Features

Features
Atmel ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V
8-bit Atmel Microcontroller with 16/32/64KB In-System Programmable Flash
DATASHEET
Features
•
•
•
High Performance, Low Power Atmel® AVR® 8-Bit Microcontroller
Advanced RISC Architecture
– 135 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution
– 32 × 8 General Purpose Working Registers
– Fully Static Operation
– Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16MHz
– On-Chip 2-cycle Multiplier
High Endurance Non-volatile Memory Segments
– 64K/128K/256KBytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash
– 4Kbytes EEPROM
– 8Kbytes Internal SRAM
– Write/Erase Cycles:10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM
– Data retention: 20 years at 85C/ 100 years at 25C
– Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
• In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program
• True Read-While-Write Operation
– Programming Lock for Software Security
•
• Endurance: Up to 64Kbytes Optional External Memory Space
Atmel® QTouch® library support
– Capacitive touch buttons, sliders and wheels
– QTouch and QMatrix acquisition
– Up to 64 sense channels
•
JTAG (IEEE® std. 1149.1 compliant) Interface
– Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard
– Extensive On-chip Debug Support
– Programming of Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface
•
Peripheral Features
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
•
Special Microcontroller Features
–
–
–
–
•
Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler and Compare Mode
Four 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare- and Capture Mode
Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
Four 8-bit PWM Channels
Six/Twelve PWM Channels with Programmable Resolution from 2 to 16 Bits
(ATmega1281/2561, ATmega640/1280/2560)
Output Compare Modulator
8/16-channel, 10-bit ADC (ATmega1281/2561, ATmega640/1280/2560)
Two/Four Programmable Serial USART (ATmega1281/2561, ATmega640/1280/2560)
Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
Byte Oriented 2-wire Serial Interface
Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
On-chip Analog Comparator
Interrupt and Wake-up on Pin Change
Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection
Internal Calibrated Oscillator
External and Internal Interrupt Sources
Six Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby,
and Extended Standby
I/O and Packages
–
–
–
–
54/86 Programmable I/O Lines (ATmega1281/2561, ATmega640/1280/2560)
64-pad QFN/MLF, 64-lead TQFP (ATmega1281/2561)
100-lead TQFP, 100-ball CBGA (ATmega640/1280/2560)
RoHS/Fully Green
•
Temperature Range:
•
Ultra-Low Power Consumption
– -40C to 85C Industrial
– Active Mode: 1MHz, 1.8V: 500µA
– Power-down Mode: 0.1µA at 1.8V
•
Speed Grade:
– ATmega640V/ATmega1280V/ATmega1281V:
• 0 - 4MHz @ 1.8V - 5.5V, 0 - 8MHz @ 2.7V - 5.5V
– ATmega2560V/ATmega2561V:
• 0 - 2MHz @ 1.8V - 5.5V, 0 - 8MHz @ 2.7V - 5.5V
– ATmega640/ATmega1280/ATmega1281:
• 0 - 8MHz @ 2.7V - 5.5V, 0 - 16MHz @ 4.5V - 5.5V
– ATmega2560/ATmega2561:
• 0 - 16MHz @ 4.5V - 5.5V
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1. Pin Configurations
81
80
PA1 (AD1)
82
PA2 (AD2)
83
PJ7
84
PA0 (AD0)
85
GND
86
VCC
87
PK7 (ADC15/PCINT23)
88
PK5 (ADC13/PCINT21)
89
PK6 (ADC14/PCINT22)
90
PK3 (ADC11/PCINT19)
91
PK4 (ADC12/PCINT20)
92
PK1 (ADC9/PCINT17)
93
PK2 (ADC10/PCINT18)
PK0 (ADC8/PCINT16)
94
PF7 (ADC7/TDI)
95
PF6 (ADC6/TDO)
96
PF4 (ADC4/TCK)
97
PF5 (ADC5/TMS)
PF1 (ADC1)
98
PF2 (ADC2)
PF0 (ADC0)
100 99
PF3 (ADC3)
GND
AREF
TQFP-pinout ATmega640/1280/2560
AVCC
Figure 1-1.
79
78
77
76
(OC0B) PG5
1
75
PA3 (AD3)
(RXD0/PCINT8) PE0
2
74
PA4 (AD4)
INDEX CORNER
(TXD0) PE1
3
73
PA5 (AD5)
(XCK0/AIN0) PE2
4
72
PA6 (AD6)
(OC3A/AIN1) PE3
5
71
PA7 (AD7)
(OC3B/INT4) PE4
6
70
PG2 (ALE)
(OC3C/INT5) PE5
7
69
PJ6 (PCINT15)
(T3/INT6) PE6
8
68
PJ5 (PCINT14)
(CLKO/ICP3/INT7) PE7
9
67
PJ4 (PCINT13)
VCC
10
66
PJ3 (PCINT12)
GND
11
65
PJ2 (XCK3/PCINT11)
(RXD2) PH0
12
64
PJ1 (TXD3/PCINT10)
(TXD2) PH1
13
63
PJ0 (RXD3/PCINT9)
(XCK2) PH2
14
62
GND
(OC4A) PH3
15
61
VCC
(OC4B) PH4
16
60
PC7 (A15)
(OC4C) PH5
17
59
PC6 (A14)
(OC2B) PH6
18
58
PC5 (A13)
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
(T1) PD6
31
(T0) PD7
30
(ICP1) PD4
29
(XCK1) PD5
28
(TXD1/INT3) PD3
27
(RXD1/INT2) PD2
26
(SDA/INT1) PD1
PG0 (WR)
PL7
51
(SCL/INT0) PD0
25
PL6
(OC1B/PCINT6) PB6
(OC5C) PL5
PG1 (RD)
(OC5A) PL3
PC0 (A8)
52
(OC5B) PL4
53
24
(T5) PL2
23
(OC1A/PCINT5) PB5
(ICP5) PL1
(OC2A/PCINT4) PB4
(ICP4) PL0
PC1 (A9)
XTAL2
PC2 (A10)
54
XTAL1
55
22
VCC
21
(MISO/PCINT3) PB3
GND
(MOSI/PCINT2) PB2
RESET
PC3 (A11)
(TOSC1) PG4
PC4 (A12)
56
(T4) PH7
57
20
(TOSC2) PG3
19
(OC0A/OC1C/PCINT7) PB7
(SS/PCINT0) PB0
(SCK/PCINT1) PB1
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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2
Figure 1-2.
CBGA-pinout ATmega640/1280/2560
Top view
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Bottom view
8
9
10
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
E
E
F
F
G
G
H
H
J
J
K
K
Table 1-1.
CBGA-pinout ATmega640/1280/2560
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
A
GND
AREF
PF0
PF2
PF5
PK0
PK3
PK6
GND
VCC
B
AVCC
PG5
PF1
PF3
PF6
PK1
PK4
PK7
PA0
PA2
C
PE2
PE0
PE1
PF4
PF7
PK2
PK5
PJ7
PA1
PA3
D
PE3
PE4
PE5
PE6
PH2
PA4
PA5
PA6
PA7
PG2
E
PE7
PH0
PH1
PH3
PH5
PJ6
PJ5
PJ4
PJ3
PJ2
F
VCC
PH4
PH6
PB0
PL4
PD1
PJ1
PJ0
PC7
GND
G
GND
PB1
PB2
PB5
PL2
PD0
PD5
PC5
PC6
VCC
H
PB3
PB4
RESET
PL1
PL3
PL7
PD4
PC4
PC3
PC2
J
PH7
PG3
PB6
PL0
XTAL2
PL6
PD3
PC1
PC0
PG1
K
PB7
PG4
VCC
GND
XTAL1
PL5
PD2
PD6
PD7
PG0
Note:
The functions for each pin is the same as for the 100 pin packages shown in Figure 1-1 on page 2.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
3
(OC0B) PG5
1
(RXD0/PCINT8/PDI) PE0
2
AVCC
GND
AREF
PF0 (ADC0)
PF1 (ADC1)
PF2 (ADC2)
PF3 (ADC3)
PF4 (ADC4/TCK)
PF5 (ADC5/TMS)
PF6 (ADC6/TDO)
PF7 (ADC7/TDI)
GND
VCC
PA0 (AD0)
PA1 (AD1)
PA2 (AD2)
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
Pinout ATmega1281/2561
64
Figure 1-3.
INDEX CORNER
48
PA3 (AD3)
47
PA4 (AD4)
46
PA5 (AD5)
38
PC3 (A11)
(MOSI/ PCINT2) PB2
12
37
PC2 (A10)
(MISO/ PCINT3) PB3
13
36
PC1 (A9)
(OC2A/ PCINT4) PB4
14
35
PC0 (A8)
(OC1A/PCINT5) PB5
15
34
PG1 (RD)
(OC1B/PCINT6) PB6
16
33
PG0 (WR)
Note:
32
11
(T0) PD7
(SCK/ PCINT1) PB1
31
PC4 (A12)
(T1) PD6
39
30
10
(XCK1) PD5
(SS/PCINT0) PB0
29
PC5 (A13)
(ICP1) PD4
40
28
9
(TXD1/INT3) PD3
(ICP3/CLKO/INT7) PE7
27
PC6 (A14)
(RXD1/INT2) PD2
41
26
8
(SDA/INT1) PD1
(T3/INT6) PE6
25
PC7 (A15)
(SCL/INT0) PD0
42
24
7
XTAL1
(OC3C/INT5) PE5
23
PG2 (ALE)
XTAL2
43
22
6
GND
(OC3B/INT4) PE4
21
PA7 (AD7)
VCC
44
20
5
RESET
(OC3A/AIN1) PE3
19
PA6 (AD6)
(TOSC1) PG4
45
18
4
(TOSC2) PG3
(XCK0/AIN0) PE2
17
3
(OC0A/OC1C/PCINT7) PB7
(TXD0/PDO) PE1
The large center pad underneath the QFN/MLF package is made of metal and internally connected to GND. It should
be soldered or glued to the board to ensure good mechanical stability. If the center pad is left unconnected, the package might loosen from the board.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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2. Overview
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced
RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system
designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
2.1
Block Diagram
Figure 2-1.
Block Diagram
PF7..0
PK7..0
PORT F (8)
PORT K (8)
PJ7..0
PE7..0
VCC
Power
Supervision
POR/ BOD &
RESET
RESET
PORT J (8)
PORT E (8)
Watchdog
Timer
GND
Watchdog
Oscillator
Analog
Comparator
JTAG
A/D
Converter
EEPROM
Internal
Bandgap reference
USART 0
XTAL1
Oscillator
Circuits /
Clock
Generation
16 bit T/C 3
USART 3
16 bit T/C 5
XTAL2
CPU
PORT A (8)
PA7..0
16 bit T/C 4
USART 1
PG5..0
PORT G (6)
XRAM
PC7..0
PORT C (8)
TWI
FLASH
SPI
SRAM
16 bit T/C 1
8 bit T/C 0
USART 2
8 bit T/C 2
NOTE:
Shaded parts only available
in the 100-pin version.
Complete functionality for
the ADC, T/C4, and T/C5 only
available in the 100-pin version.
®
PORT D (8)
PORT B (8)
PORT H (8)
PORT L (8)
PD7..0
PB7..0
PH7..0
PL7..0
®
The Atmel AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in
one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving
throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
5
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 provides the following features: 64K/128K/256K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities, 4Kbytes EEPROM, 8Kbytes SRAM, 54/86 general purpose
I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, Real Time Counter (RTC), six flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes and PWM, four USARTs, a byte oriented 2-wire Serial Interface, a 16-channel, 10-bit ADC with
optional differential input stage with programmable gain, programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator,
an SPI serial port, IEEE® std. 1149.1 compliant JTAG test interface, also used for accessing the On-chip Debug
system and programming and six software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while
allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down
mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt
or Hardware Reset. In Power-save mode, the asynchronous timer continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a
timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except Asynchronous Timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. In Standby
mode, the Crystal/Resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This allows very fast
start-up combined with low power consumption. In Extended Standby mode, both the main Oscillator and the
Asynchronous Timer continue to run.
Atmel offers the QTouch® library for embedding capacitive touch buttons, sliders and wheels functionality into AVR
microcontrollers. The patented charge-transfer signal acquisition offersrobust sensing and includes fully
debounced reporting of touch keys and includes Adjacent Key Suppression® (AKS®) technology for unambiguous
detection of key events. The easy-to-use QTouch Suite toolchain allows you to explore, develop and debug your
own touch applications.
The device is manufactured using the Atmel high-density nonvolatile memory technology. The On-chip ISP Flash
allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer, or by an On-chip Boot program running on the AVR core. The boot program can use
any interface to download the application program in the application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash
section will continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write operation. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and cost effective
solution to many embedded control applications.
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development
tools including: C compilers, macro assemblers, program debugger/simulators, in-circuit emulators, and evaluation
kits.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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2.2
Comparison Between ATmega1281/2561 and ATmega640/1280/2560
Each device in the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 family differs only in memory size and number of pins. Table
2-1 summarizes the different configurations for the six devices.
Table 2-1.
2.3
2.3.1
Configuration Summary
Device
Flash
EEPROM
RAM
General
Purpose I/O pins
16 bits resolution
PWM channels
Serial
USARTs
ADC
Channels
ATmega640
64KB
4KB
8KB
86
12
4
16
ATmega1280
128KB
4KB
8KB
86
12
4
16
ATmega1281
128KB
4KB
8KB
54
6
2
8
ATmega2560
256KB
4KB
8KB
86
12
4
16
ATmega2561
256KB
4KB
8KB
54
6
2
8
Pin Descriptions
VCC
Digital supply voltage.
2.3.2
GND
Ground.
2.3.3
Port A (PA7..PA0)
Port A is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port A pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a
reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port A also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 as listed on
page 75.
2.3.4
Port B (PB7..PB0)
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a
reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port B has better driving capabilities than the other ports.
Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 as listed on
page 76.
2.3.5
Port C (PC7..PC0)
Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a
reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port C also serves the functions of special features of the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 as listed on page 79.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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2.3.6
Port D (PD7..PD0)
Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a
reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port D also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 as listed on
page 80.
2.3.7
Port E (PE7..PE0)
Port E is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port E output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port E pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port E pins are tri-stated when a
reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port E also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 as listed on
page 82.
2.3.8
Port F (PF7..PF0)
Port F serves as analog inputs to the A/D Converter.
Port F also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port, if the A/D Converter is not used. Port pins can provide internal
pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port F output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both
high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port F pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port F pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not
running. If the JTAG interface is enabled, the pull-up resistors on pins PF7(TDI), PF5(TMS), and PF4(TCK) will be
activated even if a reset occurs.
Port F also serves the functions of the JTAG interface.
2.3.9
Port G (PG5..PG0)
Port G is a 6-bit I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port G output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port G pins that are externally
pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port G pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port G also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 as listed on
page 86.
2.3.10
Port H (PH7..PH0)
Port H is a 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port H output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port H pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port H pins are tri-stated when a
reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port H also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega640/1280/2560 as listed on page 88.
2.3.11
Port J (PJ7..PJ0)
Port J is a 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port J output buffers
have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port J pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port J pins are tri-stated when a
reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port J also serves the functions of various special
features of the ATmega640/1280/2560 as listed on page 90.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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2.3.12
Port K (PK7..PK0)
Port K serves as analog inputs to the A/D Converter.
Port K is a 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port K output buffers
have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port K pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port K pins are tri-stated when a
reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port K also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega640/1280/2560 as listed on page 92.
2.3.13
Port L (PL7..PL0)
Port L is a 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port L output buffers
have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port L pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port L pins are tri-stated when a
reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port L also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega640/1280/2560 as listed on page 94.
2.3.14
RESET
Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock
is not running. The minimum pulse length is given in “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 360. Shorter
pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset.
2.3.15
XTAL1
Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
2.3.16
XTAL2
Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier.
2.3.17
AVCC
AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port F and the A/D Converter. It should be externally connected to VCC, even if
the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter.
2.3.18
AREF
This is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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3. Resources
A comprehensive set of development tools and application notes, and datasheets are available for download on
http://www.atmel.com/avr.
4. About Code Examples
This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of the device. Be
aware that not all C compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Confirm with the C compiler documentation for more details.
These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation. For I/O registers
located in extended I/O map, "IN", "OUT", "SBIS", "SBIC", "CBI", and "SBI" instructions must be replaced with
instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically "LDS" and "STS" combined with "SBRS", "SBRC", "SBR",
and "CBR".
5. Data Retention
Reliability Qualification results show that the projected data retention failure rate is much less than 1 ppm over 20
years at 85°C or 100 years at 25°C.
6. Capacitive touch sensing
The Atmel® QTouch® Library provides a simple to use solution to realize touch sensitive interfaces on most Atmel
AVR® microcontrollers. The QTouch Library includes support for the QTouch and QMatrix acquisition methods.
Touch sensing can be added to any application by linking the appropriate Atmel QTouch Library for the AVR Microcontroller. This is done by using a simple set of APIs to define the touch channels and sensors, and then calling the
touch sensing API’s to retrieve the channel information and determine the touch sensor states.
The QTouch Library is FREE and downloadable from the Atmel website at the following location:
www.atmel.com/qtouchlibrary. For implementation details and other information, refer to the Atmel QTouch Library
User Guide - also available for download from the Atmel website.
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7. AVR CPU Core
7.1
Introduction
This section discusses the AVR core architecture in general. The main function of the CPU core is to ensure correct program execution. The CPU must therefore be able to access memories, perform calculations, control
peripherals, and handle interrupts.
Architectural Overview
Figure 7-1.
Block Diagram of the AVR Architecture
Data Bus 8-bit
Flash
Program
Memory
Program
Counter
Status
and Control
32 x 8
General
Purpose
Registers
Instruction
Register
Control Lines
Indirect Addressing
Instruction
Decoder
Direct Addressing
7.2
Interrupt
Unit
SPI
Unit
Watchdog
Timer
ALU
Analog
Comparator
I/O Module1
Data
SRAM
I/O Module 2
I/O Module n
EEPROM
I/O Lines
In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard architecture – with separate memories
and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory are executed with a single level pipelining.
While one instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory. This concept
enables instructions to be executed in every clock cycle. The program memory is In-System Reprogrammable
Flash memory.
The fast-access Register File contains 32 × 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single clock cycle
access time. This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operation. In a typical ALU operation, two oper-
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ands are output from the Register File, the operation is executed, and the result is stored back in the Register File
– in one clock cycle.
Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect address register pointers for Data Space addressing –
enabling efficient address calculations. One of the these address pointers can also be used as an address pointer
for look up tables in Flash program memory. These added function registers are the 16-bit X-, Y-, and Z-register,
described later in this section.
The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a constant and a register. Single
register operations can also be executed in the ALU. After an arithmetic operation, the Status Register is updated
to reflect information about the result of the operation.
Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, able to directly address the
whole address space. Most AVR instructions have a single 16-bit word format. Every program memory address
contains a 16-bit or 32-bit instruction.
Program Flash memory space is divided in two sections, the Boot Program section and the Application Program
section. Both sections have dedicated Lock bits for write and read/write protection. The SPM instruction that writes
into the Application Flash memory section must reside in the Boot Program section.
During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address Program Counter (PC) is stored on the Stack. The Stack
is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and consequently the Stack size is only limited by the total
SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM. All user programs must initialize the SP in the Reset routine (before subroutines or interrupts are executed). The Stack Pointer (SP) is read/write accessible in the I/O space. The data
SRAM can easily be accessed through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR architecture.
The memory spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps.
A flexible interrupt module has its control registers in the I/O space with an additional Global Interrupt Enable bit in
the Status Register. All interrupts have a separate Interrupt Vector in the Interrupt Vector table. The interrupts have
priority in accordance with their Interrupt Vector position. The lower the Interrupt Vector address, the higher the
priority.
The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as Control Registers, SPI, and other
I/O functions. The I/O Memory can be accessed directly, or as the Data Space locations following those of the Register File, 0x20 - 0x5F. In addition, the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 has Extended I/O space from 0x60 0x1FF in SRAM where only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
7.3
ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit
The high-performance AVR ALU operates in direct connection with all the 32 general purpose working registers.
Within a single clock cycle, arithmetic operations between general purpose registers or between a register and an
immediate are executed. The ALU operations are divided into three main categories – arithmetic, logical, and bitfunctions. Some implementations of the architecture also provide a powerful multiplier supporting both
signed/unsigned multiplication and fractional format. See the “Instruction Set Summary” on page 404 for a detailed
description.
7.4
Status Register
The Status Register contains information about the result of the most recently executed arithmetic instruction. This
information can be used for altering program flow in order to perform conditional operations. Note that the Status
Register is updated after all ALU operations, as specified in the “Instruction Set Summary” on page 404. This will in
many cases remove the need for using the dedicated compare instructions, resulting in faster and more compact
code.
The Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine and restored when returning
from an interrupt. This must be handled by software.
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7.4.1
SREG – AVR Status Register
The AVR Status Register – SREG – is defined as:
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x3F (0x5F)
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SREG
• Bit 7 – I: Global Interrupt Enable
The Global Interrupt Enable bit must be set for the interrupts to be enabled. The individual interrupt enable control
is then performed in separate control registers. If the Global Interrupt Enable Register is cleared, none of the interrupts are enabled independent of the individual interrupt enable settings. The I-bit is cleared by hardware after an
interrupt has occurred, and is set by the RETI instruction to enable subsequent interrupts. The I-bit can also be set
and cleared by the application with the SEI and CLI instructions, as described in the “Instruction Set Summary” on
page 404.
• Bit 6 – T: Bit Copy Storage
The Bit Copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. A bit from a register in the Register File can be copied into T by the BST instruction, and a bit in T can be
copied into a bit in a register in the Register File by the BLD instruction.
• Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag
The Half Carry Flag H indicates a Half Carry in some arithmetic operations. Half Carry Is useful in BCD arithmetic.
See the “Instruction Set Summary” on page 404 for detailed information.
• Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit, S = N V
The S-bit is always an exclusive or between the Negative Flag N and the Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V. See
the “Instruction Set Summary” on page 404 for detailed information.
• Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag
The Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V supports two’s complement arithmetics. See the “Instruction Set Summary” on page 404 for detailed information.
• Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag
The Negative Flag N indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Summary” on page 404 for detailed information.
• Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag
The Zero Flag Z indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Summary” on
page 404 for detailed information.
• Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag
The Carry Flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Summary” on page
404 for detailed information.
7.5
General Purpose Register File
The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. In order to achieve the required performance and flexibility, the following input/output schemes are supported by the Register File:
•
One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input
•
Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input
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•
Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input
•
One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input
Figure 7-2 shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU.
Figure 7-2.
AVR CPU General Purpose Working Registers
7
0
Addr.
R0
0x00
R1
0x01
R2
0x02
…
R13
0x0D
General
R14
0x0E
Purpose
R15
0x0F
Working
R16
0x10
Registers
R17
0x11
…
R26
0x1A
X-register Low Byte
R27
0x1B
X-register High Byte
R28
0x1C
Y-register Low Byte
R29
0x1D
Y-register High Byte
R30
0x1E
Z-register Low Byte
R31
0x1F
Z-register High Byte
Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and most of them are single cycle instructions.
As shown in Figure 7-2, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them directly into the first
32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory
organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to
index any register in the file.
7.5.1
The X-register, Y-register, and Z-register
The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage. These registers are 16-bit
address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect address registers X, Y, and Z are
defined as described in Figure 7-3.
Figure 7-3.
The X-, Y-, and Z-registers
15
X-register
XH
7
XL
0
R27 (0x1B)
15
Y-register
YH
7
YL
0
0
7
0
R28 (0x1C)
15
ZH
7
0
R31 (0x1F)
0
R26 (0x1A)
R29 (0x1D)
Z-register
0
7
ZL
7
0
0
R30 (0x1E)
In the different addressing modes these address registers have functions as fixed displacement, automatic increment, and automatic decrement (see the “Instruction Set Summary” on page 404 for details).
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7.6
Stack Pointer
The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses
after interrupts and subroutine calls. The Stack Pointer Register always points to the top of the Stack. Note that the
Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a
Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer.
The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt Stacks are located. This
Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The Stack Pointer must be set to point above 0x0200. The initial value of the stack pointer is the
last address of the internal SRAM. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack
with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two for ATmega640/1280/1281 and three for
ATmega2560/2561 when the return address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The Stack
Pointer is incremented by one when data is popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented
by two for ATmega640/1280/1281 and three for ATmega2560/2561 when data is popped from the Stack with
return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI.
The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is
implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small
that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register will not be present.
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0x3E (0x5E)
SP15
SP14
SP13
SP12
SP11
SP10
SP9
SP8
SPH
0x3D (0x5D)
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
SPL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
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7.6.1
RAMPZ – Extended Z-pointer Register for ELPM/SPM
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x3B (0x5B)
RAMPZ7
RAMPZ6
RAMPZ5
RAMPZ4
RAMPZ3
RAMPZ2
RAMPZ1
RAMPZ0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RAMPZ
For ELPM/SPM instructions, the Z-pointer is a concatenation of RAMPZ, ZH, and ZL, as shown in Figure 7-4. Note
that LPM is not affected by the RAMPZ setting.
Figure 7-4.
The Z-pointer used by ELPM and SPM
Bit
(Individually)
7
Bit (Z-pointer)
23
0
7
16
15
RAMPZ
0
7
8
7
0
ZH
ZL
0
The actual number of bits is implementation dependent. Unused bits in an implementation will always read as zero.
For compatibility with future devices, be sure to write these bits to zero.
7.6.2
EIND – Extended Indirect Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EIND7
EIND6
EIND5
EIND4
EIND3
EIND2
EIND1
EIND0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x3C (0x5C)
EIND
For EICALL/EIJMP instructions, the Indirect-pointer to the subroutine/routine is a concatenation of EIND, ZH, and
ZL, as shown in Figure 7-5. Note that ICALL and IJMP are not affected by the EIND setting.
Figure 7-5.
The Indirect-pointer used by EICALL and EIJMP
Bit
(Individually)
7
Bit (Indirectpointer)
23
0
7
16
15
EIND
0
7
8
7
ZH
0
ZL
0
The actual number of bits is implementation dependent. Unused bits in an implementation will always read as zero.
For compatibility with future devices, be sure to write these bits to zero.
7.7
Instruction Execution Timing
This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution. The AVR CPU is driven by the
CPU clock clkCPU, directly generated from the selected clock source for the chip. No internal clock division is used.
Figure 7-6 on page 17 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard
architecture and the fast-access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining concept to obtain up to 1 MIPS
per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost, functions per clocks, and functions per
power-unit.
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Figure 7-6.
The Parallel Instruction Fetches and Instruction Executions
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
1st Instruction Fetch
1st Instruction Execute
2nd Instruction Fetch
2nd Instruction Execute
3rd Instruction Fetch
3rd Instruction Execute
4th Instruction Fetch
Figure 7-7 shows the internal timing concept for the Register File. In a single clock cycle an ALU operation using
two register operands is executed, and the result is stored back to the destination register.
Figure 7-7.
Single Cycle ALU Operation
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
Total Execution Time
Register Operands Fetch
ALU Operation Execute
Result Write Back
7.8
Reset and Interrupt Handling
The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate Reset Vector each have a
separate program vector in the program memory space. All interrupts are assigned individual enable bits which
must be written logic one together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the
interrupt. Depending on the Program Counter value, interrupts may be automatically disabled when Boot Lock bits
BLB02 or BLB12 are programmed. This feature improves software security. See the section “Memory Programming” on page 325 for details.
The lowest addresses in the program memory space are by default defined as the Reset and Interrupt Vectors.
The complete list of vectors is shown in “Interrupts” on page 101. The list also determines the priority levels of the
different interrupts. The lower the address the higher is the priority level. RESET has the highest priority, and next
is INT0 – the External Interrupt Request 0. The Interrupt Vectors can be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by setting the IVSEL bit in the MCU Control Register (MCUCR). Refer to “Interrupts” on page 101 for more
information. The Reset Vector can also be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by programming the
BOOTRST Fuse, see “Memory Programming” on page 325.
When an interrupt occurs, the Global Interrupt Enable I-bit is cleared and all interrupts are disabled. The user software can write logic one to the I-bit to enable nested interrupts. All enabled interrupts can then interrupt the current
interrupt routine. The I-bit is automatically set when a Return from Interrupt instruction – RETI – is executed.
There are basically two types of interrupts. The first type is triggered by an event that sets the Interrupt Flag. For
these interrupts, the Program Counter is vectored to the actual Interrupt Vector in order to execute the interrupt
handling routine, and hardware clears the corresponding Interrupt Flag. Interrupt Flags can also be cleared by writing a logic one to the flag bit position(s) to be cleared. If an interrupt condition occurs while the corresponding
interrupt enable bit is cleared, the Interrupt Flag will be set and remembered until the interrupt is enabled, or the
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flag is cleared by software. Similarly, if one or more interrupt conditions occur while the Global Interrupt Enable bit
is cleared, the corresponding Interrupt Flag(s) will be set and remembered until the Global Interrupt Enable bit is
set, and will then be executed by order of priority.
The second type of interrupts will trigger as long as the interrupt condition is present. These interrupts do not necessarily have Interrupt Flags. If the interrupt condition disappears before the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt will
not be triggered.
When the AVR exits from an interrupt, it will always return to the main program and execute one more instruction
before any pending interrupt is served.
Note that the Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine, nor restored when
returning from an interrupt routine. This must be handled by software.
When using the CLI instruction to disable interrupts, the interrupts will be immediately disabled. No interrupt will be
executed after the CLI instruction, even if it occurs simultaneously with the CLI instruction. The following example
shows how this can be used to avoid interrupts during the timed EEPROM write sequence.
Assembly Code Example
in r16, SREG
cli
; store SREG value
; disable interrupts during timed sequence
sbi EECR, EEMPE
; start EEPROM write
sbi EECR, EEPE
out SREG, r16
; restore SREG value (I-bit)
C Code Example
char cSREG;
cSREG = SREG; /* store SREG value */
/* disable interrupts during timed sequence */
__disable_interrupt();
EECR |= (1<<EEMPE); /* start EEPROM write */
EECR |= (1<<EEPE);
SREG = cSREG; /* restore SREG value (I-bit) */
When using the SEI instruction to enable interrupts, the instruction following SEI will be executed before any pending interrupts, as shown in this example.
Assembly Code Example
sei
; set Global Interrupt Enable
sleep; enter sleep, waiting for interrupt
; note: will enter sleep before any pending
; interrupt(s)
C Code Example
__enable_interrupt(); /* set Global Interrupt Enable */
__sleep(); /* enter sleep, waiting for interrupt */
/* note: will enter sleep before any pending interrupt(s) */
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7.8.1
Interrupt Response Time
The interrupt execution response for all the enabled AVR interrupts is five clock cycles minimum. After five clock
cycles the program vector address for the actual interrupt handling routine is executed. During these five clock
cycle period, the Program Counter is pushed onto the Stack. The vector is normally a jump to the interrupt routine,
and this jump takes three clock cycles. If an interrupt occurs during execution of a multi-cycle instruction, this
instruction is completed before the interrupt is served. If an interrupt occurs when the MCU is in sleep mode, the
interrupt execution response time is increased by five clock cycles. This increase comes in addition to the start-up
time from the selected sleep mode.
A return from an interrupt handling routine takes five clock cycles. During these five clock cycles, the Program
Counter (three bytes) is popped back from the Stack, the Stack Pointer is incremented by three, and the I-bit in
SREG is set.
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8. AVR Memories
This section describes the different memories in the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561. The AVR architecture has
two main memory spaces, the Data Memory and the Program Memory space. In addition, the
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 features an EEPROM Memory for data storage. All three memory spaces are
linear and regular.
8.1
In-System Reprogrammable Flash Program Memory
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 contains 64K/128K/256K bytes On-chip In-System Reprogrammable Flash
memory for program storage, see Figure 8-1. Since all AVR instructions are 16 bit or 32 bit wide, the Flash is organized as 32K/64K/128K × 16. For software security, the Flash Program memory space is divided into two sections,
Boot Program section and Application Program section.
The Flash memory has an endurance of at least 10,000 write/erase cycles. The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561
Program Counter (PC) is 15/16/17 bits wide, thus addressing the 32K/64K/128K program memory locations. The
operation of Boot Program section and associated Boot Lock bits for software protection are described in detail in
“Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming” on page 310. “Memory Programming” on page 325
contains a detailed description on Flash data serial downloading using the SPI pins or the JTAG interface.
Constant tables can be allocated within the entire program memory address space (see the LPM – Load Program
Memory instruction description and ELPM - Extended Load Program Memory instruction description).
Timing diagrams for instruction fetch and execution are presented in “Instruction Execution Timing” on page 16.
Figure 8-1.
Program Flash Memory Map
Address (HEX)
0
Application Flash Section
Boot Flash Section
0x7FFF/0xFFFF/0x1FFFF
8.2
SRAM Data Memory
Figure 8-2 on page 22 shows how the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 SRAM Memory is organized.
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location reserved in the Opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For the Extended I/O space
from $060 - $1FF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
The first 4,608/8,704 Data Memory locations address both the Register File, the I/O Memory, Extended I/O Memory, and the internal data SRAM. The first 32 locations address the Register file, the next 64 location the standard
I/O Memory, then 416 locations of Extended I/O memory and the next 8,192 locations address the internal data
SRAM.
An optional external data SRAM can be used with the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561. This SRAM will occupy
an area in the remaining address locations in the 64K address space. This area starts at the address following the
internal SRAM. The Register file, I/O, Extended I/O and Internal SRAM occupies the lowest 4,608/8,704 bytes, so
when using 64Kbytes (65,536 bytes) of External Memory, 60,478/56,832 Bytes of External Memory are available.
See “External Memory Interface” on page 27 for details on how to take advantage of the external memory map.
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When the addresses accessing the SRAM memory space exceeds the internal data memory locations, the external data SRAM is accessed using the same instructions as for the internal data memory access. When the internal
data memories are accessed, the read and write strobe pins (PG0 and PG1) are inactive during the whole access
cycle. External SRAM operation is enabled by setting the SRE bit in the XMCRA Register.
Accessing external SRAM takes one additional clock cycle per byte compared to access of the internal SRAM.
This means that the commands LD, ST, LDS, STS, LDD, STD, PUSH, and POP take one additional clock cycle. If
the Stack is placed in external SRAM, interrupts, subroutine calls and returns take three clock cycles extra
because the three-byte program counter is pushed and popped, and external memory access does not take
advantage of the internal pipe-line memory access. When external SRAM interface is used with wait-state, onebyte external access takes two, three, or four additional clock cycles for one, two, and three wait-states respectively. Interrupts, subroutine calls and returns will need five, seven, or nine clock cycles more than specified in the
instruction set manual for one, two, and three wait-states.
The five different addressing modes for the data memory cover: Direct, Indirect with Displacement, Indirect, Indirect with Pre-decrement, and Indirect with Post-increment. In the Register file, registers R26 to R31 feature the
indirect addressing pointer registers.
The direct addressing reaches the entire data space.
The Indirect with Displacement mode reaches 63 address locations from the base address given by the Y-register
or Z-register.
When using register indirect addressing modes with automatic pre-decrement and post-increment, the address
registers X, Y, and Z are decremented or incremented.
The 32 general purpose working registers, 64 I/O registers, and the 4,196/8,192 bytes of internal data SRAM in the
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 are all accessible through all these addressing modes. The Register File is
described in “General Purpose Register File” on page 13.
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Figure 8-2.
Data Memory Map
Address (HEX)
0 - 1F
32 Registers
20 - 5F
64 I/O Registers
60 - 1FF
416 External I/O Registers
200
Internal SRAM
(8192 × 8)
21FF
2200
External SRAM
(0 - 64K × 8)
FFFF
8.2.1
Data Memory Access Times
This section describes the general access timing concepts for internal memory access. The internal data SRAM
access is performed in two clkCPU cycles as described in Figure 8-3.
Figure 8-3.
On-chip Data SRAM Access Cycles
T1
T2
T3
clkCPU
Address
Compute Address
Address valid
Write
Data
WR
Read
Data
RD
Memory Access Instruction
8.3
Next Instruction
EEPROM Data Memory
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 contains 4Kbytes of data EEPROM memory. It is organized as a separate
data space, in which single bytes can be read and written. The EEPROM has an endurance of at least 100,000
write/erase cycles. The access between the EEPROM and the CPU is described in the following, specifying the
EEPROM Address Registers, the EEPROM Data Register, and the EEPROM Control Register.
For a detailed description of SPI, JTAG and Parallel data downloading to the EEPROM, see “Serial Downloading”
on page 338, “Programming via the JTAG Interface” on page 342, and “Programming the EEPROM” on page 333
respectively.
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8.3.1
EEPROM Read/Write Access
The EEPROM Access Registers are accessible in the I/O space, see “Register Description” on page 34.
The write access time for the EEPROM is given in Table 8-1. A self-timing function, however, lets the user software
detect when the next byte can be written. If the user code contains instructions that write the EEPROM, some precautions must be taken. In heavily filtered power supplies, VCC is likely to rise or fall slowly on power-up/down. This
causes the device for some period of time to run at a voltage lower than specified as minimum for the clock frequency used. See “Preventing EEPROM Corruption” on page 25. for details on how to avoid problems in these
situations.
In order to prevent unintentional EEPROM writes, a specific write procedure must be followed. See the description
of the EEPROM Control Register for details on this; “Register Description” on page 34.
When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four clock cycles before the next instruction is executed. When
the EEPROM is written, the CPU is halted for two clock cycles before the next instruction is executed.
The calibrated Oscillator is used to time the EEPROM accesses. Table 8-1 lists the typical programming time for
EEPROM access from the CPU.
Table 8-1.
EEPROM Programming Time
Symbol
EEPROM write (from CPU)
Number of Calibrated RC Oscillator Cycles
Typ Programming Time
26,368
3.3ms
The following code examples show one assembly and one C function for writing to the EEPROM. The examples
assume that interrupts are controlled (for example by disabling interrupts globally) so that no interrupts will occur
during execution of these functions. The examples also assume that no Flash Boot Loader is present in the software. If such code is present, the EEPROM write function must also wait for any ongoing SPM command to finish.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
EEPROM_write:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic EECR,EEPE
rjmp EEPROM_write
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out EEARH, r18
out EEARL, r17
; Write data (r16) to Data Register
out EEDR,r16
; Write logical one to EEMPE
sbi EECR,EEMPE
; Start eeprom write by setting EEPE
sbi EECR,EEPE
ret
C Code Example(1)
void EEPROM_write(unsigned int uiAddress, unsigned char ucData)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEPE))
;
/* Set up address and Data Registers */
EEAR = uiAddress;
EEDR = ucData;
/* Write logical one to EEMPE */
EECR |= (1<<EEMPE);
/* Start eeprom write by setting EEPE */
EECR |= (1<<EEPE);
}
Note:
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
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The next code examples show assembly and C functions for reading the EEPROM. The examples assume that
interrupts are controlled so that no interrupts will occur during execution of these functions.
Assembly Code Example(1)
EEPROM_read:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic EECR,EEPE
rjcmp EEPROM_read
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out EEARH, r18
out EEARL, r17
; Start eeprom read by writing EERE
sbi EECR,EERE
; Read data from Data Register
in
r16,EEDR
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned char EEPROM_read(unsigned int uiAddress)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEPE))
;
/* Set up address register */
EEAR = uiAddress;
/* Start eeprom read by writing EERE */
EECR |= (1<<EERE);
/* Return data from Data Register */
return EEDR;
}
Note:
8.3.2
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
Preventing EEPROM Corruption
During periods of low VCC, the EEPROM data can be corrupted because the supply voltage is too low for the CPU
and the EEPROM to operate properly. These issues are the same as for board level systems using EEPROM, and
the same design solutions should be applied.
An EEPROM data corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low. First, a regular write
sequence to the EEPROM requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly. Secondly, the CPU itself can execute
instructions incorrectly, if the supply voltage is too low.
EEPROM data corruption can easily be avoided by following this design recommendation:
Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage. This can be done by
enabling the internal Brown-out Detector (BOD). If the detection level of the internal BOD does not match the
needed detection level, an external low VCC reset Protection circuit can be used. If a reset occurs while a write
operation is in progress, the write operation will be completed provided that the power supply voltage is sufficient.
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8.4
I/O Memory
The I/O space definition of the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 is shown in “Register Summary” on page 399.
All ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 I/Os and peripherals are placed in the I/O space. All I/O locations may be
accessed by the LD/LDS/LDD and ST/STS/STD instructions, transferring data between the 32 general purpose
working registers and the I/O space. I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible
using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS
and SBIC instructions. Refer to the “Instruction Set Summary” on page 404 for more details. When using the I/O
specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O Registers as
data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported
within the 64 location reserved in Opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For the Extended I/O space from 0x60 0x1FF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory
addresses should never be written.
Some of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVRs, the CBI
and SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such
Status Flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
The I/O and peripherals control registers are explained in later sections.
8.4.1
General Purpose I/O Registers
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 contains three General Purpose I/O Registers. These registers can be
used for storing any information, and they are particularly useful for storing global variables and Status Flags. General Purpose I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI, CBI,
SBIS, and SBIC instructions. See “Register Description” on page 34.
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9. External Memory Interface
With all the features the External Memory Interface provides, it is well suited to operate as an interface to memory
devices such as External SRAM and Flash, and peripherals such as LCD-display, A/D, and D/A. The main features
are:
•
•
•
•
9.1
Four different wait-state settings (including no wait-state)
Independent wait-state setting for different External Memory sectors (configurable sector size)
The number of bits dedicated to address high byte is selectable
Bus keepers on data lines to minimize current consumption (optional)
Overview
When the eXternal MEMory (XMEM) is enabled, address space outside the internal SRAM becomes available
using the dedicated External Memory pins (see Figure 1-3 on page 4, Table 13-3 on page 75, Table 13-9 on page
79, and Table 13-21 on page 86). The memory configuration is shown in Figure 9-1.
Figure 9-1.
External Memory with Sector Select
Memory Configuration A
0x0000
Internal memory
0x21FF
0x2200
Lower sector
SRW01
SRW00
SRL[2..0]
External Memory
(0 - 60K x 8)
Upper sector
SRW11
SRW10
0xFFFF
9.1.1
Using the External Memory Interface
The interface consists of:
•
AD7:0: Multiplexed low-order address bus and data bus
A15:8: High-order address bus (configurable number of bits)
•
ALE: Address latch enable
•
RD: Read strobe
•
WR: Write strobe
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The control bits for the External Memory Interface are located in two registers, the External Memory Control Register A – XMCRA, and the External Memory Control Register B – XMCRB.
When the XMEM interface is enabled, the XMEM interface will override the setting in the data direction registers
that corresponds to the ports dedicated to the XMEM interface. For details about the port override, see the alternate functions in section “I/O-Ports” on page 67. The XMEM interface will auto-detect whether an access is internal
or external. If the access is external, the XMEM interface will output address, data, and the control signals on the
ports according to Figure 9-3 on page 29 (this figure shows the wave forms without wait-states). When ALE goes
from high-to-low, there is a valid address on AD7:0. ALE is low during a data transfer. When the XMEM interface is
enabled, also an internal access will cause activity on address, data and ALE ports, but the RD and WR strobes
will not toggle during internal access. When the External Memory Interface is disabled, the normal pin and data
direction settings are used. Note that when the XMEM interface is disabled, the address space above the internal
SRAM boundary is not mapped into the internal SRAM. Figure 9-2 illustrates how to connect an external SRAM to
the AVR using an octal latch (typically “74 × 573” or equivalent) which is transparent when G is high.
9.1.2
Address Latch Requirements
Due to the high-speed operation of the XRAM interface, the address latch must be selected with care for system
frequencies above 8MHz @ 4V and 4MHz @ 2.7V. When operating at conditions above these frequencies, the typical old style 74HC series latch becomes inadequate. The External Memory Interface is designed in compliance to
the 74AHC series latch. However, most latches can be used as long they comply with the main timing parameters.
The main parameters for the address latch are:
•
D to Q propagation delay (tPD)
•
Data setup time before G low (tSU)
•
Data (address) hold time after G low (TH)
The External Memory Interface is designed to guaranty minimum address hold time after G is asserted low of th =
5ns. Refer to tLAXX_LD/tLLAXX_ST in “External Data Memory Timing” Tables 31-11 through Tables 31-18 on pages 367
- 370. The D-to-Q propagation delay (tPD) must be taken into consideration when calculating the access time
requirement of the external component. The data setup time before G low (tSU) must not exceed address valid to
ALE low (tAVLLC) minus PCB wiring delay (dependent on the capacitive load).
Figure 9-2.
External SRAM Connected to the AVR
AVR
SRAM
D[7:0]
AD7:0
D
ALE
G
A15:8
RD
WR
Q
A[7:0]
A[15:8]
RD
WR
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9.1.3
Pull-up and Bus-keeper
The pull-ups on the AD7:0 ports may be activated if the corresponding Port register is written to one. To reduce
power consumption in sleep mode, it is recommended to disable the pull-ups by writing the Port register to zero
before entering sleep.
The XMEM interface also provides a bus-keeper on the AD7:0 lines. The bus-keeper can be disabled and enabled
in software as described in “XMCRB – External Memory Control Register B” on page 38. When enabled, the buskeeper will keep the previous value on the AD7:0 bus while these lines are tri-stated by the XMEM interface.
Timing
External Memory devices have different timing requirements. To meet these requirements, the XMEM interface
provides four different wait-states as shown in Table 9-3 on page 37. It is important to consider the timing specification of the External Memory device before selecting the wait-state. The most important parameters are the access
time for the external memory compared to the set-up requirement. The access time for the External Memory is
defined to be the time from receiving the chip select/address until the data of this address actually is driven on the
bus. The access time cannot exceed the time from the ALE pulse must be asserted low until data is stable during a
read sequence (see tLLRL+ tRLRH - tDVRH in Tables 31-11 through Tables 31-18 on pages 367 - 370). The different
wait-states are set up in software. As an additional feature, it is possible to divide the external memory space in two
sectors with individual wait-state settings. This makes it possible to connect two different memory devices with different timing requirements to the same XMEM interface. For XMEM interface timing details, refer to Table 31-11 on
page 367 to Table 31-18 on page 370 and Figure 31-9 on page 370 to Figure 31-12 on page 372 in the “External
Data Memory Timing” on page 367.
Note that the XMEM interface is asynchronous and that the waveforms in the following figures are related to the
internal system clock. The skew between the internal and external clock (XTAL1) is not guarantied (varies between
devices temperature, and supply voltage). Consequently, the XMEM interface is not suited for synchronous
operation.
Figure 9-3.
External Data Memory Cycles without Wait-state (SRWn1=0 and SRWn0=0)(1)
T1
T2
T3
T4
System Clock (CLKCPU )
ALE
A15:8
Prev. addr.
DA7:0
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 1)
Prev. data
Address
Address
Data
Write
XX
WR
Data
XXXXX
Data
XXXXXXXX
Read
9.1.4
RD
Note:
1. SRWn1 = SRW11 (upper sector) or SRW01 (lower sector), SRWn0 = SRW10 (upper sector) or SRW00 (lower sector). The ALE pulse in period T4 is only present if the next instruction accesses the RAM (internal or external).
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Figure 9-4.
External Data Memory Cycles with SRWn1 = 0 and SRWn0 = 1(1)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
System Clock (CLKCPU )
ALE
A15:8
Prev. addr.
DA7:0
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 1)
Prev. data
Address
Data
Write
XX
WR
Address
Read
Data
Data
RD
Note:
1. SRWn1 = SRW11 (upper sector) or SRW01 (lower sector), SRWn0 = SRW10 (upper sector) or SRW00 (lower sector).
The ALE pulse in period T5 is only present if the next instruction accesses the RAM (internal or external).
Figure 9-5.
External Data Memory Cycles with SRWn1 = 1 and SRWn0 = 0(1)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
System Clock (CLKCPU )
ALE
A15:8
Prev. addr.
DA7:0
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 1)
Prev. data
XX
Data
Write
Address
WR
Data
Read
Address
Data
RD
Note:
1. SRWn1 = SRW11 (upper sector) or SRW01 (lower sector), SRWn0 = SRW10 (upper sector) or SRW00 (lower sector).
The ALE pulse in period T6 is only present if the next instruction accesses the RAM (internal or external).
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Figure 9-6.
External Data Memory Cycles with SRWn1 = 1 and SRWn0 = 1(1)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
System Clock (CLKCPU )
ALE
A15:8
Prev. addr.
DA7:0
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 1)
Prev. data
XX
Write
Address
Data
WR
Address
Read
Data
Data
RD
Note:
9.1.5
1. SRWn1 = SRW11 (upper sector) or SRW01 (lower sector), SRWn0 = SRW10 (upper sector) or SRW00 (lower sector).
The ALE pulse in period T7 is only present if the next instruction accesses the RAM (internal or external).
Using all Locations of External Memory Smaller than 64Kbytes
Since the external memory is mapped after the internal memory as shown in Figure 9-1 on page 27, the external
memory is not addressed when addressing the first 8,704 bytes of data space. It may appear that the first 8,704
bytes of the external memory are inaccessible (external memory addresses 0x0000 to 0x21FF). However, when
connecting an external memory smaller than 64Kbytes, for example 32Kbytes, these locations are easily accessed
simply by addressing from address 0x8000 to 0xA1FF. Since the External Memory Address bit A15 is not connected to the external memory, addresses 0x8000 to 0xA1FF will appear as addresses 0x0000 to 0x21FF for the
external memory. Addressing above address 0xA1FF is not recommended, since this will address an external
memory location that is already accessed by another (lower) address. To the Application software, the external
32Kbytes memory will appear as one linear 32Kbytes address space from 0x2200 to 0xA1FF. This is illustrated in
Figure 9-7.
Figure 9-7.
Address Map with 32Kbytes External Memory
AVR Memory Map
0x0000
External 32K SRAM
0x0000
Internal Memory
0x21FF
0x2200
0x7FFF
0x8000
External
0x7FFF
Memory
0x90FF
0x9100
(Do Not Use)
0xFFFF
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9.1.6
Using all 64Kbytes Locations of External Memory
Since the External Memory is mapped after the Internal Memory as shown in Figure 9-1 on page 27, only 56Kbytes
of External Memory is available by default (address space 0x0000 to 0x21FF is reserved for internal memory).
However, it is possible to take advantage of the entire External Memory by masking the higher address bits to zero.
This can be done by using the XMMn bits and control by software the most significant bits of the address. By setting Port C to output 0x00, and releasing the most significant bits for normal Port Pin operation, the Memory
Interface will address 0x0000 - 0x2FFF. See the following code examples.
Care must be exercised using this option as most of the memory is masked away.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
;
;
;
;
;
OFFSET is defined to 0x4000 to ensure
external memory access
Configure Port C (address high byte) to
output 0x00 when the pins are released
for normal Port Pin operation
ldi r16, 0xFF
out DDRC, r16
ldi r16, 0x00
out PORTC, r16
; release PC7:6
ldi r16, (1<<XMM1)
sts XMCRB, r16
; write 0xAA to address 0x0001 of external
; memory
ldi r16, 0xaa
sts 0x0001+OFFSET, r16
; re-enable PC7:6 for external memory
ldi r16, (0<<XMM1)
sts XMCRB, r16
; store 0x55 to address (OFFSET + 1) of
; external memory
ldi r16, 0x55
sts 0x0001+OFFSET, r16
C Code Example(1)
#define OFFSET 0x4000
void XRAM_example(void)
{
unsigned char *p = (unsigned char *) (OFFSET + 1);
DDRC = 0xFF;
PORTC = 0x00;
XMCRB = (1<<XMM1);
*p = 0xaa;
XMCRB = 0x00;
*p = 0x55;
}
Note:
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
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9.2
9.2.1
Register Description
EEPROM registers
9.2.1.1
EEARH and EEARL – The EEPROM Address Register
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0x22 (0x42)
–
–
–
–
EEAR11
EEAR10
EEAR9
EEAR8
EEARH
0x21 (0x41)
EEAR7
EEAR6
EEAR5
EEAR4
EEAR3
EEAR2
EEAR1
EEAR0
EEARL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
• Bits 15:12 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
• Bits 11:0 – EEAR8:0: EEPROM Address
The EEPROM Address Registers – EEARH and EEARL specify the EEPROM address in the 4Kbytes EEPROM
space. The EEPROM data bytes are addressed linearly between 0 and 4096. The initial value of EEAR is undefined. A proper value must be written before the EEPROM may be accessed.
9.2.1.2
EEDR – The EEPROM Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x20 (0x40)
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EEDR
• Bits 7:0 – EEDR7:0: EEPROM Data
For the EEPROM write operation, the EEDR Register contains the data to be written to the EEPROM in the
address given by the EEAR Register. For the EEPROM read operation, the EEDR contains the data read out from
the EEPROM at the address given by EEAR.
9.2.1.3
EECR – The EEPROM Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x1F (0x3F)
–
–
EEPM1
EEPM0
EERIE
EEMPE
EEPE
EERE
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
X
X
0
0
X
0
EECR
• Bits 7:6 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
• Bits 5, 4 – EEPM1 and EEPM0: EEPROM Programming Mode Bits
The EEPROM Programming mode bit setting defines which programming action that will be triggered when writing
EEPE. It is possible to program data in one atomic operation (erase the old value and program the new value) or to
split the Erase and Write operations in two different operations. The Programming times for the different modes are
shown in Table 9-1 on page 35. While EEPE is set, any write to EEPMn will be ignored. During reset, the EEPMn
bits will be reset to 0b00 unless the EEPROM is busy programming.
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Table 9-1.
EEPROM Mode Bits
EEPM1
EEPM0
Programming Time
Operation
0
0
3.4ms
Erase and Write in one operation (Atomic Operation)
0
1
1.8ms
Erase only
1
0
1.8ms
Write only
1
1
–
Reserved for future use
• Bit 3 – EERIE: EEPROM Ready Interrupt Enable
Writing EERIE to one enables the EEPROM Ready Interrupt if the I bit in SREG is set. Writing EERIE to zero disables the interrupt. The EEPROM Ready interrupt generates a constant interrupt when EEPE is cleared.
• Bit 2 – EEMPE: EEPROM Master Programming Enable
The EEMPE bit determines whether setting EEPE to one causes the EEPROM to be written. When EEMPE is set,
setting EEPE within four clock cycles will write data to the EEPROM at the selected address If EEMPE is zero, setting EEPE will have no effect. When EEMPE has been written to one by software, hardware clears the bit to zero
after four clock cycles. See the description of the EEPE bit for an EEPROM write procedure.
• Bit 1 – EEPE: EEPROM Programming Enable
The EEPROM Write Enable Signal EEPE is the write strobe to the EEPROM. When address and data are correctly
set up, the EEPE bit must be written to one to write the value into the EEPROM. The EEMPE bit must be written to
one before a logical one is written to EEPE, otherwise no EEPROM write takes place. The following procedure
should be followed when writing the EEPROM (the order of steps 3 and 4 is not essential):
1. Wait until EEPE becomes zero.
2. Wait until SPMEN in SPMCSR becomes zero.
3. Write new EEPROM address to EEAR (optional).
4. Write new EEPROM data to EEDR (optional).
5. Write a logical one to the EEMPE bit while writing a zero to EEPE in EECR.
6. Within four clock cycles after setting EEMPE, write a logical one to EEPE.
The EEPROM can not be programmed during a CPU write to the Flash memory. The software must check that the
Flash programming is completed before initiating a new EEPROM write. Step 2 is only relevant if the software contains a Boot Loader allowing the CPU to program the Flash. If the Flash is never being updated by the CPU, step 2
can be omitted. See “Memory Programming” on page 325 for details about Boot programming.
Caution: An interrupt between step 5 and step 6 will make the write cycle fail, since the EEPROM Master Write
Enable will time-out. If an interrupt routine accessing the EEPROM is interrupting another EEPROM access, the
EEAR or EEDR Register will be modified, causing the interrupted EEPROM access to fail. It is recommended to
have the Global Interrupt Flag cleared during all the steps to avoid these problems.
When the write access time has elapsed, the EEPE bit is cleared by hardware. The user software can poll this bit
and wait for a zero before writing the next byte. When EEPE has been set, the CPU is halted for two cycles before
the next instruction is executed.
• Bit 0 – EERE: EEPROM Read Enable
The EEPROM Read Enable Signal EERE is the read strobe to the EEPROM. When the correct address is set up in
the EEAR Register, the EERE bit must be written to a logic one to trigger the EEPROM read. The EEPROM read
access takes one instruction, and the requested data is available immediately. When the EEPROM is read, the
CPU is halted for four cycles before the next instruction is executed.
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The user should poll the EEPE bit before starting the read operation. If a write operation is in progress, it is neither
possible to read the EEPROM, nor to change the EEAR Register.
9.3
9.3.1
General Purpose registers
GPIOR2 – General Purpose I/O Register 2
Bit
9.3.2
9.4.1
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
LSB
4
3
2
1
GPIOR2
GPIOR1 – General Purpose I/O Register 1
7
6
5
0
0x2A (0x4A)
MSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
LSB
4
3
2
1
GPIOR1
GPIOR0 – General Purpose I/O Register 0
Bit
9.4
6
MSB
Bit
9.3.3
7
0x2B (0x4B)
7
6
5
0
0x1E (0x3E)
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GPIOR0
External Memory registers
XMCRA – External Memory Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
“(0x74)”
SRE
SRL2
SRL1
SRL0
SRW11
SRW10
SRW01
SRW00
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
XMCRA
• Bit 7 – SRE: External SRAM/XMEM Enable
Writing SRE to one enables the External Memory Interface.The pin functions AD7:0, A15:8, ALE, WR, and RD are
activated as the alternate pin functions. The SRE bit overrides any pin direction settings in the respective data
direction registers. Writing SRE to zero, disables the External Memory Interface and the normal pin and data direction settings are used.
• Bit 6:4 – SRL2:0: Wait-state Sector Limit
It is possible to configure different wait-states for different External Memory addresses. The external memory
address space can be divided in two sectors that have separate wait-state bits. The SRL2, SRL1, and SRL0 bits
select the split of the sectors, see Table 9-2 on page 37 and Figure 9-1 on page 27. By default, the SRL2, SRL1,
and SRL0 bits are set to zero and the entire external memory address space is treated as one sector. When the
entire SRAM address space is configured as one sector, the wait-states are configured by the SRW11 and SRW10
bits.
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Table 9-2.
Sector limits with different settings of SRL2:0
SRL2
SRL1
SRL0
Sector Limits
0
0
x
Lower sector = N/A
Upper sector = 0x2200 - 0xFFFF
0
1
0
Lower sector = 0x2200 - 0x3FFF
Upper sector = 0x4000 - 0xFFFF
0
1
1
Lower sector = 0x2200 - 0x5FFF
Upper sector = 0x6000 - 0xFFFF
1
0
0
Lower sector = 0x2200 - 0x7FFF
Upper sector = 0x8000 - 0xFFFF
1
0
1
Lower sector = 0x2200 - 0x9FFF
Upper sector = 0xA000 - 0xFFFF
1
1
0
Lower sector = 0x2200 - 0xBFFF
Upper sector = 0xC000 - 0xFFFF
1
1
1
Lower sector = 0x2200 - 0xDFFF
Upper sector = 0xE000 - 0xFFFF
• Bit 3:2 – SRW11, SRW10: Wait-state Select Bits for Upper Sector
The SRW11 and SRW10 bits control the number of wait-states for the upper sector of the external memory
address space, see Table 9-3.
• Bit 1:0 – SRW01, SRW00: Wait-state Select Bits for Lower Sector
The SRW01 and SRW00 bits control the number of wait-states for the lower sector of the external memory address
space, see Table 9-3.
Table 9-3.
Wait States(1)
SRWn1
SRWn0
Wait States
0
0
No wait-states
0
1
Wait one cycle during read/write strobe
1
0
Wait two cycles during read/write strobe
1
1
Wait two cycles during read/write and wait one cycle before driving out new address
Note:
1. n = 0 or 1 (lower/upper sector).
For further details of the timing and wait-states of the External Memory Interface, see Figure 9-3 on page 29
through Figure 9-6 on page 31 for how the setting of the SRW bits affects the timing.
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9.4.2
XMCRB – External Memory Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
XMBK
–
–
–
–
XMM2
XMM1
XMM0
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x75)
XMCRB
• Bit 7– XMBK: External Memory Bus-keeper Enable
Writing XMBK to one enables the bus keeper on the AD7:0 lines. When the bus keeper is enabled, AD7:0 will keep
the last driven value on the lines even if the XMEM interface has tri-stated the lines. Writing XMBK to zero disables
the bus keeper. XMBK is not qualified with SRE, so even if the XMEM interface is disabled, the bus keepers are
still activated as long as XMBK is one.
• Bit 6:3 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero. When writing to this address location, write these bits to zero
for compatibility with future devices.
• Bit 2:0 – XMM2, XMM1, XMM0: External Memory High Mask
When the External Memory is enabled, all Port C pins are default used for the high address byte. If the full
60Kbytes address space is not required to access the External Memory, some, or all, Port C pins can be released
for normal Port Pin function as described in Table 9-4. As described in “Using all 64Kbytes Locations of External
Memory” on page 32, it is possible to use the XMMn bits to access all 64Kbytes locations of the External Memory.
Table 9-4.
Port C Pins Released as Normal Port Pins when the External Memory is Enabled
XMM2
XMM1
XMM0
# Bits for External Memory Address
Released Port Pins
0
0
0
8 (Full 56Kbytes space)
None
0
0
1
7
PC7
0
1
0
6
PC7 - PC6
0
1
1
5
PC7 - PC5
1
0
0
4
PC7 - PC4
1
0
1
3
PC7 - PC3
1
1
0
2
PC7 - PC2
1
1
1
No Address high bits
Full Port C
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10. System Clock and Clock Options
This section describes the clock options for the AVR microcontroller.
10.1
Overview
Figure 10-1 presents the principal clock systems in the AVR and their distribution. All of the clocks need not be
active at a given time. In order to reduce power consumption, the clocks to modules not being used can be halted
by using different sleep modes, as described in “Power Management and Sleep Modes” on page 50. The clock
systems are detailed below.
Figure 10-1. Clock Distribution.
Asynchronous
Timer/Counter
General I/O
Modules
ADC
CPU Core
RAM
Flash and
EEPROM
clkADC
clkI/O
AVR Clock
Control Unit
clkASY
clkCPU
clkFLASH
Reset Logic
Source clock
System Clock
Prescaler
Watchdog Timer
Watchdog clock
Watchdog
Oscillator
Clock
Multiplexer
Timer/Counter
Oscillator
10.2
10.2.1
Crystal
Oscillator
External Clock
Low-frequency
Crystal Oscillator
Calibrated RC
Oscillator
Clock Systems and their Distribution
CPU Clock – clkCPU
The CPU clock is routed to parts of the system concerned with operation of the AVR core. Examples of such modules are the General Purpose Register File, the Status Register and the data memory holding the Stack Pointer.
Halting the CPU clock inhibits the core from performing general operations and calculations.
10.2.2
I/O Clock – clkI/O
The I/O clock is used by the majority of the I/O modules, like Timer/Counters, SPI, and USART. The I/O clock is
also used by the External Interrupt module, but note that some external interrupts are detected by asynchronous
logic, allowing such interrupts to be detected even if the I/O clock is halted. Also note that start condition detection
in the USI module is carried out asynchronously when clkI/O is halted, TWI address recognition in all sleep modes.
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10.2.3
Flash Clock – clkFLASH
The Flash clock controls operation of the Flash interface. The Flash clock is usually active simultaneously with the
CPU clock.
10.2.4
Asynchronous Timer Clock – clkASY
The Asynchronous Timer clock allows the Asynchronous Timer/Counter to be clocked directly from an external
clock or an external 32kHz clock crystal. The dedicated clock domain allows using this Timer/Counter as a realtime counter even when the device is in sleep mode.
10.2.5
ADC Clock – clkADC
The ADC is provided with a dedicated clock domain. This allows halting the CPU and I/O clocks in order to reduce
noise generated by digital circuitry. This gives more accurate ADC conversion results.
10.3
Clock Sources
The device has the following clock source options, selectable by Flash Fuse bits as shown below. The clock from
the selected source is input to the AVR clock generator, and routed to the appropriate modules.
Table 10-1.
Note:
10.3.1
Device Clocking Options Select(1)
Device Clocking Option
CKSEL3:0
Low Power Crystal Oscillator
1111 - 1000
Full Swing Crystal Oscillator
0111 - 0110
Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator
0101 - 0100
Internal 128kHz RC Oscillator
0011
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator
0010
External Clock
0000
Reserved
0001
1. For all fuses “1” means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
Default Clock Source
The device is shipped with internal RC oscillator at 8.0MHz and with the fuse CKDIV8 programmed, resulting in
1.0MHz system clock. The startup time is set to maximum and time-out period enabled. (CKSEL = "0010", SUT =
"10", CKDIV8 = "0"). The default setting ensures that all users can make their desired clock source setting using
any available programming interface.
10.3.2
Clock Start-up Sequence
Any clock source needs a sufficient VCC to start oscillating and a minimum number of oscillating cycles before it
can be considered stable.
To ensure sufficient VCC, the device issues an internal reset with a time-out delay (tTOUT) after the device reset is
released by all other reset sources. “On-chip Debug System” on page 53 describes the start conditions for the
internal reset. The delay (tTOUT) is timed from the Watchdog Oscillator and the number of cycles in the delay is set
by the SUTx and CKSELx fuse bits. The selectable delays are shown in Table 10-2 on page 41. The frequency of
the Watchdog Oscillator is voltage dependent as shown in “Typical Characteristics” on page 373.
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Table 10-2.
Number of Watchdog Oscillator Cycles
Typical Time-out (VCC = 5.0V)
Typical Time-out (VCC = 3.0V)
Number of Cycles
0ms
0ms
0
4.1ms
4.3ms
512
65ms
69ms
8K (8,192)
Main purpose of the delay is to keep the AVR in reset until it is supplied with minimum VCC. The delay will not monitor the actual voltage and it will be required to select a delay longer than the VCC rise time. If this is not possible, an
internal or external Brown-Out Detection circuit should be used. A BOD circuit will ensure sufficient VCC before it
releases the reset, and the time-out delay can be disabled. Disabling the time-out delay without utilizing a BrownOut Detection circuit is not recommended.
The oscillator is required to oscillate for a minimum number of cycles before the clock is considered stable. An
internal ripple counter monitors the oscillator output clock, and keeps the internal reset active for a given number of
clock cycles. The reset is then released and the device will start to execute. The recommended oscillator start-up
time is dependent on the clock type, and varies from 6 cycles for an externally applied clock to 32K cycles for a low
frequency crystal.
The start-up sequence for the clock includes both the time-out delay and the start-up time when the device starts
up from reset. When starting up from Power-save or Power-down mode, VCC is assumed to be at a sufficient level
and only the start-up time is included.
10.4
Low Power Crystal Oscillator
Pins XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use
as an On-chip Oscillator, as shown in Figure 10-2. Either a quartz crystal or a ceramic resonator may be used.
This Crystal Oscillator is a low power oscillator, with reduced voltage swing on the XTAL2 output. It gives the lowest power consumption, but is not capable of driving other clock inputs, and may be more susceptible to noise in
noisy environments. In these cases, refer to the “Full Swing Crystal Oscillator” on page 42.
C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The optimal value of the capacitors depends
on the crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray capacitance, and the electromagnetic noise of the environment. Some initial guidelines for choosing capacitors for use with crystals are given in Table 10-3 on page 42. For
ceramic resonators, the capacitor values given by the manufacturer should be used.
Figure 10-2. Crystal Oscillator Connections
C2
C1
XTAL2
XTAL1
GND
The Low Power Oscillator can operate in three different modes, each optimized for a specific frequency range. The
operating mode is selected by the fuses CKSEL3:1 as shown in Table 10-3 on page 42.
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Table 10-3.
Low Power Crystal Oscillator Operating Modes(3)
Frequency Range [MHz]
CKSEL3:1(1)
0.4 - 0.9
100
–
0.9 - 3.0
101
12 - 22
3.0 - 8.0
110
12 - 22
111
12 - 22
(4)
8.0 - 16.0
Notes:
Recommended Range for Capacitors C1 and C2 [pF]
(2)
1. This is the recommended CKSEL settings for the different frequency ranges.
2. This option should not be used with crystals, only with ceramic resonators.
3. If 8MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8 Fuse can be programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8. It must be ensured that the resulting divided clock meets
the frequency specification of the device.
4. Maximum frequency when using ceramic oscillator is 10MHz.
The CKSEL0 Fuse together with the SUT1:0 Fuses select the start-up times as shown in Table 10-4.
Table 10-4.
Start-up Times for the Low Power Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
Oscillator Source / Power Conditions
Ceramic resonator, fast rising power
Ceramic resonator, slowly rising power
258CK
258CK
Additional Delay
from Reset
(VCC = 5.0V)
CKSEL0
SUT1:0
(1)
0
00
(1)
0
01
0
10
14CK + 4.1ms
14CK + 65ms
14CK
(2)
Ceramic resonator, BOD enabled
1KCK
Ceramic resonator, fast rising power
1KCK
14CK + 4.1ms(2)
0
11
Ceramic resonator, slowly rising power
1KCK
(2)
1
00
Crystal Oscillator, BOD enabled
16KCK
14CK
1
01
Crystal Oscillator, fast rising power
16KCK
14CK + 4.1ms
1
10
Crystal Oscillator, slowly rising power
16KCK
14CK + 65ms
1
11
Notes:
10.5
Start-up Time from Powerdown and Power-save
14CK + 65ms
1. These options should only be used when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and only if
frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application. These options are not suitable for crystals.
2. These options are intended for use with ceramic resonators and will ensure frequency stability at start-up. They can
also be used with crystals when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application.
Full Swing Crystal Oscillator
Pins XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use
as an On-chip Oscillator, as shown in Figure 10-2 on page 41. Either a quartz crystal or a ceramic resonator may
be used.
This Crystal Oscillator is a full swing oscillator, with rail-to-rail swing on the XTAL2 output. This is useful for driving
other clock inputs and in noisy environments. The current consumption is higher than the “Low Power Crystal
Oscillator” on page 41. Note that the Full Swing Crystal Oscillator will only operate for VCC = 2.7 - 5.5 volts.
C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The optimal value of the capacitors depends
on the crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray capacitance, and the electromagnetic noise of the environment. Some initial guidelines for choosing capacitors for use with crystals are given in Table 10-6 on page 43. For
ceramic resonators, the capacitor values given by the manufacturer should be used.
The operating mode is selected by the fuses CKSEL3:1 as shown in Table 10-5 on page 43.
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Table 10-5.
Frequency Range [MHz]
CKSEL3:1
Recommended Range for Capacitors C1 and C2 [pF]
0.4 - 16
011
12 - 22
Note:
1. If 8MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8 Fuse can be programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8. It must be ensured that the resulting divided clock meets
the frequency specification of the device.
Table 10-6.
Start-up Times for the Full Swing Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
Oscillator Source / Power
Conditions
Start-up Time from Powerdown and Power-save
Additional Delay from Reset
(VCC = 5.0V)
CKSEL0
SUT1:0
Ceramic resonator,
fast rising power
258 CK
14CK + 4.1ms(1)
0
00
Ceramic resonator,
slowly rising power
258 CK
14CK + 65ms(1)
0
01
Ceramic resonator,
BOD enabled
1K CK
14CK(2)
0
10
Ceramic resonator,
fast rising power
1K CK
14CK + 4.1ms(2)
0
11
Ceramic resonator,
slowly rising power
1K CK
14CK + 65ms(2)
1
00
Crystal Oscillator,
BOD enabled
16K CK
14CK
1
01
Crystal Oscillator,
fast rising power
16K CK
14CK + 4.1ms
1
10
Crystal Oscillator,
slowly rising power
16K CK
14CK + 65ms
1
11
Notes:
10.6
Full Swing Crystal Oscillator operating modes(1)
1. These options should only be used when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and only if
frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application. These options are not suitable for crystals.
2. These options are intended for use with ceramic resonators and will ensure frequency stability at start-up. They can
also be used with crystals when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application.
Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator
The device can utilize a 32.768kHz watch crystal as clock source by a dedicated Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator.
The crystal should be connected as shown in Figure 10-3 on page 44. When this Oscillator is selected, start-up
times are determined by the SUT Fuses and CKSEL0 as shown in Table 10-8 on page 44.
The Low-Frequency Crystal Oscillator provides an internal load capacitance, see Table 10-7 at each XTAL/TOSC
pin.
Table 10-7.
Capacitance for Low frequency oscillator
Device
32kHz oscillator
Cap (Xtal1/Tosc1)
Cap (Xtal2/Tosc2)
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561
System Osc.
18pF
8pF
Timer Osc.
6pF
6pF
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The capacitance (Ce + Ci) needed at each XTAL/TOSC pin can be calculated by using:
Ce + Ci = 2 * CL - Cs
where:
Ce - is optional external capacitors as described in Figure 10-3.
Ci - is the pin capacitance in Table 10-7 on page 43.
CL - is the load capacitance for a 32.768kHz crystal specified by the crystal vendor.
CS - is the total stray capacitance for one XTAL/TOSC pin.
Crystals specifying load capacitance (CL) higher than the ones given in the Table 10-7 on page 43, require external capacitors applied as described in Figure 10-3.
Figure 10-3. Crystal Oscillator Connections
TOSC2
Ce
Cs
Ci
X1
TOSC1
Ce
Cs
Ci
To find suitable load capacitance for a 32.768kHz crystal, consult the crystal datasheet.
When this oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses and CKSEL0 as shown in Table
10-8.
Table 10-8.
Start-up times for the low frequency crystal oscillator clock selection
Power Conditions
Start-up Time from Power-down
and Power-save
Additional Delay from Reset
(VCC = 5.0V)
CKSEL0
SUT1:0
BOD enabled
1K CK
14CK(1)
Fast rising power
Slowly rising power
1K CK
0
00
(1)
0
01
(1)
0
10
0
11
14CK + 4.1ms
1K CK
14CK + 65ms
Reserved
BOD enabled
32K CK
14CK
1
00
Fast rising power
32K CK
14CK + 4.1ms
1
01
Slowly rising power
32K CK
14CK + 65ms
1
10
1
11
Reserved
Note:
1. These options should only be used if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application.
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10.7
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator
By default, the Internal RC Oscillator provides an approximate 8MHz clock. Though voltage and temperature
dependent, this clock can be very accurately calibrated by the user. See Table 31-1 on page 359 and “Internal
Oscillator Speed” on page 392 for more details. The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed. See
“System Clock Prescaler” on page 47 for more details.
This clock may be selected as the system clock by programming the CKSEL Fuses as shown in Table 10-9. If
selected, it will operate with no external components. During reset, hardware loads the pre-programmed calibration
value into the OSCCAL Register and thereby automatically calibrates the RC Oscillator. The accuracy of this calibration is shown as Factory calibration in Table 31-1 on page 359.
By changing the OSCCAL register from SW, see “OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register” on page 48, it is possible to get a higher calibration accuracy than by using the factory calibration. The accuracy of this calibration is
shown as User calibration in Table 31-1 on page 359.
When this Oscillator is used as the chip clock, the Watchdog Oscillator will still be used for the Watchdog Timer and
for the Reset Time-out. For more information on the pre-programmed calibration value, see the section “Calibration
Byte” on page 328.
Table 10-9.
Notes:
Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Operating Modes(1)(2)
Frequency Range [MHz]
CKSEL3:0
7.3 - 8.1
0010
1. The device is shipped with this option selected.
2. If 8MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8 Fuse can be programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8.
When this Oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in Table 10-10.
Table 10-10. Start-up times for the internal calibrated RC Oscillator clock selection
Power Conditions
Start-up Time from Power-down and
Power-save
Additional Delay from Reset
(VCC = 5.0V)
SUT1:0
BOD enabled
6CK
14CK
00
Fast rising power
6CK
14CK + 4.1ms
Slowly rising power
6CK
14CK + 65ms
01
(1)
10
Reserved
Note:
10.8
11
1. The device is shipped with this option selected.
128kHz Internal Oscillator
The 128kHz internal Oscillator is a low power Oscillator providing a clock of 128kHz. The frequency is nominal at
3V and 25C. This clock may be select as the system clock by programming the CKSEL Fuses to “11” as shown in
Table 10-11.
Table 10-11. 128kHz Internal Oscillator Operating Modes(1)
Note:
Nominal Frequency
CKSEL3:0
128kHz
0011
1. Note that the 128kHz oscillator is a very low power clock source, and is not designed for high accuracy.
When this clock source is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in Table 10-12 on
page 46.
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Table 10-12. Start-up Times for the 128kHz Internal Oscillator
Power Conditions
Start-up Time from Power-down and
Power-save
Additional Delay from Reset
SUT1:0
BOD enabled
6CK
14CK
00
Fast rising power
6CK
14CK + 4ms
01
Slowly rising power
6CK
14CK + 64ms
10
Reserved
10.9
11
External Clock
To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL1 should be driven as shown in Figure 10-4. To run the
device on an external clock, the CKSEL Fuses must be programmed to “0000”.
Figure 10-4. External Clock Drive Configuration
NC
XTAL2
EXTERNAL
CLOCK
SIGNAL
XTAL1
GND
When this clock source is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in Table 10-15 on
page 49.
Table 10-13. Crystal Oscillator Clock Frequency
Nominal Frequency
CKSEL3:0
0 - 16MHz
0000
Table 10-14. Start-up Times for the External Clock Selection
Power Conditions
Start-up Time from Power-down and
Power-save
Additional Delay from Reset
(VCC = 5.0V)
SUT1:0
BOD enabled
6CK
14CK
00
Fast rising power
6CK
14CK + 4.1ms
01
Slowly rising power
6CK
14CK + 65ms
10
Reserved
11
When applying an external clock, it is required to avoid sudden changes in the applied clock frequency to ensure
stable operation of the MCU. A variation in frequency of more than 2% from one clock cycle to the next can lead to
unpredictable behavior. If changes of more than 2% is required, ensure that the MCU is kept in Reset during the
changes.
Note that the System Clock Prescaler can be used to implement run-time changes of the internal clock frequency
while still ensuring stable operation. Refer to “System Clock Prescaler” on page 47 for details.
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10.10 Clock Output Buffer
The device can output the system clock on the CLKO pin. To enable the output, the CKOUT Fuse has to be programmed. This mode is suitable when the chip clock is used to drive other circuits on the system. The clock also
will be output during reset, and the normal operation of I/O pin will be overridden when the fuse is programmed.
Any clock source, including the internal RC Oscillator, can be selected when the clock is output on CLKO. If the
System Clock Prescaler is used, it is the divided system clock that is output.
10.11 Timer/Counter Oscillator
The device can operate its Timer/Counter2 from an external 32.768kHz watch crystal or a external clock source.
See Figure 10-2 on page 41 for crystal connection.
Applying an external clock source to TOSC1 requires EXCLK in the ASSR Register written to logic one. See “Asynchronous Operation of Timer/Counter2” on page 179 for further description on selecting external clock as input
instead of a 32kHz crystal.
10.12 System Clock Prescaler
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 has a system clock prescaler, and the system clock can be divided by setting the “CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register” on page 48. This feature can be used to decrease the system clock
frequency and the power consumption when the requirement for processing power is low. This can be used with all
clock source options, and it will affect the clock frequency of the CPU and all synchronous peripherals. clkI/O,
clkADC, clkCPU, and clkFLASH are divided by a factor as shown in Table 10-15 on page 49.
When switching between prescaler settings, the System Clock Prescaler ensures that no glitches occurs in the
clock system. It also ensures that no intermediate frequency is higher than neither the clock frequency corresponding to the previous setting, nor the clock frequency corresponding to the new setting.
The ripple counter that implements the prescaler runs at the frequency of the undivided clock, which may be faster
than the CPU's clock frequency. Hence, it is not possible to determine the state of the prescaler - even if it were
readable, and the exact time it takes to switch from one clock division to the other cannot be exactly predicted.
From the time the CLKPS values are written, it takes between T1 + T2 and T1 + 2 × T2 before the new clock frequency is active. In this interval, 2 active clock edges are produced. Here, T1 is the previous clock period, and T2
is the period corresponding to the new prescaler setting.
To avoid unintentional changes of clock frequency, a special write procedure must be followed to change the
CLKPS bits:
Write the Clock Prescaler Change Enable (CLKPCE) bit to one and all other bits in CLKPR to zero.
Within four cycles, write the desired value to CLKPS while writing a zero to CLKPCE.
Interrupts must be disabled when changing prescaler setting to make sure the write procedure is not interrupted.
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10.13 Register Description
10.13.1
OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register
Bit
(0x66)
Read/Write
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CAL7
CAL6
CAL5
CAL4
CAL3
CAL2
CAL1
CAL0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
OSCCAL
Device Specific Calibration Value
• Bits 7:0 – CAL7:0: Oscillator Calibration Value
The Oscillator Calibration Register is used to trim the Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator to remove process variations from the oscillator frequency. A pre-programmed calibration value is automatically written to this register
during chip reset, giving the Factory calibrated frequency as specified in Table 31-1 on page 359. The application
software can write this register to change the oscillator frequency. The oscillator can be calibrated to frequencies
as specified in Table 31-1 on page 359. Calibration outside that range is not guaranteed.
Note that this oscillator is used to time EEPROM and Flash write accesses, and these write times will be affected
accordingly. If the EEPROM or Flash are written, do not calibrate to more than 8.8MHz. Otherwise, the EEPROM
or Flash write may fail.
The CAL7 bit determines the range of operation for the oscillator. Setting this bit to 0 gives the lowest frequency
range, setting this bit to 1 gives the highest frequency range. The two frequency ranges are overlapping, in other
words a setting of OSCCAL = 0x7F gives a higher frequency than OSCCAL = 0x80.
The CAL6..0 bits are used to tune the frequency within the selected range. A setting of 0x00 gives the lowest frequency in that range, and a setting of 0x7F gives the highest frequency in the range.
10.13.2
CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CLKPCE
–
–
–
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
(0x61)
CLKPR
See Bit Description
• Bit 7 – CLKPCE: Clock Prescaler Change Enable
The CLKPCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the CLKPS bits. The CLKPCE bit is only updated
when the other bits in CLKPR are simultaneously written to zero. CLKPCE is cleared by hardware four cycles after
it is written or when CLKPS bits are written. Rewriting the CLKPCE bit within this time-out period does neither
extend the time-out period, nor clear the CLKPCE bit.
• Bits 3:0 – CLKPS3:0: Clock Prescaler Select Bits 3 - 0
These bits define the division factor between the selected clock source and the internal system clock. These bits
can be written run-time to vary the clock frequency to suit the application requirements. As the divider divides the
master clock input to the MCU, the speed of all synchronous peripherals is reduced when a division factor is used.
The division factors are given in Table 10-15 on page 49.
The CKDIV8 Fuse determines the initial value of the CLKPS bits. If CKDIV8 is unprogrammed, the CLKPS bits will
be reset to “0000”. If CKDIV8 is programmed, CLKPS bits are reset to “0011”, giving a division factor of 8 at start
up. This feature should be used if the selected clock source has a higher frequency than the maximum frequency
of the device at the present operating conditions. Note that any value can be written to the CLKPS bits regardless
of the CKDIV8 Fuse setting. The Application software must ensure that a sufficient division factor is chosen if the
selected clock source has a higher frequency than the maximum frequency of the device at the present operating
conditions. The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed.
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Table 10-15. Clock Prescaler Select
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
Clock Division Factor
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
4
0
0
1
1
8
0
1
0
0
16
0
1
0
1
32
0
1
1
0
64
0
1
1
1
128
1
0
0
0
256
1
0
0
1
Reserved
1
0
1
0
Reserved
1
0
1
1
Reserved
1
1
0
0
Reserved
1
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
1
0
Reserved
1
1
1
1
Reserved
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11. Power Management and Sleep Modes
Sleep modes enable the application to shut down unused modules in the MCU, thereby saving power. The AVR
provides various sleep modes allowing the user to tailor the power consumption to the application’s requirements.
11.1
Sleep Modes
Figure 10-1 on page 39 presents the different clock systems in the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561, and their
distribution. The figure is helpful in selecting an appropriate sleep mode. Table 11-1 shows the different sleep
modes and their wake-up sources.
Active Clock Domains and Wake-up Sources in the Different Sleep Modes.
Idle
X
ADCNRM
X
X
X
X
X
X
Power-down
Power-save
Standby
(1)
Extended Standby
Note:
X(2)
X
X
X
(2)
X
X
(3)
X
X
X(3)
X
(3)
X
(3)
X
X
X
(2)
X
X
X
(2)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Other I/O
X
(3)
WDT Interrupt
X
(2)
ADC
X(2)
Sleep Mode
SPM/
EEPROM Ready
TWI Address
Match
X
Timer2
INT7:0 and
Pin Change
Wake-up Sources
Timer Osc
Enabled
Oscillators
clkASY
clkADC
clkIO
clkFLASH
clkCPU
Active Clock Domains
Main Clock
Source
Enabled
Table 11-1.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1. Only recommended with external crystal or resonator selected as clock source.
2. If Timer/Counter2 is running in asynchronous mode.
3. For INT7:4, only level interrupt.
To enter any of the sleep modes, the SE bit in “SMCR – Sleep Mode Control Register” on page 54 must be written
to logic one and a SLEEP instruction must be executed. The SM2, SM1, and SM0 bits in the SMCR Register select
which sleep mode will be activated by the SLEEP instruction. See Table 11-2 on page 54 for a summary.
If an enabled interrupt occurs while the MCU is in a sleep mode, the MCU wakes up. The MCU is then halted for
four cycles in addition to the start-up time, executes the interrupt routine, and resumes execution from the instruction following SLEEP. The contents of the Register File and SRAM are unaltered when the device wakes up from
sleep. If a reset occurs during sleep mode, the MCU wakes up and executes from the Reset Vector.
11.2
Idle Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are written to 000, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Idle mode, stopping the CPU
but allowing the SPI, USART, Analog Comparator, ADC, 2-wire Serial Interface, Timer/Counters, Watchdog, and
the interrupt system to continue operating. This sleep mode basically halts clkCPU and clkFLASH, while allowing the
other clocks to run.
Idle mode enables the MCU to wake up from external triggered interrupts as well as internal ones like the Timer
Overflow and USART Transmit Complete interrupts. If wake-up from the Analog Comparator interrupt is not
required, the Analog Comparator can be powered down by setting the ACD bit in the Analog Comparator Control
and Status Register – ACSR. This will reduce power consumption in Idle mode. If the ADC is enabled, a conversion starts automatically when this mode is entered.
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11.3
ADC Noise Reduction Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are written to 001, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter ADC Noise Reduction mode,
stopping the CPU but allowing the ADC, the external interrupts, 2-wire Serial Interface address match,
Timer/Counter2 and the Watchdog to continue operating (if enabled). This sleep mode basically halts clkI/O, clkCPU, and clkFLASH, while allowing the other clocks to run.
This improves the noise environment for the ADC, enabling higher resolution measurements. If the ADC is
enabled, a conversion starts automatically when this mode is entered. Apart form the ADC Conversion Complete
interrupt, only an External Reset, a Watchdog System Reset, a Watchdog interrupt, a Brown-out Reset, a 2-wire
serial interface interrupt, a Timer/Counter2 interrupt, an SPM/EEPROM ready interrupt, an external level interrupt
on INT7:4 or a pin change interrupt can wakeup the MCU from ADC Noise Reduction mode.
11.4
Power-down Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are written to 010, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Power-down mode. In this
mode, the external Oscillator is stopped, while the external interrupts, the 2-wire Serial Interface, and the Watchdog continue operating (if enabled). Only an External Reset, a Watchdog Reset, a Brown-out Reset, 2-wire Serial
Interface address match, an external level interrupt on INT7:4, an external interrupt on INT3:0, or a pin change
interrupt can wake up the MCU. This sleep mode basically halts all generated clocks, allowing operation of asynchronous modules only.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down mode, the changed level must be held
for some time to wake up the MCU. Refer to “External Interrupts” on page 109 for details.
When waking up from Power-down mode, there is a delay from the wake-up condition occurs until the wake-up
becomes effective. This allows the clock to restart and become stable after having been stopped. The wake-up
period is defined by the same CKSEL Fuses that define the Reset Time-out period, as described in “Clock
Sources” on page 40.
11.5
Power-save Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are written to 011, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Power-save mode. This
mode is identical to Power-down, with one exception:
If Timer/Counter2 is enabled, it will keep running during sleep. The device can wake up from either Timer Overflow
or Output Compare event from Timer/Counter2 if the corresponding Timer/Counter2 interrupt enable bits are set in
TIMSK2, and the Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG is set. If Timer/Counter2 is not running, Power-down mode is
recommended instead of Power-save mode.
The Timer/Counter2 can be clocked both synchronously and asynchronously in Power-save mode. If the
Timer/Counter2 is not using the asynchronous clock, the Timer/Counter Oscillator is stopped during sleep. If the
Timer/Counter2 is not using the synchronous clock, the clock source is stopped during sleep. Note that even if the
synchronous clock is running in Power-save, this clock is only available for the Timer/Counter2.
11.6
Standby Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are 110 and an external crystal/resonator clock option is selected, the SLEEP instruction
makes the MCU enter Standby mode. This mode is identical to Power-down with the exception that the Oscillator is
kept running. From Standby mode, the device wakes up in six clock cycles.
11.7
Extended Standby Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are 111 and an external crystal/resonator clock option is selected, the SLEEP instruction
makes the MCU enter Extended Standby mode. This mode is identical to Power-save mode with the exception that
the Oscillator is kept running. From Extended Standby mode, the device wakes up in six clock cycles.
