety standards on helmets – BS 4110 grade X, grade XA, grade YA and grade ZA. All
visors and goggles must display a BSI kitemark.
How to avoid scratching the visors and lenses – scratches and damage may cause dazzle from
oncoming vehicles, distort your view, cause glare (low winter sun). Replace scratched or
damaged visors and goggles.
Do not use tinted visors and goggles, especially during periods of poor light (night time and
dull days).
How to clean visors and goggles – use soapy water not solvents or petrol. Use anti-fog spray to
help prevent fogging up on the inside of the lenses.
Clothing
Learning Points
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The purpose and importance of proper clothing. The difference between desirable and
necessary forms of clothing. The importance of high visibility when riding, day and night.
The different types of protective clothing – one piece, two piece suits and the various types of
material (leather, nylon, waxed cotton and PVC).
The advantages and disadvantages of leather and synthetic clothing.
The effects of being cold and/or wet and how this can affect a rider’s concentration (as opposed
to being warm and dry).
How special protective clothing will protect riders from certain types of injury and bad weather.
The value of using thermal underwear.
Avoid bulky clothing – how it might affect the operation of the bike’s controls.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
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Gloves
Learning Points
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The purpose and importance of gloves and gauntlets – never be tempted to ride without hand
protection.
Different materials including new hi-tech materials and the use of over mitts.
The use and value of inner gloves to avoid hands becoming extremely cold – this will affect your
ability to maintain the highest level of concentration.
The use of handlebar muffs, heated handlebar grips and heated inner gloves.
Footwear
Learning Points
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The purpose and the importance of suitable footwear (boots). Boots may protect your feet
from cold and wet weather, from knocks, bumps and ankle injury if you are in an accident.
The various types of boots – leather, rubber and plastic.
Both leather and hi-tech material boots protect feet, calves and ankles. They are strong,
weather resistant and offer the best protection in the event of an accident.
Rubber or plastic boots are waterproof and cheaper than leather.
Make sure that the boots you buy are comfortable, and that you can easily operate the foot
controls of the motorcycle.
As with other articles of protective clothing, if your feet become extremely cold it may affect
your concentration.
Trainers, laces and steel toecaps are not suitable footwear for motorcycling.
Motorcycle Fairings, Luggage Compartments
Learning Points
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The purpose and importance of motorcycle fairings – protection of hands, legs and feet.
The various types and their different functions – a touring fairing, sports fairing and windscreen.
A touring fairing makes high speed riding more comfortable by keeping you out of the wind and
reducing fatigue.
A sports fairing offers less protection but they are intended to cut down wind resistance.
A windscreen can protect your face and body from wind and rain.
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INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
OBJECTIVE 2: INTRODUCTION TO MOTORCYCLE CONTROLS
How to use and recognise the primary and secondary controls of the
motorcycle.
Learning points
• The position of the various motorcycle controls. Handlebars, clutch (manual or automatic), front
brake, rear brake, throttle, gear selector, indicator switch, choke, horn, kill switch, light switch,
petrol tap, starter (kick and electric).
• What the various motorcycle controls do.
• How to use the various motorcycle controls.
• A brief explanation of a typical instrument panel.
•
Clutch – its position, what it does and how it works.
When to use the clutch – before selecting first gear to move off, to prevent engine stalling before
stopping, to help change gears, when selecting neutral. How to operate the clutch. Automatic
and semi-automatic motorcycles.
• Front brake – its position, what it does and how it works. You must use the front brake at the
correct time, smoothly and in correct proportion.
• Rear brake – its position, what it does and how it works including ‘combined’ braking systems.
Some automatic motorcycles may have a rear brake lever on the left handlebar. The usual
position for a rear brake is on the right side of the motorcycle (foot pedal).
•
Throttle – its position, what it does and how it works. The throttle controls the engine speed. You
operate it by twisting it towards you to make the engine run faster. To slow the engine you twist
the throttle away from you. Most throttles will spring back into the idle (tick over speed) position
when released.
•
Gear selector – this is usually on the left side of the bike in front of the left footrest and is
operated by your left foot. A semi-automatic motorcycle may have a gear selector on the left
handlebar.
The position of the neutral gear and the possible configurations – such as one down
and five up. The role of the gears and when you typically use them.
• Indicator switch – its position, what it does, the various layouts (such as BMW) and how they
work. The switch is normally on the left handlebar. The need to cancel the indicator after a turn
is made (otherwise you will give a misleading signal).
•
Choke – its position, what it does and how it works. The choke alters the air and fuel mixture and
is used to start a cold engine. How to set the choke, start the engine and gradually turn it off as
the engine warms. If the choke is not turned off it may affect the control and safety of the bike
What fuel injection means.
• Horn – its position, what it does and how it works. When to use the horn and when not to
sound it.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
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•
Kill switch – its position, what it does and how it works.
Only use in an emergency and not as a routine method of switching off the engine.
Improper use may run the battery down due to the headlight being left on or you may walk away
and leave the keys in the ignition.
• Light switches – their position, what they do and how they work.
The switch that operates the headlight, parking light and other lights (as fitted)
• Petrol tap (where fitted) – its position, what it does and how it works.
The reserve tank and fuel injection.
• Starter lever or button – their position, what they do and how they work. Check that the kill
switch is in the on position, switch the ignition on, make sure that the gear
lever is in neutral and press the start button or use the kick start.
•
Mirrors – their position, what they do and how they are used.
The differences between flat and convex mirrors. Convex mirrors give you a wider zone of vision
but they make it harder to judge speed and distance of following traffic.
Keep the mirrors clean and replace any damaged parts.
•
Instrument panel – the various instruments on the panel, what they do and how they work.
All the warning lights, including hazard lights, speedometer and rev counter, temperature gauge
and the ignition switch.
Never ignore a warning light.
OBJECTIVE 3: TECHNICAL CHECKS
To carry out the basic technical checks on the motorcycle and know
when checks must be done–daily, weekly, other.
Learning points
Recognise some basic faults which could affect the roadworthiness of your motorcycle. How to carry
out these basic checks on:
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Brakes – check for proper adjustment and operation.
Steering – check the steering head for wear and adjustment.
Lights – check that they all work, are clean and that lenses are not broken.
Reflectors – check that they are in place, clean and not broken.
Suspension – check for obvious defects.
Wheels and spokes – check for tyre tread depth, uneven wear, broken, loose or missing spokes.
Chain or drive shaft – check for wear, correct tension and lubrication of ‘final drive’.
Mirrors – check they are properly adjusted, clean and not broken and which type (flat or convex).
Cables – check for wear, adjustment and lubrication.
Fluid levels – check the levels on brake fluid, engine oil (use dipstick or sight level), coolant and
battery electrolyte level (for older batteries).
All nuts and bolts – check and make sure all nuts, bolts and split pins are in place and secure.
Use P-O-W-D-E-R to help remember the following technical checks:
Petrol – does the bike have enough petrol for the journey?
Oil – does the bike have enough oil in the engine (use dipstick).