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11.8
Power Reduction Register
The Power Reduction Register (PRR), see “PRR0 – Power Reduction Register 0” on page 55 and “PRR1 – Power
Reduction Register 1” on page 56, provides a method for stopping the clock to individual peripherals to reduce
power consumption.
Note that when the clock for a peripheral is stopped, then:
•
The current state of the peripheral is frozen
•
The associated registers can not be read or written
•
Resources used by the peripherals (for example I/O pin, etc.) will remain occupied
The peripheral should in most cases be disabled before stopping the clock. Waking up a module, which is done by
cleaning the bit in PRR, puts the module in the same state as before shutdown. Module shutdown can be used in
Idle mode or Active mode to significantly reduce the overall power consumption. See “Power-down Supply Current” on page 380 for examples. In all other sleep modes, the clock is already stopped.
11.9
Minimizing Power Consumption
There are several issues to consider when trying to minimize the power consumption in an AVR controlled system.
In general, sleep modes should be used as much as possible, and the sleep mode should be selected so that as
few as possible of the device’s functions are operating. All functions not needed should be disabled. In particular,
the following modules may need special consideration when trying to achieve the lowest possible power
consumption.
11.9.1
Analog to Digital Converter
If enabled, the ADC will be enabled in all sleep modes. To save power, the ADC should be disabled before entering
any sleep mode. When the ADC is turned off and on again, the next conversion will be an extended conversion.
Refer to “ADC – Analog to Digital Converter” on page 268 for details on ADC operation.
11.9.2
Analog Comparator
When entering Idle mode, the Analog Comparator should be disabled if not used. When entering ADC Noise
Reduction mode, the Analog Comparator should be disabled. In other sleep modes, the Analog Comparator is
automatically disabled. However, if the Analog Comparator is set up to use the Internal Voltage Reference as
input, the Analog Comparator should be disabled in all sleep modes. Otherwise, the Internal Voltage Reference will
be enabled, independent of sleep mode. Refer to “AC – Analog Comparator” on page 265 for details on how to
configure the Analog Comparator.
11.9.3
Brown-out Detector
If the Brown-out Detector is not needed by the application, this module should be turned off. If the Brown-out
Detector is enabled by the BODLEVEL Fuses, it will be enabled in all sleep modes, and hence, always consume
power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. Refer to
“Brown-out Detection” on page 59 for details on how to configure the Brown-out Detector.
11.9.4
Internal Voltage Reference
The Internal Voltage Reference will be enabled when needed by the Brown-out Detection, the Analog Comparator
or the ADC. If these modules are disabled as described in the sections above, the internal voltage reference will be
disabled and it will not be consuming power. When turned on again, the user must allow the reference to start up
before the output is used. If the reference is kept on in sleep mode, the output can be used immediately. Refer to
“Internal Voltage Reference” on page 60 for details on the start-up time.
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11.9.5
Watchdog Timer
If the Watchdog Timer is not needed in the application, the module should be turned off. If the Watchdog Timer is
enabled, it will be enabled in all sleep modes, and hence, always consume power. In the deeper sleep modes, this
will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. Refer to “Interrupts” on page 101 for details on how to
configure the Watchdog Timer.
11.9.6
Port Pins
When entering a sleep mode, all port pins should be configured to use minimum power. The most important is then
to ensure that no pins drive resistive loads. In sleep modes where both the I/O clock (clkI/O) and the ADC clock
(clkADC) are stopped, the input buffers of the device will be disabled. This ensures that no power is consumed by
the input logic when not needed. In some cases, the input logic is needed for detecting wake-up conditions, and it
will then be enabled. Refer to the section “Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes” on page 71 for details on which
pins are enabled. If the input buffer is enabled and the input signal is left floating or have an analog signal level
close to VCC/2, the input buffer will use excessive power.
For analog input pins, the digital input buffer should be disabled at all times. An analog signal level close to VCC/2
on an input pin can cause significant current even in active mode. Digital input buffers can be disabled by writing to
the Digital Input Disable Registers (DIDR2, DIDR1 and DIDR0). Refer to “DIDR2 – Digital Input Disable Register 2”
on page 288, “DIDR1 – Digital Input Disable Register 1” on page 267, and “DIDR0 – Digital Input Disable Register
0” on page 287 for details.
11.9.7
On-chip Debug System
If the On-chip debug system is enabled by the OCDEN Fuse and the chip enters sleep mode, the main clock
source is enabled, and hence, always consumes power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly
to the total current consumption.
There are three alternative ways to disable the OCD system:
•
Disable the OCDEN Fuse
•
Disable the JTAGEN Fuse
•
Write one to the JTD bit in MCUCR
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11.10 Register Description
11.10.1
SMCR – Sleep Mode Control Register
The Sleep Mode Control Register contains control bits for power management.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x33 (0x53)
–
–
–
–
SM2
SM1
SM0
SE
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SMCR
• Bits 3, 2, 1 – SM2:0: Sleep Mode Select Bits 2, 1, and 0
These bits select between the five available sleep modes as shown in Table 11-2.
Table 11-2.
Note:
Sleep Mode Select
SM2
SM1
SM0
Sleep Mode
0
0
0
Idle
0
0
1
ADC Noise Reduction
0
1
0
Power-down
0
1
1
Power-save
1
0
0
Reserved
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
0
Standby(1)
1
1
1
Extended Standby(1)
1. Standby modes are only recommended for use with external crystals or resonators.
• Bit 1 – SE: Sleep Enable
The SE bit must be written to logic one to make the MCU enter the sleep mode when the SLEEP instruction is executed. To avoid the MCU entering the sleep mode unless it is the programmer’s purpose, it is recommended to
write the Sleep Enable (SE) bit to one just before the execution of the SLEEP instruction and to clear it immediately
after waking up.
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11.10.2
PRR0 – Power Reduction Register 0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PRTWI
PRTIM2
PRTIM0
–
PRTIM1
PRSPI
PRUSART0
PRADC
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x64)
PRR0
• Bit 7 - PRTWI: Power Reduction TWI
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the TWI by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the TWI
again, the TWI should be re initialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 6 - PRTIM2: Power Reduction Timer/Counter2
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter2 module in synchronous mode (AS2 is 0). When the
Timer/Counter2 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 5 - PRTIM0: Power Reduction Timer/Counter0
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter0 module. When the Timer/Counter0 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 4 - Res: Reserved bit
This bit is reserved bit and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3 - PRTIM1: Power Reduction Timer/Counter1
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter1 module. When the Timer/Counter1 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 2 - PRSPI: Power Reduction Serial Peripheral Interface
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Serial Peripheral Interface by stopping the clock to the module. When
waking up the SPI again, the SPI should be re initialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 1 - PRUSART0: Power Reduction USART0
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART0 by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the
USART0 again, the USART0 should be re initialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 0 - PRADC: Power Reduction ADC
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the ADC. The ADC must be disabled before shut down. The analog comparator cannot use the ADC input MUX when the ADC is shut down.
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11.10.3
PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x65)
–
–
PRTIM5
PRTIM4
PRTIM3
PRUSART3
PRUSART2
PRUSART1
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PRR1
• Bit 7:6 - Res: Reserved bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
• Bit 5 - PRTIM5: Power Reduction Timer/Counter5
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter5 module. When the Timer/Counter5 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 4 - PRTIM4: Power Reduction Timer/Counter4
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter4 module. When the Timer/Counter4 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 3 - PRTIM3: Power Reduction Timer/Counter3
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter3 module. When the Timer/Counter3 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 2 - PRUSART3: Power Reduction USART3
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART3 by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the
USART3 again, the USART3 should be re initialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 1 - PRUSART2: Power Reduction USART2
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART2 by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the
USART2 again, the USART2 should be re initialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 0 - PRUSART1: Power Reduction USART1
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART1 by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the
USART1 again, the USART1 should be re initialized to ensure proper operation.
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12. System Control and Reset
12.1
Resetting the AVR
During reset, all I/O Registers are set to their initial values, and the program starts execution from the Reset Vector. The instruction placed at the Reset Vector must be a JMP – Absolute Jump – instruction to the reset handling
routine. If the program never enables an interrupt source, the Interrupt Vectors are not used, and regular program
code can be placed at these locations. This is also the case if the Reset Vector is in the Application section while
the Interrupt Vectors are in the Boot section or vice versa. The circuit diagram in Figure 12-1 on page 58 shows the
reset logic. “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 360 defines the electrical parameters of the reset circuitry.
The I/O ports of the AVR are immediately reset to their initial state when a reset source goes active. This does not
require any clock source to be running.
After all reset sources have gone inactive, a delay counter is invoked, stretching the internal reset. This allows the
power to reach a stable level before normal operation starts. The time-out period of the delay counter is defined by
the user through the SUT and CKSEL Fuses. The different selections for the delay period are presented in “Clock
Sources” on page 40.
12.2
Reset Sources
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 has five sources of reset:
•
Power-on Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage is below the Power-on Reset threshold (VPOT)
•
External Reset. The MCU is reset when a low level is present on the RESET pin for longer than the minimum
pulse length
•
Watchdog Reset. The MCU is reset when the Watchdog Timer period expires and the Watchdog is enabled
•
Brown-out Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage AVCC is below the Brown-out Reset threshold
(VBOT) and the Brown-out Detector is enabled
•
JTAG AVR Reset. The MCU is reset as long as there is a logic one in the Reset Register, one of the scan
chains of the JTAG system. Refer to the section “IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-scan” on page 295 for details
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Figure 12-1. Reset Logic
DATA BUS
AVCC
PORF
BORF
EXTRF
WDRF
JTRF
MCU Status
Register (MCUSR)
Brown-out
Reset Circuit
BODLEVEL [2..0]
Power-on Reset
Circuit
Pull-up Resistor
SPIKE
FILTER
JTAG Reset
Register
Watchdog
Oscillator
Clock
Generator
CK
Delay Counters
TIMEOUT
CKSEL[3:0]
SUT[1:0]
12.2.1
Power-on Reset
A Power-on Reset (POR) pulse is generated by an On-chip detection circuit. The detection level is defined in “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 360. The POR is activated whenever VCC is below the detection level. The
POR circuit can be used to trigger the start-up Reset, as well as to detect a failure in supply voltage.
A Power-on Reset (POR) circuit ensures that the device is reset from Power-on. Reaching the Power-on Reset
threshold voltage invokes the delay counter, which determines how long the device is kept in RESET after VCC rise.
The RESET signal is activated again, without any delay, when VCC decreases below the detection level.
Figure 12-2. MCU Start-up, RESET Tied to VCC
VCC
RESET
TIME-OUT
VPOT
VRST
tTOUT
INTERNAL
RESET
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Figure 12-3. MCU Start-up, RESET Extended Externally
VCC
VPOT
VRST
RESET
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
12.2.2
External Reset
An External Reset is generated by a low level on the RESET pin. Reset pulses longer than the minimum pulse
width (see “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 360) will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running.
Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. When the applied signal reaches the Reset Threshold Voltage – VRST – on its positive edge, the delay counter starts the MCU after the Time-out period – tTOUT – has expired.
Figure 12-4. External Reset During Operation
CC
12.2.3
Brown-out Detection
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 has an On-chip Brown-out Detection (BOD) circuit for monitoring the AVCC level
during operation by comparing it to a fixed trigger level. The trigger level for the BOD can be selected by the BODLEVEL Fuses. The trigger level has a hysteresis to ensure spike free Brown-out Detection. The hysteresis on the
detection level should be interpreted as VBOT+ = VBOT + VHYST/2 and VBOT- = VBOT - VHYST/2.
When the BOD is enabled, and AVCC decreases to a value below the trigger level (VBOT- in Figure 12-5 on page
60), the Brown-out Reset is immediately activated. When AVCC increases above the trigger level (VBOT+ in Figure
12-5 on page 60), the delay counter starts the MCU after the Time-out period tTOUT has expired.
The BOD circuit will only detect a drop in AVCC if the voltage stays below the trigger level for longer than tBOD given
in “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 360.
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Figure 12-5. Brown-out Reset During Operation
AVCC
VBOT-
VBOT+
RESET
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
12.2.4
Watchdog Reset
When the Watchdog times out, it will generate a short reset pulse of one CK cycle duration. On the falling edge of
this pulse, the delay timer starts counting the Time-out period tTOUT. See “Watchdog Timer” on page 53. for details
on operation of the Watchdog Timer.
Figure 12-6. Watchdog Reset During Operation
CC
CK
12.3
Internal Voltage Reference
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 features an internal bandgap reference. This reference is used for Brown-out
Detection, and it can be used as an input to the Analog Comparator or the ADC.
12.3.1
Voltage Reference Enable Signals and Start-up Time
The voltage reference has a start-up time that may influence the way it should be used. The start-up time is given
in “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 360. To save power, the reference is not always turned on. The reference is on during the following situations:
1. When the BOD is enabled (by programming the BODLEVEL [2:0] Fuse).
2. When the bandgap reference is connected to the Analog Comparator (by setting the ACBG bit in ACSR).
3. When the ADC is enabled.
Thus, when the BOD is not enabled, after setting the ACBG bit or enabling the ADC, the user must always allow
the reference to start up before the output from the Analog Comparator or ADC is used. To reduce power consumption in Power-down mode, the user can avoid the three conditions above to ensure that the reference is
turned off before entering Power-down mode.
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12.4
12.4.1
Watchdog Timer
Features
• Clocked from separate On-chip Oscillator
• Three Operating modes
– Interrupt
– System Reset
– Interrupt and System Reset
• Selectable Time-out period from 16ms to 8s
• Possible Hardware fuse Watchdog always on (WDTON) for fail-safe mode
128kHz
OSCILLATOR
WATCHDOG
RESET
WDE
OSC/2K
OSC/4K
OSC/8K
OSC/16K
OSC/32K
OSC/64K
OSC/128K
OSC/256K
OSC/512K
OSC/1024K
Figure 12-7. Watchdog Timer
WDP0
WDP1
WDP2
WDP3
MCU RESET
WDIF
WDIE
12.4.2
INTERRUPT
Overview
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 has an Enhanced Watchdog Timer (WDT). The WDT is a timer counting cycles
of a separate on-chip 128kHz oscillator. The WDT gives an interrupt or a system reset when the counter reaches a
given time-out value. In normal operation mode, it is required that the system uses the WDR - Watchdog Timer
Reset - instruction to restart the counter before the time-out value is reached. If the system doesn't restart the
counter, an interrupt or system reset will be issued.
In Interrupt mode, the WDT gives an interrupt when the timer expires. This interrupt can be used to wake the
device from sleep-modes, and also as a general system timer. One example is to limit the maximum time allowed
for certain operations, giving an interrupt when the operation has run longer than expected. In System Reset mode,
the WDT gives a reset when the timer expires. This is typically used to prevent system hang-up in case of runaway
code. The third mode, Interrupt and System Reset mode, combines the other two modes by first giving an interrupt
and then switch to System Reset mode. This mode will for instance allow a safe shutdown by saving critical parameters before a system reset.
The Watchdog always on (WDTON) fuse, if programmed, will force the Watchdog Timer to System Reset mode.
With the fuse programmed the System Reset mode bit (WDE) and Interrupt mode bit (WDIE) are locked to 1 and 0
respectively. To further ensure program security, alterations to the Watchdog set-up must follow timed sequences.
The sequence for clearing WDE and changing time-out configuration is as follows:
1. In the same operation, write a logic one to the Watchdog change enable bit (WDCE) and WDE. A logic one
must be written to WDE regardless of the previous value of the WDE bit.
2. Within the next four clock cycles, write the WDE and Watchdog prescaler bits (WDP) as desired, but with
the WDCE bit cleared. This must be done in one operation.
The following code example shows one assembly and one C function for turning off the Watchdog Timer. The
example assumes that interrupts are controlled (for example by disabling interrupts globally) so that no interrupts
will occur during the execution of these functions.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
WDT_off:
; Turn off global interrupt
cli
; Reset Watchdog Timer
wdr
; Clear WDRF in MCUSR
in
r16, MCUSR
andi
r16, (0xff & (0<<WDRF))
out
MCUSR, r16
; Write logical one to WDCE and WDE
; Keep old prescaler setting to prevent unintentional time-out
ldi r16, WDTCSR
ori
r16, (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE)
sts WDTCSR, r16
; Turn off WDT
ldi
r16, (0<<WDE)
sts WDTCSR, r16
; Turn on global interrupt
sei
ret
C Code Example(1)
void WDT_off(void)
{
__disable_interrupt();
__watchdog_reset();
/* Clear WDRF in MCUSR */
MCUSR &= ~(1<<WDRF);
/* Write logical one to WDCE and WDE */
/* Keep old prescaler setting to prevent unintentional time-out
*/
WDTCSR |= (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE);
/* Turn off WDT */
WDTCSR = 0x00;
__enable_interrupt();
}
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
2. If the Watchdog is accidentally enabled, for example by a runaway pointer or brown-out condition, the device will be
reset and the Watchdog Timer will stay enabled. If the code is not set up to handle the Watchdog, this might lead to
an eternal loop of time-out resets. To avoid this situation, the application software should always clear the Watchdog System Reset Flag (WDRF) and the WDE control bit in the initialisation routine, even if the Watchdog is not in
use.
The following code example shows one assembly and one C function for changing the time-out value of the Watchdog Timer.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
WDT_Prescaler_Change:
; Turn off global interrupt
cli
; Reset Watchdog Timer
wdr
; Start timed sequence
in
r16, WDTCSR
ori
r16, (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE)
out
WDTCSR, r16
; --
Got four cycles to set the new values from here -
; Set new prescaler(time-out) value = 64K cycles (~0.5 s)
ldi
r16, (1<<WDE) | (1<<WDP2) | (1<<WDP0)
out
WDTCSR, r16
; --
Finished setting new values, used 2 cycles -
; Turn on global interrupt
sei
ret
C Code Example(2)
void WDT_Prescaler_Change(void)
{
__disable_interrupt();
__watchdog_reset();
/* Start timed
equence */
WDTCSR |= (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE);
/* Set new prescaler(time-out) value = 64K cycles (~0.5 s) */
WDTCSR
= (1<<WDE) | (1<<WDP2) | (1<<WDP0);
__enable_interrupt();
}
Notes:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
2. The Watchdog Timer should be reset before any change of the WDP bits, since a change in the WDP bits can
result in a time-out when switching to a shorter time-out period.
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12.5
12.5.1
Register Description
MCUSR – MCU Status Register
The MCU Status Register provides information on which reset source caused an MCU reset.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x35 (0x55)
–
–
–
JTRF
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
MCUSR
See Bit Description
• Bit 4 – JTRF: JTAG Reset Flag
This bit is set if a reset is being caused by a logic one in the JTAG Reset Register selected by the JTAG instruction
AVR_RESET. This bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 3 – WDRF: Watchdog Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Watchdog Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic zero to the
flag.
• Bit 2 – BORF: Brown-out Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Brown-out Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic zero to the
flag.
• Bit 1 – EXTRF: External Reset Flag
This bit is set if an External Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 0 – PORF: Power-on Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Power-on Reset occurs. The bit is reset only by writing a logic zero to the flag.
To make use of the Reset Flags to identify a reset condition, the user should read and then Reset the MCUSR as
early as possible in the program. If the register is cleared before another reset occurs, the source of the reset can
be found by examining the Reset Flags.
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12.5.2
WDTCSR – Watchdog Timer Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
WDIF
WDIE
WDP3
WDCE
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
X
0
0
0
(0x60)
WDTCSR
• Bit 7 - WDIF: Watchdog Interrupt Flag
This bit is set when a time-out occurs in the Watchdog Timer and the Watchdog Timer is configured for interrupt.
WDIF is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, WDIF is
cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG and WDIE are set, the Watchdog Time-out Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 6 - WDIE: Watchdog Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Watchdog Interrupt is enabled. If WDE
is cleared in combination with this setting, the Watchdog Timer is in Interrupt Mode, and the corresponding interrupt is executed if time-out in the Watchdog Timer occurs.
If WDE is set, the Watchdog Timer is in Interrupt and System Reset Mode. The first time-out in the Watchdog
Timer will set WDIF. Executing the corresponding interrupt vector will clear WDIE and WDIF automatically by hardware (the Watchdog goes to System Reset Mode). This is useful for keeping the Watchdog Timer security while
using the interrupt. To stay in Interrupt and System Reset Mode, WDIE must be set after each interrupt. This
should however not be done within the interrupt service routine itself, as this might compromise the safety-function
of the Watchdog System Reset mode. If the interrupt is not executed before the next time-out, a System Reset will
be applied.
Table 12-1.
(1)
WDTON
Note:
Watchdog Timer Configuration
WDE
WDIE
Mode
Action on Time-out
1
0
0
Stopped
None
1
0
1
Interrupt Mode
Interrupt
1
1
0
System Reset Mode
Reset
1
1
1
Interrupt and System Reset Mode
Interrupt, then go to System Reset Mode
0
x
x
System Reset Mode
Reset
1. WDTON Fuse set to “0“ means programmed and “1” means unprogrammed.
• Bit 4 - WDCE: Watchdog Change Enable
This bit is used in timed sequences for changing WDE and prescaler bits. To clear the WDE bit, and/or change the
prescaler bits, WDCE must be set.
Once written to one, hardware will clear WDCE after four clock cycles.
• Bit 3 - WDE: Watchdog System Reset Enable
WDE is overridden by WDRF in MCUSR. This means that WDE is always set when WDRF is set. To clear WDE,
WDRF must be cleared first. This feature ensures multiple resets during conditions causing failure, and a safe
start-up after the failure.
• Bit 5, 2:0 - WDP3:0: Watchdog Timer Prescaler 3, 2, 1 and 0
The WDP3:0 bits determine the Watchdog Timer prescaling when the Watchdog Timer is running. The different
prescaling values and their corresponding time-out periods are shown in Table 12-2 on page 66.
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Table 12-2.
Watchdog Timer Prescale Select
WDP3
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator Cycles
Typical Time-out at VCC = 5.0V
0
0
0
0
2K (2048) cycles
16ms
0
0
0
1
4K (4096) cycles
32ms
0
0
1
0
8K (8192) cycles
64ms
0
0
1
1
16K (16384) cycles
0.125s
0
1
0
0
32K (32768) cycles
0.25s
0
1
0
1
64K (65536) cycles
0.5s
0
1
1
0
128K (131072) cycles
1.0s
0
1
1
1
256K (262144) cycles
2.0s
1
0
0
0
512K (524288) cycles
4.0s
1
0
0
1
1024K (1048576) cycles
8.0s
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
Reserved
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13. I/O-Ports
13.1
Introduction
All AVR ports have true Read-Modify-Write functionality when used as general digital I/O ports. This means that
the direction of one port pin can be changed without unintentionally changing the direction of any other pin with the
SBI and CBI instructions. The same applies when changing drive value (if configured as output) or enabling/disabling of pull-up resistors (if configured as input). Each output buffer has symmetrical drive characteristics with
both high sink and source capability. The pin driver is strong enough to drive LED displays directly. All port pins
have individually selectable pull-up resistors with a supply-voltage invariant resistance. All I/O pins have protection
diodes to both VCC and Ground as indicated in Figure 13-1. Refer to “Electrical Characteristics” on page 355 for a
complete list of parameters.
Figure 13-1. I/O Pin Equivalent Schematic
Rpu
Logic
Pxn
Cpin
See Figure
"General Digital I/O" for
Details
All registers and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “x” represents the numbering letter for the port, and a lower case “n” represents the bit number. However, when using the register or bit
defines in a program, the precise form must be used. For example, PORTB3 for bit no. 3 in Port B, here documented generally as PORTxn. The physical I/O Registers and bit locations are listed in “Table 13-34 and Table 1335 relates the alternate functions of Port L to the overriding signals shown in Figure 13-5 on page 73.” on page 95.
Three I/O memory address locations are allocated for each port, one each for the Data Register – PORTx, Data
Direction Register – DDRx, and the Port Input Pins – PINx. The Port Input Pins I/O location is read only, while the
Data Register and the Data Direction Register are read/write. However, writing a logic one to a bit in the PINx Register, will result in a toggle in the corresponding bit in the Data Register. In addition, the Pull-up Disable – PUD bit
in MCUCR disables the pull-up function for all pins in all ports when set.
Using the I/O port as General Digital I/O is described in “Ports as General Digital I/O” on page 68. Most port pins
are multiplexed with alternate functions for the peripheral features on the device. How each alternate function interferes with the port pin is described in “Alternate Port Functions” on page 72. Refer to the individual module sections
for a full description of the alternate functions.
Note that enabling the alternate function of some of the port pins does not affect the use of the other pins in the port
as general digital I/O.
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13.2
Ports as General Digital I/O
The ports are bi-directional I/O ports with optional internal pull-ups. Figure 13-2 shows a functional description of
one I/O-port pin, here generically called Pxn.
Figure 13-2. General Digital I/O(1)
PUD
Q
D
DDxn
Q CLR
WDx
RESET
DATA BUS
RDx
1
Q
Pxn
D
0
PORTxn
Q CLR
RESET
WRx
SLEEP
WPx
RRx
SYNCHRONIZER
D
Q
L
Q
D
RPx
Q
PINxn
Q
clk I/O
PUD:
SLEEP:
clkI/O:
Note:
13.2.1
PULLUP DISABLE
SLEEP CONTROL
I/O CLOCK
WDx:
RDx:
WRx:
RRx:
RPx:
WPx:
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx REGISTER
READ PORTx PIN
WRITE PINx REGISTER
1. WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port. clkI/O, SLEEP, and PUD are
common to all ports.
Configuring the Pin
Each port pin consists of three register bits: DDxn, PORTxn, and PINxn. As shown in “Table 13-34 and Table 1335 relates the alternate functions of Port L to the overriding signals shown in Figure 13-5 on page 73.” on page 95,
the DDxn bits are accessed at the DDRx I/O address, the PORTxn bits at the PORTx I/O address, and the PINxn
bits at the PINx I/O address.
The DDxn bit in the DDRx Register selects the direction of this pin. If DDxn is written logic one, Pxn is configured
as an output pin. If DDxn is written logic zero, Pxn is configured as an input pin.
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an input pin, the pull-up resistor is activated. To switch
the pull-up resistor off, PORTxn has to be written logic zero or the pin has to be configured as an output pin. The
port pins are tri-stated when reset condition becomes active, even if no clocks are running.
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven high (one). If
PORTxn is written logic zero when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven low (zero).
13.2.2
Toggling the Pin
Writing a logic one to PINxn toggles the value of PORTxn, independent on the value of DDRxn. Note that the SBI
instruction can be used to toggle one single bit in a port.
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13.2.3
Switching Between Input and Output
When switching between tri-state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) and output high ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b11), an intermediate state with either pull-up enabled {DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01) or output low ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b10) must
occur. Normally, the pull-up enabled state is fully acceptable, as a high-impedant environment will not notice the
difference between a strong high driver and a pull-up. If this is not the case, the PUD bit in the MCUCR Register
can be set to disable all pull-ups in all ports.
Switching between input with pull-up and output low generates the same problem. The user must use either the tristate ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) or the output high state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b11) as an intermediate step.
Table 13-1 summarizes the control signals for the pin value.
PUD
(in MCUCR)
DDxn
13.2.4
Port Pin Configurations
PORTxn
Table 13-1.
I/O
Pull-up
Comment
0
0
X
Input
No
Tri-state (Hi-Z)
0
1
0
Input
Yes
Pxn will source current if ext. pulled low
0
1
1
Input
No
Tri-state (Hi-Z)
1
0
X
Output
No
Output Low (Sink)
1
1
X
Output
No
Output High (Source)
Reading the Pin Value
Independent of the setting of Data Direction bit DDxn, the port pin can be read through the PINxn Register bit. As
shown in Figure 13-2 on page 68, the PINxn Register bit and the preceding latch constitute a synchronizer. This is
needed to avoid metastability if the physical pin changes value near the edge of the internal clock, but it also introduces a delay. Figure 13-3 on page 69 shows a timing diagram of the synchronization when reading an externally
applied pin value. The maximum and minimum propagation delays are denoted tpd,max and tpd,min respectively.
Figure 13-3. Synchronization when Reading an Externally Applied Pin value
SYSTEM CLK
INSTRUCTIONS
XXX
XXX
in r17, PINx
SYNC LATCH
PINxn
r17
0x00
0xFF
t pd, max
t pd, min
Consider the clock period starting shortly after the first falling edge of the system clock. The latch is closed when
the clock is low, and goes transparent when the clock is high, as indicated by the shaded region of the “SYNC
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LATCH” signal. The signal value is latched when the system clock goes low. It is clocked into the PINxn Register at
the succeeding positive clock edge. As indicated by the two arrows tpd,max and tpd,min, a single signal transition
on the pin will be delayed between ½ and 1½ system clock period depending upon the time of assertion.
When reading back a software assigned pin value, a nop instruction must be inserted as indicated in Figure 13-4.
The out instruction sets the “SYNC LATCH” signal at the positive edge of the clock. In this case, the delay tpd
through the synchronizer is one system clock period.
Figure 13-4. Synchronization when Reading a Software Assigned Pin Value
SYSTEM CLK
r16
INSTRUCTIONS
0xFF
out PORTx, r16
nop
in r17, PINx
SYNC LATCH
PINxn
r17
0x00
0xFF
t pd
The following code example shows how to set port B pins 0 and 1 high, pins 2 and 3 low, and define the port pins
from 4 to 7 as input with pull-ups assigned to port pins 6 and 7. The resulting pin values are read back again, but as
previously discussed, a nop instruction is included to be able to read back the value recently assigned to some of
the pins.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
...
; Define pull-ups and set outputs high
; Define directions for port pins
ldi
r16,(1<<PB7)|(1<<PB6)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0)
ldi
r17,(1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0)
out
PORTB,r16
out
DDRB,r17
; Insert nop for synchronization
nop
; Read port pins
in
r16,PINB
...
C Code Example
unsigned char i;
...
/* Define pull-ups and set outputs high */
/* Define directions for port pins */
PORTB = (1<<PB7)|(1<<PB6)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0);
DDRB = (1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0);
/* Insert nop for synchronization*/
__no_operation();
/* Read port pins */
i = PINB;
...
Note:
13.2.5
1. For the assembly program, two temporary registers are used to minimize the time from pull-ups are set on pins 0,
1, 6, and 7, until the direction bits are correctly set, defining bit 2 and 3 as low and redefining bits 0 and 1 as strong
high drivers.
Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes
As shown in Figure 13-2 on page 68, the digital input signal can be clamped to ground at the input of the schmitttrigger. The signal denoted SLEEP in the figure, is set by the MCU Sleep Controller in Power-down mode, Powersave mode, and Standby mode to avoid high power consumption if some input signals are left floating, or have an
analog signal level close to VCC/2.
SLEEP is overridden for port pins enabled as external interrupt pins. If the external interrupt request is not enabled,
SLEEP is active also for these pins. SLEEP is also overridden by various other alternate functions as described in
“Alternate Port Functions” on page 72.
If a logic high level (“one”) is present on an asynchronous external interrupt pin configured as “Interrupt on Rising
Edge, Falling Edge, or Any Logic Change on Pin” while the external interrupt is not enabled, the corresponding
External Interrupt Flag will be set when resuming from the above mentioned Sleep mode, as the clamping in these
sleep mode produces the requested logic change.
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13.2.6
Unconnected Pins
If some pins are unused, it is recommended to ensure that these pins have a defined level. Even though most of
the digital inputs are disabled in the deep sleep modes as described above, floating inputs should be avoided to
reduce current consumption in all other modes where the digital inputs are enabled (Reset, Active mode and Idle
mode).
The simplest method to ensure a defined level of an unused pin, is to enable the internal pull-up. In this case, the
pull-up will be disabled during reset. If low power consumption during reset is important, it is recommended to use
an external pull-up or pull-down. Connecting unused pins directly to VCC or GND is not recommended, since this
may cause excessive currents if the pin is accidentally configured as an output.
13.3
Alternate Port Functions
Most port pins have alternate functions in addition to being general digital I/Os. Figure 13-5 on page 73 shows how
the port pin control signals from the simplified Figure 13-2 on page 68 can be overridden by alternate functions.
The overriding signals may not be present in all port pins, but the figure serves as a generic description applicable
to all port pins in the AVR microcontroller family.
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Figure 13-5. Alternate Port Functions(1)
PUOExn
PUOVxn
1
PUD
0
DDOExn
DDOVxn
1
D
Q
DDxn
0
Q CLR
WDx
PVOExn
RESET
RDx
1
DATA BUS
PVOVxn
1
Pxn
Q
0
D
0
PORTxn
PTOExn
Q CLR
DIEOExn
WPx
DIEOVxn
RESET
WRx
1
0
RRx
SLEEP
SYNCHRONIZER
D SET Q
D
RPx
Q
PINxn
L CLR Q
CLR
Q
clk I/O
DIxn
AIOxn
PUOExn:
PUOVxn:
DDOExn:
DDOVxn:
PVOExn:
PVOVxn:
DIEOExn:
DIEOVxn:
SLEEP:
PTOExn:
Note:
Pxn PULL-UP OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn PULL-UP OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn DATA DIRECTION OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn DATA DIRECTION OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn PORT VALUE OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn PORT VALUE OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn DIGITAL INPUT-ENABLE OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn DIGITAL INPUT-ENABLE OVERRIDE VALUE
SLEEP CONTROL
Pxn, PORT TOGGLE OVERRIDE ENABLE
PUD:
WDx:
RDx:
RRx:
WRx:
RPx:
WPx:
clkI/O:
DIxn:
AIOxn:
PULLUP DISABLE
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
READ PORTx REGISTER
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx PIN
WRITE PINx
I/O CLOCK
DIGITAL INPUT PIN n ON PORTx
ANALOG INPUT/OUTPUT PIN n ON PORTx
1. WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port. clkI/O, SLEEP, and PUD are
common to all ports. All other signals are unique for each pin.
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Table 13-2 summarizes the function of the overriding signals. The pin and port indexes from Figure 13-5 on page
73 are not shown in the succeeding tables. The overriding signals are generated internally in the modules having
the alternate function.
Table 13-2.
Generic Description of Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions
Signal Name
Full Name
Description
PUOE
Pull-up Override
Enable
If this signal is set, the pull-up enable is controlled by the PUOV signal. If this
signal is cleared, the pull-up is enabled when {DDxn, PORTxn, PUD} =
0b010.
PUOV
Pull-up Override Value
If PUOE is set, the pull-up is enabled/disabled when PUOV is set/cleared,
regardless of the setting of the DDxn, PORTxn, and PUD Register bits.
DDOE
Data Direction Override
Enable
If this signal is set, the Output Driver Enable is controlled by the DDOV
signal. If this signal is cleared, the Output driver is enabled by the DDxn
Register bit.
DDOV
Data Direction Override
Value
If DDOE is set, the Output Driver is enabled/disabled when DDOV is
set/cleared, regardless of the setting of the DDxn Register bit.
PVOE
Port Value Override
Enable
If this signal is set and the Output Driver is enabled, the port value is
controlled by the PVOV signal. If PVOE is cleared, and the Output Driver is
enabled, the port Value is controlled by the PORTxn Register bit.
PVOV
Port Value Override
Value
If PVOE is set, the port value is set to PVOV, regardless of the setting of the
PORTxn Register bit.
PTOE
Port Toggle Override
Enable
If PTOE is set, the PORTxn Register bit is inverted.
DIEOE
Digital Input Enable
Override Enable
If this bit is set, the Digital Input Enable is controlled by the DIEOV signal. If
this signal is cleared, the Digital Input Enable is determined by MCU state
(Normal mode, sleep mode).
DIEOV
Digital Input Enable
Override Value
If DIEOE is set, the Digital Input is enabled/disabled when DIEOV is
set/cleared, regardless of the MCU state (Normal mode, sleep mode).
DI
Digital Input
This is the Digital Input to alternate functions. In the figure, the signal is
connected to the output of the schmitt trigger but before the synchronizer.
Unless the Digital Input is used as a clock source, the module with the
alternate function will use its own synchronizer.
AIO
Analog Input/Output
This is the Analog Input/output to/from alternate functions. The signal is
connected directly to the pad, and can be used bi-directionally.
The following subsections shortly describe the alternate functions for each port, and relate the overriding signals to
the alternate function. Refer to the alternate function description for further details.
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13.3.1
Alternate Functions of Port A
The Port A has an alternate function as the address low byte and data lines for the External Memory Interface.
Table 13-3.
Port A Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PA7
AD7 (External memory interface address and data bit 7)
PA6
AD6 (External memory interface address and data bit 6)
PA5
AD5 (External memory interface address and data bit 5)
PA4
AD4 (External memory interface address and data bit 4)
PA3
AD3 (External memory interface address and data bit 3)
PA2
AD2 (External memory interface address and data bit 2)
PA1
AD1 (External memory interface address and data bit 1)
PA0
AD0 (External memory interface address and data bit 0)
Table 13-4 and Table 13-5 on page 76 relates the alternate functions of Port A to the overriding signals shown in
Figure 13-5 on page 73.
Table 13-4.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PA7:PA4
Signal Name
PA7/AD7
PA6/AD6
PA5/AD5
PA4/AD4
PUOE
SRE
SRE
SRE
SRE
(1)
PUOV
~(WR | ADA ) •
PORTA7 • PUD
~(WR | ADA) • PORTA6
• PUD
~(WR | ADA) • PORTA5
• PUD
~(WR | ADA) • PORTA4
• PUD
DDOE
SRE
SRE
SRE
SRE
DDOV
WR | ADA
WR | ADA
WR | ADA
WR | ADA
PVOE
SRE
SRE
SRE
SRE
PVOV
A7 • ADA | D7 OUTPUT
• WR
A6 • ADA | D6 OUTPUT
• WR
A5 • ADA | D5 OUTPUT
• WR
A4 • ADA | D4 OUTPUT
• WR
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
D7 INPUT
D6 INPUT
D5 INPUT
D4 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
Note:
1. ADA is short for ADdress Active and represents the time when address is output. See “External Memory Interface”
on page 27 for details.
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Table 13-5.
13.3.2
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PA3:PA0
Signal Name
PA3/AD3
PA2/AD2
PA1/AD1
PA0/AD0
PUOE
SRE
SRE
SRE
SRE
PUOV
~(WR | ADA) • PORTA3
• PUD
~(WR | ADA) • PORTA2
• PUD
~(WR | ADA) • PORTA1
• PUD
~(WR | ADA) • PORTA0
• PUD
DDOE
SRE
SRE
SRE
SRE
DDOV
WR | ADA
WR | ADA
WR | ADA
WR | ADA
PVOE
SRE
SRE
SRE
SRE
PVOV
A3 • ADA | D3 OUTPUT
• WR
A2• ADA | D2 OUTPUT
• WR
A1 • ADA | D1 OUTPUT
• WR
A0 • ADA | D0 OUTPUT
• WR
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
D3 INPUT
D2 INPUT
D1 INPUT
D0 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
Alternate Functions of Port B
The Port B pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 13-6.
Table 13-6.
Port B Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Functions
PB7
OC0A/OC1C/PCINT7 (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter0, Output Compare and
PWM Output C for Timer/Counter1 or Pin Change Interrupt 7)
PB6
OC1B/PCINT6 (Output Compare and PWM Output B for Timer/Counter1 or Pin Change Interrupt 6)
PB5
OC1A/PCINT5 (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter1 or Pin Change Interrupt 5)
PB4
OC2A/PCINT4 (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter2 or Pin Change Interrupt 4)
PB3
MISO/PCINT3 (SPI Bus Master Input/Slave Output or Pin Change Interrupt 3)
PB2
MOSI/PCINT2 (SPI Bus Master Output/Slave Input or Pin Change Interrupt 2)
PB1
SCK/PCINT1 (SPI Bus Serial Clock or Pin Change Interrupt 1)
PB0
SS/PCINT0 (SPI Slave Select input or Pin Change Interrupt 0)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• OC0A/OC1C/PCINT7, Bit 7
OC0A, Output Compare Match A output: The PB7 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter0 Output Compare. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB7 set “one”) to serve this function. The OC0A pin is
also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
OC1C, Output Compare Match C output: The PB7 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare C. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB7 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC1C pin
is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT7, Pin Change Interrupt source 7: The PB7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
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• OC1B/PCINT6, Bit 6
OC1B, Output Compare Match B output: The PB6 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare B. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB6 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC1B pin is
also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT6, Pin Change Interrupt source 6: The PB6 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• OC1A/PCINT5, Bit 5
OC1A, Output Compare Match A output: The PB5 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB5 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC1A pin is
also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT5, Pin Change Interrupt source 5: The PB5 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• OC2A/PCINT4, Bit 4
OC2A, Output Compare Match output: The PB4 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter2 Output
Compare. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB4 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC2A pin is also
the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT4, Pin Change Interrupt source 4: The PB4 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• MISO/PCINT3 – Port B, Bit 3
MISO: Master Data input, Slave Data output pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a master, this pin is
configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB3. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, the data direction of
this pin is controlled by DDB3. When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the
PORTB3 bit.
PCINT3, Pin Change Interrupt source 3: The PB3 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• MOSI/PCINT2 – Port B, Bit 2
MOSI: SPI Master Data output, Slave Data input for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is
configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB2. When the SPI is enabled as a master, the data direction
of this pin is controlled by DDB2. When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the
PORTB2 bit.
PCINT2, Pin Change Interrupt source 2: The PB2 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• SCK/PCINT1 – Port B, Bit 1
SCK: Master Clock output, Slave Clock input pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is
configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB1. When the SPI0 is enabled as a master, the data direction
of this pin is controlled by DDB1. When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the
PORTB1 bit.
PCINT1, Pin Change Interrupt source 1: The PB1 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• SS/PCINT0 – Port B, Bit 0
SS: Slave Port Select input. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the
setting of DDB0. As a slave, the SPI is activated when this pin is driven low. When the SPI is enabled as a master,
the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB0. When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be
controlled by the PORTB0 bit.
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Table 13-7 and Table 13-8 relate the alternate functions of Port B to the overriding signals shown in Figure 13-5 on
page 73. SPI MSTR INPUT and SPI SLAVE OUTPUT constitute the MISO signal, while MOSI is divided into SPI
MSTR OUTPUT and SPI SLAVE INPUT.
PCINT0, Pin Change Interrupt source 0: The PB0 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
Table 13-7.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB7:PB4
Signal Name
PB7/OC0A/OC1C
PB6/OC1B
PB5/OC1A
PB4/OC2A
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
OC0/OC1C ENABLE
OC1B ENABLE
OC1A ENABLE
OC2A ENABLE
PVOV
OC0/OC1C
OC1B
OC1A
OC2A
DIEOE
PCINT7 • PCIE0
PCINT6 • PCIE0
PCINT5 • PCIE0
PCINT4 • PCIE0
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
PCINT7 INPUT
PCINT6 INPUT
PCINT5 INPUT
PCINT4 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
Table 13-8.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB3:PB0
Signal Name
PB3/MISO
PB2/MOSI
PB1/SCK
PB0/SS
PUOE
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
PUOV
PORTB3 • PUD
PORTB2 • PUD
PORTB1 • PUD
PORTB0 • PUD
DDOE
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
0
PVOV
SPI SLAVE OUTPUT
SPI MSTR OUTPUT
SCK OUTPUT
0
DIEOE
PCINT3 • PCIE0
PCINT2 • PCIE0
PCINT1 • PCIE0
PCINT0 • PCIE0
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
SPI MSTR INPUT
PCINT3 INPUT
SPI SLAVE INPUT
PCINT2 INPUT
SCK INPUT
PCINT1 INPUT
SPI SS
PCINT0 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
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13.3.3
Alternate Functions of Port C
The Port C alternate function is as follows:
Table 13-9.
Port C Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PC7
A15 (External Memory interface address bit 15)
PC6
A14 (External Memory interface address bit 14)
PC5
A13 (External Memory interface address bit 13)
PC4
A12 (External Memory interface address bit 12)
PC3
A11 (External Memory interface address bit 11)
PC2
A10 (External Memory interface address bit 10)
PC1
A9 (External Memory interface address bit 9)
PC0
A8 (External Memory interface address bit 8)
Table 13-10 and Table 13-11 on page 80 relate the alternate functions of Port C to the overriding signals shown in
Figure 13-5 on page 73.
Table 13-10. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PC7:PC4
Signal Name
PC7/A15
PC6/A14
PC5/A13
PC4/A12
PUOE
SRE • (XMM<1)
SRE • (XMM<2)
SRE • (XMM<3)
SRE • (XMM<4)
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
SRE • (XMM<1)
SRE • (XMM<2)
SRE • (XMM<3)
SRE • (XMM<4)
DDOV
1
1
1
1
PVOE
SRE • (XMM<1)
SRE • (XMM<2)
SRE • (XMM<3)
SRE • (XMM<4)
PVOV
A15
A14
A13
A12
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
–
–
–
–
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Table 13-11. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PC3:PC0
13.3.4
Signal
Name
PC3/A11
PC2/A10
PC1/A9
PC0/A8
PUOE
SRE • (XMM<5)
SRE • (XMM<6)
SRE • (XMM<7)
SRE • (XMM<7)
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
SRE • (XMM<5)
SRE • (XMM<6)
SRE • (XMM<7)
SRE • (XMM<7)
DDOV
1
1
1
1
PVOE
SRE • (XMM<5)
SRE • (XMM<6)
SRE • (XMM<7)
SRE • (XMM<7)
PVOV
A11
A10
A9
A8
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
–
–
–
–
Alternate Functions of Port D
The Port D pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 13-12.
Table 13-12. Port D Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PD7
T0 (Timer/Counter0 Clock Input)
PD6
T1 (Timer/Counter1 Clock Input)
PD5
XCK1 (USART1 External Clock Input/Output)
PD4
ICP1 (Timer/Counter1 Input Capture Trigger)
PD3
INT3/TXD1 (External Interrupt3 Input or USART1 Transmit Pin)
PD2
INT2/RXD1 (External Interrupt2 Input or USART1 Receive Pin)
PD1
INT1/SDA (External Interrupt1 Input or TWI Serial DAta)
PD0
INT0/SCL (External Interrupt0 Input or TWI Serial CLock)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• T0 – Port D, Bit 7
T0, Timer/Counter0 counter source.
• T1 – Port D, Bit 6
T1, Timer/Counter1 counter source.
• XCK1 – Port D, Bit 5
XCK1, USART1 External clock. The Data Direction Register (DDD5) controls whether the clock is output (DDD5
set) or input (DDD5 cleared). The XCK1 pin is active only when the USART1 operates in Synchronous mode.
• ICP1 – Port D, Bit 4
ICP1 – Input Capture Pin 1: The PD4 pin can act as an input capture pin for Timer/Counter1.
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• INT3/TXD1 – Port D, Bit 3
INT3, External Interrupt source 3: The PD3 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the MCU.
TXD1, Transmit Data (Data output pin for the USART1). When the USART1 Transmitter is enabled, this pin is configured as an output regardless of the value of DDD3.
• INT2/RXD1 – Port D, Bit 2
INT2, External Interrupt source 2. The PD2 pin can serve as an External Interrupt source to the MCU.
RXD1, Receive Data (Data input pin for the USART1). When the USART1 receiver is enabled this pin is configured
as an input regardless of the value of DDD2. When the USART forces this pin to be an input, the pull-up can still be
controlled by the PORTD2 bit.
• INT1/SDA – Port D, Bit 1
INT1, External Interrupt source 1. The PD1 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the MCU.
SDA, 2-wire Serial Interface Data: When the TWEN bit in TWCR is set (one) to enable the 2-wire Serial Interface,
pin PD1 is disconnected from the port and becomes the Serial Data I/O pin for the 2-wire Serial Interface. In this
mode, there is a spike filter on the pin to suppress spikes shorter than 50ns on the input signal, and the pin is
driven by an open drain driver with slew-rate limitation.
• INT0/SCL – Port D, Bit 0
INT0, External Interrupt source 0. The PD0 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the MCU.
SCL, 2-wire Serial Interface Clock: When the TWEN bit in TWCR is set (one) to enable the 2-wire Serial Interface,
pin PD0 is disconnected from the port and becomes the Serial Clock I/O pin for the 2-wire Serial Interface. In this
mode, there is a spike filter on the pin to suppress spikes shorter than 50ns on the input signal, and the pin is
driven by an open drain driver with slew-rate limitation.
Table 13-13 on page 81 and Table 13-14 on page 82 relates the alternate functions of Port D to the overriding signals shown in Figure 13-5 on page 73.
Table 13-13. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PD7:PD4
Signal Name
PD7/T0
PD6/T1
PD5/XCK1
PD4/ICP1
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
XCK1 OUTPUT ENABLE
0
DDOV
0
0
1
0
PVOE
0
0
XCK1 OUTPUT ENABLE
0
PVOV
0
0
XCK1 OUTPUT
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
T0 INPUT
T1 INPUT
XCK1 INPUT
ICP1 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
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Table 13-14. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PD3:PD0(1)
Signal Name
PD3/INT3/TXD1
PD2/INT2/RXD1
PD1/INT1/SDA
PD0/INT0/SCL
PUOE
TXEN1
RXEN1
TWEN
TWEN
PUOV
0
PORTD2 • PUD
PORTD1 • PUD
PORTD0 • PUD
DDOE
TXEN1
RXEN1
TWEN
TWEN
DDOV
1
0
SDA_OUT
SCL_OUT
PVOE
TXEN1
0
TWEN
TWEN
PVOV
TXD1
0
0
0
DIEOE
INT3 ENABLE
INT2 ENABLE
INT1 ENABLE
INT0 ENABLE
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
INT3 INPUT
INT2 INPUT/RXD1
INT1 INPUT
INT0 INPUT
AIO
–
–
SDA INPUT
SCL INPUT
Note:
13.3.5
1. When enabled, the 2-wire Serial Interface enables Slew-Rate controls on the output pins PD0 and PD1. This is not
shown in this table. In addition, spike filters are connected between the AIO outputs shown in the port figure and
the digital logic of the TWI module.
Alternate Functions of Port E
The Port E pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 13-15.
Table 13-15. Port E Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PE7
INT7/ICP3/CLK0
(External Interrupt 7 Input, Timer/Counter3 Input Capture Trigger or Divided System Clock)
PE6
INT6/ T3
(External Interrupt 6 Input or Timer/Counter3 Clock Input)
PE5
INT5/OC3C
(External Interrupt 5 Input or Output Compare and PWM Output C for Timer/Counter3)
PE4
INT4/OC3B
(External Interrupt4 Input or Output Compare and PWM Output B for Timer/Counter3)
PE3
AIN1/OC3A
(Analog Comparator Negative Input or Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter3)
PE2
AIN0/XCK0
(Analog Comparator Positive Input or USART0 external clock input/output)
PE1
PDO(1)/TXD0
(Programming Data Output or USART0 Transmit Pin)
PE0
PDI(1)/RXD0/PCINT8
(Programming Data Input, USART0 Receive Pin or Pin Change Interrupt 8)
Note:
1. Only for ATmega1281/2561. For ATmega640/1280/2560 these functions are placed on MISO/MOSI pins.
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• INT7/ICP3/CLKO – Port E, Bit 7
INT7, External Interrupt source 7: The PE7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
ICP3, Input Capture Pin 3: The PE7 pin can act as an input capture pin for Timer/Counter3.
CLKO - Divided System Clock: The divided system clock can be output on the PE7 pin. The divided system clock
will be output if the CKOUT Fuse is programmed, regardless of the PORTE7 and DDE7 settings. It will also be output during reset.
• INT6/T3 – Port E, Bit 6
INT6, External Interrupt source 6: The PE6 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
T3, Timer/Counter3 counter source.
• INT5/OC3C – Port E, Bit 5
INT5, External Interrupt source 5: The PE5 pin can serve as an External Interrupt source.
OC3C, Output Compare Match C output: The PE5 pin can serve as an External output for the Timer/Counter3 Output Compare C. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDE5 set “one”) to serve this function. The OC3C pin
is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• INT4/OC3B – Port E, Bit 4
INT4, External Interrupt source 4: The PE4 pin can serve as an External Interrupt source.
OC3B, Output Compare Match B output: The PE4 pin can serve as an External output for the Timer/Counter3 Output Compare B. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDE4 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC3B pin is
also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• AIN1/OC3A – Port E, Bit 3
AIN1 – Analog Comparator Negative input. This pin is directly connected to the negative input of the Analog
Comparator.
OC3A, Output Compare Match A output: The PE3 pin can serve as an External output for the Timer/Counter3 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDE3 set “one”) to serve this function. The OC3A pin is
also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• AIN0/XCK0 – Port E, Bit 2
AIN0 – Analog Comparator Positive input. This pin is directly connected to the positive input of the Analog
Comparator.
XCK0, USART0 External clock. The Data Direction Register (DDE2) controls whether the clock is output (DDE2
set) or input (DDE2 cleared). The XCK0 pin is active only when the USART0 operates in Synchronous mode.
• PDO/TXD0 – Port E, Bit 1
PDO, SPI Serial Programming Data Output. During Serial Program Downloading, this pin is used as data output
line for the ATmega1281/2561. For ATmega640/1280/2560 this function is placed on MISO.
TXD0, USART0 Transmit pin.
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• PDI/RXD0/PCINT8 – Port E, Bit 0
PDI, SPI Serial Programming Data Input. During Serial Program Downloading, this pin is used as data input line for
the ATmega1281/2561. For ATmega640/1280/2560 this function is placed on MOSI.
RXD0, USART0 Receive Pin. Receive Data (Data input pin for the USART0). When the USART0 receiver is
enabled this pin is configured as an input regardless of the value of DDRE0. When the USART0 forces this pin to
be an input, a logical one in PORTE0 will turn on the internal pull-up.
PCINT8, Pin Change Interrupt source 8: The PE0 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
Table 13-16 on page 84 and Table 13-17 on page 84 relates the alternate functions of Port E to the overriding signals shown in Figure 13-5 on page 73.
Table 13-16. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PE7:PE4
Signal Name
PE7/INT7/ICP3
PE6/INT6/T3
PE5/INT5/OC3C
PE4/INT4/OC3B
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
OC3C ENABLE
OC3B ENABLE
PVOV
0
0
OC3C
OC3B
DIEOE
INT7 ENABLE
INT6 ENABLE
INT5 ENABLE
INT4 ENABLE
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
INT7 INPUT/ICP3
INPUT
INT7 INPUT/T3 INPUT
INT5 INPUT
INT4 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
Table 13-17. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PE3:PE0
Signal Name
PE3/AIN1/OC3A
PE2/AIN0/XCK0
PE1/PDO(1)/TXD0
PE0/PDI(1)/RXD0/PCINT8
PUOE
0
0
TXEN0
RXEN0
PUOV
0
0
0
PORTE0 • PUD
DDOE
0
XCK0 OUTPUT
ENABLE
TXEN0
RXEN0
DDOV
0
1
1
0
PVOE
OC3B ENABLE
XCK0 OUTPUT
ENABLE
TXEN0
0
PVOV
OC3B
XCK0 OUTPUT
TXD0
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
PCINT8 • PCIE1
DIEOV
0
0
0
1
DI
0
XCK0 INPUT
–
RXD0
PE0
0
0
0
PCINT8 INPUT
–
–
Note:
AIO
AIN1 INPUT
AIN0 INPUT
1. PDO/PDI only available at PE1/PE0 for ATmega1281/2561.
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13.3.6
Alternate Functions of Port F
The Port F has an alternate function as analog input for the ADC as shown in Table 13-18. If some Port F pins are
configured as outputs, it is essential that these do not switch when a conversion is in progress. This might corrupt
the result of the conversion. If the JTAG interface is enabled, the pull-up resistors on pins PF7(TDI), PF5(TMS),
and PF4(TCK) will be activated even if a Reset occurs.
Table 13-18. Port F Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PF7
ADC7/TDI (ADC input channel 7 or JTAG Test Data Input)
PF6
ADC6/TDO (ADC input channel 6 or JTAG Test Data Output)
PF5
ADC5/TMS (ADC input channel 5 or JTAG Test Mode Select)
PF4
ADC4/TCK (ADC input channel 4 or JTAG Test ClocK)
PF3
ADC3 (ADC input channel 3)
PF2
ADC2 (ADC input channel 2)
PF1
ADC1 (ADC input channel 1)
PF0
ADC0 (ADC input channel 0)
• TDI, ADC7 – Port F, Bit 7
ADC7, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 7.
TDI, JTAG Test Data In: Serial input data to be shifted in to the Instruction Register or Data Register (scan chains).
When the JTAG interface is enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• TDO, ADC6 – Port F, Bit 6
ADC6, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 6.
TDO, JTAG Test Data Out: Serial output data from Instruction Register or Data Register. When the JTAG interface
is enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
The TDO pin is tri-stated unless TAP states that shift out data are entered.
• TMS, ADC5 – Port F, Bit 5
ADC5, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 5.
TMS, JTAG Test Mode Select: This pin is used for navigating through the TAP-controller state machine. When the
JTAG interface is enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• TCK, ADC4 – Port F, Bit 4
ADC4, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 4.
TCK, JTAG Test Clock: JTAG operation is synchronous to TCK. When the JTAG interface is enabled, this pin can
not be used as an I/O pin.
• ADC3 – ADC0 – Port F, Bit 3:0
Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 3:0.
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Table 13-19. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PF7:PF4
Signal Name
PF7/ADC7/TDI
PF6/ADC6/TDO
PF5/ADC5/TMS
PF4/ADC4/TCK
PUOE
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
PUOV
1
0
1
1
DDOE
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
DDOV
0
SHIFT_IR + SHIFT_DR
0
0
PVOE
0
JTAGEN
0
0
PVOV
0
TDO
0
0
DIEOE
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
TDI/ADC7 INPUT
ADC6 INPUT
TMS/ADC5 INPUT
TCK/ADC4 INPUT
Table 13-20. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PF3:PF0
13.3.7
Signal Name
PF3/ADC3
PF2/ADC2
PF1/ADC1
PF0/ADC0
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
ADC3 INPUT
ADC2 INPUT
ADC1 INPUT
ADC0 INPUT
Alternate Functions of Port G
The Port G alternate pin configuration is as follows:
Table 13-21. Port G Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PG5
OC0B (Output Compare and PWM Output B for Timer/Counter0)
PG4
TOSC1 (RTC Oscillator Timer/Counter2)
PG3
TOSC2 (RTC Oscillator Timer/Counter2)
PG2
ALE (Address Latch Enable to external memory)
PG1
RD (Read strobe to external memory)
PG0
WR (Write strobe to external memory)
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• OC0B – Port G, Bit 5
OC0B, Output Compare match B output: The PG5 pin can serve as an external output for the TImer/Counter0 Output Compare. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDG5 set) to serve this function. The OC0B pin is also
the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• TOSC1 – Port G, Bit 4
TOSC2, Timer Oscillator pin 1: When the AS2 bit in ASSR is set (one) to enable asynchronous clocking of
Timer/Counter2, pin PG4 is disconnected from the port, and becomes the input of the inverting Oscillator amplifier.
In this mode, a Crystal Oscillator is connected to this pin, and the pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• TOSC2 – Port G, Bit 3
TOSC2, Timer Oscillator pin 2: When the AS2 bit in ASSR is set (one) to enable asynchronous clocking of
Timer/Counter2, pin PG3 is disconnected from the port, and becomes the inverting output of the Oscillator amplifier. In this mode, a Crystal Oscillator is connected to this pin, and the pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• ALE – Port G, Bit 2
ALE is the external data memory Address Latch Enable signal.
• RD – Port G, Bit 1
RD is the external data memory read control strobe.
• WR – Port G, Bit 0
WR is the external data memory write control strobe.
Table 13-22 on page 87 and Table 13-23 on page 88 relates the alternate functions of Port G to the overriding signals shown in Figure 13-5 on page 73.
Table 13-22. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PG5:PG4
Signal Name
—
—
PG5/OC0B
PG4/TOSC1
PUOE
–
–
–
AS2
PUOV
–
–
–
0
DDOE
–
–
–
AS2
DDOV
–
–
–
0
PVOE
–
–
OC0B Enable
0
PVOV
–
–
OC0B
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
–
–
–
AS2
DIEOV
–
–
–
EXCLK
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
–
–
–
T/C2 OSC INPUT
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Table 13-23. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PG3:PG0
13.3.8
Signal Name
PG3/TOSC2
PG2/ALE/A7
PG1/RD
PG0/WR
PUOE
AS2 • EXCLK
SRE
SRE
SRE
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
AS2 • EXCLK
SRE
SRE
SRE
DDOV
0
1
1
1
PVOE
0
SRE
SRE
SRE
PVOV
0
ALE
RD
WR
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
AS2 • EXCLK
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
T/C2 OSC OUTPUT
–
–
–
Alternate Functions of Port H
The Port H alternate pin configuration is as follows:
Table 13-24. Port H Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PH7
T4 (Timer/Counter4 Clock Input)
PH6
OC2B (Output Compare and PWM Output B for Timer/Counter2)
PH5
OC4C (Output Compare and PWM Output C for Timer/Counter4)
PH4
OC4B (Output Compare and PWM Output B for Timer/Counter4)
PH3
OC4A (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter4)
PH2
XCK2 (USART2 External Clock)
PH1
TXD2 (USART2 Transmit Pin)
PH0
RXD2 (USART2 Receive Pin)
• T4 – Port H, Bit 7
T4, Timer/Counter4 counter source.
• OC2B – Port H, Bit 6
OC2B, Output Compare Match B output: The PH6 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter2 Output Compare B. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDH6 set) to serve this function. The OC2B pin is also
the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• OC4C – Port H, Bit 5
OC4C, Output Compare Match C output: The PH5 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter4 Output Compare C. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDH5 set) to serve this function. The OC4C pin is also
the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
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• OC4B – Port H, Bit 4
OC4B, Output Compare Match B output: The PH4 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter2 Output Compare B. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDH4 set) to serve this function. The OC4B pin is also
the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• OC4A – Port H, Bit 3
OC4C, Output Compare Match A output: The PH3 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter4 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDH3 set) to serve this function. The OC4A pin is also
the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• XCK2 – Port H, Bit 2
XCK2, USART2 External Clock: The Data Direction Register (DDH2) controls whether the clock is output (DDH2
set) or input (DDH2 cleared). The XC2K pin is active only when the USART2 operates in synchronous mode.
• TXD2 – Port H, Bit 1
TXD2, USART2 Transmit Pin.
• RXD2 – Port H, Bit 0
RXD2, USART2 Receive pin: Receive Data (Data input pin for the USART2). When the USART2 Receiver is
enabled, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the value of DDH0. When the USART2 forces this pin to be
an input, a logical on in PORTH0 will turn on the internal pull-up.
Table 13-25. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PH7:PH4
Signal Name
PH7/T4
PH6/OC2B
PH5/OC4C
PH4/OC4B
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
OC2B ENABLE
OC4C ENABLE
OC4B ENABLE
PVOV
0
OC2B
OC4C
OC4B
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
T4 INPUT
0
0
0
AIO
–
–
–
–
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Table 13-26. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PH3:PH0
13.3.9
Signal Name
PH3/OC4A
PH2/XCK2
PH1/TXD2
PH0/RXD2
PUOE
0
0
TXEN2
RXEN2
PUOV
0
0
0
PORTH0 • PUD
DDOE
0
XCK2 OUTPUT
ENABLE
TXEN2
RXEN2
DDOV
0
1
1
0
PVOE
OC4A ENABLE
XCK2 OUTPUT
ENABLE
TXEN2
0
PVOV
OC4A
XCK2
TXD2
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
0
XC2K INPUT
0
RXD2
AIO
–
–
–
–
Alternate Functions of Port J
The Port J alternate pin configuration is as follows:
Table 13-27. Port J Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PJ7
–
PJ6
PCINT15 (Pin Change Interrupt 15)
PJ5
PCINT14 (Pin Change Interrupt 14)
PJ4
PCINT13 (Pin Change Interrupt 13)
PJ3
PCINT12 (Pin Change Interrupt 12)
PJ2
XCK3/PCINT11 (USART3 External Clock or Pin Change Interrupt 11)
PJ1
TXD3/PCINT10 (USART3 Transmit Pin or Pin Change Interrupt 10)
PJ0
RXD3/PCINT9 (USART3 Receive Pin or Pin Change Interrupt 9)
• PCINT15:12 - Port J, Bit 6:3
PCINT15:12, Pin Change Interrupt Source 15:12. The PJ6:3 pins can serve as External Interrupt Sources.
• XCK2/PCINT11 - Port J, Bit 2
XCK2, USART 2 External Clock. The Data Direction Register (DDJ2) controls whether the clock is output (DDJ2
set) or input (DDJ2 cleared). The XCK2 pin is active only when the USART2 operates in synchronous mode.
PCINT11, Pin Change Interrupt Source 11. The PJ2 pin can serve as External Interrupt Sources.
• TXD3/PCINT10 - Port J, Bit 1
TXD3, USART3 Transmit pin.
PCINT10, Pin Change Interrupt Source 10. The PJ1 pin can serve as External Interrupt Sources.
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• RXD3/PCINT9 - Port J, Bit 0
RXD3, USART3 Receive pin. Receive Data (Data input pin for the USART3). When the USART3 Receiver is
enabled, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the value of DDJ0. When the USART3 forces this pin to be
an input, a logical one in PORTJ0 will turn on the internal pull-up.
PCINT9, Pin Change Interrupt Source 9. The PJ0 pin can serve as External Interrupt Sources.
Table 13-28 on page 92 and Table 13-29 on page 92 relates the alternate functions of Port J to the overriding signals shown in Figure 13-5 on page 73.
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Table 13-28. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PJ7:PJ4
Signal Name
PJ7
PJ6/ PCINT15
PJ5/ PCINT14
PJ4/ PCINT13
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
PTOE
-
-
-
-
DIEOE
0
PCINT15·PCIE1
PCINT14·PCIE1
PCINT13·PCIE1
DIEOV
0
1
1
1
DI
0
PCINT15 INPUT
PCINT14 INPUT
PCINT13 INPUT
AIO
-
-
-
-
Table 13-29. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PJ3:PJ0
13.3.10
Signal Name
PJ3/PCINT12
PJ2/XCK3/PCINT11
PJ1/TXD3/PCINT10
PJ0/RXD3/PCINT9
PUOE
0
0
TXEN3
RXEN3
PUOV
0
0
0
PORTJ0·PUD
DDOE
0
XCK3 OUTPUT
ENABLE
TXEN3
RXEN3
DDOV
0
1
1
0
PVOE
0
XCK3 OUTPUT
ENABLE
TXEN3
0
PVOV
0
XCK3
TXD3
0
PTOE
-
-
-
-
DIEOE
PCINT12·PCIE1
PCINT11·PCIE1
PCINT10·PCIE1
PCINT9·PCIE1
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
PCINT12 INPUT
PCINT11 INPUT
XCK3 INPUT
PCINT10 INPUT
PCINT9 INPUT RXD3
AIO
-
-
-
-
Alternate Functions of Port K
The Port K alternate pin configuration is as follows:
Table 13-30. Port K Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PK7
ADC15/PCINT23 (ADC Input Channel 15 or Pin Change Interrupt 23)
PK6
ADC14/PCINT22 (ADC Input Channel 14 or Pin Change Interrupt 22)
PK5
ADC13/PCINT21 (ADC Input Channel 13 or Pin Change Interrupt 21)
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Table 13-30. Port K Pins Alternate Functions (Continued)
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PK4
ADC12/PCINT20 (ADC Input Channel 12 or Pin Change Interrupt 20)
PK3
ADC11/PCINT19 (ADC Input Channel 11 or Pin Change Interrupt 19)
PK2
ADC10/PCINT18 (ADC Input Channel 10 or Pin Change Interrupt 18)
PK1
ADC9/PCINT17 (ADC Input Channel 9 or Pin Change Interrupt 17)
PK0
ADC8 /PCINT16 (ADC Input Channel 8 or Pin Change Interrupt 16)
• ADC15:8/PCINT23:16 – Port K, Bit 7:0
ADC15:8, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 15 - 8.
PCINT23:16, Pin Change Interrupt Source 23:16. The PK7:0 pins can serve as External Interrupt Sources.
Table 13-31. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PK7:PK4
Signal Name
PK7/ADC15/PCINT23
PK6/ADC14/PCINT22
PK5/ADC13/PCINT21
PK4/ADC12/PCINT20
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
PCINT23 • PCIE2
PCINT22 • PCIE2
PCINT21 • PCIE2
PCINT20 • PCIE2
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
PCINT23 INPUT
PCINT22 INPUT
PCINT21 INPUT
PCINT20 INPUT
AIO
ADC15 INPUT
ADC14 INPUT
ADC13 INPUT
ADC12 INPUT
Table 13-32. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PK3:PK0
Signal Name
PK3/ADC11/PCINT19
PK2/ADC10/PCINT18
PK1/ADC9/PCINT17
PK0/ADC8/PCINT16
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
PCINT19 • PCIE2
PCINT18 • PCIE2
PCINT17 • PCIE2
PCINT16 • PCIE2
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
PCINT19 INPUT
PCINT18 INPUT
PCINT17 INPUT
PCINT16 INPUT
AIO
ADC11 INPUT
ADC10INPUT
ADC9 INPUT
ADC8 INPUT
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13.3.11
Alternate Functions of Port L
The Port L alternate pin configuration is as follows:
Table 13-33. Port L Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PL7
–
PL6
–
PL5
OC5C (Output Compare and PWM Output C for Timer/Counter5)
PL4
OC5B (Output Compare and PWM Output B for Timer/Counter5)
PL3
OC5A (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter5)
PL2
T5 (Timer/Counter5 Clock Input)
PL1
ICP5 (Timer/Counter5 Input Capture Trigger)
PL0
ICP4 (Timer/Counter4 Input Capture Trigger)
• OC5C – Port L, Bit 5
OC5C, Output Compare Match C output: The PL5 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter5 Output Compare C. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDL5 set) to serve this function. The OC5C pin is also
the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• OC5B – Port L, Bit 4
OC5B, Output Compare Match B output: The PL4 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter 5 Output Compare B. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDL4 set) to serve this function. The OC5B pin is also
the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• OC5A – Port L, Bit 3
OC5A, Output Compare Match A output: The PL3 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter 5 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDL3 set) to serve this function. The OC5A pin is also
the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• T5 – Port L, Bit 2
T5, Timer/Counter5 counter source.
• ICP5 – Port L, Bit 1
ICP5, Input Capture Pin 5: The PL1 pin can serve as an Input Capture pin for Timer/Counter5.
• ICP4 – Port L, Bit 0
ICP4, Input Capture Pin 4: The PL0 pin can serve as an Input Capture pin for Timer/Counter4.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
94
Table 13-34 and Table 13-35 relates the alternate functions of Port L to the overriding signals shown in Figure 135 on page 73.
Table 13-34. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PL7:PL4
Signal Name
PL7
PL6
PL5/OC5C
PL4/OC5B
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
–
–
0
0
DDOV
–
–
0
0
PVOE
–
–
OC5C ENABLE
OC5B ENABLE
PVOV
–
–
OC5C
OC5B
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
0
0
0
0
AIO
–
–
–
–
Table 13-35. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PL3:PL0
Signal Name
PL3/OC5A
PL2/T5
PL1/ICP5
PL0/ICP4
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
OC5A ENABLE
0
0
0
PVOV
OC5A
0
0
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
0
T5 INPUT
ICP5 INPUT
ICP4 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
95
13.4
13.4.1
Register Description for I/O-Ports
MCUCR – MCU Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x35 (0x55)
JTD
–
–
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MCUCR
• Bit 4 – PUD: Pull-up Disable
When this bit is written to one, the I/O ports pull-up resistors are disabled even if the DDxn and PORTxn Registers
are configured to enable the pull-up resistor ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01). See “Configuring the Pin” on page 68 for
more details about this feature.
13.4.2
PORTA – Port A Data Register
Bit
13.4.3
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x02 (0x22)
PORTA7
PORTA6
PORTA5
PORTA4
PORTA3
PORTA2
PORTA1
PORTA0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRA – Port A Data Direction Register
Bit
13.4.4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x01 (0x21)
DDA7
DDA6
DDA5
DDA4
DDA3
DDA2
DDA1
DDA0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x00 (0x20)
PINA7
PINA6
PINA5
PINA4
PINA3
PINA2
PINA1
PINA0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x05 (0x25)
PORTB7
PORTB6
PORTB5
PORTB4
PORTB3
PORTB2
PORTB1
PORTB0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PORTB
DDRB – Port B Data Direction Register
Bit
13.4.7
PINA
PORTB – Port B Data Register
Bit
13.4.6
DDRA
PINA – Port A Input Pins Address
Bit
13.4.5
PORTA
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x04 (0x24)
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRB
PINB – Port B Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x03 (0x23)
PINB7
PINB6
PINB5
PINB4
PINB3
PINB2
PINB1
PINB0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
PINB
96
13.4.8
PORTC – Port C Data Register
Bit
13.4.9
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x08 (0x28)
PORTC7
PORTC6
PORTC5
PORTC4
PORTC3
PORTC2
PORTC1
PORTC0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRC – Port C Data Direction Register
Bit
13.4.10
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x07 (0x27)
DDC7
DDC6
DDC5
DDC4
DDC3
DDC2
DDC1
DDC0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x06 (0x26)
PINC7
PINC6
PINC5
PINC4
PINC3
PINC2
PINC1
PINC0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x0B (0x2B)
PORTD7
PORTD6
PORTD5
PORTD4
PORTD3
PORTD2
PORTD1
PORTD0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x0A (0x2A)
DDD7
DDD6
DDD5
DDD4
DDD3
DDD2
DDD1
DDD0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x09 (0x29)
PIND7
PIND6
PIND5
PIND4
PIND3
PIND2
PIND1
PIND0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
PIND
PORTE – Port E Data Register
Bit
13.4.15
DDRD
PIND – Port D Input Pins Address
Bit
13.4.14
PORTD
DDRD – Port D Data Direction Register
Bit
13.4.13
PINC
PORTD – Port D Data Register
Bit
13.4.12
DDRC
PINC– Port C Input Pins Address
Bit
13.4.11
PORTC
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x0E (0x2E)
PORTE7
PORTE6
PORTE5
PORTE4
PORTE3
PORTE2
PORTE1
PORTE0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PORTE
DDRE – Port E Data Direction Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDE7
DDE6
DDE5
DDE4
DDE3
DDE2
DDE1
DDE0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x0D (0x2D)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
DDRE
97
13.4.16
PINE – Port E Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PINE7
PINE6
PINE5
PINE4
PINE3
PINE2
PINE1
PINE0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0x0C (0x2C)
13.4.17
PORTF – Port F Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x11 (0x31)
PORTF7
PORTF6
PORTF5
PORTF4
PORTF3
PORTF2
PORTF1
PORTF0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13.4.18
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x10 (0x30)
DDF7
DDF6
DDF5
DDF4
DDF3
DDF2
DDF1
DDF0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13.4.19
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x0F (0x2F)
PINF7
PINF6
PINF5
PINF4
PINF3
PINF2
PINF1
PINF0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
13.4.20
13.4.23
DDRF
PINF – Port F Input Pins Address
Bit
13.4.22
PORTF
DDRF – Port F Data Direction Register
Bit
13.4.21
PINE
PINF
PORTG – Port G Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x14 (0x34)
–
–
PORTG5
PORTG4
PORTG3
PORTG2
PORTG1
PORTG0
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PORTG
DDRG – Port G Data Direction Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x13 (0x33)
–
–
DDG5
DDG4
DDG3
DDG2
DDG1
DDG0
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRG
PING – Port G Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x12 (0x32)
–
–
PING5
PING4
PING3
PING2
PING1
PING0
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
PING
PORTH – Port H Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTH7
PORTH6
PORTH5
PORTH4
PORTH3
PORTH2
PORTH1
PORTH0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x102)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
PORTH
98
13.4.24
DDRH – Port H Data Direction Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDH7
DDH6
DDH5
DDH4
DDH3
DDH2
DDH1
DDH0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x101)
13.4.25
PINH – Port H Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PINH5
PINH5
PINH5
PINH4
PINH3
PINGH
PINH1
PINH0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
(0x100)
13.4.26
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTJ7
PORTJ6
PORTJ5
PORTJ4
PORTJ3
PORTJ2
PORTJ1
PORTJ0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x105)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDJ7
DDJ6
DDJ5
DDJ4
DDJ3
DDJ2
DDJ1
DDJ0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x104)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PINJ5
PINJ5
PINJ5
PINJ4
PINJ3
PINGJ
PINJ1
PINJ0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
(0x103)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTK7
PORTK6
PORTK5
PORTK4
PORTK3
PORTK2
PORTK1
PORTK0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x108)
PORTK
DDRK – Port K Data Direction Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDK7
DDK6
DDK5
DDK4
DDK3
DDK2
DDK1
DDK0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x107)
13.4.31
PINJ
PORTK – Port K Data Register
Bit
13.4.30
DDRJ
PINJ – Port J Input Pins Address
Bit
13.4.29
PORTJ
DDRJ – Port J Data Direction Register
Bit
13.4.28
PINH
PORTJ – Port J Data Register
Bit
13.4.27
DDRH
DDRK
PINK – Port K Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PINK5
PINK5
PINK5
PINK4
PINK3
PINGK
PINK1
PINK0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
(0x106)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
PINK
99
13.4.32
PORTL – Port L Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTL7
PORTL6
PORTL5
PORTL4
PORTL3
PORTL2
PORTL1
PORTL0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x10B)
13.4.33
DDRL – Port L Data Direction Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDL7
DDL6
DDL5
DDL4
DDL3
DDL2
DDL1
DDL0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x10A)
13.4.34
PORTL
DDRL
PINL – Port L Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PINL5
PINL5
PINL5
PINL4
PINL3
PINGL
PINL1
PINL0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
(0x109)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
PINL
100
14. Interrupts
This section describes the specifics of the interrupt handling as performed in ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561.
For a general explanation of the AVR interrupt handling, refer to “Reset and Interrupt Handling” on page 17.
14.1
Interrupt Vectors in ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561
Table 14-1.
Reset and Interrupt Vectors
Vector No.
Program Address(2)
Source
Interrupt Definition
1
$0000(1)
RESET
External Pin, Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset, Watchdog
Reset, and JTAG AVR Reset
2
$0002
INT0
External Interrupt Request 0
3
$0004
INT1
External Interrupt Request 1
4
$0006
INT2
External Interrupt Request 2
5
$0008
INT3
External Interrupt Request 3
6
$000A
INT4
External Interrupt Request 4
7
$000C
INT5
External Interrupt Request 5
8
$000E
INT6
External Interrupt Request 6
9
$0010
INT7
External Interrupt Request 7
10
$0012
PCINT0
Pin Change Interrupt Request 0
11
$0014
PCINT1
Pin Change Interrupt Request 1
12
$0016(3)
PCINT2
Pin Change Interrupt Request 2
13
$0018
WDT
Watchdog Time-out Interrupt
14
$001A
TIMER2 COMPA
Timer/Counter2 Compare Match A
15
$001C
TIMER2 COMPB
Timer/Counter2 Compare Match B
16
$001E
TIMER2 OVF
Timer/Counter2 Overflow
17
$0020
TIMER1 CAPT
Timer/Counter1 Capture Event
18
$0022
TIMER1 COMPA
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match A
19
$0024
TIMER1 COMPB
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B
20
$0026
TIMER1 COMPC
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match C
21
$0028
TIMER1 OVF
Timer/Counter1 Overflow
22
$002A
TIMER0 COMPA
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match A
23
$002C
TIMER0 COMPB
Timer/Counter0 Compare match B
24
$002E
TIMER0 OVF
Timer/Counter0 Overflow
25
$0030
SPI, STC
SPI Serial Transfer Complete
26
$0032
USART0 RX
USART0 Rx Complete
27
$0034
USART0 UDRE
USART0 Data Register Empty
28
$0036
USART0 TX
USART0 Tx Complete
29
$0038
ANALOG COMP
Analog Comparator
30
$003A
ADC
ADC Conversion Complete
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
101
Table 14-1.
Vector No.
Program Address(2)
Source
Interrupt Definition
31
$003C
EE READY
EEPROM Ready
32
$003E
TIMER3 CAPT
Timer/Counter3 Capture Event
33
$0040
TIMER3 COMPA
Timer/Counter3 Compare Match A
34
$0042
TIMER3 COMPB
Timer/Counter3 Compare Match B
35
$0044
TIMER3 COMPC
Timer/Counter3 Compare Match C
36
$0046
TIMER3 OVF
Timer/Counter3 Overflow
37
$0048
USART1 RX
USART1 Rx Complete
38
$004A
USART1 UDRE
USART1 Data Register Empty
39
$004C
USART1 TX
USART1 Tx Complete
40
$004E
TWI
2-wire Serial Interface
41
$0050
SPM READY
Store Program Memory Ready
42
$0052(3)
TIMER4 CAPT
Timer/Counter4 Capture Event
43
$0054
TIMER4 COMPA
Timer/Counter4 Compare Match A
44
$0056
TIMER4 COMPB
Timer/Counter4 Compare Match B
45
$0058
TIMER4 COMPC
Timer/Counter4 Compare Match C
46
$005A
TIMER4 OVF
Timer/Counter4 Overflow
(3)
47
$005C
TIMER5 CAPT
Timer/Counter5 Capture Event
48
$005E
TIMER5 COMPA
Timer/Counter5 Compare Match A
49
$0060
TIMER5 COMPB
Timer/Counter5 Compare Match B
50
$0062
TIMER5 COMPC
Timer/Counter5 Compare Match C
51
$0064
TIMER5 OVF
Timer/Counter5 Overflow
$0066
(3)
USART2 RX
USART2 Rx Complete
53
$0068
(3)
USART2 UDRE
USART2 Data Register Empty
54
$006A(3)
USART2 TX
USART2 Tx Complete
55
(3)
USART3 RX
USART3 Rx Complete
(3)
USART3 UDRE
USART3 Data Register Empty
(3)
USART3 TX
USART3 Tx Complete
52
56
57
Notes:
14.2
Reset and Interrupt Vectors (Continued)
$006C
$006E
$0070
1. When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed, the device will jump to the Boot Loader address at reset, see “Memory
Programming” on page 325.
2. When the IVSEL bit in MCUCR is set, Interrupt Vectors will be moved to the start of the Boot Flash Section. The
address of each Interrupt Vector will then be the address in this table added to the start address of the Boot Flash
Section.
3. Only available in ATmega640/1280/2560.
Reset and Interrupt Vector placement
Table 14-2 on page 103 shows Reset and Interrupt Vectors placement for the various combinations of BOOTRST
and IVSEL settings. If the program never enables an interrupt source, the Interrupt Vectors are not used, and regular program code can be placed at these locations. This is also the case if the Reset Vector is in the Application
section while the Interrupt Vectors are in the Boot section or vice versa.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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102
Reset and Interrupt Vectors Placement(1)
Table 14-2.
BOOTRST
IVSEL
Reset Address
Interrupt Vectors Start Address
1
0
0x0000
0x0002
1
1
0x0000
Boot Reset Address + 0x0002
0
0
Boot Reset Address
0x0002
0
1
Boot Reset Address
Boot Reset Address + 0x0002
Note:
1. The Boot Reset Address is shown in Table 29-7 on page 320 through Table 29-15 on page 322. For the BOOTRST
Fuse “1” means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
The most typical and general program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses in
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 is:
Addre
ss
Label
s
Code
Comments
0x000
0
jmp
RESET
; Reset Handler
0x000
2
jmp
INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x000
4
jmp
INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
0x000
6
jmp
INT2
; IRQ2 Handler
0x000
8
jmp
INT3
; IRQ3 Handler
0x000
A
jmp
INT4
; IRQ4 Handler
0x000
C
jmp
INT5
; IRQ5 Handler
0x000
E
jmp
INT6
; IRQ6 Handler
0x001
0
jmp
INT7
; IRQ7 Handler
0x001
2
jmp
PCINT0
; PCINT0 Handler
0x001
4
jmp
PCINT1
; PCINT1 Handler
0x001
6
jmp
PCINT2
; PCINT2 Handler
0X001
8
jmp
WDT
; Watchdog Timeout Handler
0x001
A
jmp
TIM2_COMPA
; Timer2 CompareA Handler
0x001
C
jmp
TIM2_COMPB
; Timer2 CompareB Handler
0x001
E
jmp
TIM2_OVF
; Timer2 Overflow Handler
0x002
0
jmp
TIM1_CAPT
; Timer1 Capture Handler
0x002
2
jmp
TIM1_COMPA
; Timer1 CompareA Handler
0x002
4
jmp
TIM1_COMPB
; Timer1 CompareB Handler
0x002
6
jmp
TIM1_COMPC
; Timer1 CompareC Handler
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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103
0x002
8
jmp
TIM1_OVF
; Timer1 Overflow Handler
0x002
A
jmp
TIM0_COMPA
; Timer0 CompareA Handler
0x002
C
jmp
TIM0_COMPB
; Timer0 CompareB Handler
0x002
E
jmp
TIM0_OVF
; Timer0 Overflow Handler
0x003
0
jmp
SPI_STC
; SPI Transfer Complete Handler
0x003
2
jmp
USART0_RXC
; USART0 RX Complete Handler
0x003
4
jmp
USART0_UDRE
; USART0,UDR Empty Handler
0x003
6
jmp
USART0_TXC
; USART0 TX Complete Handler
0x003
8
jmp
ANA_COMP
; Analog Comparator Handler
0x003
A
jmp
ADC
; ADC Conversion Complete
Handler
0x003
C
jmp
EE_RDY
; EEPROM Ready Handler
0x003
E
jmp
TIM3_CAPT
; Timer3 Capture Handler
0x004
0
jmp
TIM3_COMPA
; Timer3 CompareA Handler
0x004
2
jmp
TIM3_COMPB
; Timer3 CompareB Handler
0x004
4
jmp
TIM3_COMPC
; Timer3 CompareC Handler
0x004
6
jmp
TIM3_OVF
; Timer3 Overflow Handler
0x004
8
jmp
USART1_RXC
; USART1 RX Complete Handler
0x004
A
jmp
USART1_UDRE
; USART1,UDR Empty Handler
0x004
C
jmp
USART1_TXC
; USART1 TX Complete Handler
0x004
E
jmp
TWI
; 2-wire Serial Handler
0x005
0
jmp
SPM_RDY
; SPM Ready Handler
0x005
2
jmp
TIM4_CAPT
; Timer4 Capture Handler
0x005
4
jmp
TIM4_COMPA
; Timer4 CompareA Handler
0x005
6
jmp
TIM4_COMPB
; Timer4 CompareB Handler
0x005
8
jmp
TIM4_COMPC
; Timer4 CompareC Handler
0x005
A
jmp
TIM4_OVF
; Timer4 Overflow Handler
0x005
C
jmp
TIM5_CAPT
; Timer5 Capture Handler
0x005
E
jmp
TIM5_COMPA
; Timer5 CompareA Handler
0x006
0
jmp
TIM5_COMPB
; Timer5 CompareB Handler
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0x006
2
jmp
TIM5_COMPC
; Timer5 CompareC Handler
0x006
4
jmp
TIM5_OVF
; Timer5 Overflow Handler
0x006
6
jmp
USART2_RXC
; USART2 RX Complete Handler
0x006
8
jmp
USART2_UDRE
; USART2,UDR Empty Handler
0x006
A
jmp
USART2_TXC
; USART2 TX Complete Handler
0x006
C
jmp
USART3_RXC
; USART3 RX Complete Handler
0x006
E
jmp
USART3_UDRE
; USART3,UDR Empty Handler
0x007
0
jmp
USART3_TXC
; USART3 TX Complete Handler
ldi
r16,
high(RAMEND)
; Main program start
0x007
3
out
SPH,r16
; Set Stack Pointer to top of
RAM
0x007
4
ldi
r16,
low(RAMEND)
0x007
5
out
SPL,r16
0x007
6
sei
0x007
7
<ins
tr
>
;
0x007
2
...
RESET
:
...
; Enable interrupts
xxx
..
.
...
When the BOOTRST Fuse is unprogrammed, the Boot section size set to 8Kbytes and the IVSEL bit in the
MCUCR Register is set before any interrupts are enabled, the most typical and general program setup for the
Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses is:
Address Labels Code
Comments
0x00000 RESET: ldi
r16,high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x00001
out
SPH,r16
0x00002
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x00003
0x00004
out
sei
SPL,r16
0x00005
<instr>
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
; Enable interrupts
xxx
;
.org 0x1F002
0x1F002
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x1F004
jmp
EXT_INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x1FO70
jmp
USART3_TXC
; USART3 TX Complete Handler
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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105
When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed and the Boot section size set to 8Kbytes, the most typical and general
program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses is:
Address Labels Code
Comments
.org 0x0002
0x00002
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x00004
jmp
EXT_INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x00070
jmp
USART3_TXC
; USART3 TX Complete Handler
;
.org 0x1F000
0x1F000 RESET: ldi
r16,high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x1F001
out
SPH,r16
0x1F002
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x1F003
0x1F004
out
sei
SPL,r16
0x1F005
<instr>
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
; Enable interrupts
xxx
When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed, the Boot section size set to 8Kbytes and the IVSEL bit in the MCUCR
Register is set before any interrupts are enabled, the most typical and general program setup for the Reset and
Interrupt Vector Addresses is:
Address
Labels Code
Comments
;
.org 0x1F000
0x1F000
0x1F002
jmp
jmp
RESET
EXT_INT0
; Reset handler
; IRQ0 Handler
0x1F004
jmp
EXT_INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x1F070
jmp
USART3_TXC
; USART3 TX Complete Handler
;
0x1F072
RESET: ldi
0x1F073
out
r16,high(RAMEND) ; Main program start
SPH,r16
0x1F074
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x1F075
0x1F076
out
sei
SPL,r16
0x1FO77
<instr>
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
; Enable interrupts
xxx
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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106
14.3
Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Section
The MCU Control Register controls the placement of the Interrupt Vector table, see Code Example below. For
more details, see “Reset and Interrupt Handling” on page 17.
Assembly Code Example
Move_interrupts:
; Get MCUCR
in
r16, MCUCR
mov r17, r16
; Enable change of Interrupt Vectors
ori r16, (1<<IVCE)
out MCUCR, r16
; Move interrupts to Boot Flash section
ori r16, (1<<IVSEL)
out MCUCR, r17
ret
C Code Example
void Move_interrupts(void)
{
uchar temp;
/* Get MCUCR*/
temp = MCUCR;
/* Enable change of Interrupt Vectors */
MCUCR = temp|(1<<IVCE);
/* Move interrupts to Boot Flash section */
MCUCR = temp|(1<<IVSEL);
}
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107
14.4
14.4.1
Register Description
MCUCR – MCU Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x35 (0x55)
JTD
–
–
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MCUCR
• Bit 1 – IVSEL: Interrupt Vector Select
When the IVSEL bit is cleared (zero), the Interrupt Vectors are placed at the start of the Flash memory. When this
bit is set (one), the Interrupt Vectors are moved to the beginning of the Boot Loader section of the Flash. The actual
address of the start of the Boot Flash Section is determined by the BOOTSZ Fuses. Refer to the section “Memory
Programming” on page 325 for details. To avoid unintentional changes of Interrupt Vector tables, a special write
procedure must be followed to change the IVSEL bit (see “Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Section” on page 107):
1. Write the Interrupt Vector Change Enable (IVCE) bit to one.
2. Within four cycles, write the desired value to IVSEL while writing a zero to IVCE.
Interrupts will automatically be disabled while this sequence is executed. Interrupts are disabled in the cycle IVCE
is set, and they remain disabled until after the instruction following the write to IVSEL. If IVSEL is not written, interrupts remain disabled for four cycles. The I-bit in the Status Register is unaffected by the automatic disabling.
Note:
If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Boot Loader section and Boot Lock bit BLB02 is programmed, interrupts are disabled while executing from the Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Application section and Boot
Lock bit BLB12 is programed, interrupts are disabled while executing from the Boot Loader section. Refer to the section “Memory Programming” on page 325 for details on Boot Lock bits.
• Bit 0 – IVCE: Interrupt Vector Change Enable
The IVCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the IVSEL bit. IVCE is cleared by hardware four
cycles after it is written or when IVSEL is written. Setting the IVCE bit will disable interrupts, as explained in the
IVSEL description.
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108
15. External Interrupts
The External Interrupts are triggered by the INT7:0 pin or any of the PCINT23:0 pins. Observe that, if enabled, the
interrupts will trigger even if the INT7:0 or PCINT23:0 pins are configured as outputs. This feature provides a way
of generating a software interrupt.
The Pin change interrupt PCI2 will trigger if any enabled PCINT23:16 pin toggles, Pin change interrupt PCI1 if any
enabled PCINT15:8 toggles and Pin change interrupts PCI0 will trigger if any enabled PCINT7:0 pin toggles.
PCMSK2, PCMSK1 and PCMSK0 Registers control which pins contribute to the pin change interrupts. Pin change
interrupts on PCINT23:0 are detected asynchronously. This implies that these interrupts can be used for waking
the part also from sleep modes other than Idle mode.
The External Interrupts can be triggered by a falling or rising edge or a low level. This is set up as indicated in the
specification for the External Interrupt Control Registers – EICRA (INT3:0) and EICRB (INT7:4). When the external
interrupt is enabled and is configured as level triggered, the interrupt will trigger as long as the pin is held low.
Low level interrupts and the edge interrupt on INT3:0 are detected asynchronously. This implies that these interrupts can be used for waking the part also from sleep modes other than Idle mode. The I/O clock is halted in all
sleep modes except Idle mode.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down, the required level must be held long
enough for the MCU to complete the wake-up to trigger the level interrupt. If the level disappears before the end of
the Start-up Time, the MCU will still wake up, but no interrupt will be generated. The start-up time is defined by the
SUT and CKSEL Fuses as described in “System Clock and Clock Options” on page 39.
15.1
Pin Change Interrupt Timing
An example of timing of a pin change interrupt is shown in Figure 15-1.
Figure 15-1. Normal pin change interrupt.
pcint_in_(0)
pin_lat
PCINT(0)
D
LE
0
Q
pcint_syn
pcint_setflag
PCIF
pin_sync
x
clk
PCINT(0) in PCMSK(x)
clk
clk
PCINT(n)
pin_lat
pin_sync
pcint_in_(n)
pcint_syn
pcint_setflag
PCIF
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109
15.2
15.2.1
Register Description
EICRA – External Interrupt Control Register A
The External Interrupt Control Register A contains control bits for interrupt sense control.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ISC31
ISC30
ISC21
ISC20
ISC11
ISC10
ISC01
ISC00
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x69)
EICRA
• Bits 7:0 – ISC31, ISC30 – ISC00, ISC00: External Interrupt 3 - 0 Sense Control Bits
The External Interrupts 3 - 0 are activated by the external pins INT3:0 if the SREG I-flag and the corresponding
interrupt mask in the EIMSK is set. The level and edges on the external pins that activate the interrupts are defined
in Table 15-1. Edges on INT3:0 are registered asynchronously. Pulses on INT3:0 pins wider than the minimum
pulse width given in Table 15-2 will generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate an interrupt. If low level interrupt is selected, the low level must be held until the completion of the currently executing
instruction to generate an interrupt. If enabled, a level triggered interrupt will generate an interrupt request as long
as the pin is held low. When changing the ISCn bit, an interrupt can occur. Therefore, it is recommended to first
disable INTn by clearing its Interrupt Enable bit in the EIMSK Register. Then, the ISCn bit can be changed. Finally,
the INTn interrupt flag should be cleared by writing a logical one to its Interrupt Flag bit (INTFn) in the EIFR Register before the interrupt is re-enabled.
Table 15-1.
Interrupt Sense Control(1)
ISCn1
ISCn0
Description
0
0
The low level of INTn generates an interrupt request
0
1
Any edge of INTn generates asynchronously an interrupt request
1
0
The falling edge of INTn generates asynchronously an interrupt request
1
1
The rising edge of INTn generates asynchronously an interrupt request
Note:
1. n = 3, 2, 1or 0.
When changing the ISCn1/ISCn0 bits, the interrupt must be disabled by clearing its Interrupt Enable bit in the
EIMSK Register. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the bits are changed.
Table 15-2.
Asynchronous External Interrupt Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
tINT
Minimum pulse width for asynchronous external interrupt
Condition
Min.
Typ.
Max.
50
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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Units
ns
110
15.2.2
EICRB – External Interrupt Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ISC71
ISC70
ISC61
ISC60
ISC51
ISC50
ISC41
ISC40
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x6A)
EICRB
• Bits 7:0 – ISC71, ISC70 - ISC41, ISC40: External Interrupt 7 - 4 Sense Control Bits
The External Interrupts 7 - 4 are activated by the external pins INT7:4 if the SREG I-flag and the corresponding
interrupt mask in the EIMSK is set. The level and edges on the external pins that activate the interrupts are defined
in Table 15-3. The value on the INT7:4 pins are sampled before detecting edges. If edge or toggle interrupt is
selected, pulses that last longer than one clock period will generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed
to generate an interrupt. Observe that CPU clock frequency can be lower than the XTAL frequency if the XTAL
divider is enabled. If low level interrupt is selected, the low level must be held until the completion of the currently
executing instruction to generate an interrupt. If enabled, a level triggered interrupt will generate an interrupt
request as long as the pin is held low.
Table 15-3.
ISCn1
ISCn0
Description
0
0
The low level of INTn generates an interrupt request
0
1
Any logical change on INTn generates an interrupt request
1
0
The falling edge between two samples of INTn generates an interrupt request
1
1
The rising edge between two samples of INTn generates an interrupt request
Note:
15.2.3
Interrupt Sense Control(1)
1. n = 7, 6, 5 or 4.
When changing the ISCn1/ISCn0 bits, the interrupt must be disabled by clearing its Interrupt Enable bit in the
EIMSK Register. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the bits are changed.
EIMSK – External Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x1D (0x3D)
INT7
INT6
INT5
INT4
INT3
INT2
INT1
INT0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EIMSK
• Bits 7:0 – INT7:0: External Interrupt Request 7 - 0 Enable
When an INT7:0 bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one), the corresponding
external pin interrupt is enabled. The Interrupt Sense Control bits in the External Interrupt Control Registers –
EICRA and EICRB – defines whether the external interrupt is activated on rising or falling edge or level sensed.
Activity on any of these pins will trigger an interrupt request even if the pin is enabled as an output. This provides a
way of generating a software interrupt.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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111
15.2.4
EIFR – External Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
INTF7
INTF6
INTF5
INTF4
INTF3
INTF2
INTF1
IINTF0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x1C (0x3C)
EIFR
• Bits 7:0 – INTF7:0: External Interrupt Flags 7 - 0
When an edge or logic change on the INT7:0 pin triggers an interrupt request, INTF7:0 becomes set (one). If the Ibit in SREG and the corresponding interrupt enable bit, INT7:0 in EIMSK, are set (one), the MCU will jump to the
interrupt vector. The flag is cleared when the interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by
writing a logical one to it. These flags are always cleared when INT7:0 are configured as level interrupt. Note that
when entering sleep mode with the INT3:0 interrupts disabled, the input buffers on these pins will be disabled. This
may cause a logic change in internal signals which will set the INTF3:0 flags. See “Digital Input Enable and Sleep
Modes” on page 71 for more information.
15.2.5
PCICR – Pin Change Interrupt Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x68)
–
–
–
–
–
PCIE2
PCIE1
PCIE0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PCICR
• Bit 2 – PCIE2: Pin Change Interrupt Enable 1
When the PCIE2 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one), pin change interrupt 2 is
enabled. Any change on any enabled PCINT23:16 pin will cause an interrupt. The corresponding interrupt of Pin
Change Interrupt Request is executed from the PCI2 Interrupt Vector. PCINT23:16 pins are enabled individually by
the PCMSK2 Register.
• Bit 1 – PCIE1: Pin Change Interrupt Enable 1
When the PCIE1 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one), pin change interrupt 1 is
enabled. Any change on any enabled PCINT15:8 pin will cause an interrupt. The corresponding interrupt of Pin
Change Interrupt Request is executed from the PCI1 Interrupt Vector. PCINT15:8 pins are enabled individually by
the PCMSK1 Register.
• Bit 0 – PCIE0: Pin Change Interrupt Enable 0
When the PCIE0 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one), pin change interrupt 0 is
enabled. Any change on any enabled PCINT7:0 pin will cause an interrupt. The corresponding interrupt of Pin
Change Interrupt Request is executed from the PCI0 Interrupt Vector. PCINT7:0 pins are enabled individually by
the PCMSK0 Register.
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112
15.2.6
PCIFR – Pin Change Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x1B (0x3B)
–
–
–
–
–
PCIF2
PCIF1
PCIF0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PCIFR
• Bit 2 – PCIF2: Pin Change Interrupt Flag 1
When a logic change on any PCINT23:16 pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF2 becomes set (one). If the I-bit in
SREG and the PCIE2 bit in PCICR are set (one), the MCU will jump to the corresponding Interrupt Vector. The flag
is cleared when the interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it.
• Bit 1 – PCIF1: Pin Change Interrupt Flag 1
When a logic change on any PCINT15:8 pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF1 becomes set (one). If the I-bit in
SREG and the PCIE1 bit in PCICR are set (one), the MCU will jump to the corresponding Interrupt Vector. The flag
is cleared when the interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it.
• Bit 0 – PCIF0: Pin Change Interrupt Flag 0
When a logic change on any PCINT7:0 pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF0 becomes set (one). If the I-bit in
SREG and the PCIE0 bit in PCICR are set (one), the MCU will jump to the corresponding Interrupt Vector. The flag
is cleared when the interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it.
15.2.7
PCMSK2 – Pin Change Mask Register 2
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PCINT23
PCINT22
PCINT21
PCINT20
PCINT19
PCINT18
PCINT17
PCINT16
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x6D)
PCMSK2
• Bit 7:0 – PCINT23:16: Pin Change Enable Mask 23:16
Each PCINT23:16-bit selects whether pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT23:16
is set and the PCIE2 bit in PCICR is set, pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If
PCINT23:16 is cleared, pin change interrupt on the corresponding I/O pin is disabled.
15.2.8
PCMSK1 – Pin Change Mask Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PCINT15
PCINT14
PCINT13
PCINT12
PCINT11
PCINT10
PCINT9
PCINT8
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x6C)
PCMSK1
• Bit 7:0 – PCINT15:8: Pin Change Enable Mask 15:8
Each PCINT15:8-bit selects whether pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT15:8 is
set and the PCIE1 bit in PCICR is set, pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT15:8
is cleared, pin change interrupt on the corresponding I/O pin is disabled.
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15.2.9
PCMSK0 – Pin Change Mask Register 0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x6B)
PCINT7
PCINT6
PCINT5
PCINT4
PCINT3
PCINT2
PCINT1
PCINT0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PCMSK0
• Bit 7:0 – PCINT7:0: Pin Change Enable Mask 7:0
Each PCINT7:0 bit selects whether pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT7:0 is set
and the PCIE0 bit in PCICR is set, pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT7:0 is
cleared, pin change interrupt on the corresponding I/O pin is disabled.
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16. 8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
16.2
Two Independent Output Compare Units
Double Buffered Output Compare Registers
Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
Glitch Free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
Variable PWM Period
Frequency Generator
Three Independent Interrupt Sources (TOV0, OCF0A, and OCF0B)
Overview
Timer/Counter0 is a general purpose 8-bit Timer/Counter module, with two independent Output Compare Units,
and with PWM support. It allows accurate program execution timing (event management) and wave generation.
A simplified block diagram of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 16-1. For the actual placement of I/O pins,
refer to “TQFP-pinout ATmega640/1280/2560” on page 2. CPU accessible I/O Registers, including I/O bits and I/O
pins, are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the “Register Description” on
page 126.
Figure 16-1. 8-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram
Count
Clear
Direction
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
Control Logic
clkTn
Clock Select
Edge
Detector
TOP
Tn
BOTTOM
( From Prescaler )
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=
=0
OCnA
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnA
OCRnA
DATA BUS
16.1
Fixed
TOP
Value
OCnB
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnB
OCRnB
TCCRnA
TCCRnB
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16.2.1
Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT0) and Output Compare Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B) are 8-bit registers. Interrupt
request (abbreviated to Int.Req. in the figure) signals are all visible in the Timer Interrupt Flag Register (TIFR0). All
interrupts are individually masked with the Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK0). TIFR0 and TIMSK0 are not
shown in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or by an external clock source on the T0 pin. The
Clock Select logic block controls which clock source and edge the Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement)
its value. The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the Clock Select logic is
referred to as the timer clock (clkT0).
The double buffered Output Compare Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B) are compared with the Timer/Counter value
at all times. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output Compare pins (OC0A and OC0B). See “Output Compare Unit” on page 117. for
details. The Compare Match event will also set the Compare Flag (OCF0A or OCF0B) which can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
16.2.2
Definitions
Many register and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “n” replaces the
Timer/Counter number, in this case 0. A lower case “x” replaces the Output Compare Unit, in this case Compare
Unit A or Compare Unit B. However, when using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be
used, that is, TCNT0 for accessing Timer/Counter0 counter value and so on.
The definitions in Table 16-1 are also used extensively throughout the document.
Table 16-1.
16.3
Definitions
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes 0x00.
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFF (decimal 255).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the count
sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be the fixed value 0xFF (MAX) or the value stored
in the OCR0A Register. The assignment is dependent on the mode of operation.
Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock source is selected by the
Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select (CS02:0) bits located in the Timer/Counter Control Register (TCCR0B). For details on clock sources and prescaler, see “Timer/Counter 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 Prescaler” on
page 164.
16.4
Counter Unit
The main part of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable bi-directional counter unit. Figure 16-2 on page 117
shows a block diagram of the counter and its surroundings.
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Figure 16-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
DATA BUS
Clock Select
count
clear
TCNTn
Control Logic
Edge
Detector
clkTn
Tn
direction
( From Prescaler )
bottom
top
Signal description (internal signals):
count
Increment or decrement TCNT0 by 1.
direction
Select between increment and decrement.
clear
Clear TCNT0 (set all bits to zero).
clkTn
Timer/Counter clock, referred to as clkT0 in the following.
top
Signalize that TCNT0 has reached maximum value.
bottom
Signalize that TCNT0 has reached minimum value (zero).
Depending of the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented at each timer clock
(clk T0 ). clk T0 can be generated from an external or internal clock source, selected by the Clock Select bits
(CS02:0). When no clock source is selected (CS02:0 = 0) the timer is stopped. However, the TCNT0 value can be
accessed by the CPU, regardless of whether clkT0 is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all
counter clear or count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the WGM01 and WGM00 bits located in the Timer/Counter
Control Register (TCCR0A) and the WGM02 bit located in the Timer/Counter Control Register B (TCCR0B). There
are close connections between how the counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output Compare outputs OC0A and OC0B. For more details about advanced counting sequences and waveform
generation, see “Modes of Operation” on page 120.
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set according to the mode of operation selected by the WGM02:0 bits.
TOV0 can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
16.5
Output Compare Unit
The 8-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT0 with the Output Compare Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B).
Whenever TCNT0 equals OCR0A or OCR0B, the comparator signals a match. A match will set the Output Compare Flag (OCF0A or OCF0B) at the next timer clock cycle. If the corresponding interrupt is enabled, the Output
Compare Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt. The Output Compare Flag is automatically cleared when
the interrupt is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The Waveform Generator uses the match signal to generate an output according to operating mode set by the
WGM02:0 bits and Compare Output mode (COM0x1:0) bits. The maximum and bottom signals are used by the
Waveform Generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values in some modes of operation (“Modes of
Operation” on page 120).
Figure 16-3 on page 118 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit.
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Figure 16-3. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
OCRnx
TCNTn
= (8-bit Comparator )
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
top
bottom
Waveform Generator
OCnx
FOCn
WGMn1:0
COMnX1:0
The OCR0x Registers are double buffered when using any of the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For the
normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the update of the OCR0x Compare Registers to either top or bottom of the counting sequence.
The synchronization prevents the occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the
output glitch-free.
The OCR0x Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the
CPU has access to the OCR0x Buffer Register, and if double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCR0x
directly.
16.5.1
Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by writing a one to
the Force Output Compare (FOC0x) bit. Forcing Compare Match will not set the OCF0x Flag or reload/clear the
timer, but the OC0x pin will be updated as if a real Compare Match had occurred (the COM0x1:0 bits settings
define whether the OC0x pin is set, cleared or toggled).
16.5.2
Compare Match Blocking by TCNT0 Write
All CPU write operations to the TCNT0 Register will block any Compare Match that occur in the next timer clock
cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCR0x to be initialized to the same value as TCNT0
without triggering an interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is enabled.
16.5.3
Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT0 in any mode of operation will block all Compare Matches for one timer clock cycle, there are
risks involved when changing TCNT0 when using the Output Compare Unit, independently of whether the
Timer/Counter is running or not. If the value written to TCNT0 equals the OCR0x value, the Compare Match will be
missed, resulting in incorrect waveform generation. Similarly, do not write the TCNT0 value equal to BOTTOM
when the counter is down-counting.
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The setup of the OC0x should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register for the port pin to output.
The easiest way of setting the OC0x value is to use the Force Output Compare (FOC0x) strobe bits in Normal
mode. The OC0x Registers keep their values even when changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COM0x1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value. Changing the
COM0x1:0 bits will take effect immediately.
16.6
Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COM0x1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator uses the COM0x1:0
bits for defining the Output Compare (OC0x) state at the next Compare Match. Also, the COM0x1:0 bits control the
OC0x pin output source. Figure 16-4 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COM0x1:0 bit setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits, and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O Port
Control Registers (DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COM0x1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the OC0x
state, the reference is for the internal OC0x Register, not the OC0x pin. If a system reset occur, the OC0x Register
is reset to “0”.
Figure 16-4. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCn
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
0
OCnx
Pin
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OC0x) from the Waveform Generator if either
of the COM0x1:0 bits are set. However, the OC0x pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin. The Data Direction Register bit for the OC0x pin (DDR_OC0x) must be set as
output before the OC0x value is visible on the pin. The port override function is independent of the Waveform Generation mode.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC0x state before the output is enabled.
Note that some COM0x1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of operation. See “Register Description” on
page 126.
16.6.1
Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COM0x1:0 bits differently in Normal, CTC, and PWM modes. For all modes,
setting the COM0x1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action on the OC0x Register is to be performed on
the next Compare Match. For compare output actions in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 16-2 on page 126. For
fast PWM mode, refer to Table 16-3 on page 126, and for phase correct PWM refer to Table 16-4 on page 127.
A change of the COM0x1:0 bits state will have effect at the first Compare Match after the bits are written. For nonPWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the FOC0x strobe bits.
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16.7
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, that is, the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins, is defined by the
combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGM02:0) and Compare Output mode (COM0x1:0) bits. The
Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting sequence, while the Waveform Generation mode bits do.
The COM0x1:0 bits control whether the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted
PWM). For non-PWM modes the COM0x1:0 bits control whether the output should be set, cleared, or toggled at a
Compare Match. See “Compare Match Output Unit” on page 143.
For detailed timing information see “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 124.
16.7.1
Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM02:0 = 0). In this mode the counting direction is always
up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 8bit value (TOP = 0xFF) and then restarts from the bottom (0x00). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow
Flag (TOV0) will be set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNT0 becomes zero. The TOV0 Flag in this case
behaves like a ninth bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt
that automatically clears the TOV0 Flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software. There are no special
cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written anytime.
The Output Compare Unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the Output Compare to
generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will occupy too much of the CPU time.
16.7.2
Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGM02:0 = 2), the OCR0A Register is used to manipulate the counter
resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter value (TCNT0) matches the OCR0A. The
OCR0A defines the top value for the counter, hence also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the
Compare Match output frequency. It also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 16-5. The counter value (TCNT0) increases until a Compare Match occurs between TCNT0 and OCR0A, and then counter (TCNT0) is cleared.
Figure 16-5. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCn
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnx1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by using the OCF0A Flag. If the
interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP value. However, changing TOP
to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with
care since the CTC mode does not have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to OCR0A is lower
than the current value of TCNT0, the counter will miss the Compare Match. The counter will then have to count to
its maximum value (0xFF) and wrap around starting at 0x00 before the Compare Match can occur.
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For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC0A output can be set to toggle its logical level on each
Compare Match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode (COM0A1:0 = 1). The OC0A value will
not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction for the pin is set to output. The waveform generated will have
a maximum frequency of fOC0 = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform frequency is defined by
the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnx = ------------------------------------------------2  N   1 + OCRnx 
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOV0 Flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the counter counts
from MAX to 0x00.
16.7.3
Fast PWM Mode
The fast Pulse Width Modulation or fast PWM mode (WGM02:0 = 3 or 7) provides a high frequency PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM option by its single-slope operation. The counter
counts from BOTTOM to TOP then restarts from BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 3, and
OCR0A when WGM2:0 = 7. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0x) is cleared on the
Compare Match between TCNT0 and OCR0x, and set at BOTTOM. In inverting Compare Output mode, the output
is set on Compare Match and cleared at BOTTOM. Due to the single-slope operation, the operating frequency of
the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase correct PWM mode that use dual-slope operation. This high
frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited for power regulation, rectification, and DAC applications. High
frequency allows physically small sized external components (coils, capacitors), and therefore reduces total system cost.
In fast PWM mode, the counter is incremented until the counter value matches the TOP value. The counter is then
cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast PWM mode is shown in Figure 16-6. The
TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram
includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent
Compare Matches between OCR0x and TCNT0.
Figure 16-6. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
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The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. If the interrupt is enabled, the
interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the compare value.
In fast PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC0x pins. Setting the
COM0x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting
the COM0x1:0 to three: Setting the COM0A1:0 bits to one allows the OC0A pin to toggle on Compare Matches if
the WGM02 bit is set. This option is not available for the OC0B pin (see Table 16-3 on page 126). The actual OC0x
value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is
generated by setting (or clearing) the OC0x Register at the Compare Match between OCR0x and TCNT0, and
clearing (or setting) the OC0x Register at the timer clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from TOP to
BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = ----------------N  256
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represents special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in
the fast PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will be a narrow spike for each MAX+1
timer clock cycle. Setting the OCR0A equal to MAX will result in a constantly high or low output (depending on the
polarity of the output set by the COM0A1:0 bits).
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OC0x to toggle
its logical level on each Compare Match (COM0x1:0 = 1). The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC0 = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero. This feature is similar to the OC0A toggle in CTC mode,
except the double buffer feature of the Output Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
16.7.4
Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct PWM mode (WGM02:0 = 1 or 5) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly
from BOTTOM to TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 1, and OCR0A
when WGM2:0 = 5. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0x) is cleared on the Compare Match between TCNT0 and OCR0x while upcounting, and set on the Compare Match while down-counting. In
inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation
frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes,
these modes are preferred for motor control applications.
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches TOP. When the counter
reaches TOP, it changes the count direction. The TCNT0 value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The
timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 16-7 on page 123. The TCNT0 value is in the
timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted
and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent Compare Matches
between OCR0x and TCNT0.
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Figure 16-7. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. The Interrupt Flag can
be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM value.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC0x pins. Setting
the COM0x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted PWM output can be generated by setting
the COM0x1:0 to three: Setting the COM0A0 bits to one allows the OC0A pin to toggle on Compare Matches if the
WGM02 bit is set. This option is not available for the OC0B pin (see Table 16-4 on page 127). The actual OC0x
value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is
generated by clearing (or setting) the OC0x Register at the Compare Match between OCR0x and TCNT0 when the
counter increments, and setting (or clearing) the OC0x Register at Compare Match between OCR0x and TCNT0
when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = ----------------N  510
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represent special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in
the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will be continuously low and if set
equal to MAX the output will be continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will
have the opposite logic values.
At the very start of period 2 in Figure 16-7 OCnx has a transition from high to low even though there is no Compare
Match. The point of this transition is to guarantee symmetry around BOTTOM. There are two cases that give a
transition without Compare Match.
•
OCR0A changes its value from MAX, like in Figure 16-7. When the OCR0A value is MAX the OCn pin value is
the same as the result of a down-counting Compare Match. To ensure symmetry around BOTTOM the OCn
value at MAX must correspond to the result of an up-counting Compare Match.
•
The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCR0A, and for that reason misses the Compare
Match and hence the OCn change that would have happened on the way up.
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16.8
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkT0) is therefore shown as a clock enable signal
in the following figures. The figures include information on when Interrupt Flags are set. Figure 16-8 contains timing
data for basic Timer/Counter operation. The figure shows the count sequence close to the MAX value in all modes
other than phase correct PWM mode.
Figure 16-8. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 16-9 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 16-9. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 16-10 shows the setting of OCF0B in all modes and OCF0A in all modes except CTC mode and PWM
mode, where OCR0A is TOP.
Figure 16-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF0x, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 16-11 on page 125 shows the setting of OCF0A and the clearing of TCNT0 in CTC mode and fast PWM
mode where OCR0A is TOP.
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Figure 16-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Clear Timer on Compare Match mode, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
(CTC)
OCRnx
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP
OCFnx
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16.9
16.9.1
Register Description
TCCR0A – Timer/Counter Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x24 (0x44)
COM0A1
COM0A0
COM0B1
COM0B0
–
–
WGM01
WGM00
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR0A
• Bits 7:6 – COM0A1:0: Compare Match Output A Mode
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC0A) behavior. If one or both of the COM0A1:0 bits are set, the
OC0A output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the Data
Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC0A pin must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC0A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM0A1:0 bits depends on the WGM02:0 bit setting.
Table 16-2 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (nonPWM).
Table 16-2.
Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM0A1
COM0A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected
0
1
Toggle OC0A on Compare Match
1
0
Clear OC0A on Compare Match
1
1
Set OC0A on Compare Match
Table 16-3 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM01:0 bits are set to fast PWM mode.
Table 16-3.
Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM0A1
COM0A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected
0
1
WGM02 = 0: Normal Port Operation, OC0A Disconnected
WGM02 = 1: Toggle OC0A on Compare Match
1
0
Clear OC0A on Compare Match, set OC0A at BOTTOM
(non-inverting mode)
1
1
Set OC0A on Compare Match, clear OC0A at BOTTOM
(inverting mode)
Note:
1. A special case occurs when OCR0A equals TOP and COM0A1 is set. In this case, the Compare Match is ignored,
but the set or clear is done at BOTTOM. See “Fast PWM Mode” on page 121 for more details.
Table 16-4 on page 127 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are set to phase correct
PWM mode.
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Table 16-4.
Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM0A1
COM0A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected
0
1
WGM02 = 0: Normal Port Operation, OC0A Disconnected
WGM02 = 1: Toggle OC0A on Compare Match
1
0
Clear OC0A on Compare Match when up-counting. Set OC0A on Compare Match when
down-counting
1
1
Set OC0A on Compare Match when up-counting. Clear OC0A on Compare Match when
down-counting
Note:
1. A special case occurs when OCR0A equals TOP and COM0A1 is set. In this case, the Compare Match is ignored,
but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 122 for more details.
• Bits 5:4 – COM0B1:0: Compare Match Output B Mode
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC0B) behavior. If one or both of the COM0B1:0 bits are set, the
OC0B output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the Data
Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC0B pin must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC0B is connected to the pin, the function of the COM0B1:0 bits depends on the WGM02:0 bit setting.
Table 16-5 shows the COM0B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (nonPWM).
Table 16-5.
Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM0B1
COM0B0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0B disconnected
0
1
Toggle OC0B on Compare Match
1
0
Clear OC0B on Compare Match
1
1
Set OC0B on Compare Match
Table 16-6 shows the COM0B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are set to fast PWM mode.
Table 16-6.
Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM0B1
COM0B0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0B disconnected
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC0B on Compare Match, set OC0B at BOTTOM
(non-inverting mode)
1
1
Set OC0B on Compare Match, clear OC0B at BOTTOM
(inverting mode)
Note:
1. A special case occurs when OCR0B equals TOP and COM0B1 is set. In this case, the Compare Match is ignored,
but the set or clear is done at BOTTOM. See “Fast PWM Mode” on page 121 for more details.
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Table 16-7 shows the COM0B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are set to phase correct PWM mode.
Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
Table 16-7.
COM0B1
COM0B0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0B disconnected
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC0B on Compare Match when up-counting. Set OC0B on Compare Match when
down-counting
1
1
Set OC0B on Compare Match when up-counting. Clear OC0B on Compare Match when
down-counting
Note:
1. A special case occurs when OCR0B equals TOP and COM0B1 is set. In this case, the Compare Match is ignored,
but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 122 for more details.
• Bits 3, 2 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
• Bits 1:0 – WGM01:0: Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM02 bit found in the TCCR0B Register, these bits control the counting sequence of the
counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used, see
Table 16-8. Modes of operation supported by the Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode, and two types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes (see “Modes of Operation”
on page 144).
Table 16-8.
Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description
Mode
WGM2
WGM1
WGM0
Timer/Counter Mode of
Operation
TOP
Update of
OCRx at
TOV Flag
Set on(1)(2)
0
0
0
0
Normal
0xFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct
0xFF
TOP
BOTTOM
2
0
1
0
CTC
OCRA
Immediate
MAX
3
0
1
1
Fast PWM
0xFF
TOP
MAX
4
1
0
0
Reserved
–
–
–
5
1
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct
OCRA
TOP
BOTTOM
6
1
1
0
Reserved
–
–
–
7
1
1
1
Fast PWM
OCRA
BOTTOM
TOP
Note:
1. MAX
= 0xFF
2. BOTTOM = 0x00
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16.9.2
TCCR0B – Timer/Counter Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x25 (0x45)
FOC0A
FOC0B
–
–
WGM02
CS02
CS01
CS00
Read/Write
W
W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR0B
• Bit 7 – FOC0A: Force Output Compare A
The FOC0A bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR0B is written when
operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC0A bit, an immediate Compare Match is forced on
the Waveform Generation unit. The OC0A output is changed according to its COM0A1:0 bits setting. Note that the
FOC0A bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM0A1:0 bits that determines the
effect of the forced compare.
A FOC0A strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR0A as TOP.
The FOC0A bit is always read as zero.
• Bit 6 – FOC0B: Force Output Compare B
The FOC0B bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR0B is written when
operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC0B bit, an immediate Compare Match is forced on
the Waveform Generation unit. The OC0B output is changed according to its COM0B1:0 bits setting. Note that the
FOC0B bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM0B1:0 bits that determines the
effect of the forced compare.
A FOC0B strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR0B as TOP.
The FOC0B bit is always read as zero.
• Bits 5:4 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3 – WGM02: Waveform Generation Mode
See the description in the “TCCR0A – Timer/Counter Control Register A” on page 126.
• Bits 2:0 – CS02:0: Clock Select
The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter, see Table 16-9 on page 130.
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Table 16-9.
Clock Select Bit Description
CS02
CS01
CS00
Description
0
0
0
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped)
0
0
1
clkI/O/(No prescaling)
0
1
0
clkI/O/8 (From prescaler)
0
1
1
clkI/O/64 (From prescaler)
1
0
0
clkI/O/256 (From prescaler)
1
0
1
clkI/O/1024 (From prescaler)
1
1
0
External clock source on T0 pin. Clock on falling edge
1
1
1
External clock source on T0 pin. Clock on rising edge
If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter0, transitions on the T0 pin will clock the counter even if the
pin is configured as an output. This feature allows software control of the counting.
16.9.3
TCNT0 – Timer/Counter Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
0x26 (0x46)
3
2
1
0
TCNT0[7:0]
TCNT0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Timer/Counter Register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 8-bit
counter. Writing to the TCNT0 Register blocks (removes) the Compare Match on the following timer clock. Modifying the counter (TCNT0) while the counter is running, introduces a risk of missing a Compare Match between
TCNT0 and the OCR0x Registers.
16.9.4
OCR0A – Output Compare Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
0x27 (0x47)
3
2
1
0
OCR0A[7:0]
OCR0A
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Output Compare Register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value
(TCNT0). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the
OC0A pin.
16.9.5
OCR0B – Output Compare Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
0x28 (0x48)
3
2
1
0
OCR0B[7:0]
OCR0B
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Output Compare Register B contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value
(TCNT0). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the
OC0B pin.
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16.9.6
TIMSK0 – Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x6E)
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE0B
OCIE0A
TOIE0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK0
• Bits 7:3, 0 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
• Bit 2 – OCIE0B: Timer/Counter Output Compare Match B Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE0B bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Timer/Counter Compare
Match B interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if a Compare Match in Timer/Counter occurs,
that is, when the OCF0B bit is set in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
• Bit 1 – OCIE0A: Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Match A Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE0A bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Timer/Counter0 Compare
Match A interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if a Compare Match in Timer/Counter0
occurs, that is, when the OCF0A bit is set in the Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
• Bit 0 – TOIE0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE0 bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Timer/Counter0 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if an overflow in Timer/Counter0 occurs, that is, when the
TOV0 bit is set in the Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
16.9.7
TIFR0 – Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x15 (0x35)
–
–
–
–
–
OCF0B
OCF0A
TOV0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR0
• Bits 7:3, 0 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
• Bit 2 – OCF0B: Timer/Counter 0 Output Compare B Match Flag
The OCF0B bit is set when a Compare Match occurs between the Timer/Counter and the data in OCR0B – Output
Compare Register0 B. OCF0B is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector.
Alternatively, OCF0B is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0B (Timer/Counter
Compare B Match Interrupt Enable), and OCF0B are set, the Timer/Counter Compare Match Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 1 – OCF0A: Timer/Counter 0 Output Compare A Match Flag
The OCF0A bit is set when a Compare Match occurs between the Timer/Counter0 and the data in OCR0A – Output Compare Register0. OCF0A is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling
vector. Alternatively, OCF0A is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0A
(Timer/Counter0 Compare Match Interrupt Enable), and OCF0A are set, the Timer/Counter0 Compare Match Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 0 – TOV0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Flag
The bit TOV0 is set when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter0. TOV0 is cleared by hardware when executing the
corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, TOV0 is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the
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SREG I-bit, TOIE0 (Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable), and TOV0 are set, the Timer/Counter0 Overflow
interrupt is executed.
The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM02:0 bit setting. Refer to Table 16-8, “Waveform Generation Mode
Bit Description” on page 128.
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17. 16-bit Timer/Counter (Timer/Counter 1, 3, 4, and 5)
17.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
17.2
True 16-bit Design (that is, allows 16-bit PWM)
Three independent Output Compare Units
Double Buffered Output Compare Registers
One Input Capture Unit
Input Capture Noise Canceler
Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
Variable PWM Period
Frequency Generator
External Event Counter
Twenty independent interrupt sources (TOV1, OCF1A, OCF1B, OCF1C, ICF1, TOV3, OCF3A, OCF3B, OCF3C, ICF3,
TOV4, OCF4A, OCF4B, OCF4C, ICF4, TOV5, OCF5A, OCF5B, OCF5C, and ICF5)
Overview
The 16-bit Timer/Counter unit allows accurate program execution timing (event management), wave generation,
and signal timing measurement.
Most register and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “n” replaces the
Timer/Counter number, and a lower case “x” replaces the Output Compare unit channel. However, when using the
register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, that is, TCNT1 for accessing Timer/Counter1
counter value and so on.
A simplified block diagram of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 17-1 on page 134. For the actual placement of I/O pins, see “TQFP-pinout ATmega640/1280/2560” on page 2 and “Pinout ATmega1281/2561” on page
4. CPU accessible I/O Registers, including I/O bits and I/O pins, are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the “Register Description” on page 154.
The Power Reduction Timer/Counter1 bit, PRTIM1, in “PRR0 – Power Reduction Register 0” on page 55 must be
written to zero to enable Timer/Counter1 module.
The Power Reduction Timer/Counter3 bit, PRTIM3, in “PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1” on page 56 must be
written to zero to enable Timer/Counter3 module.
The Power Reduction Timer/Counter4 bit, PRTIM4, in “PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1” on page 56 must be
written to zero to enable Timer/Counter4 module.
The Power Reduction Timer/Counter5 bit, PRTIM5, in “PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1” on page 56 must be
written to zero to enable Timer/Counter5 module.
Timer/Counter4 and Timer/Counter5 only have full functionality in the ATmega640/1280/2560. Input capture and
output compare are not available in the ATmega1281/2561.
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Figure 17-1. 16-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram(1)
Count
Clear
Direction
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
Control Logic
TCLK
Clock Select
Edge
Detector
TOP
Tn
BOTTOM
( From Prescaler )
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=
=0
OCFnA
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnA
OCRnA
OCFnB
(Int.Req.)
Fixed
TOP
Values
Waveform
Generation
DATABUS
=
OCnB
OCRnB
OCFnC
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnC
OCRnC
( From Analog
Comparator Ouput )
ICFn (Int.Req.)
Edge
Detector
ICRn
Noise
Canceler
ICPn
TCCRnA
Note:
17.2.1
TCCRnB
TCCRnC
1. Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2, Table 13-5 on page 76, and Table 13-11 on page 80 for Timer/Counter1 and 3 and
3 pin placement and description.
Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNTn), Output Compare Registers (OCRnA/B/C), and Input Capture Register (ICRn) are all
16-bit registers. Special procedures must be followed when accessing the 16-bit registers. These procedures are
described in the section “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 135. The Timer/Counter Control Registers
(TCCRnA/B/C) are 8-bit registers and have no CPU access restrictions. Interrupt requests (shorten as Int.Req.)
signals are all visible in the Timer Interrupt Flag Register (TIFRn). All interrupts are individually masked with the
Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSKn). TIFRn and TIMSKn are not shown in the figure since these registers are
shared by other timer units.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or by an external clock source on the Tn pin. The
Clock Select logic block controls which clock source and edge the Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement)
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its value. The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the clock select logic is
referred to as the timer clock (clkTn).
The double buffered Output Compare Registers (OCRnA/B/C) are compared with the Timer/Counter value at all
time. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency
output on the Output Compare pin (OCnA/B/C). See “Output Compare Units” on page 141. The compare match
event will also set the Compare Match Flag (OCFnA/B/C) which can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
The Input Capture Register can capture the Timer/Counter value at a given external (edge triggered) event on
either the Input Capture pin (ICPn) or on the Analog Comparator pins (see “AC – Analog Comparator” on page
265). The Input Capture unit includes a digital filtering unit (Noise Canceler) for reducing the chance of capturing
noise spikes.
The TOP value, or maximum Timer/Counter value, can in some modes of operation be defined by either the
OCRnA Register, the ICRn Register, or by a set of fixed values. When using OCRnA as TOP value in a PWM
mode, the OCRnA Register can not be used for generating a PWM output. However, the TOP value will in this
case be double buffered allowing the TOP value to be changed in run time. If a fixed TOP value is required, the
ICRn Register can be used as an alternative, freeing the OCRnA to be used as PWM output.
17.2.2
Definitions
The following definitions are used extensively throughout the document:
Table 17-1.
17.3
Definitions
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes 0x0000.
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFFFF (decimal 65535).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the count
sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be one of the fixed values: 0x00FF, 0x01FF, or
0x03FF, or to the value stored in the OCRnA or ICRn Register. The assignment is dependent of
the mode of operation.
Accessing 16-bit Registers
The TCNTn, OCRnA/B/C, and ICRn are 16-bit registers that can be accessed by the AVR CPU via the 8-bit data
bus. The 16-bit register must be byte accessed using two read or write operations. Each 16-bit timer has a single 8bit register for temporary storing of the high byte of the 16-bit access. The same Temporary Register is shared
between all 16-bit registers within each 16-bit timer. Accessing the low byte triggers the 16-bit read or write operation. When the low byte of a 16-bit register is written by the CPU, the high byte stored in the Temporary Register,
and the low byte written are both copied into the 16-bit register in the same clock cycle. When the low byte of a 16bit register is read by the CPU, the high byte of the 16-bit register is copied into the Temporary Register in the
same clock cycle as the low byte is read.
Not all 16-bit accesses uses the Temporary Register for the high byte. Reading the OCRnA/B/C 16-bit registers
does not involve using the Temporary Register.
To do a 16-bit write, the high byte must be written before the low byte. For a 16-bit read, the low byte must be read
before the high byte.
The following code examples show how to access the 16-bit timer registers assuming that no interrupts updates
the temporary register. The same principle can be used directly for accessing the OCRnA/B/C and ICRn Registers.
Note that when using “C”, the compiler handles the 16-bit access.
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Assembly Code Examples(1)
...
; Set TCNTn to 0x01FF
ldi r17,0x01
ldi r16,0xFF
out TCNTnH,r17
out TCNTnL,r16
; Read TCNTn into r17:r16
in r16,TCNTnL
in r17,TCNTnH
...
C Code Examples(1)
unsigned int i;
...
/* Set TCNTn to 0x01FF */
TCNTn = 0x1FF;
/* Read TCNTn into i */
i = TCNTn;
...
Note:
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
The assembly code example returns the TCNTn value in the r17:r16 register pair.
It is important to notice that accessing 16-bit registers are atomic operations. If an interrupt occurs between the two
instructions accessing the 16-bit register, and the interrupt code updates the temporary register by accessing the
same or any other of the 16-bit Timer Registers, then the result of the access outside the interrupt will be corrupted.
Therefore, when both the main code and the interrupt code update the temporary register, the main code must disable the interrupts during the 16-bit access.
The following code examples show how to do an atomic read of the TCNTn Register contents. Reading any of the
OCRnA/B/C or ICRn Registers can be done by using the same principle.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
TIM16_ReadTCNTn:
; Save global interrupt flag
in r18,SREG
; Disable interrupts
cli
; Read TCNTn into r17:r16
in r16,TCNTnL
in r17,TCNTnH
; Restore global interrupt flag
out SREG,r18
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned int TIM16_ReadTCNTn( void )
{
unsigned char sreg;
unsigned int i;
/* Save global interrupt flag */
sreg = SREG;
/* Disable interrupts */
__disable_interrupt();
/* Read TCNTn into i */
i = TCNTn;
/* Restore global interrupt flag */
SREG = sreg;
return i;
}
Note:
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
The assembly code example returns the TCNTn value in the r17:r16 register pair.
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The following code examples show how to do an atomic write of the TCNTn Register contents. Writing any of the
OCRnA/B/C or ICRn Registers can be done by using the same principle.
Assembly Code Example(1)
TIM16_WriteTCNTn:
; Save global interrupt flag
in r18,SREG
; Disable interrupts
cli
; Set TCNTn to r17:r16
out TCNTnH,r17
out TCNTnL,r16
; Restore global interrupt flag
out SREG,r18
ret
C Code Example(1)
void TIM16_WriteTCNTn( unsigned int i )
{
unsigned char sreg;
unsigned int i;
/* Save global interrupt flag */
sreg = SREG;
/* Disable interrupts */
__disable_interrupt();
/* Set TCNTn to i */
TCNTn = i;
/* Restore global interrupt flag */
SREG = sreg;
}
Note:
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
The assembly code example requires that the r17:r16 register pair contains the value to be written to TCNTn.
17.3.1
Reusing the Temporary High Byte Register
If writing to more than one 16-bit register where the high byte is the same for all registers written, then the high byte
only needs to be written once. However, note that the same rule of atomic operation described previously also
applies in this case.
17.4
Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock source is selected by the
Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select (CSn2:0) bits located in the Timer/Counter control Register B (TCCRnB). For details on clock sources and prescaler, see “Timer/Counter 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 Prescaler” on
page 164.
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17.5
Counter Unit
The main part of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable 16-bit bi-directional counter unit. Figure 17-2 shows
a block diagram of the counter and its surroundings.
Figure 17-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
DATA BUS
(8-bit)
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
TEMP (8-bit)
Clock Select
Count
TCNTnH (8-bit)
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
Clear
Direction
Control Logic
clkTn
Edge
Detector
Tn
( From Prescaler )
TOP
BOTTOM
Signal description (internal signals):
Count
Increment or decrement TCNTn by 1.
Direction
Select between increment and decrement.
Clear
Clear TCNTn (set all bits to zero).
clkTn
Timer/Counter clock.
TOP
Signalize that TCNTn has reached maximum value.
BOTTOM
Signalize that TCNTn has reached minimum value (zero).
The 16-bit counter is mapped into two 8-bit I/O memory locations: Counter High (TCNTnH) containing the upper
eight bits of the counter, and Counter Low (TCNTnL) containing the lower eight bits. The TCNTnH Register can
only be indirectly accessed by the CPU. When the CPU does an access to the TCNTnH I/O location, the CPU
accesses the high byte temporary register (TEMP). The temporary register is updated with the TCNTnH value
when the TCNTnL is read, and TCNTnH is updated with the temporary register value when TCNTnL is written. This
allows the CPU to read or write the entire 16-bit counter value within one clock cycle via the 8-bit data bus. It is
important to notice that there are special cases of writing to the TCNTn Register when the counter is counting that
will give unpredictable results. The special cases are described in the sections where they are of importance.
Depending on the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented at each timer
clock (clkTn). The clkTn can be generated from an external or internal clock source, selected by the Clock Select bits
(CSn2:0). When no clock source is selected (CSn2:0 = 0) the timer is stopped. However, the TCNTn value can be
accessed by the CPU, independent of whether clkTn is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all
counter clear or count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the Waveform Generation mode bits (WGMn3:0) located in
the Timer/Counter Control Registers A and B (TCCRnA and TCCRnB). There are close connections between how
the counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output Compare outputs OCnx. For more
details about advanced counting sequences and waveform generation, see “Modes of Operation” on page 144.
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set according to the mode of operation selected by the WGMn3:0 bits.
TOVn can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
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17.6
Input Capture Unit
The Timer/Counter incorporates an input capture unit that can capture external events and give them a time-stamp
indicating time of occurrence. The external signal indicating an event, or multiple events, can be applied via the
ICPn pin or alternatively, for the Timer/Counter1 only, via the Analog Comparator unit. The time-stamps can then
be used to calculate frequency, duty-cycle, and other features of the signal applied. Alternatively the time-stamps
can be used for creating a log of the events.
The Input Capture unit is illustrated by the block diagram shown in Figure 17-3. The elements of the block diagram
that are not directly a part of the input capture unit are gray shaded. The small “n” in register and bit names indicates the Timer/Counter number.
Figure 17-3. Input Capture Unit Block Diagram
DATA BUS
(8-bit)
TEMP (8-bit)
ICRnH (8-bit)
WRITE
ICRnL (8-bit)
TCNTnH (8-bit)
ICRn (16-bit Register)
ACO*
Analog
Comparator
ACIC*
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
ICNC
ICES
Noise
Canceler
Edge
Detector
ICFn (Int.Req.)
ICPn
Note:
The Analog Comparator Output (ACO) can only trigger the Timer/Counter1 ICP – not Timer/Counter3, 4 or 5.
When a change of the logic level (an event) occurs on the Input Capture Pin (ICPn), alternatively on the analog
Comparator output (ACO), and this change confirms to the setting of the edge detector, a capture will be triggered.
When a capture is triggered, the 16-bit value of the counter (TCNTn) is written to the Input Capture Register
(ICRn). The Input Capture Flag (ICFn) is set at the same system clock as the TCNTn value is copied into ICRn
Register. If enabled (TICIEn = 1), the input capture flag generates an input capture interrupt. The ICFn flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively the ICFn flag can be cleared by software by writing a
logical one to its I/O bit location.
Reading the 16-bit value in the Input Capture Register (ICRn) is done by first reading the low byte (ICRnL) and
then the high byte (ICRnH). When the low byte is read the high byte is copied into the high byte Temporary Register (TEMP). When the CPU reads the ICRnH I/O location it will access the TEMP Register.
The ICRn Register can only be written when using a Waveform Generation mode that utilizes the ICRn Register for
defining the counter’s TOP value. In these cases the Waveform Generation mode (WGMn3:0) bits must be set
before the TOP value can be written to the ICRn Register. When writing the ICRn Register the high byte must be
written to the ICRnH I/O location before the low byte is written to ICRnL.
For more information on how to access the 16-bit registers refer to “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 135.
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17.6.1
Input Capture Trigger Source
The main trigger source for the input capture unit is the Input Capture Pin (ICPn). Timer/Counter1 can alternatively
use the analog comparator output as trigger source for the input capture unit. The Analog Comparator is selected
as trigger source by setting the analog Comparator Input Capture (ACIC) bit in the Analog Comparator Control and
Status Register (ACSR). Be aware that changing trigger source can trigger a capture. The input capture flag must
therefore be cleared after the change.
Both the Input Capture Pin (ICPn) and the Analog Comparator output (ACO) inputs are sampled using the same
technique as for the Tn pin (Figure 18-1 on page 164). The edge detector is also identical. However, when the
noise canceler is enabled, additional logic is inserted before the edge detector, which increases the delay by four
system clock cycles. Note that the input of the noise canceler and edge detector is always enabled unless the
Timer/Counter is set in a Waveform Generation mode that uses ICRn to define TOP.
An input capture can be triggered by software by controlling the port of the ICPn pin.
17.6.2
Noise Canceler
The noise canceler improves noise immunity by using a simple digital filtering scheme. The noise canceler input is
monitored over four samples, and all four must be equal for changing the output that in turn is used by the edge
detector.
The noise canceler is enabled by setting the Input Capture Noise Canceler (ICNCn) bit in Timer/Counter Control
Register B (TCCRnB). When enabled the noise canceler introduces additional four system clock cycles of delay
from a change applied to the input, to the update of the ICRn Register. The noise canceler uses the system clock
and is therefore not affected by the prescaler.
17.6.3
Using the Input Capture Unit
The main challenge when using the Input Capture unit is to assign enough processor capacity for handling the
incoming events. The time between two events is critical. If the processor has not read the captured value in the
ICRn Register before the next event occurs, the ICRn will be overwritten with a new value. In this case the result of
the capture will be incorrect.
When using the Input Capture interrupt, the ICRn Register should be read as early in the interrupt handler routine
as possible. Even though the Input Capture interrupt has relatively high priority, the maximum interrupt response
time is dependent on the maximum number of clock cycles it takes to handle any of the other interrupt requests.
Using the Input Capture unit in any mode of operation when the TOP value (resolution) is actively changed during
operation, is not recommended.
Measurement of an external signal’s duty cycle requires that the trigger edge is changed after each capture.
Changing the edge sensing must be done as early as possible after the ICRn Register has been read. After a
change of the edge, the Input Capture Flag (ICFn) must be cleared by software (writing a logical one to the I/O bit
location). For measuring frequency only, the clearing of the ICFn Flag is not required (if an interrupt handler is
used).
17.7
Output Compare Units
The 16-bit comparator continuously compares TCNTn with the Output Compare Register (OCRnx). If TCNT equals
OCRnx the comparator signals a match. A match will set the Output Compare Flag (OCFnx) at the next timer clock
cycle. If enabled (OCIEnx = 1), the Output Compare Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt. The OCFnx Flag
is automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively the OCFnx Flag can be cleared by software
by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The Waveform Generator uses the match signal to generate an output
according to operating mode set by the Waveform Generation mode (WGMn3:0) bits and Compare Output mode
(COMnx1:0) bits. The TOP and BOTTOM signals are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the special
cases of the extreme values in some modes of operation. See “Modes of Operation” on page 144.
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A special feature of Output Compare unit A allows it to define the Timer/Counter TOP value (that is, counter resolution). In addition to the counter resolution, the TOP value defines the period time for waveforms generated by the
Waveform Generator.
Figure 17-4 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit. The small “n” in the register and bit names indicates the device number (n = n for Timer/Counter n), and the “x” indicates Output Compare unit (A/B/C). The
elements of the block diagram that are not directly a part of the Output Compare unit are gray shaded.
Figure 17-4. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
(8-bit)
TEMP (8-bit)
OCRnxH Buf. (8-bit)
OCRnxL Buf. (8-bit)
TCNTnH (8-bit)
OCRnx Buffer (16-bit Register)
OCRnxH (8-bit)
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
OCRnxL (8-bit)
OCRnx (16-bit Register)
= (16-bit Comparator )
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
TOP
BOTTOM
Waveform Generator
WGMn3:0
OCnx
COMnx1:0
The OCRnx Register is double buffered when using any of the twelve Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For
the Normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double
buffering synchronizes the update of the OCRnx Compare Register to either TOP or BOTTOM of the counting
sequence. The synchronization prevents the occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby
making the output glitch-free.
The OCRnx Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the
CPU has access to the OCRnx Buffer Register, and if double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCRnx
directly. The content of the OCR1x (Buffer or Compare) Register is only changed by a write operation (the
Timer/Counter does not update this register automatically as the TCNT1 and ICR1 Register). Therefore OCR1x is
not read via the high byte temporary register (TEMP). However, it is a good practice to read the low byte first as
when accessing other 16-bit registers. Writing the OCRnx Registers must be done via the TEMP Register since the
compare of all 16 bits is done continuously. The high byte (OCRnxH) has to be written first. When the high byte I/O
location is written by the CPU, the TEMP Register will be updated by the value written. Then when the low byte
(OCRnxL) is written to the lower eight bits, the high byte will be copied into the upper 8-bits of either the OCRnx
buffer or OCRnx Compare Register in the same system clock cycle.
For more information of how to access the 16-bit registers refer to “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 135.
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17.7.1
Force Output Compare
In non-PWM Waveform Generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by writing a one to
the Force Output Compare (FOCnx) bit. Forcing compare match will not set the OCFnx Flag or reload/clear the
timer, but the OCnx pin will be updated as if a real compare match had occurred (the COMn1:0 bits settings define
whether the OCnx pin is set, cleared or toggled).
17.7.2
Compare Match Blocking by TCNTn Write
All CPU writes to the TCNTn Register will block any compare match that occurs in the next timer clock cycle, even
when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCRnx to be initialized to the same value as TCNTn without triggering an interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is enabled.
17.7.3
Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNTn in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one timer clock cycle, there are
risks involved when changing TCNTn when using any of the Output Compare channels, independent of whether
the Timer/Counter is running or not. If the value written to TCNTn equals the OCRnx value, the compare match will
be missed, resulting in incorrect waveform generation. Do not write the TCNTn equal to TOP in PWM modes with
variable TOP values. The compare match for the TOP will be ignored and the counter will continue to 0xFFFF.
Similarly, do not write the TCNTn value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is downcounting.
The setup of the OCnx should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register for the port pin to output.
The easiest way of setting the OCnx value is to use the Force Output Compare (FOCnx) strobe bits in Normal
mode. The OCnx Register keeps its value even when changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COMnx1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value. Changing the
COMnx1:0 bits will take effect immediately.
17.8
Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator uses the COMnx1:0
bits for defining the Output Compare (OCnx) state at the next compare match. Secondly the COMnx1:0 bits control
the OCnx pin output source. Figure 17-5 on page 144 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the
COMnx1:0 bit setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits, and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the
general I/O Port Control Registers (DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COMnx1:0 bits are shown. When
referring to the OCnx state, the reference is for the internal OCnx Register, not the OCnx pin. If a system reset
occur, the OCnx Register is reset to “0”.
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Figure 17-5. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCnx
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
0
OCnx
Pin
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OCnx) from the Waveform Generator if either
of the COMnx1:0 bits are set. However, the OCnx pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin. The Data Direction Register bit for the OCnx pin (DDR_OCnx) must be set as
output before the OCnx value is visible on the pin. The port override function is generally independent of the Waveform Generation mode, but there are some exceptions. Refer to Table 17-3 on page 155, Table 17-4 on page 155
and Table 17-5 on page 155 for details.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OCnx state before the output is enabled.
Note that some COMnx1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of operation. See “Register Description” on
page 154.
The COMnx1:0 bits have no effect on the Input Capture unit.
17.8.1
Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COMnx1:0 bits differently in normal, CTC, and PWM modes. For all modes,
setting the COMnx1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action on the OCnx Register is to be performed on
the next compare match. For compare output actions in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 17-3 on page 155. For
fast PWM mode refer to Table 17-4 on page 155, and for phase correct and phase and frequency correct PWM
refer to Table 17-5 on page 155.
A change of the COMnx1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after the bits are written. For nonPWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the FOCnx strobe bits.
17.9
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, that is, the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins, is defined by the
combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGMn3:0) and Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0) bits. The
Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting sequence, while the Waveform Generation mode bits do.
The COMnx1:0 bits control whether the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted
PWM). For non-PWM modes the COMnx1:0 bits control whether the output should be set, cleared or toggle at a
compare match. See “Compare Match Output Unit” on page 143.
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Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description(1)
Table 17-2.
Mode
WGMn3
WGMn2
(CTCn)
WGMn1
(PWMn1)
WGMn0
(PWMn0)
Timer/Counter
Mode of Operation
TOP
Update of
OCRnx at
TOVn Flag
Set on
0
0
0
0
0
Normal
0xFFFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
0
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct, 8-bit
0x00FF
TOP
BOTTOM
2
0
0
1
0
PWM, Phase Correct, 9-bit
0x01FF
TOP
BOTTOM
3
0
0
1
1
PWM, Phase Correct, 10-bit
0x03FF
TOP
BOTTOM
4
0
1
0
0
CTC
OCRnA
Immediate
MAX
5
0
1
0
1
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x00FF
BOTTOM
TOP
6
0
1
1
0
Fast PWM, 9-bit
0x01FF
BOTTOM
TOP
7
0
1
1
1
Fast PWM, 10-bit
0x03FF
BOTTOM
TOP
8
1
0
0
0
PWM, Phase and Frequency
Correct
ICRn
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
9
1
0
0
1
PWM,Phase and Frequency
Correct
OCRnA
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
10
1
0
1
0
PWM, Phase Correct
ICRn
TOP
BOTTOM
11
1
0
1
1
PWM, Phase Correct
OCRnA
TOP
BOTTOM
12
1
1
0
0
CTC
ICRn
Immediate
MAX
13
1
1
0
1
(Reserved)
–
–
–
14
1
1
1
0
Fast PWM
ICRn
BOTTOM
TOP
15
1
1
1
1
Fast PWM
OCRnA
BOTTOM
TOP
Note:
1. The CTCn and PWMn1:0 bit definition names are obsolete. Use the WGMn2:0 definitions. However, the functionality and location of these bits are compatible with previous versions of the timer.
For detailed timing information refer to “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 152.
17.9.1
Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGMn3:0 = 0). In this mode the counting direction is always
up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum
16-bit value (MAX = 0xFFFF) and then restarts from the BOTTOM (0x0000). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) will be set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNTn becomes zero. The TOVn Flag in
this case behaves like a 17th bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow
interrupt that automatically clears the TOVn Flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software. There are no
special cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written anytime.
The Input Capture unit is easy to use in Normal mode. However, observe that the maximum interval between the
external events must not exceed the resolution of the counter. If the interval between events are too long, the timer
overflow interrupt or the prescaler must be used to extend the resolution for the capture unit.
The Output Compare units can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the Output Compare to
generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will occupy too much of the CPU time.
17.9.2
Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGMn3:0 = 4 or 12), the OCRnA or ICRn Register are used to manipulate the counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter value (TCNTn) matches
either the OCRnA (WGMn3:0 = 4) or the ICRn (WGMn3:0 = 12). The OCRnA or ICRn define the top value for the
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counter, hence also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the compare match output frequency. It also
simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 17-6. The counter value (TCNTn) increases until a compare match occurs with either OCRnA or ICRn, and then counter (TCNTn) is cleared.
Figure 17-6. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TCNTn
OCnA
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnA1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated at each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by either using the OCFnA or
ICFn Flag according to the register used to define the TOP value. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler
routine can be used for updating the TOP value. However, changing the TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when
the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does not
have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to OCRnA or ICRn is lower than the current value of
TCNTn, the counter will miss the compare match. The counter will then have to count to its maximum value
(0xFFFF) and wrap around starting at 0x0000 before the compare match can occur. In many cases this feature is
not desirable. An alternative will then be to use the fast PWM mode using OCRnA for defining TOP (WGMn3:0 =
15) since the OCRnA then will be double buffered.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OCnA output can be set to toggle its logical level on each
compare match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode (COMnA1:0 = 1). The OCnA value will
not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction for the pin is set to output (DDR_OCnA = 1). The waveform
generated will have a maximum frequency of fOCnA = fclk_I/O/2 when OCRnA is set to zero (0x0000). The waveform
frequency is defined by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnA = -------------------------------------------------2  N   1 + OCRnA 
The N variable represents the prescaler factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOVn Flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the counter counts
from MAX to 0x0000.
17.9.3
Fast PWM Mode
The fast Pulse Width Modulation or fast PWM mode (WGMn3:0 = 5, 6, 7, 14, or 15) provides a high frequency
PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM options by its single-slope operation.
The counter counts from BOTTOM to TOP then restarts from BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode,
the Output Compare (OCnx) is cleared on the compare match between TCNTn and OCRnx, and set at BOTTOM.
In inverting Compare Output mode output is set on compare match and cleared at BOTTOM. Due to the singleslope operation, the operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase correct and
phase and frequency correct PWM modes that use dual-slope operation. This high frequency makes the fast PWM
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mode well suited for power regulation, rectification, and DAC applications. High frequency allows physically small
sized external components (coils, capacitors), hence reduces total system cost.
The PWM resolution for fast PWM can be fixed to 8-bit, 9-bit, or 10-bit, or defined by either ICRn or OCRnA. The
minimum resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to 0x0003), and the maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICRn or
OCRnA set to MAX). The PWM resolution in bits can be calculated by using the following equation:
log  TOP + 1 
R FPWM = ---------------------------------log  2 
In fast PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches either one of the fixed values
0x00FF, 0x01FF, or 0x03FF (WGMn3:0 = 5, 6, or 7), the value in ICRn (WGMn3:0 = 14), or the value in OCRnA
(WGMn3:0 = 15). The counter is then cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast
PWM mode is shown in Figure 17-7 on page 147. The figure shows fast PWM mode when OCRnA or ICRn is used
to define TOP. The TCNTn value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope
operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the
TCNTn slopes represent compare matches between OCRnx and TCNTn. The OCnx Interrupt Flag will be set when
a compare match occurs.
Figure 17-7. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx / TOP Update
and TOVn Interrupt Flag
Set and OCnA Interrupt
Flag Set or ICFn
Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. In addition the OCnA or ICFn
Flag is set at the same timer clock cycle as TOVn is set when either OCRnA or ICRn is used for defining the TOP
value. If one of the interrupts are enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP and compare values.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is higher or equal to the value of
all of the Compare Registers. If the TOP value is lower than any of the Compare Registers, a compare match will
never occur between the TCNTn and the OCRnx. Note that when using fixed TOP values the unused bits are
masked to zero when any of the OCRnx Registers are written.
The procedure for updating ICRn differs from updating OCRnA when used for defining the TOP value. The ICRn
Register is not double buffered. This means that if ICRn is changed to a low value when the counter is running with
none or a low prescaler value, there is a risk that the new ICRn value written is lower than the current value of
TCNTn. The result will then be that the counter will miss the compare match at the TOP value. The counter will
then have to count to the MAX value (0xFFFF) and wrap around starting at 0x0000 before the compare match can
occur. The OCRnA Register however, is double buffered. This feature allows the OCRnA I/O location to be written
anytime. When the OCRnA I/O location is written the value written will be put into the OCRnA Buffer Register. The
OCRnA Compare Register will then be updated with the value in the Buffer Register at the next timer clock cycle
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the TCNTn matches TOP. The update is done at the same timer clock cycle as the TCNTn is cleared and the
TOVn Flag is set.
Using the ICRn Register for defining TOP works well when using fixed TOP values. By using ICRn, the OCRnA
Register is free to be used for generating a PWM output on OCnA. However, if the base PWM frequency is actively
changed (by changing the TOP value), using the OCRnA as TOP is clearly a better choice due to its double buffer
feature.
In fast PWM mode, the compare units allow generation of PWM waveforms on the OCnx pins. Setting the
COMnx1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting
the COMnx1:0 to three (see Table on page 155). The actual OCnx value will only be visible on the port pin if the
data direction for the port pin is set as output (DDR_OCnx). The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OCnx Register at the compare match between OCRnx and TCNTn, and clearing (or setting) the OCnx
Register at the timer clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from TOP to BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = ---------------------------------N   1 + TOP 
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCRnx Register represents special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in
the fast PWM mode. If the OCRnx is set equal to BOTTOM (0x0000) the output will be a narrow spike for each
TOP+1 timer clock cycle. Setting the OCRnx equal to TOP will result in a constant high or low output (depending
on the polarity of the output set by the COMnx1:0 bits).
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OCnA to toggle
its logical level on each compare match (COMnA1:0 = 1). This applies only if OCR1A is used to define the TOP
value (WGM13:0 = 15). The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOCnA = fclk_I/O/2 when OCRnA
is set to zero (0x0000). This feature is similar to the OCnA toggle in CTC mode, except the double buffer feature of
the Output Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
17.9.4
Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct Pulse Width Modulation or phase correct PWM mode (WGMn3:0 = 1, 2, 3, 10, or 11) provides a
high resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is, like the phase
and frequency correct PWM mode, based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM (0x0000) to TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output
Compare (OCnx) is cleared on the compare match between TCNTn and OCRnx while upcounting, and set on the
compare match while downcounting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope
operation has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric
feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control applications.
The PWM resolution for the phase correct PWM mode can be fixed to 8-bit, 9-bit, or 10-bit, or defined by either
ICRn or OCRnA. The minimum resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to 0x0003), and the maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to MAX). The PWM resolution in bits can be calculated by using the following
equation:
 TOP + 1 R PCPWM = log
---------------------------------log  2 
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches either one of the fixed values 0x00FF, 0x01FF, or 0x03FF (WGMn3:0 = 1, 2, or 3), the value in ICRn (WGMn3:0 = 10), or the value in
OCRnA (WGMn3:0 = 11). The counter has then reached the TOP and changes the count direction. The TCNTn
value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown
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on Figure 17-8 on page 149. The figure shows phase correct PWM mode when OCRnA or ICRn is used to define
TOP. The TCNTn value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The
diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNTn slopes
represent compare matches between OCRnx and TCNTn. The OCnx Interrupt Flag will be set when a compare
match occurs.
Figure 17-8. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx/TOP Update and
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on Bottom)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. When either OCRnA or
ICRn is used for defining the TOP value, the OCnA or ICFn Flag is set accordingly at the same timer clock cycle as
the OCRnx Registers are updated with the double buffer value (at TOP). The Interrupt Flags can be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the TOP or BOTTOM value.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is higher or equal to the value of
all of the Compare Registers. If the TOP value is lower than any of the Compare Registers, a compare match will
never occur between the TCNTn and the OCRnx. Note that when using fixed TOP values, the unused bits are
masked to zero when any of the OCRnx Registers are written. As the third period shown in Figure 17-8 illustrates,
changing the TOP actively while the Timer/Counter is running in the phase correct mode can result in an unsymmetrical output. The reason for this can be found in the time of update of the OCRnx Register. Since the OCRnx
update occurs at TOP, the PWM period starts and ends at TOP. This implies that the length of the falling slope is
determined by the previous TOP value, while the length of the rising slope is determined by the new TOP value.
When these two values differ the two slopes of the period will differ in length. The difference in length gives the
unsymmetrical result on the output.
It is recommended to use the phase and frequency correct mode instead of the phase correct mode when changing the TOP value while the Timer/Counter is running. When using a static TOP value there are practically no
differences between the two modes of operation.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare units allow generation of PWM waveforms on the OCnx pins. Setting
the COMnx1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COMnx1:0 to three (see Table 17-5 on page 155). The actual OCnx value will only be visible on the port
pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output (DDR_OCnx). The PWM waveform is generated by setting
(or clearing) the OCnx Register at the compare match between OCRnx and TCNTn when the counter increments,
and clearing (or setting) the OCnx Register at compare match between OCRnx and TCNTn when the counter dec-
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rements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct PWM can be calculated by the following
equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = --------------------------2  N  TOP
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCRnx Register represent special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in
the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCRnx is set equal to BOTTOM the output will be continuously low and if set
equal to TOP the output will be continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will
have the opposite logic values. If OCR1A is used to define the TOP value (WGM13:0 = 11) and COM1A1:0 = 1, the
OC1A output will toggle with a 50% duty cycle.
17.9.5
Phase and Frequency Correct PWM Mode
The phase and frequency correct Pulse Width Modulation, or phase and frequency correct PWM mode (WGMn3:0
= 8 or 9) provides a high resolution phase and frequency correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase
and frequency correct PWM mode is, like the phase correct PWM mode, based on a dual-slope operation. The
counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM (0x0000) to TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OCnx) is cleared on the compare match between TCNTn and OCRnx
while upcounting, and set on the compare match while downcounting. In inverting Compare Output mode, the
operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation gives a lower maximum operation frequency compared to the single-slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are
preferred for motor control applications.
The main difference between the phase correct, and the phase and frequency correct PWM mode is the time the
OCRnx Register is updated by the OCRnx Buffer Register, see Figure 17-8 on page 149 and Figure 17-9 on page
151.
The PWM resolution for the phase and frequency correct PWM mode can be defined by either ICRn or OCRnA.
The minimum resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to 0x0003), and the maximum resolution is 16-bit
(ICRn or OCRnA set to MAX). The PWM resolution in bits can be calculated using the following equation:
log  TOP + 1 
R PFCPWM = ----------------------------------log  2 
In phase and frequency correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches either the
value in ICRn (WGMn3:0 = 8), or the value in OCRnA (WGMn3:0 = 9). The counter has then reached the TOP and
changes the count direction. The TCNTn value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram
for the phase correct and frequency correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 17-9 on page 151. The figure shows
phase and frequency correct PWM mode when OCRnA or ICRn is used to define TOP. The TCNTn value is in the
timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted
and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNTn slopes represent compare matches
between OCRnx and TCNTn. The OCnx Interrupt Flag will be set when a compare match occurs.
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Figure 17-9. Phase and Frequency Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
OCRnx/TOP Updateand
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on Bottom)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set at the same timer clock cycle as the OCRnx Registers are updated
with the double buffer value (at BOTTOM). When either OCRnA or ICRn is used for defining the TOP value, the
OCnA or ICFn Flag set when TCNTn has reached TOP. The Interrupt Flags can then be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the TOP or BOTTOM value.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is higher or equal to the value of
all of the Compare Registers. If the TOP value is lower than any of the Compare Registers, a compare match will
never occur between the TCNTn and the OCRnx.
As Figure 17-9 shows the output generated is, in contrast to the phase correct mode, symmetrical in all periods.
Since the OCRnx Registers are updated at BOTTOM, the length of the rising and the falling slopes will always be
equal. This gives symmetrical output pulses and is therefore frequency correct.
Using the ICRn Register for defining TOP works well when using fixed TOP values. By using ICRn, the OCRnA
Register is free to be used for generating a PWM output on OCnA. However, if the base PWM frequency is actively
changed by changing the TOP value, using the OCRnA as TOP is clearly a better choice due to its double buffer
feature.
In phase and frequency correct PWM mode, the compare units allow generation of PWM waveforms on the OCnx
pins. Setting the COMnx1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COMnx1:0 to three (see Table 17-5 on page 155). The actual OCnx value will only be visible
on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output (DDR_OCnx). The PWM waveform is generated
by setting (or clearing) the OCnx Register at the compare match between OCRnx and TCNTn when the counter
increments, and clearing (or setting) the OCnx Register at compare match between OCRnx and TCNTn when the
counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase and frequency correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPFCPWM = --------------------------2  N  TOP
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCRnx Register represents special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in
the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCRnx is set equal to BOTTOM the output will be continuously low and if set
equal to TOP the output will be set to high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the
opposite logic values. If OCR1A is used to define the TOP value (WGM13:0 = 9) and COM1A1:0 = 1, the OC1A
output will toggle with a 50% duty cycle.
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17.10 Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkTn) is therefore shown as a clock enable signal
in the following figures. The figures include information on when Interrupt Flags are set, and when the OCRnx Register is updated with the OCRnx buffer value (only for modes utilizing double buffering). Figure 17-10 shows a
timing diagram for the setting of OCFnx.
Figure 17-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCFnx, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 17-11 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 17-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCFnx, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
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Figure 17-12 shows the count sequence close to TOP in various modes. When using phase and frequency correct
PWM mode the OCRnx Register is updated at BOTTOM. The timing diagrams will be the same, but TOP should
be replaced by BOTTOM, TOP-1 by BOTTOM+1 and so on. The same renaming applies for modes that set the
TOVn Flag at BOTTOM.
Figure 17-12. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
(CTC and FPWM)
TCNTn
(PC and PFC PWM)
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP - 1
TOP
TOP - 1
TOP - 2
TOVn (FPWM)
and ICFn (if used
as TOP)
OCRnx
(Update at TOP)
New OCRnx Value
Old OCRnx Value
Figure 17-13 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 17-13. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/8)
TCNTn
(CTC and FPWM)
TCNTn
(PC and PFC PWM)
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP - 1
TOP
TOP - 1
TOP - 2
TOVn (FPWM)
and ICF n (if used
as TOP)
OCRnx
(Update at TOP)
Old OCRnx Value
New OCRnx Value
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17.11 Register Description
17.11.1
TCCR1A – Timer/Counter 1 Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM1A1
COM1A0
COM1B1
COM1B0
COM1C1
COM1C0
WGM11
WGM10
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x80)
17.11.2
TCCR3A – Timer/Counter 3 Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM3A1
COM3A0
COM3B1
COM3B0
COM3C1
COM3C0
WGM31
WGM30
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x90)
17.11.3
TCCR3A
TCCR4A – Timer/Counter 4 Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM4A1
COM4A0
COM4B1
COM4B0
COM4C1
COM4C0
WGM41
WGM40
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xA0)
17.11.4
TCCR1A
TCCR4A
TCCR5A – Timer/Counter 5 Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM5A1
COM5A0
COM5B1
COM5B0
COM5C1
COM5C0
WGM51
WGM50
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x120)
TCCR5A
• Bit 7:6 – COMnA1:0: Compare Output Mode for Channel A
• Bit 5:4 – COMnB1:0: Compare Output Mode for Channel B
• Bit 3:2 – COMnC1:0: Compare Output Mode for Channel C
The COMnA1:0, COMnB1:0, and COMnC1:0 control the output compare pins (OCnA, OCnB, and OCnC respectively) behavior. If one or both of the COMnA1:0 bits are written to one, the OCnA output overrides the normal port
functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. If one or both of the COMnB1:0 bits are written to one, the OCnB output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. If one or both of the COMnC1:0 bits are
written to one, the OCnC output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However,
note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OCnA, OCnB or OCnC pin must be set in
order to enable the output driver.
When the OCnA, OCnB or OCnC is connected to the pin, the function of the COMnx1:0 bits is dependent of the
WGMn3:0 bits setting. Table 17-3 on page 155 shows the COMnx1:0 bit functionality when the WGMn3:0 bits are
set to a normal or a CTC mode (non-PWM).
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• Bit 1:0 – WGMn1:0: Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGMn3:2 bits found in the TCCRnB Register, these bits control the counting sequence of the
counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used, see
Table 17-2 on page 145. Modes of operation supported by the Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter),
Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC) mode, and three types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For more
information on the different modes, see “Modes of Operation” on page 144.
Table 17-3.
Compare Output Mode, non-PWM
COMnA1
COMnB1
COMnC1
COMnA0
COMnB0
COMnC0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC disconnected
0
1
Toggle OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match
1
0
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match (set output to low level)
1
1
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match (set output to high level)
Table 17-4 shows the COMnx1:0 bit functionality when the WGMn3:0 bits are set to the fast PWM mode.
Table 17-4.
Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM
COMnA1
COMnB1
COMnC1
COMnA0
COMnB0
COMnC0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC disconnected
0
1
WGM13:0 = 14 or 15: Toggle OC1A on Compare Match, OC1B and OC1C disconnected (normal
port operation). For all other WGM1 settings, normal port operation, OC1A/OC1B/OC1C
disconnected
1
0
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match, set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC at BOTTOM (non-inverting
mode)
1
1
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match, clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC at BOTTOM (inverting mode)
Note:
A special case occurs when OCRnA/OCRnB/OCRnC equals TOP and COMnA1/COMnB1/COMnC1 is set. In this
case the compare match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at BOTTOM. See “Fast PWM Mode” on page 146. for
more details.
Table 17-5 shows the COMnx1:0 bit functionality when the WGMn3:0 bits are set to the phase correct and frequency correct PWM mode.
Table 17-5.
Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct and Phase and Frequency Correct PWM
COMnA1
COMnB1
COMnC1
COMnA0
COMnB0
COMnC0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC disconnected
0
1
WGM13:0 =9 or 11: Toggle OC1A on Compare Match, OC1B and OC1C disconnected (normal port
operation). For all other WGM1 settings, normal port operation, OC1A/OC1B/OC1C disconnected
1
0
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match when up-counting
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match when downcounting
1
1
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match when up-counting
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match when downcounting
Note:
A special case occurs when OCRnA/OCRnB/OCRnC equals TOP and COMnA1/COMnB1//COMnC1 is set. See
“Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 148. for more details.
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17.11.5
TCCR1B – Timer/Counter 1 Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICNC1
ICES1
–
WGM13
WGM12
CS12
CS11
CS10
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x81)
17.11.6
TCCR3B – Timer/Counter 3 Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICNC3
ICES3
–
WGM33
WGM32
CS32
CS31
CS30
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x91)
17.11.7
TCCR3B
TCCR4B – Timer/Counter 4 Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICNC4
ICES4
–
WGM43
WGM42
CS42
CS41
CS40
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xA1)
17.11.8
TCCR1B
TCCR4B
TCCR5B – Timer/Counter 5 Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICNC5
ICES5
–
WGM53
WGM52
CS52
CS51
CS50
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x121)
TCCR5B
• Bit 7 – ICNCn: Input Capture Noise Canceler
Setting this bit (to one) activates the Input Capture Noise Canceler. When the Noise Canceler is activated, the
input from the Input Capture Pin (ICPn) is filtered. The filter function requires four successive equal valued samples
of the ICPn pin for changing its output. The input capture is therefore delayed by four Oscillator cycles when the
noise canceler is enabled.
• Bit 6 – ICESn: Input Capture Edge Select
This bit selects which edge on the Input Capture Pin (ICPn) that is used to trigger a capture event. When the
ICESn bit is written to zero, a falling (negative) edge is used as trigger, and when the ICESn bit is written to one, a
rising (positive) edge will trigger the capture.
When a capture is triggered according to the ICESn setting, the counter value is copied into the Input Capture Register (ICRn). The event will also set the Input Capture Flag (ICFn), and this can be used to cause an Input Capture
Interrupt, if this interrupt is enabled.
When the ICRn is used as TOP value (see description of the WGMn3:0 bits located in the TCCRnA and the
TCCRnB Register), the ICPn is disconnected and consequently the input capture function is disabled.
• Bit 5 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be written to zero
when TCCRnB is written.
• Bit 4:3 – WGMn3:2: Waveform Generation Mode
See TCCRnA Register description.
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• Bit 2:0 – CSn2:0: Clock Select
The three clock select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter, see Figure 17-10 and Figure
17-11 on page 152.
Table 17-6.
Clock Select Bit Description
CSn2
CSn1
CSn0
Description
0
0
0
No clock source. (Timer/Counter stopped)
0
0
1
clkI/O/1 (No prescaling
0
1
0
clkI/O/8 (From prescaler)
0
1
1
clkI/O/64 (From prescaler)
1
0
0
clkI/O/256 (From prescaler)
1
0
1
clkI/O/1024 (From prescaler)
1
1
0
External clock source on Tn pin. Clock on falling edge
1
1
1
External clock source on Tn pin. Clock on rising edge
If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Countern, transitions on the Tn pin will clock the counter even if the
pin is configured as an output. This feature allows software control of the counting.
17.11.9
TCCR1C – Timer/Counter 1 Control Register C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC1A
FOC1B
FOC1C
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
W
W
W
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x82)
TCCR1C
17.11.10 TCCR3C – Timer/Counter 3 Control Register C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC3A
FOC3B
FOC3C
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
W
W
W
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x92)
TCCR3C
17.11.11 TCCR4C – Timer/Counter 4 Control Register C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC4A
FOC4B
FOC4C
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
W
W
W
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xA2)
TCCR4C
17.11.12 TCCR5C – Timer/Counter 5 Control Register C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC5A
FOC5B
FOC3C
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
W
W
W
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x122)
TCCR5C
• Bit 7 – FOCnA: Force Output Compare for Channel A
• Bit 6 – FOCnB: Force Output Compare for Channel B
• Bit 5 – FOCnC: Force Output Compare for Channel C
The FOCnA/FOCnB/FOCnC bits are only active when the WGMn3:0 bits specifies a non-PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOCnA/FOCnB/FOCnC bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the waveform
generation unit. The OCnA/OCnB/OCnC output is changed according to its COMnx1:0 bits setting. Note that the
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FOCnA/FOCnB/FOCnC bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the value present in the COMnx1:0 bits
that determine the effect of the forced compare.
A FOCnA/FOCnB/FOCnC strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCRnA as TOP.
The FOCnA/FOCnB/FOCnB bits are always read as zero.
• Bit 4:0 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use. For ensuring compatibility with future devices, these bits must be written to
zero when TCCRnC is written.
17.11.13 TCNT1H and TCNT1L – Timer/Counter 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
(0x85)
TCNT1[15:8]
(0x84)
TCNT1[7:0]
2
1
0
TCNT1H
TCNT1L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.14 TCNT3H and TCNT3L – Timer/Counter 3
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0x95)
TCNT3[15:8]
(0x94)
TCNT3[7:0]
TCNT3H
TCNT3L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.15 TCNT4H and TCNT4L –Timer/Counter 4
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0xA5)
TCNT4[15:8]
(0xA4)
TCNT4[7:0]
TCNT4H
TCNT4L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.16 TCNT5H and TCNT5L –Timer/Counter 5
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0x125)
TCNT5[15:8]
(0x124)
TCNT5[7:0]
TCNT5H
TCNT5L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNTnH and TCNTnL, combined TCNTn) give direct access, both for read
and for write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit counter. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are
read and written simultaneously when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit
temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See
“Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 135.
Modifying the counter (TCNTn) while the counter is running introduces a risk of missing a compare match between
TCNTn and one of the OCRnx Registers.
Writing to the TCNTn Register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock for all compare
units.
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17.11.17 OCR1AH and OCR1AL – Output Compare Register 1 A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
(0x89)
OCR1A[15:8]
(0x88)
OCR1A[7:0]
2
1
0
OCR1AH
OCR1AL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.18 OCR1BH and OCR1BL – Output Compare Register 1 B
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0x8B)
OCR1B[15:8]
(0x8A)
OCR1B[7:0]
OCR1BH
OCR1BL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.19 OCR1CH and OCR1CL – Output Compare Register 1 C
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0x8D)
OCR1C[15:8]
(0x8C)
OCR1C[7:0]
OCR1CH
OCR1CL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.20 OCR3AH and OCR3AL – Output Compare Register 3 A
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0x99)
OCR3A[15:8]
(0x98)
OCR3A[7:0]
OCR3AH
OCR3AL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.21 OCR3BH and OCR3BL – Output Compare Register 3 B
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0x9B)
OCR3B[15:8]
(0x9A)
OCR3B[7:0]
OCR3BH
OCR3BL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.22 OCR3CH and OCR3CL – Output Compare Register 3 C
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0x9D)
OCR3C[15:8]
(0x9C)
OCR3C[7:0]
OCR3CH
OCR3CL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.23 OCR4AH and OCR4AL – Output Compare Register 4 A
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0xA9)
OCR4A[15:8]
(0xA8)
OCR4A[7:0]
OCR4AH
OCR4AL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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17.11.24 OCR4BH and OCR4BL – Output Compare Register 4 B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
(0xAA)
OCR4B[15:8]
(0xAB)
OCR4B[7:0]
2
1
0
OCR4BH
OCR4BL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.25 OCR4CH and OCR4CL –Output Compare Register 4 C
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0xAD)
OCR4C[15:8]
(0xAC)
OCR4C[7:0]
OCR4CH
OCR4CL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.26 OCR5AH and OCR5AL – Output Compare Register 5 A
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0x129)
OCR5A[15:8]
(0x128)
OCR5A[7:0]
OCR5AH
OCR5AL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.27 OCR5BH and OCR5BL – Output Compare Register 5 B
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0x12B)
OCR5B[15:8]
(0x12A)
OCR5B[7:0]
OCR5BH
OCR5BL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.28 OCR5CH and OCR5CL –Output Compare Register 5 C
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0x12D)
OCR5C[15:8]
(0x12C)
OCR5C[7:0]
OCR5CH
OCR5CL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value
(TCNTn). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the
OCnx pin.
The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register
(TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on
page 135.
17.11.29 ICR1H and ICR1L – Input Capture Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
(0x87)
ICR1[15:8]
(0x86)
ICR1[7:0]
2
1
0
ICR1H
ICR1L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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17.11.30 ICR3H and ICR3L – Input Capture Register 3
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
(0x97)
ICR3[15:8]
(0x96)
ICR3[7:0]
2
1
0
ICR3H
ICR3L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.31 ICR4H and ICR4L – Input Capture Register 4
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0xA7)
ICR4[15:8]
(0xA6)
ICR4[7:0]
ICR4H
ICR4L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
17.11.32 ICR5H and ICR5L – Input Capture Register 5
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0x127)
ICR5[15:8]
(0x126)
ICR5[7:0]
ICR5H
ICR5L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Input Capture is updated with the counter (TCNTn) value each time an event occurs on the ICPn pin (or
optionally on the Analog Comparator output for Timer/Counter1). The Input Capture can be used for defining the
counter TOP value.
The Input Capture Register is 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read simultaneously
when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register
(TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on
page 135.
17.11.33 TIMSK1 – Timer/Counter 1 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x6F)
–
–
ICIE1
–
OCIE1C
OCIE1B
OCIE1A
TOIE1
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK1
17.11.34 TIMSK3 – Timer/Counter 3 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x71)
–
–
ICIE3
–
OCIE3C
OCIE3B
OCIE3A
TOIE3
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK3
17.11.35 TIMSK4 – Timer/Counter 4 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x72)
–
–
ICIE4
–
OCIE4C
OCIE4B
OCIE4A
TOIE4
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK4
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17.11.36 TIMSK5 – Timer/Counter 5 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x73)
–
–
ICIE5
–
OCIE5C
OCIE5B
OCIE5A
TOIE5
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK5
• Bit 5 – ICIEn: Timer/Countern, Input Capture Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally enabled), the
Timer/Countern Input Capture interrupt is enabled. The corresponding Interrupt Vector (see “Interrupts” on page
101) is executed when the ICFn Flag, located in TIFRn, is set.
• Bit 3 – OCIEnC: Timer/Countern, Output Compare C Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally enabled), the
Timer/Countern Output Compare C Match interrupt is enabled. The corresponding Interrupt Vector (see “Interrupts” on page 101) is executed when the OCFnC Flag, located in TIFRn, is set.
• Bit 2 – OCIEnB: Timer/Countern, Output Compare B Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally enabled), the
Timer/Countern Output Compare B Match interrupt is enabled. The corresponding Interrupt Vector (see “Interrupts” on page 101) is executed when the OCFnB Flag, located in TIFRn, is set.
• Bit 1 – OCIEnA: Timer/Countern, Output Compare A Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally enabled), the
Timer/Countern Output Compare A Match interrupt is enabled. The corresponding Interrupt Vector (see “Interrupts” on page 101) is executed when the OCFnA Flag, located in TIFRn, is set.
• Bit 0 – TOIEn: Timer/Countern, Overflow Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally enabled), the
Timer/Countern Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding Interrupt Vector (see “Interrupts” on page 101) is
executed when the TOVn Flag, located in TIFRn, is set.