Water or coolant levels – is the coolant level within limits?
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INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
Damage – inspect the motorcycle before riding to make sure no one has damaged or interfered
with the lenses, lights or body work, wheels or tyres, position of the mirrors, and that there are
no drips or spills.
Electrics – Check all electrics (lights, indicators, horn).
Rubber – Are the tyres safe and well within legal limits (pressure, tread depth).
OBJECTIVE 4: PLACING MOTORCYCLE OFF AND ON ITS STANDS
To place the motorcycle off and on the stand correctly using both
side and centre stand (if there is no centre stand, to explain how it
should be used).
The stand
Learning points
• The correct way to put a motorcycle on and off the various types of stand.
• The effects that different sizes and weights of motorcycles will have on using stands.
•
The advantages and disadvantages of using
(a) the side stand and (b) the centre stand.
Do not use the centre stand if facing up a very steep slope as it would be very difficult to take
motorcycle off the centre stand.
• The importance of personal safety and the safety of the bike. For example where to stand.
• Both legs of centre stand must make contact with the ground before you try to pull the
motorcycle backwards onto the stand.
• Make sure the side stand or centre stand extend or retract properly.
How to avoid:
• Damage to the motorcycle if it falls over, by choosing the correct type of surface to park on (solid
ground not soft). How to avoid personal injury or damage to the bike.
• Dangerous gradients and cambers (hills and slopes).
OBJECTIVE 5: WALK ALONGSIDE MOTORCYCLE
To walk alongside the motorcycle and incorporate the use of the
front brake while keeping the motorcycle properly balanced.
Learning points
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To walk and push along the motorcycle safely – the balance and skills needed, such as keeping on
the left side of bike and leaning bike inwards for better balance.
To use the front brake, keep the motorcycle balanced and bring it to a gentle stop.
Always stay in complete control.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
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How to avoid:
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Holding areas on the motorcycle other than the handlebars.
Looking down towards the ground instead of ahead.
Bad balance or control.
Severe use of the front brake.
OBJECTIVE 6: HOW TO START AND STOP THE ENGINE INCLUDING
PRECAUTIONS FOR MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING.
To be able to mount and dismount the vehicle and be able to start
and stop the engine safely.
Learning points
• How to mount/dismount the vehicle safely (including all necessary precautions).
• The precautions and procedures necessary to recover a motorcycle that has fallen over.
• All precautions needed before starting the engine, making sure to select neutral and how to
avoid false neutrals.
• To operate alarm or immobiliser system and use the on/off position for ignition.
• To understand and operate the different types of starter mechanisms such as kick start (normally
found on right hand side of motorcycle just at footpeg) or electric start (normally found on the
right hand side of the handlebar).
• How to turn on fuel. On some motorcycles this might be a small tap on the underside of the
petrol tank. The different positions of the tap – on/off, reserve. Some motorcycles may have a
fuel gauge and no fuel tap fitted (automatic flow). Two stroke mixes and reservoirs (if fitted).
• How to use the choke (if fitted) and when to use it. Do not use the choke for long periods as it
can cause over-run of the engine when slowing or stopping and affect fuel consumption.
• How to shut down the engine – turn off ignition switch and always leave the fuel tap in the off
position.
• Use F-I-G-S to help remember: Fuel – Ignition – Gears – Start.
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INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
MODULE 2
How long will it take?
About five hours to cover all learning points.
On site riding (in the compound)
This is an important element as it will be some trainees’ first experience of riding a motorcycle. It is
hugely important for their confidence and enjoyment, and to prepare them for the sometimes
dangerous world of motorcycling.
Information you will need
•
•
•
•
This is your bike
Learning to Ride a Motorcycle - RSA
Essential skills – the official motorcycling manual
The Rules of the Road
Equipment
Motorcycle for demonstration purposes, PPE for each trainee and instructor, L-tabard and cones.
Teaching styles
As with Module 1, you may use various teaching styles to achieve the objectives. A practical
demonstration and student practice will be needed.
OBJECTIVE 1: MOVE OFF AND STOP (INCLUDING ON -SITE RIDING).
Demonstrate the skills and techniques needed to become a safe
rider, including the proper use of Observations – Signals –
Manoeuvres (OSM) and Position – Speed – Looking (PSL) routines.
Learning points
Note: You must understand how to stop the motorcycle before you attempt to move off. You will
need to put what you learn into practice right away.
How to move off and stop, starting with short distances. This will include:
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Using the clutch.
Engaging first gear.
The ‘biting point’ (or throttle for automatics).
Correct use of the accelerator or throttle (to feed in and out correct levels of power).
Balance (when both feet are off the ground).
Braking to a stop (gentle application of brakes), the use of the front and back brake.
Covering the rear brake.
How to keep your balance while riding in a straight line.
To co-ordinate all controls while moving off and stopping.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
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Ride with both feet on foot pegs (don’t ride with feet dangling down).
When stopping the motorcycle, place the gear foot on the ground first and keep the other on
the footbrake.
How to avoid excessive force when using any of the controls – severe use of the front brake can
cause skidding or loss of steering, sharp use of the clutch can stall the engine.
OBJECTIVE 2: USE OF BRAKES
Use and apply the proper principles of braking and be able to
operate both brakes safely.
Learning points
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The importance of the braking system. Front and back brake, ABS systems and linked brake
systems such as Honda’s CBS (Combined Braking System) where the use of one brake will
activate both front and back.
How to apply front and back brakes and how the weather affects them, for example 70% front
30% back in normal dry conditions and 50% front 50% back, in poor, wet or greasy conditions.
How to achieve maximum braking power in the shortest distance. When you apply the front
brake slightly before the rear, your weight and the motorcycle will shift forward. This transfers
weight to the front wheel and takes some weight off the back wheel so it does not lock when you
apply the rear brake.
How to bring the motorcycle to a complete and accurate stop and be competent in the use of
brakes.
How to keep the back brake applied when coming to a stop.
How to use both brakes together (for maximum braking).
The importance of accurate braking, especially at junctions.
How to bring the motorcycle to a controlled stop in a designated area and at a marked position.
How to avoid:
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Late use of the clutch causing the motorcycle to stall when stopping.
Using back brake before front.
Using one brake on its own (unless slow moving).
Excessive use of brakes.
Locking up the wheels.
Inaccurate stopping.
Braking on gravel or other soft surfaces.
OBJECTIVE 3: USE OF GEARS
Demonstrate the proper use of gears, including all up and down
changes
Learning points
To achieve the smooth use of the clutch and gears, to be able to change up and down through the
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INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
gearbox. (The size of the training area may limit the range of gears you can use)
Proper selection and use of gears will include:
• Smooth co-ordination of all controls (clutch, throttle, gear selector).
• Changing up and down through the gear changes.
• Selecting the correct gear for speed of bike.
How to avoid:
• Finding a false neutral – rocking the motorcycle backward and forward can indicate if the
motorcycle is stuck in gear.