17.11.37 TIFR1 – Timer/Counter1 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x16 (0x36)
–
–
ICF1
–
OCF1C
OCF1B
OCF1A
TOV1
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR1
17.11.38 TIFR3 – Timer/Counter3 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x18 (0x38)
–
–
ICF3
–
OCF3C
OCF3B
OCF3A
TOV3
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR3
17.11.39 TIFR4 – Timer/Counter4 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x19 (0x39)
–
–
ICF4
–
OCF4C
OCF4B
OCF4A
TOV4
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR4
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17.11.40 TIFR5 – Timer/Counter5 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x1A (0x3A)
–
–
ICF5
–
OCF5C
OCF5B
OCF5A
TOV5
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR5
• Bit 5 – ICFn: Timer/Countern, Input Capture Flag
This flag is set when a capture event occurs on the ICPn pin. When the Input Capture Register (ICRn) is set by the
WGMn3:0 to be used as the TOP value, the ICFn Flag is set when the counter reaches the TOP value.
ICFn is automatically cleared when the Input Capture Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, ICFn can be
cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 3– OCFnC: Timer/Countern, Output Compare C Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNTn) value matches the Output Compare Register C
(OCRnC).
Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOCnC) strobe will not set the OCFnC Flag.
OCFnC is automatically cleared when the Output Compare Match C Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively,
OCFnC can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 2 – OCFnB: Timer/Counter1, Output Compare B Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNTn) value matches the Output Compare Register B
(OCRnB).
Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOCnB) strobe will not set the OCFnB Flag.
OCFnB is automatically cleared when the Output Compare Match B Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively,
OCFnB can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 1 – OCF1A: Timer/Counter1, Output Compare A Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNTn value matches the Output Compare Register A
(OCRnA).
Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOCnA) strobe will not set the OCFnA Flag.
OCFnA is automatically cleared when the Output Compare Match A Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively,
OCFnA can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 0 – TOVn: Timer/Countern, Overflow Flag
The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGMn3:0 bits setting. In Normal and CTC modes, the TOVn Flag is set
when the timer overflows. Refer to Table 17-2 on page 145 for the TOVn Flag behavior when using another
WGMn3:0 bit setting.
TOVn is automatically cleared when the Timer/Countern Overflow Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, TOVn
can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
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18. Timer/Counter 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 Prescaler
Timer/Counter 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 share the same prescaler module, but the Timer/Counters can have different prescaler settings. The description below applies to all Timer/Counters. Tn is used as a general name, n = 0, 1, 3, 4, or
5.
18.1
Internal Clock Source
The Timer/Counter can be clocked directly by the system clock (by setting the CSn2:0 = 1). This provides the fastest operation, with a maximum Timer/Counter clock frequency equal to system clock frequency (f CLK_I/O ).
Alternatively, one of four taps from the prescaler can be used as a clock source. The prescaled clock has a frequency of either fCLK_I/O/8, fCLK_I/O/64, fCLK_I/O/256, or fCLK_I/O/1024.
18.2
Prescaler Reset
The prescaler is free running, that is, operates independently of the Clock Select logic of the Timer/Counter, and it
is shared by the Timer/Counter Tn. Since the prescaler is not affected by the Timer/Counter’s clock select, the
state of the prescaler will have implications for situations where a prescaled clock is used. One example of prescaling artifacts occurs when the timer is enabled and clocked by the prescaler (6 > CSn2:0 > 1). The number of
system clock cycles from when the timer is enabled to the first count occurs can be from 1 to N+1 system clock
cycles, where N equals the prescaler divisor (8, 64, 256, or 1024).
It is possible to use the prescaler reset for synchronizing the Timer/Counter to program execution. However, care
must be taken if the other Timer/Counter that shares the same prescaler also uses prescaling. A prescaler reset
will affect the prescaler period for all Timer/Counters it is connected to.
18.3
External Clock Source
An external clock source applied to the Tn pin can be used as Timer/Counter clock (clkTn). The Tn pin is sampled
once every system clock cycle by the pin synchronization logic. The synchronized (sampled) signal is then passed
through the edge detector. Figure 18-1 shows a functional equivalent block diagram of the Tn synchronization and
edge detector logic. The registers are clocked at the positive edge of the internal system clock (clkI/O). The latch is
transparent in the high period of the internal system clock.
The edge detector generates one clkTn pulse for each positive (CSn2:0 = 7) or negative (CSn2:0 = 6) edge it
detects.
Figure 18-1. Tn/T0 Pin Sampling
Tn
D
Q
D
Q
D
Tn_sync
(To Clock
Select Logic)
Q
LE
clk I/O
Synchronization
Edge Detector
The synchronization and edge detector logic introduces a delay of 2.5 to 3.5 system clock cycles from an edge has
been applied to the Tn pin to the counter is updated.
Enabling and disabling of the clock input must be done when Tn has been stable for at least one system clock
cycle, otherwise it is a risk that a false Timer/Counter clock pulse is generated.
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Each half period of the external clock applied must be longer than one system clock cycle to ensure correct sampling. The external clock must be guaranteed to have less than half the system clock frequency (fExtClk < fclk_I/O/2)
given a 50/50% duty cycle. Since the edge detector uses sampling, the maximum frequency of an external clock it
can detect is half the sampling frequency (Nyquist sampling theorem). However, due to variation of the system
clock frequency and duty cycle caused by Oscillator source (crystal, resonator, and capacitors) tolerances, it is recommended that maximum frequency of an external clock source is less than fclk_I/O/2.5.
An external clock source can not be prescaled.
Figure 18-2. Prescaler for synchronous Timer/Counters
clk I/O
Clear
PSR10
Tn
Synchronization
Tn
Synchronization
CSn0
CSn0
CSn1
CSn1
CSn2
CSn2
TIMER/COUNTERn CLOCK SOURCE
clkTn
TIMER/COUNTERn CLOCK SOURCE
clkTn
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18.4
Register Description
18.4.1
GTCCR – General Timer/Counter Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x23 (0x43)
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
PSRASY
PSRSYNC
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GTCCR
• Bit 7 – TSM: Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode
Writing the TSM bit to one activates the Timer/Counter Synchronization mode. In this mode, the value that is written to the PSRASY and PSRSYNC bits is kept, hence keeping the corresponding prescaler reset signals asserted.
This ensures that the corresponding Timer/Counters are halted and can be configured to the same value without
the risk of one of them advancing during configuration. When the TSM bit is written to zero, the PSRASY and
PSRSYNC bits are cleared by hardware, and the Timer/Counters start counting simultaneously.
• Bit 0 – PSRSYNC: Prescaler Reset for Synchronous Timer/Counters
When this bit is one, Timer/Counter0, Timer/Counter1, Timer/Counter3, Timer/Counter4 and Timer/Counter5 prescaler will be Reset. This bit is normally cleared immediately by hardware, except if the TSM bit is set. Note that
Timer/Counter0, Timer/Counter1, Timer/Counter3, Timer/Counter4 and Timer/Counter5 share the same prescaler
and a reset of this prescaler will affect all timers.
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19. Output Compare Modulator (OCM1C0A)
19.1
Overview
The Output Compare Modulator (OCM) allows generation of waveforms modulated with a carrier frequency. The
modulator uses the outputs from the Output Compare Unit C of the 16-bit Timer/Counter1 and the Output Compare
Unit of the 8-bit Timer/Counter0. For more details about these Timer/Counters see “Timer/Counter 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5
Prescaler” on page 164 and “8-bit Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous Operation” on page 169.
Figure 19-1. Output Compare Modulator, Block Diagram
Timer/Counter 1
OC1C
Pin
Timer/Counter 0
OC1C /
OC0A / PB7
OC0A
When the modulator is enabled, the two output compare channels are modulated together as shown in the block
diagram (see Figure 19-1).
19.2
Description
The Output Compare unit 1C and Output Compare unit 2 shares the PB7 port pin for output. The outputs of the
Output Compare units (OC1C and OC0A) overrides the normal PORTB7 Register when one of them is enabled
(that is, when COMnx1:0 is not equal to zero). When both OC1C and OC0A are enabled at the same time, the
modulator is automatically enabled.
The functional equivalent schematic of the modulator is shown on Figure 19-2. The schematic includes part of the
Timer/Counter units and the port B pin 7 output driver circuit.
Figure 19-2. Output Compare Modulator, Schematic
COMA01
COMA00
Vcc
COM1C1
COM1C0
( From Waveform Generator )
Modulator
0
D
1
Q
1
OC1C
( From Waveform Generator )
D
Pin
0
Q
OC1C /
OC0A/ PB7
OC0A
D
Q
PORTB7
D
DATABUS
Q
DDRB7
When the modulator is enabled the type of modulation (logical AND or OR) can be selected by the PORTB7 Register. Note that the DDRB7 controls the direction of the port independent of the COMnx1:0 bit setting.
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19.2.1
Timing example
Figure 19-3 illustrates the modulator in action. In this example the Timer/Counter1 is set to operate in fast PWM
mode (non-inverted) and Timer/Counter0 uses CTC waveform mode with toggle Compare Output mode
(COMnx1:0 = 1).
Figure 19-3. Output Compare Modulator, Timing Diagram
clk I/O
OC1C
(FPWM Mode)
OC0A
(CTC Mode)
PB7
(PORTB7 = 0)
PB7
(PORTB7 = 1)
(Period)
1
2
3
In this example, Timer/Counter2 provides the carrier, while the modulating signal is generated by the Output Compare unit C of the Timer/Counter1.
The resolution of the PWM signal (OC1C) is reduced by the modulation. The reduction factor is equal to the number of system clock cycles of one period of the carrier (OC0A). In this example the resolution is reduced by a factor
of two. The reason for the reduction is illustrated in Figure 19-3 at the second and third period of the PB7 output
when PORTB7 equals zero. The period 2 high time is one cycle longer than the period 3 high time, but the result on
the PB7 output is equal in both periods.
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20. 8-bit Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous Operation
Timer/Counter2 is a general purpose, single channel, 8-bit Timer/Counter module. The main features are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Overview
A simplified block diagram of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 17-12 on page 153 For the actual placement of I/O pins, see “Pin Configurations” on page 2. CPU accessible I/O Registers, including I/O bits and I/O pins,
are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the “Register Description” on
page 182.
The Power Reduction Timer/Counter2 bit, PRTIM2, in “PRR0 – Power Reduction Register 0” on page 55 must be
written to zero to enable Timer/Counter2 module.
Figure 20-1. 8-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram
Count
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
Clear
Direction
Control Logic
clkTn
TOSC1
T/C
Oscillator
TOP
BOTTOM
TOSC2
Prescaler
clkI/O
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=
=0
OCnA
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnA
OCRnA
Fixed
TOP
Value
DATA BUS
20.1
Single Channel Counter
Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
Frequency Generator
10-bit Clock Prescaler
Overflow and Compare Match Interrupt Sources (TOV2, OCF2A and OCF2B)
Allows Clocking from External 32kHz Watch Crystal Independent of the I/O Clock
Waveform
Generation
=
OCRnB
OCnB
(Int.Req.)
Synchronized Status flags
Synchronization Unit
OCnB
clkI/O
clkASY
Status flags
ASSRn
TCCRnA
asynchronous mode
select (ASn)
TCCRnB
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20.1.1
Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT2) and Output Compare Register (OCR2A and OCR2B) are 8-bit registers. Interrupt
request (abbreviated to Int.Req.) signals are all visible in the Timer Interrupt Flag Register (TIFR2). All interrupts
are individually masked with the Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK2). TIFR2 and TIMSK2 are not shown in the
figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or asynchronously clocked from the TOSC1/2 pins,
as detailed later in this section. The asynchronous operation is controlled by the Asynchronous Status Register
(ASSR). The Clock Select logic block controls which clock source the Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the Clock Select
logic is referred to as the timer clock (clkT2).
The double buffered Output Compare Register (OCR2A and OCR2B) are compared with the Timer/Counter value
at all times. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output Compare pins (OC2A and OC2B). See “Output Compare Unit” on page 175 for
details. The compare match event will also set the Compare Flag (OCF2A or OCF2B) which can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
20.1.2
Definitions
Many register and bit references in this document are written in general form. A lower case “n” replaces the
Timer/Counter number, in this case 2. However, when using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise
form must be used, that is, TCNT2 for accessing Timer/Counter2 counter value and so on.
The definitions in Table 20-1 are also used extensively throughout the section.
Table 20-1.
20.2
Definitions
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes zero (0x00)
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFF (decimal 255)
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the count
sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be the fixed value 0xFF (MAX) or the value stored
in the OCR2A Register. The assignment is dependent on the mode of operation
Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal synchronous or an external asynchronous clock source. The
clock source clkT2 is by default equal to the MCU clock, clkI/O. When the AS2 bit in the ASSR Register is written to
logic one, the clock source is taken from the Timer/Counter Oscillator connected to TOSC1 and TOSC2. For
details on asynchronous operation, see “Asynchronous Operation of Timer/Counter2” on page 179. For details on
clock sources and prescaler, see “Timer/Counter Prescaler” on page 180.
20.3
Counter Unit
The main part of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable bi-directional counter unit. Figure 20-2 on page 171
shows a block diagram of the counter and its surrounding environment.
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Figure 20-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
DATA BUS
TOSC1
count
clear
TCNTn
clk Tn
Control Logic
Prescaler
T/C
Oscillator
direction
TOSC2
bottom
top
clkI/O
Signal description (internal signals):
count
Increment or decrement TCNT2 by 1.
direction
Selects between increment and decrement.
clear
Clear TCNT2 (set all bits to zero).
clkTn
Timer/Counter clock, referred to as clkT2 in the following.
top
Signalizes that TCNT2 has reached maximum value.
bottom
Signalizes that TCNT2 has reached minimum value (zero).
Depending on the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented at each timer
clock (clkT2). clkT2 can be generated from an external or internal clock source, selected by the Clock Select bits
(CS22:0). When no clock source is selected (CS22:0 = 0) the timer is stopped. However, the TCNT2 value can be
accessed by the CPU, regardless of whether clkT2 is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all
counter clear or count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the WGM21 and WGM20 bits located in the Timer/Counter
Control Register (TCCR2A) and the WGM22 located in the Timer/Counter Control Register B (TCCR2B). There
are close connections between how the counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output Compare outputs OC2A and OC2B. For more details about advanced counting sequences and waveform
generation, see “Modes of Operation” .
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set according to the mode of operation selected by the WGM22:0 bits.
TOV2 can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
20.4
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, that is, the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins, is defined by the
combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGM22:0) and Compare Output mode (COM2x1:0) bits. The
Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting sequence, while the Waveform Generation mode bits do.
The COM2x1:0 bits control whether the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted
PWM). For non-PWM modes the COM2x1:0 bits control whether the output should be set, cleared, or toggled at a
compare match. See “Compare Match Output Unit” on page 176.
For detailed timing information refer to “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 177.
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20.4.1
Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM22:0 = 0). In this mode the counting direction is always
up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 8bit value (TOP = 0xFF) and then restarts from the bottom (0x00). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow
Flag (TOV2) will be set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNT2 becomes zero. The TOV2 Flag in this case
behaves like a ninth bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt
that automatically clears the TOV2 Flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software. There are no special
cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written anytime.
The Output Compare unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the Output Compare to
generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will occupy too much of the CPU time.
20.4.2
Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGM22:0 = 2), the OCR2A Register is used to manipulate the counter
resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter value (TCNT2) matches the OCR2A. The
OCR2A defines the top value for the counter, hence also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the
compare match output frequency. It also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 20-3. The counter value (TCNT2) increases until a compare match occurs between TCNT2 and OCR2A, and then counter (TCNT2) is cleared.
Figure 20-3. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnx1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by using the OCF2A Flag. If the
interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP value. However, changing TOP
to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with
care since the CTC mode does not have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to OCR2A is lower
than the current value of TCNT2, the counter will miss the compare match. The counter will then have to count to
its maximum value (0xFF) and wrap around starting at 0x00 before the compare match can occur.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC2A output can be set to toggle its logical level on each
compare match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode (COM2A1:0 = 1). The OC2A value will
not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction for the pin is set to output. The waveform generated will have
a maximum frequency of fOC2A = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR2A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform frequency is defined by
the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnx = ------------------------------------------------2  N   1 + OCRnx 
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOV2 Flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the counter counts
from MAX to 0x00.
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20.4.3
Fast PWM Mode
Figure 20-4. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. If the interrupt is enabled, the
interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the compare value.
In fast PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC2x pin. Setting the
COM2x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting
the COM2x1:0 to three. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 3, and OCR2A when WGM2:0 = 7 (see Table
20-3 on page 182). The actual OC2x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is
set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC2x Register at the compare match
between OCR2x and TCNT2, and clearing (or setting) the OC2x Register at the timer clock cycle the counter is
cleared (changes from TOP to BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = ----------------N  256
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR2A Register represent special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in
the fast PWM mode. If the OCR2A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will be a narrow spike for each MAX+1
timer clock cycle. Setting the OCR2A equal to MAX will result in a constantly high or low output (depending on the
polarity of the output set by the COM2A1:0 bits).
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OC2x to toggle
its logical level on each compare match (COM2x1:0 = 1). The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency
of foc2 = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR2A is set to zero. This feature is similar to the OC2A toggle in CTC mode, except the
double buffer feature of the Output Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
20.4.4
Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct PWM mode (WGM22:0 = 1 or 5) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly
from BOTTOM to TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM22:0 = 1, and OCR2A
when MGM22:0 = 5. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC2x) is cleared on the compare match between TCNT2 and OCR2x while upcounting, and set on the compare match while downcounting. In
inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation
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frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes,
these modes are preferred for motor control applications.
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches TOP. When the counter
reaches TOP, it changes the count direction. The TCNT2 value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The
timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 20-5. The TCNT2 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and
inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT2 slopes represent compare matches between
OCR2x and TCNT2.
Figure 20-5. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. The Interrupt Flag can
be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM value.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC2x pin. Setting the
COM2x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the
COM2x1:0 to three. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 3, and OCR2A when MGM2:0 = 7 (see Table 20-4
on page 183). The actual OC2x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as
output. The PWM waveform is generated by clearing (or setting) the OC2x Register at the compare match between
OCR2x and TCNT2 when the counter increments, and setting (or clearing) the OC2x Register at compare match
between OCR2x and TCNT2 when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase
correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = ----------------N  510
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR2A Register represent special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in
the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCR2A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will be continuously low and if set
equal to MAX the output will be continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will
have the opposite logic values.
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At the very start of period 2 in Figure 20-5 on page 174 OCnx has a transition from high to low even though there is
no Compare Match. The point of this transition is to guarantee symmetry around BOTTOM. There are two cases
that give a transition without Compare Match.
20.5
•
OCR2A changes its value from MAX, like in Figure 20-5 on page 174. When the OCR2A value is MAX the OCn
pin value is the same as the result of a down-counting compare match. To ensure symmetry around BOTTOM
the OCn value at MAX must correspond to the result of an up-counting Compare Match.
•
The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCR2A, and for that reason misses the Compare
Match and hence the OCn change that would have happened on the way up.
Output Compare Unit
The 8-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT2 with the Output Compare Register (OCR2A and OCR2B).
Whenever TCNT2 equals OCR2A or OCR2B, the comparator signals a match. A match will set the Output Compare Flag (OCF2A or OCF2B) at the next timer clock cycle. If the corresponding interrupt is enabled, the Output
Compare Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt. The Output Compare Flag is automatically cleared when
the interrupt is executed. Alternatively, the Output Compare Flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical
one to its I/O bit location. The Waveform Generator uses the match signal to generate an output according to operating mode set by the WGM22:0 bits and Compare Output mode (COM2x1:0) bits. The max and bottom signals
are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values in some modes of operation (see “Modes of Operation” on page 171).
Figure 20-6 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit.
Figure 20-6. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
OCRnx
TCNTn
= (8-bit Comparator )
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
top
bottom
Waveform Generator
OCnx
FOCn
WGMn1:0
COMnX1:0
The OCR2x Register is double buffered when using any of the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For the Normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering
synchronizes the update of the OCR2x Compare Register to either top or bottom of the counting sequence. The
synchronization prevents the occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output
glitch-free.
The OCR2x Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the
CPU has access to the OCR2x Buffer Register, and if double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCR2x
directly.
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20.5.1
Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by writing a one to
the Force Output Compare (FOC2x) bit. Forcing compare match will not set the OCF2x Flag or reload/clear the
timer, but the OC2x pin will be updated as if a real compare match had occurred (the COM2x1:0 bits settings
define whether the OC2x pin is set, cleared or toggled).
20.5.2
Compare Match Blocking by TCNT2 Write
All CPU write operations to the TCNT2 Register will block any compare match that occurs in the next timer clock
cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCR2x to be initialized to the same value as TCNT2
without triggering an interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is enabled.
20.5.3
Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT2 in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one timer clock cycle, there are
risks involved when changing TCNT2 when using the Output Compare channel, independently of whether the
Timer/Counter is running or not. If the value written to TCNT2 equals the OCR2x value, the compare match will be
missed, resulting in incorrect waveform generation. Similarly, do not write the TCNT2 value equal to BOTTOM
when the counter is downcounting.
The setup of the OC2x should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register for the port pin to output.
The easiest way of setting the OC2x value is to use the Force Output Compare (FOC2x) strobe bit in Normal
mode. The OC2x Register keeps its value even when changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COM2x1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value. Changing the
COM2x1:0 bits will take effect immediately.
20.6
Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COM2x1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator uses the COM2x1:0
bits for defining the Output Compare (OC2x) state at the next compare match. Also, the COM2x1:0 bits control the
OC2x pin output source. Figure 20-7 on page 177 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the
COM2x1:0 bit setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits, and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the
general I/O Port Control Registers (DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COM2x1:0 bits are shown. When
referring to the OC2x state, the reference is for the internal OC2x Register, not the OC2x pin.
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Figure 20-7. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCnx
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
0
OCnx
Pin
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OC2x) from the Waveform Generator if either
of the COM2x1:0 bits are set. However, the OC2x pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin. The Data Direction Register bit for the OC2x pin (DDR_OC2x) must be set as
output before the OC2x value is visible on the pin. The port override function is independent of the Waveform Generation mode.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC2x state before the output is enabled.
Note that some COM2x1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of operation. See “Register Description” on
page 182.
20.6.1
Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COM2x1:0 bits differently in normal, CTC, and PWM modes. For all modes,
setting the COM2x1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action on the OC2x Register is to be performed on
the next compare match. For compare output actions in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 20-5 on page 183. For
fast PWM mode, refer to Table 20-6 on page 183, and for phase correct PWM refer to Table 20-7 on page 184.
A change of the COM2x1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after the bits are written. For nonPWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the FOC2x strobe bits.
20.7
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The following figures show the Timer/Counter in synchronous mode, and the timer clock (clkT2) is therefore shown
as a clock enable signal. In asynchronous mode, clkI/O should be replaced by the Timer/Counter Oscillator clock.
The figures include information on when Interrupt Flags are set. Figure 20-8 on page 178 contains timing data for
basic Timer/Counter operation. The figure shows the count sequence close to the MAX value in all modes other
than phase correct PWM mode.
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Figure 20-8. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 20-9 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 20-9. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 20-10 shows the setting of OCF2A in all modes except CTC mode.
Figure 20-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF2A, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
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Figure 20-11 shows the setting of OCF2A and the clearing of TCNT2 in CTC mode.
Figure 20-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Clear Timer on Compare Match mode, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
(CTC)
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP
OCRnx
OCFnx
20.8
Asynchronous Operation of Timer/Counter2
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously, some considerations must be taken.
•
Warning: When switching between asynchronous and synchronous clocking of Timer/Counter2, the Timer
Registers TCNT2, OCR2x, and TCCR2x might be corrupted. A safe procedure for switching clock source is:
1. Disable the Timer/Counter2 interrupts by clearing OCIE2x and TOIE2.
2. Select clock source by setting AS2 as appropriate.
3. Write new values to TCNT2, OCR2x, and TCCR2x.
4. To switch to asynchronous operation: Wait for TCN2UB, OCR2xUB, and TCR2xUB.
5. Clear the Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flags.
6. Enable interrupts, if needed.
•
The CPU main clock frequency must be more than four times the Oscillator frequency.
•
When writing to one of the registers TCNT2, OCR2x, or TCCR2x, the value is transferred to a temporary
register, and latched after two positive edges on TOSC1. The user should not write a new value before the
contents of the temporary register have been transferred to its destination. Each of the five mentioned registers
have their individual temporary register, which means that, for example, writing to TCNT2 does not disturb an
OCR2x write in progress. To detect that a transfer to the destination register has taken place, the
Asynchronous Status Register – ASSR has been implemented.
•
When entering Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode after having written to TCNT2, OCR2x, or TCCR2x,
the user must wait until the written register has been updated if Timer/Counter2 is used to wake up the device.
Otherwise, the MCU will enter sleep mode before the changes are effective. This is particularly important if any
of the Output Compare2 interrupt is used to wake up the device, since the Output Compare function is disabled
during writing to OCR2x or TCNT2. If the write cycle is not finished, and the MCU enters sleep mode before the
corresponding OCR2xUB bit returns to zero, the device will never receive a compare match interrupt, and the
MCU will not wake up.
•
If Timer/Counter2 is used to wake the device up from Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode, precautions
must be taken if the user wants to re-enter one of these modes: The interrupt logic needs one TOSC1 cycle to
be reset. If the time between wake-up and re-entering sleep mode is less than one TOSC1 cycle, the interrupt
will not occur, and the device will fail to wake up. If the user is in doubt whether the time before re-entering
Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode is sufficient, the following algorithm can be used to ensure that one
TOSC1 cycle has elapsed:
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1. Write a value to TCCR2x, TCNT2, or OCR2x.
2. Wait until the corresponding Update Busy Flag in ASSR returns to zero.
3. Enter Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode.
•
When the asynchronous operation is selected, the 32.768kHz Oscillator for Timer/Counter2 is always running,
except in Power-down and Standby modes. After a Power-up Reset or wake-up from Power-down or Standby
mode, the user should be aware of the fact that this Oscillator might take as long as one second to stabilize.
The user is advised to wait for at least one second before using Timer/Counter2 after power-up or wake-up
from Power-down or Standby mode. The contents of all Timer/Counter2 Registers must be considered lost
after a wake-up from Power-down or Standby mode due to unstable clock signal upon start-up, no matter
whether the Oscillator is in use or a clock signal is applied to the TOSC1 pin.
•
Description of wake up from Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode when the timer is clocked
asynchronously: When the interrupt condition is met, the wake up process is started on the following cycle of
the timer clock, that is, the timer is always advanced by at least one before the processor can read the counter
value. After wake-up, the MCU is halted for four cycles, it executes the interrupt routine, and resumes
execution from the instruction following SLEEP.
•
Reading of the TCNT2 Register shortly after wake-up from Power-save may give an incorrect result. Since
TCNT2 is clocked on the asynchronous TOSC clock, reading TCNT2 must be done through a register
synchronized to the internal I/O clock domain. Synchronization takes place for every rising TOSC1 edge. When
waking up from Power-save mode, and the I/O clock (clkI/O) again becomes active, TCNT2 will read as the
previous value (before entering sleep) until the next rising TOSC1 edge. The phase of the TOSC clock after
waking up from Power-save mode is essentially unpredictable, as it depends on the wake-up time. The
recommended procedure for reading TCNT2 is thus as follows:
1. Write any value to either of the registers OCR2x or TCCR2x.
2. Wait for the corresponding Update Busy Flag to be cleared.
3. Read TCNT2.
•
Timer/Counter Prescaler
Figure 20-12. Prescaler for Timer/Counter2
PSRASY
clkT2S/1024
clkT2S/256
AS2
clkT2S/128
10-BIT T/C PRESCALER
Clear
clkT2S/64
TOSC1
clkT2S
clkT2S/32
clkI/O
clkT2S/8
20.9
During asynchronous operation, the synchronization of the Interrupt Flags for the asynchronous timer takes
three processor cycles plus one timer cycle. The timer is therefore advanced by at least one before the
processor can read the timer value causing the setting of the Interrupt Flag. The Output Compare pin is
changed on the timer clock and is not synchronized to the processor clock.
0
CS20
CS21
CS22
TIMER/COUNTER2 CLOCK SOURCE
clkT2
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The clock source for Timer/Counter2 is named clkT2S. clkT2S is by default connected to the main system I/O clock
clk IO. By setting the AS2 bit in ASSR, Timer/Counter2 is asynchronously clocked from the TOSC1 pin. This
enables use of Timer/Counter2 as a Real Time Counter (RTC). When AS2 is set, pins TOSC1 and TOSC2 are disconnected from Port C. A crystal can then be connected between the TOSC1 and TOSC2 pins to serve as an
independent clock source for Timer/Counter2. The Oscillator is optimized for use with a 32.768kHz crystal. By setting the EXCLK bit in the ASSR, a 32kHz external clock can be applied. See “ASSR – Asynchronous Status
Register” on page 187 for details.
For Timer/Counter2, the possible prescaled selections are: clkT2S/8, clkT2S/32, clkT2S/64, clkT2S/128, clkT2S/256, and
clkT2S/1024. Additionally, clkT2S as well as 0 (stop) may be selected. Setting the PSRASY bit in GTCCR resets the
prescaler. This allows the user to operate with a predictable prescaler.
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20.10 Register Description
20.10.1
TCCR2A –Timer/Counter Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM2A1
COM2A0
COM2B1
COM2B0
–
–
WGM21
WGM20
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xB0)
TCCR2A
• Bits 7:6 – COM2A1:0: Compare Match Output A Mode
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC2A) behavior. If one or both of the COM2A1:0 bits are set, the
OC2A output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the Data
Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC2A pin must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC2A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM2A1:0 bits depends on the WGM22:0 bit setting.
Table 20-2 shows the COM2A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM22:0 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (nonPWM).
Table 20-2.
Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM2A1
COM2A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2A disconnected
0
1
Toggle OC2A on Compare Match
1
0
Clear OC2A on Compare Match
1
1
Set OC2A on Compare Match
Table 20-3 shows the COM2A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM21:0 bits are set to fast PWM mode.
Table 20-3.
Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM2A1
COM2A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2A disconnected
0
1
WGM22 = 0: Normal Port Operation, OC2A Disconnected
WGM22 = 1: Toggle OC2A on Compare Match
1
0
Clear OC2A on Compare Match, set OC2A at BOTTOM
(non-inverting mode)
1
1
Set OC2A on Compare Match, clear OC2A at BOTTOM
(inverting mode)
Note:
1. A special case occurs when OCR2A equals TOP and COM2A1 is set. In this case, the Compare Match is ignored,
but the set or clear is done at BOTTOM. See “Fast PWM Mode” on page 173 for more details.
Table 20-4 on page 183 shows the COM2A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM22:0 bits are set to phase correct
PWM mode.
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Table 20-4.
Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM2A1
COM2A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2A disconnected
0
1
WGM22 = 0: Normal Port Operation, OC2A Disconnected
WGM22 = 1: Toggle OC2A on Compare Match
1
0
Clear OC2A on Compare Match when up-counting
Set OC2A on Compare Match when down-counting
1
1
Set OC2A on Compare Match when up-counting
Clear OC2A on Compare Match when down-counting
Note:
1. A special case occurs when OCR2A equals TOP and COM2A1 is set. In this case, the Compare Match is ignored,
but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 173 for more details.
• Bits 5:4 – COM2B1:0: Compare Match Output B Mode
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC2B) behavior. If one or both of the COM2B1:0 bits are set, the
OC2B output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the Data
Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC2B pin must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC2B is connected to the pin, the function of the COM2B1:0 bits depends on the WGM22:0 bit setting.
Table 20-5 shows the COM2B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM22:0 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (nonPWM).
Table 20-5.
Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM2B1
COM2B0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2B disconnected
0
1
Toggle OC2B on Compare Match
1
0
Clear OC2B on Compare Match
1
1
Set OC2B on Compare Match
Table 20-6 shows the COM2B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM22:0 bits are set to fast PWM mode.
Table 20-6.
Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM2B1
COM2B0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2B disconnected
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC2B on Compare Match, set OC2B at BOTTOM
(non-inverting mode)
1
1
Set OC2B on Compare Match, clear OC2B at BOTTOM
(inverting mode)
Note:
1. A special case occurs when OCR2B equals TOP and COM2B1 is set. In this case, the Compare Match is ignored,
but the set or clear is done at BOTTOM. See “Fast PWM Mode” on page 173 for more details.
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Table 20-7 shows the COM2B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM22:0 bits are set to phase correct PWM mode.
Table 20-7.
Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM2B1
COM2B0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2B disconnected
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC2B on Compare Match when up-counting
Set OC2B on Compare Match when down-counting
1
1
Set OC2B on Compare Match when up-counting
Clear OC2B on Compare Match when down-counting
Note:
1. A special case occurs when OCR2B equals TOP and COM2B1 is set. In this case, the Compare Match is ignored,
but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 173 for more details.
• Bits 3, 2 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
• Bits 1:0 – WGM21:0: Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM22 bit found in the TCCR2B Register, these bits control the counting sequence of the
counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used, see
Table 20-8. Modes of operation supported by the Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode, and two types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes (see “Modes of Operation”
on page 171).
Table 20-8.
Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description
Mode
WGM2
WGM1
WGM0
Timer/Counter Mode of
Operation
TOP
Update of
OCRx at
TOV Flag
Set on(1)(2)
0
0
0
0
Normal
0xFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct
0xFF
TOP
BOTTOM
2
0
1
0
CTC
OCRA
Immediate
MAX
3
0
1
1
Fast PWM
0xFF
BOTTOM
MAX
4
1
0
0
Reserved
–
–
–
5
1
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct
OCRA
TOP
BOTTOM
6
1
1
0
Reserved
–
–
–
7
1
1
1
Fast PWM
OCRA
BOTTOM
TOP
Notes:
1. MAX = 0xFF.
2. BOTTOM= 0x00.
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20.10.2
TCCR2B – Timer/Counter Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC2A
FOC2B
–
–
WGM22
CS22
CS21
CS20
Read/Write
W
W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xB1)
TCCR2B
• Bit 7 – FOC2A: Force Output Compare A
The FOC2A bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR2B is written when
operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC2A bit, an immediate Compare Match is forced on
the Waveform Generation unit. The OC2A output is changed according to its COM2A1:0 bits setting. Note that the
FOC2A bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM2A1:0 bits that determines the
effect of the forced compare.
A FOC2A strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR2A as TOP.
The FOC2A bit is always read as zero.
• Bit 6 – FOC2B: Force Output Compare B
The FOC2B bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR2B is written when
operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC2B bit, an immediate Compare Match is forced on
the Waveform Generation unit. The OC2B output is changed according to its COM2B1:0 bits setting. Note that the
FOC2B bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM2B1:0 bits that determines the
effect of the forced compare.
A FOC2B strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR2B as TOP.
The FOC2B bit is always read as zero.
• Bits 5:4 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3 – WGM22: Waveform Generation Mode
See the description in the “TCCR2A –Timer/Counter Control Register A” on page 182.
• Bit 2:0 – CS22:0: Clock Select
The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter, see Table 20-9.
Table 20-9.
Clock Select Bit Description
CS22
CS21
CS20
Description
0
0
0
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped)
0
0
1
clkT2S/(No prescaling)
0
1
0
clkT2S/8 (From prescaler)
0
1
1
clkT2S/32 (From prescaler)
1
0
0
clkT2S/64 (From prescaler)
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Table 20-9.
Clock Select Bit Description (Continued)
CS22
CS21
CS20
Description
1
0
1
clkT2S/128 (From prescaler)
1
1
0
clkT2S/256 (From prescaler)
1
1
1
clkT2S/1024 (From prescaler)
If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter0, transitions on the T0 pin will clock the counter even if the
pin is configured as an output. This feature allows software control of the counting.
20.10.3
TCNT2 – Timer/Counter Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0xB2)
3
2
1
0
TCNT2[7:0]
TCNT2
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Timer/Counter Register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 8-bit
counter. Writing to the TCNT2 Register blocks (removes) the Compare Match on the following timer clock. Modifying the counter (TCNT2) while the counter is running, introduces a risk of missing a Compare Match between
TCNT2 and the OCR2x Registers.
20.10.4
OCR2A – Output Compare Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0xB3)
3
2
1
0
OCR2A[7:0]
OCR2A
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Output Compare Register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value
(TCNT2). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the
OC2A pin.
20.10.5
OCR2B – Output Compare Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0xB4)
3
2
1
0
OCR2B[7:0]
OCR2B
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Output Compare Register B contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value
(TCNT2). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the
OC2B pin.
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20.10.6
ASSR – Asynchronous Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0xB6)
–
EXCLK
AS2
TCN2UB
OCR2AUB
OCR2BUB
TCR2AUB
TCR2BUB
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ASSR
• Bit 6 – EXCLK: Enable External Clock Input
When EXCLK is written to one, and asynchronous clock is selected, the external clock input buffer is enabled and
an external clock can be input on Timer Oscillator 1 (TOSC1) pin instead of a 32kHz crystal. Writing to EXCLK
should be done before asynchronous operation is selected. Note that the crystal Oscillator will only run when this
bit is zero.
• Bit 5 – AS2: Asynchronous Timer/Counter2
When AS2 is written to zero, Timer/Counter2 is clocked from the I/O clock, clkI/O. When AS2 is written to one,
Timer/Counter2 is clocked from a crystal Oscillator connected to the Timer Oscillator 1 (TOSC1) pin. When the
value of AS2 is changed, the contents of TCNT2, OCR2A, OCR2B, TCCR2A and TCCR2B might be corrupted.
• Bit 4 – TCN2UB: Timer/Counter2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCNT2 is written, this bit becomes set. When TCNT2 has
been updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates
that TCNT2 is ready to be updated with a new value.
• Bit 3 – OCR2AUB: Output Compare Register2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and OCR2A is written, this bit becomes set. When OCR2A has
been updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates
that OCR2A is ready to be updated with a new value.
• Bit 2 – OCR2BUB: Output Compare Register2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and OCR2B is written, this bit becomes set. When OCR2B has
been updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates
that OCR2B is ready to be updated with a new value.
• Bit 1 – TCR2AUB: Timer/Counter Control Register2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCCR2A is written, this bit becomes set. When TCCR2A has
been updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates
that TCCR2A is ready to be updated with a new value.
• Bit 0 – TCR2BUB: Timer/Counter Control Register2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCCR2B is written, this bit becomes set. When TCCR2B has
been updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates
that TCCR2B is ready to be updated with a new value.
If a write is performed to any of the five Timer/Counter2 Registers while its update busy flag is set, the updated
value might get corrupted and cause an unintentional interrupt to occur.
The mechanisms for reading TCNT2, OCR2A, OCR2B, TCCR2A and TCCR2B are different. When reading
TCNT2, the actual timer value is read. When reading OCR2A, OCR2B, TCCR2A and TCCR2B the value in the
temporary storage register is read.
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20.10.7
TIMSK2 – Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x70)
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE2B
OCIE2A
TOIE2
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK2
• Bit 2 – OCIE2B: Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Match B Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE2B bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the Timer/Counter2 Compare Match B interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if a compare match in Timer/Counter2
occurs, that is, when the OCF2B bit is set in the Timer/Counter 2 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR2.
• Bit 1 – OCIE2A: Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Match A Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE2A bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the Timer/Counter2 Compare Match A interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if a compare match in Timer/Counter2
occurs, that is, when the OCF2A bit is set in the Timer/Counter 2 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR2.
• Bit 0 – TOIE2: Timer/Counter2 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE2 bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the Timer/Counter2 Overflow
interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if an overflow in Timer/Counter2 occurs, that is, when
the TOV2 bit is set in the Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR2.
20.10.8
TIFR2 – Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x17 (0x37)
–
–
–
–
–
OCF2B
OCF2A
TOV2
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR2
• Bit 2 – OCF2B: Output Compare Flag 2 B
The OCF2B bit is set (one) when a compare match occurs between the Timer/Counter2 and the data in OCR2B –
Output Compare Register2. OCF2B is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling
vector. Alternatively, OCF2B is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE2B
(Timer/Counter2 Compare match Interrupt Enable), and OCF2B are set (one), the Timer/Counter2 Compare match
Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 1 – OCF2A: Output Compare Flag 2 A
The OCF2A bit is set (one) when a compare match occurs between the Timer/Counter2 and the data in OCR2A –
Output Compare Register2. OCF2A is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling
vector. Alternatively, OCF2A is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE2A
(Timer/Counter2 Compare match Interrupt Enable), and OCF2A are set (one), the Timer/Counter2 Compare match
Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 0 – TOV2: Timer/Counter2 Overflow Flag
The TOV2 bit is set (one) when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter2. TOV2 is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, TOV2 is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag.
When the SREG I-bit, TOIE2A (Timer/Counter2 Overflow Interrupt Enable), and TOV2 are set (one), the
Timer/Counter2 Overflow interrupt is executed. In PWM mode, this bit is set when Timer/Counter2 changes counting direction at 0x00.
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20.10.9
GTCCR – General Timer/Counter Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x23 (0x43)
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
PSRASY
PSRSYNC
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GTCCR
• Bit 1 – PSRASY: Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter2
When this bit is one, the Timer/Counter2 prescaler will be reset. This bit is normally cleared immediately by hardware. If the bit is written when Timer/Counter2 is operating in asynchronous mode, the bit will remain one until the
prescaler has been reset. The bit will not be cleared by hardware if the TSM bit is set. Refer to the description of
the “Bit 7 – TSM: Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode” on page 166 for a description of the Timer/Counter Synchronization mode.
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21. SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface
The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) allows high-speed synchronous data transfer between the
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 and peripheral devices or between several AVR devices. The
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 SPI includes the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Full-duplex, Three-wire Synchronous Data Transfer
Master or Slave Operation
LSB First or MSB First Data Transfer
Seven Programmable Bit Rates
End of Transmission Interrupt Flag
Write Collision Flag Protection
Wake-up from Idle Mode
Double Speed (CK/2) Master SPI Mode
USART can also be used in Master SPI mode, see “USART in SPI Mode” on page 227.
The Power Reduction SPI bit, PRSPI, in “PRR0 – Power Reduction Register 0” on page 55 on page 50 must be
written to zero to enable SPI module.
Figure 21-1. SPI Block Diagram(1)
SPI2X
SPI2X
DIVIDER
/2/4/8/16/32/64/128
Note:
1. Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2, and Table 13-6 on page 76 for SPI pin placement.
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The interconnection between Master and Slave CPUs with SPI is shown in Figure 21-2. The system consists of two
shift Registers, and a Master clock generator. The SPI Master initiates the communication cycle when pulling low
the Slave Select SS pin of the desired Slave. Master and Slave prepare the data to be sent in their respective shift
Registers, and the Master generates the required clock pulses on the SCK line to interchange data. Data is always
shifted from Master to Slave on the Master Out – Slave In, MOSI, line, and from Slave to Master on the Master In –
Slave Out, MISO, line. After each data packet, the Master will synchronize the Slave by pulling high the Slave
Select, SS, line.
When configured as a Master, the SPI interface has no automatic control of the SS line. This must be handled by
user software before communication can start. When this is done, writing a byte to the SPI Data Register starts the
SPI clock generator, and the hardware shifts the eight bits into the Slave. After shifting one byte, the SPI clock generator stops, setting the end of Transmission Flag (SPIF). If the SPI Interrupt Enable bit (SPIE) in the SPCR
Register is set, an interrupt is requested. The Master may continue to shift the next byte by writing it into SPDR, or
signal the end of packet by pulling high the Slave Select, SS line. The last incoming byte will be kept in the Buffer
Register for later use.
When configured as a Slave, the SPI interface will remain sleeping with MISO tri-stated as long as the SS pin is
driven high. In this state, software may update the contents of the SPI Data Register, SPDR, but the data will not
be shifted out by incoming clock pulses on the SCK pin until the SS pin is driven low. As one byte has been completely shifted, the end of Transmission Flag, SPIF is set. If the SPI Interrupt Enable bit, SPIE, in the SPCR
Register is set, an interrupt is requested. The Slave may continue to place new data to be sent into SPDR before
reading the incoming data. The last incoming byte will be kept in the Buffer Register for later use.
Figure 21-2. SPI Master-slave Interconnection
SHIFT
ENABLE
The system is single buffered in the transmit direction and double buffered in the receive direction. This means that
bytes to be transmitted cannot be written to the SPI Data Register before the entire shift cycle is completed. When
receiving data, however, a received character must be read from the SPI Data Register before the next character
has been completely shifted in. Otherwise, the first byte is lost.
In SPI Slave mode, the control logic will sample the incoming signal of the SCK pin. To ensure correct sampling of
the clock signal, the minimum low and high periods should be:
Low period: Longer than two CPU clock cycles.
High period: Longer than two CPU clock cycles.
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When the SPI is enabled, the data direction of the MOSI, MISO, SCK, and SS pins is overridden according to
Table 21-1. For more details on automatic port overrides, refer to “Alternate Port Functions” on page 72.
Table 21-1.
Pin
Note:
SPI Pin Overrides(1)
Direction, Master SPI
Direction, Slave SPI
MOSI
User Defined
Input
MISO
Input
User Defined
SCK
User Defined
Input
SS
User Defined
Input
1. See “Alternate Functions of Port B” on page 76 for a detailed description of how to define the direction of the user
defined SPI pins.
The following code examples show how to initialize the SPI as a Master and how to perform a simple transmission.
DDR_SPI in the examples must be replaced by the actual Data Direction Register controlling the SPI pins.
DD_MOSI, DD_MISO and DD_SCK must be replaced by the actual data direction bits for these pins. For example,
if MOSI is placed on pin PB5, replace DD_MOSI with DDB5 and DDR_SPI with DDRB.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
SPI_MasterInit:
; Set MOSI and SCK output, all others input
ldi
r17,(1<<DD_MOSI)|(1<<DD_SCK)
out
DDR_SPI,r17
; Enable SPI, Master, set clock rate fck/16
ldi
r17,(1<<SPE)|(1<<MSTR)|(1<<SPR0)
out
SPCR,r17
ret
SPI_MasterTransmit:
; Start transmission of data (r16)
out
SPDR,r16
Wait_Transmit:
; Wait for transmission complete
sbis SPSR,SPIF
rjmp Wait_Transmit
ret
C Code Example(1)
void SPI_MasterInit(void)
{
/* Set MOSI and SCK output, all others input */
DDR_SPI = (1<<DD_MOSI)|(1<<DD_SCK);
/* Enable SPI, Master, set clock rate fck/16 */
SPCR = (1<<SPE)|(1<<MSTR)|(1<<SPR0);
}
void SPI_MasterTransmit(char cData)
{
/* Start transmission */
SPDR = cData;
/* Wait for transmission complete */
while(!(SPSR & (1<<SPIF)))
;
}
Note:
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
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The following code examples show how to initialize the SPI as a Slave and how to perform a simple reception.
Assembly Code Example(1)
SPI_SlaveInit:
; Set MISO output, all others input
ldi
r17,(1<<DD_MISO)
out
DDR_SPI,r17
; Enable SPI
ldi
r17,(1<<SPE)
out
SPCR,r17
ret
SPI_SlaveReceive:
; Wait for reception complete
sbis SPSR,SPIF
rjmp SPI_SlaveReceive
; Read received data and return
in
r16,SPDR
ret
C Code Example(1)
void SPI_SlaveInit(void)
{
/* Set MISO output, all others input */
DDR_SPI = (1<<DD_MISO);
/* Enable SPI */
SPCR = (1<<SPE);
}
char SPI_SlaveReceive(void)
{
/* Wait for reception complete */
while(!(SPSR & (1<<SPIF)))
;
/* Return Data Register */
return SPDR;
}
Note:
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
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21.1
21.1.1
SS Pin Functionality
Slave Mode
When the SPI is configured as a Slave, the Slave Select (SS) pin is always input. When SS is held low, the SPI is
activated, and MISO becomes an output if configured so by the user. All other pins are inputs. When SS is driven
high, all pins are inputs, and the SPI is passive, which means that it will not receive incoming data. Note that the
SPI logic will be reset once the SS pin is driven high.
The SS pin is useful for packet/byte synchronization to keep the slave bit counter synchronous with the master
clock generator. When the SS pin is driven high, the SPI slave will immediately reset the send and receive logic,
and drop any partially received data in the Shift Register.
21.1.2
Master Mode
When the SPI is configured as a Master (MSTR in SPCR is set), the user can determine the direction of the SS pin.
If SS is configured as an output, the pin is a general output pin which does not affect the SPI system. Typically, the
pin will be driving the SS pin of the SPI Slave.
If SS is configured as an input, it must be held high to ensure Master SPI operation. If the SS pin is driven low by
peripheral circuitry when the SPI is configured as a Master with the SS pin defined as an input, the SPI system
interprets this as another master selecting the SPI as a slave and starting to send data to it. To avoid bus contention, the SPI system takes the following actions:
1. The MSTR bit in SPCR is cleared and the SPI system becomes a Slave. As a result of the SPI becoming a
Slave, the MOSI and SCK pins become inputs.
2. The SPIF Flag in SPSR is set, and if the SPI interrupt is enabled, and the I-bit in SREG is set, the interrupt
routine will be executed.
Thus, when interrupt-driven SPI transmission is used in Master mode, and there exists a possibility that SS is
driven low, the interrupt should always check that the MSTR bit is still set. If the MSTR bit has been cleared by a
slave select, it must be set by the user to re-enable SPI Master mode.
21.1.3
Data Modes
There are four combinations of SCK phase and polarity with respect to serial data, which are determined by control
bits CPHA and CPOL. The SPI data transfer formats are shown in Figure 21-3 on page 196 and Figure 21-4 on
page 196. Data bits are shifted out and latched in on opposite edges of the SCK signal, ensuring sufficient time for
data signals to stabilize. This is clearly seen by summarizing Table 21-3 on page 197 and Table 21-4 on page 197
in Table 21-2.
Table 21-2.
CPOL Functionality
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
SPI Mode
CPOL=0, CPHA=0
Sample (Rising)
Setup (Falling)
0
CPOL=0, CPHA=1
Setup (Rising)
Sample (Falling)
1
CPOL=1, CPHA=0
Sample (Falling)
Setup (Rising)
2
CPOL=1, CPHA=1
Setup (Falling)
Sample (Rising)
3
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Figure 21-3. SPI Transfer Format with CPHA = 0
SCK (CPOL = 0)
mode 0
SCK (CPOL = 1)
mode 2
SAMPLE I
MOSI/MISO
CHANGE 0
MOSI PIN
CHANGE 0
MISO PIN
SS
MSB first (DORD = 0) MSB
LSB first (DORD = 1) LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
Figure 21-4. SPI Transfer Format with CPHA = 1
SCK (CPOL = 0)
mode 1
SCK (CPOL = 1)
mode 3
SAMPLE I
MOSI/MISO
CHANGE 0
MOSI PIN
CHANGE 0
MISO PIN
SS
MSB first (DORD = 0)
LSB first (DORD = 1)
MSB
LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
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21.2
21.2.1
Register Description
SPCR – SPI Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2C (0x4C)
SPIE
SPE
DORD
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SPCR
• Bit 7 – SPIE: SPI Interrupt Enable
This bit causes the SPI interrupt to be executed if SPIF bit in the SPSR Register is set and the if the Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG is set.
• Bit 6 – SPE: SPI Enable
When the SPE bit is written to one, the SPI is enabled. This bit must be set to enable any SPI operations.
• Bit 5 – DORD: Data Order
When the DORD bit is written to one, the LSB of the data word is transmitted first.
When the DORD bit is written to zero, the MSB of the data word is transmitted first.
• Bit 4 – MSTR: Master/Slave Select
This bit selects Master SPI mode when written to one, and Slave SPI mode when written logic zero. If SS is configured as an input and is driven low while MSTR is set, MSTR will be cleared, and SPIF in SPSR will become set.
The user will then have to set MSTR to re-enable SPI Master mode.
• Bit 3 – CPOL: Clock Polarity
When this bit is written to one, SCK is high when idle. When CPOL is written to zero, SCK is low when idle. Refer
to Figure 21-3 on page 196 and Figure 21-4 on page 196 for an example. The CPOL functionality is summarized in
Table 21-3.
Table 21-3.
CPOL Functionality
CPOL
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
Rising
Falling
1
Falling
Rising
• Bit 2 – CPHA: Clock Phase
The settings of the Clock Phase bit (CPHA) determine if data is sampled on the leading (first) or trailing (last) edge
of SCK. Refer to Figure 21-3 on page 196 and Figure 21-4 on page 196 for an example. The CPOL functionality is
summarized in Table 21-4.
Table 21-4.
CPHA Functionality
CPHA
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
Sample
Setup
1
Setup
Sample
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• Bits 1, 0 – SPR1, SPR0: SPI Clock Rate Select 1 and 0
These two bits control the SCK rate of the device configured as a Master. SPR1 and SPR0 have no effect on the
Slave. The relationship between SCK and the Oscillator Clock frequency fosc is shown in Table 21-5.
Table 21-5.
21.2.2
Relationship Between SCK and the Oscillator Frequency
SPI2X
SPR1
SPR0
SCK Frequency
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
fosc/4
fosc/16
fosc/64
fosc/128
fosc/2
fosc/8
fosc/32
fosc/64
SPSR – SPI Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPIF
WCOL
–
–
–
–
–
SPI2X
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x2D (0x4D)
SPSR
• Bit 7 – SPIF: SPI Interrupt Flag
When a serial transfer is complete, the SPIF Flag is set. An interrupt is generated if SPIE in SPCR is set and global
interrupts are enabled. If SS is an input and is driven low when the SPI is in Master mode, this will also set the SPIF
Flag. SPIF is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, the
SPIF bit is cleared by first reading the SPI Status Register with SPIF set, then accessing the SPI Data Register
(SPDR).
• Bit 6 – WCOL: Write COLlision Flag
The WCOL bit is set if the SPI Data Register (SPDR) is written during a data transfer. The WCOL bit (and the SPIF
bit) are cleared by first reading the SPI Status Register with WCOL set, and then accessing the SPI Data Register.
• Bit 5:1 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
• Bit 0 – SPI2X: Double SPI Speed Bit
When this bit is written logic one the SPI speed (SCK Frequency) will be doubled when the SPI is in Master mode
(see Table 21-5). This means that the minimum SCK period will be two CPU clock periods. When the SPI is configured as Slave, the SPI is only guaranteed to work at fosc/4 or lower.
The SPI interface on the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 is also used for program memory and EEPROM
downloading or uploading. See “Serial Downloading” on page 338 for serial programming and verification.
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21.2.3
SPDR – SPI Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2E (0x4E)
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SPDR
Undefined
The SPI Data Register is a read/write register used for data transfer between the Register File and the SPI Shift
Register. Writing to the register initiates data transmission. Reading the register causes the Shift Register Receive
buffer to be read.
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22. USART
22.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
22.2
Full Duplex Operation (Independent Serial Receive and Transmit Registers)
Asynchronous or Synchronous Operation
Master or Slave Clocked Synchronous Operation
High Resolution Baud Rate Generator
Supports Serial Frames with 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 Data Bits and 1 or 2 Stop Bits
Odd or Even Parity Generation and Parity Check Supported by Hardware
Data OverRun Detection
Framing Error Detection
Noise Filtering Includes False Start Bit Detection and Digital Low Pass Filter
Three Separate Interrupts on TX Complete, TX Data Register Empty and RX Complete
Multi-processor Communication Mode
Double Speed Asynchronous Communication Mode
Overview
The Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous serial Receiver and Transmitter (USART) is a highly flexible serial
communication device.
The ATmega640/1280/2560 has four USART’s, USART0, USART1, USART2, and USART3. The functionality for
all four USART’s is described below. USART0, USART1, USART2, and USART3 have different I/O registers as
shown in “Register Summary” on page 399.
A simplified block diagram of the USART Transmitter is shown in Figure 22-1 on page 201. CPU accessible I/O
Registers and I/O pins are shown in bold.
The Power Reducion USART0 bit, PRUSART0, in “PRR0 – Power Reduction Register 0” on page 55 must be disabled by writing a logical zero to it.
The Power Reducion USART1 bit, PRUSART1, in “PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1” on page 56 must be disabled by writing a logical zero to it.
The Power Reducion USART2 bit, PRUSART2, in “PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1” on page 56 must be disabled by writing a logical zero to it.
The Power Reducion USART3 bit, PRUSART3, in “PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1” on page 56 must be disabled by writing a logical zero to it.
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Figure 22-1. USART Block Diagram(1)
Clock Generator
UBRR[H:L]
OSC
BAUD RATE GENERATOR
SYNC LOGIC
PIN
CONTROL
XCK
Transmitter
TX
CONTROL
UDR (Transmit)
DATA BUS
PARITY
GENERATOR
TxD
Receiver
UCSRA
Note:
PIN
CONTROL
TRANSMIT SHIFT REGISTER
CLOCK
RECOVERY
RX
CONTROL
RECEIVE SHIFT REGISTER
DATA
RECOVERY
PIN
CONTROL
UDR (Receive)
PARITY
CHECKER
UCSRB
RxD
UCSRC
1. See Figure 1-1 on page 2, Figure 1-3 on page 4, Table 13-12 on page 80, Table 13-15 on page 82, Table 13-24 on
page 88 and Table 13-27 on page 90 for USART pin placement.
The dashed boxes in the block diagram separate the three main parts of the USART (listed from the top): Clock
Generator, Transmitter and Receiver. Control Registers are shared by all units. The Clock Generation logic consists of synchronization logic for external clock input used by synchronous slave operation, and the baud rate
generator. The XCKn (Transfer Clock) pin is only used by synchronous transfer mode. The Transmitter consists of
a single write buffer, a serial Shift Register, Parity Generator and Control logic for handling different serial frame
formats. The write buffer allows a continuous transfer of data without any delay between frames. The Receiver is
the most complex part of the USART module due to its clock and data recovery units. The recovery units are used
for asynchronous data reception. In addition to the recovery units, the Receiver includes a Parity Checker, Control
logic, a Shift Register and a two level receive buffer (UDRn). The Receiver supports the same frame formats as the
Transmitter, and can detect Frame Error, Data OverRun and Parity Errors.
22.3
Clock Generation
The Clock Generation logic generates the base clock for the Transmitter and Receiver. The USARTn supports four
modes of clock operation: Normal asynchronous, Double Speed asynchronous, Master synchronous and Slave
synchronous mode. The UMSELn bit in USART Control and Status Register C (UCSRnC) selects between asynchronous and synchronous operation. Double Speed (asynchronous mode only) is controlled by the U2Xn found in
the UCSRnA Register. When using synchronous mode (UMSELn = 1), the Data Direction Register for the XCKn
pin (DDR_XCKn) controls whether the clock source is internal (Master mode) or external (Slave mode). The XCKn
pin is only active when using synchronous mode.
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Figure 22-2 shows a block diagram of the clock generation logic.
Figure 22-2. Clock Generation Logic, Block Diagram
UBRR
U2X
fosc
Prescaling
Down-Counter
UBRR+1
/2
/4
/2
0
1
0
OSC
DDR_XCK
xcki
XCK
Pin
Sync
Register
Edge
Detector
0
1
UCPOL
txclk
UMSEL
1
xcko
DDR_XCK
1
0
rxclk
Signal description:
22.3.1
txclk
Transmitter clock (Internal Signal).
rxclk
Receiver base clock (Internal Signal).
xcki
Input from XCK pin (internal Signal). Used for synchronous slave operation.
xcko
Clock output to XCK pin (Internal Signal). Used for synchronous master operation.
fOSC
XTAL pin frequency (System Clock).
Internal Clock Generation – The Baud Rate Generator
Internal clock generation is used for the asynchronous and the synchronous master modes of operation. The
description in this section refers to Figure 22-2.
The USART Baud Rate Register (UBRRn) and the down-counter connected to it function as a programmable prescaler or baud rate generator. The down-counter, running at system clock (fosc), is loaded with the UBRRn value
each time the counter has counted down to zero or when the UBRRLn Register is written. A clock is generated
each time the counter reaches zero. This clock is the baud rate generator clock output (= fosc/(UBRRn+1)). The
Transmitter divides the baud rate generator clock output by 2, 8, or 16 depending on mode. The baud rate generator output is used directly by the Receiver’s clock and data recovery units. However, the recovery units use a state
machine that uses 2, 8 or 16 states depending on mode set by the state of the UMSELn, U2Xn and DDR_XCKn
bits.
Table 22-1 on page 203 contains equations for calculating the baud rate (in bits per second) and for calculating the
UBRRn value for each mode of operation using an internally generated clock source.
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Table 22-1.
Equations for Calculating Baud Rate Register Setting
Equation for Calculating Baud Rate(1)
Equation for Calculating UBRR Value
Asynchronous Normal mode
(U2Xn = 0)
f OSC
BAUD = ----------------------------------------16  UBRRn + 1 
f OSC
-–1
UBRRn = ----------------------16BAUD
Asynchronous Double Speed
mode (U2Xn = 1)
f OSC
BAUD = -------------------------------------8  UBRRn + 1 
f OSC
UBRRn = -------------------–1
8BAUD
Synchronous Master mode
f OSC
BAUD = -------------------------------------2  UBRRn + 1 
f OSC
UBRRn = -------------------–1
2BAUD
Operating Mode
Note:
1. The baud rate is defined to be the transfer rate in bit per second (bps).
BAUD
Baud rate (in bits per second, bps).
fOSC
System Oscillator clock frequency.
UBRRn
Contents of the UBRRHn and UBRRLn Registers, (0-4095).
Some examples of UBRRn values for some system clock frequencies are found in Table 22-9 on page 223.
22.3.2
Double Speed Operation (U2Xn)
The transfer rate can be doubled by setting the U2Xn bit in UCSRnA. Setting this bit only has effect for the asynchronous operation. Set this bit to zero when using synchronous operation.
Setting this bit will reduce the divisor of the baud rate divider from 16 to 8, effectively doubling the transfer rate for
asynchronous communication. Note however that the Receiver will in this case only use half the number of samples (reduced from 16 to 8) for data sampling and clock recovery, and therefore a more accurate baud rate setting
and system clock are required when this mode is used. For the Transmitter, there are no downsides.
22.3.3
External Clock
External clocking is used by the synchronous slave modes of operation. The description in this section refers to
Figure 22-2 on page 202 for details.
External clock input from the XCKn pin is sampled by a synchronization register to minimize the chance of metastability. The output from the synchronization register must then pass through an edge detector before it can be
used by the Transmitter and Receiver. This process introduces a two CPU clock period delay and therefore the
maximum external XCKn clock frequency is limited by the following equation:
f OSC
f XCK  ----------4
Note that fosc depends on the stability of the system clock source. It is therefore recommended to add some margin
to avoid possible loss of data due to frequency variations.
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22.3.4
Synchronous Clock Operation
When synchronous mode is used (UMSELn = 1), the XCKn pin will be used as either clock input (Slave) or clock
output (Master). The dependency between the clock edges and data sampling or data change is the same. The
basic principle is that data input (on RxDn) is sampled at the opposite XCKn clock edge of the edge the data output
(TxDn) is changed.
Figure 22-3. Synchronous Mode XCKn Timing.
UCPOL = 1
XCK
RxD / TxD
Sample
XCK
UCPOL = 0
RxD / TxD
Sample
The UCPOLn bit UCRSC selects which XCKn clock edge is used for data sampling and which is used for data
change. As Figure 22-3 shows, when UCPOLn is zero the data will be changed at rising XCKn edge and sampled
at falling XCKn edge. If UCPOLn is set, the data will be changed at falling XCKn edge and sampled at rising XCKn
edge.
22.4
Frame Formats
A serial frame is defined to be one character of data bits with synchronization bits (start and stop bits), and optionally a parity bit for error checking. The USART accepts all 30 combinations of the following as valid frame formats:
•
1 start bit
•
5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 data bits
•
no, even or odd parity bit
•
1 or 2 stop bits
A frame starts with the start bit followed by the least significant data bit. Then the next data bits, up to a total of
nine, are succeeding, ending with the most significant bit. If enabled, the parity bit is inserted after the data bits,
before the stop bits. When a complete frame is transmitted, it can be directly followed by a new frame, or the communication line can be set to an idle (high) state. Figure 22-4 illustrates the possible combinations of the frame
formats. Bits inside brackets are optional.
Figure 22-4. Frame Formats
FRAME
(IDLE)
St
0
1
2
3
4
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[P]
Sp1 [Sp2]
(St / IDLE)
St
Start bit, always low.
(n)
Data bits (0 to 8).
P
Parity bit. Can be odd or even.
Sp
Stop bit, always high.
IDLE
No transfers on the communication line (RxDn or TxDn). An IDLE line must be high.
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The frame format used by the USART is set by the UCSZn2:0, UPMn1:0 and USBSn bits in UCSRnB and UCSRnC. The Receiver and Transmitter use the same setting. Note that changing the setting of any of these bits will
corrupt all ongoing communication for both the Receiver and Transmitter.
The USART Character SiZe (UCSZn2:0) bits select the number of data bits in the frame. The USART Parity mode
(UPMn1:0) bits enable and set the type of parity bit. The selection between one or two stop bits is done by the
USART Stop Bit Select (USBSn) bit. The Receiver ignores the second stop bit. An FE (Frame Error) will therefore
only be detected in the cases where the first stop bit is zero.
22.4.1
Parity Bit Calculation
The parity bit is calculated by doing an exclusive-or of all the data bits. If odd parity is used, the result of the exclusive or is inverted. The parity bit is located between the last data bit and first stop bit of a serial frame. The relation
between the parity bit and data bits is as follows:
P even = d n – 1    d 3  d 2  d 1  d 0  0
P odd = d n – 1    d 3  d 2  d 1  d 0  1
22.5
Peven
Parity bit using even parity.
Podd
Parity bit using odd parity.
dn
Data bit n of the character.
USART Initialization
The USART has to be initialized before any communication can take place. The initialization process normally consists of setting the baud rate, setting frame format and enabling the Transmitter or the Receiver depending on the
usage. For interrupt driven USART operation, the Global Interrupt Flag should be cleared (and interrupts globally
disabled) when doing the initialization.
Before doing a re-initialization with changed baud rate or frame format, be sure that there are no ongoing transmissions during the period the registers are changed. The TXCn Flag can be used to check that the Transmitter has
completed all transfers, and the RXC Flag can be used to check that there are no unread data in the receive buffer.
Note that the TXCn Flag must be cleared before each transmission (before UDRn is written) if it is used for this
purpose.
The following simple USART initialization code examples show one assembly and one C function that are equal in
functionality. The examples assume asynchronous operation using polling (no interrupts enabled) and a fixed
frame format. The baud rate is given as a function parameter. For the assembly code, the baud rate parameter is
assumed to be stored in the r17:r16 Registers.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Init:
; Set baud rate
sts
UBRRnH, r17
sts
UBRRnL, r16
ldi
r16, (1<<U2Xn)
sts
UCRnA, r16
; Enable receiver and transmitter
ldi
r16, (1<<RXENn)|(1<<TXENn)
sts UCSRnB,r16
; Set frame format: 8data, 1stop bit
ldi
r16, (2<<UMSELn)|(3<<UCSZn0)
sts
UCSRnC,r16
ret
C Code Example(1)
#define FOSC 1843200// Clock Speed
#define BAUD 9600
#define (MYUBRR FOSC/16/BAUD-1)
void main( void )
{...
USART_Init ( MYUBRR );
...} // main
void USART_Init( unsigned int ubrr){
/* Set baud rate */
UBRRH = (unsigned char)(ubrr>>8);
UBRRL = (unsigned char)ubrr;
/* Enable receiver and transmitter */
UCSRB = (1<<RXEN)|(1<<TXEN);
/* Set frame format: 8data, 2stop bit */
UCSRC = (1<<USBS)|(3<<UCSZ0);
} // USART_Init
Note:
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
More advanced initialization routines can be made that include frame format as parameters, disable interrupts and
so on. However, many applications use a fixed setting of the baud and control registers, and for these types of
applications the initialization code can be placed directly in the main routine, or be combined with initialization code
for other I/O modules.
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22.6
Data Transmission – The USART Transmitter
The USART Transmitter is enabled by setting the Transmit Enable (TXEN) bit in the UCSRnB Register. When the
Transmitter is enabled, the normal port operation of the TxDn pin is overridden by the USART and given the function as the Transmitter’s serial output. The baud rate, mode of operation and frame format must be set up once
before doing any transmissions. If synchronous operation is used, the clock on the XCKn pin will be overridden and
used as transmission clock.
22.6.1
Sending Frames with 5 to 8 Data Bit
A data transmission is initiated by loading the transmit buffer with the data to be transmitted. The CPU can load the
transmit buffer by writing to the UDRn I/O location. The buffered data in the transmit buffer will be moved to the
Shift Register when the Shift Register is ready to send a new frame. The Shift Register is loaded with new data if it
is in idle state (no ongoing transmission) or immediately after the last stop bit of the previous frame is transmitted.
When the Shift Register is loaded with new data, it will transfer one complete frame at the rate given by the Baud
Register, U2Xn bit or by XCKn depending on mode of operation.
The following code examples show a simple USART transmit function based on polling of the Data Register Empty
(UDREn) Flag. When using frames with less than eight bits, the most significant bits written to the UDRn are
ignored. The USART has to be initialized before the function can be used. For the assembly code, the data to be
sent is assumed to be stored in Register R16.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Transmit:
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
lds
r17, UCSRnA
sbrs r17, UDREn
rjmp USART_Transmit
; Put data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
sts
UDRn,r16
ret
C Code Example(1)
void USART_Transmit( unsigned char data )
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while ( !( UCSRnA & (1<<UDREn)) )
;
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDRn = data;
}
Note:
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
The function simply waits for the transmit buffer to be empty by checking the UDREn Flag, before loading it with
new data to be transmitted. If the Data Register Empty interrupt is utilized, the interrupt routine writes the data into
the buffer.
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22.6.2
Sending Frames with 9 Data Bit
If 9-bit characters are used (UCSZn = 7), the ninth bit must be written to the TXB8 bit in UCSRnB before the low
byte of the character is written to UDRn. The following code examples show a transmit function that handles 9-bit
characters. For the assembly code, the data to be sent is assumed to be stored in registers R17:R16.
Assembly Code Example(1)(2)
USART_Transmit:
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
sbis UCSRnA,UDREn
rjmp USART_Transmit
; Copy 9th bit from r17 to TXB8
cbi
UCSRnB,TXB8
sbrc r17,0
sbi
UCSRnB,TXB8
; Put LSB data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
sts UDRn,r16
ret
C Code Example(1)(2)
void USART_Transmit( unsigned int data )
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while ( !( UCSRnA & (1<<UDREn))) )
;
/* Copy 9th bit to TXB8 */
UCSRnB &= ~(1<<TXB8);
if ( data & 0x0100 )
UCSRnB |= (1<<TXB8);
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDRn = data;
}
Notes:
1. These transmit functions are written to be general functions. They can be optimized if the contents of the UCSRnB
is static. For example, only the TXB8 bit of the UCSRnB Register is used after initialization.
2. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
The ninth bit can be used for indicating an address frame when using multi processor communication mode or for
other protocol handling as for example synchronization.
22.6.3
Transmitter Flags and Interrupts
The USART Transmitter has two flags that indicate its state: USART Data Register Empty (UDREn) and Transmit
Complete (TXCn). Both flags can be used for generating interrupts.
The Data Register Empty (UDREn) Flag indicates whether the transmit buffer is ready to receive new data. This bit
is set when the transmit buffer is empty, and cleared when the transmit buffer contains data to be transmitted that
has not yet been moved into the Shift Register. For compatibility with future devices, always write this bit to zero
when writing the UCSRnA Register.
When the Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable (UDRIEn) bit in UCSRnB is written to one, the USART Data Register Empty Interrupt will be executed as long as UDREn is set (provided that global interrupts are enabled).
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UDREn is cleared by writing UDRn. When interrupt-driven data transmission is used, the Data Register Empty
interrupt routine must either write new data to UDRn in order to clear UDREn or disable the Data Register Empty
interrupt, otherwise a new interrupt will occur once the interrupt routine terminates.
The Transmit Complete (TXCn) Flag bit is set one when the entire frame in the Transmit Shift Register has been
shifted out and there are no new data currently present in the transmit buffer. The TXCn Flag bit is automatically
cleared when a transmit complete interrupt is executed, or it can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location. The
TXCn Flag is useful in half-duplex communication interfaces (like the RS-485 standard), where a transmitting application must enter receive mode and free the communication bus immediately after completing the transmission.
When the Transmit Compete Interrupt Enable (TXCIEn) bit in UCSRnB is set, the USART Transmit Complete
Interrupt will be executed when the TXCn Flag becomes set (provided that global interrupts are enabled). When
the transmit complete interrupt is used, the interrupt handling routine does not have to clear the TXCn Flag, this is
done automatically when the interrupt is executed.
22.6.4
Parity Generator
The Parity Generator calculates the parity bit for the serial frame data. When parity bit is enabled (UPMn1 = 1), the
transmitter control logic inserts the parity bit between the last data bit and the first stop bit of the frame that is sent.
22.6.5
Disabling the Transmitter
The disabling of the Transmitter (setting the TXEN to zero) will not become effective until ongoing and pending
transmissions are completed, that is, when the Transmit Shift Register and Transmit Buffer Register do not contain
data to be transmitted. When disabled, the Transmitter will no longer override the TxDn pin.
22.7
Data Reception – The USART Receiver
The USART Receiver is enabled by writing the Receive Enable (RXENn) bit in the UCSRnB Register to one. When
the Receiver is enabled, the normal pin operation of the RxDn pin is overridden by the USART and given the function as the Receiver’s serial input. The baud rate, mode of operation and frame format must be set up once before
any serial reception can be done. If synchronous operation is used, the clock on the XCKn pin will be used as
transfer clock.
22.7.1
Receiving Frames with 5 to 8 Data Bits
The Receiver starts data reception when it detects a valid start bit. Each bit that follows the start bit will be sampled
at the baud rate or XCKn clock, and shifted into the Receive Shift Register until the first stop bit of a frame is
received. A second stop bit will be ignored by the Receiver. When the first stop bit is received, that is, a complete
serial frame is present in the Receive Shift Register, the contents of the Shift Register will be moved into the
receive buffer. The receive buffer can then be read by reading the UDRn I/O location.
The following code example shows a simple USART receive function based on polling of the Receive Complete
(RXCn) Flag. When using frames with less than eight bits the most significant bits of the data read from the UDRn
will be masked to zero. The USART has to be initialized before the function can be used.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Receive:
; Wait for data to be received
lds
r17, UCSRnA
sbrs r17, RXCn
rjmp USART_Receive
; Get and return received data from buffer
lds
r16, UDRn
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned char USART_Receive( void )
{
/* Wait for data to be received */
while ( !(UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn)) )
;
/* Get and return received data from buffer */
return UDRn;
}
Note:
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
The function simply waits for data to be present in the receive buffer by checking the RXCn Flag, before reading
the buffer and returning the value.
22.7.2
Receiving Frames with 9 Data Bits
If 9-bit characters are used (UCSZn=7) the ninth bit must be read from the RXB8n bit in UCSRnB before reading
the low bits from the UDRn. This rule applies to the FEn, DORn and UPEn Status Flags as well. Read status from
UCSRnA, then data from UDRn. Reading the UDRn I/O location will change the state of the receive buffer FIFO
and consequently the TXB8n, FEn, DORn and UPEn bits, which all are stored in the FIFO, will change.
The following code example shows a simple USART receive function that handles both nine bit characters and the
status bits.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Receive:
; Wait for data to be received
lds
r17, UCSRnA
sbrs r17, RXCn
rjmp USART_Receive
; Get status and 9th bit, then data from buffer
lds
r18, UCSRnA
lds
r17, UCSRnB
lds
r16, UDRn
; If error, return -1
andi r18,(1<<FEn)|(1<<DORn)|(1<<UPEn)
breq USART_ReceiveNoError
ldi
r17, HIGH(-1)
ldi
r16, LOW(-1)
USART_ReceiveNoError:
; Filter the 9th bit, then return
lsr
r17
andi r17, 0x01
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned int USART_Receive( void )
{
unsigned char status, resh, resl;
/* Wait for data to be received */
while ( !(UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn)) )
;
/* Get status and 9th bit, then data */
/* from buffer */
status = UCSRnA;
resh = UCSRnB;
resl = UDRn;
/* If error, return -1 */
if ( status & (1<<FEn)|(1<<DORn)|(1<<UPEn) )
return -1;
/* Filter the 9th bit, then return */
resh = (resh >> 1) & 0x01;
return ((resh << 8) | resl);
}
Note:
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
The receive function example reads all the I/O Registers into the Register File before any computation is done.
This gives an optimal receive buffer utilization since the buffer location read will be free to accept new data as early
as possible.
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22.7.3
Receive Compete Flag and Interrupt
The USART Receiver has one flag that indicates the Receiver state.
The Receive Complete (RXCn) Flag indicates if there are unread data present in the receive buffer. This flag is one
when unread data exist in the receive buffer, and zero when the receive buffer is empty (that is, does not contain
any unread data). If the Receiver is disabled (RXENn = 0), the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the
RXCn bit will become zero.
When the Receive Complete Interrupt Enable (RXCIEn) in UCSRnB is set, the USART Receive Complete interrupt
will be executed as long as the RXCn Flag is set (provided that global interrupts are enabled). When interruptdriven data reception is used, the receive complete routine must read the received data from UDRn in order to
clear the RXCn Flag, otherwise a new interrupt will occur once the interrupt routine terminates.
22.7.4
Receiver Error Flags
The USART Receiver has three Error Flags: Frame Error (FEn), Data OverRun (DORn) and Parity Error (UPEn).
All can be accessed by reading UCSRnA. Common for the Error Flags is that they are located in the receive buffer
together with the frame for which they indicate the error status. Due to the buffering of the Error Flags, the UCSRnA must be read before the receive buffer (UDRn), since reading the UDRn I/O location changes the buffer read
location. Another equality for the Error Flags is that they can not be altered by software doing a write to the flag
location. However, all flags must be set to zero when the UCSRnA is written for upward compatibility of future
USART implementations. None of the Error Flags can generate interrupts.
The Frame Error (FEn) Flag indicates the state of the first stop bit of the next readable frame stored in the receive
buffer. The FEn Flag is zero when the stop bit was correctly read (as one), and the FEn Flag will be one when the
stop bit was incorrect (zero). This flag can be used for detecting out-of-sync conditions, detecting break conditions
and protocol handling. The FEn Flag is not affected by the setting of the USBSn bit in UCSRnC since the Receiver
ignores all, except for the first, stop bits. For compatibility with future devices, always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
The Data OverRun (DORn) Flag indicates data loss due to a receiver buffer full condition. A Data OverRun occurs
when the receive buffer is full (two characters), it is a new character waiting in the Receive Shift Register, and a
new start bit is detected. If the DORn Flag is set there was one or more serial frame lost between the frame last
read from UDRn, and the next frame read from UDRn. For compatibility with future devices, always write this bit to
zero when writing to UCSRnA. The DORn Flag is cleared when the frame received was successfully moved from
the Shift Register to the receive buffer.
The Parity Error (UPEn) Flag indicates that the next frame in the receive buffer had a Parity Error when received. If
Parity Check is not enabled the UPEn bit will always be read zero. For compatibility with future devices, always set
this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA. For more details see “Parity Bit Calculation” on page 205 and “Parity
Checker” .
22.7.5
Parity Checker
The Parity Checker is active when the high USART Parity mode (UPMn1) bit is set. Type of Parity Check to be performed (odd or even) is selected by the UPMn0 bit. When enabled, the Parity Checker calculates the parity of the
data bits in incoming frames and compares the result with the parity bit from the serial frame. The result of the
check is stored in the receive buffer together with the received data and stop bits. The Parity Error (UPEn) Flag can
then be read by software to check if the frame had a Parity Error.
The UPEn bit is set if the next character that can be read from the receive buffer had a Parity Error when received
and the Parity Checking was enabled at that point (UPMn1 = 1). This bit is valid until the receive buffer (UDRn) is
read.
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22.7.6
Disabling the Receiver
In contrast to the Transmitter, disabling of the Receiver will be immediate. Data from ongoing receptions will therefore be lost. When disabled (that is, the RXENn is set to zero) the Receiver will no longer override the normal
function of the RxDn port pin. The Receiver buffer FIFO will be flushed when the Receiver is disabled. Remaining
data in the buffer will be lost.
22.7.7
Flushing the Receive Buffer
The receiver buffer FIFO will be flushed when the Receiver is disabled, that is, the buffer will be emptied of its contents. Unread data will be lost. If the buffer has to be flushed during normal operation, due to for instance an error
condition, read the UDRn I/O location until the RXCn Flag is cleared. The following code example shows how to
flush the receive buffer.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Flush:
sbis UCSRnA, RXCn
ret
in
r16, UDRn
rjmp USART_Flush
C Code Example(1)
void USART_Flush( void )
{
unsigned char dummy;
while ( UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn) ) dummy = UDRn;
}
Note:
22.8
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
Asynchronous Data Reception
The USART includes a clock recovery and a data recovery unit for handling asynchronous data reception. The
clock recovery logic is used for synchronizing the internally generated baud rate clock to the incoming asynchronous serial frames at the RxDn pin. The data recovery logic samples and low pass filters each incoming bit,
thereby improving the noise immunity of the Receiver. The asynchronous reception operational range depends on
the accuracy of the internal baud rate clock, the rate of the incoming frames, and the frame size in number of bits.
22.8.1
Asynchronous Clock Recovery
The clock recovery logic synchronizes internal clock to the incoming serial frames. Figure 22-5 on page 214 illustrates the sampling process of the start bit of an incoming frame. The sample rate is 16 times the baud rate for
Normal mode, and eight times the baud rate for Double Speed mode. The horizontal arrows illustrate the synchronization variation due to the sampling process. Note the larger time variation when using the Double Speed mode
(U2Xn = 1) of operation. Samples denoted zero are samples done when the RxDn line is idle (that is, no communication activity).
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Figure 22-5. Start Bit Sampling
RxD
IDLE
START
BIT 0
Sample
(U2X = 0)
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
2
3
Sample
(U2X = 1)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
When the clock recovery logic detects a high (idle) to low (start) transition on the RxDn line, the start bit detection
sequence is initiated. Let sample 1 denote the first zero-sample as shown in the figure. The clock recovery logic
then uses samples 8, 9, and 10 for Normal mode, and samples 4, 5, and 6 for Double Speed mode (indicated with
sample numbers inside boxes on the figure), to decide if a valid start bit is received. If two or more of these three
samples have logical high levels (the majority wins), the start bit is rejected as a noise spike and the Receiver
starts looking for the next high to low-transition. If however, a valid start bit is detected, the clock recovery logic is
synchronized and the data recovery can begin. The synchronization process is repeated for each start bit.
22.8.2
Asynchronous Data Recovery
When the receiver clock is synchronized to the start bit, the data recovery can begin. The data recovery unit uses a
state machine that has 16 states for each bit in Normal mode and eight states for each bit in Double Speed mode.
Figure 22-6 shows the sampling of the data bits and the parity bit. Each of the samples is given a number that is
equal to the state of the recovery unit.
Figure 22-6. Sampling of Data and Parity Bit
RxD
BIT n
Sample
(U2X = 0)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
Sample
(U2X = 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
The decision of the logic level of the received bit is taken by doing a majority voting of the logic value to the three
samples in the center of the received bit. The center samples are emphasized on the figure by having the sample
number inside boxes. The majority voting process is done as follows: If two or all three samples have high levels,
the received bit is registered to be a logic 1. If two or all three samples have low levels, the received bit is registered to be a logic 0. This majority voting process acts as a low pass filter for the incoming signal on the RxDn pin.
The recovery process is then repeated until a complete frame is received. Including the first stop bit. Note that the
Receiver only uses the first stop bit of a frame.
Figure 22-7 shows the sampling of the stop bit and the earliest possible beginning of the start bit of the next frame.
Figure 22-7. Stop Bit Sampling and Next Start Bit Sampling
RxD
STOP 1
(A)
(B)
(C)
Sample
(U2X = 0)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0/1
0/1
0/1
Sample
(U2X = 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
0/1
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The same majority voting is done to the stop bit as done for the other bits in the frame. If the stop bit is registered to
have a logic 0 value, the Frame Error (FEn) Flag will be set.
A new high to low transition indicating the start bit of a new frame can come right after the last of the bits used for
majority voting. For Normal Speed mode, the first low level sample can be at point marked (A) in Figure 22-7 on
page 214. For Double Speed mode the first low level must be delayed to (B). (C) marks a stop bit of full length. The
early start bit detection influences the operational range of the Receiver.
22.8.3
Asynchronous Operational Range
The operational range of the Receiver is dependent on the mismatch between the received bit rate and the internally generated baud rate. If the Transmitter is sending frames at too fast or too slow bit rates, or the internally
generated baud rate of the Receiver does not have a similar (see Table 22-2) base frequency, the Receiver will not
be able to synchronize the frames to the start bit.
The following equations can be used to calculate the ratio of the incoming data rate and internal receiver baud rate.
 D + 2 S
R fast = ---------------------------------- D + 1 S + S M
 D + 1 S
R slow = -----------------------------------------S – 1 + D  S + SF
D
Sum of character size and parity size (D = 5 to 10 bit).
S
Samples per bit. S = 16 for Normal Speed mode and S = 8 for Double Speed mode.
SF
mode.
First sample number used for majority voting. SF = 8 for normal speed and SF = 4 for Double Speed
SM
Middle sample number used for majority voting. SM = 9 for normal speed and SM = 5 for Double
Speed mode.
Rslow
is the ratio of the slowest incoming data rate that can be accepted in relation to the receiver baud
rate. Rfast is the ratio of the fastest incoming data rate that can be accepted in relation to the receiver baud rate.
Table 22-2 and Table 22-3 on page 216 list the maximum receiver baud rate error that can be tolerated. Note that
Normal Speed mode has higher toleration of baud rate variations.
Table 22-2.
Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Normal Speed Mode (U2Xn = 0)
D
# (Data+Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max. total error (%)
Recommended max.
receiver error (%)
5
93.20
106.67
+6.67/-6.8
±3.0
6
94.12
105.79
+5.79/-5.88
±2.5
7
94.81
105.11
+5.11/-5.19
±2.0
8
95.36
104.58
+4.58/-4.54
±2.0
9
95.81
104.14
+4.14/-4.19
±1.5
10
96.17
103.78
+3.78/-3.83
±1.5
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Table 22-3.
Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Double Speed Mode (U2Xn = 1)
D
# (Data+Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max. total error (%)
Recommended max. receiver
error (%)
5
94.12
105.66
+5.66/-5.88
±2.5
6
94.92
104.92
+4.92/-5.08
±2.0
7
95.52
104.35
+4.35/-4.48
±1.5
8
96.00
103.90
+3.90/-4.00
±1.5
9
96.39
103.53
+3.53/-3.61
±1.5
10
96.70
103.23
+3.23/-3.30
±1.0
The recommendations of the maximum receiver baud rate error was made under the assumption that the Receiver
and Transmitter equally divides the maximum total error.
There are two possible sources for the receivers baud rate error. The Receiver’s system clock (XTAL) will always
have some minor instability over the supply voltage range and the temperature range. When using a crystal to generate the system clock, this is rarely a problem, but for a resonator the system clock may differ more than 2%
depending of the resonators tolerance. The second source for the error is more controllable. The baud rate generator can not always do an exact division of the system frequency to get the baud rate wanted. In this case an
UBRR value that gives an acceptable low error can be used if possible.
22.9
Multi-processor Communication Mode
Setting the Multi-processor Communication mode (MPCMn) bit in UCSRnA enables a filtering function of incoming
frames received by the USART Receiver. Frames that do not contain address information will be ignored and not
put into the receive buffer. This effectively reduces the number of incoming frames that has to be handled by the
CPU, in a system with multiple MCUs that communicate via the same serial bus. The Transmitter is unaffected by
the MPCMn setting, but has to be used differently when it is a part of a system utilizing the Multi-processor Communication mode.
If the Receiver is set up to receive frames that contain 5 to 8 data bits, then the first stop bit indicates if the frame
contains data or address information. If the Receiver is set up for frames with nine data bits, then the ninth bit
(RXB8n) is used for identifying address and data frames. When the frame type bit (the first stop or the ninth bit) is
one, the frame contains an address. When the frame type bit is zero the frame is a data frame.
The Multi-processor Communication mode enables several slave MCUs to receive data from a master MCU. This
is done by first decoding an address frame to find out which MCU has been addressed. If a particular slave MCU
has been addressed, it will receive the following data frames as normal, while the other slave MCUs will ignore the
received frames until another address frame is received.
22.9.1
Using MPCMn
For an MCU to act as a master MCU, it can use a 9-bit character frame format (UCSZn = 7). The ninth bit (TXB8n)
must be set when an address frame (TXB8n = 1) or cleared when a data frame (TXB = 0) is being transmitted. The
slave MCUs must in this case be set to use a 9-bit character frame format.
The following procedure should be used to exchange data in Multi-processor Communication mode:
1. All Slave MCUs are in Multi-processor Communication mode (MPCMn in UCSRnA is set).
2. The Master MCU sends an address frame, and all slaves receive and read this frame. In the Slave MCUs,
the RXCn Flag in UCSRnA will be set as normal.
3. Each Slave MCU reads the UDRn Register and determines if it has been selected. If so, it clears the
MPCMn bit in UCSRnA, otherwise it waits for the next address byte and keeps the MPCMn setting.
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4. The addressed MCU will receive all data frames until a new address frame is received. The other Slave
MCUs, which still have the MPCMn bit set, will ignore the data frames.
5. When the last data frame is received by the addressed MCU, the addressed MCU sets the MPCMn bit and
waits for a new address frame from master. The process then repeats from 2.