OBJECTIVE 4: SLOW RIDING EXERCISE
To ride the motorcycle at slow speed and maintain full control over
a minimum distance of 50 meters in a variety of conditions.
Learning points
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The importance of being able to control a motorcycle at slow speeds.
Slow riding requires good levels of control combining: Balance –Steering – Throttle – Brakes.
Slow riding skills are needed when:
Approaching a junction – you may not need to come to a complete stop but must take proper
observation while still moving.
In heavy traffic.
Dealing with obstacles or hazards.
Performing a u-turn.
OBJECTIVE 5: FIGURE OF EIGHT EXERCISE
To balance the motorcycle when changing from one lock to the
other and incorporate good use of throttle, clutch and brakes in a
confined area.
Learning points
• How to develop the skills needed for steering and balance when changing from one lock to the
other.
• How to use your slow riding skills and introduce tight steering and balance control.
How to avoid:
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Dropping your feet to keep your balance.
Excessive use of throttle.
Harsh use of clutch.
Unnecessary speed.
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OBJECTIVE 6: U – TURN EXERCISE
To demonstrate a competent level of balance, proper use of the
throttle, clutch, brakes and a complete understanding of all
observations needed for this manoeuvre.
Learning points
The skills needed to carry out this manoeuvre include:
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Good balance – keeping feet on foot pegs.
Steering.
Good co-ordination of clutch, throttle and rear brake.
How to deal with the traffic – traffic from behind, traffic coming towards you.
The observations you need to take before committing to the manoeuvre.
How to avoid:
• Severe use of controls such as brakes, clutch, throttle.
• Using your feet to compensate for poor balance
OBJECTIVE 7: SLALOM EXERCISE
To negotiate the manoeuvre in tight situations and be able to move
with good balance from left to right in quick succession with proper
use of throttle, clutch and rear brakes.
Learning points
The skills needed to carry out this manoeuvre include:
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Good balance – keeping feet on foot pegs.
Steering. To include developing the confidence to use the weight and momentum of the bike in
negotiating the slalom course.
Good co-ordination of clutch, throttle and rear brake.
To develop good confidence when alternating from lock to lock in a confined and controlled area.
How to avoid:
• Using your feet to compensate for poor balance.
• Severe use of controls such as throttle, clutch and rear brakes.
• Sharp steering (‘snapping’ the steering).
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INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
OBJECTIVE 8: REAR OBSERVATIONS AND MIRROR WORK
Including ‘shoulder checks’ and ‘life saver’ (including when dealing
with blind spots and any situation not properly covered by the
mirrors).
This will include applying the Observations – Signals – Manoeuvres and Position – Speed – Look
(OSM-PSL) routines.
Learning points
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How important the mirrors are on a motorcycle, the information you can get with proper use of
mirrors and also their limitations.
The use of observations such as looking over your shoulder or life saver look.
How to use mirrors and get used to using rear observations to cover blind spots.
Always know what is happening behind you as well as ahead of you.
Taking rear observations only at the appropriate time (good timing).
How to avoid losing control of the motorcycle while taking a look behind – steer a correct course,
don’t take your eyes off the road ahead of you for long periods.
OBJECTIVE 9: TURNING LEFT AND RIGHT
To consistently apply the observations – signals and manoeuvre,
position speed and look routine when changing direction at
junctions.
Learning points
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The different types of junction that you will encounter, such as minor to major roads, major to
minor roads and the different layouts and road markings at different types of junctions.
The proper sequence on approach to junctions – how to take proper observations, signal in good
time, when to manoeuvre (OSM) and other proven routines such as position, speed, looking
(PSL).
The proper use of mirrors and rear observation on the approach to right or left turns.
The correct road and lane positioning.
How to give correct signals and in good time, including how to give the appropriate hand
signals. Cancel signal after use.
How to avoid:
• Unnecessary or badly timed rear or side checks.
• Giving incorrect, badly timed or misleading signals.
• Looking around when it is extremely dangerous to take your eyes off the road ahead.
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OBJECTIVE 10: EMERGENCY ADJUSTMENT OF SPEED
– EMERGENCY STOP
To bring the Motorcycle / vehicle to a safe stop in any situation,
using front & rear brakes and the proper application of both.
Learning points
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The different forces at work under severe braking – when a front brake is used on its own, back
brake is used on its own and using them together.
How weight is transferred during heavy braking.
How weight transfer can affect the rear wheel in heavy braking.
How different conditions such as road surfaces, icy and wet roads can affect the braking
pattern.
How to react correctly when signalled to stop.
Using the clutch when bringing the motorcycle to a stop.
How to avoid:
• Heavy use of front or back brake causing front, back or both wheels to lock up.
• Causing the bike to skid.
16
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
MODULE 3
How long will it take?
About two hours to cover all learning points.
Information you will need
•
•
•
•
This is your bike
Learning to Ride a Motorcycle - RSA
Essential skills – the official motorcycling manual
The Rules of the Road
Equipment
Motorcycle for demonstration purposes, personal protective equipment (PPE) for each trainee and
instructor; cones and L-tabards for ‘Learner’ permit holders.
Teaching styles
As with Modules 1 and 2, you may use various teaching styles to achieve the objectives. A practical
demonstration and student practice will be needed for some objectives.
OBJECTIVE 1: LEGAL REQUIREMENTS
To understand the legal requirements and which type of
motorcycle/vehicle you are licenced to drive/ride.
• Learner Permit for category of motorcycle being ridden - Categories AM, A1, A2 or A, including
the minimum ages for each type of vehicle.
• Road tax
• Insurance
• You need to be aware of power restrictions applying to your permit / licence whether it is an
old Category A, a new Category A (Post January 19th 2013) or the new Category A2.
• Obligation surrounding road worthiness.
• Obtaining a full driving licence.
• Procedure if involved in a collision.
OBJECTIVE 2: RULES OF THE ROAD
To know the rules of the road and the importance of compliance.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
Understands the required knowledge areas.
Importance of compliance with the rules of the road.
Consequences of impaired riding (alcohol, drugs, medication).
The importance of regular eye sight testing.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
17
OBJECTIVE 3: BEING SEEN
To understand the importance of being visible while riding a
motorcycle.
It is very important to be visible and seen at all times while riding a motorcycle. You can make it
easier for other motorists to see you by:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wearing bright coloured clothing
Wearing fluorescent or reflective materials (Sam Browne belt) etc
Bright coloured helmet
Keeping headlights on
Good road positioning
A good clean motorcycle
Importance of above points when riding/driving at night.
Use of lights at night
How to maintain safe control at night
OBJECTIVE 4: ROAD SURFACES
To understand the possible dangers that you may encounter in
every day riding.
Learning points
A complete understanding of the dangers of different road surfaces, such as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Diesel spills
Potholes
Drains and manhole covers
Loose chippings
Heavy fall of leaves
Mulch or mud dragged from fields or building sites
Painted road markings
How to avoid:
• Riding over poor surfaces (where possible)
OBJECTIVE 5: ROAD AND LANE POSITION
To understand the importance of taking the safest position on the
road and be aware that this position can change according to traffic
and road conditions.