Using any of the 5-bit to 8-bit character frame formats is possible, but impractical since the Receiver must change
between using n and n+1 character frame formats. This makes full-duplex operation difficult since the Transmitter
and Receiver uses the same character size setting. If 5-bit to 8-bit character frames are used, the Transmitter must
be set to use two stop bit (USBSn = 1) since the first stop bit is used for indicating the frame type.
Do not use Read-Modify-Write instructions (SBI and CBI) to set or clear the MPCMn bit. The MPCMn bit shares the
same I/O location as the TXCn Flag and this might accidentally be cleared when using SBI or CBI instructions.
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22.10 Register Description
The following section describes the USART’s registers.
22.10.1
UDRn – USART I/O Data Register n
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXB[7:0]
UDRn (Read)
TXB[7:0]
UDRn (Write)
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The USART Transmit Data Buffer Register and USART Receive Data Buffer Registers share the same I/O address
referred to as USART Data Register or UDRn. The Transmit Data Buffer Register (TXB) will be the destination for
data written to the UDRn Register location. Reading the UDRn Register location will return the contents of the
Receive Data Buffer Register (RXB).
For 5-bit, 6-bit, or 7-bit characters the upper unused bits will be ignored by the Transmitter and set to zero by the
Receiver.
The transmit buffer can only be written when the UDREn Flag in the UCSRnA Register is set. Data written to UDRn
when the UDREn Flag is not set, will be ignored by the USART Transmitter. When data is written to the transmit
buffer, and the Transmitter is enabled, the Transmitter will load the data into the Transmit Shift Register when the
Shift Register is empty. Then the data will be serially transmitted on the TxDn pin.
The receive buffer consists of a two level FIFO. The FIFO will change its state whenever the receive buffer is
accessed. Due to this behavior of the receive buffer, do not use Read-Modify-Write instructions (SBI and CBI) on
this location. Be careful when using bit test instructions (SBIC and SBIS), since these also will change the state of
the FIFO.
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22.10.2
UCSRnA – USART Control and Status Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCn
TXCn
UDREn
FEn
DORn
UPEn
U2Xn
MPCMn
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
UCSRnA
• Bit 7 – RXCn: USART Receive Complete
This flag bit is set when there are unread data in the receive buffer and cleared when the receive buffer is empty
(that is, does not contain any unread data). If the Receiver is disabled, the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXCn bit will become zero. The RXCn Flag can be used to generate a Receive Complete interrupt (see
description of the RXCIEn bit).
• Bit 6 – TXCn: USART Transmit Complete
This flag bit is set when the entire frame in the Transmit Shift Register has been shifted out and there are no new
data currently present in the transmit buffer (UDRn). The TXCn Flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit
complete interrupt is executed, or it can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location. The TXCn Flag can generate
a Transmit Complete interrupt (see description of the TXCIEn bit).
• Bit 5 – UDREn: USART Data Register Empty
The UDREn Flag indicates if the transmit buffer (UDRn) is ready to receive new data. If UDREn is one, the buffer is
empty, and therefore ready to be written. The UDREn Flag can generate a Data Register Empty interrupt (see
description of the UDRIEn bit).
UDREn is set after a reset to indicate that the Transmitter is ready.
• Bit 4 – FEn: Frame Error
This bit is set if the next character in the receive buffer had a Frame Error when received, that is, when the first stop
bit of the next character in the receive buffer is zero. This bit is valid until the receive buffer (UDRn) is read. The
FEn bit is zero when the stop bit of received data is one. Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
• Bit 3 – DORn: Data OverRun
This bit is set if a Data OverRun condition is detected. A Data OverRun occurs when the receive buffer is full (two
characters), it is a new character waiting in the Receive Shift Register, and a new start bit is detected. This bit is
valid until the receive buffer (UDRn) is read. Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
• Bit 2 – UPEn: USART Parity Error
This bit is set if the next character in the receive buffer had a Parity Error when received and the Parity Checking
was enabled at that point (UPMn1 = 1). This bit is valid until the receive buffer (UDRn) is read. Always set this bit to
zero when writing to UCSRnA.
• Bit 1 – U2Xn: Double the USART Transmission Speed
This bit only has effect for the asynchronous operation. Write this bit to zero when using synchronous operation.
Writing this bit to one will reduce the divisor of the baud rate divider from 16 to 8 effectively doubling the transfer
rate for asynchronous communication.
• Bit 0 – MPCMn: Multi-processor Communication Mode
This bit enables the Multi-processor Communication mode. When the MPCMn bit is written to one, all the incoming
frames received by the USART Receiver that do not contain address information will be ignored. The Transmitter is
unaffected by the MPCMn setting. For more detailed information see “Multi-processor Communication Mode” on
page 216.
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22.10.3
UCSRnB – USART Control and Status Register n B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCIEn
TXCIEn
UDRIEn
RXENn
TXENn
UCSZn2
RXB8n
TXB8n
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
UCSRnB
• Bit 7 – RXCIEn: RX Complete Interrupt Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the RXCn Flag. A USART Receive Complete interrupt will be generated
only if the RXCIEn bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt Flag in SREG is written to one and the RXCn bit in
UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 6 – TXCIEn: TX Complete Interrupt Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the TXCn Flag. A USART Transmit Complete interrupt will be generated
only if the TXCIEn bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt Flag in SREG is written to one and the TXCn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 5 – UDRIEn: USART Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the UDREn Flag. A Data Register Empty interrupt will be generated only
if the UDRIEn bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt Flag in SREG is written to one and the UDREn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 4 – RXENn: Receiver Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Receiver. The Receiver will override normal port operation for the RxDn
pin when enabled. Disabling the Receiver will flush the receive buffer invalidating the FEn, DORn, and UPEn
Flags.
• Bit 3 – TXENn: Transmitter Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Transmitter. The Transmitter will override normal port operation for the
TxDn pin when enabled. The disabling of the Transmitter (writing TXENn to zero) will not become effective until
ongoing and pending transmissions are completed, that is, when the Transmit Shift Register and Transmit Buffer
Register do not contain data to be transmitted. When disabled, the Transmitter will no longer override the TxDn
port.
• Bit 2 – UCSZn2: Character Size n
The UCSZn2 bits combined with the UCSZn1:0 bit in UCSRnC sets the number of data bits (Character SiZe) in a
frame the Receiver and Transmitter use.
• Bit 1 – RXB8n: Receive Data Bit 8 n
RXB8n is the ninth data bit of the received character when operating with serial frames with nine data bits. Must be
read before reading the low bits from UDRn.
• Bit 0 – TXB8n: Transmit Data Bit 8 n
TXB8n is the ninth data bit in the character to be transmitted when operating with serial frames with nine data bits.
Must be written before writing the low bits to UDRn.
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22.10.4
UCSRnC – USART Control and Status Register n C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
UMSELn1
UMSELn0
UPMn1
UPMn0
USBSn
UCSZn1
UCSZn0
UCPOLn
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
UCSRnC
• Bits 7:6 – UMSELn1:0 USART Mode Select
These bits select the mode of operation of the USARTn as shown in Table 22-4.
Table 22-4.
UMSELn Bits Settings
UMSELn1
UMSELn0
Mode
0
0
Asynchronous USART
0
1
Synchronous USART
1
0
(Reserved)
1
1
Master SPI (MSPIM)(1)
Note:
1. See “USART in SPI Mode” on page 227 for full description of the Master SPI Mode (MSPIM) operation.
• Bits 5:4 – UPMn1:0: Parity Mode
These bits enable and set type of parity generation and check. If enabled, the Transmitter will automatically generate and send the parity of the transmitted data bits within each frame. The Receiver will generate a parity value for
the incoming data and compare it to the UPMn setting. If a mismatch is detected, the UPEn Flag in UCSRnA will be
set.
Table 22-5.
UPMn Bits Settings
UPMn1
UPMn0
Parity Mode
0
0
Disabled
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Enabled, Even Parity
1
1
Enabled, Odd Parity
• Bit 3 – USBSn: Stop Bit Select
This bit selects the number of stop bits to be inserted by the Transmitter. The Receiver ignores this setting.
Table 22-6.
USBS Bit Settings
USBSn
Stop Bit(s)
0
1-bit
1
2-bit
• Bit 2:1 – UCSZn1:0: Character Size
The UCSZn1:0 bits combined with the UCSZn2 bit in UCSRnB sets the number of data bits (Character SiZe) in a
frame the Receiver and Transmitter use.
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Table 22-7.
UCSZn Bits Settings
UCSZn2
UCSZn1
UCSZn0
Character Size
0
0
0
5-bit
0
0
1
6-bit
0
1
0
7-bit
0
1
1
8-bit
1
0
0
Reserved
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
0
Reserved
1
1
1
9-bit
• Bit 0 – UCPOLn: Clock Polarity
This bit is used for synchronous mode only. Write this bit to zero when asynchronous mode is used. The UCPOLn
bit sets the relationship between data output change and data input sample, and the synchronous clock (XCKn).
Table 22-8.
22.10.5
UCPOLn Bit Settings
UCPOLn
Transmitted Data Changed
(Output of TxDn Pin)
Received Data Sampled
(Input on RxDn Pin)
0
Rising XCKn Edge
Falling XCKn Edge
1
Falling XCKn Edge
Rising XCKn Edge
UBRRnL and UBRRnH – USART Baud Rate Registers
Bit
15
14
13
12
–
–
–
–
11
10
9
8
UBRR[11:8]
UBRRHn
UBRR[7:0]
7
Read/Write
Initial Value
6
5
4
UBRRLn
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 15:12 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, these bit must be written to zero when
UBRRH is written.
• Bit 11:0 – UBRR11:0: USART Baud Rate Register
This is a 12-bit register which contains the USART baud rate. The UBRRH contains the four most significant bits,
and the UBRRL contains the eight least significant bits of the USART baud rate. Ongoing transmissions by the
Transmitter and Receiver will be corrupted if the baud rate is changed. Writing UBRRL will trigger an immediate
update of the baud rate prescaler.
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22.11 Examples of Baud Rate Setting
For standard crystal and resonator frequencies, the most commonly used baud rates for asynchronous operation
can be generated by using the UBRR settings in Table 22-9 to Table 22-12 on page 226. UBRR values which yield
an actual baud rate differing less than 0.5% from the target baud rate, are bold in the table. Higher error ratings are
acceptable, but the Receiver will have less noise resistance when the error ratings are high, especially for large
serial frames (see “Asynchronous Operational Range” on page 215). The error values are calculated using the following equation:
BaudRate Closest Match
- – 1  100%
Error[%] =  ------------------------------------------------------BaudRate
Table 22-9.
Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies
fosc = 1.0000MHz
fosc = 1.8432MHz
fosc = 2.0000MHz
Baud
Rate
[bps]
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
2400
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
4800
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
9600
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
14.4K
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
19.2K
2
8.5%
6
-7.0%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
28.8K
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
38.4K
1
-18.6%
2
8.5%
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
2
8.5%
6
-7.0%
57.6K
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
76.8K
–
–
1
-18.6%
1
-25.0%
2
0.0%
1
-18.6%
2
8.5%
115.2K
–
–
0
8.5%
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
230.4K
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0.0%
–
–
–
–
250K
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0.0%
Max.
U2Xn = 0
(1)
62.5Kbps
Note:
U2Xn = 1
125Kbps
U2Xn = 0
115.2Kbps
U2Xn = 1
230.4Kbps
U2Xn = 0
125Kbps
U2Xn = 1
250Kbps
1. UBRR = 0, Error = 0.0%
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Table 22-10. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies
fosc = 3.6864MHz
fosc = 4.0000MHz
fosc = 7.3728MHz
Baud
Rate
[bps]
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
2400
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
191
0.0%
383
0.0%
4800
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
9600
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
14.4K
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
16
2.1%
34
-0.8%
31
0.0%
63
0.0%
19.2K
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
28.8K
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
38.4K
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
57.6K
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
76.8K
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
2
8.5%
6
-7.0%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
115.2K
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
230.4K
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
250K
0
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
1
-7.8%
3
-7.8%
0.5M
–
–
0
-7.8%
–
–
0
0.0%
0
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
1M
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
-7.8%
Max.
U2Xn = 0
(1)
230.4Kbps
Note:
U2Xn = 1
460.8Kbps
U2Xn = 0
250Kbps
U2Xn = 1
0.5Mbps
U2Xn = 0
460.8Kbps
U2Xn = 1
921.6Kbps
1. UBRR = 0, Error = 0.0%
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Table 22-11. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies
fosc = 11.0592MHz
fosc = 8.0000MHz
fosc = 14.7456MHz
Baud
Rate
[bps]
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
2400
207
0.2%
416
-0.1%
287
0.0%
575
0.0%
383
0.0%
767
0.0%
4800
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
143
0.0%
287
0.0%
191
0.0%
383
0.0%
9600
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
71
0.0%
143
0.0%
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
14.4K
34
-0.8%
68
0.6%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
63
0.0%
127
0.0%
19.2K
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
35
0.0%
71
0.0%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
28.8K
16
2.1%
34
-0.8%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
31
0.0%
63
0.0%
38.4K
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
17
0.0%
35
0.0%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
57.6K
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
76.8K
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
8
0.0%
17
0.0%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
115.2K
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
230.4K
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
250K
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
2
-7.8%
5
-7.8%
3
-7.8%
6
5.3%
0.5M
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
–
–
2
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
3
-7.8%
1M
–
–
0
0.0%
–
–
–
–
0
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
Max.
U2Xn = 0
(1)
0.5Mbps
Note:
U2Xn = 1
1Mbps
U2Xn = 0
691.2Kbps
U2Xn = 1
1.3824Mbps
U2Xn = 0
921.6Kbps
U2Xn = 1
1.8432Mbps
1. UBRR = 0, Error = 0.0%
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Table 22-12. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies
fosc = 16.0000MHz
fosc = 18.4320MHz
fosc = 20.0000MHz
Baud
Rate
[bps]
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
2400
416
-0.1%
832
0.0%
479
0.0%
959
0.0%
520
0.0%
1041
0.0%
4800
207
0.2%
416
-0.1%
239
0.0%
479
0.0%
259
0.2%
520
0.0%
9600
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
119
0.0%
239
0.0%
129
0.2%
259
0.2%
14.4K
68
0.6%
138
-0.1%
79
0.0%
159
0.0%
86
-0.2%
173
-0.2%
19.2K
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
59
0.0%
119
0.0%
64
0.2%
129
0.2%
28.8K
34
-0.8%
68
0.6%
39
0.0%
79
0.0%
42
0.9%
86
-0.2%
38.4K
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
29
0.0%
59
0.0%
32
-1.4%
64
0.2%
57.6K
16
2.1%
34
-0.8%
19
0.0%
39
0.0%
21
-1.4%
42
0.9%
76.8K
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
14
0.0%
29
0.0%
15
1.7%
32
-1.4%
115.2K
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
9
0.0%
19
0.0%
10
-1.4%
21
-1.4%
230.4K
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
4
0.0%
9
0.0%
4
8.5%
10
-1.4%
250K
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
4
-7.8%
8
2.4%
4
0.0%
9
0.0%
0.5M
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
–
–
4
-7.8%
–
–
4
0.0%
1M
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Max.
U2Xn = 0
(1)
1Mbps
Note:
U2Xn = 1
2Mbps
U2Xn = 0
1.152Mbps
U2Xn = 1
2.304Mbps
U2Xn = 0
1.25Mbps
U2Xn = 1
2.5Mbps
1. UBRR = 0, Error = 0.0%
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23. USART in SPI Mode
The Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous serial Receiver and Transmitter (USART) can be set to a master
SPI compliant mode of operation. The Master SPI Mode (MSPIM) has the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
23.1
Full Duplex, Three-wire Synchronous Data Transfer
Master Operation
Supports all four SPI Modes of Operation (Mode 0, 1, 2, and 3)
LSB First or MSB First Data Transfer (Configurable Data Order)
Queued Operation (Double Buffered)
High Resolution Baud Rate Generator
High Speed Operation (fXCKmax = fCK/2)
Flexible Interrupt Generation
Overview
Setting both UMSELn1:0 bits to one enables the USART in MSPIM logic. In this mode of operation the SPI master
control logic takes direct control over the USART resources. These resources include the transmitter and receiver
shift register and buffers, and the baud rate generator. The parity generator and checker, the data and clock recovery logic, and the RX and TX control logic is disabled. The USART RX and TX control logic is replaced by a
common SPI transfer control logic. However, the pin control logic and interrupt generation logic is identical in both
modes of operation.
The I/O register locations are the same in both modes. However, some of the functionality of the control registers
changes when using MSPIM.
23.2
USART MSPIM vs. SPI
The AVR USART in MSPIM mode is fully compatible with the AVR SPI regarding:
•
Master mode timing diagram
•
The UCPOLn bit functionality is identical to the SPI CPOL bit
•
The UCPHAn bit functionality is identical to the SPI CPHA bit
•
The UDORDn bit functionality is identical to the SPI DORD bit
However, since the USART in MSPIM mode reuses the USART resources, the use of the USART in MSPIM mode
is somewhat different compared to the SPI. In addition to differences of the control register bits, and that only master operation is supported by the USART in MSPIM mode, the following features differ between the two modules:
•
The USART in MSPIM mode includes (double) buffering of the transmitter. The SPI has no buffer
•
The USART in MSPIM mode receiver includes an additional buffer level
•
The SPI WCOL (Write Collision) bit is not included in USART in MSPIM mode
•
The SPI double speed mode (SPI2X) bit is not included. However, the same effect is achieved by setting
UBRRn accordingly
•
Interrupt timing is not compatible
•
Pin control differs due to the master only operation of the USART in MSPIM mode
A comparison of the USART in MSPIM mode and the SPI pins is shown in Table 23-4 on page 235.
23.2.1
Clock Generation
The Clock Generation logic generates the base clock for the Transmitter and Receiver. For USART MSPIM mode
of operation only internal clock generation (that is, master operation) is supported. The Data Direction Register for
the XCKn pin (DDR_XCKn) must therefore be set to one (that is, as output) for the USART in MSPIM to operate
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correctly. Preferably the DDR_XCKn should be set up before the USART in MSPIM is enabled (that is, TXENn and
RXENn bit set to one).
The internal clock generation used in MSPIM mode is identical to the USART synchronous master mode. The
baud rate or UBRRn setting can therefore be calculated using the same equations, see Table 23-1.
Table 23-1.
Equations for Calculating Baud Rate Register Setting
Operating Mode
Equation for Calculating Baud Rate(1)
Equation for Calculating UBRRn Value
f OSC
BAUD = -------------------------------------2  UBRRn + 1 
f OSC
UBRRn = -------------------–1
2BAUD
Synchronous Master mode
Note:
BAUD
Baud rate (in bits per second, bps).
fOSC
System Oscillator clock frequency.
UBRRn
Contents of the UBRRnH and UBRRnL Registers, (0-4095).
SPI Data Modes and Timing
There are four combinations of XCKn (SCK) phase and polarity with respect to serial data, which are determined
by control bits UCPHAn and UCPOLn. The data transfer timing diagrams are shown in Figure 23-1. Data bits are
shifted out and latched in on opposite edges of the XCKn signal, ensuring sufficient time for data signals to stabilize. The UCPOLn and UCPHAn functionality is summarized in Table 23-2. Note that changing the setting of any of
these bits will corrupt all ongoing communication for both the Receiver and Transmitter.
Table 23-2.
UCPOLn and UCPHAn Functionality.
UCPOLn
UCPHAn
SPI Mode
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
0
0
Sample (Rising)
Setup (Falling)
0
1
1
Setup (Rising)
Sample (Falling)
1
0
2
Sample (Falling)
Setup (Rising)
1
1
3
Setup (Falling)
Sample (Rising)
Figure 23-1. UCPHAn and UCPOLn data transfer timing diagrams.
UCPHA=1
UCPOL=0
UCPHA=0
23.3
1. The baud rate is defined to be the transfer rate in bit per second (bps).
UCPOL=1
XCK
XCK
Data setup (TXD)
Data setup (TXD)
Data sample (RXD)
Data sample (RXD)
XCK
XCK
Data setup (TXD)
Data setup (TXD)
Data sample (RXD)
Data sample (RXD)
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23.4
Frame Formats
A serial frame for the MSPIM is defined to be one character of 8 data bits. The USART in MSPIM mode has two
valid frame formats:
•
8-bit data with MSB first
•
8-bit data with LSB first
A frame starts with the least or most significant data bit. Then the next data bits, up to a total of eight, are succeeding, ending with the most or least significant bit accordingly. When a complete frame is transmitted, a new frame
can directly follow it, or the communication line can be set to an idle (high) state.
The UDORDn bit in UCSRnC sets the frame format used by the USART in MSPIM mode. The Receiver and Transmitter use the same setting. Note that changing the setting of any of these bits will corrupt all ongoing
communication for both the Receiver and Transmitter.
16-bit data transfer can be achieved by writing two data bytes to UDRn. A UART transmit complete interrupt will
then signal that the 16-bit value has been shifted out.
23.4.1
USART MSPIM Initialization
The USART in MSPIM mode has to be initialized before any communication can take place. The initialization process normally consists of setting the baud rate, setting master mode of operation (by setting DDR_XCKn to one),
setting frame format and enabling the Transmitter and the Receiver. Only the transmitter can operate independently. For interrupt driven USART operation, the Global Interrupt Flag should be cleared (and thus interrupts
globally disabled) when doing the initialization.
Note:
To ensure immediate initialization of the XCKn output the baud-rate register (UBRRn) must be zero at the time the
transmitter is enabled. Contrary to the normal mode USART operation the UBRRn must then be written to the desired
value after the transmitter is enabled, but before the first transmission is started. Setting UBRRn to zero before
enabling the transmitter is not necessary if the initialization is done immediately after a reset since UBRRn is reset to
zero.
Before doing a re-initialization with changed baud rate, data mode, or frame format, be sure that there is no ongoing transmissions during the period the registers are changed. The TXCn Flag can be used to check that the
Transmitter has completed all transfers, and the RXCn Flag can be used to check that there are no unread data in
the receive buffer. Note that the TXCn Flag must be cleared before each transmission (before UDRn is written) if it
is used for this purpose.
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The following simple USART initialization code examples show one assembly and one C function that are equal in
functionality. The examples assume polling (no interrupts enabled). The baud rate is given as a function parameter. For the assembly code, the baud rate parameter is assumed to be stored in the r17:r16 registers.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Init:
clr r18
out UBRRnH,r18
out UBRRnL,r18
; Setting the XCKn port pin as output, enables master mode.
sbi XCKn_DDR, XCKn
; Set MSPI mode of operation and SPI data mode 0.
ldi r18, (1<<UMSELn1)|(1<<UMSELn0)|(0<<UCPHAn)|(0<<UCPOLn)
out UCSRnC,r18
; Enable receiver and transmitter.
ldi r18, (1<<RXENn)|(1<<TXENn)
out UCSRnB,r18
; Set baud rate.
; IMPORTANT: The Baud Rate must be set after the transmitter is
enabled!
out UBRRnH, r17
out UBRRnL, r18
ret
C Code Example(1)
void USART_Init( unsigned int baud )
{
UBRRn = 0;
/* Setting the XCKn port pin as output, enables master mode. */
XCKn_DDR |= (1<<XCKn);
/* Set MSPI mode of operation and SPI data mode 0. */
UCSRnC = (1<<UMSELn1)|(1<<UMSELn0)|(0<<UCPHAn)|(0<<UCPOLn);
/* Enable receiver and transmitter. */
UCSRnB = (1<<RXENn)|(1<<TXENn);
/* Set baud rate. */
/* IMPORTANT: The Baud Rate must be set after the transmitter is
enabled */
UBRRn = baud;
}
Note:
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
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23.5
Data Transfer
Using the USART in MSPI mode requires the Transmitter to be enabled, that is, the TXENn bit in the UCSRnB register is set to one. When the Transmitter is enabled, the normal port operation of the TxDn pin is overridden and
given the function as the Transmitter's serial output. Enabling the receiver is optional and is done by setting the
RXENn bit in the UCSRnB register to one. When the receiver is enabled, the normal pin operation of the RxDn pin
is overridden and given the function as the Receiver's serial input. The XCKn will in both cases be used as the
transfer clock.
After initialization the USART is ready for doing data transfers. A data transfer is initiated by writing to the UDRn I/O
location. This is the case for both sending and receiving data since the transmitter controls the transfer clock. The
data written to UDRn is moved from the transmit buffer to the shift register when the shift register is ready to send
a new frame.
Note:
To keep the input buffer in sync with the number of data bytes transmitted, the UDRn register must be read once for
each byte transmitted. The input buffer operation is identical to normal USART mode, that is, if an overflow occurs the
character last received will be lost, not the first data in the buffer. This means that if four bytes are transferred, byte 1
first, then byte 2, 3, and 4, and the UDRn is not read before all transfers are completed, then byte 3 to be received will
be lost, and not byte 1.
The following code examples show a simple USART in MSPIM mode transfer function based on polling of the Data
Register Empty (UDREn) Flag and the Receive Complete (RXCn) Flag. The USART has to be initialized before the
function can be used. For the assembly code, the data to be sent is assumed to be stored in Register R16 and the
data received will be available in the same register (R16) after the function returns.
The function simply waits for the transmit buffer to be empty by checking the UDREn Flag, before loading it with
new data to be transmitted. The function then waits for data to be present in the receive buffer by checking the
RXCn Flag, before reading the buffer and returning the value.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_MSPIM_Transfer:
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
sbis UCSRnA, UDREn
rjmp USART_MSPIM_Transfer
; Put data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
out UDRn,r16
; Wait for data to be received
USART_MSPIM_Wait_RXCn:
sbis UCSRnA, RXCn
rjmp USART_MSPIM_Wait_RXCn
; Get and return received data from buffer
in r16, UDRn
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned char USART_Receive( void )
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while ( !( UCSRnA & (1<<UDREn)) );
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDRn = data;
/* Wait for data to be received */
while ( !(UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn)) );
/* Get and return received data from buffer */
return UDRn;
}
Note:
23.5.1
1. See “About Code Examples” on page 10.
Transmitter and Receiver Flags and Interrupts
The RXCn, TXCn, and UDREn flags and corresponding interrupts in USART in MSPIM mode are identical in function to the normal USART operation. However, the receiver error status flags (FE, DOR, and PE) are not in use and
is always read as zero.
23.5.2
Disabling the Transmitter or Receiver
The disabling of the transmitter or receiver in USART in MSPIM mode is identical in function to the normal USART
operation.
23.6
USART MSPIM Register Description
The following section describes the registers used for SPI operation using the USART.
23.6.1
UDRn – USART MSPIM I/O Data Register
The function and bit description of the USART data register (UDRn) in MSPI mode is identical to normal USART
operation. See “UDRn – USART I/O Data Register n” on page 218.
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23.6.2
UCSRnA – USART MSPIM Control and Status Register n A
•
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
RXCn
TXCn
UDREn
-
-
-
-
0
-
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
UCSRnA
• Bit 7 - RXCn: USART Receive Complete
This flag bit is set when there are unread data in the receive buffer and cleared when the receive buffer is empty
(that is, does not contain any unread data). If the Receiver is disabled, the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXCn bit will become zero. The RXCn Flag can be used to generate a Receive Complete interrupt (see
description of the RXCIEn bit).
• Bit 6 - TXCn: USART Transmit Complete
This flag bit is set when the entire frame in the Transmit Shift Register has been shifted out and there are no new
data currently present in the transmit buffer (UDRn). The TXCn Flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit
complete interrupt is executed, or it can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location. The TXCn Flag can generate
a Transmit Complete interrupt (see description of the TXCIEn bit).
• Bit 5 - UDREn: USART Data Register Empty
The UDREn Flag indicates if the transmit buffer (UDRn) is ready to receive new data. If UDREn is one, the buffer is
empty, and therefore ready to be written. The UDREn Flag can generate a Data Register Empty interrupt (see
description of the UDRIE bit). UDREn is set after a reset to indicate that the Transmitter is ready.
• Bit 4:0 - Reserved Bits in MSPI mode
When in MSPI mode, these bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, these bits must
be written to zero when UCSRnA is written.
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23.6.3
UCSRnB – USART MSPIM Control and Status Register n B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
RXCIEn
TXCIEn
UDRIE
RXENn
TXENn
-
-
0
-
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
UCSRnB
• Bit 7 - RXCIEn: RX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the RXCn Flag. A USART Receive Complete interrupt will be generated
only if the RXCIEn bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt Flag in SREG is written to one and the RXCn bit in
UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 6 - TXCIEn: TX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the TXCn Flag. A USART Transmit Complete interrupt will be generated
only if the TXCIEn bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt Flag in SREG is written to one and the TXCn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 5 - UDRIE: USART Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the UDREn Flag. A Data Register Empty interrupt will be generated only
if the UDRIE bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt Flag in SREG is written to one and the UDREn bit in UCSRnA
is set.
• Bit 4 - RXENn: Receiver Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Receiver in MSPIM mode. The Receiver will override normal port operation for the RxDn pin when enabled. Disabling the Receiver will flush the receive buffer. Only enabling the receiver
in MSPI mode (that is, setting RXENn=1 and TXENn=0) has no meaning since it is the transmitter that controls the
transfer clock and since only master mode is supported.
• Bit 3 - TXENn: Transmitter Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Transmitter. The Transmitter will override normal port operation for the
TxDn pin when enabled. The disabling of the Transmitter (writing TXENn to zero) will not become effective until
ongoing and pending transmissions are completed, that is, when the Transmit Shift Register and Transmit Buffer
Register do not contain data to be transmitted. When disabled, the Transmitter will no longer override the TxDn
port.
• Bit 2:0 - Reserved Bits in MSPI mode
When in MSPI mode, these bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, these bits must
be written to zero when UCSRnB is written.
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23.6.4
UCSRnC – USART MSPIM Control and Status Register n C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
UMSELn1
UMSELn0
-
-
-
UDORDn
UCPHAn
UCPOLn
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
UCSRnC
• Bit 7:6 - UMSELn1:0: USART Mode Select
These bits select the mode of operation of the USART as shown in Table 23-3. See “UCSRnC – USART Control
and Status Register n C” on page 221 for full description of the normal USART operation. The MSPIM is enabled
when both UMSELn bits are set to one. The UDORDn, UCPHAn, and UCPOLn can be set in the same write operation where the MSPIM is enabled.
Table 23-3.
UMSELn Bits Settings
UMSELn1
UMSELn0
Mode
0
0
Asynchronous USART
0
1
Synchronous USART
1
0
(Reserved)
1
1
Master SPI (MSPIM)
• Bit 5:3 - Reserved Bits in MSPI mode
When in MSPI mode, these bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, these bits must
be written to zero when UCSRnC is written.
• Bit 2 - UDORDn: Data Order
When set to one the LSB of the data word is transmitted first. When set to zero the MSB of the data word is transmitted first. Refer to “SPI Data Modes and Timing” on page 228 for details.
• Bit 1 - UCPHAn: Clock Phase
The UCPHAn bit setting determine if data is sampled on the leasing edge (first) or tailing (last) edge of XCKn.
Refer to “SPI Data Modes and Timing” on page 228 for details.
• Bit 0 - UCPOLn: Clock Polarity
The UCPOLn bit sets the polarity of the XCKn clock. The combination of the UCPOLn and UCPHAn bit settings
determine the timing of the data transfer. Refer to “SPI Data Modes and Timing” on page 228 for details.
23.6.5
UBRRnL and UBRRnH – USART MSPIM Baud Rate Registers
The function and bit description of the baud rate registers in MSPI mode is identical to normal USART operation.
See “UBRRnL and UBRRnH – USART Baud Rate Registers” on page 222.
Table 23-4.
Comparison of USART in MSPIM mode and SPI pins.
USART_MSPIM
SPI
Comment
TxDn
MOSI
Master Out only
RxDn
MISO
Master In only
XCKn
SCK
(Functionally identical)
(N/A)
SS
Not supported by USART in MSPIM
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24. 2-wire Serial Interface
24.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
24.2
Simple yet Powerful and Flexible Communication Interface, only two Bus Lines needed
Both Master and Slave Operation Supported
Device can Operate as Transmitter or Receiver
7-bit Address Space Allows up to 128 Different Slave Addresses
Multi-master Arbitration Support
Up to 400kHz Data Transfer Speed
Slew-rate Limited Output Drivers
Noise Suppression Circuitry Rejects Spikes on Bus Lines
Fully Programmable Slave Address with General Call Support
Address Recognition Causes Wake-up When AVR is in Sleep Mode
2-wire Serial Interface Bus Definition
The 2-wire Serial Interface (TWI) is ideally suited for typical microcontroller applications. The TWI protocol allows
the systems designer to interconnect up to 128 different devices using only two bi-directional bus lines, one for
clock (SCL) and one for data (SDA). The only external hardware needed to implement the bus is a single pull-up
resistor for each of the TWI bus lines. All devices connected to the bus have individual addresses, and mechanisms for resolving bus contention are inherent in the TWI protocol.
Figure 24-1. TWI Bus Interconnection
VCC
Device 1
Device 2
Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
24.2.1
TWI Terminology
The following definitions are frequently encountered in this section.
Table 24-1.
TWI Terminology
Term
Description
Master
The device that initiates and terminates a transmission. The Master also generates the SCL clock
Slave
The device addressed by a Master
Transmitter
The device placing data on the bus
Receiver
The device reading data from the bus
The Power Reduction TWI bit, PRTWI bit in “PRR0 – Power Reduction Register 0” on page 55 must be written to
zero to enable the 2-wire Serial Interface.
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24.2.2
Electrical Interconnection
As depicted in Figure 24-1 on page 236, both bus lines are connected to the positive supply voltage through pull-up
resistors. The bus drivers of all TWI-compliant devices are open-drain or open-collector. This implements a wiredAND function which is essential to the operation of the interface. A low level on a TWI bus line is generated when
one or more TWI devices output a zero. A high level is output when all TWI devices trim-state their outputs, allowing the pull-up resistors to pull the line high. Note that all AVR devices connected to the TWI bus must be powered
in order to allow any bus operation.
The number of devices that can be connected to the bus is only limited by the bus capacitance limit of 400pF and
the 7-bit slave address space. A detailed specification of the electrical characteristics of the TWI is given in “SPI
Timing Characteristics” on page 363. Two different sets of specifications are presented there, one relevant for bus
speeds below 100kHz, and one valid for bus speeds up to 400kHz.
24.3
24.3.1
Data Transfer and Frame Format
Transferring Bits
Each data bit transferred on the TWI bus is accompanied by a pulse on the clock line. The level of the data line
must be stable when the clock line is high. The only exception to this rule is for generating start and stop
conditions.
Figure 24-2. Data Validity
SDA
SCL
Data Stable
Data Stable
Data Change
24.3.2
START and STOP Conditions
The Master initiates and terminates a data transmission. The transmission is initiated when the Master issues a
START condition on the bus, and it is terminated when the Master issues a STOP condition. Between a START
and a STOP condition, the bus is considered busy, and no other master should try to seize control of the bus. A
special case occurs when a new START condition is issued between a START and STOP condition. This is
referred to as a REPEATED START condition, and is used when the Master wishes to initiate a new transfer without relinquishing control of the bus. After a REPEATED START, the bus is considered busy until the next STOP.
This is identical to the START behavior, and therefore START is used to describe both START and REPEATED
START for the remainder of this datasheet, unless otherwise noted. As depicted below, START and STOP conditions are signalled by changing the level of the SDA line when the SCL line is high.
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Figure 24-3. START, REPEATED START and STOP conditions
SDA
SCL
START
24.3.3
STOP
REPEATED START
START
STOP
Address Packet Format
All address packets transmitted on the TWI bus are 9 bits long, consisting of 7 address bits, one READ/WRITE
control bit and an acknowledge bit. If the READ/WRITE bit is set, a read operation is to be performed, otherwise a
write operation should be performed. When a Slave recognizes that it is being addressed, it should acknowledge
by pulling SDA low in the ninth SCL (ACK) cycle. If the addressed Slave is busy, or for some other reason can not
service the Master’s request, the SDA line should be left high in the ACK clock cycle. The Master can then transmit
a STOP condition, or a REPEATED START condition to initiate a new transmission. An address packet consisting
of a slave address and a READ or a WRITE bit is called SLA+R or SLA+W, respectively.
The MSB of the address byte is transmitted first. Slave addresses can freely be allocated by the designer, but the
address 0000 000 is reserved for a general call.
When a general call is issued, all slaves should respond by pulling the SDA line low in the ACK cycle. A general
call is used when a Master wishes to transmit the same message to several slaves in the system. When the general call address followed by a Write bit is transmitted on the bus, all slaves set up to acknowledge the general call
will pull the SDA line low in the ack cycle. The following data packets will then be received by all the slaves that
acknowledged the general call. Note that transmitting the general call address followed by a Read bit is meaningless, as this would cause contention if several slaves started transmitting different data.
All addresses of the format 1111 xxx should be reserved for future purposes.
Figure 24-4. Address Packet Format
Addr MSB
Addr LSB
R/W
ACK
7
8
9
SDA
SCL
1
2
START
24.3.4
Data Packet Format
All data packets transmitted on the TWI bus are nine bits long, consisting of one data byte and an acknowledge bit.
During a data transfer, the Master generates the clock and the START and STOP conditions, while the Receiver is
responsible for acknowledging the reception. An Acknowledge (ACK) is signalled by the Receiver pulling the SDA
line low during the ninth SCL cycle. If the Receiver leaves the SDA line high, a NACK is signalled. When the
Receiver has received the last byte, or for some reason cannot receive any more bytes, it should inform the Transmitter by sending a NACK after the final byte. The MSB of the data byte is transmitted first.
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Figure 24-5. Data Packet Format
Data MSB
Data LSB
ACK
8
9
Aggregate
SDA
SDA from
Transmitter
SDA from
Receiver
SCL from
Master
1
2
SLA+R/W
24.3.5
7
STOP, REPEATED
START or Next
Data Byte
Data Byte
Combining Address and Data Packets into a Transmission
A transmission basically consists of a START condition, a SLA+R/W, one or more data packets and a STOP condition. An empty message, consisting of a START followed by a STOP condition, is illegal. Note that the WiredANDing of the SCL line can be used to implement handshaking between the Master and the Slave. The Slave can
extend the SCL low period by pulling the SCL line low. This is useful if the clock speed set up by the Master is too
fast for the Slave, or the Slave needs extra time for processing between the data transmissions. The Slave extending the SCL low period will not affect the SCL high period, which is determined by the Master. As a consequence,
the Slave can reduce the TWI data transfer speed by prolonging the SCL duty cycle.
Figure 24-6 shows a typical data transmission. Note that several data bytes can be transmitted between the
SLA+R/W and the STOP condition, depending on the software protocol implemented by the application software.
Figure 24-6. Typical Data Transmission
Addr MSB
Addr LSB
R/W
ACK
Data MSB
7
8
9
1
Data LSB
ACK
8
9
SDA
SCL
1
START
24.4
2
SLA+R/W
2
7
Data Byte
STOP
Multi-master Bus Systems, Arbitration, and Synchronization
The TWI protocol allows bus systems with several masters. Special concerns have been taken in order to ensure
that transmissions will proceed as normal, even if two or more masters initiate a transmission at the same time.
Two problems arise in multi-master systems:
•
An algorithm must be implemented allowing only one of the masters to complete the transmission. All other
masters should cease transmission when they discover that they have lost the selection process. This
selection process is called arbitration. When a contending master discovers that it has lost the arbitration
process, it should immediately switch to Slave mode to check whether it is being addressed by the winning
master. The fact that multiple masters have started transmission at the same time should not be detectable to
the slaves, that is, the data being transferred on the bus must not be corrupted.
•
Different masters may use different SCL frequencies. A scheme must be devised to synchronize the serial
clocks from all masters, in order to let the transmission proceed in a lockstep fashion. This will facilitate the
arbitration process.
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The wired-ANDing of the bus lines is used to solve both these problems. The serial clocks from all masters will be
wired-ANDed, yielding a combined clock with a high period equal to the one from the Master with the shortest high
period. The low period of the combined clock is equal to the low period of the Master with the longest low period.
Note that all masters listen to the SCL line, effectively starting to count their SCL high and low time-out periods
when the combined SCL line goes high or low, respectively.
Figure 24-7. SCL Synchronization Between Multiple Masters
TA low
TA high
SCL from
Master A
SCL from
Master B
SCL Bus
Line
TBlow
Masters Start
Counting Low Period
TBhigh
Masters Start
Counting High Period
Arbitration is carried out by all masters continuously monitoring the SDA line after outputting data. If the value read
from the SDA line does not match the value the Master had output, it has lost the arbitration. Note that a Master
can only lose arbitration when it outputs a high SDA value while another Master outputs a low value. The losing
Master should immediately go to Slave mode, checking if it is being addressed by the winning Master. The SDA
line should be left high, but losing masters are allowed to generate a clock signal until the end of the current data or
address packet. Arbitration will continue until only one Master remains, and this may take many bits. If several
masters are trying to address the same Slave, arbitration will continue into the data packet.
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Figure 24-8. Arbitration Between Two Masters
START
Master A Loses
Arbitration, SDAA SDA
SDA from
Master A
SDA from
Master B
SDA Line
Synchronized
SCL Line
Note that arbitration is not allowed between:
•
A REPEATED START condition and a data bit
•
A STOP condition and a data bit
•
A REPEATED START and a STOP condition
It is the user software’s responsibility to ensure that these illegal arbitration conditions never occur. This implies
that in multi-master systems, all data transfers must use the same composition of SLA+R/W and data packets. In
other words: All transmissions must contain the same number of data packets, otherwise the result of the arbitration is undefined.
24.5
Overview of the TWI Module
The TWI module is comprised of several sub-modules, as shown in Figure 24-9 on page 242. All registers drawn in
a thick line are accessible through the AVR data bus.
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Figure 24-9. Overview of the TWI Module
SCL
Spike
Filter
Slew-rate
Control
Spike
Filter
Bus Interface Unit
START / STOP
Control
Spike Suppression
Arbitration detection
Address/Data Shift
Register (TWDR)
Address Match Unit
Address Register
(TWAR)
Address Comparator
24.5.1
Bit Rate Generator
Prescaler
Bit Rate Register
(TWBR)
Ack
Control Unit
Status Register
(TWSR)
Control Register
(TWCR)
State Machine and
Status control
TWI Unit
Slew-rate
Control
SDA
SCL and SDA Pins
These pins interface the AVR TWI with the rest of the MCU system. The output drivers contain a slew-rate limiter in
order to conform to the TWI specification. The input stages contain a spike suppression unit removing spikes
shorter than 50ns. Note that the internal pull-ups in the AVR pads can be enabled by setting the PORT bits corresponding to the SCL and SDA pins, as explained in the I/O Port section. The internal pull-ups can in some systems
eliminate the need for external ones.
24.5.2
Bit Rate Generator Unit
This unit controls the period of SCL when operating in a Master mode. The SCL period is controlled by settings in
the TWI Bit Rate Register (TWBR) and the Prescaler bits in the TWI Status Register (TWSR). Slave operation
does not depend on Bit Rate or Prescaler settings, but the CPU clock frequency in the Slave must be at least 16
times higher than the SCL frequency. Note that slaves may prolong the SCL low period, thereby reducing the average TWI bus clock period.
The SCL frequency is generated according to the following equation:
CPU Clock frequency
SCL frequency = ---------------------------------------------------------TWPS
16 + 2(TWBR)  4
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•
TWBR = Value of the TWI Bit Rate Register
•
TWPS = Value of the prescaler bits in the TWI Status Register
Note:
24.5.3
Pull-up resistor values should be selected according to the SCL frequency and the capacitive bus line load. See “2-wire
Serial Interface Characteristics” on page 361 for value of pull-up resistor.
Bus Interface Unit
This unit contains the Data and Address Shift Register (TWDR), a START/STOP Controller and Arbitration detection hardware. The TWDR contains the address or data bytes to be transmitted, or the address or data bytes
received. In addition to the 8-bit TWDR, the Bus Interface Unit also contains a register containing the (N)ACK bit to
be transmitted or received. This (N)ACK Register is not directly accessible by the application software. However,
when receiving, it can be set or cleared by manipulating the TWI Control Register (TWCR). When in Transmitter
mode, the value of the received (N)ACK bit can be determined by the value in the TWSR.
The START/STOP Controller is responsible for generation and detection of START, REPEATED START, and
STOP conditions. The START/STOP controller is able to detect START and STOP conditions even when the AVR
MCU is in one of the sleep modes, enabling the MCU to wake up if addressed by a Master.
If the TWI has initiated a transmission as Master, the Arbitration Detection hardware continuously monitors the
transmission trying to determine if arbitration is in process. If the TWI has lost an arbitration, the Control Unit is
informed. Correct action can then be taken and appropriate status codes generated.
24.5.4
Address Match Unit
The Address Match unit checks if received address bytes match the seven-bit address in the TWI Address Register (TWAR). If the TWI General Call Recognition Enable (TWGCE) bit in the TWAR is written to one, all incoming
address bits will also be compared against the General Call address. Upon an address match, the Control Unit is
informed, allowing correct action to be taken. The TWI may or may not acknowledge its address, depending on settings in the TWCR. The Address Match unit is able to compare addresses even when the AVR MCU is in sleep
mode, enabling the MCU to wake up if addressed by a Master. If another interrupt (for example, INT0) occurs during TWI Power-down address match and wakes up the CPU, the TWI aborts operation and return to it’s idle state.
If this cause any problems, ensure that TWI Address Match is the only enabled interrupt when entering Powerdown.
24.5.5
Control Unit
The Control unit monitors the TWI bus and generates responses corresponding to settings in the TWI Control Register (TWCR). When an event requiring the attention of the application occurs on the TWI bus, the TWI Interrupt
Flag (TWINT) is asserted. In the next clock cycle, the TWI Status Register (TWSR) is updated with a status code
identifying the event. The TWSR only contains relevant status information when the TWI Interrupt Flag is asserted.
At all other times, the TWSR contains a special status code indicating that no relevant status information is available. As long as the TWINT Flag is set, the SCL line is held low. This allows the application software to complete its
tasks before allowing the TWI transmission to continue.
The TWINT Flag is set in the following situations:
•
After the TWI has transmitted a START/REPEATED START condition
•
After the TWI has transmitted SLA+R/W
•
After the TWI has transmitted an address byte
•
After the TWI has lost arbitration
•
After the TWI has been addressed by own slave address or general call
•
After the TWI has received a data byte
•
After a STOP or REPEATED START has been received while still addressed as a Slave
•
When a bus error has occurred due to an illegal START or STOP condition
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24.6
Using the TWI
The AVR TWI is byte-oriented and interrupt based. Interrupts are issued after all bus events, like reception of a
byte or transmission of a START condition. Because the TWI is interrupt-based, the application software is free to
carry on other operations during a TWI byte transfer. Note that the TWI Interrupt Enable (TWIE) bit in TWCR
together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG allow the application to decide whether or not assertion of the
TWINT Flag should generate an interrupt request. If the TWIE bit is cleared, the application must poll the TWINT
Flag in order to detect actions on the TWI bus.
When the TWINT Flag is asserted, the TWI has finished an operation and awaits application response. In this
case, the TWI Status Register (TWSR) contains a value indicating the current state of the TWI bus. The application
software can then decide how the TWI should behave in the next TWI bus cycle by manipulating the TWCR and
TWDR Registers.
Figure 24-10 is a simple example of how the application can interface to the TWI hardware. In this example, a Master wishes to transmit a single data byte to a Slave. This description is quite abstract, a more detailed explanation
follows later in this section. A simple code example implementing the desired behavior is also presented.
Application
Action
Figure 24-10. Interfacing the Application to the TWI in a Typical Transmission
1. Application
writes to TWCR to
initiate
transmission of
START
TWI
Hardware
Action
TWI bus
3. Check TWSR to see if START was
sent. Application loads SLA+W into
TWDR, and loads appropriate control
signals into TWCR, makin sure that
TWINT is written to one,
and TWSTA is written to zero.
START
2. TWINT set.
Status code indicates
START condition sent
SLA+W
5. Check TWSR to see if SLA+W was
sent and ACK received.
Application loads data into TWDR, and
loads appropriate control signals into
TWCR, making sure that TWINT is
written to one
A
4. TWINT set.
Status code indicates
SLA+W sent, ACK
received
Data
7. Check TWSR to see if data was sent
and ACK received.
Application loads appropriate control
signals to send STOP into TWCR,
making sure that TWINT is written to one
A
6. TWINT set.
Status code indicates
data sent, ACK received
STOP
Indicates
TWINT set
1. The first step in a TWI transmission is to transmit a START condition. This is done by writing a specific value
into TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware to transmit a START condition. Which value to write is described
later on. However, it is important that the TWINT bit is set in the value written. Writing a one to TWINT
clears the flag. The TWI will not start any operation as long as the TWINT bit in TWCR is set. Immediately
after the application has cleared TWINT, the TWI will initiate transmission of the START condition.
2. When the START condition has been transmitted, the TWINT Flag in TWCR is set, and TWSR is updated
with a status code indicating that the START condition has successfully been sent.
3. The application software should now examine the value of TWSR, to make sure that the START condition
was successfully transmitted. If TWSR indicates otherwise, the application software might take some special action, like calling an error routine. Assuming that the status code is as expected, the application must
load SLA+W into TWDR. Remember that TWDR is used both for address and data. After TWDR has been
loaded with the desired SLA+W, a specific value must be written to TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware to
transmit the SLA+W present in TWDR. Which value to write is described later on. However, it is important
that the TWINT bit is set in the value written. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI will not start
any operation as long as the TWINT bit in TWCR is set. Immediately after the application has cleared
TWINT, the TWI will initiate transmission of the address packet.
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4. When the address packet has been transmitted, the TWINT Flag in TWCR is set, and TWSR is updated
with a status code indicating that the address packet has successfully been sent. The status code will also
reflect whether a Slave acknowledged the packet or not.
5. The application software should now examine the value of TWSR, to make sure that the address packet
was successfully transmitted, and that the value of the ACK bit was as expected. If TWSR indicates otherwise, the application software might take some special action, like calling an error routine. Assuming that
the status code is as expected, the application must load a data packet into TWDR. Subsequently, a specific value must be written to TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware to transmit the data packet present in
TWDR. Which value to write is described later on. However, it is important that the TWINT bit is set in the
value written. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI will not start any operation as long as the
TWINT bit in TWCR is set. Immediately after the application has cleared TWINT, the TWI will initiate transmission of the data packet.
6. When the data packet has been transmitted, the TWINT Flag in TWCR is set, and TWSR is updated with a
status code indicating that the data packet has successfully been sent. The status code will also reflect
whether a Slave acknowledged the packet or not.
7. The application software should now examine the value of TWSR, to make sure that the data packet was
successfully transmitted, and that the value of the ACK bit was as expected. If TWSR indicates otherwise,
the application software might take some special action, like calling an error routine. Assuming that the status code is as expected, the application must write a specific value to TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware
to transmit a STOP condition. Which value to write is described later on. However, it is important that the
TWINT bit is set in the value written. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI will not start any operation as long as the TWINT bit in TWCR is set. Immediately after the application has cleared TWINT, the
TWI will initiate transmission of the STOP condition. Note that TWINT is NOT set after a STOP condition
has been sent.
Even though this example is simple, it shows the principles involved in all TWI transmissions. These can be summarized as follows:
•
When the TWI has finished an operation and expects application response, the TWINT Flag is set. The SCL
line is pulled low until TWINT is cleared.
•
When the TWINT Flag is set, the user must update all TWI Registers with the value relevant for the next TWI
bus cycle. As an example, TWDR must be loaded with the value to be transmitted in the next bus cycle.
•
After all TWI Register updates and other pending application software tasks have been completed, TWCR is
written. When writing TWCR, the TWINT bit should be set. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI will
then commence executing whatever operation was specified by the TWCR setting.
In the following an assembly and C implementation of the example is given. Note that the code below assumes that
several definitions have been made, for example by using include-files.
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Assembly Code Example
1
ldi r16,
(1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWSTA)|
C Example
TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWSTA)|
(1<<TWEN)
(1<<TWEN)
2
out TWCR, r16
wait1:
in
r16,TWCR
3
andi r16, 0xF8
cpi
;
out
TWDR, r16
ldi r16, (1<<TWINT) |
(1<<TWEN)
4
out TWCR, r16
wait2:
in
if ((TWSR & 0xF8) != START)
ERROR();
r16, START
brne ERROR
ldi r16, SLA_W
r16,TWCR
5
andi r16, 0xF8
cpi
r16, MT_SLA_ACK
brne ERROR
ldi r16, DATA
out
TWDR, r16
ldi r16, (1<<TWINT) |
(1<<TWEN)
6
out TWCR, r16
wait3:
in
r16,TWCR
TWCR = (1<<TWINT) |
(1<<TWEN);
while (!(TWCR & (1<<TWINT)))
;
if ((TWSR & 0xF8) !=
MT_SLA_ACK)
ERROR();
7
andi r16, 0xF8
cpi
r16, MT_DATA_ACK
brne ERROR
ldi r16,
(1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN)|
(1<<TWSTO)
out
Check value of TWI Status
Register. Mask prescaler bits. If
status different from START go to
ERROR
Load SLA_W into TWDR
Register. Clear TWINT bit in
TWCR to start transmission of
address
Wait for TWINT Flag set. This
indicates that the SLA+W has
been transmitted, and
ACK/NACK has been received.
Check value of TWI Status
Register. Mask prescaler bits. If
status different from
MT_SLA_ACK go to ERROR
TWDR = DATA;
TWCR = (1<<TWINT) |
(1<<TWEN);
Load DATA into TWDR Register.
Clear TWINT bit in TWCR to
start transmission of data
while (!(TWCR & (1<<TWINT)))
Wait for TWINT Flag set. This
indicates that the DATA has been
transmitted, and ACK/NACK has
been received.
;
sbrs r16,TWINT
rjmp wait3
in
r16,TWSR
Wait for TWINT Flag set. This
indicates that the START
condition has been transmitted
TWDR = SLA_W;
sbrs r16,TWINT
rjmp wait2
in
r16,TWSR
Send START condition
while (!(TWCR & (1<<TWINT)))
sbrs r16,TWINT
rjmp wait1
in
r16,TWSR
Comments
if ((TWSR & 0xF8) !=
MT_DATA_ACK)
ERROR();
Check value of TWI Status
Register. Mask prescaler bits. If
status different from
MT_DATA_ACK go to ERROR
TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN)|
(1<<TWSTO);
Transmit STOP condition
TWCR, r16
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24.7
Transmission Modes
The TWI can operate in one of four major modes. These are named Master Transmitter (MT), Master Receiver
(MR), Slave Transmitter (ST) and Slave Receiver (SR). Several of these modes can be used in the same application. As an example, the TWI can use MT mode to write data into a TWI EEPROM, MR mode to read the data back
from the EEPROM. If other masters are present in the system, some of these might transmit data to the TWI, and
then SR mode would be used. It is the application software that decides which modes are legal.
The following sections describe each of these modes. Possible status codes are described along with figures
detailing data transmission in each of the modes. These figures contain the following abbreviations:
S:
START condition
Rs:
REPEATED START condition
R:
Read bit (high level at SDA)
W:
Write bit (low level at SDA)
A:
Acknowledge bit (low level at SDA)
A:
Not acknowledge bit (high level at SDA)
Data: 8-bit data byte
P:
STOP condition
SLA: Slave Address
In Figure 24-12 on page 250 to Figure 24-18 on page 258, circles are used to indicate that the TWINT Flag is set.
The numbers in the circles show the status code held in TWSR, with the prescaler bits masked to zero. At these
points, actions must be taken by the application to continue or complete the TWI transfer. The TWI transfer is suspended until the TWINT Flag is cleared by software.
When the TWINT Flag is set, the status code in TWSR is used to determine the appropriate software action. For
each status code, the required software action and details of the following serial transfer are given in Table 24-2 on
page 249 to Table 24-5 on page 257. Note that the prescaler bits are masked to zero in these tables.
24.7.1
Master Transmitter Mode
In the Master Transmitter mode, a number of data bytes are transmitted to a Slave Receiver (see Figure 24-11). In
order to enter a Master mode, a START condition must be transmitted. The format of the following address packet
determines whether Master Transmitter or Master Receiver mode is to be entered. If SLA+W is transmitted, MT
mode is entered, if SLA+R is transmitted, MR mode is entered. All the status codes mentioned in this section
assume that the prescaler bits are zero or are masked to zero.
Figure 24-11. Data Transfer in Master Transmitter Mode
VCC
Device 1
Device 2
MASTER
TRANSMITTER
SLAVE
RECEIVER
Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
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A START condition is sent by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
TWEN must be set to enable the 2-wire Serial Interface, TWSTA must be written to one to transmit a START condition and TWINT must be written to one to clear the TWINT Flag. The TWI will then test the 2-wire Serial Bus and
generate a START condition as soon as the bus becomes free. After a START condition has been transmitted, the
TWINT Flag is set by hardware, and the status code in TWSR will be 0x08 (see Table 24-2 on page 249). In order
to enter MT mode, SLA+W must be transmitted. This is done by writing SLA+W to TWDR. Thereafter the TWINT
bit should be cleared (by writing it to one) to continue the transfer. This is accomplished by writing the following
value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
0
0
X
1
0
X
When SLA+W have been transmitted and an acknowledgement bit has been received, TWINT is set again and a
number of status codes in TWSR are possible. Possible status codes in Master mode are 0x18, 0x20, or 0x38. The
appropriate action to be taken for each of these status codes is detailed in Table 24-2 on page 249.
When SLA+W has been successfully transmitted, a data packet should be transmitted. This is done by writing the
data byte to TWDR. TWDR must only be written when TWINT is high. If not, the access will be discarded, and the
Write Collision bit (TWWC) will be set in the TWCR Register. After updating TWDR, the TWINT bit should be
cleared (by writing it to one) to continue the transfer. This is accomplished by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
0
0
X
1
0
X
This scheme is repeated until the last byte has been sent and the transfer is ended by generating a STOP condition or a repeated START condition. A STOP condition is generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
0
1
X
1
0
X
A REPEATED START condition is generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
After a repeated START condition (state 0x10) the 2-wire Serial Interface can access the same Slave again, or a
new Slave without transmitting a STOP condition. Repeated START enables the Master to switch between Slaves,
Master Transmitter mode and Master Receiver mode without losing control of the bus.
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Table 24-2.
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler Bits
are 0
Status codes for Master Transmitter Mode
Application Software Response
Status of the 2-wire Serial Bus
and 2-wire Serial Interface
Hardware
To/from TWDR
0x08
A START condition has been
transmitted
0x10
A repeated START condition
has been transmitted
0x18
0x20
0x28
0x30
0x38
SLA+W has been transmitted;
ACK has been received
SLA+W has been transmitted;
NOT ACK has been received
Data byte has been transmitted;
ACK has been received
Data byte has been transmitted;
NOT ACK has been received
Arbitration lost in SLA+W or
data bytes
To TWCR
STA
STO
TWIN
T
TWE
A
Load SLA+W
0
0
1
X
SLA+W will be transmitted;
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
Load SLA+W or
0
0
1
X
Load SLA+R
0
0
1
X
SLA+W will be transmitted;
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
SLA+R will be transmitted;
Logic will switch to Master Receiver mode
Load data byte or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
No TWDR action or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
Load data byte or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
No TWDR action or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
Load data byte or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
No TWDR action or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
Load data byte or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
No TWDR action or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action
1
0
1
X
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK or NOT ACK will
be received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO Flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START condition will be
transmitted and TWSTO Flag will be reset
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK or NOT ACK will
be received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO Flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START condition will be
transmitted and TWSTO Flag will be reset
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK or NOT ACK will
be received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO Flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START condition will be
transmitted and TWSTO Flag will be reset
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK or NOT ACK will
be received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO Flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START condition will be
transmitted and TWSTO Flag will be reset
2-wire Serial Bus will be released and not addressed
Slave mode entered
A START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
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Figure 24-12. Formats and States in the Master Transmitter Mode
MT
Successfull
transmission
to a slave
receiver
S
SLA
$08
W
A
DATA
$18
A
P
$28
Next transfer
started with a
repeated start
condition
RS
SLA
W
$10
Not acknowledge
received after the
slave address
A
R
P
$20
MR
Not acknowledge
received after a data
byte
A
P
$30
Arbitration lost in slave
address or data byte
A or A
Other master
continues
$38
Arbitration lost and
addressed as slave
A
$68
From master to slave
From slave to master
24.7.2
A or A
Other master
continues
$38
Other master
continues
$78
DATA
To corresponding
states in slave mode
$B0
A
n
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the Two-Wire Serial Bus. The
prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
Master Receiver Mode
In the Master Receiver mode, a number of data bytes are received from a Slave Transmitter (see Figure 24-13 on
page 251). In order to enter a Master mode, a START condition must be transmitted. The format of the following
address packet determines whether Master Transmitter or Master Receiver mode is to be entered. If SLA+W is
transmitted, MT mode is entered, if SLA+R is transmitted, MR mode is entered. All the status codes mentioned in
this section assume that the prescaler bits are zero or are masked to zero.
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Figure 24-13. Data Transfer in Master Receiver Mode
VCC
Device 1
Device 2
MASTER
RECEIVER
SLAVE
TRANSMITTER
Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
A START condition is sent by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
TWEN must be written to one to enable the 2-wire Serial Interface, TWSTA must be written to one to transmit a
START condition and TWINT must be set to clear the TWINT Flag. The TWI will then test the 2-wire Serial Bus and
generate a START condition as soon as the bus becomes free. After a START condition has been transmitted, the
TWINT Flag is set by hardware, and the status code in TWSR will be 0x08 (see Table 24-2 on page 249). In order
to enter MR mode, SLA+R must be transmitted. This is done by writing SLA+R to TWDR. Thereafter the TWINT bit
should be cleared (by writing it to one) to continue the transfer. This is accomplished by writing the following value
to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
0
0
X
1
0
X
When SLA+R have been transmitted and an acknowledgement bit has been received, TWINT is set again and a
number of status codes in TWSR are possible. Possible status codes in Master mode are 0x38, 0x40, or 0x48. The
appropriate action to be taken for each of these status codes is detailed in Table 24-3 on page 252. Received data
can be read from the TWDR Register when the TWINT Flag is set high by hardware. This scheme is repeated until
the last byte has been received. After the last byte has been received, the MR should inform the ST by sending a
NACK after the last received data byte. The transfer is ended by generating a STOP condition or a repeated
START condition. A STOP condition is generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
0
1
X
1
0
X
A REPEATED START condition is generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
After a repeated START condition (state 0x10) the 2-wire Serial Interface can access the same Slave again, or a
new Slave without transmitting a STOP condition. Repeated START enables the Master to switch between Slaves,
Master Transmitter mode and Master Receiver mode without losing control over the bus.
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Table 24-3.
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler Bits
are 0
Status codes for Master Receiver Mode
Application Software Response
Status of the 2-wire Serial Bus
and 2-wire Serial Interface
Hardware
To TWCR
To/from TWDR
STA
STO
TWIN
T
TWE
A
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
0x08
A START condition has been
transmitted
Load SLA+R
0
0
1
X
SLA+R will be transmitted
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
0x10
A repeated START condition
has been transmitted
Load SLA+R or
0
0
1
X
Load SLA+W
0
0
1
X
SLA+R will be transmitted
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
SLA+W will be transmitted
Logic will switch to Master Transmitter mode
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action
1
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
0
No TWDR action
0
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
No TWDR action or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
Read data byte or
0
0
1
0
Read data byte
0
0
1
1
Read data byte or
Read data byte or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
Read data byte
1
1
1
X
0x38
0x40
0x48
Arbitration lost in SLA+R or
NOT ACK bit
SLA+R has been transmitted;
ACK has been received
SLA+R has been transmitted;
NOT ACK has been received
0x50
Data byte has been received;
ACK has been returned
0x58
Data byte has been received;
NOT ACK has been returned
2-wire Serial Bus will be released and not addressed
Slave mode will be entered
A START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and TWSTO Flag
will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START condition will be
transmitted and TWSTO Flag will be reset
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and TWSTO Flag
will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START condition will be
transmitted and TWSTO Flag will be reset
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Figure 24-14. Formats and States in the Master Receiver Mode
MR
Successfull
reception
from a slave
receiver
S
SLA
R
A
DATA
A
$40
$08
DATA
$50
A
P
$58
Next transfer
started with a
repeated start
condition
RS
SLA
R
$10
Not acknowledge
received after the
slave address
A
W
P
$48
MT
Arbitration lost in slave
address or data byte
A or A
Other master
continues
$38
Arbitration lost and
addressed as slave
A
$68
From slave to master
24.7.3
$38
Other master
continues
$78
To corresponding
states in slave mode
$B0
DATA
From master to slave
Other master
continues
A
A
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the Two-Wire Serial Bus. The
prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
n
Slave Receiver Mode
In the Slave Receiver mode, a number of data bytes are received from a Master Transmitter (see Figure 24-15). All
the status codes mentioned in this section assume that the prescaler bits are zero or are masked to zero.
Figure 24-15. Data transfer in Slave Receiver mode
VCC
Device 1
Device 2
SLAVE
RECEIVER
MASTER
TRANSMITTER
Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
To initiate the Slave Receiver mode, TWAR and TWCR must be initialized as follows:
TWAR
value
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
Device’s Own Slave Address
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The upper seven bits are the address to which the 2-wire Serial Interface will respond when addressed by a Master. If the LSB is set, the TWI will respond to the general call address (0x00), otherwise it will ignore the general call
address.
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
X
TWEN must be written to one to enable the TWI. The TWEA bit must be written to one to enable the acknowledgement of the device’s own slave address or the general call address. TWSTA and TWSTO must be written to zero.
When TWAR and TWCR have been initialized, the TWI waits until it is addressed by its own slave address (or the
general call address if enabled) followed by the data direction bit. If the direction bit is “0” (write), the TWI will operate in SR mode, otherwise ST mode is entered. After its own slave address and the write bit have been received,
the TWINT Flag is set and a valid status code can be read from TWSR. The status code is used to determine the
appropriate software action. The appropriate action to be taken for each status code is detailed in Table 24-4 on
page 255. The Slave Receiver mode may also be entered if arbitration is lost while the TWI is in the Master mode
(see states 0x68 and 0x78).
If the TWEA bit is reset during a transfer, the TWI will return a “Not Acknowledge” (“1”) to SDA after the next
received data byte. This can be used to indicate that the Slave is not able to receive any more bytes. While TWEA
is zero, the TWI does not acknowledge its own slave address. However, the 2-wire Serial Bus is still monitored and
address recognition may resume at any time by setting TWEA. This implies that the TWEA bit may be used to temporarily isolate the TWI from the 2-wire Serial Bus.
In all sleep modes other than Idle mode, the clock system to the TWI is turned off. If the TWEA bit is set, the interface can still acknowledge its own slave address or the general call address by using the 2-wire Serial Bus clock as
a clock source. The part will then wake up from sleep and the TWI will hold the SCL clock low during the wake up
and until the TWINT Flag is cleared (by writing it to one). Further data reception will be carried out as normal, with
the AVR clocks running as normal. Observe that if the AVR is set up with a long start-up time, the SCL line may be
held low for a long time, blocking other data transmissions.
Note that the 2-wire Serial Interface Data Register – TWDR does not reflect the last byte present on the bus when
waking up from these Sleep modes.
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Table 24-4.
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler Bits
are 0
Status Codes for Slave Receiver Mode
Application Software Response
Status of the 2-wire Serial Bus
and 2-wire Serial Interface Hardware
To TWCR
To/from TWDR
STA
STO
TWIN
T
TWE
A
No TWDR action or
X
0
1
0
0x60
Own SLA+W has been received;
ACK has been returned
No TWDR action
X
0
1
1
0x68
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W as
Master; own SLA+W has been
received; ACK has been returned
No TWDR action or
X
0
1
0
No TWDR action
X
0
1
1
0x70
General call address has been
received; ACK has been returned
No TWDR action or
X
0
1
0
No TWDR action
X
0
1
1
0x78
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W as
Master; General call address has
been received; ACK has been returned
No TWDR action or
X
0
1
0
No TWDR action
X
0
1
1
0x80
Previously addressed with own
SLA+W; data has been received;
ACK has been returned
Read data byte or
X
0
1
0
Read data byte
X
0
1
1
0x88
Previously addressed with own
SLA+W; data has been received;
NOT ACK has been returned
Read data byte or
0
0
1
0
Read data byte or
0
0
1
1
Read data byte or
1
0
1
0
Read data byte
1
0
1
1
0x90
Previously addressed with general call; data has been received;
ACK has been returned
Read data byte or
X
0
1
0
Read data byte
X
0
1
1
0x98
Previously addressed with general call; data has been received;
NOT ACK has been returned
Read data byte or
0
0
1
0
Read data byte or
0
0
1
1
Read data byte or
1
0
1
0
Read data byte
1
0
1
1
No action
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0xA0
A STOP condition or repeated
START condition has been received while still addressed as
Slave
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
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Figure 24-16. Formats and States in the Slave Receiver Mode
Reception of the own
slave address and one or
more data bytes. All are
acknowledged
S
SLA
W
A
DATA
$60
A
DATA
$80
Last data byte received
is not acknowledged
A
P or S
$80
$A0
A
P or S
$88
Arbitration lost as master
and addressed as slave
A
$68
Reception of the general call
address and one or more data
bytes
General Call
A
DATA
$70
A
DATA
$90
Last data byte received is
not acknowledged
A
P or S
$90
$A0
A
P or S
$98
Arbitration lost as master and
addressed as slave by general call
A
$78
From master to slave
DATA
From slave to master
24.7.4
A
n
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the Two-Wire Serial Bus. The
prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
Slave Transmitter Mode
In the Slave Transmitter mode, a number of data bytes are transmitted to a Master Receiver (see Figure 24-17). All
the status codes mentioned in this section assume that the prescaler bits are zero or are masked to zero.
Figure 24-17. Data Transfer in Slave Transmitter Mode
VCC
Device 1
Device 2
SLAVE
TRANSMITTER
MASTER
RECEIVER
Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
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To initiate the Slave Transmitter mode, TWAR and TWCR must be initialized as follows:
TWAR
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
value
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
Device’s Own Slave Address
The upper seven bits are the address to which the 2-wire Serial Interface will respond when addressed by a Master. If the LSB is set, the TWI will respond to the general call address (0x00), otherwise it will ignore the general call
address.
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
X
TWEN must be written to one to enable the TWI. The TWEA bit must be written to one to enable the acknowledgement of the device’s own slave address or the general call address. TWSTA and TWSTO must be written to zero.
When TWAR and TWCR have been initialized, the TWI waits until it is addressed by its own slave address (or the
general call address if enabled) followed by the data direction bit. If the direction bit is “1” (read), the TWI will operate in ST mode, otherwise SR mode is entered. After its own slave address and the write bit have been received,
the TWINT Flag is set and a valid status code can be read from TWSR. The status code is used to determine the
appropriate software action. The appropriate action to be taken for each status code is detailed in Table 24-5. The
Slave Transmitter mode may also be entered if arbitration is lost while the TWI is in the Master mode (see state
0xB0).
If the TWEA bit is written to zero during a transfer, the TWI will transmit the last byte of the transfer. State 0xC0 or
state 0xC8 will be entered, depending on whether the Master Receiver transmits a NACK or ACK after the final
byte. The TWI is switched to the not addressed Slave mode, and will ignore the Master if it continues the transfer.
Thus the Master Receiver receives all “1” as serial data. State 0xC8 is entered if the Master demands additional
data bytes (by transmitting ACK), even though the Slave has transmitted the last byte (TWEA zero and expecting
NACK from the Master).
While TWEA is zero, the TWI does not respond to its own slave address. However, the 2-wire Serial Bus is still
monitored and address recognition may resume at any time by setting TWEA. This implies that the TWEA bit may
be used to temporarily isolate the TWI from the 2-wire Serial Bus.
In all sleep modes other than Idle mode, the clock system to the TWI is turned off. If the TWEA bit is set, the interface can still acknowledge its own slave address or the general call address by using the 2-wire Serial Bus clock as
a clock source. The part will then wake up from sleep and the TWI will hold the SCL clock will low during the wake
up and until the TWINT Flag is cleared (by writing it to one). Further data transmission will be carried out as normal,
with the AVR clocks running as normal. Observe that if the AVR is set up with a long start-up time, the SCL line
may be held low for a long time, blocking other data transmissions.
Note that the 2-wire Serial Interface Data Register – TWDR does not reflect the last byte present on the bus when
waking up from these sleep modes.
Table 24-5.
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler
Bits
are 0
0xA8
0xB0
Status Codes for Slave Transmitter Mode
Application Software Response
Status of the 2-wire Serial Bus
and 2-wire Serial Interface Hardware
Own SLA+R has been received;
ACK has been returned
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W as
Master; own SLA+R has been received; ACK has been returned
To TWCR
To/from TWDR
STA
STO
TWIN
T
TWE
A
Load data byte or
X
0
1
0
Load data byte
X
0
1
1
Load data byte or
X
0
1
0
Load data byte
X
0
1
1
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT ACK should
be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should be received
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT ACK should
be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should be received
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Table 24-5.
0xB8
0xC0
0xC8
Status Codes for Slave Transmitter Mode (Continued)
Data byte in TWDR has been
transmitted; ACK has been received
Load data byte or
X
0
1
0
Load data byte
X
0
1
1
Data byte in TWDR has been
transmitted; NOT ACK has been
received
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
0
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
1
0
1
0
No TWDR action
1
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
0
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
1
0
1
0
No TWDR action
1
0
1
1
Last data byte in TWDR has been
transmitted (TWEA = “0”); ACK
has been received
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT ACK should
be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should be received
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed Slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Figure 24-18. Formats and States in the Slave Transmitter Mode
Reception of the own
slave address and one or
more data bytes
S
SLA
R
A
DATA
$A8
Arbitration lost as master
and addressed as slave
A
DATA
$B8
A
P or S
$C0
A
$B0
Last data byte transmitted.
Switched to not addressed
slave (TWEA = '0')
A
All 1's
P or S
$C8
From master to slave
From slave to master
24.7.5
DATA
A
n
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the Two-Wire Serial Bus. The
prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
Miscellaneous States
There are two status codes that do not correspond to a defined TWI state, see Table 24-6 on page 259.
Status 0xF8 indicates that no relevant information is available because the TWINT Flag is not set. This occurs
between other states, and when the TWI is not involved in a serial transfer.
Status 0x00 indicates that a bus error has occurred during a 2-wire Serial Bus transfer. A bus error occurs when a
START or STOP condition occurs at an illegal position in the format frame. Examples of such illegal positions are
during the serial transfer of an address byte, a data byte, or an acknowledge bit. When a bus error occurs, TWINT
is set. To recover from a bus error, the TWSTO Flag must set and TWINT must be cleared by writing a logic one to
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it. This causes the TWI to enter the not addressed Slave mode and to clear the TWSTO Flag (no other bits in
TWCR are affected). The SDA and SCL lines are released, and no STOP condition is transmitted.
Table 24-6.
Miscellaneous States
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler Bits
are 0
Status of the 2-wire Serial Bus
and 2-wire Serial Interface
Hardware
Application Software Response
To TWCR
To/from TWDR
0xF8
No relevant state information
available; TWINT = “0”
No TWDR action
0x00
Bus error due to an illegal
START or STOP condition
No TWDR action
24.7.6
STA
STO
TWIN
T
TWE
A
No TWCR action
0
1
1
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
Wait or proceed current transfer
X
Only the internal hardware is affected, no STOP condition is sent on the bus. In all cases, the bus is released
and TWSTO is cleared.
Combining Several TWI Modes
In some cases, several TWI modes must be combined in order to complete the desired action. Consider for example reading data from a serial EEPROM. Typically, such a transfer involves the following steps:
1. The transfer must be initiated.
2. The EEPROM must be instructed what location should be read.
3. The reading must be performed.
4. The transfer must be finished.
Note that data is transmitted both from Master to Slave and vice versa. The Master must instruct the Slave what
location it wants to read, requiring the use of the MT mode. Subsequently, data must be read from the Slave, implying the use of the MR mode. Thus, the transfer direction must be changed. The Master must keep control of the
bus during all these steps, and the steps should be carried out as an atomical operation. If this principle is violated
in a multimaster system, another Master can alter the data pointer in the EEPROM between steps 2 and 3, and the
Master will read the wrong data location. Such a change in transfer direction is accomplished by transmitting a
REPEATED START between the transmission of the address byte and reception of the data. After a REPEATED
START, the Master keeps ownership of the bus. The following figure shows the flow in this transfer.
Figure 24-19. Combining Several TWI Modes to Access a Serial EEPROM
Master Transmitter
S
SLA+W
A
ADDRESS
S = START
A
Rs
SLA+R
A
Rs = REPEATED START
Transmitted from master to slave
24.8
Master Receiver
DATA
A
P
P = STOP
Transmitted from slave to master
Multi-master Systems and Arbitration
If multiple masters are connected to the same bus, transmissions may be initiated simultaneously by one or more
of them. The TWI standard ensures that such situations are handled in such a way that one of the masters will be
allowed to proceed with the transfer, and that no data will be lost in the process. An example of an arbitration situation is depicted below, where two masters are trying to transmit data to a Slave Receiver.
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Figure 24-20. An Arbitration Example
VCC
Device 1
Device 2
Device 3
MASTER
TRANSMITTER
MASTER
TRANSMITTER
SLAVE
RECEIVER
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
Several different scenarios may arise during arbitration, as described below:
•
Two or more masters are performing identical communication with the same Slave. In this case, neither the
Slave nor any of the masters will know about the bus contention.
•
Two or more masters are accessing the same Slave with different data or direction bit. In this case, arbitration
will occur, either in the READ/WRITE bit or in the data bits. The masters trying to output a one on SDA while
another Master outputs a zero will lose the arbitration. Losing masters will switch to not addressed Slave mode
or wait until the bus is free and transmit a new START condition, depending on application software action.
•
Two or more masters are accessing different slaves. In this case, arbitration will occur in the SLA bits. Masters
trying to output a one on SDA while another Master outputs a zero will lose the arbitration. Masters losing
arbitration in SLA will switch to Slave mode to check if they are being addressed by the winning Master. If
addressed, they will switch to SR or ST mode, depending on the value of the READ/WRITE bit. If they are not
being addressed, they will switch to not addressed Slave mode or wait until the bus is free and transmit a new
START condition, depending on application software action.
This is summarized in Figure 24-21. Possible status values are given in circles.
Figure 24-21. Possible Status Codes Caused by Arbitration
START
SLA
Data
Arbitration lost in SLA
Own
Address / General Call
received
No
STOP
Arbitration lost in Data
38
TWI bus will be released and not addressed slave mode will be entered
A START condition will be transmitted when the bus becomes free
Yes
Direction
Write
68/78
Read
B0
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT ACK should be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should be received
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24.9
24.9.1
Register Description
TWBR – TWI Bit Rate Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWBR7
TWBR6
TWBR5
TWBR4
TWBR3
TWBR2
TWBR1
TWBR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xB8)
TWBR
• Bits 7:0 – TWI Bit Rate Register
TWBR selects the division factor for the bit rate generator. The bit rate generator is a frequency divider which generates the SCL clock frequency in the Master modes. See “Bit Rate Generator Unit” on page 242 for calculating bit
rates.
24.9.2
TWCR – TWI Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xBC)
TWCR
The TWCR is used to control the operation of the TWI. It is used to enable the TWI, to initiate a Master access by
applying a START condition to the bus, to generate a Receiver acknowledge, to generate a stop condition, and to
control halting of the bus while the data to be written to the bus are written to the TWDR. It also indicates a write
collision if data is attempted written to TWDR while the register is inaccessible.
• Bit 7 – TWINT: TWI Interrupt Flag
This bit is set by hardware when the TWI has finished its current job and expects application software response. If
the I-bit in SREG and TWIE in TWCR are set, the MCU will jump to the TWI Interrupt Vector. While the TWINT Flag
is set, the SCL low period is stretched. The TWINT Flag must be cleared by software by writing a logic one to it.
Note that this flag is not automatically cleared by hardware when executing the interrupt routine. Also note that
clearing this flag starts the operation of the TWI, so all accesses to the TWI Address Register (TWAR), TWI Status
Register (TWSR), and TWI Data Register (TWDR) must be complete before clearing this flag.
• Bit 6 – TWEA: TWI Enable Acknowledge Bit
The TWEA bit controls the generation of the acknowledge pulse. If the TWEA bit is written to one, the ACK pulse is
generated on the TWI bus if the following conditions are met:
1. The device’s own slave address has been received.
2. A general call has been received, while the TWGCE bit in the TWAR is set.
3. A data byte has been received in Master Receiver or Slave Receiver mode.
By writing the TWEA bit to zero, the device can be virtually disconnected from the 2-wire Serial Bus temporarily.
Address recognition can then be resumed by writing the TWEA bit to one again.
• Bit 5 – TWSTA: TWI START Condition Bit
The application writes the TWSTA bit to one when it desires to become a Master on the 2-wire Serial Bus. The TWI
hardware checks if the bus is available, and generates a START condition on the bus if it is free. However, if the
bus is not free, the TWI waits until a STOP condition is detected, and then generates a new START condition to
claim the bus Master status. TWSTA must be cleared by software when the START condition has been
transmitted.
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• Bit 4 – TWSTO: TWI STOP Condition Bit
Writing the TWSTO bit to one in Master mode will generate a STOP condition on the 2-wire Serial Bus. When the
STOP condition is executed on the bus, the TWSTO bit is cleared automatically. In Slave mode, setting the
TWSTO bit can be used to recover from an error condition. This will not generate a STOP condition, but the TWI
returns to a well-defined unaddressed Slave mode and releases the SCL and SDA lines to a high impedance state.
• Bit 3 – TWWC: TWI Write Collision Flag
The TWWC bit is set when attempting to write to the TWI Data Register – TWDR when TWINT is low. This flag is
cleared by writing the TWDR Register when TWINT is high.
• Bit 2 – TWEN: TWI Enable Bit
The TWEN bit enables TWI operation and activates the TWI interface. When TWEN is written to one, the TWI
takes control over the I/O pins connected to the SCL and SDA pins, enabling the slew-rate limiters and spike filters.
If this bit is written to zero, the TWI is switched off and all TWI transmissions are terminated, regardless of any
ongoing operation.
• Bit 1 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit and will always read as zero.
• Bit 0 – TWIE: TWI Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-bit in SREG is set, the TWI interrupt request will be activated for as long as
the TWINT Flag is high.
24.9.3
TWSR – TWI Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWS7
TWS6
TWS5
TWS4
TWS3
–
TWPS1
TWPS0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
(0xB9)
TWSR
• Bits 7:3 – TWS: TWI Status
These five bits reflect the status of the TWI logic and the 2-wire Serial Bus. The different status codes are
described later in this section. Note that the value read from TWSR contains both the 5-bit status value and the 2bit prescaler value. The application designer should mask the prescaler bits to zero when checking the Status bits.
This makes status checking independent of prescaler setting. This approach is used in this datasheet, unless otherwise noted.
• Bit 2 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved and will always read as zero.
• Bits 1:0 – TWPS: TWI Prescaler Bits
These bits can be read and written, and control the bit rate prescaler.
Table 24-7.
TWI Bit Rate Prescaler
TWPS1
TWPS0
Prescaler Value
0
0
1
0
1
4
1
0
16
1
1
64
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To calculate bit rates, see “Bit Rate Generator Unit” on page 242. The value of TWPS1:0 is used in the equation.
24.9.4
TWDR – TWI Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWD7
TWD6
TWD5
TWD4
TWD3
TWD2
TWD1
TWD0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
(0xBB)
TWDR
In Transmit mode, TWDR contains the next byte to be transmitted. In Receive mode, the TWDR contains the last
byte received. It is writable while the TWI is not in the process of shifting a byte. This occurs when the TWI Interrupt
Flag (TWINT) is set by hardware. Note that the Data Register cannot be initialized by the user before the first interrupt occurs. The data in TWDR remains stable as long as TWINT is set. While data is shifted out, data on the bus
is simultaneously shifted in. TWDR always contains the last byte present on the bus, except after a wake up from a
sleep mode by the TWI interrupt. In this case, the contents of TWDR is undefined. In the case of a lost bus arbitration, no data is lost in the transition from Master to Slave. Handling of the ACK bit is controlled automatically by the
TWI logic, the CPU cannot access the ACK bit directly.
• Bits 7:0 – TWD: TWI Data Register
These eight bits constitute the next data byte to be transmitted, or the latest data byte received on the 2-wire Serial
Bus.
24.9.5
TWAR – TWI (Slave) Address Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
(0xBA)
TWAR
The TWAR should be loaded with the 7-bit Slave address (in the seven most significant bits of TWAR) to which the
TWI will respond when programmed as a Slave Transmitter or Receiver, and not needed in the Master modes. In
multimaster systems, TWAR must be set in masters which can be addressed as Slaves by other Masters.
The LSB of TWAR is used to enable recognition of the general call address (0x00). There is an associated address
comparator that looks for the slave address (or general call address if enabled) in the received serial address. If a
match is found, an interrupt request is generated.
• Bits 7:1 – TWA: TWI (Slave) Address Register
These seven bits constitute the slave address of the TWI unit.
• Bit 0 – TWGCE: TWI General Call Recognition Enable Bit
If set, this bit enables the recognition of a General Call given over the 2-wire Serial Bus.
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24.9.6
TWAMR – TWI (Slave) Address Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0xBD)
3
2
1
0
TWAM[6:0]
–
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TWAMR
• Bits 7:1 – TWAM: TWI Address Mask
The TWAMR can be loaded with a 7-bit Slave Address mask. Each of the bits in TWAMR can mask (disable) the
corresponding address bit in the TWI Address Register (TWAR). If the mask bit is set to one then the address
match logic ignores the compare between the incoming address bit and the corresponding bit in TWAR. Figure 2422 shows the address match logic in detail.
Figure 24-22. TWI Address Match Logic, Block Diagram
TWAR0
Address
Match
Address
Bit 0
TWAMR0
Address Bit Comparator 0
Address Bit Comparator 6..1
• Bit 0 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved and will always read as zero.
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25. AC – Analog Comparator
The Analog Comparator compares the input values on the positive pin AIN0 and negative pin AIN1. When the voltage on the positive pin AIN0 is higher than the voltage on the negative pin AIN1, the Analog Comparator output,
ACO, is set. The comparator’s output can be set to trigger the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture function. In addition,
the comparator can trigger a separate interrupt, exclusive to the Analog Comparator. The user can select Interrupt
triggering on comparator output rise, fall or toggle. A block diagram of the comparator and its surrounding logic is
shown in Figure 25-1.
The Power Reduction ADC bit, PRADC, in “PRR0 – Power Reduction Register 0” on page 55 must be disabled by
writing a logical zero to be able to use the ADC input MUX.
Figure 25-1. Analog Comparator Block Diagram(2)
BANDGAP
REFERENCE
ACBG
ACME
ADEN
ADC MULTIPLEXER
OUTPUT (1)
Note:
1. See Table 25-1.
2. Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2 and Table 13-5 on page 76 for Analog Comparator pin placement.
25.1
Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input
It is possible to select any of the ADC15:0 pins to replace the negative input to the Analog Comparator. The ADC
multiplexer is used to select this input, and consequently, the ADC must be switched off to utilize this feature. If the
Analog Comparator Multiplexer Enable bit (ACME in ADCSRB) is set and the ADC is switched off (ADEN in ADCSRA is zero), MUX5 and MUX2:0 in ADMUX select the input pin to replace the negative input to the Analog
Comparator, as shown in Table 25-1. If ACME is cleared or ADEN is set, AIN1 is applied to the negative input to
the Analog Comparator.
Table 25-1.
Analog Comparator Mulitiplexed Input
ACME
ADEN
MUX5
MUX2:0
Analog Comparator Negative Input
0
x
x
xxx
AIN1
1
1
x
xxx
AIN1
1
0
0
000
ADC0
1
0
0
001
ADC1
1
0
0
010
ADC2
1
0
0
011
ADC3
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Table 25-1.
25.2
25.2.1
Analog Comparator Mulitiplexed Input (Continued)
ACME
ADEN
MUX5
MUX2:0
Analog Comparator Negative Input
1
0
0
100
ADC4
1
0
0
101
ADC5
1
0
0
110
ADC6
1
0
0
111
ADC7
1
0
1
000
ADC8
1
0
1
001
ADC9
1
0
1
010
ADC10
1
0
1
011
ADC11
1
0
1
100
ADC12
1
0
1
101
ADC13
1
0
1
110
ADC14
1
0
1
111
ADC15
Register Description
ADCSRB – ADC Control and Status Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x7B)
–
ACME
–
–
MUX5
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRB
• Bit 6 – ACME: Analog Comparator Multiplexer Enable
When this bit is written logic one and the ADC is switched off (ADEN in ADCSRA is zero), the ADC multiplexer
selects the negative input to the Analog Comparator. When this bit is written logic zero, AIN1 is applied to the negative input of the Analog Comparator. For a detailed description of this bit, see “Analog Comparator Multiplexed
Input” on page 265.
25.2.2
ACSR – Analog Comparator Control and Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x30 (0x50)
ACD
ACBG
ACO
ACI
ACIE
ACIC
ACIS1
ACIS0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
N/A
0
0
0
0
0
ACSR
• Bit 7 – ACD: Analog Comparator Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the power to the Analog Comparator is switched off. This bit can be set at any
time to turn off the Analog Comparator. This will reduce power consumption in Active and Idle mode. When changing the ACD bit, the Analog Comparator Interrupt must be disabled by clearing the ACIE bit in ACSR. Otherwise an
interrupt can occur when the bit is changed.