Learning points
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INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
The importance of road position on a motorcyclist’s safety, including:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Position on the straight.
Position on bends.
Position on junctions and cross junctions.
Road layout and road conditions.
Position on motorway and dual carriageways.
Return to correct position after overtaking or avoiding an obstacle or obstruction.
How to avoid:
• Riding too close to the kerb, drains and roadside gutters.
• Straddling lanes or drifting from lane to lane.
• Riding too close to the centre of the road.
OBJECTIVE 6: REAR OBSERVATIONS AND MIRROR WORK
To understand the use of Mirrors and Taking Appropriate and
Necessary Observations.
Observations will include shoulder checks such as a ‘life saver’ look when dealing with blind spots
or any situation not properly covered by the mirrors. This will include applying the Observations –
Signals – Manoeuvres and Position – Speed – Look (OSM-PSL) routines.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
How important the mirrors are on a motorcycle, the information you can get with proper use of
mirrors and also their limitations.
The use of observations such as looking over your shoulder, shoulder checks, life saver look.
How to use mirrors and get used to using rear observations to cover blind spots.
Always know what is happening behind you as well as ahead of you.
Taking rear observations only at the appropriate time (good timing).
How to avoid losing control of the motorcycle while taking a look behind – steer a correct course,
don’t take your eyes off the road ahead of you for long periods.
OBJECTIVE 7: SPEED
To understand the importance of riding at the correct speed to suit
the weather, road and traffic conditions.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
Always stay within speed limits.
Adjust your speed according to conditions.
Maintain proper progress and keep up with the normal flow of traffic.
Never ride at a speed beyond your ability.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
19
OBJECTIVE 8: ANTICIPATION AND REACTION
To understand the need to anticipate and react to changing road
and traffic situations (in a safe off-road environment).
Learning points
• The importance of reading the road, taking forward observations, anticipating what might
happen up ahead and reacting accordingly – including dealing with emergency service vehicles.
• High levels of concentration.
• Reading the road well ahead – constantly scanning the environment.
• Forward planning and defensive riding.
• Good anticipation and reaction to hazards.
• How to remain in control.
OBJECTIVE 9: WEATHER CONDITIONS (INCLUDING MODAL CHOICE AND
ROUTE PLANNING)
To understand the serious effects that weather conditions, both hot
and cold, can have for a motorcyclist.
Learning points
The effects of adverse conditions when riding a motorcycle in:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ice, black ice, snow.
Wind – especially cross winds or passing HGVs (trucks) or buses.
Mist and fog.
Glare from strong low sun.
Warm weather – insects and flies can cause blotches and smears on visors and goggles. Bring
enough water with you so you can stay hydrated during long or hot periods of motorcycling.
Riding at night.
Importance of self analysing one’s own night time riding/driving capabilities.
How to plan to reduce risks.
Considerations on Modal choice
OBJECTIVE 10: FATIGUE
To understand the risks and consequences of riding whilst suffering
from fatigue or stress.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
What is fatigue.
Main causes of fatigue.
Risks associated with fatigue and or stress.
Methods for combating fatigue and stress.
20
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
MODULE 4
PRACTICAL – ON ROAD RIDING
How long will it last?
At least six hours on road to cover all learning points.
Note
The instructor must accompany the trainee when riding on the public road. The trainee must
understand the rules of the road and be able to deal with a variety of road and traffic situations and
conditions before taking part in this practical.
Information you will need
This is Your Bike
Essential Skills – the official motorcycling manual
The Rules of the Road
Teaching styles
As with the three previous modules, you may use various teaching styles to achieve the objectives.
A practical demonstration and student practice will be needed for this module.
Equipment
Motorcycles – for instructor and trainee, radio communications, full personal protective equipment
– including ‘hi-vis’ and ‘L-plate’ tabard.
OBJECTIVE 1: GRADIENTS
To demonstrate safe control of the vehicle during:
• Hill starts
• Riding uphill
• Riding downhill
Learning points
•
•
•
•
How to move off on a hill or steep slope. This will need good co-ordination of throttle, clutch and
foot brake.
How to descend a steep hill. This will need a good understanding of brakes and gears.
Taking proper observations when moving off.
How to hold the motorcycle properly on the brake to prevent rolling backwards.
How to avoid:
• Stalling the engine – not feeding in enough power or popping out the clutch.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
21
OBJECTIVE 2: JUNCTIONS
To safely negotiate the different types of junctions, such as:
•
•
•
•
Cross junctions
T junctions
Staggered junctions
Y junctions
And be able to demonstrate an ability to safely negotiate the different road markings and
traffic signs:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Stop signs
Yield signs
Warning signs
Regulatory signs
Direction signs
Direction arrows on the road
Control lines and markings
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Proper observations, prompt signals and proper manoeuvring (OSM) on approach to junctions.
Correct road and lane position.
Correct speed on the approach to the junction – to take account of other traffic and weather
conditions.
The road markings and road signs at different types of junctions and how to comply with them.
The observations needed on approach to junctions.
How to react to traffic or obstacles up ahead.
Always give signals in good time – not too early or too late.
How to avoid:
• Causing an obstruction, lack of progress.
• Too much speed on the approach to a junction.
• Making turns from incorrect positions.
OBJECTIVE 3: TRAFFIC LIGHTS
Deal appropriately with the sequence of lights and how to react to
each of them in all circumstances
Learning points
• The correct sequence of lights.
• How to approach traffic lights safely and at correct speed including when in heavy traffic and
poor weather conditions
• Understand filter lights/lanes.
• How to deal with a junction with failed or faulty traffic lights.
• Understand pedestrian lights.
22
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
• Be aware of surroundings – traffic and weather conditions.
• Safe reaction on approach to traffic lights, using scanning and anticipation skills.
• Always stop at a red light.
How to avoid:
• Stopping on a change of light – from green to amber. This is a danger to yourself and other road
users
OBJECTIVE 4: ROUNDABOUTS
To consistently and safely apply the OSM-PSL routine when
negotiating roundabouts.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How to negotiate a roundabout – turning left, directly ahead, turning right.
How to take proper observations, prompt signals and proper manoeuvring (OSM).
Speed on approach, dealing with other traffic entering the roundabout or already on the
roundabout.
Yield to traffic that has right of way.
Proper lane position on roundabout – good lane discipline.
Maintaining proper progress when entering / leaving a roundabout.
Maintaining proper progress when entering the roundabout.
How to avoid:
• Incorrect speed on approach to a roundabout.
• Misleading signals.
• Incorrect position.
OBJECTIVE 5: SAFE DISTANCE
Be able to demonstrate the ability to keep a safe distance from the
vehicle in front, always allowing for the unexpected
Learning points
How to keep a safe distance in order to:
• Give you a clearer view of what is happening up ahead.
• Increase your chances of being seen by other road users.
• Increase your reaction time – allowing for safe and timely stopping in case of emergencies.
How to avoid:
• Riding too close to the vehicle in front (especially cyclists), importance of maintaining the
two second rule.
• Reducing the field of vision for yourself and other road users.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
23
OBJECTIVE 6: ANTICIPATION AND REACTION
To cope well with hazards as they present themselves, including:
•
•
•
•
Looking well ahead (time to ‘anticipate’ and ‘react’ especially to vulnerable road users).
Adjusting speed to suit all road and traffic conditions including weather.
Being in the correct gear to deal with the road and traffic conditions including weather.
Being in the correct road position.
Learning points
• Forward observation to allow for early planning.
• Applying the Observations – Signals – Manoeuvres and Position – Speed – Look (OSM-PSL)
routines.
• How to make an assessment and plan for dealing with the hazard – including dealing with
emergency service vehicles.
• Re-assess the situation and adjust your plan as needed.
How to avoid:
• Anticipating or reacting too late.
OBJECTIVE 7: Pedestrian & Rail crossings (Rail where possible)
Deal appropriately with the different type of crossings, controlled
and uncontrolled, and how to approach them, including:
•
•
•
•
Zebra crossings
Pelican crossings
Traffic wardens, school wardens
Level crossings (including ‘user operated’)
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
On approach to a zebra crossing, adjust speed and prepare to stop for pedestrians who have the
right of way.
On approach to a pelican crossing, adjust speed and prepare to stop for a red light. Flashing
amber gives the right of way to pedestrians who have started to cross or who are nearing the
pavement after crossing.
On approach to traffic wardens or school wardens, adjust speed and prepare to stop if directed by
the warden.
Approach at the correct speed.
React to pedestrians waiting to cross.
How to anticipate sudden changes in pedestrian lights, for example; you see a pedestrian press
the button on your approach to pedestrian lights.
Never overtake at a crossing.
Don’t beckon pedestrians onto a crossing.
How to avoid:
• Causing an obstruction, blocking a pedestrian crossing due to heavy traffic congestion.
24
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
OBJECTIVE 8: BENDS
Demonstrate an ability to safely negotiate different types of bends.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bends are dangerous for many reasons – they can be extremely blind, they can be lethal in icy
conditions.
Be aware of all road surfaces – loose gravel, wet leaves, drain covers and painted markings.
Be prepared for the unknown going into a bend – pedestrians, a broken down vehicle, cyclists.
How to anticipate bends approaching – advance warning signs, advance road markings.
Adjust your speed and select proper gear on the approach to a bend.
How to lean in to the bend while steering a correct course.
The importance of correct position for the bend.
How to complete your braking in time.
Dealing with Blind bends
Dealing with shaded bends
How to avoid:
•
•
•
•
•
Braking while banked over in the bend.
Leaning too far over in the bend.
Getting too close to the edge of the road
Getting too close to the centre of the road.
Coasting or freewheeling on a bend.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
25
MODULE 5
PROGRESSION MODULE
How long will it last?
11 hour Duration (13 Hours for new Direct Access options in A2 or A).
On Site Riding for Objectives 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 (theory), 15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22 and 23.
as well as Classroom to cover Objectives 12 (practical) , 13, 14 & 23. As well as Classroom to cover
Objectives 12 (practical) 13, 14 and 23.
Information you will need
•
•
•
•
This is your bike
Learning to Ride a Motorcycle - RSA
Essential skills – the official motorcycling manual
The Rules of the Road (latest version)
Teaching styles
As with Modules 1,2, 3 and 4 you may use various teaching styles to achieve these objectives.
Theoretical explanation followed by a practical demonstration and student practice is often the best
approach. However the teaching style must match the learners learning style so as to be effective.
Equipment
Motorcycle, PPE for each learner and Instructor, Cones, classroom and Compound
OBJECTIVES
Objective 1
Objective 2 Objective 3 Objective 4 Objective 5 Objective 6
Objective 7
Objective 8
Objective 9
Objective 10
Objective 11
Objective 12
Objective 13
Objective 14
Objective 15
Objective 16
Objective 17
Objective 18
Objective 19
Objective 20
Objective 21
Objective 22
Objective 23
26
Move off and stop
Use of breaks
Use of gears
Slow riding (exercise)
Figure of eight (exercise)
U-Turn (exercise)
Slalom (exercise)
Rear observations and mirror work
Turning left and right
Obstacle avoidance
Emergency adjustment of speed, and an emergency stop
Overtaking
Carrying pillion passengers
Using a side car/towing trailer
Gradients
Junctions
Traffic lights
Roundabouts
Safe Distance
Anticipation and reaction to hazards
Pedestrian and rail crossing (rail where possible)
Bends
Socially responsible riding/driving
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
OBJECTIVE 1: MOVE OFF AND STOP INCLUDING ON-SITE RIDING
Demonstrate the skills and techniques needed to become a safe
rider, including the proper use of Observations – Signals –
Manoeuvres (OSM) and Position – Speed – Look (PSL) routines.
Learning points
Note: You must understand how to stop the motorcycle before you attempt to move off. You will
need to put what you learn into practice right away.
How to move off and stop, starting with short distances. This will include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Using the clutch.
Engaging first gear.
The ‘biting point’ (or throttle for automatics).
Correct use of the accelerator or throttle (to feed in and out correct levels of power).
Balance (when both feet are off the ground).
Braking to a stop (gentle application of brakes), the use of the front and back brake.
Covering the rear brake.
How to keep your balance while riding in a straight line.
To co-ordinate all controls while moving off and stopping.
Ride with both feet on foot pegs (don’t ride with feet dangling down).
When stopping the motorcycle, place the gear foot on the ground first and keep the other on
the footbrake.
How to avoid excessive force when using any of the controls – severe use of the front brake can
cause skidding or loss of steering. Sharp use of the clutch can stall the engine.
OBJECTIVE 2: USE OF BRAKES
Use and apply the proper principles of braking and be able to
operate both brakes safely.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The importance of the braking system. Front and back brake, ABS systems and linked brake
systems such as Honda’s CBS (Combined Braking System) where the use of one brake will
activate both front and back.
How to apply front and back brakes and how the weather affects them, for example 70% front
30% back (in normal dry conditions) and then 50% front and 50% back in poor, wet or greasy
conditions.
How to achieve maximum braking power in the shortest distance. When you apply the front
brake slightly before the rear, your weight and the motorcycle will shift forward. This transfers
weight to the front wheel and takes some weight off the back wheel so that it does not lock
when you apply the rear brake.
How to bring the motorcycle to a complete and accurate stop and be competent in the use of
brakes.
How to keep the back brake applied when coming to a stop.
How to use both brakes together (for maximum braking).
The importance of accurate braking, especially at junctions.
How to bring the motorcycle to a controlled stop in a designated area and at a marked position.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
27
How to avoid:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Late use of the clutch causing the motorcycle to stall when stopping.
Using back brake before front.
Using one brake on its own (unless slow moving).