• Bit 6 – ACBG: Analog Comparator Bandgap Select
When this bit is set, a fixed bandgap reference voltage replaces the positive input to the Analog Comparator. When
this bit is cleared, AIN0 is applied to the positive input of the Analog Comparator. When the bandgap reference is
used as input to the Analog Comparator, it will take a certain time for the voltage to stabilize. If not stabilized, the
first conversion may give a wrong value. See “Internal Voltage Reference” on page 60.
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• Bit 5 – ACO: Analog Comparator Output
The output of the Analog Comparator is synchronized and then directly connected to ACO. The synchronization
introduces a delay of 1 - 2 clock cycles.
• Bit 4 – ACI: Analog Comparator Interrupt Flag
This bit is set by hardware when a comparator output event triggers the interrupt mode defined by ACIS1 and
ACIS0. The Analog Comparator interrupt routine is executed if the ACIE bit is set and the I-bit in SREG is set. ACI
is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, ACI is cleared by
writing a logic one to the flag.
• Bit 3 – ACIE: Analog Comparator Interrupt Enable
When the ACIE bit is written logic one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Analog Comparator interrupt is
activated. When written logic zero, the interrupt is disabled.
• Bit 2 – ACIC: Analog Comparator Input Capture Enable
When written logic one, this bit enables the input capture function in Timer/Counter1 to be triggered by the Analog
Comparator. The comparator output is in this case directly connected to the input capture front-end logic, making
the comparator utilize the noise canceler and edge select features of the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture interrupt.
When written logic zero, no connection between the Analog Comparator and the input capture function exists. To
make the comparator trigger the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture interrupt, the ICIE1 bit in the Timer Interrupt Mask
Register (TIMSK1) must be set.
• Bits 1, 0 – ACIS1, ACIS0: Analog Comparator Interrupt Mode Select
These bits determine which comparator events that trigger the Analog Comparator interrupt. The different settings
are shown in Table 25-2.
Table 25-2.
ACIS1/ACIS0 Settings
Interrupt Mode
ACIS1
ACIS0
0
0
Comparator Interrupt on Output Toggle
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Comparator Interrupt on Falling Output Edge
1
1
Comparator Interrupt on Rising Output Edge
When changing the ACIS1/ACIS0 bits, the Analog Comparator Interrupt must be disabled by clearing its Interrupt
Enable bit in the ACSR Register. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the bits are changed.
25.2.3
DIDR1 – Digital Input Disable Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x7F)
–
–
–
–
–
–
AIN1D
AIN0D
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DIDR1
• Bit 1, 0 – AIN1D, AIN0D: AIN1, AIN0 Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the AIN1/0 pin is disabled. The corresponding PIN Register bit will always read as zero when this bit is set. When an analog signal is applied to the AIN1/0 pin and the
digital input from this pin is not needed, this bit should be written logic one to reduce power consumption in the digital input buffer.
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26. ADC – Analog to Digital Converter
26.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
10-bit Resolution
1 LSB Integral Non-linearity
±2 LSB Absolute Accuracy
13µs - 260µs Conversion Time
Up to 76.9kSPS (Up to 15kSPS at Maximum Resolution)
16 Multiplexed Single Ended Input Channels
14 Differential input channels
4 Differential Input Channels with Optional Gain of 10× and 200×
Optional Left Adjustment for ADC Result Readout
0V - VCC ADC Input Voltage Range
2.7V - VCC Differential ADC Voltage Range
Selectable 2.56V or 1.1V ADC Reference Voltage
Free Running or Single Conversion Mode
Interrupt on ADC Conversion Complete
Sleep Mode Noise Canceler
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 features a 10-bit successive approximation ADC. The ADC is connected to
an 8/16-channel Analog Multiplexer which allows eight/sixteen single-ended voltage inputs constructed from the
pins of Port F and Port K. The single-ended voltage inputs refer to 0V (GND).
The device also supports 16/32 differential voltage input combinations. Four of the differential inputs (ADC1 &
ADC0, ADC3 & ADC2, ADC9 & ADC8 and ADC11 & ADC10) are equipped with a programmable gain stage, providing amplification steps of 0 dB (1×), 20 dB (10×) or 46 dB (200×) on the differential input voltage before the ADC
conversion. The 16 channels are split in two sections of 8 channels where in each section seven differential analog
input channels share a common negative terminal (ADC1/ADC9), while any other ADC input in that section can be
selected as the positive input terminal. If 1× or 10× gain is used, 8 bit resolution can be expected. If 200× gain is
used, 7 bit resolution can be expected.
The ADC contains a Sample and Hold circuit which ensures that the input voltage to the ADC is held at a constant
level during conversion. A block diagram of the ADC is shown in Figure 26-1 on page 269.
The ADC has a separate analog supply voltage pin, AVCC. AVCC must not differ more than ±0.3V from VCC. See
the paragraph “ADC Noise Canceler” on page 275 on how to connect this pin.
Internal reference voltages of nominally 1.1V, 2.56V or AVCC are provided On-chip. The voltage reference may be
externally decoupled at the AREF pin by a capacitor for better noise performance.
The Power Reduction ADC bit, PRADC, in “PRR0 – Power Reduction Register 0” on page 55 must be disabled by
writing a logical zero to enable the ADC.
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Figure 26-1. Analog to Digital Converter Block Schematic
ADC CONVERSION
COMPLETE IRQ
INTERRUPT
FLAGS
ADTS[2:0]
ADFR
ADSC
ADC[9:0]
ADIF
ADPS[2:0]
ADEN
MUX[5]
DIFF / GAIN SELECT
CHANNEL SELECTION
INTERNAL
REFERENCE
(1.1V/2.56V)
0
ADC DATA REGISTER
(ADCH/ADCL)
TRIGGER
SELECT
START
PRESCALER
MUX DECODER
AVCC
15
ADC CTRL & STATUS
REGISTER A (ADCSRA)
ADIF
ADC CTRL & STATUS
REGISTER B (ADCSRB)
ADLAR
MUX[4:0]
REFS[1:0]
ADC MULTIPLEXER
SELECT (ADMUX)
ADIE
8-BIT DATABUS
CONVERSION LOGIC
10-bit DAC
AREF
+
SAMPLE & HOLD
COMPARATOR
ADC[2:0]
ADC[10:8]
+
GAIN
AMPLIFIER
ADC[15:0]
BANDGAP (1.1V)
REFERENCE
ADC
MULTIPLEXER
OUTPUT
GND
26.2
Operation
The ADC converts an analog input voltage to a 10-bit digital value through successive approximation. The minimum value represents GND and the maximum value represents the voltage on the AREF pin minus 1 LSB.
Optionally, AVCC or an internal 1.1V or 2.56V reference voltage may be connected to the AREF pin by writing to
the REFSn bits in the ADMUX Register. The internal voltage reference may thus be decoupled by an external
capacitor at the AREF pin to improve noise immunity.
The analog input channel is selected by writing to the MUX bits in ADMUX and ADCSRB. Any of the ADC input
pins, as well as GND and a fixed bandgap voltage reference, can be selected as single ended inputs to the ADC. A
selection of ADC input pins can be selected as positive and negative inputs to the differential amplifier.
If differential channels are selected, the voltage difference between the selected input channel pair then becomes
the analog input to the ADC. If single ended channels are used, the amplifier is bypassed altogether.
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The ADC is enabled by setting the ADC Enable bit, ADEN in ADCSRA. Voltage reference and input channel selections will not go into effect until ADEN is set. The ADC does not consume power when ADEN is cleared, so it is
recommended to switch off the ADC before entering power saving sleep modes.
The ADC generates a 10-bit result which is presented in the ADC Data Registers, ADCH and ADCL. By default,
the result is presented right adjusted, but can optionally be presented left adjusted by setting the ADLAR bit in
ADMUX.
If the result is left adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision is required, it is sufficient to read ADCH. Otherwise,
ADCL must be read first, then ADCH, to ensure that the content of the Data Registers belongs to the same conversion. Once ADCL is read, ADC access to Data Registers is blocked. This means that if ADCL has been read, and
a conversion completes before ADCH is read, neither register is updated and the result from the conversion is lost.
When ADCH is read, ADC access to the ADCH and ADCL Registers is re-enabled.
The ADC has its own interrupt which can be triggered when a conversion completes. When ADC access to the
Data Registers is prohibited between reading of ADCH and ADCL, the interrupt will trigger even if the result is lost.
26.3
Starting a Conversion
A single conversion is started by writing a logical one to the ADC Start Conversion bit, ADSC. This bit stays high as
long as the conversion is in progress and will be cleared by hardware when the conversion is completed. If a different data channel is selected while a conversion is in progress, the ADC will finish the current conversion before
performing the channel change.
Alternatively, a conversion can be triggered automatically by various sources. Auto Triggering is enabled by setting
the ADC Auto Trigger Enable bit, ADATE in ADCSRA. The trigger source is selected by setting the ADC Trigger
Select bits, ADTS in ADCSRB (see description of the ADTS bits for a list of the trigger sources). When a positive
edge occurs on the selected trigger signal, the ADC prescaler is reset and a conversion is started. This provides a
method of starting conversions at fixed intervals. If the trigger signal still is set when the conversion completes, a
new conversion will not be started. If another positive edge occurs on the trigger signal during conversion, the edge
will be ignored. Note that an Interrupt Flag will be set even if the specific interrupt is disabled or the Global Interrupt
Enable bit in SREG is cleared. A conversion can thus be triggered without causing an interrupt. However, the Interrupt Flag must be cleared in order to trigger a new conversion at the next interrupt event.
Figure 26-2. ADC Auto Trigger Logic
ADTS[2:0]
PRESCALER
START
ADIF
CLKADC
ADATE
SOURCE 1
.
.
.
.
SOURCE n
CONVERSION
LOGIC
EDGE
DETECTOR
ADSC
Using the ADC Interrupt Flag as a trigger source makes the ADC start a new conversion as soon as the ongoing
conversion has finished. The ADC then operates in Free Running mode, constantly sampling and updating the
ADC Data Register. The first conversion must be started by writing a logical one to the ADSC bit in ADCSRA. In
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this mode the ADC will perform successive conversions independently of whether the ADC Interrupt Flag, ADIF is
cleared or not.
If Auto Triggering is enabled, single conversions can be started by writing ADSC in ADCSRA to one. ADSC can
also be used to determine if a conversion is in progress. The ADSC bit will be read as one during a conversion,
independently of how the conversion was started.
Prescaling and Conversion Timing
Figure 26-3. ADC Prescaler
ADEN
START
Reset
7-BIT ADC PRESCALER
CK/64
CK/128
CK/32
CK/8
CK/16
CK/4
CK
CK/2
26.4
ADPS0
ADPS1
ADPS2
ADC CLOCK SOURCE
By default, the successive approximation circuitry requires an input clock frequency between 50kHz and 200kHz. If
a lower resolution than 10 bits is needed, the input clock frequency to the ADC can be as high as 1000kHz to get a
higher sample rate.
The ADC module contains a prescaler, which generates an acceptable ADC clock frequency from any CPU frequency above 100kHz. The prescaling is set by the ADPS bits in ADCSRA. The prescaler starts counting from the
moment the ADC is switched on by setting the ADEN bit in ADCSRA. The prescaler keeps running for as long as
the ADEN bit is set, and is continuously reset when ADEN is low.
When initiating a single ended conversion by setting the ADSC bit in ADCSRA, the conversion starts at the following rising edge of the ADC clock cycle.
A normal conversion takes 13 ADC clock cycles. The first conversion after the ADC is switched on (ADEN in ADCSRA is set) takes 25 ADC clock cycles in order to initialize the analog circuitry.
When the bandgap reference voltage is used as input to the ADC, it will take a certain time for the voltage to stabilize. If not stabilized, the first value read after the first conversion may be wrong.
The actual sample-and-hold takes place 1.5 ADC clock cycles after the start of a normal conversion and 13.5 ADC
clock cycles after the start of an first conversion. When a conversion is complete, the result is written to the ADC
Data Registers, and ADIF is set. In Single Conversion mode, ADSC is cleared simultaneously. The software may
then set ADSC again, and a new conversion will be initiated on the first rising ADC clock edge.
When Auto Triggering is used, the prescaler is reset when the trigger event occurs. This assures a fixed delay from
the trigger event to the start of conversion. In this mode, the sample-and-hold takes place two ADC clock cycles
after the rising edge on the trigger source signal. Three additional CPU clock cycles are used for synchronization
logic.
In Free Running mode, a new conversion will be started immediately after the conversion completes, while ADSC
remains high. For a summary of conversion times, see Table 26-1 on page 273.
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Figure 26-4. ADC Timing Diagram, First Conversion (Single Conversion Mode)
Next
Conversion
First Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
12
13
14
16
15
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
1
2
3
ADC Clock
ADEN
ADSC
ADIF
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCH
LSB of Result
ADCL
MUX and REFS
Update
Conversion
Complete
Sample & Hold
MUX and REFS
Update
Figure 26-5. ADC Timing Diagram, Single Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Next Conversion
10
11
12
13
1
2
3
ADC Clock
ADSC
ADIF
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCH
LSB of Result
ADCL
Sample & Hold
Conversion
Complete
MUX and REFS
Update
MUX and REFS
Update
Figure 26-6. ADC Timing Diagram, Auto Triggered Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Next Conversion
10
11
12
13
1
2
ADC Clock
Trigger
Source
ADATE
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Prescaler
Reset
Sample &
Hold
Conversion
Complete
Prescaler
Reset
MUX and REFS
Update
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Figure 26-7. ADC Timing Diagram, Free Running Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
11
12
Next Conversion
13
1
2
3
4
ADC Clock
ADSC
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Sample & Hold
Conversion
Complete
Table 26-1.
ADC Conversion Time
Sample & Hold
(Cycles from Start of Conversion)
Conversion Time
(Cycles)
First conversion
13.5
25
Normal conversions, single ended
1.5
13
2
13.5
1.5/2.5
13/14
Condition
Auto Triggered conversions
Normal conversions, differential
26.4.1
MUX and REFS
Update
Differential Channels
When using differential channels, certain aspects of the conversion need to be taken into consideration.
Differential conversions are synchronized to the internal clock CKADC2 equal to half the ADC clock. This synchronization is done automatically by the ADC interface in such a way that the sample-and-hold occurs at a specific
phase of CKADC2. A conversion initiated by the user (that is, all single conversions, and the first free running conversion) when CKADC2 is low will take the same amount of time as a single ended conversion (13 ADC clock cycles
from the next prescaled clock cycle). A conversion initiated by the user when CKADC2 is high will take 14 ADC clock
cycles due to the synchronization mechanism. In Free Running mode, a new conversion is initiated immediately
after the previous conversion completes, and since CKADC2 is high at this time, all automatically started (that is, all
but the first) Free Running conversions will take 14 ADC clock cycles.
If differential channels are used and conversions are started by Auto Triggering, the ADC must be switched off
between conversions. When Auto Triggering is used, the ADC prescaler is reset before the conversion is started.
Since the stage is dependent of a stable ADC clock prior to the conversion, this conversion will not be valid. By disabling and then re-enabling the ADC between each conversion (writing ADEN in ADCSRA to “0” then to “1”), only
extended conversions are performed. The result from the extended conversions will be valid. See “Prescaling and
Conversion Timing” on page 271 for timing details.
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26.5
Changing Channel or Reference Selection
The MUXn and REFS1:0 bits in the ADMUX Register are single buffered through a temporary register to which the
CPU has random access. This ensures that the channels and reference selection only takes place at a safe point
during the conversion. The channel and reference selection is continuously updated until a conversion is started.
Once the conversion starts, the channel and reference selection is locked to ensure a sufficient sampling time for
the ADC. Continuous updating resumes in the last ADC clock cycle before the conversion completes (ADIF in
ADCSRA is set). Note that the conversion starts on the following rising ADC clock edge after ADSC is written. The
user is thus advised not to write new channel or reference selection values to ADMUX until one ADC clock cycle
after ADSC is written.
If Auto Triggering is used, the exact time of the triggering event can be indeterministic. Special care must be taken
when updating the ADMUX Register, in order to control which conversion will be affected by the new settings.
If both ADATE and ADEN is written to one, an interrupt event can occur at any time. If the ADMUX Register is
changed in this period, the user cannot tell if the next conversion is based on the old or the new settings. ADMUX
can be safely updated in the following ways:
1. When ADATE or ADEN is cleared.
2. During conversion, minimum one ADC clock cycle after the trigger event.
3. After a conversion, before the Interrupt Flag used as trigger source is cleared.
When updating ADMUX in one of these conditions, the new settings will affect the next ADC conversion.
Special care should be taken when changing differential channels. Once a differential channel has been selected,
the stage may take as much as 125µs to stabilize to the new value. Thus conversions should not be started within
the first 125µs after selecting a new differential channel. Alternatively, conversion results obtained within this
period should be discarded.
The same settling time should be observed for the first differential conversion after changing ADC reference (by
changing the REFS1:0 bits in ADMUX).
26.5.1
ADC Input Channels
When changing channel selections, the user should observe the following guidelines to ensure that the correct
channel is selected:
In Single Conversion mode, always select the channel before starting the conversion. The channel selection may
be changed one ADC clock cycle after writing one to ADSC. However, the simplest method is to wait for the conversion to complete before changing the channel selection.
In Free Running mode, always select the channel before starting the first conversion. The channel selection may
be changed one ADC clock cycle after writing one to ADSC. However, the simplest method is to wait for the first
conversion to complete, and then change the channel selection. Since the next conversion has already started
automatically, the next result will reflect the previous channel selection. Subsequent conversions will reflect the
new channel selection.
When switching to a differential gain channel, the first conversion result may have a poor accuracy due to the
required settling time for the automatic offset cancellation circuitry. The user should preferably disregard the first
conversion result.
26.5.2
ADC Voltage Reference
The reference voltage for the ADC (VREF) indicates the conversion range for the ADC. Single ended channels that
exceed VREF will result in codes close to 0x3FF. VREF can be selected as either AVCC, internal 1.1V reference,
internal 2.56V reference or external AREF pin.
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AVCC is connected to the ADC through a passive switch. The internal 1.1V reference is generated from the internal bandgap reference (VBG) through an internal amplifier. In either case, the external AREF pin is directly
connected to the ADC, and the reference voltage can be made more immune to noise by connecting a capacitor
between the AREF pin and ground. VREF can also be measured at the AREF pin with a high impedant voltmeter.
Note that VREF is a high impedant source, and only a capacitive load should be connected in a system. The Internal
2.56V reference is generated from the 1.1V reference.
If the user has a fixed voltage source connected to the AREF pin, the user may not use the other reference voltage
options in the application, as they will be shorted to the external voltage. If no external voltage is applied to the
AREF pin, the user may switch between AVCC, 1.1V and 2.56V as reference selection. The first ADC conversion
result after switching reference voltage source may be inaccurate, and the user is advised to discard this result.
If differential channels are used, the selected reference should not be closer to AVCC than indicated in “ADC Characteristics – Preliminary Data” on page 365.
26.6
ADC Noise Canceler
The ADC features a noise canceler that enables conversion during sleep mode to reduce noise induced from the
CPU core and other I/O peripherals. The noise canceler can be used with ADC Noise Reduction and Idle mode. To
make use of this feature, the following procedure should be used:
1. Make sure that the ADC is enabled and is not busy converting. Single Conversion mode must be
selected and the ADC conversion complete interrupt must be enabled.
2. Enter ADC Noise Reduction mode (or Idle mode). The ADC will start a conversion once the CPU has
been halted.
3. If no other interrupts occur before the ADC conversion completes, the ADC interrupt will wake up the
CPU and execute the ADC Conversion Complete interrupt routine. If another interrupt wakes up the
CPU before the ADC conversion is complete, that interrupt will be executed, and an ADC Conversion
Complete interrupt request will be generated when the ADC conversion completes. The CPU will
remain in active mode until a new sleep command is executed.
Note that the ADC will not be automatically turned off when entering other sleep modes than Idle mode and ADC
Noise Reduction mode. The user is advised to write zero to ADEN before entering such sleep modes to avoid
excessive power consumption.
If the ADC is enabled in such sleep modes and the user wants to perform differential conversions, the user is
advised to switch the ADC off and on after waking up from sleep to prompt an extended conversion to get a valid
result.
26.6.1
Analog Input Circuitry
The analog input circuitry for single ended channels is illustrated in Figure 26-8 on page 276 An analog source
applied to ADCn is subjected to the pin capacitance and input leakage of that pin, regardless of whether that channel is selected as input for the ADC. When the channel is selected, the source must drive the S/H capacitor through
the series resistance (combined resistance in the input path).
The ADC is optimized for analog signals with an output impedance of approximately 10k or less. If such a source
is used, the sampling time will be negligible. If a source with higher impedance is used, the sampling time will
depend on how long time the source needs to charge the S/H capacitor, which can vary widely. The user is recommended to only use low impedant sources with slowly varying signals, since this minimizes the required charge
transfer to the S/H capacitor.
Signal components higher than the Nyquist frequency (fADC/2) should not be present for either kind of channels, to
avoid distortion from unpredictable signal convolution. The user is advised to remove high frequency components
with a low-pass filter before applying the signals as inputs to the ADC.
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Figure 26-8. Analog Input Circuitry
IIH
ADCn
1..100kΩ
CS/H= 14pF
IIL
VCC/2
Analog Noise Canceling Techniques
Digital circuitry inside and outside the device generates EMI which might affect the accuracy of analog measurements. If conversion accuracy is critical, the noise level can be reduced by applying the following techniques:
1. Keep analog signal paths as short as possible. Make sure analog tracks run over the ground plane, and
keep them well away from high-speed switching digital tracks.
2. The AVCC pin on the device should be connected to the digital VCC supply voltage via an LC network
as shown in Figure 26-9.
3. Use the ADC noise canceler function to reduce induced noise from the CPU.
4. If any ADC port pins are used as digital outputs, it is essential that these do not switch while a conversion is in progress.
Figure 26-9. ADC Power Connections, ATmega1281/2561.
PA0
VCC
10μΗ
53
(ADC7) PF7
54
(ADC6) PF6
55
(ADC5) PF5
56
(ADC4) PF4
57
(ADC3) PF3
58
(ADC2) PF2
59
(ADC1) PF1
60
(ADC0) PF0
61
AREF
62
AVCC
Ground Plane
52
GND
GND
100nF
100nF
51
63
64
1
PG5
26.6.2
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Figure 26-10. ADC Power Connections, ATmega640/1280/2560
PJ7
79
VCC
80
GND
81
(ADC15/PCINT23) PK7
82
(ADC14/PCINT22) PK6
83
(ADC13/PCINT21) PK5
84
(ADC12/PCINT20) PK4
85
(ADC11/PCINT19) PK3
86
(ADC10/PCINT18) PK2
87
(ADC9/PCINT17) PK1
88
(ADC8/PCINT16) PK0
89
(ADC7/TDI) PF7
90
(ADC6/TDO) PF6
91
(ADC5/TMS) PF5
92
(ADC4/TCK) PF4
93
(ADC3) PF3
94
(ADC2) PF2
95
(ADC1) PF1
96
(ADC0) PF0
97
AREF
98
10μΗ
GND
99
AVCC
100
Ground Plane
26.6.3
(OC0B) PG5
100nF
Offset Compensation Schemes
The stage has a built-in offset cancellation circuitry that nulls the offset of differential measurements as much as
possible. The remaining offset in the analog path can be measured directly by selecting the same channel for both
differential inputs. This offset residue can be then subtracted in software from the measurement results. Using this
kind of software based offset correction, offset on any channel can be reduced below one LSB.
26.6.4
ADC Accuracy Definitions
An n-bit single-ended ADC converts a voltage linearly between GND and VREF in 2n steps (LSBs). The lowest code
is read as 0, and the highest code is read as 2n-1.
Several parameters describe the deviation from the ideal behavior:
•
Offset: The deviation of the first transition (0x000 to 0x001) compared to the ideal transition (at 0.5 LSB). Ideal
value: 0 LSB.
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Figure 26-11. Offset Error
Output Code
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
Offset
Error
•
VREF Input Voltage
Gain Error: After adjusting for offset, the Gain Error is found as the deviation of the last transition (0x3FE to
0x3FF) compared to the ideal transition (at 1.5 LSB below maximum). Ideal value: 0 LSB.
Figure 26-12. Gain Error
Output Code
Gain
Error
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
VREF Input Voltage
•
Integral Non-linearity (INL): After adjusting for offset and gain error, the INL is the maximum deviation of an
actual transition compared to an ideal transition for any code. Ideal value: 0 LSB.
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Figure 26-13. Integral Non-linearity (INL)
Output Code
INL
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
VREF
•
Input Voltage
Differential Non-linearity (DNL): The maximum deviation of the actual code width (the interval between two
adjacent transitions) from the ideal code width (1 LSB). Ideal value: 0 LSB.
Figure 26-14. Differential Non-linearity (DNL)
Output Code
0x3FF
1 LSB
DNL
0x000
0
VREF Input Voltage
•
Quantization Error: Due to the quantization of the input voltage into a finite number of codes, a range of input
voltages (1 LSB wide) will code to the same value. Always ±0.5 LSB.
•
Absolute Accuracy: The maximum deviation of an actual (unadjusted) transition compared to an ideal transition
for any code. This is the compound effect of offset, gain error, differential error, non-linearity, and quantization
error. Ideal value: ±0.5 LSB.
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26.7
ADC Conversion Result
After the conversion is complete (ADIF is high), the conversion result can be found in the ADC Result Registers
(ADCL, ADCH).
For single ended conversion, the result is
V IN  1024
ADC = -------------------------V REF
where VIN is the voltage on the selected input pin and VREF the selected voltage reference (see Table 26-3 on page
281 and Table 26-4 on page 282). 0x000 represents analog ground, and 0x3FF represents the selected reference
voltage minus one LSB.
If differential channels are used, the result is
 V POS – V NEG   512
ADC = ---------------------------------------------------V REF
where VPOS is the voltage on the positive input pin, VNEG the voltage on the negative input pin, and VREF the
selected voltage reference. The result is presented in two’s complement form, from 0x200 (-512d) through 0x1FF
(+511d). Note that if the user wants to perform a quick polarity check of the result, it is sufficient to read the MSB of
the result (ADC9 in ADCH). If the bit is one, the result is negative, and if this bit is zero, the result is positive. Figure
26-15 shows the decoding of the differential input range.
Table 26-2 on page 281 shows the resulting output codes if the differential input channel pair (ADCn - ADCm) is
selected with a gain of GAIN and a reference voltage of VREF.
Figure 26-15. Differential Measurement Range
Output Code
0x1FF
0x000
- VREF
0x3FF
0
VREF
Differential Input
Voltage (Volts)
0x200
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Table 26-2.
Correlation Between Input Voltage and Output Codes
VADCn
Read Code
Corresponding Decimal Value
VADCm + VREF / GAIN
0x1FF
511
VADCm + 0.999 VREF / GAIN
0x1FF
511
VADCm + 0.998 VREF / GAIN
0x1FE
510
...
...
...
VADCm + 0.001 VREF / GAIN
0x001
1
VADCm
0x000
0
VADCm - 0.001 VREF / GAIN
0x3FF
-1
...
...
...
VADCm - 0.999 VREF / GAIN
0x201
-511
VADCm - VREF / GAIN
0x200
-512
Example:
ADMUX = 0xFB (ADC3 - ADC2, 10× gain, 2.56V reference, left adjusted result).
Voltage on ADC3 is 300mV, voltage on ADC2 is 500mV.
ADCR = 512 × 10 × (300 - 500) / 2560 = -400 = 0x270.
ADCL will thus read 0x00, and ADCH will read 0x9C. Writing zero to ADLAR right adjusts the result: ADCL = 0x70,
ADCH = 0x02.
26.8
26.8.1
Register Description
ADMUX – ADC Multiplexer Selection Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
MUX4
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x7C)
ADMUX
• Bit 7:6 – REFS1:0: Reference Selection Bits
These bits select the voltage reference for the ADC, as shown in Table 26-3. If these bits are changed during a
conversion, the change will not go in effect until this conversion is complete (ADIF in ADCSRA is set). The internal
voltage reference options may not be used if an external reference voltage is being applied to the AREF pin.
Table 26-3.
Voltage Reference Selections for ADC
Voltage Reference Selection(1)
REFS1
REFS0
0
0
AREF, Internal VREF turned off
0
1
AVCC with external capacitor at AREF pin
1
0
Internal 1.1V Voltage Reference with external capacitor at AREF pin
1
1
Internal 2.56V Voltage Reference with external capacitor at AREF pin
Note:
1. If 10x or 200x gain is selected, only 2.56V should be used as Internal Voltage Reference. For differential conversion, only 1.1V cannot be used as internal voltage reference.
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• Bit 5 – ADLAR: ADC Left Adjust Result
The ADLAR bit affects the presentation of the ADC conversion result in the ADC Data Register. Write one to
ADLAR to left adjust the result. Otherwise, the result is right adjusted. Changing the ADLAR bit will affect the ADC
Data Register immediately, regardless of any ongoing conversions. For a complete description of this bit, see
“ADCL and ADCH – The ADC Data Register” on page 286.
• Bits 4:0 – MUX4:0: Analog Channel and Gain Selection Bits
The value of these bits selects which combination of analog inputs are connected to the ADC. See Table 26-4 for
details. If these bits are changed during a conversion, the change will not go in effect until this conversion is
complete (ADIF in ADCSRA is set).
26.8.2
ADCSRB – ADC Control and Status Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x7B)
–
ACME
–
–
MUX5
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRB
• Bit 3 – MUX5: Analog Channel and Gain Selection Bit
This bit is used together with MUX4:0 in ADMUX to select which combination in of analog inputs are connected to
the ADC. See Table 26-4 for details. If this bit is changed during a conversion, the change will not go in effect until
this conversion is complete.
This bit is not valid for ATmega1281/2561.
Table 26-4.
Input Channel Selections
MUX5:0
Single Ended Input
000000
ADC0
000001
ADC1
000010
ADC2
000011
ADC3
000100
ADC4
000101
ADC5
000110
ADC6
000111
ADC7
Positive Differential Input
Negative Differential Input
Gain
N/A
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Table 26-4.
MUX5:0
Input Channel Selections (Continued)
Positive Differential Input
Negative Differential Input
Gain
(1)
Single Ended Input
ADC0
ADC0
10×
(1)
ADC1
ADC0
10×
(1)
001010
ADC0
ADC0
200×
001011(1)
ADC1
ADC0
200×
(1)
ADC2
ADC2
10×
(1)
ADC3
ADC2
10×
(1)
001110
ADC2
ADC2
200×
001111(1)
ADC3
ADC2
200×
ADC0
ADC1
1×
010001
ADC1
ADC1
1×
010010
ADC2
ADC1
1×
010011
ADC3
ADC1
1×
010100
ADC4
ADC1
1×
010101
ADC5
ADC1
1×
010110
ADC6
ADC1
1×
010111
ADC7
ADC1
1×
011000
ADC0
ADC2
1×
011001
ADC1
ADC2
1×
011010
ADC2
ADC2
1×
ADC3
ADC2
1×
011100
ADC4
ADC2
1×
011101
ADC5
ADC2
1×
001000
001001
001100
001101
010000
N/A
011011
N/A
011110
1.1V (VBG)
011111
0V (GND)
100000
ADC8
100001
ADC9
100010
ADC10
100011
ADC11
100100
ADC12
100101
ADC13
100110
ADC14
100111
ADC15
N/A
N/A
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Table 26-4.
MUX5:0
Input Channel Selections (Continued)
Positive Differential Input
Negative Differential Input
Gain
(1)
Single Ended Input
ADC8
ADC8
10×
(1)
ADC9
ADC8
10×
(1)
101010
ADC8
ADC8
200×
101011(1)
101000
101001
ADC9
ADC8
200×
(1)
ADC10
ADC10
10×
(1)
ADC11
ADC10
10×
(1)
101110
ADC10
ADC10
200×
101111(1)
ADC11
ADC10
200×
110000
ADC8
ADC9
1×
110001
ADC9
ADC9
1×
ADC10
ADC9
1×
110011
ADC11
ADC9
1×
110100
ADC12
ADC9
1×
110101
ADC13
ADC9
1×
110110
ADC14
ADC9
1×
110111
ADC15
ADC9
1×
111000
ADC8
ADC10
1×
111001
ADC9
ADC10
1×
111010
ADC10
ADC10
1×
111011
ADC11
ADC10
1×
111100
ADC12
ADC10
1×
ADC13
ADC10
1×
101100
101101
110010
N/A
111101
N/A
111110
Reserved
N/A
111111
Reserved
N/A
Note:
1. To reach the given accuracy, 10× or 200× Gain should not be used for operating voltage below 2.7V.
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26.8.3
ADCSRA – ADC Control and Status Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x7A)
ADCSRA
• Bit 7 – ADEN: ADC Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the ADC. By writing it to zero, the ADC is turned off. Turning the ADC off while a conversion is in progress, will terminate this conversion.
• Bit 6 – ADSC: ADC Start Conversion
In Single Conversion mode, write this bit to one to start each conversion. In Free Running mode, write this bit to
one to start the first conversion. The first conversion after ADSC has been written after the ADC has been enabled,
or if ADSC is written at the same time as the ADC is enabled, will take 25 ADC clock cycles instead of the normal
13. This first conversion performs initialization of the ADC.
ADSC will read as one as long as a conversion is in progress. When the conversion is complete, it returns to zero.
Writing zero to this bit has no effect.
• Bit 5 – ADATE: ADC Auto Trigger Enable
When this bit is written to one, Auto Triggering of the ADC is enabled. The ADC will start a conversion on a positive
edge of the selected trigger signal. The trigger source is selected by setting the ADC Trigger Select bits, ADTS in
ADCSRB.
• Bit 4 – ADIF: ADC Interrupt Flag
This bit is set when an ADC conversion completes and the Data Registers are updated. The ADC Conversion
Complete Interrupt is executed if the ADIE bit and the I-bit in SREG are set. ADIF is cleared by hardware when
executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, ADIF is cleared by writing a logical one to the
flag. Beware that if doing a Read-Modify-Write on ADCSRA, a pending interrupt can be disabled. This also applies
if the SBI and CBI instructions are used.
• Bit 3 – ADIE: ADC Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one and the I-bit in SREG is set, the ADC Conversion Complete Interrupt is activated.
• Bits 2:0 – ADPS2:0: ADC Prescaler Select Bits
These bits determine the division factor between the XTAL frequency and the input clock to the ADC.
Table 26-5.
ADC Prescaler Selections
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
Division Factor
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
4
0
1
1
8
1
0
0
16
1
0
1
32
1
1
0
64
1
1
1
128
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26.8.4
ADCL and ADCH – The ADC Data Register
26.8.4.1
ADLAR = 0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
(0x79)
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADC9
ADC8
ADCH
(0x78)
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADC1
ADC0
ADCL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
26.8.4.2
ADLAR = 1
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
(0x79)
ADC9
ADC8
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADCH
(0x78)
ADC1
ADC0
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADCL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
When an ADC conversion is complete, the result is found in these two registers. If differential channels are used,
the result is presented in two’s complement form.
When ADCL is read, the ADC Data Register is not updated until ADCH is read. Consequently, if the result is left
adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision (7 bit + sign bit for differential input channels) is required, it is sufficient to
read ADCH. Otherwise, ADCL must be read first, then ADCH.
The ADLAR bit in ADMUX, and the MUXn bits in ADMUX affect the way the result is read from the registers. If
ADLAR is set, the result is left adjusted. If ADLAR is cleared (default), the result is right adjusted.
• ADC9:0: ADC Conversion Result
These bits represent the result from the conversion, as detailed in “ADC Conversion Result” on page 280.
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26.8.5
ADCSRB – ADC Control and Status Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x7B)
–
ACME
–
–
MUX5
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRB
• Bit 7 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. To ensure compatibility with future devices, this bit must be written to zero when
ADCSRB is written.
• Bit 2:0 – ADTS2:0: ADC Auto Trigger Source
If ADATE in ADCSRA is written to one, the value of these bits selects which source will trigger an ADC conversion.
If ADATE is cleared, the ADTS2:0 settings will have no effect. A conversion will be triggered by the rising edge of
the selected Interrupt Flag. Note that switching from a trigger source that is cleared to a trigger source that is set,
will generate a positive edge on the trigger signal. If ADEN in ADCSRA is set, this will start a conversion. Switching
to Free Running mode (ADTS[2:0]=0) will not cause a trigger event, even if the ADC Interrupt Flag is set.
Table 26-6.
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
0
0
0
Free Running mode
0
0
1
Analog Comparator
0
1
0
External Interrupt Request 0
0
1
1
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match A
1
0
0
Timer/Counter0 Overflow
1
0
1
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B
1
1
0
Timer/Counter1 Overflow
1
1
1
Timer/Counter1 Capture Event
Note:
26.8.6
ADC Auto Trigger Source Selections
Trigger Source
Free running mode cannot be used for differential channels (see chapter “Differential Channels” on page 273).
DIDR0 – Digital Input Disable Register 0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC7D
ADC6D
ADC5D
ADC4D
ADC3D
ADC2D
ADC1D
ADC0D
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x7E)
DIDR0
• Bit 7:0 – ADC7D:ADC0D: ADC7:0 Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the corresponding ADC pin is disabled. The corresponding PIN Register bit will always read as zero when this bit is set. When an analog signal is applied to the
ADC7:0 pin and the digital input from this pin is not needed, this bit should be written logic one to reduce power
consumption in the digital input buffer.
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26.8.7
DIDR2 – Digital Input Disable Register 2
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC15D
ADC14D
ADC13D
ADC12D
ADC11D
ADC10D
ADC9D
ADC8D
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x7D)
DIDR2
• Bit 7:0 – ADC15D:ADC8D: ADC15:8 Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the corresponding ADC pin is disabled. The corresponding PIN Register bit will always read as zero when this bit is set. When an analog signal is applied to the
ADC15:8 pin and the digital input from this pin is not needed, this bit should be written logic one to reduce power
consumption in the digital input buffer.
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27. JTAG Interface and On-chip Debug System
27.1
Features
• JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 Compliant) Interface
• Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the IEEE std. 1149.1 (JTAG) Standard
• Debugger Access to:
– All Internal Peripheral Units
– Internal and External RAM
– The Internal Register File
– Program Counter
– EEPROM and Flash Memories
• Extensive On-chip Debug Support for Break Conditions, Including
– AVR Break Instruction
– Break on Change of Program Memory Flow
– Single Step Break
– Program Memory Break Points on Single Address or Address Range
– Data Memory Break Points on Single Address or Address Range
• Programming of Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface
• On-chip Debugging Supported by AVR Studio®
27.2
Overview
The AVR IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant JTAG interface can be used for
•
Testing PCBs by using the JTAG Boundary-scan capability
•
Programming the non-volatile memories, Fuses and Lock bits
•
On-chip debugging
A brief description is given in the following sections. Detailed descriptions for Programming via the JTAG interface,
and using the Boundary-scan Chain can be found in the sections “Programming via the JTAG Interface” on page
342 and “IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-scan” on page 295, respectively. The On-chip Debug support is considered being private JTAG instructions, and distributed within Atmel and to selected third party vendors only.
Figure 27-1 on page 290 shows a block diagram of the JTAG interface and the On-chip Debug system. The TAP
Controller is a state machine controlled by the TCK and TMS signals. The TAP Controller selects either the JTAG
Instruction Register or one of several Data Registers as the scan chain (Shift Register) between the TDI – input
and TDO – output. The Instruction Register holds JTAG instructions controlling the behavior of a Data Register.
The ID-Register, Bypass Register, and the Boundary-scan Chain are the Data Registers used for board-level testing. The JTAG Programming Interface (actually consisting of several physical and virtual Data Registers) is used
for serial programming via the JTAG interface. The Internal Scan Chain and Break Point Scan Chain are used for
On-chip debugging only.
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Figure 27-1. Block Diagram
I/O PORT 0
DEVICE BOUNDARY
BOUNDARY SCAN CHAIN
TDI
TDO
TCK
TMS
JTAG PROGRAMMING
INTERFACE
TAP
CONTROLLER
AVR CPU
INSTRUCTION
REGISTER
ID
REGISTER
M
U
X
FLASH
MEMORY
Address
Data
BREAKPOINT
UNIT
BYPASS
REGISTER
INTERNAL
SCAN
CHAIN
PC
Instruction
FLOW CONTROL
UNIT
DIGITAL
PERIPHERAL
UNITS
ANALOG
PERIPHERIAL
UNITS
Analog inputs
BREAKPOINT
SCAN CHAIN
ADDRESS
DECODER
JTAG / AVR CORE
COMMUNICATION
INTERFACE
OCD STATUS
AND CONTROL
Control & Clock lines
I/O PORT n
27.3
TAP - Test Access Port
The JTAG interface is accessed through four of the AVR’s pins. In JTAG terminology, these pins constitute the
Test Access Port – TAP. These pins are:
•
TMS: Test mode select. This pin is used for navigating through the TAP-controller state machine
•
TCK: Test Clock. JTAG operation is synchronous to TCK
•
TDI: Test Data In. Serial input data to be shifted in to the Instruction Register or Data Register (Scan Chains)
•
TDO: Test Data Out. Serial output data from Instruction Register or Data Register
The IEEE std. 1149.1 also specifies an optional TAP signal; TRST – Test ReSeT – which is not provided.
When the JTAGEN Fuse is unprogrammed, these four TAP pins are normal port pins, and the TAP controller is in
reset. When programmed, the input TAP signals are internally pulled high and the JTAG is enabled for Boundaryscan and programming. The device is shipped with this fuse programmed.
For the On-chip Debug system, in addition to the JTAG interface pins, the RESET pin is monitored by the debugger to be able to detect external reset sources. The debugger can also pull the RESET pin low to reset the whole
system, assuming only open collectors on the reset line are used in the application.
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Figure 27-2. TAP Controller State Diagram
1
Test-Logic-Reset
0
0
Run-Test/Idle
1
Select-DR Scan
1
Select-IR Scan
0
1
0
1
Capture-DR
Capture-IR
0
0
0
Shift-DR
1
1
Exit1-DR
0
0
Pause-DR
0
Pause-IR
1
1
0
Exit2-DR
Exit2-IR
1
1
Update-DR
27.3.1
1
Exit1-IR
0
1
0
Shift-IR
1
0
1
Update-IR
0
1
0
TAP Controller
The TAP controller is a 16-state finite state machine that controls the operation of the Boundary-scan circuitry,
JTAG programming circuitry, or On-chip Debug system. The state transitions depicted in Figure 27-2 depend on
the signal present on TMS (shown adjacent to each state transition) at the time of the rising edge at TCK. The initial state after a Power-on Reset is Test-Logic-Reset.
As a definition in this document, the LSB is shifted in and out first for all Shift Registers.
Assuming Run-Test/Idle is the present state, a typical scenario for using the JTAG interface is:
•
At the TMS input, apply the sequence 1, 1, 0, 0 at the rising edges of TCK to enter the Shift Instruction Register
– Shift-IR state. While in this state, shift the four bits of the JTAG instructions into the JTAG Instruction Register
from the TDI input at the rising edge of TCK. The TMS input must be held low during input of the 3 LSBs in
order to remain in the Shift-IR state. The MSB of the instruction is shifted in when this state is left by setting
TMS high. While the instruction is shifted in from the TDI pin, the captured IR-state 0x01 is shifted out on the
TDO pin. The JTAG Instruction selects a particular Data Register as path between TDI and TDO and controls
the circuitry surrounding the selected Data Register.
•
Apply the TMS sequence 1, 1, 0 to re-enter the Run-Test/Idle state. The instruction is latched onto the parallel
output from the Shift Register path in the Update-IR state. The Exit-IR, Pause-IR, and Exit2-IR states are only
used for navigating the state machine.
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•
At the TMS input, apply the sequence 1, 0, 0 at the rising edges of TCK to enter the Shift Data Register – ShiftDR state. While in this state, upload the selected Data Register (selected by the present JTAG instruction in the
JTAG Instruction Register) from the TDI input at the rising edge of TCK. In order to remain in the Shift-DR
state, the TMS input must be held low during input of all bits except the MSB. The MSB of the data is shifted in
when this state is left by setting TMS high. While the Data Register is shifted in from the TDI pin, the parallel
inputs to the Data Register captured in the Capture-DR state is shifted out on the TDO pin.
•
Apply the TMS sequence 1, 1, 0 to re-enter the Run-Test/Idle state. If the selected Data Register has a latched
parallel-output, the latching takes place in the Update-DR state. The Exit-DR, Pause-DR, and Exit2-DR states
are only used for navigating the state machine.
As shown in the state diagram, the Run-Test/Idle state need not be entered between selecting JTAG instruction
and using Data Registers, and some JTAG instructions may select certain functions to be performed in the RunTest/Idle, making it unsuitable as an Idle state.
Note:
Independent of the initial state of the TAP Controller, the Test-Logic-Reset state can always be entered by holding TMS
high for five TCK clock periods.
For detailed information on the JTAG specification, refer to the literature listed in “Bibliography” on page 294.
27.4
Using the Boundary-scan Chain
A complete description of the Boundary-scan capabilities are given in the section “IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundaryscan” on page 295.
27.5
Using the On-chip Debug System
As shown in Figure 27-1 on page 290, the hardware support for On-chip Debugging consists mainly of:
•
A scan chain on the interface between the internal AVR CPU and the internal peripheral units
•
Break Point unit
•
Communication interface between the CPU and JTAG system
All read or modify/write operations needed for implementing the Debugger are done by applying AVR instructions
via the internal AVR CPU Scan Chain. The CPU sends the result to an I/O memory mapped location which is part
of the communication interface between the CPU and the JTAG system.
The Break Point Unit implements Break on Change of Program Flow, Single Step Break, two Program Memory
Break Points, and two combined Break Points. Together, the four Break Points can be configured as either:
•
4 single Program Memory Break Points
•
3 Single Program Memory Break Point + 1 single Data Memory Break Point
•
2 single Program Memory Break Points + 2 single Data Memory Break Points
•
2 single Program Memory Break Points + 1 Program Memory Break Point with mask (“range Break Point”)
•
2 single Program Memory Break Points + 1 Data Memory Break Point with mask (“range Break Point”)
A debugger, like the AVR Studio, may however use one or more of these resources for its internal purpose, leaving
less flexibility to the end-user.
A list of the On-chip Debug specific JTAG instructions is given in “On-chip Debug Specific JTAG Instructions” on
page 293.
The JTAGEN Fuse must be programmed to enable the JTAG Test Access Port. In addition, the OCDEN Fuse must
be programmed and no Lock bits must be set for the On-chip debug system to work. As a security feature, the Onchip debug system is disabled when either of the LB1 or LB2 Lock bits are set. Otherwise, the On-chip debug system would have provided a back-door into a secured device.
The AVR Studio® enables the user to fully control execution of programs on an AVR device with On-chip Debug
capability, AVR In-Circuit Emulator, or the built-in AVR Instruction Set Simulator. AVR Studio supports source level
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execution of Assembly programs assembled with Atmel Corporation’s AVR Assembler and C programs compiled
with third party vendors’ compilers.
AVR Studio runs under Microsoft® Windows® 95/98/2000 and Microsoft Windows NT.
For a full description of the AVR Studio, refer to the AVR Studio User Guide. Only highlights are presented in this
document.
All necessary execution commands are available in AVR Studio, both on source level and on disassembly level.
The user can execute the program, single step through the code either by tracing into or stepping over functions,
step out of functions, place the cursor on a statement and execute until the statement is reached, stop the execution, and reset the execution target. In addition, the user can have an unlimited number of code Break Points (using
the BREAK instruction) and up to two data memory Break Points, alternatively combined as a mask (range) Break
Point.
27.6
On-chip Debug Specific JTAG Instructions
The On-chip debug support is considered being private JTAG instructions, and distributed within ATMEL and to
selected third party vendors only. Instruction opcodes are listed for reference.
27.6.1
PRIVATE0; 0x8
Private JTAG instruction for accessing On-chip debug system.
27.6.2
PRIVATE1; 0x9
Private JTAG instruction for accessing On-chip debug system.
27.6.3
PRIVATE2; 0xA
Private JTAG instruction for accessing On-chip debug system.
27.6.4
PRIVATE3; 0xB
Private JTAG instruction for accessing On-chip debug system.
27.7
Using the JTAG Programming Capabilities
Programming of AVR parts via JTAG is performed via the 4-pin JTAG port, TCK, TMS, TDI, and TDO. These are
the only pins that need to be controlled/observed to perform JTAG programming (in addition to power pins). It is not
required to apply 12V externally. The JTAGEN Fuse must be programmed and the JTD bit in the MCUCR Register
must be cleared to enable the JTAG Test Access Port.
The JTAG programming capability supports:
•
Flash programming and verifying
•
EEPROM programming and verifying
•
Fuse programming and verifying
•
Lock bit programming and verifying
The Lock bit security is exactly as in parallel programming mode. If the Lock bits LB1 or LB2 are programmed, the
OCDEN Fuse cannot be programmed unless first doing a chip erase. This is a security feature that ensures no
back-door exists for reading out the content of a secured device.
The details on programming through the JTAG interface and programming specific JTAG instructions are given in
the section “Programming via the JTAG Interface” on page 342.
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27.8
Bibliography
For more information about general Boundary-scan, the following literature can be consulted:
27.9
27.9.1
•
IEEE: IEEE Std. 1149.1-1990. IEEE Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-scan Architecture, IEEE, 1993
•
Colin Maunder: The Board Designers Guide to Testable Logic Circuits, Addison-Wesley, 1992
On-chip Debug Related Register in I/O Memory
OCDR – On-chip Debug Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x31 (0x51)
MSB/IDRD
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
OCDR
The OCDR Register provides a communication channel from the running program in the microcontroller to the
debugger. The CPU can transfer a byte to the debugger by writing to this location. At the same time, an internal
flag; I/O Debug Register Dirty – IDRD – is set to indicate to the debugger that the register has been written. When
the CPU reads the OCDR Register the 7 LSB will be from the OCDR Register, while the MSB is the IDRD bit. The
debugger clears the IDRD bit when it has read the information.
In some AVR devices, this register is shared with a standard I/O location. In this case, the OCDR Register can only
be accessed if the OCDEN Fuse is programmed, and the debugger enables access to the OCDR Register. In all
other cases, the standard I/O location is accessed.
Refer to the debugger documentation for further information on how to use this register.
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28. IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-scan
28.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
28.2
JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant) Interface
Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard
Full Scan of all Port Functions as well as Analog Circuitry having Off-chip Connections
Supports the Optional IDCODE Instruction
Additional Public AVR_RESET Instruction to Reset the AVR
System Overview
The Boundary-scan chain has the capability of driving and observing the logic levels on the digital I/O pins, as well
as the boundary between digital and analog logic for analog circuitry having off-chip connections. At system level,
all ICs having JTAG capabilities are connected serially by the TDI/TDO signals to form a long Shift Register. An
external controller sets up the devices to drive values at their output pins, and observe the input values received
from other devices. The controller compares the received data with the expected result. In this way, Boundary-scan
provides a mechanism for testing interconnections and integrity of components on Printed Circuits Boards by using
the four TAP signals only.
The four IEEE 1149.1 defined mandatory JTAG instructions IDCODE, BYPASS, SAMPLE/PRELOAD, and
EXTEST, as well as the AVR specific public JTAG instruction AVR_RESET can be used for testing the Printed Circuit Board. Initial scanning of the Data Register path will show the ID-Code of the device, since IDCODE is the
default JTAG instruction. It may be desirable to have the AVR device in reset during test mode. If not reset, inputs
to the device may be determined by the scan operations, and the internal software may be in an undetermined
state when exiting the test mode. Entering reset, the outputs of any port pin will instantly enter the high impedance
state, making the HIGHZ instruction redundant. If needed, the BYPASS instruction can be issued to make the
shortest possible scan chain through the device. The device can be set in the reset state either by pulling the external RESET pin low, or issuing the AVR_RESET instruction with appropriate setting of the Reset Data Register.
The EXTEST instruction is used for sampling external pins and loading output pins with data. The data from the
output latch will be driven out on the pins as soon as the EXTEST instruction is loaded into the JTAG IR-Register.
Therefore, the SAMPLE/PRELOAD should also be used for setting initial values to the scan ring, to avoid damaging the board when issuing the EXTEST instruction for the first time. SAMPLE/PRELOAD can also be used for
taking a snapshot of the external pins during normal operation of the part.
The JTAGEN Fuse must be programmed and the JTD bit in the I/O Register MCUCR must be cleared to enable
the JTAG Test Access Port.
When using the JTAG interface for Boundary-scan, using a JTAG TCK clock frequency higher than the internal
chip frequency is possible. The chip clock is not required to run.
28.3
Data Registers
The Data Registers relevant for Boundary-scan operations are:
•
Bypass Register
•
Device Identification Register
•
Reset Register
•
Boundary-scan Chain
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28.3.1
Bypass Register
The Bypass Register consists of a single Shift Register stage. When the Bypass Register is selected as path
between TDI and TDO, the register is reset to 0 when leaving the Capture-DR controller state. The Bypass Register can be used to shorten the scan chain on a system when the other devices are to be tested.
28.3.2
Device Identification Register
Figure 28-1 shows the structure of the Device Identification Register.
Figure 28-1. The Format of the Device Identification Register
LSB
MSB
Bit
31
Device ID
28.3.2.1
28
27
12
11
1
0
Version
Part Number
Manufacturer ID
1
4 bits
16 bits
11 bits
1-bit
Version
Version is a 4-bit number identifying the revision of the component. The JTAG version number follows the revision
of the device. Revision A is 0x0, revision B is 0x1 and so on.
28.3.2.2
Part Number
The part number is a 16-bit code identifying the component. The JTAG Part Number for
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 is listed in Table 30-6 on page 328.
28.3.2.3
Manufacturer ID
The Manufacturer ID is a 11-bit code identifying the manufacturer. The JTAG manufacturer ID for ATMEL is listed
in Table 30-6 on page 328.
28.3.3
Reset Register
The Reset Register is a test Data Register used to reset the part. Since the AVR tri-states Port Pins when reset,
the Reset Register can also replace the function of the un-implemented optional JTAG instruction HIGHZ.
A high value in the Reset Register corresponds to pulling the external Reset low. The part is reset as long as there
is a high value present in the Reset Register. Depending on the fuse settings for the clock options, the part will
remain reset for a reset time-out period (see “Clock Sources” on page 40) after releasing the Reset Register. The
output from this Data Register is not latched, so the reset will take place immediately, as shown in Figure 28-2 on
page 297.
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Figure 28-2. Reset Register
To
TDO
From Other Internal and
External Reset Sources
From
TDI
D
Q
Internal reset
ClockDR · AVR_RESET
28.3.4
Boundary-scan Chain
The Boundary-scan Chain has the capability of driving and observing the logic levels on the digital I/O pins, as well
as the boundary between digital and analog logic for analog circuitry having off-chip connections.
See “Boundary-scan Chain” on page 298 for a complete description.
28.4
Boundary-scan Specific JTAG Instructions
The Instruction Register is 4-bit wide, supporting up to 16 instructions. Listed below are the JTAG instructions useful for Boundary-scan operation. Note that the optional HIGHZ instruction is not implemented, but all outputs with
tri-state capability can be set in high-impedant state by using the AVR_RESET instruction, since the initial state for
all port pins is tri-state.
As a definition in this datasheet, the LSB is shifted in and out first for all Shift Registers.
The OPCODE for each instruction is shown behind the instruction name in hex format. The text describes which
Data Register is selected as path between TDI and TDO for each instruction.
28.4.1
EXTEST; 0x0
Mandatory JTAG instruction for selecting the Boundary-scan Chain as Data Register for testing circuitry external to
the AVR package. For port-pins, Pull-up Disable, Output Control, Output Data, and Input Data are all accessible in
the scan chain. For Analog circuits having off-chip connections, the interface between the analog and the digital
logic is in the scan chain. The contents of the latched outputs of the Boundary-scan chain is driven out as soon as
the JTAG IR-Register is loaded with the EXTEST instruction.
The active states are:
•
Capture-DR: Data on the external pins are sampled into the Boundary-scan Chain
•
Shift-DR: The Internal Scan Chain is shifted by the TCK input
•
Update-DR: Data from the scan chain is applied to output pins
28.4.2
IDCODE; 0x1
Optional JTAG instruction selecting the 32-bit ID-Register as Data Register. The ID-Register consists of a version
number, a device number and the manufacturer code chosen by JEDEC. This is the default instruction after powerup.
The active states are:
•
Capture-DR: Data in the IDCODE Register is sampled into the Boundary-scan Chain
•
Shift-DR: The IDCODE scan chain is shifted by the TCK input
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28.4.3
SAMPLE_PRELOAD; 0x2
Mandatory JTAG instruction for pre-loading the output latches and taking a snap-shot of the input/output pins without affecting the system operation. However, the output latches are not connected to the pins. The Boundary-scan
Chain is selected as Data Register.
The active states are:
•
Capture-DR: Data on the external pins are sampled into the Boundary-scan Chain
•
Shift-DR: The Boundary-scan Chain is shifted by the TCK input
•
Update-DR: Data from the Boundary-scan chain is applied to the output latches. However, the output latches
are not connected to the pins
28.4.4
AVR_RESET; 0xC
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for forcing the AVR device into the Reset mode or releasing the JTAG
reset source. The TAP controller is not reset by this instruction. The one bit Reset Register is selected as Data
Register. Note that the reset will be active as long as there is a logic “one” in the Reset Chain. The output from this
chain is not latched.
The active states are:
•
28.4.5
Shift-DR: The Reset Register is shifted by the TCK input
BYPASS; 0xF
Mandatory JTAG instruction selecting the Bypass Register for Data Register.
The active states are:
28.5
•
Capture-DR: Loads a logic “0” into the Bypass Register
•
Shift-DR: The Bypass Register cell between TDI and TDO is shifted
Boundary-scan Chain
The Boundary-scan chain has the capability of driving and observing the logic levels on the digital I/O pins, as well
as the boundary between digital and analog logic for analog circuitry having off-chip connection.
28.5.1
Scanning the Digital Port Pins
Figure 28-3 on page 299 shows the Boundary-scan Cell for a bi-directional port pin. The pull-up function is disabled
during Boundary-scan when the JTAG IC contains EXTEST or SAMPLE_PRELOAD. The cell consists of a bidirectional pin cell that combines the three signals Output Control - OCxn, Output Data - ODxn, and Input Data IDxn, into only a two-stage Shift Register. The port and pin indexes are not used in the following description.
The Boundary-scan logic is not included in the figures in the datasheet. Figure 28-4 on page 300 shows a simple
digital port pin as described in the section “I/O-Ports” on page 67. The Boundary-scan details from Figure 28-3 on
page 299 replaces the dashed box in Figure 28-4 on page 300.
When no alternate port function is present, the Input Data - ID - corresponds to the PINxn Register value (but ID
has no synchronizer), Output Data corresponds to the PORT Register, Output Control corresponds to the Data
Direction - DD Register, and the Pull-up Enable - PUExn - corresponds to logic expression PUD · DDxn · PORTxn.
Digital alternate port functions are connected outside the dotted box in Figure 28-4 on page 300 to make the scan
chain read the actual pin value. For analog function, there is a direct connection from the external pin to the analog
circuit. There is no scan chain on the interface between the digital and the analog circuitry, but some digital control
signal to analog circuitry are turned off to avoid driving contention on the pads.
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When JTAG IR contains EXTEST or SAMPLE_PRELOAD the clock is not sent out on the port pins even if the
CKOUT fuse is programmed. Even though the clock is output when the JTAG IR contains SAMPLE_PRELOAD,
the clock is not sampled by the boundary scan.
Figure 28-3. Boundary-scan Cell for Bi-directional Port Pin with Pull-up Function.
To Next Cell
ShiftDR
EXTEST
Pull-up Enable (PUE)
Vcc
0
1
Output Control (OC)
FF1
LD1
0
D
Q
D
Q
0
1
1
G
0
1
FF0
LD0
0
D
Q
D
Q
Port Pin (PXn)
Output Data (OD)
0
1
1
G
Input Data (ID)
From Last Cell
ClockDR
UpdateDR
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Figure 28-4. General Port Pin Schematic Diagram
See Boundary-scan
Description for Details!
PUExn
PUD
Q
D
DDxn
Q CLR
RESET
OCxn
WDx
Q
Pxn
ODxn
D
PORTxn
Q CLR
WRx
IDxn
DATA BUS
RDx
RESET
SLEEP
RRx
SYNCHRONIZER
D
Q
L
Q
D
RPx
Q
PINxn
Q
CLK I/O
PUD:
PUExn:
OCxn:
ODxn:
IDxn:
SLEEP:
28.5.2
PULLUP DISABLE
PULLUP ENABLE for pin Pxn
OUTPUT CONTROL for pin Pxn
OUTPUT DATA to pin Pxn
INPUT DATA from pin Pxn
SLEEP CONTROL
WDx:
RDx:
WRx:
RRx:
RPx:
CLK I/O :
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx REGISTER
READ PORTx PIN
I/O CLOCK
Scanning the RESET Pin
The RESET pin accepts 5V active low logic for standard reset operation, and 12V active high logic for High Voltage
Parallel programming. An observe-only cell as shown in Figure 28-5 is inserted for the 5V reset signal.
Figure 28-5. Observe-only Cell
To
Next
Cell
ShiftDR
From System Pin
To System Logic
FF1
0
D
Q
1
From
Previous
Cell
ClockDR
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28.6
28.6.1
Boundary-scan Related Register in I/O Memory
MCUCR – MCU Control Register
The MCU Control Register contains control bits for general MCU functions.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x35 (0x55)
JTD
–
–
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MCUCR
• Bits 7 – JTD: JTAG Interface Disable
When this bit is zero, the JTAG interface is enabled if the JTAGEN Fuse is programmed. If this bit is one, the JTAG
interface is disabled. In order to avoid unintentional disabling or enabling of the JTAG interface, a timed sequence
must be followed when changing this bit: The application software must write this bit to the desired value twice
within four cycles to change its value. Note that this bit must not be altered when using the On-chip Debug system.
28.6.2
MCUSR – MCU Status Register
The MCU Status Register provides information on which reset source caused an MCU reset.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x34 (0x54)
–
–
–
JTRF
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
MCUSR
See Bit Description
• Bit 4 – JTRF: JTAG Reset Flag
This bit is set if a reset is being caused by a logic one in the JTAG Reset Register selected by the JTAG instruction
AVR_RESET. This bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic zero to the flag.
28.7
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 Boundary-scan Order
Table 28-1 on page 302 shows the Scan order between TDI and TDO when the Boundary-scan chain is selected
as data path. Bit 0 is the LSB; the first bit scanned in, and the first bit scanned out. The scan order follows the pinout order as far as possible. Therefore, the bits of Port A and Port K is scanned in the opposite bit order of the other
ports. Exceptions from the rules are the Scan chains for the analog circuits, which constitute the most significant
bits of the scan chain regardless of which physical pin they are connected to. In Figure 28-3 on page 299, PXn.
Data corresponds to FF0, PXn. Control corresponds to FF1, PXn. Bit 4, bit 5, bit 6 and bit 7 of Port F is not in the
scan chain, since these pins constitute the TAP pins when the JTAG is enabled.
28.8
Boundary-scan Description Language Files
Boundary-scan Description Language (BSDL) files describe Boundary-scan capable devices in a standard format
used by automated test-generation software. The order and function of bits in the Boundary-scan Data Register
are included in this description. BSDL files are available for ATmega1281/2561 and ATmega640/1280/2560.
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Table 28-1.
ATmega640/1280/2560 Boundary-scan Order
Bit Number
Signal Name
164
PG5.Data
163
PG5.Control
162
PE0.Data
161
PE0.Control
160
PE1.Data
159
PE1.Control
158
PE2.Data
157
PE2.Control
156
PE3.Data
155
PE3.Control
154
PE4.Data
153
PE4.Control
152
PE5.Data
151
PE5.Control
150
PE6.Data
149
PE6.Control
148
PE7.Data
147
PE7.Control
146
PH0.Data
145
PH0.Control
144
PH1.Data
143
PH1.Control
142
PH2.Data
141
PH2.Control
140
PH3.Data
139
PH3.Control
138
PH4.Data
137
PH4.Control
136
PH5.Data
135
PH5.Control
134
PH6.Data
133
PH6.Control
Module
Port G
Port E
Port H
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Table 28-1.
ATmega640/1280/2560 Boundary-scan Order (Continued)
Bit Number
Signal Name
132
PB0.Data
131
PB0.Control
130
PB1.Data
129
PB1.Control
128
PB2.Data
127
PB2.Control
126
PB3.Data
125
PB3.Control
124
PB4.Data
123
PB4.Control
122
PB5.Data
121
PB5.Control
120
PB6.Data
119
PB6.Control
118
PB7.Data
117
PB7.Control
116
PH7.Data
115
PH7.Control
114
PG3.Data
113
PG3.Control
112
PG4.Data
111
PG4.Control
110
RSTT
109
PL0.Data
108
PL0.Control
107
PL1.Data
106
PL1.Control
105
PL2.Data
Module
Port B
Port H
Port G
Reset Logic (Observe Only)
Port L
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Table 28-1.
ATmega640/1280/2560 Boundary-scan Order (Continued)
Bit Number
Signal Name
104
PL2.Control
103
PL3.Data
102
PL3.Control
101
PL4.Data
100
PL4.Control
99
PL5.Data
98
PL5.Control
97
PL6.Data
96
PL6.Control
95
PL7.Data
94
PL7.Control
93
PD0.Data
92
PD0.Control
91
PD1.Data
90
PD1.Control
89
PD2.Data
88
PD2.Control
87
PD3.Data
86
PD3.Control
85
PD4.Data
84
PD4.Control
83
PD5.Data
82
PD5.Control
81
PD6.Data
80
PD6.Control
79
PD7.Data
78
PD7.Control
77
PG0.Data
76
PG0.Control
75
PG1.Data
74
PG1.Control
73
PC0.Data
72
PC0.Control
71
PC1.Data
70
PC1.Control
69
PC2.Data
Module
Port D
Port G
Port C
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Table 28-1.
ATmega640/1280/2560 Boundary-scan Order (Continued)
Bit Number
Signal Name
68
PC2.Control
67
PC3.Data
66
PC3.Control
65
PC4.Data
64
PC4.Control
63
PC5.Data
62
PC5.Control
61
PC6.Data
60
PC6.Control
59
PC7.Data
58
PC7.Control
57
PJ0.Data
56
PJ0.Control
55
PJ1.Data
54
PJ1.Control
53
PJ2.Data
52
PJ2.Control
51
PJ3.Data
50
PJ3.Control
49
PJ4.Data
48
PJ4.Control
47
PJ5.Data
46
PJ5.Control
45
PJ6.Data
44
PJ6.Control
43
PG2.Data
42
PG2.Control
41
PA7.Data
40
PA7.Control
39
PA6.Data
38
PA6.Control
37
PA5.Data
36
PA5.Control
35
PA4.Data
34
PA4.Control
33
PA3.Data
Module
Port J
Port G
Port A
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Table 28-1.
ATmega640/1280/2560 Boundary-scan Order (Continued)
Bit Number
Signal Name
32
PA3.Control
31
PA2.Data
30
PA2.Control
29
PA1.Data
28
PA1.Control
27
PA0.Data
26
PA0.Control
25
PJ7.Data
24
PJ7.Control
23
PK7.Data
22
PK7.Control
21
PK6.Data
20
PK6.Control
19
PK5.Data
18
PK5.Control
17
PK4.Data
16
PK4.Control
15
PK3.Data
14
PK3.Control
13
PK2.Data
12
PK2.Control
11
PK1.Data
10
PK1.Control
9
PK0.Data
8
PK0.Control
7
PF3.Data
6
PF3.Control
5
PF2.Data
4
PF2.Control
3
PF1.Data
2
PF1.Control
1
PF0.Data
0
PF0.Control
Module
Port J
Port K
Port F
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Table 28-2.
ATmega1281/2561 Boundary-scan Order
Bit Number
Signal Name
100
PG5.Data
99
PG5.Control
98
PE0.Data
97
PE0.Control
96
PE1.Data
95
PE1.Control
94
PE2.Data
93
PE2.Control
92
PE3.Data
91
PE3.Control
90
PE4.Data
89
PE4.Control
88
PE5.Data
87
PE5.Control
86
PE6.Data
85
PE6.Control
84
PE7.Data
83
PE7.Control
82
PB0.Data
81
PB0.Control
80
PB1.Data
79
PB1.Control
78
PB2.Data
77
PB2.Control
76
PB3.Data
75
PB3.Control
74
PB4.Data
73
PB4.Control
72
PB5.Data
71
PB5.Control
70
PB6.Data
69
PB6.Control
68
PB7.Data
67
PB7.Control
66
PG3.Data
Module
Port G
Port E
Port B
Port G
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Table 28-2.
ATmega1281/2561 Boundary-scan Order (Continued)
Bit Number
Signal Name
65
PG3.Control
64
PG4.Data
63
PG4.Control
62
RSTT
61
PD0.Data
60
PD0.Control
59
PD1.Data
58
PD1.Control
57
PD2.Data
56
PD2.Control
55
PD3.Data
54
PD3.Control
53
PD4.Data
52
PD4.Control
51
PD5.Data
50
PD5.Control
49
PD6.Data
48
PD6.Control
47
PD7.Data
46
PD7.Control
45
PG0.Data
44
PG0.Control
43
PG1.Data
42
PG1.Control
41
PC0.Data
40
PC0.Control
39
PC1.Data
38
PC1.Control
37
PC2.Data
36
PC2.Control
35
PC3.Data
34
PC3.Control
33
PC4.Data
32
PC4.Control
31
PC5.Data
30
PC5.Control
Module
Reset Logic (Observe Only)
Port D
Port G
Port C
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Table 28-2.
ATmega1281/2561 Boundary-scan Order (Continued)
Bit Number
Signal Name
29
PC6.Data
28
PC6.Control
27
PC7.Data
26
PC7.Control
25
PG2.Data
24
PG2.Control
23
PA7.Data
22
PA7.Control
21
PA6.Data
20
PA6.Control
19
PA5.Data
18
PA5.Control
17
PA4.Data
16
PA4.Control
15
PA3.Data
14
PA3.Control
13
PA2.Data
12
PA2.Control
11
PA1.Data
10
PA1.Control
9
PA0.Data
8
PA0.Control
7
PF3.Data
6
PF3.Control
5
PF2.Data
4
PF2.Control
3
PF1.Data
2
PF1.Control
1
PF0.Data
0
PF0.Control
Module
Port G
Port A
Port F
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29. Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming
The Boot Loader Support provides a real Read-While-Write Self-Programming mechanism for downloading and
uploading program code by the MCU itself. This feature allows flexible application software updates controlled by
the MCU using a Flash-resident Boot Loader program. The Boot Loader program can use any available data interface and associated protocol to read code and write (program) that code into the Flash memory, or read the code
from the program memory. The program code within the Boot Loader section has the capability to write into the
entire Flash, including the Boot Loader memory. The Boot Loader can thus even modify itself, and it can also erase
itself from the code if the feature is not needed anymore. The size of the Boot Loader memory is configurable with
fuses and the Boot Loader has two separate sets of Boot Lock bits which can be set independently. This gives the
user a unique flexibility to select different levels of protection.
29.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Read-While-Write Self-Programming
Flexible Boot Memory Size
High Security (Separate Boot Lock Bits for a Flexible Protection)
Separate Fuse to Select Reset Vector
Optimized Page(1) Size
Code Efficient Algorithm
Efficient Read-Modify-Write Support
Note:
1. A page is a section in the Flash consisting of several bytes (see Table 30-7 on page 328) used during programming. The page organization does not affect normal operation.
29.2
Application and Boot Loader Flash Sections
The Flash memory is organized in two main sections, the Application section and the Boot Loader section (see Figure 29-2 on page 312). The size of the different sections is configured by the BOOTSZ Fuses as shown in Table
29-7 on page 320 and Figure 29-2 on page 312. These two sections can have different level of protection since
they have different sets of Lock bits.
29.2.1
Application Section
The Application section is the section of the Flash that is used for storing the application code. The protection level
for the Application section can be selected by the application Boot Lock bits (Boot Lock bits 0), see Table 29-2 on
page 313. The Application section can never store any Boot Loader code since the SPM instruction is disabled
when executed from the Application section.
29.2.2
BLS – Boot Loader Section
While the Application section is used for storing the application code, the The Boot Loader software must be
located in the BLS since the SPM instruction can initiate a programming when executing from the BLS only. The
SPM instruction can access the entire Flash, including the BLS itself. The protection level for the Boot Loader section can be selected by the Boot Loader Lock bits (Boot Lock bits 1), see Table 29-3 on page 313.
29.3
Read-While-Write and No Read-While-Write Flash Sections
Whether the CPU supports Read-While-Write or if the CPU is halted during a Boot Loader software update is
dependent on which address that is being programmed. In addition to the two sections that are configurable by the
BOOTSZ Fuses as described above, the Flash is also divided into two fixed sections, the Read-While-Write
(RWW) section and the No Read-While-Write (NRWW) section. The limit between the RWW- and NRWW sections
is given in Table 29-1 and Figure 29-1 on page 311. The main difference between the two sections is:
•
When erasing or writing a page located inside the RWW section, the NRWW section can be read during the
operation
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•
When erasing or writing a page located inside the NRWW section, the CPU is halted during the entire
operation
Note that the user software can never read any code that is located inside the RWW section during a Boot Loader
software operation. The syntax “Read-While-Write section” refers to which section that is being programmed
(erased or written), not which section that actually is being read during a Boot Loader software update.
29.3.1
RWW – Read-While-Write Section
If a Boot Loader software update is programming a page inside the RWW section, it is possible to read code from
the Flash, but only code that is located in the NRWW section. During an on-going programming, the software must
ensure that the RWW section never is being read. If the user software is trying to read code that is located inside
the RWW section (that is, by load program memory, call, or jump instructions or an interrupt) during programming,
the software might end up in an unknown state. To avoid this, the interrupts should either be disabled or moved to
the Boot Loader section. The Boot Loader section is always located in the NRWW section. The RWW Section Busy
bit (RWWSB) in the Store Program Memory Control and Status Register (SPMCSR) will be read as logical one as
long as the RWW section is blocked for reading. After a programming is completed, the RWWSB must be cleared
by software before reading code located in the RWW section. See “SPMCSR – Store Program Memory Control
and Status Register” on page 323. for details on how to clear RWWSB.
29.3.2
NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section
The code located in the NRWW section can be read when the Boot Loader software is updating a page in the
RWW section. When the Boot Loader code updates the NRWW section, the CPU is halted during the entire Page
Erase or Page Write operation.
Table 29-1.
Read-While-Write Features
Which Section does the Z-pointer
Address during the Programming?
Which Section can be
Read during Programming?
CPU Halted?
Read-While-Write
Supported?
RWW Section
NRWW Section
No
Yes
NRWW Section
None
Yes
No
Figure 29-1. Read-While-Write vs. No Read-While-Write
Read-While-Write
(RWW) Section
Z-pointer
Addresses RWW
Section
Z-pointer
Addresses NRWW
Section
No Read-While-Write
(NRWW) Section
CPU is Halted
During the Operation
Code Located in
NRWW Section
Can be Read During
the Operation
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Figure 29-2. Memory Sections
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = '10'
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = '11'
0x0000
Read-While-Write Section
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
Boot Loader Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Flashend
No Read-While-Write Section
No Read-While-Write Section
Read-While-Write Section
0x0000
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = '01'
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = '00'
Note:
29.4
Read-While-Write Section
0x0000
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
No Read-While-Write Section
No Read-While-Write Section
Read-While-Write Section
0x0000
Application Flash Section
End RWW, End Application
Start NRWW, Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
1. The parameters in the figure above are given in Table 29-7 on page 320.
Boot Loader Lock Bits
If no Boot Loader capability is needed, the entire Flash is available for application code. The Boot Loader has two
separate sets of Boot Lock bits which can be set independently. This gives the user a unique flexibility to select different levels of protection.
The user can select:
•
To protect the entire Flash from a software update by the MCU
•
To protect only the Boot Loader Flash section from a software update by the MCU
•
To protect only the Application Flash section from a software update by the MCU
•
Allow software update in the entire Flash
See Table 29-2 on page 313 and Table 29-3 on page 313 for further details. The Boot Lock bits can be set in software and in Serial or Parallel Programming mode, but they can be cleared by a Chip Erase command only. The
general Write Lock (Lock Bit mode 2) does not control the programming of the Flash memory by SPM instruction.
Similarly, the general Read/Write Lock (Lock Bit mode 1) does not control reading nor writing by (E)LPM/SPM, if it
is attempted.
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Table 29-2.
BLB0 Mode
BLB02
BLB01
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or (E)LPM accessing the Application section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section.
Note:
Protection
3
0
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section, and (E)LPM executing from
the Boot Loader section is not allowed to read from the Application section. If
Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Boot Loader section, interrupts are disabled while
executing from the Application section.
4
0
1
(E)LPM executing from the Boot Loader section is not allowed to read from the
Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Boot Loader section,
interrupts are disabled while executing from the Application section.
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed.
Table 29-3.
Boot Lock Bit1 Protection Modes (Boot Loader Section)(1)
BLB1 Mode
BLB12
BLB11
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or (E)LPM accessing the Boot Loader section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader section.
Note:
29.4.1
Boot Lock Bit0 Protection Modes (Application Section)(1)
Protection
3
0
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader section, and (E)LPM executing from
the Application section is not allowed to read from the Boot Loader section. If
Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Application section, interrupts are disabled while
executing from the Boot Loader section.
4
0
1
(E)LPM executing from the Application section is not allowed to read from the Boot
Loader section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Application section, interrupts
are disabled while executing from the Boot Loader section.
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed.
Entering the Boot Loader Program
Entering the Boot Loader takes place by a jump or call from the application program. This may be initiated by a trigger such as a command received via USART, or SPI interface. Alternatively, the Boot Reset Fuse can be
programmed so that the Reset Vector is pointing to the Boot Flash start address after a reset. In this case, the Boot
Loader is started after a reset. After the application code is loaded, the program can start executing the application
code. Note that the fuses cannot be changed by the MCU itself. This means that once the Boot Reset Fuse is programmed, the Reset Vector will always point to the Boot Loader Reset and the fuse can only be changed through
the serial or parallel programming interface.
Table 29-4.
BOOTRST
Note:
Boot Reset Fuse(1)
Reset Address
1
Reset Vector = Application Reset (address 0x0000)
0
Reset Vector = Boot Loader Reset (see Table 29-7 on page 320)
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed.
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29.5
Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming
The Z-pointer is used to address the SPM commands. The Z pointer consists of the Z-registers ZL and ZH in the
register file, and RAMPZ in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that
the RAMPZ register is only implemented when the program space is larger than 64Kbytes.
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
16
8
RAMPZ
RAMPZ7
RAMPZ6
RAMPZ5
RAMPZ4
RAMPZ3
RAMPZ2
RAMPZ1
RAMPZ0
ZH (R31)
Z15
Z14
Z13
Z12
Z11
Z10
Z9
Z8
ZL (R30)
Z7
Z6
Z5
Z4
Z3
Z2
Z1
Z0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Since the Flash is organized in pages (see Table 30-7 on page 328), the Program Counter can be treated as having two different sections. One section, consisting of the least significant bits, is addressing the words within a
page, while the most significant bits are addressing the pages. This is shown in Figure 29-3. Note that the Page
Erase and Page Write operations are addressed independently. Therefore it is of major importance that the Boot
Loader software addresses the same page in both the Page Erase and Page Write operation. Once a programming operation is initiated, the address is latched and the Z-pointer can be used for other operations.
The (E)LPM instruction use the Z-pointer to store the address. Since this instruction addresses the Flash byte-bybyte, also bit Z0 of the Z-pointer is used.
Figure 29-3. Addressing the Flash During SPM(1)
BIT
15
ZPCMSB
ZPAGEMSB
Z - REGISTER
1 0
0
PCMSB
PROGRAM
COUNTER
PAGEMSB
PCPAGE
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
PROGRAM MEMORY
PAGE
PCWORD
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN A PAGE
PAGE
INSTRUCTION WORD
PCWORD[PAGEMSB:0]:
00
01
02
PAGEEND
Note:
1. The different variables used in Figure 29-3 are listed in Table 29-9 on page 320.
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29.6
Self-Programming the Flash
The program memory is updated in a page by page fashion. Before programming a page with the data stored in the
temporary page buffer, the page must be erased. The temporary page buffer is filled one word at a time using SPM
and the buffer can be filled either before the Page Erase command or between a Page Erase and a Page Write
operation:
Alternative 1, fill the buffer before a Page Erase
•
Fill temporary page buffer
•
Perform a Page Erase
•
Perform a Page Write
Alternative 2, fill the buffer after Page Erase
•
Perform a Page Erase
•
Fill temporary page buffer
•
Perform a Page Write
If only a part of the page needs to be changed, the rest of the page must be stored (for example in the temporary
page buffer) before the erase, and then be rewritten. When using alternative 1, the Boot Loader provides an effective Read-Modify-Write feature which allows the user software to first read the page, do the necessary changes,
and then write back the modified data. If alternative 2 is used, it is not possible to read the old data while loading
since the page is already erased. The temporary page buffer can be accessed in a random sequence. It is essential that the page address used in both the Page Erase and Page Write operation is addressing the same page.
See “Simple Assembly Code Example for a Boot Loader” on page 318 for an assembly code example.
29.6.1
Performing Page Erase by SPM
To execute Page Erase, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “X0000011” to SPMCSR and execute SPM
within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in R1 and R0 is ignored. The page address must be written to PCPAGE in the Z-register. Other bits in the Z-pointer will be ignored during this operation.
•
Page Erase to the RWW section: The NRWW section can be read during the Page Erase
•
Page Erase to the NRWW section: The CPU is halted during the operation
29.6.2
Filling the Temporary Buffer (Page Loading)
To write an instruction word, set up the address in the Z-pointer and data in R1:R0, write “00000001” to SPMCSR
and execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The content of PCWORD in the Z-register is used
to address the data in the temporary buffer. The temporary buffer will auto-erase after a Page Write operation or by
writing the RWWSRE bit in SPMCSR. It is also erased after a system reset. Note that it is not possible to write
more than one time to each address without erasing the temporary buffer.
If the EEPROM is written in the middle of an SPM Page Load operation, all data loaded is still buffered.
29.6.3
Performing a Page Write
To execute Page Write, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “X0000101” to SPMCSR and execute SPM within
four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in R1 and R0 is ignored. The page address must be written to
PCPAGE. Other bits in the Z-pointer must be written to zero during this operation.
•
•
29.6.4
Page Write to the RWW section: The NRWW section can be read during the Page Write
Page Write to the NRWW section: The CPU is halted during the operation
Using the SPM Interrupt
If the SPM interrupt is enabled, the SPM interrupt will generate a constant interrupt when the SPMEN bit in
SPMCSR is cleared. This means that the interrupt can be used instead of polling the SPMCSR Register in soft-
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ware. When using the SPM interrupt, the Interrupt Vectors should be moved to the BLS section to avoid that an
interrupt is accessing the RWW section when it is blocked for reading. How to move the interrupts is described in
“Interrupts” on page 101.
29.6.5
Consideration While Updating BLS
Special care must be taken if the user allows the Boot Loader section to be updated by leaving Boot Lock bit11
unprogrammed. An accidental write to the Boot Loader itself can corrupt the entire Boot Loader, and further software updates might be impossible. If it is not necessary to change the Boot Loader software itself, it is
recommended to program the Boot Lock bit11 to protect the Boot Loader software from any internal software
changes.
29.6.6
Prevent Reading the RWW Section During Self-Programming
During Self-Programming (either Page Erase or Page Write), the RWW section is always blocked for reading. The
user software itself must prevent that this section is addressed during the self programming operation. The
RWWSB in the SPMCSR will be set as long as the RWW section is busy. During Self-Programming the Interrupt
Vector table should be moved to the BLS as described in “Interrupts” on page 101, or the interrupts must be disabled. Before addressing the RWW section after the programming is completed, the user software must clear the
RWWSB by writing the RWWSRE. See “Simple Assembly Code Example for a Boot Loader” on page 318 for an
example.
29.6.7
Setting the Boot Loader Lock Bits by SPM
To set the Boot Loader Lock bits and general Lock bits, write the desired data to R0, write “X0001001” to SPMCSR
and execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R0
1
1
BLB12
BLB11
BLB02
BLB01
LB2
LB1
See Table 29-2 on page 313 and Table 29-3 on page 313 for how the different settings of the Boot Loader bits
affect the Flash access.
If bits 5:0 in R0 are cleared (zero), the corresponding Lock bit will be programmed if an SPM instruction is executed
within four cycles after BLBSET and SPMEN are set in SPMCSR. The Z-pointer is don’t care during this operation,
but for future compatibility it is recommended to load the Z-pointer with 0x0001 (same as used for reading the lOck
bits). For future compatibility it is also recommended to set bits 7 and 6 in R0 to “1” when writing the Lock bits.
When programming the Lock bits the entire Flash can be read during the operation.
29.6.8
EEPROM Write Prevents Writing to SPMCSR
Note that an EEPROM write operation will block all software programming to Flash. Reading the Fuses and Lock
bits from software will also be prevented during the EEPROM write operation. It is recommended that the user
checks the status bit (EEPE) in the EECR Register and verifies that the bit is cleared before writing to the SPMCSR
Register.
29.6.9
Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits from Software
It is possible to read both the Fuse and Lock bits from software. To read the Lock bits, load the Z-pointer with
0x0001 and set the BLBSET and SPMEN bits in SPMCSR. When an (E)LPM instruction is executed within three
CPU cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in SPMCSR, the value of the Lock bits will be loaded in the
destination register. The BLBSET and SPMEN bits will auto-clear upon completion of reading the Lock bits or if no
(E)LPM instruction is executed within three CPU cycles or no SPM instruction is executed within four CPU cycles.
When BLBSET and SPMEN are cleared, (E)LPM will work as described in the Instruction set Manual.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
–
–
BLB12
BLB11
BLB02
BLB01
LB2
LB1
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The algorithm for reading the Fuse Low byte is similar to the one described above for reading the Lock bits. To
read the Fuse Low byte, load the Z-pointer with 0x0000 and set the BLBSET and SPMEN bits in SPMCSR. When
an (E)LPM instruction is executed within three cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in the SPMCSR,
the value of the Fuse Low byte (FLB) will be loaded in the destination register as shown below. Refer to Table 305 on page 327 for a detailed description and mapping of the Fuse Low byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FLB7
FLB6
FLB5
FLB4
FLB3
FLB2
FLB1
FLB0
Similarly, when reading the Fuse High byte, load 0x0003 in the Z-pointer. When an (E)LPM instruction is executed
within three cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the value of the Fuse High byte
(FHB) will be loaded in the destination register as shown below. Refer to Table 30-4 on page 327 for detailed
description and mapping of the Fuse High byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FHB7
FHB6
FHB5
FHB4
FHB3
FHB2
FHB1
FHB0
When reading the Extended Fuse byte, load 0x0002 in the Z-pointer. When an (E)LPM instruction is executed
within three cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the value of the Extended Fuse
byte (EFB) will be loaded in the destination register as shown below. Refer to Table 30-3 on page 326 for detailed
description and mapping of the Extended Fuse byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
–
–
–
–
–
EFB2
EFB1
EFB0
Fuse and Lock bits that are programmed, will be read as zero. Fuse and Lock bits that are unprogrammed, will be
read as one.
29.6.10
Reading the Signature Row from Software
To read the Signature Row from software, load the Z-pointer with the signature byte address given in Table 29-5
on page 317 and set the SIGRD and SPMEN bits in SPMCSR. When an LPM instruction is executed within three
CPU cycles after the SIGRD and SPMEN bits are set in SPMCSR, the signature byte value will be loaded in the
destination register. The SIGRD and SPMEN bits will auto-clear upon completion of reading the Signature Row
Lock bits or if no LPM instruction is executed within three CPU cycles. When SIGRD and SPMEN are cleared, LPM
will work as described in the Instruction set Manual.
Table 29-5.
Signature Row Addressing
Signature Byte
Device Signature Byte 1
0x0000
Device Signature Byte 2
0x0002
Device Signature Byte 3
0x0004
RC Oscillator Calibration Byte
0x0001
Note:
29.6.11
Z-Pointer Address
All other addresses are reserved for future use.
Preventing Flash Corruption
During periods of low VCC, the Flash program can be corrupted because the supply voltage is too low for the CPU
and the Flash to operate properly. These issues are the same as for board level systems using the Flash, and the
same design solutions should be applied.
A Flash program corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low. First, a regular write
sequence to the Flash requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly. Secondly, the CPU itself can execute
instructions incorrectly, if the supply voltage for executing instructions is too low.
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Flash corruption can easily be avoided by following these design recommendations (one is sufficient):
1. If there is no need for a Boot Loader update in the system, program the Boot Loader Lock bits to prevent
any Boot Loader software updates.
2. Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage. This can be done by
enabling the internal Brown-out Detector (BOD) if the operating voltage matches the detection level. If not,
an external low VCC reset protection circuit can be used. If a reset occurs while a write operation is in progress, the write operation will be completed provided that the power supply voltage is sufficient.
3. Keep the AVR core in Power-down sleep mode during periods of low VCC. This will prevent the CPU from
attempting to decode and execute instructions, effectively protecting the SPMCSR Register and thus the
Flash from unintentional writes.
29.6.12
Programming Time for Flash when Using SPM
The calibrated RC Oscillator is used to time Flash accesses. Table 29-6 shows the typical programming time for
Flash accesses from the CPU.
Table 29-6.
29.6.13
SPM Programming Time
Symbol
Min Programming Time
Max Programming Time
Flash write (Page Erase, Page Write, and write Lock bits by SPM)
3.7ms
4.5ms
Simple Assembly Code Example for a Boot Loader
;-the routine writes one page of data from RAM to Flash
; the first data location in RAM is pointed to by the Y pointer
; the first data location in Flash is pointed to by the Z-pointer
;-error handling is not included
;-the routine must be placed inside the Boot space
; (at least the Do_spm sub routine). Only code inside NRWW section can
; be read during Self-Programming (Page Erase and Page Write).
;-registers used: r0, r1, temp1 (r16), temp2 (r17), looplo (r24),
; loophi (r25), spmcrval (r20)
; storing and restoring of registers is not included in the routine
; register usage can be optimized at the expense of code size
;-It is assumed that either the interrupt table is moved to the Boot
; loader section or that the interrupts are disabled.
.equ PAGESIZEB = PAGESIZE*2
;PAGESIZEB is page size in BYTES, not words
.org SMALLBOOTSTART
Write_page:
; Page Erase
ldi spmcrval, (1<<PGERS) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; re-enable the RWW section
ldi spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; transfer data from RAM to Flash page buffer
ldi looplo, low(PAGESIZEB)
;init loop variable
ldi loophi, high(PAGESIZEB) ;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
Wrloop:
ld
r0, Y+
ld
r1, Y+
ldi spmcrval, (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
adiw ZH:ZL, 2
sbiw loophi:looplo, 2
;use subi for PAGESIZEB<=256
brne Wrloop
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; execute Page Write
subi ZL, low(PAGESIZEB)
;restore pointer
sbci ZH, high(PAGESIZEB)
;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
ldi spmcrval, (1<<PGWRT) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; re-enable the RWW section
ldi spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; read back and check, optional
ldi looplo, low(PAGESIZEB)
;init loop variable
ldi loophi, high(PAGESIZEB) ;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
subi YL, low(PAGESIZEB)
;restore pointer
sbci YH, high(PAGESIZEB)
Rdloop:
elpm r0, Z+
ld
r1, Y+
cpse r0, r1
jmp Error
sbiw loophi:looplo, 1
;use subi for PAGESIZEB<=256
brne Rdloop
; return to RWW section
; verify that RWW section is safe to read
Return:
in
temp1, SPMCSR
sbrs temp1, RWWSB
; If RWWSB is set, the RWW section is not ready yet
ret
; re-enable the RWW section
ldi spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
rjmp Return
Do_spm:
; check for previous SPM complete
Wait_spm:
in
temp1, SPMCSR
sbrc temp1, SPMEN
rjmp Wait_spm
; input: spmcrval determines SPM action
; disable interrupts if enabled, store status
in
temp2, SREG
cli
; check that no EEPROM write access is present
Wait_ee:
sbic EECR, EEPE
rjmp Wait_ee
; SPM timed sequence
out SPMCSR, spmcrval
spm
; restore SREG (to enable interrupts if originally enabled)
out SREG, temp2
ret
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ATmega640 Boot Loader Parameters
In Table 29-7 through Table 29-9 on page 320, the parameters used in the description of the Self-Programming are
given.
Boot Reset
Address
(Start Boot
Loader Section)
End Application
Section
Boot Loader
Flash Section
Pages
Boot Size
BOOTSZ0
Appli-cation
Flash Section
Boot Size Configuration, ATmega640(1)
Table 29-7.
BOOTSZ1
29.6.14
1
1
512 words
4
0x0000 - 0x7DFF
0x7E00 - 0x7FFF
0x7DFF
0x7E00
1
0
1024 words
8
0x0000 - 0x7BFF
0x7C00 - 0x7FFF
0x7BFF
0x7C00
0
1
2048 words
16
0x0000 - 0x77FF
0x7800 - 0x7FFF
0x77FF
0x7800
0
0
4096 words
32
0x0000 - 0x6FFF
0x7000 - 0x7FFF
0x6FFF
0x7000
Note:
1. The different BOOTSZ Fuse configurations are shown in Figure 29-2 on page 312.
Table 29-8.
Read-While-Write Limit, ATmega640
Section(1)
Pages
Address
Read-While-Write section (RWW)
224
0x0000 - 0x6FFF
No Read-While-Write section (NRWW)
32
0x7000 - 0x7FFF
Note:
1. For details about these two section, see “NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section” on page 311 and “RWW – ReadWhile-Write Section” on page 311.
Table 29-9.
Explanation of different variables used in Figure 29-3 on page 314 and the mapping to the Z-pointer,
ATmega640
Corresponding
Z-value(2)
Variable
Description(1)
PCMSB
14
Most significant bit in the Program Counter. (The Program Counter is 15
bits PC[14:0]).
PAGEMSB
6
Most significant bit which is used to address the words within one page
(128 words in a page requires seven bits PC [6:0]).
ZPCMSB
Z15
Bit in Z-pointer that is mapped to PCMSB. Because Z0 is not used, the
ZPCMSB equals PCMSB + 1.
ZPAGEMSB
Z7
Bit in Z-pointer that is mapped to PCMSB. Because Z0 is not used, the
ZPAGEMSB equals PAGEMSB + 1.
PCPAGE
PC[14:7]
Z15:Z8
Program Counter page address: Page select, for Page Erase and Page
Write.
PCWORD
PC[6:0]
Z7:Z1
Program Counter word address: Word select, for filling temporary buffer
(must be zero during Page Write operation).
Note:
1. Z0: should be zero for all SPM commands, byte select for the (E)LPM instruction.
2. See “Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming” on page 314 for details about the use of Z-pointer during
Self-Programming.
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ATmega1280/1281 Boot Loader Parameters
In Table 29-10 and Table 29-11, the parameters used in the description of the Self-Programming are given.
Boot Reset Address
(Start Boot Loader
Section)
End Application
Section
Boot Loader
Flash Section
Appli-cation
Flash Section
Pages
Boot Size
BOOTSZ0
Table 29-10. Boot Size Configuration, ATmega1280/1281(1)
BOOTSZ1
29.6.15
1
1
512 words
4
0x0000 - 0xFDFF
0xFE00 - 0xFFFF
0xFDFF
0xFE00
1
0
1024 words
8
0x0000 - 0xFBFF
0xFC00 - 0xFFFF
0xFBFF
0xFC00
0
1
2048 words
16
0x0000 - 0xF7FF
0xF800 - 0xFFFF
0xF7FF
0xF800
0
0
4096 words
32
0x0000 - 0xEFFF
0xF000 - 0xFFFF
0xEFFF
0xF000
Note:
1. The different BOOTSZ Fuse configurations are shown in Figure 29-2 on page 312.
Table 29-11. Read-While-Write Limit, ATmega1280/1281
Section(1)
Pages
Address
Read-While-Write section (RWW)
480
0x0000 - 0xEFFF
No Read-While-Write section (NRWW)
32
0xF000 - 0xFFFF
Note:
1. For details about these two section, see “NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section” on page 311 and “RWW – ReadWhile-Write Section” on page 311.
Table 29-12. Explanation of different variables used in Figure 29-3 on page 314 and the mapping to the Z-pointer,
ATmega1280/1281
Corresponding
Z-value(2)
Variable
Description(1)
PCMSB
15
Most significant bit in the Program Counter. (The Program Counter is 16
bits PC[15:0])
PAGEMSB
6
Most significant bit which is used to address the words within one page
(128 words in a page requires seven bits PC [6:0]).
ZPCMSB
ZPAGEMSB
Z16(3)
Bit in Z-pointer that is mapped to PCMSB. Because Z0 is not used, the
ZPCMSB equals PCMSB + 1.
Z7
Bit in Z-pointer that is mapped to PCMSB. Because Z0 is not used, the
ZPAGEMSB equals PAGEMSB + 1.
PCPAGE
PC[15:7]
Z16(3):Z8
Program Counter page address: Page select, for Page Erase and Page
Write
PCWORD
PC[6:0]
Z7:Z1
Program Counter word address: Word select, for filling temporary buffer
(must be zero during Page Write operation)
Notes:
1. Z0: should be zero for all SPM commands, byte select for the (E)LPM instruction.
2. See “Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming” on page 314 for details about the use of Z-pointer during
Self-Programming.
3. The Z-register is only 16 bits wide. Bit 16 is located in the RAMPZ register in the I/O map.
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ATmega2560/2561 Boot Loader Parameters
In Table 29-13 through Table 29-15, the parameters used in the description of the Self-Programming are given.
Boot Reset Address
(Start Boot Loader
Section)
End Application
Section
Boot Loader
Flash Section
Appli-cation
Flash Section
Pages
Boot Size
BOOTSZ0
Table 29-13. Boot Size Configuration, ATmega2560/2561(1)
BOOTSZ1
29.6.16
1
1
512 words
4
0x00000 - 0x1FDFF
0x1FE00 - 0x1FFFF
0x1FDFF
0x1FE00
1
0
1024 words
8
0x00000 - 0x1FBFF
0x1FC00 - 0x1FFFF
0x1FBFF
0x1FC00
0
1
2048 words
16
0x00000 - 0x1F7FF
0x1F800 - 0x1FFFF
0x1F7FF
0x1F800
0
0
4096 words
32
0x00000 - 0x1EFFF
0x1F000 - 0x1FFFF
0x1EFFF
0x1F000
Note:
1. The different BOOTSZ Fuse configurations are shown in Figure 29-2 on page 312.
Table 29-14. Read-While-Write Limit, ATmega2560/2561
Section(1)
Pages
Address
Read-While-Write section (RWW)
992
0x00000 - 0x1EFFF
No Read-While-Write section (NRWW)
32
0x1F000 - 0x1FFFF
Note:
1. For details about these two section, see “NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section” on page 311 and “RWW – ReadWhile-Write Section” on page 311.
Table 29-15. Explanation of different variables used in Figure 29-3 on page 314 and the mapping to the Z-pointer,
ATmega2560/2561
Corresponding
Z-value(2)
Variable
Description(1)
PCMSB
16
Most significant bit in the Program Counter. (The Program Counter is 17 bits
PC[16:0]).
PAGEMSB
6
Most significant bit which is used to address the words within one page (128
words in a page requires seven bits PC [6:0]).
ZPCMSB
ZPAGEMSB
Z17:Z16(3)
Bit in Z-pointer that is mapped to PCMSB. Because Z0 is not used, the
ZPCMSB equals PCMSB + 1.
Z7
Bit in Z-pointer that is mapped to PCMSB. Because Z0 is not used, the
ZPAGEMSB equals PAGEMSB + 1.
PCPAGE
PC[16:7]
Z17(3):Z8
Program Counter page address: Page select, for Page Erase and Page
Write.
PCWORD
PC[6:0]
Z7:Z1
Program Counter word address: Word select, for filling temporary buffer
(must be zero during Page Write operation).
Notes:
1. Z0: should be zero for all SPM commands, byte select for the (E)LPM instruction.
2. See “Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming” on page 314 for details about the use of Z-pointer during
Self-Programming.
3. The Z-register is only 16 bits wide. Bit 16 is located in the RAMPZ register in the I/O map.
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29.7
29.7.1
Register Description
SPMCSR – Store Program Memory Control and Status Register
The Store Program Memory Control and Status Register contains the control bits needed to control the Boot
Loader operations.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x37 (0x57)
SPMIE
RWWSB
SIGRD
RWWSRE
BLBSET
PGWRT
PGERS
SPMEN
Read/Write
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SPMCSR
• Bit 7 – SPMIE: SPM Interrupt Enable
When the SPMIE bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the SPM ready interrupt will
be enabled. The SPM ready Interrupt will be executed as long as the SPMEN bit in the SPMCSR Register is
cleared.
• Bit 6 – RWWSB: Read-While-Write Section Busy
When a Self-Programming (Page Erase or Page Write) operation to the RWW section is initiated, the RWWSB will
be set (one) by hardware. When the RWWSB bit is set, the RWW section cannot be accessed. The RWWSB bit
will be cleared if the RWWSRE bit is written to one after a Self-Programming operation is completed. Alternatively
the RWWSB bit will automatically be cleared if a page load operation is initiated.
• Bit 5 – SIGRD: Signature Row Read
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next LPM instruction within three clock cycles will read
a byte from the signature row into the destination register. see “Reading the Signature Row from Software” on
page 317 for details. An SPM instruction within four cycles after SIGRD and SPMEN are set will have no effect.
This operation is reserved for future use and should not be used.
• Bit 4 – RWWSRE: Read-While-Write Section Read Enable
When programming (Page Erase or Page Write) to the RWW section, the RWW section is blocked for reading (the
RWWSB will be set by hardware). To re-enable the RWW section, the user software must wait until the programming is completed (SPMEN will be cleared). Then, if the RWWSRE bit is written to one at the same time as
SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock cycles re-enables the RWW section. The RWW section cannot
be re-enabled while the Flash is busy with a Page Erase or a Page Write (SPMEN is set). If the RWWSRE bit is
written while the Flash is being loaded, the Flash load operation will abort and the data loaded will be lost.
• Bit 3 – BLBSET: Boot Lock Bit Set
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock cycles sets Boot
Lock bits, according to the data in R0. The data in R1 and the address in the Z-pointer are ignored. The BLBSET
bit will automatically be cleared upon completion of the Lock bit set, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four
clock cycles.
An (E)LPM instruction within three cycles after BLBSET and SPMEN are set in the SPMCSR Register, will read
either the Lock bits or the Fuse bits (depending on Z0 in the Z-pointer) into the destination register. See “Reading
the Fuse and Lock Bits from Software” on page 316 for details.
• Bit 2 – PGWRT: Page Write
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock cycles executes
Page Write, with the data stored in the temporary buffer. The page address is taken from the high part of the Zpointer. The data in R1 and R0 are ignored. The PGWRT bit will auto-clear upon completion of a Page Write, or if
no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles. The CPU is halted during the entire Page Write operation if
the NRWW section is addressed.
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• Bit 1 – PGERS: Page Erase
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock cycles executes
Page Erase. The page address is taken from the high part of the Z-pointer. The data in R1 and R0 are ignored. The
PGERS bit will auto-clear upon completion of a Page Erase, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock
cycles. The CPU is halted during the entire Page Write operation if the NRWW section is addressed.
• Bit 0 – SPMEN: Store Program Memory Enable
This bit enables the SPM instruction for the next four clock cycles. If written to one together with either RWWSRE,
BLBSET, PGWRT’ or PGERS, the following SPM instruction will have a special meaning, see description above. If
only SPMEN is written, the following SPM instruction will store the value in R1:R0 in the temporary page buffer
addressed by the Z-pointer. The LSB of the Z-pointer is ignored. The SPMEN bit will auto-clear upon completion of
an SPM instruction, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles. During Page Erase and Page
Write, the SPMEN bit remains high until the operation is completed.
Writing any other combination than “10001”, “01001”, “00101”, “00011” or “00001” in the lower five bits will have no
effect.
Note:
Only one SPM instruction should be active at any time.
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30. Memory Programming
30.1
Program And Data Memory Lock Bits
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 provides six Lock bits which can be left unprogrammed (“1”) or can be programmed (“0”) to obtain the additional features listed in Table 30-2. The Lock bits can only be erased to “1” with the
Chip Erase command.
Table 30-1.
Lock Bit Byte(1)
Lock Bit Byte
Description
Default Value
7
–
1 (unprogrammed)
6
–
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB12
5
Boot Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB11
4
Boot Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB02
3
Boot Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB01
2
Boot Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
LB2
1
Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
LB1
0
Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
Note:
Bit No
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
Table 30-2.
Lock Bit Protection Modes(1)(2)
Memory Lock Bits
Protection Type
LB Mode
LB2
LB1
1
1
1
No memory lock features enabled.
2
1
0
Further programming of the Flash and EEPROM is disabled in Parallel and Serial
Programming mode. The Fuse bits are locked in both Serial and Parallel
Programming mode.(1)
3
0
0
Further programming and verification of the Flash and EEPROM is disabled in
Parallel and Serial Programming mode. The Boot Lock bits and Fuse bits are locked
in both Serial and Parallel Programming mode.(1)
BLB0 Mode
BLB02
BLB01
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or (E)LPM accessing the Application section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section.
3
0
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section, and (E)LPM executing from the
Boot Loader section is not allowed to read from the Application section. If Interrupt
Vectors are placed in the Boot Loader section, interrupts are disabled while executing
from the Application section.
4
0
1
(E)LPM executing from the Boot Loader section is not allowed to read from the
Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Boot Loader section,
interrupts are disabled while executing from the Application section.
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Lock Bit Protection Modes(1)(2) (Continued)
Table 30-2.
Memory Lock Bits
BLB1 Mode
BLB12
BLB11
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or (E)LPM accessing the Boot Loader section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader section.
Notes:
30.2
Protection Type
3
0
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader section, and (E)LPM executing from
the Application section is not allowed to read from the Boot Loader section. If
Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Application section, interrupts are disabled while
executing from the Boot Loader section.
4
0
1
(E)LPM executing from the Application section is not allowed to read from the Boot
Loader section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Application section, interrupts
are disabled while executing from the Boot Loader section.
1. Program the Fuse bits and Boot Lock bits before programming the LB1 and LB2.
2. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed.
Fuse Bits
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 has three Fuse bytes. Table 30-3 through Table 30-5 on page 327
describe briefly the functionality of all the fuses and how they are mapped into the Fuse bytes. Note that the fuses
are read as logical zero, “0”, if they are programmed.
Table 30-3.
Extended Fuse Byte
Extended Fuse Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
–
7
–
1
–
6
–
1
–
5
–
1
–
4
–
1
–
3
–
1
(1)
2
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
(1)
1
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
(1)
0
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
BODLEVEL2
BODLEVEL1
BODLEVEL0
Note:
1. See “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 360 for BODLEVEL Fuse decoding.
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Table 30-4.
Fuse High Byte
Fuse High Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
OCDEN
7
Enable OCD
1 (unprogrammed, OCD disabled)
JTAGEN
6
Enable JTAG
0 (programmed, JTAG enabled)
(1)
5
Enable Serial Program and Data Downloading
0 (programmed, SPI prog. enabled)
WDTON
4
Watchdog Timer always on
1 (unprogrammed)
EESAVE
3
EEPROM memory is preserved through the Chip
Erase
1 (unprogrammed, EEPROM not
preserved)
BOOTSZ1
2
Select Boot Size (see Table 30-9 on page 329 for
details)
0 (programmed)(2)
BOOTSZ0
1
Select Boot Size (see Table 30-9 on page 329 for
details)
0 (programmed)(2)
BOOTRST
0
Select Reset Vector
1 (unprogrammed)
(4)
SPIEN
(3)
Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The SPIEN Fuse is not accessible in serial programming mode.
The default value of BOOTSZ1:0 results in maximum Boot Size. See Table 29-7 on page 320 for details.
See “WDTCSR – Watchdog Timer Control Register” on page 65 for details.
Never ship a product with the OCDEN Fuse programmed regardless of the setting of Lock bits and JTAGEN Fuse.
A programmed OCDEN Fuse enables some parts of the clock system to be running in all sleep modes. This may
increase the power consumption.
Table 30-5.
Fuse Low Byte
Fuse Low Byte
Description
Default Value
7
Divide clock by 8
0 (programmed)
CKOUT(3)
6
Clock output
1 (unprogrammed)
SUT1
5
Select start-up time
1 (unprogrammed)(1)
SUT0
4
Select start-up time
0 (programmed)(1)
CKSEL3
3
Select Clock source
0 (programmed)(2)
CKSEL2
2
Select Clock source
0 (programmed)(2)
CKSEL1
1
Select Clock source
1 (unprogrammed)(2)
CKSEL0
0
Select Clock source
0 (programmed)(2)
(4)
CKDIV8
Notes:
Bit No
1. The default value of SUT1:0 results in maximum start-up time for the default clock source. See “System and Reset
Characteristics” on page 360 for details.
2. The default setting of CKSEL3:0 results in internal RC Oscillator @ 8MHz. See Table 10-1 on page 40 for details.
3. The CKOUT Fuse allow the system clock to be output on PORTE7. See “Clock Output Buffer” on page 47 for
details.
4. See “System Clock Prescaler” on page 47 for details.
The status of the Fuse bits is not affected by Chip Erase. Note that the Fuse bits are locked if Lock bit1 (LB1) is
programmed. Program the Fuse bits before programming the Lock bits.
30.2.1
Latching of Fuses
The fuse values are latched when the device enters programming mode and changes of the fuse values will have
no effect until the part leaves Programming mode. This does not apply to the EESAVE Fuse which will take effect
once it is programmed. The fuses are also latched on Power-up in Normal mode.
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30.3
Signature Bytes
All Atmel microcontrollers have a three-byte signature code which identifies the device. This code can be read in
both serial and parallel mode, also when the device is locked. The three bytes reside in a separate address space.
For the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 the signature bytes are given in Table 30-6.
Table 30-6.
Device and JTAG ID
Signature Bytes Address
30.4
JTAG
Part
0x000
0x001
0x002
Part Number
Manufacture ID
ATmega640
0x1E
0x96
0x08
9608
0x1F
ATmega1280
0x1E
0x97
0x03
9703
0x1F
ATmega1281
0x1E
0x97
0x04
9704
0x1F
ATmega2560
0x1E
0x98
0x01
9801
0x1F
ATmega2561
0x1E
0x98
0x02
9802
0x1F
Calibration Byte
The ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 has a byte calibration value for the internal RC Oscillator. This byte resides
in the high byte of address 0x000 in the signature address space. During reset, this byte is automatically written
into the OSCCAL Register to ensure correct frequency of the calibrated RC Oscillator.
30.5
Page Size
Table 30-7.
Flash Size
Page Size
PCWORD
No. of Pages
PCPAGE
PCMSB
128K words (256Kbytes)
128 words
PC[6:0]
1024
PC[16:7]
16
Table 30-8.
30.6
No. of Words in a Page and No. of Pages in the Flash
No. of Words in a Page and No. of Pages in the EEPROM
EEPROM Size
Page Size
PCWORD
No. of Pages
PCPAGE
EEAMSB
4Kbytes
8 bytes
EEA[2:0]
512
EEA[11:3]
11
Parallel Programming Parameters, Pin Mapping, and Commands
This section describes how to parallel program and verify Flash Program memory, EEPROM Data memory, Memory Lock bits, and Fuse bits in the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561. Pulses are assumed to be at least 250ns
unless otherwise noted.
30.6.1
Signal Names
In this section, some pins of the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 are referenced by signal names describing
their functionality during parallel programming, see Figure 30-1 and Table 30-9 on page 329. Pins not described in
the following table are referenced by pin names.
The XA1/XA0 pins determine the action executed when the XTAL1 pin is given a positive pulse. The bit coding is
shown in Table 30-12 on page 330.
When pulsing WR or OE, the command loaded determines the action executed. The different commands are
shown in Table 30-13 on page 330.
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Figure 30-1. Parallel Programming(1)
+5V
RDY/BSY
PD1
OE
PD2
WR
PD3
BS1
PD4
XA0
PD5
XA1
PD6
PAGEL
PD7
+12V
RESET
BS2
PA0
VCC
+5V
AVCC
DATA
PB7 - PB0
XTAL1
GND
Note:
1. Unused Pins should be left floating.
Table 30-9.
Pin Name Mapping
Signal Name in
Programming Mode
Pin Name
I/O
Function
RDY/BSY
PD1
O
0: Device is busy programming, 1: Device is ready for new command
OE
PD2
I
Output Enable (Active low)
WR
PD3
I
Write Pulse (Active low)
BS1
PD4
I
Byte Select 1
XA0
PD5
I
XTAL Action Bit 0
XA1
PD6
I
XTAL Action Bit 1
PAGEL
PD7
I
Program Memory and EEPROM data Page Load
BS2
PA0
I
Byte Select 2
DATA
PB7-0
I/O
Bi-directional Data bus (Output when OE is low)
Table 30-10. BS2 and BS1 Encoding
BS2
BS1
Flash / EEPROM
Address
Flash Data Loading /
Reading
Fuse Programming
Reading Fuse and Lock
Bits
0
0
Low Byte
Low Byte
Low Byte
Fuse Low Byte
0
1
High Byte
High Byte
High Byte
Lockbits
1
0
Extended High
Byte
Reserved
Extended Byte
Extended Fuse Byte
1
1
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Fuse High Byte
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Table 30-11. Pin Values Used to Enter Programming Mode
Pin
Symbol
Value
PAGEL
Prog_enable[3]
0
XA1
Prog_enable[2]
0
XA0
Prog_enable[1]
0
BS1
Prog_enable[0]
0
Table 30-12. XA1 and XA0 Enoding
XA1
XA0
Action when XTAL1 is Pulsed
0
0
Load Flash or EEPROM Address (High or low address byte determined by BS2 and BS1)
0
1
Load Data (High or Low data byte for Flash determined by BS1)
1
0
Load Command
1
1
No Action, Idle
Table 30-13. Command Byte Bit Encoding
Command Byte
30.7
30.7.1
Command Executed
1000 0000
Chip Erase
0100 0000
Write Fuse bits
0010 0000
Write Lock bits
0001 0000
Write Flash
0001 0001
Write EEPROM
0000 1000
Read Signature Bytes and Calibration byte
0000 0100
Read Fuse and Lock bits
0000 0010
Read Flash
0000 0011
Read EEPROM
Parallel Programming
Enter Programming Mode
The following algorithm puts the device in parallel programming mode:
1. Apply 4.5V - 5.5V between VCC and GND.
2. Set RESET to “0” and toggle XTAL1 at least six times.
3. Set the Prog_enable pins listed in Table 30-11 to “0000” and wait at least 100ns.
4. Apply 11.5V - 12.5V to RESET. Any activity on Prog_enable pins within 100ns after +12V has been applied
to RESET, will cause the device to fail entering programming mode.
5. Wait at least 50µs before sending a new command.
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30.7.2
Considerations for Efficient Programming
The loaded command and address are retained in the device during programming. For efficient programming, the
following should be considered.
30.7.3
•
The command needs only be loaded once when writing or reading multiple memory locations
•
Skip writing the data value 0xFF, that is the contents of the entire EEPROM (unless the EESAVE Fuse is
programmed) and Flash after a Chip Erase
•
Address high byte needs only be loaded before programming or reading a new 256 word window in Flash or
256 byte EEPROM. This consideration also applies to Signature bytes reading
Chip Erase
The Chip Erase will erase the Flash and EEPROM(1) memories plus Lock bits. The Lock bits are not reset until the
program memory has been completely erased. The Fuse bits are not changed. A Chip Erase must be performed
before the Flash and/or EEPROM are reprogrammed.
Note:
1. The EEPRPOM memory is preserved during Chip Erase if the EESAVE Fuse is programmed.
Load Command “Chip Erase”
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “10”. This enables command loading.
2. Set BS1 to “0”.
3. Set DATA to “1000 0000”. This is the command for Chip Erase.
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the command.
5. Give WR a negative pulse. This starts the Chip Erase. RDY/BSY goes low.
6. Wait until RDY/BSY goes high before loading a new command.
30.7.4
Programming the Flash
The Flash is organized in pages, see Table 30-7 on page 328. When programming the Flash, the program data is
latched into a page buffer. This allows one page of program data to be programmed simultaneously. The following
procedure describes how to program the entire Flash memory:
A. Load Command “Write Flash”
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “10”. This enables command loading.
2. Set BS1 to “0”.
3. Set DATA to “0001 0000”. This is the command for Write Flash.
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the command.
B. Load Address Low byte (Address bits 7:0)
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “00”. This enables address loading.
2. Set BS2, BS1 to “00”. This selects the address low byte.
3. Set DATA = Address low byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the address low byte.
C. Load Data Low Byte
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “01”. This enables data loading.
2. Set DATA = Data low byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the data byte.
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D. Load Data High Byte
1. Set BS1 to “1”. This selects high data byte.
2. Set XA1, XA0 to “01”. This enables data loading.
3. Set DATA = Data high byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the data byte.
E. Latch Data
1. Set BS1 to “1”. This selects high data byte.
2. Give PAGEL a positive pulse. This latches the data bytes. See Figure 30-3 on page 333 for signal
waveforms.
F. Repeat B through E until the entire buffer is filled or until all data within the page is loaded
While the lower bits in the address are mapped to words within the page, the higher bits address the pages within
the FLASH. This is illustrated in Figure 30-2 on page 333. Note that if less than eight bits are required to address
words in the page (pagesize < 256), the most significant bit(s) in the address low byte are used to address the
page when performing a Page Write.
G. Load Address High byte (Address bits15:8)
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “00”. This enables address loading.
2. Set BS2, BS1 to “01”. This selects the address high byte.
3. Set DATA = Address high byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the address high byte.
H. Load Address Extended High byte (Address bits 23:16)
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “00”. This enables address loading.
2. Set BS2, BS1 to “10”. This selects the address extended high byte.
3. Set DATA = Address extended high byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the address high byte.
I. Program Page
1. Set BS2, BS1 to “00”.
2. Give WR a negative pulse. This starts programming of the entire page of data. RDY/BSY goes low.
3. Wait until RDY/BSY goes high (see Figure 30-3 on page 333 for signal waveforms).
J. Repeat B through I until the entire Flash is programmed or until all data has been programmed
K. End Page Programming
1. 1. Set XA1, XA0 to “10”. This enables command loading.
2. Set DATA to “0000 0000”. This is the command for No Operation.
3. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the command, and the internal write signals are reset.
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Figure 30-2. Addressing the Flash Which is Organized in Pages(1)
PCMSB
PROGRAM
COUNTER
PAGEMSB
PCPAGE
PCWORD
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN A PAGE
PROGRAM MEMORY
PAGE
PAGE
PCWORD[PAGEMSB:0]:
00
INSTRUCTION WORD
01
02
PAGEEND
Note:
1. PCPAGE and PCWORD are listed in Table 30-7 on page 328.
Figure 30-3. Programming the Flash Waveforms(1)
F
DATA
A
B
C
D
E
0x10
ADDR. LOW
DATA LOW
DATA HIGH
XX
B
ADDR. LOW
C
D
DATA LOW
DATA HIGH
E
XX
G
H
ADDR. HIGH ADDR. EXT.H
I
XX
XA1
XA0
BS1
BS2
XTAL1
WR
RDY/BSY
RESET +12V
OE
PAGEL
Note:
30.7.5
1. “XX” is don’t care. The letters refer to the programming description above.
Programming the EEPROM
The EEPROM is organized in pages, see Table 30-8 on page 328. When programming the EEPROM, the program
data is latched into a page buffer. This allows one page of data to be programmed simultaneously. The programming algorithm for the EEPROM data memory is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on page 331 for
details on Command, Address and Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0001 0001”.
2. G: Load Address High Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3. B: Load Address Low Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. C: Load Data (0x00 - 0xFF).
5. E: Latch data (give PAGEL a positive pulse).
K: Repeat 3 through 5 until the entire buffer is filled.
L: Program EEPROM page.
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1. Set BS2, BS1 to “00”.
2. Give WR a negative pulse. This starts programming of the EEPROM page. RDY/BSY goes low.
3. Wait until to RDY/BSY goes high before programming the next page (see Figure 30-4 for signal waveforms).
Figure 30-4. Programming the EEPROM Waveforms
K
DATA
A
G
0x11
ADDR. HIGH
B
C
ADDR. LOW
DATA
E
XX
B
ADDR. LOW
C
DATA
E
L
XX
XA1
XA0
BS1
XTAL1
WR
RDY/BSY
RESET +12V
OE
PAGEL
BS2
30.7.6
Reading the Flash
The algorithm for reading the Flash memory is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on page 331 for details
on Command and Address loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 0010”.
2. H: Load Address Extended Byte (0x00- 0xFF).
3. G: Load Address High Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. B: Load Address Low Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
5. Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “0”. The Flash word low byte can now be read at DATA.
6. Set BS to “1”. The Flash word high byte can now be read at DATA.
7. Set OE to “1”.
30.7.7
Reading the EEPROM
The algorithm for reading the EEPROM memory is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on page 331 for
details on Command and Address loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 0011”.
2. G: Load Address High Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3. B: Load Address Low Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “0”. The EEPROM Data byte can now be read at DATA.
5. Set OE to “1”.
30.7.8
Programming the Fuse Low Bits
The algorithm for programming the Fuse Low bits is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on page 331 for
details on Command and Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0100 0000”.
2. C: Load Data Low Byte. Bit n = “0” programs and bit n = “1” erases the Fuse bit.
3. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
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30.7.9
Programming the Fuse High Bits
The algorithm for programming the Fuse High bits is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on page 331 for
details on Command and Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0100 0000”.
2. C: Load Data Low Byte. Bit n = “0” programs and bit n = “1” erases the Fuse bit.
3. Set BS2, BS1 to “01”. This selects high data byte.
4. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
5. Set BS2, BS1 to “00”. This selects low data byte.
30.7.10
Programming the Extended Fuse Bits
The algorithm for programming the Extended Fuse bits is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on page 331
for details on Command and Data loading):
1. 1. A: Load Command “0100 0000”.
2. 2. C: Load Data Low Byte. Bit n = “0” programs and bit n = “1” erases the Fuse bit.
3. 3. Set BS2, BS1 to “10”. This selects extended data byte.
4. 4. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
5. 5. Set BS2, BS1 to “00”. This selects low data byte.
Figure 30-5. Programming the FUSES Waveforms
Write Fuse Low byte
DATA
A
C
0x40
DATA
XX
Write Fuse high byte
A
C
0x40
DATA
XX
Write Extended Fuse byte
A
C
0x40
DATA
XX
XA1
XA0
BS1
BS2
XTAL1
WR
RDY/BSY
RESET +12V
OE
PAGEL
30.7.11
Programming the Lock Bits
The algorithm for programming the Lock bits is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on page 331 for details
on Command and Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0010 0000”.
2. C: Load Data Low Byte. Bit n = “0” programs the Lock bit. If LB mode 3 is programmed (LB1 and LB2 is programmed), it is not possible to program the Boot Lock bits by any External Programming mode.
3. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
The Lock bits can only be cleared by executing Chip Erase.
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30.7.12
Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits
The algorithm for reading the Fuse and Lock bits is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on page 331 for
details on Command loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 0100”.
2. Set OE to “0”, and BS2, BS1 to “00”. The status of the Fuse Low bits can now be read at DATA (“0” means
programmed).
3. Set OE to “0”, and BS2, BS1 to “11”. The status of the Fuse High bits can now be read at DATA (“0” means
programmed).
4. Set OE to “0”, and BS2, BS1 to “10”. The status of the Extended Fuse bits can now be read at DATA (“0”
means programmed).
5. Set OE to “0”, and BS2, BS1 to “01”. The status of the Lock bits can now be read at DATA (“0” means
programmed).
6. Set OE to “1”.
Figure 30-6. Mapping Between BS1, BS2 and the Fuse and Lock Bits During Read
0
Fuse Low Byte
0
Extended Fuse Byte
1
DATA
BS2
0
Lock Bits
1
Fuse High Byte
1
BS1
BS2
30.7.13
Reading the Signature Bytes
The algorithm for reading the Signature bytes is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on page 331 for
details on Command and Address loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 1000”.
2. B: Load Address Low Byte (0x00 - 0x02).
3. Set OE to “0”, and BS to “0”. The selected Signature byte can now be read at DATA.
4. Set OE to “1”.
30.7.14
Reading the Calibration Byte
The algorithm for reading the Calibration byte is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on page 331 for
details on Command and Address loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 1000”.
2. B: Load Address Low Byte, 0x00.
3. Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “1”. The Calibration byte can now be read at DATA.
4. Set OE to “1”.
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30.7.15
Parallel Programming Characteristics
Figure 30-7. Parallel Programming Timing, Including some General Timing Requirements
tXLWL
tXHXL
XTAL1
tDVXH
tXLDX
Data & Contol
(DATA, XA0/1, BS1, BS2)
tPLBX t BVWL
tBVPH
PAGEL
tWLBX
tPHPL
tWLWH
WR
tPLWL
WLRL
RDY/BSY
tWLRH
Figure 30-8. Parallel Programming Timing, Loading Sequence with Timing Requirements(1)
LOAD ADDRESS
(LOW BYTE)
LOAD DATA LOAD DATA
(HIGH BYTE)
LOAD DATA
(LOW BYTE)
tXLPH
t XLXH
LOAD ADDRESS
(LOW BYTE)
tPLXH
XTAL1
BS1
PAGEL
DATA
ADDR0 (Low Byte)
DATA (Low Byte)
DATA (High Byte)
ADDR1 (Low Byte)
XA0
XA1
Note:
1. The timing requirements shown in Figure 30-7 (that is, tDVXH, tXHXL, and tXLDX) also apply to loading operation.
Figure 30-9. Parallel Programming Timing, Reading Sequence (within the Same Page) with Timing
Requirements(1)
LOAD ADDRESS
(LOW BYTE)
READ DATA
(LOW BYTE)
READ DATA
(HIGH BYTE)
LOAD ADDRESS
(LOW BYTE)
tXLOL
XTAL1
tBVDV
BS1
tOLDV
OE
DATA
tOHDZ
ADDR0 (Low Byte)
DATA (Low Byte)
DATA (High Byte)
ADDR1 (Low Byte)
XA0
XA1
Note:
1. The timing requirements shown in Figure 30-7 (that is, tDVXH, tXHXL, and tXLDX) also apply to reading operation.
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Table 30-14. Parallel Programming Characteristics, VCC = 5V ±10%
Symbol
Parameter
Min
VPP
Programming Enable Voltage
11.5
IPP
Programming Enable Current
tDVXH
Data and Control Valid before XTAL1 High
67
tXLXH
XTAL1 Low to XTAL1 High
200
tXHXL
XTAL1 Pulse Width High
150
tXLDX
Data and Control Hold after XTAL1 Low
67
tXLWL
XTAL1 Low to WR Low
0
tXLPH
XTAL1 Low to PAGEL high
0
tPLXH
PAGEL low to XTAL1 high
150
tBVPH
BS1 Valid before PAGEL High
67
tPHPL
PAGEL Pulse Width High
150
tPLBX
BS1 Hold after PAGEL Low
67
tWLBX
BS2/1 Hold after WR Low
67
tPLWL
PAGEL Low to WR Low
67
tBVWL
BS2/1 Valid to WR Low
67
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width Low
150
tWLRL
WR Low to RDY/BSY Low
tWLRH
WR Low to RDY/BSY High(1)
Max
Units
12.5
V
250
A
ns
(2)
0
1
3.7
4.5
7.5
9
s
ms
tWLRH_CE
WR Low to RDY/BSY High for Chip Erase
tXLOL
XTAL1 Low to OE Low
0
tBVDV
BS1 Valid to DATA valid
0
tOLDV
OE Low to DATA Valid
250
tOHDZ
OE High to DATA Tri-stated
250
Notes:
30.8
Typ
250
ns
1.
2.
tWLRH is valid for the Write Flash, Write EEPROM, Write Fuse bits and Write Lock bits commands.
tWLRH_CE is valid for the Chip Erase command.
Serial Downloading
Both the Flash and EEPROM memory arrays can be programmed using a serial programming bus while RESET is
pulled to GND. The serial programming interface consists of pins SCK, PDI (input) and PDO (output). After RESET
is set low, the Programming Enable instruction needs to be executed first before program/erase operations can be
executed. NOTE, in Table 30-15 on page 339, the pin mapping for serial programming is listed. Not all packages
use the SPI pins dedicated for the internal Serial Peripheral Interface - SPI.
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30.8.1
Serial Programming Pin Mapping
Table 30-15. Pin Mapping Serial Programming
Symbol
Pins (TQFP-100)
Pins (TQFP-64)
I/O
Description
PDI
PB2
PE0
I
Serial Data in
PDO
PB3
PE1
O
Serial Data out
SCK
PB1
PB1
I
Serial Clock
Figure 30-10. Serial Programming and Verify(1)
+1.8V - 5.5V
VCC
+1.8V - 5.5V(2)
PDI
AVCC
PDO
SCK
XT AL1
RESET
GND
Notes:
1. If the device is clocked by the internal Oscillator, it is no need to connect a clock source to the XTAL1 pin.
2. VCC - 0.3V < AVCC < VCC + 0.3V, however, AVCC should always be within 1.8V - 5.5V.When programming the
EEPROM, an auto-erase cycle is built into the self-timed programming operation (in the Serial mode ONLY) and
there is no need to first execute the Chip Erase instruction. The Chip Erase operation turns the content of every
memory location in both the Program and EEPROM arrays into 0xFF.
Depending on CKSEL Fuses, a valid clock must be present. The minimum low and high periods for the serial clock
(SCK) input are defined as follows:
Low: > 2 CPU clock cycles for fck < 12MHz, 3 CPU clock cycles for fck >= 12MHz
High: > 2 CPU clock cycles for fck < 12MHz, 3 CPU clock cycles for fck >= 12MHz
30.8.2
Serial Programming Algorithm
When writing serial data to the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561, data is clocked on the rising edge of SCK.
When reading data from the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561, data is clocked on the falling edge of SCK. See
Figure 30-12 on page 342 for timing details.
To program and verify the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 in the serial programming mode, the following
sequence is recommended (see four byte instruction formats in Table 30-17 on page 340):
1. Power-up sequence:
Apply power between VCC and GND while RESET and SCK are set to “0”. In some systems, the programmer can not guarantee that SCK is held low during power-up. In this case, RESET must be given a positive
pulse of at least two CPU clock cycles duration after SCK has been set to “0”.
2. Wait for at least 20ms and enable serial programming by sending the Programming Enable serial instruction
to pin PDI.
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3. The serial programming instructions will not work if the communication is out of synchronization. When in
sync. the second byte (0x53), will echo back when issuing the third byte of the Programming Enable instruction. Whether the echo is correct or not, all four bytes of the instruction must be transmitted. If the 0x53 did
not echo back, give RESET a positive pulse and issue a new Programming Enable command.
4. The Flash is programmed one page at a time. The memory page is loaded one byte at a time by supplying
the 7 LSB of the address and data together with the Load Program Memory Page instruction. To ensure
correct loading of the page, the data low byte must be loaded before data high byte is applied for a given
address. The Program Memory Page is stored by loading the Write Program Memory Page instruction with
the address lines 15:8. Before issuing this command, make sure the instruction Load Extended Address
Byte has been used to define the MSB of the address. The extended address byte is stored until the command is re-issued, that is, the command needs only be issued for the first page, and when crossing the
64KWord boundary. If polling (RDY/BSY) is not used, the user must wait at least tWD_FLASH before issuing the
next page (see Table 30-16). Accessing the serial programming interface before the Flash write operation
completes can result in incorrect programming.
5. The EEPROM array is programmed one byte at a time by supplying the address and data together with the
appropriate Write instruction. An EEPROM memory location is first automatically erased before new data is
written. If polling is not used, the user must wait at least tWD_EEPROM before issuing the next byte (see Table
30-16). In a chip erased device, no 0xFFs in the data file(s) need to be programmed.
6. Any memory location can be verified by using the Read instruction which returns the content at the selected
address at serial output PDO. When reading the Flash memory, use the instruction Load Extended Address
Byte to define the upper address byte, which is not included in the Read Program Memory instruction. The
extended address byte is stored until the command is re-issued, that is, the command needs only be issued
for the first page, and when crossing the 64KWord boundary.
7. At the end of the programming session, RESET can be set high to commence normal operation.
8. Power-off sequence (if needed):
Set RESET to “1”.
Turn VCC power off.
Table 30-16. Minimum Wait Delay Before Writing the Next Flash or EEPROM Location
30.8.3
Symbol
Minimum Wait Delay
tWD_FLASH
4.5ms
tWD_EEPROM
3.6ms
tWD_ERASE
9.0ms
Serial Programming Instruction set
Table 30-17 and Figure 30-11 on page 342 describes the Instruction set.
Table 30-17. Serial Programming Instruction Set
Instruction Format
Instruction/Operation
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
Programming Enable
$AC
$53
$00
$00
Chip Erase (Program Memory/EEPROM)
$AC
$80
$00
$00
Poll RDY/BSY
$F0
$00
$00
data byte out
Load Extended Address byte(1)
$4D
$00
Extended adr
$00
Load Program Memory Page, High byte
$48
$00
adr LSB
high data byte in
Load Program Memory Page, Low byte
$40
$00
adr LSB
low data byte in
Load Instructions
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Table 30-17. Serial Programming Instruction Set (Continued)
Instruction Format
Instruction/Operation
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
$C1
$00
0000 000aa
data byte in
Read Program Memory, High byte
$28
adr MSB
adr LSB
high data byte
out
Read Program Memory, Low byte
$20
adr MSB
adr LSB
low data byte out
Read EEPROM Memory
$A0
0000 aaaa
aaaa aaaa
data byte out
Read Lock bits
$58
$00
$00
data byte out
Read Signature Byte
$30
$00
0000 000aa
data byte out
Read Fuse bits
$50
$00
$00
data byte out
Read Fuse High bits
$58
$08
$00
data byte out
Read Extended Fuse Bits
$50
$08
$00
data byte out
Read Calibration Byte
$38
$00
$00
data byte out
Write Program Memory Page
$4C
adr MSB
adr LSB
$00
Write EEPROM Memory
$C0
0000 aaaa
aaaa aaaa
data byte in
Write EEPROM Memory Page (page access)
$C2
0000 aaaa
aaaa 00
$00
Write Lock bits
$AC
$E0
$00
data byte in
Write Fuse bits
$AC
$A0
$00
data byte in
Write Fuse High bits
$AC
$A8
$00
data byte in
Write Extended Fuse Bits
$AC
$A4
$00
data byte in
Load EEPROM Memory Page (page access)
Read Instructions
Write Instructions
Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Not all instructions are applicable for all parts.
a = address.
Bits are programmed ‘0’, unprogrammed ‘1’.
To ensure future compatibility, unused Fuses and Lock bits should be unprogrammed (‘1’).
Refer to the corresponding section for Fuse and Lock bits, Calibration and Signature bytes and Page size.
See http://www.atmel.com/avr for Application Notes regarding programming and programmers.
If the LSB in RDY/BSY data byte out is ‘1’, a programming operation is still pending. Wait until this bit returns ‘0’
before the next instruction is carried out.
Within the same page, the low data byte must be loaded prior to the high data byte.
After data is loaded to the page buffer, program the EEPROM page, see Figure 30-11 on page 342.
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Figure 30-11. Serial Programming Instruction example
Serial Programming Instruction
Load Program Memory Page (High/Low Byte)/
Load EEPROM Memory Page (page access)
Byte 1
Byte 2
Adr MSB
A
Byte 3
Write Program Memory Page/
Write EEPROM Memory Page
Byte 1
Byte 4
Byte 2
Adr LSB
Bit 15 B
Adr MSB
Byte 3
Adrr LSB
B
Bit 15 B
0
Byte 4
0
Page Buffer
Page Offset
Page 0
Page 1
Page 2
Page Number
Page N-1
Program Memory/
EEPROM Memory
30.8.4
Serial Programming Characteristics
For characteristics of the Serial Programming module, see “SPI Timing Characteristics” on page 363.
Figure 30-12. Serial Programming Waveforms
SERIAL DATA INPUT
(MOSI)
MSB
LSB
SERIAL DATA OUTPUT
(MISO)
MSB
LSB
SERIAL CLOCK INPUT
(SCK)
SAMPLE
30.9
Programming via the JTAG Interface
Programming through the JTAG interface requires control of the four JTAG specific pins: TCK, TMS, TDI, and
TDO. Control of the reset and clock pins is not required.
To be able to use the JTAG interface, the JTAGEN Fuse must be programmed. The device is default shipped with
the fuse programmed. In addition, the JTD bit in MCUCR must be cleared. Alternatively, if the JTD bit is set, the
external reset can be forced low. Then, the JTD bit will be cleared after two chip clocks, and the JTAG pins are
available for programming. This provides a means of using the JTAG pins as normal port pins in Running mode
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while still allowing In-System Programming via the JTAG interface. Note that this technique can not be used when
using the JTAG pins for Boundary-scan or On-chip Debug. In these cases the JTAG pins must be dedicated for
this purpose.
During programming the clock frequency of the TCK Input must be less than the maximum frequency of the chip.
The System Clock Prescaler can not be used to divide the TCK Clock Input into a sufficiently low frequency.
As a definition in this datasheet, the LSB is shifted in and out first of all Shift Registers.
30.9.1
Programming Specific JTAG Instructions
The Instruction Register is 4-bit wide, supporting up to 16 instructions. The JTAG instructions useful for programming are listed below.
The OPCODE for each instruction is shown behind the instruction name in hex format. The text describes which
Data Register is selected as path between TDI and TDO for each instruction.
The Run-Test/Idle state of the TAP controller is used to generate internal clocks. It can also be used as an idle
state between JTAG sequences. The state machine sequence for changing the instruction word is shown in Figure
30-13.
Figure 30-13. State Machine Sequence for Changing the Instruction Word
1
Test-Logic-Reset
0
0
Run-Test/Idle
1
Select-DR Scan
1
Select-IR Scan
0
0
1
1
Capture-DR
Capture-IR
0
0
0
Shift-DR
1
1
Exit1-DR
1
Exit1-IR
0
0
Pause-DR
0
0
Pause-IR
1
1
0
Exit2-DR
Exit2-IR
1
1
Update-DR
1
0
Shift-IR
1
0
1
Update-IR
0
1
0
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30.9.2
AVR_RESET (0xC)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for setting the AVR device in the Reset mode or taking the device out
from the Reset mode. The TAP controller is not reset by this instruction. The one bit Reset Register is selected as
Data Register. Note that the reset will be active as long as there is a logic “one” in the Reset Chain. The output
from this chain is not latched.
The active states are:
•
30.9.3
Shift-DR: The Reset Register is shifted by the TCK input
PROG_ENABLE (0x4)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for enabling programming via the JTAG port. The 16-bit Programming
Enable Register is selected as Data Register. The active states are the following:
•
Shift-DR: The programming enable signature is shifted into the Data Register
•
Update-DR: The programming enable signature is compared to the correct value, and Programming mode is
entered if the signature is valid
30.9.4
PROG_COMMANDS (0x5)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for entering programming commands via the JTAG port. The 15-bit Programming Command Register is selected as Data Register. The active states are the following:
•
Capture-DR: The result of the previous command is loaded into the Data Register
•
Shift-DR: The Data Register is shifted by the TCK input, shifting out the result of the previous command and
shifting in the new command
•
Update-DR: The programming command is applied to the Flash inputs
•
Run-Test/Idle: One clock cycle is generated, executing the applied command
30.9.5
PROG_PAGELOAD (0x6)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction to directly load the Flash data page via the JTAG port. An 8-bit Flash
Data Byte Register is selected as the Data Register. This is physically the 8 LSBs of the Programming Command
Register. The active states are the following:
•
Shift-DR: The Flash Data Byte Register is shifted by the TCK input.
•
Update-DR: The content of the Flash Data Byte Register is copied into a temporary register. A write sequence
is initiated that within 11 TCK cycles loads the content of the temporary register into the Flash page buffer. The
AVR automatically alternates between writing the low and the high byte for each new Update-DR state, starting
with the low byte for the first Update-DR encountered after entering the PROG_PAGELOAD command. The
Program Counter is pre-incremented before writing the low byte, except for the first written byte. This ensures
that the first data is written to the address set up by PROG_COMMANDS, and loading the last location in the
page buffer does not make the program counter increment into the next page.
30.9.6
PROG_PAGEREAD (0x7)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction to directly capture the Flash content via the JTAG port. An 8-bit Flash
Data Byte Register is selected as the Data Register. This is physically the 8 LSBs of the Programming Command
Register. The active states are the following:
•
Capture-DR: The content of the selected Flash byte is captured into the Flash Data Byte Register. The AVR
automatically alternates between reading the low and the high byte for each new Capture-DR state, starting
with the low byte for the first Capture-DR encountered after entering the PROG_PAGEREAD command. The
Program Counter is post-incremented after reading each high byte, including the first read byte. This ensures
that the first data is captured from the first address set up by PROG_COMMANDS, and reading the last
location in the page makes the program counter increment into the next page.
•
Shift-DR: The Flash Data Byte Register is shifted by the TCK input.
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30.9.7
Data Registers
The Data Registers are selected by the JTAG instruction registers described in section “Programming Specific
JTAG Instructions” on page 343. The Data Registers relevant for programming operations are:
30.9.8
•
Reset Register
•
Programming Enable Register
•
Programming Command Register
•
Flash Data Byte Register
Reset Register
The Reset Register is a Test Data Register used to reset the part during programming. It is required to reset the
part before entering Programming mode.
A high value in the Reset Register corresponds to pulling the external reset low. The part is reset as long as there
is a high value present in the Reset Register. Depending on the Fuse settings for the clock options, the part will
remain reset for a Reset Time-out period (refer to “Clock Sources” on page 40) after releasing the Reset Register.
The output from this Data Register is not latched, so the reset will take place immediately, as shown in Figure 28-2
on page 297.
30.9.9
Programming Enable Register
The Programming Enable Register is a 16-bit register. The contents of this register is compared to the programming enable signature, binary code 0b1010_0011_0111_0000. When the contents of the register is equal to the
programming enable signature, programming via the JTAG port is enabled. The register is reset to 0 on Power-on
Reset, and should always be reset when leaving Programming mode.
Figure 30-14. Programming Enable Register
TDI
D
A
T
A
0xA370
=
D
Q
Programming Enable
ClockDR & PROG_ENABLE
TDO
30.9.10
Programming Command Register
The Programming Command Register is a 15-bit register. This register is used to serially shift in programming
commands, and to serially shift out the result of the previous command, if any. The JTAG Programming Instruction
Set is shown in Table 30-18 on page 347. The state sequence when shifting in the programming commands is
illustrated in Figure 30-16 on page 350.
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Figure 30-15. Programming Command Register
TDI
S
T
R
O
B
E
S
A
D
D
R
E
S
S
/
D
A
T
A
Flash
EEPROM
Fuses
Lock Bits
TDO
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Table 30-18. JTAG Programming Instruction
Set a = address high bits, b = address low bits, c = address extended bits, H = 0 - Low byte, 1 - High Byte, o = data out,
i = data in, x = don’t care
Instruction
TDI Sequence
TDO Sequence
Notes
1a. Chip Erase
0100011_10000000
0110001_10000000
0110011_10000000
0110011_10000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
1b. Poll for Chip Erase Complete
0110011_10000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
2a. Enter Flash Write
0100011_00010000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2b. Load Address Extended High Byte
0001011_cccccccc
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2c. Load Address High Byte
0000111_aaaaaaaa
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2d. Load Address Low Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2e. Load Data Low Byte
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2f. Load Data High Byte
0010111_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2g. Latch Data
0110111_00000000
1110111_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
2h. Write Flash Page
0110111_00000000
0110101_00000000
0110111_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
2i. Poll for Page Write Complete
0110111_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(2)
3a. Enter Flash Read
0100011_00000010
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
3b. Load Address Extended High Byte
0001011_cccccccc
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
3c. Load Address High Byte
0000111_aaaaaaaa
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
3d. Load Address Low Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
3e. Read Data Low and High Byte
0110010_00000000
0110110_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
4a. Enter EEPROM Write
0100011_00010001
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
4b. Load Address High Byte
0000111_aaaaaaaa
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
4c. Load Address Low Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
4d. Load Data Byte
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
4e. Latch Data
0110111_00000000
1110111_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
4f. Write EEPROM Page
0110011_00000000
0110001_00000000
0110011_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
4g. Poll for Page Write Complete
0110011_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(2)
(2)
(10)
(10)
Low byte
High byte
(10)
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Table 30-18. JTAG Programming Instruction (Continued)
Set (Continued) a = address high bits, b = address low bits, c = address extended bits, H = 0 - Low byte, 1 - High Byte,
o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t care
Instruction
TDI Sequence
TDO Sequence
5a. Enter EEPROM Read
0100011_00000011
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
5b. Load Address High Byte
0000111_aaaaaaaa
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
5c. Load Address Low Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
5d. Read Data Byte
0110011_bbbbbbbb
0110010_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
6a. Enter Fuse Write
0100011_01000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
6b. Load Data Low Byte(6)
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
6c. Write Fuse Extended Byte
0111011_00000000
0111001_00000000
0111011_00000000
0111011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
6d. Poll for Fuse Write Complete
0110111_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(2)
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
6f. Write Fuse High Byte
0110111_00000000
0110101_00000000
0110111_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
6g. Poll for Fuse Write Complete
0110111_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(2)
6h. Load Data Low Byte(7)
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
6i. Write Fuse Low Byte
0110011_00000000
0110001_00000000
0110011_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
6j. Poll for Fuse Write Complete
0110011_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(2)
7a. Enter Lock Bit Write
0100011_00100000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
7b. Load Data Byte
0010011_11iiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(4)
7c. Write Lock Bits
0110011_00000000
0110001_00000000
0110011_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
7d. Poll for Lock Bit Write complete
0110011_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(2)
8a. Enter Fuse/Lock Bit Read
0100011_00000100
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
8b. Read Extended Fuse Byte(6)
0111010_00000000
0111011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
8c. Read Fuse High Byte(7)
0111110_00000000
0111111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
8d. Read Fuse Low Byte(8)
0110010_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
6e. Load Data Low Byte
(7)
(9)
Notes
(10)
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Table 30-18. JTAG Programming Instruction (Continued)
Set (Continued) a = address high bits, b = address low bits, c = address extended bits, H = 0 - Low byte, 1 - High Byte,
o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t care
Instruction
TDI Sequence
TDO Sequence
Notes
8e. Read Lock Bits(9)
0110110_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxoooooo
(5)
8f. Read Fuses and Lock Bits
0111010_00000000
0111110_00000000
0110010_00000000
0110110_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
(5)
Fuse Ext. byte
Fuse High byte
Fuse Low byte
Lock bits
9a. Enter Signature Byte Read
0100011_00001000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
9b. Load Address Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
9c. Read Signature Byte
0110010_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
10a. Enter Calibration Byte Read
0100011_00001000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
10b. Load Address Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
10c. Read Calibration Byte
0110110_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
11a. Load No Operation Command
0100011_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
Notes:
1. This command sequence is not required if the seven MSB are correctly set by the previous command sequence (which is
normally the case).
2. Repeat until o = “1”.
3. Set bits to “0” to program the corresponding Fuse, “1” to unprogram the Fuse.
4. Set bits to “0” to program the corresponding Lock bit, “1” to leave the Lock bit unchanged.
5. “0” = programmed, “1” = unprogrammed.
6. The bit mapping for Fuses Extended byte is listed in Table 30-3 on page 326.
7. The bit mapping for Fuses High byte is listed in Table 30-4 on page 327.
8. The bit mapping for Fuses Low byte is listed in Table 30-5 on page 327.
9. The bit mapping for Lock bits byte is listed in Table 30-1 on page 325.
10. Address bits exceeding PCMSB and EEAMSB (Table 30-7 and Table 30-8 on page 328) are don’t care.
11. All TDI and TDO sequences are represented by binary digits (0b...).
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Figure 30-16. State Machine Sequence for Changing/Reading the Data Word
1
Test-Logic-Reset
0
0
Run-Test/Idle
1
Select-DR Scan
1
Select-IR Scan
0
0
1
1
Capture-DR
Capture-IR
0
0
Shift-DR
Shift-IR
0
1
Exit1-DR
0
Pause-DR
0
0
Pause-IR
1
1
0
Exit2-DR
Exit2-IR
1
1
Update-DR
30.9.11
1
Exit1-IR
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
Update-IR
0
1
0
Flash Data Byte Register
The Flash Data Byte Register provides an efficient way to load the entire Flash page buffer before executing Page
Write, or to read out/verify the content of the Flash. A state machine sets up the control signals to the Flash and
senses the strobe signals from the Flash, thus only the data words need to be shifted in/out.
The Flash Data Byte Register actually consists of the 8-bit scan chain and a 8-bit temporary register. During page
load, the Update-DR state copies the content of the scan chain over to the temporary register and initiates a write
sequence that within 11 TCK cycles loads the content of the temporary register into the Flash page buffer. The
AVR automatically alternates between writing the low and the high byte for each new Update-DR state, starting
with the low byte for the first Update-DR encountered after entering the PROG_PAGELOAD command. The Program Counter is pre-incremented before writing the low byte, except for the first written byte. This ensures that the
first data is written to the address set up by PROG_COMMANDS, and loading the last location in the page buffer
does not make the Program Counter increment into the next page.
During Page Read, the content of the selected Flash byte is captured into the Flash Data Byte Register during the
Capture-DR state. The AVR automatically alternates between reading the low and the high byte for each new Capture-DR state, starting with the low byte for the first Capture-DR encountered after entering the
PROG_PAGEREAD command. The Program Counter is post-incremented after reading each high byte, including
the first read byte. This ensures that the first data is captured from the first address set up by PROG_COMMANDS,
and reading the last location in the page makes the program counter increment into the next page.
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Figure 30-17. Flash Data Byte Register
STROBES
TDI
State
Machine
ADDRESS
Flash
EEPROM
Fuses
Lock Bits
D
A
T
A
TDO
The state machine controlling the Flash Data Byte Register is clocked by TCK. During normal operation in which
eight bits are shifted for each Flash byte, the clock cycles needed to navigate through the TAP controller automatically feeds the state machine for the Flash Data Byte Register with sufficient number of clock pulses to complete its
operation transparently for the user. However, if too few bits are shifted between each Update-DR state during
page load, the TAP controller should stay in the Run-Test/Idle state for some TCK cycles to ensure that there are
at least 11 TCK cycles between each Update-DR state.
30.9.12
Programming Algorithm
All references below of type “1a”, “1b”, and so on, refer to Table 30-18 on page 347.
30.9.13
Entering Programming Mode
1. Enter JTAG instruction AVR_RESET and shift 1 in the Reset Register.
2. Enter instruction PROG_ENABLE and shift 0b1010_0011_0111_0000 in the Programming Enable
Register.
30.9.14
Leaving Programming Mode
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Disable all programming instructions by using no operation instruction 11a.
3. Enter instruction PROG_ENABLE and shift 0b0000_0000_0000_0000 in the programming Enable Register.
4. Enter JTAG instruction AVR_RESET and shift 0 in the Reset Register.
30.9.15
Performing Chip Erase
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Start Chip Erase using programming instruction 1a.
3. Poll for Chip Erase complete using programming instruction 1b, or wait for tWLRH_CE (refer to Table 30-14 on
page 338).
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30.9.16
Programming the Flash
Before programming the Flash a Chip Erase must be performed, see “Performing Chip Erase” on page 351.
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Flash write using programming instruction 2a.
3. Load address Extended High byte using programming instruction 2b.
4. Load address High byte using programming instruction 2c.
5. Load address Low byte using programming instruction 2d.
6. Load data using programming instructions 2e, 2f and 2g.
7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for all instruction words in the page.
8. Write the page using programming instruction 2h.
9. Poll for Flash write complete using programming instruction 2i, or wait for tWLRH (refer to Table 30-14 on
page 338).
10. Repeat steps 3 to 9 until all data have been programmed.
A more efficient data transfer can be achieved using the PROG_PAGELOAD instruction:
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Flash write using programming instruction 2a.
3. Load the page address using programming instructions 2b, 2c and 2d. PCWORD (refer to Table 30-7 on
page 328) is used to address within one page and must be written as 0.
4. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_PAGELOAD.
5. Load the entire page by shifting in all instruction words in the page byte-by-byte, starting with the LSB of the
first instruction in the page and ending with the MSB of the last instruction in the page. Use Update-DR to
copy the contents of the Flash Data Byte Register into the Flash page location and to auto-increment the
Program Counter before each new word.
6. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
7. Write the page using programming instruction 2h.
8. Poll for Flash write complete using programming instruction 2i, or wait for tWLRH (refer to Table 30-14 on
page 338).
9. Repeat steps 3 to 8 until all data have been programmed.
30.9.17
Reading the Flash
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Flash read using programming instruction 3a.
3. Load address using programming instructions 3b, 3c and 3d.
4. Read data using programming instruction 3e.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until all data have been read.
A more efficient data transfer can be achieved using the PROG_PAGEREAD instruction:
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Flash read using programming instruction 3a.
3. Load the page address using programming instructions 3b, 3c and 3d. PCWORD (refer to Table 30-7 on
page 328) is used to address within one page and must be written as 0.
4. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_PAGEREAD.
5. Read the entire page (or Flash) by shifting out all instruction words in the page (or Flash), starting with the
LSB of the first instruction in the page (Flash) and ending with the MSB of the last instruction in the page
(Flash). The Capture-DR state both captures the data from the Flash, and also auto-increments the program counter after each word is read. Note that Capture-DR comes before the shift-DR state. Hence, the
first byte which is shifted out contains valid data.
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6. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
7. Repeat steps 3 to 6 until all data have been read.
30.9.18
Programming the EEPROM
Before programming the EEPROM a Chip Erase must be performed, see “Performing Chip Erase” on page 351.
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable EEPROM write using programming instruction 4a.
3. Load address High byte using programming instruction 4b.
4. Load address Low byte using programming instruction 4c.
5. Load data using programming instructions 4d and 4e.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for all data bytes in the page.
7. Write the data using programming instruction 4f.
8. Poll for EEPROM write complete using programming instruction 4g, or wait for tWLRH (refer to Table 30-14
on page 338).
9. Repeat steps 3 to 8 until all data have been programmed.
Note that the PROG_PAGELOAD instruction can not be used when programming the EEPROM.
30.9.19
Reading the EEPROM
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable EEPROM read using programming instruction 5a.
3. Load address using programming instructions 5b and 5c.
4. Read data using programming instruction 5d.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until all data have been read.
Note that the PROG_PAGEREAD instruction can not be used when reading the EEPROM.
30.9.20
Programming the Fuses
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Fuse write using programming instruction 6a.
3. Load data high byte using programming instructions 6b. A bit value of “0” will program the corresponding
fuse, a “1” will unprogram the fuse.
4. Write Fuse High byte using programming instruction 6c.
5. Poll for Fuse write complete using programming instruction 6d, or wait for tWLRH (refer to Table 30-14 on
page 338).
6. Load data low byte using programming instructions 6e. A “0” will program the fuse, a “1” will unprogram the
fuse.
7. Write Fuse low byte using programming instruction 6f.
8. Poll for Fuse write complete using programming instruction 6g, or wait for tWLRH (refer to Table 30-14 on
page 338).
30.9.21
Programming the Lock Bits
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Lock bit write using programming instruction 7a.
3. Load data using programming instructions 7b. A bit value of “0” will program the corresponding lock bit, a
“1” will leave the lock bit unchanged.
4. Write Lock bits using programming instruction 7c.
5. Poll for Lock bit write complete using programming instruction 7d, or wait for tWLRH (refer to Table 30-14 on
page 338).
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30.9.22
Reading the Fuses and Lock Bits
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Fuse/Lock bit read using programming instruction 8a.
3. To read all Fuses and Lock bits, use programming instruction 8e.
To only read Fuse High byte, use programming instruction 8b.
To only read Fuse Low byte, use programming instruction 8c.
To only read Lock bits, use programming instruction 8d.
30.9.23
Reading the Signature Bytes
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Signature byte read using programming instruction 9a.
3. Load address 0x00 using programming instruction 9b.
4. Read first signature byte using programming instruction 9c.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 with address 0x01 and address 0x02 to read the second and third signature bytes,
respectively.
30.9.24
Reading the Calibration Byte
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Calibration byte read using programming instruction 10a.
3. Load address 0x00 using programming instruction 10b.
4. Read the calibration byte using programming instruction 10c.
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31. Electrical Characteristics
Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Operating Temperature.................................. -55C to +125C
Storage Temperature ..................................... -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on any Pin except RESET
with respect to Ground ................................-0.5V to VCC+0.5V
Voltage on RESET with respect to Ground......-0.5V to +13.0V
*NOTICE:
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute
Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and
functional operation of the device at these or
other conditions beyond those indicated in the
operational sections of this specification is not
implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
Maximum Operating Voltage ............................................ 6.0V
DC Current per I/O Pin ................................................ 40.0mA
DC Current VCC and GND Pins................................. 200.0mA
31.1
DC Characteristics
TA = -40C to 85C, VCC = 1.8V to 5.5V (unless otherwise noted)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
(1)
VIL
Input Low Voltage, Except
XTAL1 and Reset pin
VCC = 1.8V - 2.4V
VCC = 2.4V - 5.5V
-0.5
-0.5
0.2VCC
0.3VCC(1)
VIL1
Input Low Voltage,
XTAL1 pin
VCC = 1.8V - 5.5V
-0.5
0.1VCC(1)
VIL2
Input Low Voltage,
RESET pin
VCC = 1.8V - 5.5V
-0.5
0.1VCC(1)
VIH
Input High Voltage,
Except XTAL1 and
RESET pins
VCC = 1.8V - 2.4V
VCC = 2.4V - 5.5V
0.7VCC(2)
0.6VCC(2)
VCC + 0.5
VCC + 0.5
(2)
VIH1
Input High Voltage,
XTAL1 pin
VCC = 1.8V - 2.4V
VCC = 2.4V - 5.5V
0.8VCC
0.7VCC(2)
VCC + 0.5
VCC + 0.5
VIH2
Input High Voltage,
RESET pin
VCC = 1.8V - 5.5V
0.9VCC(2)
VCC + 0.5
VOL
Output Low Voltage(3),
Except RESET pin
IOL = 20mA, VCC = 5V
IOL = 10mA, VCC = 3V
VOH
Output High Voltage(4),
Except RESET pin
IOH = -20mA, VCC = 5V
IOH = -10mA, VCC = 3V
IIL
Input Leakage
Current I/O Pin
VCC = 5.5V, pin low
(absolute value)
IIH
Input Leakage
Current I/O Pin
VCC = 5.5V, pin high
(absolute value)
RRST
Reset Pull-up Resistor
30
60
RPU
I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor
20
50
V
0.9
0.6
4.2
2.3
1
µA
1
k
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TA = -40C to 85C, VCC = 1.8V to 5.5V (unless otherwise noted) (Continued)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
(5)
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Active 1MHz, VCC = 2V
(ATmega640/1280/2560/1V)
0.5
0.8
Active 4MHz, VCC = 3V
(ATmega640/1280/2560/1L)
3.2
5
Active 8MHz, VCC = 5V
(ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561)
10
14
Idle 1MHz, VCC = 2V
(ATmega640/1280/2560/1V)
0.14
0.22
Idle 4MHz, VCC = 3V
(ATmega640/1280/2560/1L)
0.7
1.1
Idle 8MHz, VCC = 5V
(ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561)
2.7
4
WDT enabled, VCC = 3V
<5
15
WDT disabled, VCC = 3V
<1
7.5
<10
40
mV
50
nA
mA
Power Supply Current
ICC
Power-down mode
VACIO
Analog Comparator
Input Offset Voltage
VCC = 5V
Vin = VCC/2
IACLK
Analog Comparator
Input Leakage Current
VCC = 5V
Vin = VCC/2
tACID
Analog Comparator
Propagation Delay
VCC = 2.7V
VCC = 4.0V
Notes:
Units
µA
-50
750
500
ns
1. "Max" means the highest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as low.
2. "Min" means the lowest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as high.
3. Although each I/O port can sink more than the test conditions (20mA at VCC = 5V, 10mA at VCC = 3V) under steady state
conditions (non-transient), the following must be observed:
ATmega1281/2561:
1.)The sum of all IOL, for ports A0-A7, G2, C4-C7 should not exceed 100mA.
2.)The sum of all IOL, for ports C0-C3, G0-G1, D0-D7 should not exceed 100mA.
3.)The sum of all IOL, for ports G3-G5, B0-B7, E0-E7 should not exceed 100mA.
4.)The sum of all IOL, for ports F0-F7 should not exceed 100mA.
ATmega640/1280/2560:
1.)The sum of all IOL, for ports J0-J7, A0-A7, G2 should not exceed 200mA.
2.)The sum of all IOL, for ports C0-C7, G0-G1, D0-D7, L0-L7 should not exceed 200mA.
3.)The sum of all IOL, for ports G3-G4, B0-B7, H0-B7 should not exceed 200mA.
4.)The sum of all IOL, for ports E0-E7, G5 should not exceed 100mA.
5.)The sum of all IOL, for ports F0-F7, K0-K7 should not exceed 100mA.
If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOL may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current greater
than the listed test condition.
4. Although each I/O port can source more than the test conditions (20mA at VCC = 5V, 10mA at VCC = 3V) under steady
state conditions (non-transient), the following must be observed:
ATmega1281/2561:
1)The sum of all IOH, for ports A0-A7, G2, C4-C7 should not exceed 100mA.
2)The sum of all IOH, for ports C0-C3, G0-G1, D0-D7 should not exceed 100mA.
3)The sum of all IOH, for ports G3-G5, B0-B7, E0-E7 should not exceed 100mA.
4)The sum of all IOH, for ports F0-F7 should not exceed 100mA.
ATmega640/1280/2560:
1)The sum of all IOH, for ports J0-J7, G2, A0-A7 should not exceed 200mA.
2)The sum of all IOH, for ports C0-C7, G0-G1, D0-D7, L0-L7 should not exceed 200mA.
3)The sum of all IOH, for ports G3-G4, B0-B7, H0-H7 should not exceed 200mA.
4)The sum of all IOH, for ports E0-E7, G5 should not exceed 100mA.
5)The sum of all IOH, for ports F0-F7, K0-K7 should not exceed 100mA.
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If IOH exceeds the test condition, VOH may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to source current
greater than the listed test condition.
5. Values with “PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1” on page 56 enabled (0xFF).
31.2
Speed Grades
Maximum frequency is depending on VCC. As shown in Figure 31-1 trough Figure 31-4 on page 358, the Maximum
Frequency vs. VCC curve is linear between 1.8V < VCC < 2.7V and between 2.7V < VCC < 4.5V.
31.2.1
8MHz
Figure 31-1. Maximum Frequency vs. VCC, ATmega640V/1280V/1281V/2560V/2561V
8 MHz
Safe Operating Area
4 MHz
1.8V
2.7V
5.5V
Figure 31-2. Maximum Frequency vs. VCC when also No-Read-While-Write Section(1),
ATmega2560V/ATmega2561V, is used
8 MHz
Safe Operating Area
2 MHz
1.8V
Note:
2.7V
5.5V
1. When only using the Read-While-Write Section of the program memory, a higher speed can be achieved at low
voltage, see “Read-While-Write and No Read-While-Write Flash Sections” on page 310 for addresses.
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31.2.2
16MHz
Figure 31-3. Maximum Frequency vs. VCC, ATmega640/ATmega1280/ATmega1281
16 MHz
8 MHz
Safe Operating Area
2.7V
4.5V
5.5V
Figure 31-4. Maximum Frequency vs. VCC, ATmega2560/ATmega2561
16 MHz
Safe Operating Area
4.5V
5.5V
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31.3
31.3.1
Clock Characteristics
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator Accuracy
Table 31-1.
Calibration Accuracy of Internal RC Oscillator
Factory Calibration
Frequency
VCC
8.0MHz
3V
Temperature
Calibration Accuracy
25C
±10%
-40C - 85C
±1%
(1)
User Calibration
Notes:
31.3.2
1.8V - 5.5V
2.7V - 5.5V(2)
7.3MHz - 8.1MHz
1. Voltage range for ATmega640V/1281V/1280V/2561V/2560V.
2. Voltage range for ATmega640/1281/1280/2561/2560.
External Clock Drive Waveforms
Figure 31-5. External Clock Drive Waveforms
V IH1
V IL1
31.4
External Clock Drive
Table 31-2.
External Clock Drive
VCC = 1.8V - 5.5V
Symbol
Parameter
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
VCC = 2.7V - 5.5V
VCC = 4.5V - 5.5V
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
Units
0
2
0
8
0
16
MHz
tCLCL
Clock Period
500
125
62.5
tCHCX
High Time
200
50
25
tCLCX
Low Time
200
50
25
tCLCH
Rise Time
2.0
1.6
0.5
tCHCL
Fall Time
2.0
1.6
0.5
tCLCL
Change in period from one
clock cycle to the next
2
2
2
ns
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%
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31.5
System and Reset Characteristics
Table 31-3.
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Min
Typ
0.2VCC
VRST
RESET Pin Threshold Voltage
tRST
Minimum pulse width on RESET Pin
Max
Units
0.9VCC
V
2.5
µs
Brown-out Detector Hysteresis
50
mV
tBOD
Min Pulse Width on Brown-out Reset
2
µs
VBG
Bandgap reference voltage
VCC=2.7V, TA= 25C
tBG
Bandgap reference start-up time
IBG
Bandgap reference current consumption
VHYST
Note:
31.5.1
Reset, Brown-out and Internal voltage CharacteristicsCharacteristics
1.0
1.1
1.2
V
VCC=2.7V, TA= 25C
40
70
µs
VCC=2.7V, TA= 25C
10
µA
1. The Power-on Reset will not work unless the supply voltage has been below VPOT (falling).
Standard Power-On Reset
This implementation of power-on reset existed in early versions of ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561. The table
below describes the characteristics of this power-on reset and it is valid for the following devices only:
•
ATmega640: revision A
•
ATmega1280: revision A
•
ATmega1281: revision A
•
ATmega2560: revision A to E
•
ATmega2561: revision A to E
Table 31-4.
Symbol
Characteristics of Standard Power-On Reset. TA= -40 to +85°C.
Min.(1)
Typ.(1)
Max.(1)
Units
(2)
0.7
1.0
1.4
V
(3)
Power-on Reset Threshold Voltage (falling)
0.05
0.9
1.3
V
Power-on slope rate
0.01
4.5
V/ms
Parameter
Power-on Reset Threshold Voltage (rising)
VPOT
VPSR
Notes:
1. Values are guidelines only.
2. Threshold where device is released from reset when voltage is rising.
3. The power-on reset threshold voltage (falling) will not work unless the supply voltage has been below VPOT.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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31.5.2
Enhanced Power-On Reset
This implementation of power-on reset exists in newer versions of ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561. The table
below describes the characteristics of this power-on reset and it is valid for the following devices only:
•
ATmega640: revision B and newer
•
ATmega1280: revision B and newer
•
ATmega1281: revision B and newer
•
ATmega2560: revision F and newer
•
ATmega2561: revision F and newer
Table 31-5.
Symbol
Characteristics of Enhanced Power-On Reset. TA= -40 to +85°C.
Min.(1)
Typ.(1)
Max.(1)
Units
(2)
1.1
1.4
1.6
V
(3)
Power-on Reset Threshold Voltage (falling)
0.6
1.3
1.6
V
Power-On Slope Rate
0.01
Parameter
Power-on Reset Threshold Voltage (rising)
VPOT
VPSR
Notes:
V/ms
1. Values are guidelines only.
2. Threshold where device is released from reset when voltage is rising.
3. The power-on reset threshold voltage (falling) will not work unless the supply voltage has been below VPOT.
Table 31-6.
BODLEVEL Fuse Coding(1)
BODLEVEL 2:0 Fuses
Min. VBOT
111
Typ. VBOT
Max. VBOT
Units
BOD Disabled
110
1.7
1.8
2.0
101
2.5
2.7
2.9
100
4.1
4.3
4.5
V
011
010
Reserved
001
000
Note:
31.6
1. VBOT may be below nominal minimum operating voltage for some devices. For devices where this is the case, the
device is tested down to VCC = VBOT during the production test. This guarantees that a Brown-Out Reset will occur
before VCC drops to a voltage where correct operation of the microcontroller is no longer guaranteed. The test is
performed using BODLEVEL = 110 for 4MHz operation of ATmega640V/1280V/1281V/2560V/2561V, BODLEVEL
= 101 for 8MHz operation of ATmega640V/1280V/1281V/2560V/2561V and ATmega640/1280/1281, and BODLEVEL = 100 for 16MHz operation of ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561.
2-wire Serial Interface Characteristics
Table 31-7 on page 362 describes the requirements for devices connected to the 2-wire Serial Bus. The
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 2-wire Serial Interface meets or exceeds these requirements under the noted
conditions.
Timing symbols refer to Figure 31-6 on page 363.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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Table 31-7.
2-wire Serial Bus Requirements
Symbol
Parameter
VIL
VIH
(1)
Min.
Max.
Input Low-voltage
-0.5
0.3 VCC
Input High-voltage
0.7 VCC
VCC + 0.5
Vhys
Hysteresis of Schmitt Trigger Inputs
(1)
VOL
Output Low-voltage
tr
(1)
Condition
0.05
3mA sink current
Output Fall Time from VIHmin to VILmax
(1)
tSP
Spikes Suppressed by Input Filter
Ii
Input Current each I/O Pin
Ci(1)
Capacitance for each I/O Pin
Rp
20 +
0.1Cb(3)(2)
300
20 +
0.1Cb(3)(2)
250
0
50(2)
-10
10
µA
–
10
pF
0
400
kHz
fSCL  100kHz
V CC – 0.4V
---------------------------3mA
1000ns
------------------Cb
fSCL > 100kHz
V CC – 0.4V
---------------------------3mA
300
ns----------------Cb
fSCL  100kHz
4.0
–
fSCL > 100kHz
0.6
–
fSCL  100kHz(6)
4.7
–
(7)
1.3
–
fSCL  100kHz
4.0
–
fSCL > 100kHz
0.6
–
fSCL  100kHz
4.7
–
fSCL > 100kHz
0.6
–
fSCL  100kHz
0
3.45
fSCL > 100kHz
0
0.9
fSCL  100kHz
250
–
fSCL > 100kHz
100
–
fSCL  100kHz
4.0
–
fSCL > 100kHz
0.6
–
fSCL  100kHz
4.7
–
fSCL > 100kHz
1.3
–
10pF < Cb < 400pF(3)
fCK(4)
> max(16fSCL,
250kHz)(5)
Value of Pull-up resistor
tHD;STA
Hold Time (repeated) START Condition
tLOW
Low Period of the SCL Clock
tHIGH
High period of the SCL clock
tSU;STA
Set-up time for a repeated START condition
fSCL > 100kHz
tHD;DAT
Data hold time
tSU;DAT
Data setup time
tSU;STO
Setup time for STOP condition
tBUF
Bus free time between a STOP and START
condition
Note:
0.4
0.1VCC < Vi < 0.9VCC
SCL Clock Frequency
fSCL
V
–
0
Rise Time for both SDA and SCL
(1)
tof
VCC(2)
Units
ns

µs
1. In ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561, this parameter is characterized and not 100% tested.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Required only for fSCL > 100kHz.
Cb = capacitance of one bus line in pF.
fCK = CPU clock frequency.
This requirement applies to all ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 2-wire Serial Interface operation. Other devices
connected to the 2-wire Serial Bus need only obey the general fSCL requirement.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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6. The actual low period generated by the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 2-wire Serial Interface is (1/fSCL - 2/fCK),
thus fCK must be greater than 6MHz for the low time requirement to be strictly met at fSCL = 100kHz.
7. The actual low period generated by the ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 2-wire Serial Interface is (1/fSCL - 2/fCK),
thus the low time requirement will not be strictly met for fSCL > 308kHz when fCK = 8MHz. Still,
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 devices connected to the bus may communicate at full speed (400kHz) with
other ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 devices, as well as any other device with a proper tLOW acceptance
margin.
Figure 31-6. 2-wire Serial Bus Timing
tof
tHIGH
tr
tLOW
tLOW
SCL
tSU;STA
tHD;STA
tHD;DAT
tSU;DAT
tSU;STO
SDA
tBUF
31.7
SPI Timing Characteristics
See Figure 31-7 and Figure 31-8 on page 364 for details.
Table 31-8.
SPI Timing Parameters
Description
Mode
1
SCK period
Master
See Table 21-5 on page 198
2
SCK high/low
Master
50% duty cycle
3
Rise/Fall time
Master
3.6
4
Setup
Master
10
5
Hold
Master
10
6
Out to SCK
Master
0.5 • tsck
7
SCK to out
Master
10
8
SCK to out high
Master
10
9
SS low to out
Slave
15
10
SCK period
Slave
4 • tck
11
SCK high/low(1)
Slave
2 • tck
12
Rise/Fall time
Slave
13
Setup
Slave
10
14
Hold
Slave
tck
15
SCK to out
Slave
16
SCK to SS high
Slave
17
SS high to tri-state
Slave
18
SS low to SCK
Slave
Note:
Min.
Typ.
Max.
ns
1600
15
20
10
20
1. In SPI Programming mode the minimum SCK high/low period is:
- 2 tCLCL for fCK < 12MHz
- 3 tCLCL for fCK > 12MHz
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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Figure 31-7. SPI Interface Timing Requirements (Master Mode)
SS
6
1
SCK
(CPOL = 0)
2
2
SCK
(CPOL = 1)
4
MISO
(Data Input)
5
3
MSB
...
LSB
8
7
MOSI
(Data Output)
MSB
...
LSB
Figure 31-8. SPI Interface Timing Requirements (Slave Mode)
SS
10
9
16
SCK
(CPOL = 0)
11
11
SCK
(CPOL = 1)
13
MOSI
(Data Input)
14
12
MSB
...
LSB
15
MISO
(Data Output)
MSB
17
...
LSB
X
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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31.8
ADC Characteristics – Preliminary Data
Table 31-9.
Symbol
ADC Characteristics, Singel Ended Channels
Typ. (1)
Max. (1)
Condition
Resolution
Single Ended Conversion
10
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
CLKADC= 200kHz
2.25
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
CLKADC = 1MHz
3
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
CLKADC = 200kHz
Noise Reduction Mode
2
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
CLKADC = 1MHz
Noise Reduction Mode
3
Integral Non-Linearity (INL)
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
CLKADC = 200kHz
1.25
Differential Non-Linearity (DNL)
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
CLKADC = 200kHz
0.5
Gain Error
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
CLKADC= 200kHz
2
Offset Error
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
CLKADC = 200kHz
-2
Conversion Time
Free Running Conversion
13
260
µs
Clock Frequency
Single Ended Conversion
50
1000
kHz
VCC - 0.3
VCC + 0.3
1.0
AVCC
GND
VREF
Absolute accuracy (Including
INL, DNL, quantization error,
gain and offset error)
AVCC
Analog Supply Voltage
VREF
Reference Voltage
VIN
Min. (1)
Parameter
Input Voltage
Units
Bits
2.5
LSB
Input Bandwidth
38,5
V
kHz
VINT1
Internal Voltage Reference
1.1V
1.0
1.1
1.2
VINT2
Internal Voltage Reference
2.56V
2.4
2.56
2.8
RREF
Reference Input Resistance
32
k
RAIN
Analog Input Resistance
100
M
Note:
V
1. Values are guidelines only.
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Table 31-10. ADC Characteristics, Differential Channels
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Gain =
Resolution
Absolute Accuracy(Including INL, DNL,
Quantization Error, Gain and Offset Error)
Integral Non-Linearity (INL)
Differential Non-Linearity (DNL)
Gain Error
Offset Error
Clock Frequency
Min. (1)
Typ. (1)
1×
8
Gain = 10×
8
Gain = 200×
7
Gain = 1×
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
CLKADC = 50 - 200kHz
18
Gain = 10×
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
CLKADC = 50 - 200kHz
17
Gain = 200×
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
CLKADC = 50 - 200kHz
9
Gain = 1×
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
CLKADC = 50 - 200kHz
2.5
Gain = 10×
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
CLKADC = 50 - 200kHz
5
Gain = 200×
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
CLKADC = 50 - 200kHz
9
Gain = 1×
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
CLKADC = 50 - 200kHz
0.75
Gain = 10×
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
CLKADC = 50 - 200kHz
Max. (1)
Unit
s
Bits
LSB
1.5
Gain = 200×
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
CLKADC = 50 - 200kHz
10
Gain =
1×
1.7
Gain = 10×
1.7
Gain = 200×
0.5
Gain = 1×
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
CLKADC = 50 - 200kHz
2
Gain = 10×
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
CLKADC = 50 - 200kHz
2
Gain = 200×
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
CLKADC = 50 - 200kHz
3
50
%
LSB
200
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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kHz
366
Table 31-10. ADC Characteristics, Differential Channels (Continued)
Symbol
Max. (1)
Unit
s
65
260
µs
VCC - 0.3
VCC + 0.3
2.7
AVCC - 0.5
GND
VCC
Input Differential Voltage
-VREF/Gain
VREF/Gain
ADC Conversion Output
-511
511
Parameter
Condition
Min. (1)
Conversion Time
AVCC
Analog Supply Voltage
VREF
Reference Voltage
Typ. (1)
V
VIN
Input Voltage
VDIFF
Input Bandwidth
4
kHz
VINT
Internal Voltage Reference
RREF
Reference Input Resistance
32
k
RAIN
Analog Input Resistance
100
M
Note:
Values are guidelines only.
31.9
External Data Memory Timing
2.3
LSB
2.56
2.8
V
Table 31-11. External Data Memory Characteristics, 4.5 to 5.5 Volts, No Wait-state
8MHz Oscillator
Min.
Max.
Variable Oscillator
Symbol
Parameter
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
1
tLHLL
ALE Pulse Width
115
1.0tCLCL-10
2
tAVLL
Address Valid A to ALE Low
57.5
0.5tCLCL-5(1)
3a
tLLAX_ST
Address Hold After ALE Low,
write access
5
5
3b
tLLAX_LD
Address Hold after ALE Low,
read access
5
5
4
tAVLLC
Address Valid C to ALE Low
57.5
0.5tCLCL-5(1)
5
tAVRL
Address Valid to RD Low
115
1.0tCLCL-10
6
tAVWL
Address Valid to WR Low
115
1.0tCLCL-10
7
tLLWL
ALE Low to WR Low
47.5
67.5
8
tLLRL
ALE Low to RD Low
47.5
67.5
9
tDVRH
Data Setup to RD High
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
11
tRHDX
Data Hold After RD High
12
tRLRH
13
40
Min.
Max.