Excessive use of brakes.
Locking up the wheels.
Inaccurate stopping.
Braking on gravel or other soft surfaces.
OBJECTIVE 3: USE OF GEARS
Demonstrate the proper use of gears, including all up and down
changes.
Learning points
To achieve the smooth use of the clutch and gears, to be able to change up and down through the
gearbox. (The size of the training area may limit the range of gears you can use)
Proper selection and use of gears will include:
• Smooth co-ordination of all controls (clutch, throttle, gear selector).
• Changing up and down through the gear changes.
• Selecting the correct gear for speed of bike.
How to avoid:
• Finding a false neutral – rocking the motorcycle backward and forward can indicate if the
motorcycle is stuck in gear.
OBJECTIVE 4: SLOW RIDING EXERCISE
To ride the motorcycle at slow speed and maintain full control over
a minimum distance of 50 meters in a variety of conditions.
Learning points
•
•
•
-
-
-
-
The importance of being able to control a motorcycle at slow speeds.
Slow riding requires good levels of control combining: Balance – Steering – Throttle – Brakes.
Slow riding skills are needed when:
Approaching a junction – you may not need to come to a complete stop but must take proper
observation while still moving.
In heavy traffic.
Dealing with obstacles or hazards.
Performing a u-turn.
28
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
OBJECTIVE 5: FIGURE OF EIGHT EXERCISE
To balance the motorcycle when changing from one lock to the
other and incorporate good use of throttle, clutch and brakes in a
confined area.
Learning points
• How to develop the skills needed for steering and balance when changing from one lock to the
other.
• How to use your slow riding skills and introduce tight steering and balance control.
How to avoid:
•
•
•
•
Dropping your feet to keep your balance.
Excessive use of throttle.
Harsh use of clutch.
Unnecessary speed.
OBJECTIVE 6: U – TURN EXERCISE
To demonstrate a competent level of balance, proper use of the
throttle, clutch, brakes and a complete understanding of all
observations needed for this manoeuvre.
Learning points
The skills needed to carry out this manoeuvre include:
•
•
•
•
•
Good balance – keeping feet on foot pegs.
Steering.
Good co-ordination of clutch, throttle and rear brake.
How to deal with the traffic – traffic from behind, traffic coming towards you.
The observations you need to take before committing to the manoeuvre.
How to avoid:
• Severe use of controls such as brakes, clutch, throttle.
• Using your feet to compensate for poor balance
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
29
OBJECTIVE 7: SLALOM EXERCISE
To negotiate and manoeuvre in tight situations and be able to move
with good balance from left to right in quick succession with proper
use of throttle, clutch and rear brakes.
Learning points
The skills needed to carry out this manoeuvre include:
•
•
•
•
Good balance – keeping feet on foot pegs.
Steering – to include developing the confidence to use the weight and momentum of the bike in
negotiating the slalom course.
Good co-ordination of clutch, throttle and rear brake.
To develop good confidence when alternating from lock to lock in a confined and controlled area.
How to avoid:
• Using your feet to compensate for poor balance.
• Severe use of controls such as throttle, clutch and rear brakes.
• Sharp steering (‘snapping’ the steering).
OBJECTIVE 8: REAR OBSERVATIONS AND MIRROR WORK
Use the mirrors and take appropriate rear observations as required.
Including ‘shoulder checks’ and ‘life saver’ (including when dealing
with blind spots and any situation not properly covered by the
mirrors.
This will include applying the Observations – Signals – Manoeuvres and Position – Speed – Look
(OSM-PSL) routines.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
How important the mirrors are on a motorcycle, the information you can get with proper use of
mirrors and also their limitations.
The use of observations such as shoulder checks or ‘life saver’ look.
How to use mirrors and get used to using rear observations to cover blind spots.
Always know what is happening behind you as well as ahead of you.
Taking rear observations only at the appropriate time (good timing).
How to avoid losing control of the motorcycle while taking a look behind – steer a correct course,
don’t take your eyes off the road ahead of you for long periods.
30
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
OBJECTIVE 9: TURNING LEFT AND RIGHT
To consistently apply the observations – signals and manoeuvre,
position speed and look routine when changing direction at
junctions.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
The different types of junction that you will encounter, such as minor to major roads, major to
minor roads and the different layouts and road markings at different types of junctions.
The proper sequence on approach to junctions – how to take proper observations, signal in good
time, when to manoeuvre (OSM) and other proven routines such as position, speed, looking
(PSL).
The proper use of mirrors and rear observation on the approach to right or left turns.
The correct road and lane positioning.
How to give correct signals and in good time, including how to give the appropriate hand
signals.
- Cancel signal after use.
How to avoid:
• Unnecessary or badly timed rear or side checks.
• Giving incorrect, badly timed or misleading signals.
• Looking around when it is extremely dangerous to take your eyes off the road ahead.
OBJECTIVE 10: Obstacle Avoidance
To recognise and avoid an obstacle whilst travelling at a minimum
speed of 50Km/h
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
The role of forward planning
The need for all around awareness
Judging speed and direction of other traffic
Using the system of machine control
Returning to normal position
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
31
OBJECTIVE 11: EMERGENCY ADJUSTMENT OF SPEED
– EMERGENCY STOP
To bring the Motorcycle/vehicle to a safe stop in any situation, using
front & rear brakes and the proper application of both.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
The different forces at work under severe braking – when a front brake is used on its own, back
brake is used on its own and using them together.
How weight is transferred during heavy braking.
How weight transfer can affect the rear wheel in heavy braking.
How different conditions such as road surfaces, icy and wet roads can affect the braking
pattern.
How to react correctly when signalled to stop.
Using the clutch when bringing the motorcycle to a stop.
How to avoid:
• Heavy use of front or back brake causing front, back or both wheels to lock up.
• Causing the bike to skid.
OBJECTIVE 12: Overtaking
To apply the principles of safe overtaking.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Overtaking only when reasonably necessary and completely safe
Judging the speed of the vehicle you plan to overtake
Judging the speed of the oncoming traffic
Keeping well back to obtain best field of view
Importance of the driver of the vehicle you plan to overtake being able to see you
Overtaking slow moving vehicles (including cyclists)
Overtaking on a hill (up and down)
Overtaking on a three lane road
OBJECTIVE 13: CARRYING PILLION PASSENGERS
To understand the effects of carrying a pillion passenger.
Your responsibilities and the passengers need of awareness
Learning points
• The regulation on carrying Pillion passengers.
• The importance of fitness of a pillion passenger.
• Dealing with the extra load, tyre pressure, suspension, headlamp adjustment.
• Effect of carrying pillion passengers; balance, stopping distance, as well as acceleration.
•Advise passenger about: seating position, rear footrests, helmet leaning, firm grip and bright
coloured/fluorscent clothing.
32
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
OBJECTIVE 14: Using a Side Car/ Towing a Trailer
To understand how using a side car will affect the control of the
motorcycle.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rules governing the use of a sidecar
Ensure sidecar is properly fitted to left side of the motorcycle
Ride slowly to become familiar with the altered handling of the motorcycle
How to steer the motorcycle around bends
Change in braking (distance and direction)
Coupling and uncoupling a trailer
Loading a trailer
Effects of towing a trailer
OBJECTIVE 15: GRADIENTS
To demonstrate safe control of the vehicle during:
• Hill starts
• Riding uphill
• Riding downhill
Learning points
•
•
•
•
How to move off on a hill or steep slope. This will need good co-ordination of throttle, clutch and
foot brake.
How to descend a steep hill. This will need a good understanding of brakes and gears.
Taking proper observations when moving off.
How to hold the motorcycle properly on the brake to prevent rolling backwards.
How to avoid:
• Stalling the engine – not feeding in enough power or popping out the clutch.
OBJECTIVE 16: JUNCTIONS
To safely negotiate the different types of junctions, such as:
•
•
•
•
Cross junctions
T junctions
Staggered junctions
Y junctions
And be able to demonstrate an ability to safely negotiate the different road markings and traffic
signs uncontrolled, and how to approach them, including:
• Stop signs
• Yield signs
• Warning signs
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
33
•
•
•
•
Regulatory signs
Direction signs
Direction arrows on the road
Control lines and markings
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Proper observations, prompt signals and proper manoeuvring (OSM) on approach to junctions.
Correct road and lane position.
Correct speed on the approach to the junction – to take account of other traffic and weather
conditions.
The road markings and road signs at different types of junctions and how to comply with them.
The observations needed on approach to junctions.
How to react to traffic or obstacles up ahead.
Always give signals in good time – not too early or too late.
How to avoid:
• Causing an obstruction, lack of progress.
• Too much speed on the approach to a junction.
• Making turns from incorrect positions.
OBJECTIVE 17: TRAFFIC LIGHTS
Deal appropriately with the sequence of lights and how to react to
each of them in all circumstances.
Learning points
• The correct sequence of lights.
• How to approach traffic lights safely and at correct speed including when in heavy traffic and
poor weather conditions
• Understand filter lights/lanes.
• How to deal with a junction with failed or faulty traffic lights.
• Understand pedestrian lights.
• Be aware of surroundings – traffic and weather conditions.
• Safe reaction on approach to traffic lights, using scanning and anticipation skills.
• Always stop at a red light.
How to avoid:
• Stopping on a change of light – from green to amber. This is a danger to yourself and other road
users.
34
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
OBJECTIVE 18: ROUNDABOUTS
To consistently and safely apply the OSM-PSL routine when
negotiating roundabouts.
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How to negotiate a roundabout – turning left, directly ahead, turning right.
How to take proper observations, prompt signals and proper manoeuvring (OSM).
Speed on approach, dealing with other traffic entering the roundabout or already on the
roundabout.
Yield to traffic that has right of way.
Proper lane position on roundabout – good lane discipline.
Maintaining proper progress when entering/leaving a roundabout.
Maintaining proper progress when entering the roundabout.
How to avoid:
• Incorrect speed on approach to a roundabout.
• Misleading signals.
• Incorrect position.
OBJECTIVE 19: SAFE DISTANCE
Be able to demonstrate the ability to keep a safe distance from the
vehicle in front always allowing for the unexpected.
Learning points
How to keep a safe distance in order to:
• Give you a clearer view of what is happening up ahead.
• Increase your chances of being seen by other road users.
• Increase your reaction time – allowing for safe and timely stopping in case of emergencies.
How to avoid:
• Riding too close to the vehicle in front – importance of maintaining the two second rule.
• Reducing the field of vision for yourself and other road users.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
35
OBJECTIVE 20: ANTICIPATION AND REACTION
To cope well with hazards as they present themselves, including:
•
•
•
•
Looking well ahead (time to anticipate and react especially to vulnerable road users).
Adjusting speed to suit all road and traffic conditions, including weather.
Being in the correct gear to deal with the road and traffic conditions, including weather.
Being in the correct road position.
Learning points
• Forward observation to allow for early planning.
• Applying the Observations – Signals – Manoeuvres and Position – Speed – Look (OSM-PSL
routines.
• How to make an assessment and plan for dealing with the hazard – including dealing with
emergency service Vehicles.
• Re-assess the situation and adjust your plan as needed.
How to avoid:
• Anticipating or reacting too late.
OBJECTIVE 21: Pedestrian & Rail crossings (Rail where possible)
Deal appropriately with the different type of crossings, controlled
and uncontrolled and how to approach them, including:
•
•
•
•
Zebra crossings
Pelican crossings
Traffic wardens, school wardens
Level crossings (including ‘user operated’)
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
On approach to a zebra crossing, adjust speed and prepare to stop for pedestrians who have the
right of way.
On approach to a pelican crossing, adjust speed and prepare to stop for a red light. Flashing
amber gives the right of way to pedestrians who have started to cross or who are nearing the
pavement after crossing.
On approach to traffic wardens or school wardens, adjust speed and prepare to stop if directed by
the warden.
Approach at the correct speed.
React to pedestrians waiting to cross.
How to anticipate sudden changes in pedestrian lights. For example; if you see a pedestrian press
the button on your approach to pedestrian lights.
Never overtake at a crossing.
Don’t beckon pedestrians onto a crossing.
How to avoid:
• Causing an obstruction, blocking a pedestrian crossing due to heavy traffic congestion.
36
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
OBJECTIVE 22: BENDS
Demonstrate an ability to safely negotiate different types of bends
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bends are dangerous for many reasons – they can be extremely blind, they can be lethal in icy
conditions.
Be aware of all road surfaces – loose gravel, wet leaves, drain covers and painted markings.
Be prepared for the unknown going into a bend – pedestrians, a broken down vehicle, cyclists.
How to anticipate bends approaching – advance warning signs, advance road markings.
Adjust your speed and select proper gear on the approach to a bend.
How to lean in to the bend while steering a correct course.
The importance of correct position for the bend.
How to complete your braking in time.
Dealing with blind bends
Dealing with shaded bends
How to avoid:
•
•
•
•
•
Braking while banked over in the bend.
Leaning too far over in the bend.
Getting too close to the edge of the road
Getting too close to the centre of the road.
Coasting or freewheeling on a bend.
OBJECTIVE 23: Socially responsible riding/driving
To understand the importance of considerate and socially responsible
road use
Learning points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rules for reducing noise pollution, use of horn and ‘over revving’.
Eco friendly driving/riding.
The effects motorcycles can have on others.
Riding in a group.
Human, material and financial consequences of road collisions.
Familiarity with environmental issues.
Removal of excess weight from vehicle (items not required).
Alternative fuels.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
37
IMPORTANT INFORMATION FOR LEARNERS
On successful completion of each module you should have the relevant sections of your logbook
completed by your Motorcycle trainer. Be careful to keep your logbook safe, and bring it with you on
each training day. Duplicate logbooks will only be issued on payment of the relevant fee.
Initi
Trainal Basic
Trai ing for
nee
Mot
L
o
g
An t
Boo orcyclis
Ú
Road darás
k
ts
U
S
m
afet
y Au Shábh
thor
ity áilteach
t
Ar B
hóit
hre
Please be aware you may not ride a motorcycle, or tricycle, in a public place without being
accompanied by your IBT approved trainer unless you are in possession of a Certificate of
Satisfactory Completion, issued by an RSA approved Motorcycle IBT trainer, or have passed your
official driving test for the category of vehicle being ridden.
38
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
39
Process of obtaining a motorcycle
Age
16
Age
16
Category
Category
AM
A1
• Theory test (if not
already completed)
• Apply for Learner Permit
• Initial Basic Training
Modules 1-4 (16 hrs)
• Driving Test
(after 6 months)
Obtain Cat. AM
full licence
• Age 16
• Theory test (if not
already completed
• Apply for Learner Permit
• Initial Basic Training
Modules 1-4 (16hrs)
• Driving Test
(after 6 months)
Obtain Cat. A1
full licence
NOTE: The chart above sets out the various ‘Direct Access’ options for each category
of Motorcycle Licence. These examples assume that the holder has not previously held
a motorcycle licence. The chart on the next page sets out the various ‘progressive access’
options for those that may have previously held a motorcycle licence in either A1, or A2.
Visit www.rsa.ie/RSA/Learner-Drivers/New-Driver-Licensing-Rules
40
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
e driving licence through Direct Access
Age
18
Age
24
and over
Category
Category
A2
A
• Age 18
• Age 24
• Theory test (if not
already completed
• Theory test (if not
already completed
• Apply for Learner Permit
• Apply for Learner Permit
in Category A
• Initial Basic Training
Modules 1, 3 and 5
inclusive on A2 bike. If
already completed for
AM or A1 do progression
module 5 IBT on A2
machine
• Initial Basic Training
Modules 1, 3 & 5
• Driving Test
(after 6 months)
• Pass driving test
(after 6 months)
Obtain Cat. A
full licence
Obtain Cat. A2
full licence
s-from-January-2013/ for a list of frequently asked questions.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
41
Process of obtaining a motorcycle d
Progression
from A1 to A2
In all cases:
• Min Age: 18yrs
• Apply for Learner Permit in Category A2 after holding a full Category A1 driving
licence for a minimum of two years.
• Complete Progression Module (Module 5) on an A2 type motorcycle (11hrs)
• Having completed Module 5 you may then obtain your full Category A2 type
driving licence. Alternatively you may choose to undergo and pass a practical
driving test in Category A2 which leaves you with the options set out below;
Options
1. If you chose to undergo and pass the practical driving test on a Category A2 type
motorcycle (no need to wait 6 months) and later on you choose to progress to a
Category A type motorcycle (having held your Category A2 driving licence for 2
years). You may proceed without the need to undergo a practical driving test on
a Category A type motorcycle.
2. If you had not taken and passed a practical driving test to obtain your Category
A2 driving licence (that is, you obtained it by undergoing a progression module)
you may not progress on without passing a practical driving test for a Category A
type driving licence. In order to progress to a Category A, you must hold your
Category A2 type driving licence for at least two years, undergo the progression
module (module 5) and pass a practical driving test on the Category A type
motorcycle.
Notes
• Where you have previously undergone a practical driving test you will not be
required to wait 6 months before sitting another test between Categories A2 and
Category A.
• If you are aged 24 yrs or over you may opt for the Category A ‘Direct Access’ route
without the need to obtain a Category A2 driving licence and wait the two years.
Visit www.rsa.ie/RSA/Learner-Drivers/New-Driver-Licensing
42
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
driving licence through Progressive access
Progression
from A2 to A
In all cases:
• Min Age: 20yrs
• Apply for Learner Permit in Category A
• Complete Progression Module (Module 5) on an A type motorcycle (11hrs)
• Must have held Category A2 driving licence for a minimum of 2 years. (or be at
least 24 years of age and opt for Direct Access to Category A)
Options
1. If you obtained your Category A2 driving licence by passing your practical driving
test between Categories A1 and A2 you may then apply for your Category A
driving licence without the need to undergo a further practical driving test.
2. If you obtained your Category A2 driving licence completing the progression
module from A1 to A2 you must then apply for and pass a practical driving test
for your Category A driving licence
Notes
• Where you have previously undergone a practical driving test you will not be
required to wait 6 months before sitting another test between categories A1 and
A2 or A2 and A.
• If you are aged 24 yrs or over you may opt for the Category A Direct Access route,
without the need to obtain a Category A2 driving licence and wait the required
two years.
The above notes set out options for progression for those who have previously held the relevant category
of full driving licence for the required length of time. If your situation is not set out above please contact
your local IBT trainer or the Road Safety Authority (Tel:096 25000) for further information.
NOTE:
If you already hold a full Category A driving licence restricted to 25Kw and wish to remove the restriction
– it may be possible if you are aged over 24yrs and your IBT trainer obtains a unique approval number
before your course commences.
g-Rules-from-January-2013/ for a list of frequently asked questions.
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
43
Examples of progression for those with a
Category A learner Permit or Driving licence
If you held a ‘Category A’ Learner permit prior to 6th
December 2010 and are age 24yrs or over you may
progress to the new unrestricted category A driving
licence as follows:
• If you have not completed any Initial Basic Training
You must undergo IBT Modules 1,3,& 5 on a motorcycle with a minimum power output of 40KW
and then successfully complete a practical driving test
• If you have previously completed IBT on any type of motorcycle
You must now complete the progression module (Module 5) on a motorcycle with a minimum
power output of 40KW and then successfully complete a practical driving test
•If you have held a provisional licence prior to 1999 (now a Learner permit) – without a break in
validity exceeding 5 yrs
You may now undergo a practical driving test on a motorcycle with a minimum power output
of 40 KW.
If you are aged at least 24yrs and hold a ‘Category A’ full
Driving Licence, issued at anytime within the last two years
and wish to remove the power restriction you may
progress as follows:
• You may choose to wait and complete the period of restriction, or
•If you have or have not completed any Initial Basic Training
You must undergo IBT Modules 1, 3 & 5 on a motorcycle with a minimum power output of 40KW
• If you have previously completed IBT on any type of motorcycle
You must now complete the progression module (Module 5) on a motorcycle with a minimum
power output of 40KW.
NOTE
In either case the following applies;
1. The Motorcycle must have an un laden mass of at least 180Kg
2. Where an internal combustion engine is used, the engine must be at least 595cc.
3. Where the motorcycle is powered by an electric motor the minimum power output is 0.25 kw/kg
Please note that from November 2013 the motorcycle used for either IBT training or driving test
purposes in Category A, must have a minimum power output of 50 KW. The minimum power output
for a Category A2 type vehicle used for training or the practical driving test is being reduced to 20kW.
44
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
NOTES:
INITIAL BASIC TRAINING COURSE
45
Ref. JANUARY 2013
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