0.0
16
MHz
0.5tCLCL-15(2)
0.5tCLCL+5(2)
ns
0.5tCLCL-15(2)
0.5tCLCL+5(2)
40
75
1.0tCLCL-50
0
0
RD Pulse Width
115
1.0tCLCL-10
tDVWL
Data Setup to WR Low
42.5
0.5tCLCL-20(1)
14
tWHDX
Data Hold After WR High
115
1.0tCLCL-10
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
125
1.0tCLCL
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
115
1.0tCLCL-10
Notes:
Unit
1. This assumes 50% clock duty cycle. The half period is actually the high time of the external clock, XTAL1.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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2. This assumes 50% clock duty cycle. The half period is actually the low time of the external clock, XTAL1.
Table 31-12. External Data Memory Characteristics, 4.5 to 5.5 Volts, 1 Cycle Wait-state
8MHz Oscillator
Min.
Max.
Variable Oscillator
Symbol
Parameter
Min.
Max.
Unit
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
0.0
16
MHz
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
12
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
240
2.0tCLCL-10
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
240
2.0tCLCL
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
240
2.0tCLCL-10
200
2.0tCLCL-50
ns
Table 31-13. External Data Memory Characteristics, 4.5 to 5.5 Volts, SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 0
4MHz Oscillator
Symbol
Parameter
Min.
Max.
Variable Oscillator
Min.
Max.
Unit
0.0
16
MHz
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
12
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
365
3.0tCLCL-10
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
375
3.0tCLCL
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
365
3.0tCLCL-10
325
3.0tCLCL-50
ns
Table 31-14. External Data Memory Characteristics, 4.5 to 5.5 Volts, SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 1
4MHz Oscillator
Min.
Max.
Variable Oscillator
Symbol
Parameter
Min.
Max.
Unit
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
0.0
16
MHz
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
12
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
365
3.0tCLCL-10
14
tWHDX
Data Hold After WR High
240
2.0tCLCL-10
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
375
3.0tCLCL
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
365
3.0tCLCL-10
325
3.0tCLCL-50
ns
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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Table 31-15. External Data Memory Characteristics, 2.7 to 5.5 Volts, No Wait-state
4MHz Oscillator
Min.
Max.
Variable Oscillator
Symbol
Parameter
Min.
Max.
Unit
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
0.0
8
MHz
1
tLHLL
ALE Pulse Width
235
tCLCL-15
2
tAVLL
Address Valid A to ALE Low
115
0.5tCLCL-10(1)
3a
tLLAX_ST
Address Hold After ALE Low,
write access
5
5
3b
tLLAX_LD
Address Hold after ALE Low,
read access
5
5
4
tAVLLC
Address Valid C to ALE Low
115
0.5tCLCL-10(1)
5
tAVRL
Address Valid to RD Low
235
1.0tCLCL-15
6
tAVWL
Address Valid to WR Low
235
1.0tCLCL-15
7
tLLWL
ALE Low to WR Low
115
130
0.5tCLCL-10(2)
0.5tCLCL+5(2)
8
tLLRL
ALE Low to RD Low
115
130
ns
0.5tCLCL-10(2)
0.5tCLCL+5(2)
9
tDVRH
Data Setup to RD High
45
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
11
tRHDX
Data Hold After RD High
12
tRLRH
13
45
190
1.0tCLCL-60
0
0
RD Pulse Width
235
1.0tCLCL-15
tDVWL
Data Setup to WR Low
105
0.5tCLCL-20(1)
14
tWHDX
Data Hold After WR High
235
1.0tCLCL-15
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
250
1.0tCLCL
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
235
1.0tCLCL-15
Notes:
1. This assumes 50% clock duty cycle. The half period is actually the high time of the external clock, XTAL1.
2. This assumes 50% clock duty cycle. The half period is actually the low time of the external clock, XTAL1.
Table 31-16. External Data Memory Characteristics, 2.7 to 5.5 Volts, SRWn1 = 0, SRWn0 = 1
4MHz Oscillator
Min.
Max.
Variable Oscillator
Symbol
Parameter
Min.
Max.
Unit
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
0.0
8
MHz
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
12
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
485
2.0tCLCL-15
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
500
2.0tCLCL
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
485
2.0tCLCL-15
440
2.0tCLCL-60
ns
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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Table 31-17. External Data Memory Characteristics, 2.7 to 5.5 Volts, SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 0
4MHz Oscillator
Min.
Variable Oscillator
Symbol
Parameter
Max.
Min.
Max.
Unit
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
0.0
8
MHz
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
12
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
735
3.0tCLCL-15
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
750
3.0tCLCL
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
735
3.0tCLCL-15
690
3.0tCLCL-60
ns
Table 31-18. External Data Memory Characteristics, 2.7 to 5.5 Volts, SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 1
4MHz Oscillator
Min.
Variable Oscillator
Symbol
Parameter
Max.
Min.
Max.
Unit
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
0.0
8
MHz
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
12
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
735
3.0tCLCL-15
14
tWHDX
Data Hold After WR High
485
2.0tCLCL-15
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
750
3.0tCLCL
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
735
3.0tCLCL-15
690
3.0tCLCL-60
ns
Figure 31-9. External Memory Timing (SRWn1 = 0, SRWn0 = 0
T1
T2
T3
T4
System Clock (CLKCPU )
1
ALE
4
A15:8
7
Prev. addr.
Address
15
3a
DA7:0
Prev. data
Address
13
XX
Data
14
16
6
Write
2
WR
3b
9
Address
11
Data
5
Read
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
10
8
12
RD
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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Figure 31-10. External Memory Timing (SRWn1 = 0, SRWn0 = 1)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
System Clock (CLKCPU )
1
ALE
4
A15:8
7
Prev. addr.
Address
15
3a
DA7:0
Prev. data
Address
13
Data
XX
14
16
6
Write
2
WR
3b
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
11
9
Data
5
Read
Address
10
8
12
RD
Figure 31-11. External Memory Timing (SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 0)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
System Clock (CLKCPU )
1
ALE
4
A15:8
7
Address
Prev. addr.
15
DA7:0
Prev. data
3a
Address
13
XX
Data
14
16
6
Write
2
WR
9
3b
Address
Data
5
Read
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
11
10
8
12
RD
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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371
Figure 31-12. External Memory Timing (SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 1)()
T1
T2
T3
T4
T6
T5
T7
System Clock (CLKCPU )
1
ALE
4
A15:8
7
Address
Prev. addr.
15
3a
DA7:0
Prev. data
Address
13
XX
Data
14
16
6
Write
2
WR
9
3b
Address
11
Data
5
Read
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
10
8
12
RD
The ALE pulse in the last period (T4-T7) is only present if the next instruction accesses the RAM (internal or
external).
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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32. Typical Characteristics
The following charts show typical behavior. These figures are not tested during manufacturing. All current consumption measurements are performed with all I/O pins configured as inputs and with internal pull-ups enabled. A
sine wave generator with rail-to-rail output is used as clock source.
All Active- and Idle current consumption measurements are done with all bits in the PRR registers set and thus, the
corresponding I/O modules are turned off. Also the Analog Comparator is disabled during these measurements.
Table 32-1 on page 378 and Table 32-2 on page 379 show the additional current consumption compared to ICC
Active and ICC Idle for every I/O module controlled by the Power Reduction Register. See “Power Reduction Register” on page 52 for details.
The power consumption in Power-down mode is independent of clock selection.
The current consumption is a function of several factors such as: operating voltage, operating frequency, loading of
I/O pins, switching rate of I/O pins, code executed and ambient temperature. The dominating factors are operating
voltage and frequency.
The current drawn from capacitive loaded pins may be estimated (for one pin) as CL × VCC × f where CL = load
capacitance, VCC = operating voltage and f = average switching frequency of I/O pin.
The parts are characterized at frequencies higher than test limits. Parts are not guaranteed to function properly at
frequencies higher than the ordering code indicates.
The difference between current consumption in Power-down mode with Watchdog Timer enabled and Power-down
mode with Watchdog Timer disabled represents the differential current drawn by the Watchdog Timer.
Active Supply Current
Figure 32-1. Active Supply Current vs. frequency (0.1MHz - 1.0MHz)
2.5
5.5V
2
5.0V
ICC (m A)
32.1
1.5
4.5V
4.0V
1
3.3V
2.7V
1.8V
0.5
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency (MHz)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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Figure 32-2. Active Supply Current vs. Frequency (1MHz - 16MHz)
25
5.5V
5.0V
20
ICC (m A)
4.5V
15
4.0V
10
3.3V
2.7V
5
1.8V
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 32-3. Active Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 8MHz)
14
85°C
25°C
-40°C
12
ICC (mA)
10
8
6
4
2
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
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Figure 32-4. Active Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 1MHz)
2.5
-40°C
85°C
25°C
2
ICC (mA)
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 32-5. Active Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 128kHz)
0.7
0.6
-40°C
ICC (mA)
0.5
0.4
25°C
85°C
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
375
Idle Supply Current
Figure 32-6. Idle Supply Current vs. Low Frequency (0.1MHz - 1.0MHz)
0.6
5.5V
0.5
5.0V
ICC (mA)
0.4
4.5V
4.0V
0.3
3.3V
0.2
2.7V
1.8V
0.1
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 32-7. Idle Supply Current vs. Frequency (1MHz - 16MHz)
8
7
5.5V
6
5.0V
5
ICC (m A)
32.2
4.5V
4
4.0V
3
2
3.3V
2.7V
1
1.8V
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Frequency (MHz)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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Figure 32-8. Idle Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 8MHz)
3.5
85°C
25°C
-40°C
3
ICC (mA)
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 32-9. Idle Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 1MHz)
0.9
-40°C
0.8
0.7
85°C
25°C
ICC (mA)
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
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Figure 32-10. Idle Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 128kHz)I
0.3
-40°C
0.25
ICC (m A)
0.2
0.15
25°C
85°C
0.1
0.05
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
32.2.1
Supply Current of IO modules
The tables and formulas below can be used to calculate the additional current consumption for the different I/O
modules in Active and Idle mode. The enabling or disabling of the I/O modules are controlled by the Power Reduction Register. See “Power Reduction Register” on page 52 for details.
Table 32-1.
Additional Current Consumption for the different I/O modules (absolute values)
PRR bit
Typical numbers
VCC = 2V, F = 1MHz
VCC = 3V, F = 4MHz
VCC = 5V, F = 8MHz
PRUSART3
8.0µA
51µA
220µA
PRUSART2
8.0µA
51µA
220µA
PRUSART1
8.0µA
51µA
220µA
PRUSART0
8.0µA
51µA
220µA
PRTWI
12µA
75µA
315µA
PRTIM5
6.0µA
39µA
150µA
PRTIM4
6.0µA
39µA
150µA
PRTIM3
6.0µA
39µA
150µA
PRTIM2
11µA
72µA
300µA
PRTIM1
6.0µA
39µA
150µA
PRTIM0
4.0µA
24µA
100µA
PRSPI
15µA
95µA
400µA
PRADC
12µA
75µA
315µA
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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Table 32-2.
Additional Current Consumption (percentage) in Active and Idle mode
Additional Current consumption compared to
Active with external clock
Additional Current consumption compared to
Idle with external clock
PRUSART3
3.0%
17%
PRUSART2
3.0%
17%
PRUSART1
3.0%
17%
PRUSART0
3.0%
17%
PRTWI
4.4%
24%
PRTIM5
1.8%
10%
PRTIM4
1.8%
10%
PRTIM3
1.8%
10%
PRTIM2
4.3%
23%
PRTIM1
1.8%
10%
PRTIM0
1.5%
8.0%
PRSPI
3.3%
18%
PRADC
4.5%
24%
PRR bit
It is possible to calculate the typical current consumption based on the numbers from Table 32-1 on page 378 for
other VCC and frequency settings than listed in Table 32-2.
32.2.1.1
Example 1
Calculate the expected current consumption in idle mode with USART0, TIMER1, and TWI enabled at VCC = 2.0V
and F = 1MHz. From Table 32-2, third column, we see that we need to add 17% for the USART0, 24% for the TWI,
and 10% for the TIMER1 module. Reading from Figure 32-6 on page 376, we find that the idle current consumption
is ~0.15mA at VCC = 2.0V and F = 1MHz. The total current consumption in idle mode with USART0, TIMER1, and
TWI enabled, gives:
I CC total  0.15mA   1 + 0.17 + 0.24 + 0.10   0.227mA
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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Power-down Supply Current
Figure 32-11. Power-down Supply Current vs. VCC (Watchdog Timer Disabled)
4
85°C
3.5
3
ICC (µA)
2.5
2
1.5
-40°C
25°C
1
0.5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 32-12. Power-down Supply Current vs. VCC (Watchdog Timer Enabled)
12
85°C
10
-40°C
25°C
8
ICC (µA)
32.3
6
4
2
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
380
Power-save Supply Current
Figure 32-13. Power-save Supply Current vs. VCC (Watchdog Timer Disabled)
11
25°C
10
ICC(µA)
9
8
7
6
5
4
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 32-14. Power-save Supply Current vs. VCC (Watchdog Timer Enabled)
9
8
25°C
7
6
I CC (µA)
32.4
5
4
3
2
1
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
381
32.5
Standby Supply Current
Figure 32-15. Standby Supply Current vs. VCC (Watchdog Timer Disabled)
0.2
6MHz xtal
6MHz res
0.18
0.16
ICC (mA)
0.14
4MHz res
4MHz xtal
0.12
0.1
0.08
2MHz res
2MHz xtal
0.06
1MHz res
455kHz res
0.04
0.02
32kHz xtal
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Pin Pull-up
Figure 32-16. I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Input Voltage (VCC = 1.8V)
60
50
40
IOP (µA)
32.6
30
20
10
25°C
85°C
-40°C
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
VOP (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
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Figure 32-17. I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Input Voltage (VCC = 2.7V)
90
80
70
IOP (µA)
60
50
40
30
20
85°C
25°C
-40°C
10
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
VOP (V)
Figure 32-18. I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Input Voltage (VCC = 5V)
160
140
120
IOP (µA)
100
80
60
40
25°C
85°C
-40°C
20
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
VOP (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
383
Figure 32-19. Reset Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Reset Pin Voltage (VCC = 1.8V)
40
35
IRESET (µA)
30
25
20
15
10
25°C
-40°C
85°C
5
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
VRESET (V)
Figure 32-20. Reset pull-up Resistor Current vs. Reset Pin Voltage (VCC = 2.7V)
70
60
IRESET (µA)
50
40
30
20
25°C
-40°C
85°C
10
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
VRESET (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
384
Figure 32-21. Reset Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Reset Pin Voltage (VCC = 5V)
120
100
IRESET (µA)
80
60
40
20
25°C
-40°C
85°C
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
VRESET (V)
Pin Driver Strength
Figure 32-22. I/O Pin output Voltage vs.Sink Current (VCC = 3V)
1
0.9
85°C
0.8
VOL (V)
32.7
0.7
25°C
0.6
-40°C
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOL (mA)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
385
Figure 32-23. I/O Pin Output Voltage vs. Sink Current (VCC = 5V)
0.6
85°C
0.5
25°C
-40°C
VOL (V)
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOL (mA)
Figure 32-24. I/O Pin Output Voltage vs. Source Current (VCC = 3V)
3.5
3
VOH (V)
2.5
-40°C
25°C
85°C
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOH (mA)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
386
Figure 32-25. I/O Pin Output Voltage vs. Source Current (VCC = 5V)
5.1
5
4.9
VOH (V)
4.8
4.7
4.6
-40°C
4.5
25°C
4.4
85°C
4.3
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOH (mA)
Pin Threshold and Hysteresis
Figure 32-26. I/O Pin Input Threshold Voltage vs. VCC (VIH, IO Pin Read as “1“)
3.5
-40°C
25°C
85°C
3
2.5
Threshold (V)
32.8
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
387
Figure 32-27. I/O Pin Input Threshold Voltage vs. VCC (VIL, IO Pin Read as “0“)
2.5
85°C
25°C
-40°C
Threshold (V)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 32-28. I/O Pin Input Hysteresis
0.8
-40°C
Input Hyst eresis (mV)
0.7
0.6
0.5
25°C
85°C
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
388
Figure 32-29. Reset Input Threshold Voltage vs. VCC (VIH, IO Pin Read as “1“)
2.5
-40°C
25°C
85°C
Threshold (V)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 32-30. Reset Input Threshold Voltage vs. VCC (VIL, IO Pin Read as “0“)
2.5
85°C
25°C
-40°C
Threshold (V)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
389
Figure 32-31. Reset Pin Input Hysteresis vs. VCC
0.7
Input Hysteresis (mV)
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-40°C
25°C
85°C
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
60
80
100
VCC (V)
BOD Threshold and Analog Comparator Offset
Figure 32-32. BOD Threshold vs. Temperature (BOD Level is 4.3V)
4.4
4.35
Rising Vcc
Threshold (V)
32.9
4.3
4.25
Falling Vcc
4.2
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
Temperature (°C)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
390
Figure 32-33. BOD Threshold vs. Temperature (BOD Level is 2.7V)
2.8
Rising Vcc
Threshold (V)
2.75
2.7
Falling Vcc
2.65
2.6
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
60
80
100
Temperature (°C)
Figure 32-34. BOD Threshold vs. Temperature (BOD Level is 1.8V)
1.9
1.85
T hre shold ( V )
Rising Vcc
1.8
Fallling Vcc
1.75
1.7
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
Temperature (°C)
100
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
391
32.10 Internal Oscillator Speed
Figure 32-35. Watchdog Oscillator Frequency vs. VCC
128
126
-40°C
FRC (kHz)
124
25°C
122
120
118
116
85°C
114
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 32-36. Watchdog Oscillator Frequency vs. Temperature
128
126
FRC (kHz)
124
122
120
2.1V
2.7V
3.3V
4.0V
5.5V
118
116
114
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Temperature (°C)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
392
Figure 32-37. Calibrated 8MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. VCC
8.3
85°C
8.2
FRC (MHz)
8.1
25°C
8
7.9
-40°C
7.8
7.7
7.6
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 32-38. Calibrated 8MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. Temperature
8.5
5.0V
8.4
3.0V
FRC (MHz)
8.3
8.2
8.1
8
7.9
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Temperature (°C)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
393
Figure 32-39. Calibrated 8MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. Osccal Value
16
85°C
25°C
-40°C
14
FRC (MHz)
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
16
32
48
64
80
96
112
128
144
160
176
192
208
224
240
256
OSCCAL (X1)
32.11 Current Consumption of Peripheral Units
Figure 32-40. Brownout Detector Current vs. VCC
30
85°C
25°C
-40°C
25
ICC (µA)
20
15
10
5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
394
Figure 32-41. ADC Current vs. VCC (AREF = AVCC)
350
-40°C
25°C
85°C
300
ICC (µA)
250
200
150
100
50
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 32-42. AREF External Reference Current vs. VCC
250
-40°C
25°C
85°C
200
ICC (µA)
150
100
50
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
395
Figure 32-43. Watchdog Timer Current vs. VCC
9
-40°C
8
25°C
85°C
7
ICC (µA)
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 32-44. Analog Comparator Current vs. VCC
100
-40°C
25°C
85°C
90
80
ICC (µA)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
396
Figure 32-45. Programming Current vs. VCC
16
-40°C
14
12
25°C
ICC (mA)
10
8
85°C
6
4
2
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
32.12 Current Consumption in Reset and Reset Pulsewidth
Figure 32-46. Reset Supply Current vs VCC (0.1MHz - 1.0MHz, Excluding Current Through The Reset Pull-up)
0.35
5.5V
0.3
5.0V
0.25
ICC (m A)
4.5V
0.2
4.0V
0.15
3.3V
0.1
2.7V
1.8V
0.05
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency (MHz)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
397
Figure 32-47. Reset Supply Current vs. VCC (1MHz - 16MHz, Excluding Current Through The Reset Pull-up)
4
5.5V
3.5
5.0V
ICC (m A)
3
4.5V
2.5
2
4.0V
1.5
1
3.3V
2.7V
0.5
1.8V
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 32-48. Minimum Reset Pulse Width vs. VCC
2500
Pu lsewidth (ns)
2000
1500
1000
85°C
25°C
-40°C
500
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
398
33. Register Summary
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0x1FF)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
...
Reserved
(0x13F)
Reserved
(0x13E)
Reserved
(0x13D)
Reserved
(0x13C)
Reserved
(0x13B)
Reserved
(0x13A)
Reserved
(0x139)
Reserved
(0x138)
Reserved
(0x137)
Reserved
(0x136)
UDR3
(0x135)
UBRR3H
USART3 I/O Data Register
(0x134)
UBRR3L
(0x133)
Reserved
-
-
(0x132)
UCSR3C
UMSEL31
(0x131)
UCSR3B
RXCIE3
-
page 218
USART3 Baud Rate Register High Byte
page 222
USART3 Baud Rate Register Low Byte
-
-
-
UMSEL30
UPM31
UPM30
TXCIE3
UDRIE3
RXEN3
Page
page 222
-
-
-
USBS3
UCSZ31
UCSZ30
UCPOL3
page 235
TXEN3
UCSZ32
RXB83
TXB83
page 234
page 233
(0x130)
UCSR3A
RXC3
TXC3
UDRE3
FE3
DOR3
UPE3
U2X3
MPCM3
(0x12F)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x12E)
Reserved
(0x12D)
OCR5CH
Timer/Counter5 - Output Compare Register C High Byte
page 160
(0x12C)
OCR5CL
Timer/Counter5 - Output Compare Register C Low Byte
page 160
(0x12B)
OCR5BH
Timer/Counter5 - Output Compare Register B High Byte
page 160
(0x12A)
OCR5BL
Timer/Counter5 - Output Compare Register B Low Byte
page 160
(0x129)
OCR5AH
Timer/Counter5 - Output Compare Register A High Byte
page 160
(0x128)
OCR5AL
Timer/Counter5 - Output Compare Register A Low Byte
page 160
(0x127)
ICR5H
Timer/Counter5 - Input Capture Register High Byte
page 161
(0x126)
ICR5L
Timer/Counter5 - Input Capture Register Low Byte
page 161
(0x125)
TCNT5H
Timer/Counter5 - Counter Register High Byte
page 158
(0x124)
TCNT5L
(0x123)
Reserved
-
-
-
Timer/Counter5 - Counter Register Low Byte
-
-
page 158
-
-
-
(0x122)
TCCR5C
FOC5A
FOC5B
FOC5C
-
-
-
-
-
page 157
(0x121)
TCCR5B
ICNC5
ICES5
-
WGM53
WGM52
CS52
CS51
CS50
page 156
(0x120)
TCCR5A
COM5A1
COM5A0
COM5B1
COM5B0
COM5C1
COM5C0
WGM51
WGM50
page 154
(0x11F)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x11E)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x11D)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x11C)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x11B)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x11A)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x119)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x118)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x117)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x116)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x115)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x114)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x113)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x112)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x111)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x110)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x10F)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x10E)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x10D)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x10C)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x10B)
PORTL
PORTL7
PORTL6
PORTL5
PORTL4
PORTL3
PORTL2
PORTL1
PORTL0
(0x10A)
DDRL
DDL7
DDL6
DDL5
DDL4
DDL3
DDL2
DDL1
DDL0
page 100
(0x109)
PINL
PINL7
PINL6
PINL5
PINL4
PINL3
PINL2
PINL1
PINL0
page 100
(0x108)
PORTK
PORTK7
PORTK6
PORTK5
PORTK4
PORTK3
PORTK2
PORTK1
PORTK0
page 99
(0x107)
DDRK
DDK7
DDK6
DDK5
DDK4
DDK3
DDK2
DDK1
DDK0
page 99
(0x106)
PINK
PINK7
PINK6
PINK5
PINK4
PINK3
PINK2
PINK1
PINK0
page 99
(0x105)
PORTJ
PORTJ7
PORTJ6
PORTJ5
PORTJ4
PORTJ3
PORTJ2
PORTJ1
PORTJ0
page 99
(0x104)
DDRJ
DDJ7
DDJ6
DDJ5
DDJ4
DDJ3
DDJ2
DDJ1
DDJ0
page 99
(0x103)
PINJ
PINJ7
PINJ6
PINJ5
PINJ4
PINJ3
PINJ2
PINJ1
PINJ0
page 99
(0x102)
PORTH
PORTH7
PORTH6
PORTH5
PORTH4
PORTH3
PORTH2
PORTH1
PORTH0
page 98
(0x101)
DDRH
DDH7
DDH6
DDH5
DDH4
DDH3
DDH2
DDH1
DDH0
page 99
page 100
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
399
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
(0x100)
PINH
PINH7
PINH6
PINH5
PINH4
PINH3
PINH2
PINH1
PINH0
page 99
(0xFF)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xFE)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xFD)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xFC)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xFB)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xFA)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xF9)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xF8)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xF7)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xF6)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xF5)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xF4)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xF3)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xF2)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xF1)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xF0)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xEF)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xEE)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xED)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xEC)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xEB)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xEA)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xE9)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xE8)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xE7)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xE6)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xE5)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xE4)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xE3)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xE2)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xE1)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xE0)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xDF)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xDE)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xDD)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xDC)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xDB)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xDA)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xD9)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xD8)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xD7)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xD6)
UDR2
(0xD5)
UBRR2H
(0xD4)
UBRR2L
(0xD3)
Reserved
-
-
(0xD2)
UCSR2C
UMSEL21
UMSEL20
(0xD1)
UCSR2B
RXCIE2
TXCIE2
(0xD0)
UCSR2A
RXC2
TXC2
(0xCF)
Reserved
-
-
USART2 I/O Data Register
-
-
-
-
page 218
USART2 Baud Rate Register High Byte
page 222
USART2 Baud Rate Register Low Byte
-
page 222
-
-
-
-
-
UPM21
UPM20
USBS2
UCSZ21
UCSZ20
UCPOL2
page 235
UDRIE2
RXEN2
TXEN2
UCSZ22
RXB82
TXB82
page 234
UDRE2
FE2
DOR2
UPE2
U2X2
MPCM2
page 233
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xCE)
UDR1
(0xCD)
UBRR1H
USART1 I/O Data Register
(0xCC)
UBRR1L
(0xCB)
Reserved
-
-
(0xCA)
UCSR1C
UMSEL11
UMSEL10
(0xC9)
UCSR1B
RXCIE1
TXCIE1
(0xC8)
UCSR1A
RXC1
TXC1
(0xC7)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
page 218
USART1 Baud Rate Register High Byte
page 222
USART1 Baud Rate Register Low Byte
-
page 222
-
-
-
-
-
UPM11
UPM10
USBS1
UCSZ11
UCSZ10
UCPOL1
page 235
UDRIE1
RXEN1
TXEN1
UCSZ12
RXB81
TXB81
page 234
UDRE1
FE1
DOR1
UPE1
U2X1
MPCM1
page 233
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xC6)
UDR0
(0xC5)
UBRR0H
USART0 I/O Data Register
(0xC4)
UBRR0L
(0xC3)
Reserved
-
-
(0xC2)
UCSR0C
UMSEL01
UMSEL00
(0xC1)
UCSR0B
RXCIE0
TXCIE0
(0xC0)
UCSR0A
RXC0
TXC0
(0xBF)
Reserved
-
-
(0xBE)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
(0xBD)
TWAMR
TWAM6
TWAM5
TWAM4
TWAM3
TWAM2
-
page 218
USART0 Baud Rate Register High Byte
page 222
USART0 Baud Rate Register Low Byte
-
page 222
-
-
-
-
-
UPM01
UPM00
USBS0
UCSZ01
UCSZ00
UCPOL0
page 235
UDRIE0
RXEN0
TXEN0
UCSZ02
RXB80
TXB80
page 234
UDRE0
FE0
DOR0
UPE0
U2X0
MPCM0
page 234
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
TWAM1
TWAM0
-
page 264
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
400
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
(0xBC)
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
-
TWIE
page 261
(0xBB)
TWDR
(0xBA)
TWAR
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
page 263
(0xB9)
TWSR
TWS7
TWS6
TWS5
TWS4
TWS3
-
TWPS1
TWPS0
page 262
2-wire Serial Interface Data Register
page 263
(0xB8)
TWBR
(0xB7)
Reserved
-
-
-
2-wire Serial Interface Bit Rate Register
-
-
-
-
-
page 261
(0xB6)
ASSR
-
EXCLK
AS2
TCN2UB
OCR2AUB
OCR2BUB
TCR2AUB
TCR2BUB
(0xB5)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xB4)
OCR2B
Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Register B
page 186
(0xB3)
OCR2A
Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Register A
page 186
(0xB2)
TCNT2
Timer/Counter2 (8 Bit)
(0xB1)
TCCR2B
FOC2A
FOC2B
-
-
WGM22
CS22
CS21
CS20
page 185
(0xB0)
TCCR2A
COM2A1
COM2A0
COM2B1
COM2B0
-
-
WGM21
WGM20
page 186
page 179
page 186
(0xAF)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xAE)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0xAD)
OCR4CH
Timer/Counter4 - Output Compare Register C High Byte
page 160
(0xAC)
OCR4CL
Timer/Counter4 - Output Compare Register C Low Byte
page 160
(0xAB)
OCR4BH
Timer/Counter4 - Output Compare Register B High Byte
page 160
(0xAA)
OCR4BL
Timer/Counter4 - Output Compare Register B Low Byte
page 160
(0xA9)
OCR4AH
Timer/Counter4 - Output Compare Register A High Byte
page 159
(0xA8)
OCR4AL
Timer/Counter4 - Output Compare Register A Low Byte
page 159
(0xA7)
ICR4H
Timer/Counter4 - Input Capture Register High Byte
page 161
(0xA6)
ICR4L
Timer/Counter4 - Input Capture Register Low Byte
page 161
(0xA5)
TCNT4H
Timer/Counter4 - Counter Register High Byte
page 158
(0xA4)
TCNT4L
(0xA3)
Reserved
-
-
-
Timer/Counter4 - Counter Register Low Byte
(0xA2)
TCCR4C
FOC4A
FOC4B
FOC4C
-
-
-
-
-
page 157
(0xA1)
TCCR4B
ICNC4
ICES4
-
WGM43
WGM42
CS42
CS41
CS40
page 156
(0xA0)
TCCR4A
COM4A1
COM4A0
COM4B1
COM4B0
COM4C1
COM4C0
WGM41
WGM40
page 154
(0x9F)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
page 158
-
-
-
(0x9E)
Reserved
(0x9D)
OCR3CH
Timer/Counter3 - Output Compare Register C High Byte
page 159
(0x9C)
OCR3CL
Timer/Counter3 - Output Compare Register C Low Byte
page 159
(0x9B)
OCR3BH
Timer/Counter3 - Output Compare Register B High Byte
page 159
(0x9A)
OCR3BL
Timer/Counter3 - Output Compare Register B Low Byte
page 159
(0x99)
OCR3AH
Timer/Counter3 - Output Compare Register A High Byte
page 159
(0x98)
OCR3AL
Timer/Counter3 - Output Compare Register A Low Byte
page 159
(0x97)
ICR3H
Timer/Counter3 - Input Capture Register High Byte
page 161
(0x96)
ICR3L
Timer/Counter3 - Input Capture Register Low Byte
page 161
(0x95)
TCNT3H
Timer/Counter3 - Counter Register High Byte
page 158
(0x94)
TCNT3L
Timer/Counter3 - Counter Register Low Byte
(0x93)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
page 158
-
-
-
(0x92)
TCCR3C
FOC3A
FOC3B
FOC3C
-
-
-
-
-
page 157
(0x91)
TCCR3B
ICNC3
ICES3
-
WGM33
WGM32
CS32
CS31
CS30
page 156
(0x90)
TCCR3A
COM3A1
COM3A0
COM3B1
COM3B0
COM3C1
COM3C0
WGM31
WGM30
page 154
(0x8F)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x8E)
Reserved
(0x8D)
OCR1CH
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register C High Byte
page 159
(0x8C)
OCR1CL
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register C Low Byte
page 159
(0x8B)
OCR1BH
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register B High Byte
page 159
(0x8A)
OCR1BL
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register B Low Byte
page 159
(0x89)
OCR1AH
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register A High Byte
page 159
(0x88)
OCR1AL
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register A Low Byte
page 159
(0x87)
ICR1H
Timer/Counter1 - Input Capture Register High Byte
page 160
(0x86)
ICR1L
Timer/Counter1 - Input Capture Register Low Byte
page 160
(0x85)
TCNT1H
Timer/Counter1 - Counter Register High Byte
page 158
(0x84)
TCNT1L
Timer/Counter1 - Counter Register Low Byte
(0x83)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
page 158
-
-
-
(0x82)
TCCR1C
FOC1A
FOC1B
FOC1C
-
-
-
-
-
page 157
(0x81)
TCCR1B
ICNC1
ICES1
-
WGM13
WGM12
CS12
CS11
CS10
page 156
(0x80)
TCCR1A
COM1A1
COM1A0
COM1B1
COM1B0
COM1C1
COM1C0
WGM11
WGM10
page 154
(0x7F)
DIDR1
-
-
-
-
-
-
AIN1D
AIN0D
page 267
(0x7E)
DIDR0
ADC7D
ADC6D
ADC5D
ADC4D
ADC3D
ADC2D
ADC1D
ADC0D
page 287
(0x7D)
DIDR2
ADC15D
ADC14D
ADC13D
ADC12D
ADC11D
ADC10D
ADC9D
ADC8D
page 288
(0x7C)
ADMUX
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
MUX4
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
page 281
(0x7B)
ADCSRB
-
ACME
-
-
MUX5
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
page 266, 282, 287
(0x7A)
ADCSRA
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
page 285
(0x79)
ADCH
ADC Data Register High byte
page 286
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
401
Address
Name
(0x78)
ADCL
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0x77)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x76)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x75)
XMCRB
XMBK
-
-
-
-
XMM2
XMM1
XMM0
(0x74)
XMCRA
SRE
SRL2
SRL1
SRL0
SRW11
SRW10
SRW01
SRW00
page 36
(0x73)
TIMSK5
-
-
ICIE5
-
OCIE5C
OCIE5B
OCIE5A
TOIE5
page 162
(0x72)
TIMSK4
-
-
ICIE4
-
OCIE4C
OCIE4B
OCIE4A
TOIE4
page 161
(0x71)
TIMSK3
-
-
ICIE3
-
OCIE3C
OCIE3B
OCIE3A
TOIE3
page 161
(0x70)
TIMSK2
-
-
-
-
-
OCIE2B
OCIE2A
TOIE2
page 188
(0x6F)
TIMSK1
-
-
ICIE1
-
OCIE1C
OCIE1B
OCIE1A
TOIE1
page 161
(0x6E)
TIMSK0
-
-
-
-
-
OCIE0B
OCIE0A
TOIE0
page 131
(0x6D)
PCMSK2
PCINT23
PCINT22
PCINT21
PCINT20
PCINT19
PCINT18
PCINT17
PCINT16
page 113
(0x6C)
PCMSK1
PCINT15
PCINT14
PCINT13
PCINT12
PCINT11
PCINT10
PCINT9
PCINT8
page 113
(0x6B)
PCMSK0
PCINT7
PCINT6
PCINT5
PCINT4
PCINT3
PCINT2
PCINT1
PCINT0
page 114
(0x6A)
EICRB
ISC71
ISC70
ISC61
ISC60
ISC51
ISC50
ISC41
ISC40
page 110
(0x69)
EICRA
ISC31
ISC30
ISC21
ISC20
ISC11
ISC10
ISC01
ISC00
page 110
(0x68)
PCICR
-
-
-
-
-
PCIE2
PCIE1
PCIE0
page 112
(0x67)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x66)
OSCCAL
(0x65)
PRR1
-
-
PRTIM5
PRTIM4
PRTIM3
PRUSART3
PRUSART2
PRUSART1
page 56
(0x64)
PRR0
PRTWI
PRTIM2
PRTIM0
-
PRTIM1
PRSPI
PRUSART0
PRADC
page 55
(0x63)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x62)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(0x61)
CLKPR
CLKPCE
-
-
-
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
page 48
(0x60)
WDTCSR
WDIF
WDIE
WDP3
WDCE
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
page 65
ADC Data Register Low byte
Page
page 286
-
Oscillator Calibration Register
page 38
page 48
0x3F (0x5F)
SREG
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
page 13
0x3E (0x5E)
SPH
SP15
SP14
SP13
SP12
SP11
SP10
SP9
SP8
page 15
0x3D (0x5D)
SPL
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
page 15
0x3C (0x5C)
EIND
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
EIND0
page 16
0x3B (0x5B)
RAMPZ
-
-
-
-
-
-
RAMPZ1
RAMPZ0
page 16
0x3A (0x5A)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0x39 (0x59)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0x38 (0x58)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0x37 (0x57)
SPMCSR
SPMIE
RWWSB
SIGRD
RWWSRE
BLBSET
PGWRT
PGERS
SPMEN
0x36 (0x56)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0x35 (0x55)
MCUCR
JTD
-
-
PUD
-
-
IVSEL
IVCE
page 64, 108, 96, 301
0x34 (0x54)
MCUSR
-
-
-
JTRF
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
page 301
0x33 (0x53)
SMCR
-
-
-
-
SM2
SM1
SM0
SE
page 50
0x32 (0x52)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0x31 (0x51)
OCDR
OCDR7
OCDR6
OCDR5
OCDR4
OCDR3
OCDR2
OCDR1
OCDR0
page 294
0x30 (0x50)
ACSR
ACD
ACBG
ACO
ACI
ACIE
ACIC
ACIS1
ACIS0
page 266
0x2F (0x4F)
Reserved
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
SPI Data Register
page 323
0x2E (0x4E)
SPDR
0x2D (0x4D)
SPSR
SPIF
WCOL
-
-
-
-
-
SPI2X
page 198
0x2C (0x4C)
SPCR
SPIE
SPE
DORD
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
page 197
0x2B (0x4B)
GPIOR2
General Purpose I/O Register 2
0x2A (0x4A)
GPIOR1
General Purpose I/O Register 1
0x29 (0x49)
Reserved
0x28 (0x48)
OCR0B
Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Register B
page 130
0x27 (0x47)
OCR0A
Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Register A
page 130
0x26 (0x46)
TCNT0
Timer/Counter0 (8 Bit)
0x25 (0x45)
TCCR0B
FOC0A
FOC0B
-
-
WGM02
CS02
CS01
CS00
page 129
0x24 (0x44)
TCCR0A
COM0A1
COM0A0
COM0B1
COM0B0
-
-
WGM01
WGM00
page 126
0x23 (0x43)
GTCCR
TSM
-
-
-
-
-
PSRASY
PSRSYNC
page 166, 189
0x22 (0x42)
EEARH
-
-
-
-
0x21 (0x41)
EEARL
EEPROM Address Register Low Byte
0x20 (0x40)
EEDR
EEPROM Data Register
0x1F (0x3F)
EECR
0x1E (0x3E)
GPIOR0
0x1D (0x3D)
EIMSK
INT7
INT6
INT5
INT4
INT3
0x1C (0x3C)
EIFR
INTF7
INTF6
INTF5
INTF4
INTF3
INTF2
0x1B (0x3B)
PCIFR
-
-
-
-
-
PCIF2
0x1A (0x3A)
TIFR5
-
-
ICF5
-
OCF5C
OCF5B
0x19 (0x39)
TIFR4
-
-
ICF4
-
OCF4C
0x18 (0x38)
TIFR3
-
-
ICF3
-
0x17 (0x37)
TIFR2
-
-
-
0x16 (0x36)
TIFR1
-
-
0x15 (0x35)
TIFR0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
EEPM1
-
EEPM0
page 199
page 36
page 36
-
-
-
-
page 130
EEPROM Address Register High Byte
EERIE
page 34
page 34
page 34
EEMPE
EEPE
EERE
page 34
INT2
INT1
INT0
page 111
INTF1
INTF0
page 112
PCIF1
PCIF0
page 113
OCF5A
TOV5
page 162
OCF4B
OCF4A
TOV4
page 162
OCF3C
OCF3B
OCF3A
TOV3
page 162
-
-
OCF2B
OCF2A
TOV2
page 188
ICF1
-
OCF1C
OCF1B
OCF1A
TOV1
page 162
-
-
-
OCF0B
OCF0A
TOV0
page 131
General Purpose I/O Register 0
page 36
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
402
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
0x14 (0x34)
PORTG
-
-
PORTG5
PORTG4
PORTG3
PORTG2
PORTG1
PORTG0
page 98
0x13 (0x33)
DDRG
-
-
DDG5
DDG4
DDG3
DDG2
DDG1
DDG0
page 98
0x12 (0x32)
PING
-
-
PING5
PING4
PING3
PING2
PING1
PING0
page 98
0x11 (0x31)
PORTF
PORTF7
PORTF6
PORTF5
PORTF4
PORTF3
PORTF2
PORTF1
PORTF0
page 97
0x10 (0x30)
DDRF
DDF7
DDF6
DDF5
DDF4
DDF3
DDF2
DDF1
DDF0
page 98
0x0F (0x2F)
PINF
PINF7
PINF6
PINF5
PINF4
PINF3
PINF2
PINF1
PINF0
page 98
0x0E (0x2E)
PORTE
PORTE7
PORTE6
PORTE5
PORTE4
PORTE3
PORTE2
PORTE1
PORTE0
page 97
0x0D (0x2D)
DDRE
DDE7
DDE6
DDE5
DDE4
DDE3
DDE2
DDE1
DDE0
page 97
0x0C (0x2C)
PINE
PINE7
PINE6
PINE5
PINE4
PINE3
PINE2
PINE1
PINE0
page 98
0x0B (0x2B)
PORTD
PORTD7
PORTD6
PORTD5
PORTD4
PORTD3
PORTD2
PORTD1
PORTD0
page 97
0x0A (0x2A)
DDRD
DDD7
DDD6
DDD5
DDD4
DDD3
DDD2
DDD1
DDD0
page 97
0x09 (0x29)
PIND
PIND7
PIND6
PIND5
PIND4
PIND3
PIND2
PIND1
PIND0
page 97
0x08 (0x28)
PORTC
PORTC7
PORTC6
PORTC5
PORTC4
PORTC3
PORTC2
PORTC1
PORTC0
page 97
0x07 (0x27)
DDRC
DDC7
DDC6
DDC5
DDC4
DDC3
DDC2
DDC1
DDC0
page 97
0x06 (0x26)
PINC
PINC7
PINC6
PINC5
PINC4
PINC3
PINC2
PINC1
PINC0
page 97
0x05 (0x25)
PORTB
PORTB7
PORTB6
PORTB5
PORTB4
PORTB3
PORTB2
PORTB1
PORTB0
page 96
0x04 (0x24)
DDRB
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
page 96
0x03 (0x23)
PINB
PINB7
PINB6
PINB5
PINB4
PINB3
PINB2
PINB1
PINB0
page 96
page 96
0x02 (0x22)
PORTA
PORTA7
PORTA6
PORTA5
PORTA4
PORTA3
PORTA2
PORTA1
PORTA0
0x01 (0x21)
DDRA
DDA7
DDA6
DDA5
DDA4
DDA3
DDA2
DDA1
DDA0
page 96
0x00 (0x20)
PINA
PINA7
PINA6
PINA5
PINA4
PINA3
PINA2
PINA1
PINA0
page 96
Notes:
1. For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory addresses
should never be written.
2. I/O registers within the address range $00 - $1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
3. Some of the status flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that the CBI and SBI instructions will operate on
all bits in the I/O register, writing a one back into any flag read as set, thus clearing the flag. The CBI and SBI instructions
work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
4. When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses $00 - $3F must be used. When addressing I/O registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, $20 must be added to these addresses. The
ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the
64 location reserved in Opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For the Extended I/O space from $60 - $1FF in SRAM, only
the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
403
34. Instruction Set Summary
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS
ADD
Rd, Rr
Add two Registers
Rd  Rd + Rr
Z, C, N, V, H
1
ADC
Rd, Rr
Add with Carry two Registers
Rd  Rd + Rr + C
Z, C, N, V, H
1
ADIW
Rdl,K
Add Immediate to Word
Rdh:Rdl  Rdh:Rdl + K
Z, C, N, V, S
2
SUB
Rd, Rr
Subtract two Registers
Rd  Rd - Rr
Z, C, N, V, H
1
SUBI
Rd, K
Subtract Constant from Register
Rd  Rd - K
Z, C, N, V, H
1
SBC
Rd, Rr
Subtract with Carry two Registers
Rd  Rd - Rr - C
Z, C, N, V, H
1
SBCI
Rd, K
Subtract with Carry Constant from Reg.
Rd  Rd - K - C
Z, C, N, V, H
1
SBIW
Rdl,K
Subtract Immediate from Word
Rdh:Rdl  Rdh:Rdl - K
Z, C, N, V, S
2
AND
Rd, Rr
Logical AND Registers
Rd Rd  Rr
Z, N, V
1
ANDI
Rd, K
Logical AND Register and Constant
Rd  Rd K
Z, N, V
1
OR
Rd, Rr
Logical OR Registers
Rd  Rd v Rr
Z, N, V
1
ORI
Rd, K
Logical OR Register and Constant
Rd Rd v K
Z, N, V
1
EOR
Rd, Rr
Exclusive OR Registers
Rd  Rd  Rr
Z, N, V
1
COM
Rd
One’s Complement
Rd  0xFF  Rd
Z, C, N, V
1
NEG
Rd
Two’s Complement
Rd  0x00  Rd
Z, C, N, V, H
1
SBR
Rd,K
Set Bit(s) in Register
Rd  Rd v K
Z, N, V
1
CBR
Rd,K
Clear Bit(s) in Register
Rd  Rd  (0xFF - K)
Z, N, V
1
INC
Rd
Increment
Rd  Rd + 1
Z, N, V
1
DEC
Rd
Decrement
Rd  Rd  1
Z, N, V
1
TST
Rd
Test for Zero or Minus
Rd  Rd  Rd
Z, N, V
1
CLR
Rd
Clear Register
Rd  Rd  Rd
Z, N, V
1
SER
Rd
Set Register
Rd  0xFF
None
1
MUL
Rd, Rr
Multiply Unsigned
R1:R0  Rd x Rr
Z, C
2
MULS
Rd, Rr
Multiply Signed
R1:R0  Rd x Rr
Z, C
2
MULSU
Rd, Rr
Multiply Signed with Unsigned
R1:R0  Rd x Rr
Z, C
2
FMUL
Rd, Rr
Fractional Multiply Unsigned
R1:R0  (Rd x Rr) <<
Z, C
2
FMULS
Rd, Rr
Fractional Multiply Signed
Z, C
2
FMULSU
Rd, Rr
Fractional Multiply Signed with Unsigned
Z, C
2
1
R1:R0  (Rd x Rr) << 1
R1:R0  (Rd x Rr) << 1
BRANCH INSTRUCTIONS
RJMP
k
Relative Jump
PC PC + k + 1
None
2
Indirect Jump to (Z)
None
2
None
2
None
3
4
Extended Indirect Jump to (Z)
PC  Z
PC (EIND:Z)
JMP
k
Direct Jump
PC k
RCALL
k
IJMP
EIJMP
Relative Subroutine Call
PC  PC + k + 1
None
ICALL
Indirect Call to (Z)
None
4
EICALL
Extended Indirect Call to (Z)
PC  Z
PC (EIND:Z)
None
4
Direct Subroutine Call
PC  k
None
5
RET
Subroutine Return
PC  STACK
None
5
RETI
Interrupt Return
PC  STACK
I
Compare, Skip if Equal
if (Rd = Rr) PC PC + 2 or 3
None
CALL
CPSE
k
Rd,Rr
5
1/2/3
CP
Rd,Rr
Compare
Rd  Rr
Z, N, V, C, H
1
CPC
Rd,Rr
Compare with Carry
Rd  Rr  C
Z, N, V, C, H
1
CPI
Rd,K
Compare Register with Immediate
Rd  K
Z, N, V, C, H
SBRC
Rr, b
Skip if Bit in Register Cleared
if (Rr(b)=0) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1
1/2/3
SBRS
Rr, b
Skip if Bit in Register is Set
if (Rr(b)=1) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIC
P, b
Skip if Bit in I/O Register Cleared
if (P(b)=0) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIS
P, b
Skip if Bit in I/O Register is Set
if (P(b)=1) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
BRBS
s, k
Branch if Status Flag Set
if (SREG(s) = 1) then PCPC+k + 1
None
1/2
BRBC
s, k
Branch if Status Flag Cleared
if (SREG(s) = 0) then PCPC+k + 1
None
1/2
BREQ
k
Branch if Equal
if (Z = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
1/2
BRNE
k
Branch if Not Equal
if (Z = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
BRCS
k
Branch if Carry Set
if (C = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCC
k
Branch if Carry Cleared
if (C = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRSH
k
Branch if Same or Higher
if (C = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLO
k
Branch if Lower
if (C = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRMI
k
Branch if Minus
if (N = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRPL
k
Branch if Plus
if (N = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRGE
k
Branch if Greater or Equal, Signed
if (N  V= 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLT
k
Branch if Less Than Zero, Signed
if (N  V= 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHS
k
Branch if Half Carry Flag Set
if (H = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHC
k
Branch if Half Carry Flag Cleared
if (H = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTS
k
Branch if T Flag Set
if (T = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTC
k
Branch if T Flag Cleared
if (T = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVS
k
Branch if Overflow Flag is Set
if (V = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
404
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
BRVC
k
Branch if Overflow Flag is Cleared
if (V = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRIE
k
Branch if Interrupt Enabled
if ( I = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRID
k
Branch if Interrupt Disabled
if ( I = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BIT AND BIT-TEST INSTRUCTIONS
SBI
P,b
Set Bit in I/O Register
I/O(P,b)  1
None
2
CBI
P,b
Clear Bit in I/O Register
I/O(P,b)  0
None
2
LSL
Rd
Logical Shift Left
Rd(n+1)  Rd(n), Rd(0)  0
Z, C, N, V
1
LSR
Rd
Logical Shift Right
Rd(n)  Rd(n+1), Rd(7)  0
Z, C, N, V
1
ROL
Rd
Rotate Left Through Carry
Rd(0)C,Rd(n+1) Rd(n),CRd(7)
Z, C, N, V
1
ROR
Rd
Rotate Right Through Carry
Rd(7)C,Rd(n) Rd(n+1),CRd(0)
Z, C, N, V
1
ASR
Rd
Arithmetic Shift Right
Rd(n)  Rd(n+1), n=0..6
Z, C, N, V
1
SWAP
Rd
Swap Nibbles
Rd(3..0)Rd(7..4),Rd(7..4)Rd(3..0)
None
1
BSET
s
Flag Set
SREG(s)  1
SREG(s)
1
BCLR
s
Flag Clear
SREG(s)  0
SREG(s)
1
BST
Rr, b
Bit Store from Register to T
T  Rr(b)
T
1
BLD
Rd, b
Bit load from T to Register
Rd(b)  T
None
1
SEC
Set Carry
C1
C
1
CLC
Clear Carry
C0
C
1
SEN
Set Negative Flag
N1
N
1
CLN
Clear Negative Flag
N0
N
1
SEZ
Set Zero Flag
Z1
Z
1
CLZ
Clear Zero Flag
Z0
Z
1
SEI
Global Interrupt Enable
I1
I
1
CLI
Global Interrupt Disable
I 0
I
1
SES
Set Signed Test Flag
S1
S
1
CLS
Clear Signed Test Flag
S0
S
1
SEV
Set Twos Complement Overflow.
V1
V
1
CLV
Clear Twos Complement Overflow
V0
V
1
SET
Set T in SREG
T1
T
1
CLT
Clear T in SREG
T0
T
1
SEH
CLH
Set Half Carry Flag in SREG
Clear Half Carry Flag in SREG
H1
H0
H
H
1
1
DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS
MOV
Rd, Rr
Move Between Registers
1
Rd, Rr
Copy Register Word
Rd  Rr
Rd+1:Rd  Rr+1:Rr
None
MOVW
None
1
LDI
Rd, K
Load Immediate
Rd  K
None
1
LD
Rd, X
Load Indirect
Rd  (X)
None
2
LD
Rd, X+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd  (X), X  X + 1
None
2
LD
Rd, - X
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
X  X - 1, Rd  (X)
None
2
LD
Rd, Y
Load Indirect
Rd  (Y)
None
2
LD
Rd, Y+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd  (Y), Y  Y + 1
None
2
LD
Rd, - Y
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Y  Y - 1, Rd  (Y)
None
2
LDD
Rd,Y+q
Load Indirect with Displacement
Rd  (Y + q)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z
Load Indirect
Rd  (Z)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd  (Z), Z  Z+1
None
2
LD
Rd, -Z
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Z  Z - 1, Rd  (Z)
None
2
LDD
Rd, Z+q
Load Indirect with Displacement
Rd  (Z + q)
None
2
2
LDS
Rd, k
Load Direct from SRAM
Rd  (k)
None
ST
X, Rr
Store Indirect
(X) Rr
None
2
ST
X+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(X) Rr, X  X + 1
None
2
ST
- X, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
X  X - 1, (X)  Rr
None
2
ST
Y, Rr
Store Indirect
(Y)  Rr
None
2
ST
Y+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(Y)  Rr, Y  Y + 1
None
2
ST
- Y, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Y  Y - 1, (Y)  Rr
None
2
STD
Y+q,Rr
Store Indirect with Displacement
(Y + q)  Rr
None
2
ST
Z, Rr
Store Indirect
(Z)  Rr
None
2
2
ST
Z+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(Z)  Rr, Z  Z + 1
None
ST
-Z, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Z  Z - 1, (Z)  Rr
None
2
STD
Z+q,Rr
Store Indirect with Displacement
(Z + q)  Rr
None
2
STS
k, Rr
Store Direct to SRAM
(k)  Rr
None
2
Load Program Memory
R0  (Z)
None
3
Load Program Memory
Rd  (Z)
None
3
3
LPM
LPM
Rd, Z
LPM
Rd, Z+
ELPM
ELPM
Rd, Z
ELPM
Rd, Z+
SPM
IN
Rd, P
Load Program Memory and Post-Inc
Rd  (Z), Z  Z+1
None
Extended Load Program Memory
R0  (RAMPZ:Z)
None
3
Extended Load Program Memory
Rd  (RAMPZ:Z)
None
3
3
Extended Load Program Memory
Rd  (RAMPZ:Z), RAMPZ:Z RAMPZ:Z+1
None
Store Program Memory
(Z)  R1:R0
None
-
In Port
Rd  P
None
1
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
405
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
OUT
P, Rr
Out Port
P  Rr
None
1
PUSH
Rr
Push Register on Stack
STACK  Rr
None
2
POP
Rd
Pop Register from Stack
Rd  STACK
None
2
MCU CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS
NOP
No Operation
None
1
SLEEP
Sleep
(see specific descr. for Sleep function)
None
1
WDR
BREAK
Watchdog Reset
Break
(see specific descr. for WDR/timer)
For On-chip Debug Only
None
None
1
N/A
Note:
EICALL and EIJMP do not exist in ATmega640/1280/1281.
ELPM does not exist in ATmega640.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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406
35. Ordering Information
35.1
ATmega640
Speed [MHz](2)
8
16
Notes:
Power Supply
Ordering Code
Package(1)(3)
1.8 - 5.5V
ATmega640V-8AU
ATmega640V-8AUR(4)
ATmega640V-8CU
ATmega640V-8CUR(4)
100A
100A
100C1
100C1
2.7 - 5.5V
ATmega640-16AU
ATmega640-16AUR(4)
ATmega640-16CU
ATmega640-16CUR(4)
100A
100A
100C1
100C1
Operation Range
Industrial (-40C to 85C)
1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form. Contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information and
minimum quantities.
2. See “Speed Grades” on page 357.
3. Pb-free packaging, complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive). Also
Halide free and fully Green.
4. Tape & Reel.
Package Type
100A
100-lead, Thin (1.0mm) Plastic Gull Wing Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
100C1
100-ball, Chip Ball Grid Array (CBGA)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
407
35.2
ATmega1280
Speed [MHz](2)
8
16
Notes:
Power Supply
Ordering Code
Package(1)(3)
1.8V - 5.5V
ATmega1280V-8AU
ATmega1280V-8AUR(4)
ATmega1280V-8CU
ATmega1280V-8CUR(4)
100A
100A
100C1
100C1
2.7V - 5.5V
ATmega1280-16AU
ATmega1280-16AUR(4)
ATmega1280-16CU
ATmega1280-16CUR(4)
100A
100A
100C1
100C1
Operation Range
Industrial (-40C to 85C)
1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form. Contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information and
minimum quantities.
2. See “Speed Grades” on page 357.
3. Pb-free packaging, complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive). Also
Halide free and fully Green.
4. Tape & Reel.
Package Type
100A
100-lead, Thin (1.0mm) Plastic Gull Wing Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
100C1
100-ball, Chip Ball Grid Array (CBGA)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
408
35.3
ATmega1281
Speed [MHz](2)
8
16
Notes:
Ordering Code
Package(1)(3)
1.8 - 5.5V
ATmega1281V-8AU
ATmega1281V-8AUR(4)
ATmega1281V-8MU
ATmega1281V-8MUR(4)
64A
64A
64M2
64M2
2.7 - 5.5V
ATmega1281-16AU
ATmega1281-16AUR(4)
ATmega1281-16MU
ATmega1281-16MUR(4)
64A
64A
64M2
64M2
Power Supply
Operation Range
Industrial
(-40C to 85C)
1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form. Contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information and
minimum quantities.
2. See “Speed Grades” on page 357.
3. Pb-free packaging, complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive). Also
Halide free and fully Green.
4. Tape & Reel.
Package Type
64A
64-lead, Thin (1.0mm) Plastic Gull Wing Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
64M2
64-pad, 9mm × 9mm × 1.0mm Body, Quad Flat No-lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
409
35.4
ATmega2560
Speed [MHz](2)
8
16
Notes:
Power Supply
Ordering Code
Package(1)(3)
1.8V - 5.5V
ATmega2560V-8AU
ATmega2560V-8AUR(4)
ATmega2560V-8CU
ATmega2560V-8CUR(4)
100A
100A
100C1
100C1
4.5V - 5.5V
ATmega2560-16AU
ATmega2560-16AUR(4)
ATmega2560-16CU
ATmega2560-16CUR(4)
100A
100A
100C1
100C1
Operation Range
Industrial (-40C to 85C)
1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form. Contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information and
minimum quantities.
2. See “Speed Grades” on page 357.
3. Pb-free packaging, complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive). Also
Halide free and fully Green.
4. Tape & Reel.
Package Type
100A
100-lead, Thin (1.0mm) Plastic Gull Wing Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
100C1
100-ball, Chip Ball Grid Array (CBGA)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
410
35.5
ATmega2561
Speed [MHz](2)
8
16
Notes:
Power Supply
Ordering Code
Package(1)(3)
1.8V - 5.5V
ATmega2561V-8AU
ATmega2561V-8AUR(4)
ATmega2561V-8MU
ATmega2561V-8MUR(4)
64A
64A
64M2
64M2
4.5V - 5.5V
ATmega2561-16AU
ATmega2561-16AUR(4)
ATmega2561-16MU
ATmega2561-16MUR(4)
64A
64A
64M2
64M2
Operation Range
Industrial
(-40C to 85C)
1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form.Contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information and
minimum quantities.
2. See “Speed Grades” on page 357.
3. Pb-free packaging, complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive). Also
Halide free and fully Green.
4. Tape & Reel.
Package Type
64A
64-lead, Thin (1.0mm) Plastic Gull Wing Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
64M2
64-pad, 9mm × 9mm × 1.0mm Body, Quad Flat No-lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF)
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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36. Packaging Information
36.1
100A
PIN 1
B
PIN 1 IDENTIFIER
E1
e
E
D1
D
C
0°~7°
A1
A2
A
L
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
MIN
NOM
A
–
–
1.20
A1
0.05
–
0.15
SYMBOL
Notes:
1. This package conforms to JEDEC reference MS-026, Variation AED.
2. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion. Allowable
protrusion is 0.25 mm per side. Dimensions D1 and E1 are maximum
plastic body size dimensions including mold mismatch.
3. Lead coplanarity is 0.08 mm maximum.
MAX
A2
0.95
1.00
1.05
D
15.75
16.00
16.25
D1
13.90
14.00
14.10
E
15.75
16.00
16.25
E1
13.90
14.00
14.10
B
0.17
–
0.27
C
0.09
–
0.20
L
0.45
–
0.75
e
NOTE
Note 2
Note 2
0.50 TYP
2010-10-20
100A, 100-lead, 14 x 14 mm Body Size, 1.0 mm Body Thickness,
0.5 mm Lead Pitch, Thin Profile Plastic Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
100A
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
D
412
36.2
100C1
0.12 Z
E
Marked A1 Identifier
SIDE VIEW
D
A
TOP VIEW
A1
Øb
e
A1 Corner
0.90 TYP
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
A
0.90 TYP
B
C
D
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
E
D1
F
e
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
H
A
1.10
–
1.20
I
A1
0.30
0.35
0.40
D
8.90
9.00
9.10
E
8.90
9.00
9.10
G
J
E1
BOTTOM VIEW
D1
7.10
7.20
7.30
E1
7.10
7.20
7.30
Øb
0.35
0.40
0.45
e
NOTE
0.80 TYP
5/25/06
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
100C1, 100-ball, 9 x 9 x 1.2 mm Body, Ball Pitch 0.80 mm
Chip Array BGA Package (CBGA)
DRAWING NO.
100C1
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
REV.
A
413
36.3
64A
PIN 1
B
e
PIN 1 IDENTIFIER
E1
E
D1
D
C
0°~7°
A1
A2
A
L
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of measure = mm)
Notes:
1.This package conforms to JEDEC reference MS-026, Variation AEB.
2. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion. Allowable
protrusion is 0.25mm per side. Dimensions D1 and E1 are maximum
plastic body size dimensions including mold mismatch.
3. Lead coplanarity is 0.10mm maximum.
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
–
–
1.20
A1
0.05
–
0.15
A2
0.95
1.00
1.05
D
15.75
16.00
16.25
D1
13.90
14.00
14.10
E
15.75
16.00
16.25
E1
13.90
14.00
14.10
B
0.30
–
0.45
C
0.09
–
0.20
L
0.45
–
0.75
e
NOTE
Note 2
Note 2
0.80 TYP
2010-10-20
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
64A, 64-lead, 14 x 14mm Body Size, 1.0mm Body Thickness,
0.8mm Lead Pitch, Thin Profile Plastic Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
DRAWING NO.
REV.
64A
C
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
414
36.4
64M2
D
Marked pin# 1 I D
E
C
SEATING PLANE
A1
TOP VIEW
A3
A
K
0.08 C
L
Pin #1 Corner
D2
1
2
3
SIDE VIEW
Pin #1
Triangle
Option A
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of measure = mm)
E2
Option B
Pin #1
Chamfer
(C 0.30)
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
0.80
0.90
1.00
A1
–
0.02
0.05
A3
K
Option C
b
e
Pin #1
Notch
(0.20 R)
BOTTOM VIEW
0.20 REF
b
0.18
0.25
0.30
D
8.90
9.00
9.10
D2
7.50
7.65
7.80
E
8.90
9.00
9.10
E2
7.50
7.65
7.80
e
Notes: 1. JEDEC Standard MO-220, (SAW Singulation) fig . 1, VMMD.
2. Dimension and tolerance conform to ASMEY14.5M-1994.
NOTE
0.50 BSC
L
0.35
0.40
0.45
K
0.20
0.27
0.40
2014-02-12
TITLE
2325 Orchard Parkway
64M2, 64-pad, 9 x 9 x 1.0mm Bod y, Lead Pitch 0.50mm ,
San Jose, CA 95131
7.65mm Exposed Pad, Micro Lead Frame Package (MLF)
DRAWING NO.
64M2
REV.
E
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
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37. Errata
37.1
ATmega640 rev. B
• Inaccurate ADC conversion in differential mode with 200× gain
• High current consumption in sleep mode
1. Inaccurate ADC conversion in differential mode with 200× gain
With AVCC <3.6V, random conversions will be inaccurate. Typical absolute accuracy may reach 64 LSB.
Problem Fix/Workaround
None.
2. High current consumption in sleep mode
If a pending interrupt cannot wake the part up from the selected sleep mode, the current consumption will
increase during sleep when executing the SLEEP instruction directly after a SEI instruction.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Before entering sleep, interrupts not used to wake the part from the sleep mode should be disabled.
37.2
ATmega640 rev. A
• Inaccurate ADC conversion in differential mode with 200× gain
• High current consumption in sleep mode
1.
Inaccurate ADC conversion in differential mode with 200× gain
With AVCC <3.6V, random conversions will be inaccurate. Typical absolute accuracy may reach 64 LSB.
Problem Fix/Workaround
None.
2. High current consumption in sleep mode
If a pending interrupt cannot wake the part up from the selected sleep mode, the current consumption will
increase during sleep when executing the SLEEP instruction directly after a SEI instruction.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Before entering sleep, interrupts not used to wake the part from the sleep mode should be disabled.
37.3
ATmega1280 rev. B
• High current consumption in sleep mode
1. High current consumption in sleep mode
If a pending interrupt cannot wake the part up from the selected sleep mode, the current consumption will
increase during sleep when executing the SLEEP instruction directly after a SEI instruction.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Before entering sleep, interrupts not used to wake the part from the sleep mode should be disabled.
37.4
ATmega1280 rev. A
• Inaccurate ADC conversion in differential mode with 200× gain
• High current consumption in sleep mode
1.
Inaccurate ADC conversion in differential mode with 200× gain
With AVCC <3.6V, random conversions will be inaccurate. Typical absolute accuracy may reach 64 LSB.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
416
Problem Fix/Workaround
None.
2. High current consumption in sleep mode
If a pending interrupt cannot wake the part up from the selected sleep mode, the current consumption will
increase during sleep when executing the SLEEP instruction directly after a SEI instruction.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Before entering sleep, interrupts not used to wake the part from the sleep mode should be disabled.
37.5
ATmega1281 rev. B
• High current consumption in sleep mode
1. High current consumption in sleep mode
If a pending interrupt cannot wake the part up from the selected sleep mode, the current consumption will
increase during sleep when executing the SLEEP instruction directly after a SEI instruction.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Before entering sleep, interrupts not used to wake the part from the sleep mode should be disabled.
37.6
ATmega1281 rev. A
• Inaccurate ADC conversion in differential mode with 200× gain
• High current consumption in sleep mode
1.
Inaccurate ADC conversion in differential mode with 200× gain
With AVCC <3.6V, random conversions will be inaccurate. Typical absolute accuracy may reach 64 LSB.
Problem Fix/Workaround
None.
2. High current consumption in sleep mode
If a pending interrupt cannot wake the part up from the selected sleep mode, the current consumption will
increase during sleep when executing the SLEEP instruction directly after a SEI instruction.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Before entering sleep, interrupts not used to wake the part from the sleep mode should be disabled.
37.7
ATmega2560 rev. F
• ADC differential input amplification by 46dB (200x) not functional
1. ADC differential input amplification by 46dB (200x) not functional
Problem Fix/Workaround
None.
37.8
ATmega2560 rev. E
No known errata.
37.9
ATmega2560 rev. D
Not sampled.
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
417
37.10 ATmega2560 rev. C
• High current consumption in sleep mode
1. High current consumption in sleep mode
If a pending interrupt cannot wake the part up from the selected sleep mode, the current consumption will
increase during sleep when executing the SLEEP instruction directly after a SEI instruction.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Before entering sleep, interrupts not used to wake the part from the sleep mode should be disabled.
37.11 ATmega2560 rev. B
Not sampled.
37.12 ATmega2560 rev. A
•
•
•
•
•
•
1.
Non-Read-While-Write area of flash not functional
Part does not work under 2.4 volts
Incorrect ADC reading in differential mode
Internal ADC reference has too low value
IN/OUT instructions may be executed twice when Stack is in external RAM
EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3
Non-Read-While-Write area of flash not functional
The Non-Read-While-Write area of the flash is not working as expected. The problem is related to the speed of
the part when reading the flash of this area.
Problem Fix/Workaround
- Only use the first 248K of the flash.
- If boot functionality is needed, run the code in the Non-Read-While-Write area at maximum 1/4th of the maximum frequency of the device at any given voltage. This is done by writing the CLKPR register before entering
the boot section of the code.
2. Part does not work under 2.4 volts
The part does not execute code correctly below 2.4 volts.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Do not use the part at voltages below 2.4 volts.
3. Incorrect ADC reading in differential mode
The ADC has high noise in differential mode. It can give up to 7 LSB error.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Use only the 7 MSB of the result when using the ADC in differential mode.
4. Internal ADC reference has too low value
The internal ADC reference has a value lower than specified.
Problem Fix/Workaround
- Use AVCC or external reference.
- The actual value of the reference can be measured by applying a known voltage to the ADC when using the
internal reference. The result when doing later conversions can then be calibrated.
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5. IN/OUT instructions may be executed twice when Stack is in external RAM
If either an IN or an OUT instruction is executed directly before an interrupt occurs and the stack pointer is
located in external ram, the instruction will be executed twice. In some cases this will cause a problem, for
example:
- If reading SREG it will appear that the I-flag is cleared.
- If writing to the PIN registers, the port will toggle twice.
- If reading registers with interrupt flags, the flags will appear to be cleared.
Problem Fix/Workaround
There are two application workarounds, where selecting one of them, will be omitting the issue:
- Replace IN and OUT with LD/LDS/LDD and ST/STS/STD instructions.
- Use internal RAM for stack pointer.
6. EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3
When the Memory Lock Bits LB2 and LB1 are programmed to mode 3, EEPROM read does not work from the
application code.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Do not set Lock Bit Protection Mode 3 when the application code needs to read from EEPROM.
37.13 ATmega2561 rev. F
• ADC differential input amplification by 46dB (200x) not functional
1. ADC differential input amplification by 46dB (200x) not functional
Problem Fix/Workaround
None.
37.14 ATmega2561 rev. E
No known errata.
37.15 ATmega2561 rev. D
Not sampled.
37.16 ATmega2561 rev. C
• High current consumption in sleep mode.
1. High current consumption in sleep mode
If a pending interrupt cannot wake the part up from the selected sleep mode, the current consumption will
increase during sleep when executing the SLEEP instruction directly after a SEI instruction.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Before entering sleep, interrupts not used to wake the part from the sleep mode should be disabled.
37.17 ATmega2561 rev. B
Not sampled.
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37.18 ATmega2561 rev. A
•
•
•
•
•
•
1.
Non-Read-While-Write area of flash not functional
Part does not work under 2.4 Volts
Incorrect ADC reading in differential mode
Internal ADC reference has too low value
IN/OUT instructions may be executed twice when Stack is in external RAM
EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3
Non-Read-While-Write area of flash not functional
The Non-Read-While-Write area of the flash is not working as expected. The problem is related to the speed of
the part when reading the flash of this area.
Problem Fix/Workaround
- Only use the first 248K of the flash.
- If boot functionality is needed, run the code in the Non-Read-While-Write area at maximum 1/4th of the maximum frequency of the device at any given voltage. This is done by writing the CLKPR register before entering
the boot section of the code.
2. Part does not work under 2.4 volts
The part does not execute code correctly below 2.4 volts.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Do not use the part at voltages below 2.4 volts.
3. Incorrect ADC reading in differential mode
The ADC has high noise in differential mode. It can give up to 7 LSB error.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Use only the 7 MSB of the result when using the ADC in differential mode.
4. Internal ADC reference has too low value
The internal ADC reference has a value lower than specified.
Problem Fix/Workaround
- Use AVCC or external reference.
- The actual value of the reference can be measured by applying a known voltage to the ADC when using the
internal reference. The result when doing later conversions can then be calibrated.
5. IN/OUT instructions may be executed twice when Stack is in external RAM
If either an IN or an OUT instruction is executed directly before an interrupt occurs and the stack pointer is
located in external ram, the instruction will be executed twice. In some cases this will cause a problem, for
example:
- If reading SREG it will appear that the I-flag is cleared.
- If writing to the PIN registers, the port will toggle twice.
- If reading registers with interrupt flags, the flags will appear to be cleared.
Problem Fix/Workaround
There are two application workarounds, where selecting one of them, will be omitting the issue:
- Replace IN and OUT with LD/LDS/LDD and ST/STS/STD instructions.
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- Use internal RAM for stack pointer.
6. EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3
When the Memory Lock Bits LB2 and LB1 are programmed to mode 3, EEPROM read does not work from the
application code.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Do not set Lock Bit Protection Mode 3 when the application code needs to read from EEPROM.
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38. Datasheet Revision History
Note that the referring page numbers in this section are referring to this document. The referring revisions in this
section are referring to the document revision.
38.1
Rev. 2549Q-02/2014
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
38.2
Rev. 2549P-10/2012
1.
2.
3.
38.3
Replaced drawing of “64M2” on page 415.
Former page 439 has been deleted as the content of this page did not belong there (same page as the
last page).
Some small correction made in the setup.
Rev. 2549O-05/2012
1.
2.
3.
38.4
Updated the “Reset Sources” on page 57. Brown-out Reset: The MCU is reset when the supply voltage
AVcc is below the Brown-out Reset threshold (VBOT) and the Brown-out Detector is enabled.
Updated the Figure 12-1 on page 58. Power-on reset is now connected to AVcc and not to Vcc.
Updated the content in “Brown-out Detection” on page 59. Replaced Vcc by AVcc throughout the section.
Updated the Figure 12-5 on page 60. Replaced Vcc by AVcc.
Updated “External Interrupts” on page 109. Removed the text “Note that recognition of falling or rising
edge.....”.
Updated the description of “PCMSK1 – Pin Change Mask Register 1” on page 113. The description mentions "PCIE1 bit in EIMSK". This has been changed to “PCIE1 bit in PCICR”.
Updated “Ordering Information” in “ATmega2561” on page 411.
Removed Errata “Inaccurate ADC conversion in differential mode with 200× gain” from “ATmega1280 rev.
B” on page 416 and from “ATmega1281 rev. B” on page 417
Updated “Errata” in “ATmega2560 rev. F” on page 417 and in “ATmega2561 rev. F” on page 419.
Updated the datasheet with new Atmel brand (new logo and addresses).
The datasheet changed status from Preliminary to Complete. Removed “Preliminary” from the front page.
Replaced Figure 10-3 on page 44 by a new one.
Updated the last page to include the new address for Atmel Japan site.
Rev. 2549N-05/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
Added Atmel QTouch Library Support and QTouch Sensing Capablity Features.
Updated Cross-reference in “Bit 5, 2:0 - WDP3:0: Watchdog Timer Prescaler 3, 2, 1 and 0” on page 65.
Updated Assembly codes in section “USART Initialization” on page 205.
Added “Standard Power-On Reset” on page 360.
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5.
6.
7.
38.5
Rev. 2549M-09/2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
38.6
Updated typos in Figure 26-9 on page 276 and in Figure 26-10 on page 277.
Note is added below Table 1-1 on page 3.
The values for “typical characteristics” in Table 31-9 on page 365 and Table 31-10 on page 366, has been
rounded.
Units for tRST and tBOD in Table 31-3 on page 360 have been changed from “ns” to “µs”.
The figure text for Table 31-2 on page 359 has been changed.
Text in first column in Table 30-3 on page 326 has been changed from “Fuse Low Byte” to “Extended
Fuse Byte”.
The text in “Power Reduction Register” on page 52 has been changed.
The value of the inductor in Figure 26-9 on page 276 and Figure 26-10 on page 277 has been changed to
10µH.
“Port A” has been changed into “Port K” in the first paragraph of “Features” on page 268.
Minimum wait delay for tWD_EEPROM in Table 30-16 on page 340 has been changed from 9.0ms to 3.6ms
Dimension A3 is added in “64M2” on page 415.
Several cross-references are corrected.
“COM0A1:0” on page 127 is corrected to “COM0B1:0”.
Corrected some Figure and Table numbering.
Updated Section 10.6 “Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator” on page 43.
Rev. 2549L-08/07
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
38.7
Added “Enhanced Power-On Reset” on page 361.
Updated Figure 32-13 on page 381
Updated “Ordering Information” on page 407 to include Tape & Reel devices.
Updated note in Table 10-11 on page 45.
Updated Table 10-3 on page 42, Table 10-5 on page 43, Table 10-9 on page 45.
Updated typos in “DC Characteristics” on page 355
Updated “Clock Characteristics” on page 359
Updated “External Clock Drive” on page 359.
Added “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 360.
Updated “SPI Timing Characteristics” on page 363.
Updated “ADC Characteristics – Preliminary Data” on page 365.
Updated ordering code in “ATmega640” on page 407.
Rev. 2549K-01/07
1.
2.
3.
Updated Table 1-1 on page 3.
Updated “Pin Descriptions” on page 7.
Updated “Stack Pointer” on page 15.
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4.
5.
6:
7.
8.
9.
10.
38.8
Rev. 2549J-09/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
38.9
Updated “Bit 1 – EEPE: EEPROM Programming Enable” on page 35.
Updated Assembly code example in “Thus, when the BOD is not enabled, after setting the ACBG bit or
enabling the ADC, the user must always allow the reference to start up before the output from the Analog
Comparator or ADC is used. To reduce power consumption in Power-down mode, the user can avoid the
three conditions above to ensure that the reference is turned off before entering Power-down mode.” on
page 60.
Updated “EIMSK – External Interrupt Mask Register” on page 111.
Updated Bit description in “PCIFR – Pin Change Interrupt Flag Register” on page 113.
Updated code example in “USART Initialization” on page 205.
Updated Figure 26-8 on page 276.
Updated “DC Characteristics” on page 355.
Updated “” on page 46.
Updated code example in “Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Section” on page 107.
Updated “Timer/Counter Prescaler” on page 180.
Updated “Device Identification Register” on page 296.
Updated “Signature Bytes” on page 328.
Updated “Instruction Set Summary” on page 404.
Rev. 2549I-07/06
1.
2.
3.
Added “Data Retention” on page 10.
Updated Table 16-3 on page 126, Table 16-6 on page 127, Table 16-8 on page 128, Table 17-2 on page
145, Table 17-4 on page 155, Table 17-5 on page 155, Table 20-3 on page 182, Table 20-6 on page 183
and Table 20-8 on page 184.
Updated “Fast PWM Mode” on page 146.
38.10 Rev. 2549H-06/06
1.
2.
3.
Updated “” on page 46.
Updated “OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register” on page 48.
Added Table 31-1 on page 359.
38.11 Rev. 2549G-06/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
Updated “Features” on page 1.
Added Figure 1-2 on page 3, Table 1-1 on page 3.
Updated “” on page 46.
Updated “Power Management and Sleep Modes” on page 50.
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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Updated note for Table 12-1 on page 65.
Updated Figure 26-9 on page 276 and Figure 26-10 on page 277.
Updated “Setting the Boot Loader Lock Bits by SPM” on page 316.
Updated “Ordering Information” on page 407.
Added Package information “100C1” on page 413.
Updated “Errata” on page 416.
38.12 Rev. 2549F-04/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
Updated Figure 9-3 on page 29, Figure 9-4 on page 30 and Figure 9-5 on page 30.
Updated Table 20-2 on page 182 and Table 20-3 on page 182.
Updated Features in “ADC – Analog to Digital Converter” on page 268.
Updated “Fuse Bits” on page 326.
38.13 Rev. 2549E-04/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
Updated “Features” on page 1.
Updated Table 12-1 on page 62.
Updated note for Table 12-1 on page 62.
Updated “Bit 6 – ACBG: Analog Comparator Bandgap Select” on page 266.
Updated “Prescaling and Conversion Timing” on page 271.
Updated “Maximum speed vs. VCC” on page 373.
Updated “Ordering Information” on page 407.
38.14 Rev. 2549D-12/05
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Advanced Information Status changed to Preliminary.
Changed number of I/O Ports from 51 to 54.
Updatet typos in “TCCR0A – Timer/Counter Control Register A” on page 126.
Updated Features in “ADC – Analog to Digital Converter” on page 268.
Updated Operation in“ADC – Analog to Digital Converter” on page 268
Updated Stabilizing Time in “Changing Channel or Reference Selection” on page 274.
Updated Figure 26-1 on page 269, Figure 26-9 on page 276, Figure 26-10 on page 277.
Updated Text in “ADCSRB – ADC Control and Status Register B” on page 282.
Updated Note for Table 4 on page 42, Table 13-15 on page 82, Table 26-3 on page 281 and Table 26-6
on page 287.
Updated Table 31-9 on page 365 and Table 31-10 on page 366.
Updated “Filling the Temporary Buffer (Page Loading)” on page 315.
Updated “Typical Characteristics” on page 373.
Updated “Packaging Information” on page 412.
Updated “Errata” on page 416.
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38.15 Rev. 2549C-09/05
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Updated Speed Grade in section “Features” on page 1.
Added “Resources” on page 10.
Updated “SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface” on page 190. In Slave mode, low and high period SPI clock
must be larger than 2 CPU cycles.
Updated “Bit Rate Generator Unit” on page 242.
Updated “Maximum speed vs. VCC” on page 373.
Updated “Ordering Information” on page 407.
Updated “Packaging Information” on page 412. Package 64M1 replaced by 64M2.
Updated “Errata” on page 416.
38.16 Rev. 2549B-05/05
1.
2.
3.
4.
JTAG ID/Signature for ATmega640 updated: 0x9608.
Updated Table 13-7 on page 78.
Updated “Serial Programming Instruction set” on page 340.
Updated “Errata” on page 416.
38.17 Rev. 2549A-03/05
1.
Initial version.
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Table of Contents
Features .................................................................................................... 1
1
Pin Configurations ................................................................................... 2
2
Overview ................................................................................................... 5
2.1Block Diagram ...........................................................................................................5
2.2Comparison Between ATmega1281/2561 and ATmega640/1280/2560 ...................7
2.3Pin Descriptions .........................................................................................................7
3
Resources ............................................................................................... 10
4
About Code Examples ........................................................................... 10
5
Data Retention ........................................................................................ 10
6
Capacitive touch sensing ...................................................................... 10
7
AVR CPU Core ........................................................................................ 11
7.1Introduction ..............................................................................................................11
7.2Architectural Overview .............................................................................................11
7.3ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit .....................................................................................12
7.4Status Register ........................................................................................................12
7.5General Purpose Register File ................................................................................13
7.6Stack Pointer ...........................................................................................................15
7.7Instruction Execution Timing ...................................................................................16
7.8Reset and Interrupt Handling ...................................................................................17
8
AVR Memories ........................................................................................ 20
8.1In-System Reprogrammable Flash Program Memory .............................................20
8.2SRAM Data Memory ................................................................................................20
8.3EEPROM Data Memory ..........................................................................................22
8.4I/O Memory ..............................................................................................................26
9
External Memory Interface .................................................................... 27
9.1Overview ..................................................................................................................27
9.2Register Description ................................................................................................34
9.3General Purpose registers .......................................................................................36
9.4External Memory registers .......................................................................................36
10 System Clock and Clock Options ......................................................... 39
10.1Overview ................................................................................................................39
10.2Clock Systems and their Distribution .....................................................................39
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10.3Clock Sources .......................................................................................................40
10.4Low Power Crystal Oscillator .................................................................................41
10.5Full Swing Crystal Oscillator ..................................................................................42
10.6Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator ..........................................................................43
10.7Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator ...........................................................................45
10.8128kHz Internal Oscillator .....................................................................................45
10.9External Clock .......................................................................................................46
10.10Clock Output Buffer .............................................................................................47
10.11Timer/Counter Oscillator ......................................................................................47
10.12System Clock Prescaler ......................................................................................47
10.13Register Description ............................................................................................48
11 Power Management and Sleep Modes ................................................. 50
11.1Sleep Modes ..........................................................................................................50
11.2Idle Mode ...............................................................................................................50
11.3ADC Noise Reduction Mode ..................................................................................51
11.4Power-down Mode .................................................................................................51
11.5Power-save Mode ..................................................................................................51
11.6Standby Mode .......................................................................................................51
11.7Extended Standby Mode .......................................................................................51
11.8Power Reduction Register .....................................................................................52
11.9Minimizing Power Consumption ............................................................................52
11.10Register Description ............................................................................................54
12 System Control and Reset ..................................................................... 57
12.1Resetting the AVR .................................................................................................57
12.2Reset Sources .......................................................................................................57
12.3Internal Voltage Reference ....................................................................................60
12.4Watchdog Timer ....................................................................................................61
12.5Register Description ..............................................................................................64
13 I/O-Ports .................................................................................................. 67
13.1Introduction ............................................................................................................67
13.2Ports as General Digital I/O ...................................................................................68
13.3Alternate Port Functions ........................................................................................72
13.4Register Description for I/O-Ports ..........................................................................96
14 Interrupts ............................................................................................... 101
14.1Interrupt Vectors in ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 ......................................101
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14.2Reset and Interrupt Vector placement .................................................................102
14.3Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Section ...................................107
14.4Register Description ............................................................................................108
15 External Interrupts ............................................................................... 109
15.1Pin Change Interrupt Timing ................................................................................109
15.2Register Description ............................................................................................110
16 8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM .......................................................... 115
16.1Features ..............................................................................................................115
16.2Overview ..............................................................................................................115
16.3Timer/Counter Clock Sources .............................................................................116
16.4Counter Unit ........................................................................................................116
16.5Output Compare Unit ...........................................................................................117
16.6Compare Match Output Unit ................................................................................119
16.7Modes of Operation .............................................................................................120
16.8Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams .........................................................................124
16.9Register Description ............................................................................................126
17 16-bit Timer/Counter (Timer/Counter 1, 3, 4, and 5) .......................... 133
17.1Features ..............................................................................................................133
17.2Overview ..............................................................................................................133
17.3Accessing 16-bit Registers ..................................................................................135
17.4Timer/Counter Clock Sources .............................................................................138
17.5Counter Unit ........................................................................................................139
17.6Input Capture Unit ...............................................................................................140
17.7Output Compare Units .........................................................................................141
17.8Compare Match Output Unit ................................................................................143
17.9Modes of Operation .............................................................................................144
17.10Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams .......................................................................152
17.11Register Description ..........................................................................................154
18 Timer/Counter 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 Prescaler ........................................... 164
18.1Internal Clock Source ..........................................................................................164
18.2Prescaler Reset ...................................................................................................164
18.3External Clock Source .........................................................................................164
18.4Register Description ............................................................................................166
19 Output Compare Modulator (OCM1C0A) ............................................ 167
19.1Overview ..............................................................................................................167
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19.2Description ...........................................................................................................167
20 8-bit Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous Operation ....... 169
20.1Overview ..............................................................................................................169
20.2Timer/Counter Clock Sources .............................................................................170
20.3Counter Unit ........................................................................................................170
20.4Modes of Operation .............................................................................................171
20.5Output Compare Unit ...........................................................................................175
20.6Compare Match Output Unit ................................................................................176
20.7Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams .........................................................................177
20.8Asynchronous Operation of Timer/Counter2 .......................................................179
20.9Timer/Counter Prescaler .....................................................................................180
20.10Register Description ..........................................................................................182
21 SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface ......................................................... 190
21.1SS Pin Functionality ............................................................................................195
21.2Register Description ............................................................................................197
22 USART ................................................................................................... 200
22.1Features ..............................................................................................................200
22.2Overview ..............................................................................................................200
22.3Clock Generation .................................................................................................201
22.4Frame Formats ....................................................................................................204
22.5USART Initialization .............................................................................................205
22.6Data Transmission – The USART Transmitter ....................................................207
22.7Data Reception – The USART Receiver .............................................................209
22.8Asynchronous Data Reception ............................................................................213
22.9Multi-processor Communication Mode ................................................................216
22.10Register Description ..........................................................................................218
22.11Examples of Baud Rate Setting .........................................................................223
23 USART in SPI Mode .............................................................................. 227
23.1Overview ..............................................................................................................227
23.2USART MSPIM vs. SPI .......................................................................................227
23.3SPI Data Modes and Timing ................................................................................228
23.4Frame Formats ....................................................................................................229
23.5Data Transfer .......................................................................................................231
23.6USART MSPIM Register Description ..................................................................232
24 2-wire Serial Interface .......................................................................... 236
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24.1Features ..............................................................................................................236
24.22-wire Serial Interface Bus Definition ..................................................................236
24.3Data Transfer and Frame Format ........................................................................237
24.4Multi-master Bus Systems, Arbitration, and Synchronization ..............................239
24.5Overview of the TWI Module ...............................................................................241
24.6Using the TWI ......................................................................................................244
24.7Transmission Modes ...........................................................................................247
24.8Multi-master Systems and Arbitration ..................................................................259
24.9Register Description ............................................................................................261
25 AC – Analog Comparator ..................................................................... 265
25.1Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input .................................................................265
25.2Register Description ............................................................................................266
26 ADC – Analog to Digital Converter ..................................................... 268
26.1Features ..............................................................................................................268
26.2Operation .............................................................................................................269
26.3Starting a Conversion ..........................................................................................270
26.4Prescaling and Conversion Timing ......................................................................271
26.5Changing Channel or Reference Selection .........................................................274
26.6ADC Noise Canceler ...........................................................................................275
26.7ADC Conversion Result .......................................................................................280
26.8Register Description ............................................................................................281
27 JTAG Interface and On-chip Debug System ...................................... 289
27.1Features ..............................................................................................................289
27.2Overview ..............................................................................................................289
27.3TAP - Test Access Port .......................................................................................290
27.4Using the Boundary-scan Chain ..........................................................................292
27.5Using the On-chip Debug System .......................................................................292
27.6On-chip Debug Specific JTAG Instructions .........................................................293
27.7Using the JTAG Programming Capabilities .........................................................293
27.8Bibliography .........................................................................................................294
27.9On-chip Debug Related Register in I/O Memory .................................................294
28 IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-scan ................................................... 295
28.1Features ..............................................................................................................295
28.2System Overview .................................................................................................295
28.3Data Registers .....................................................................................................295
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28.4Boundary-scan Specific JTAG Instructions .........................................................297
28.5Boundary-scan Chain ..........................................................................................298
28.6Boundary-scan Related Register in I/O Memory .................................................301
28.7ATmega640/1280/1281/2560/2561 Boundary-scan Order ..................................301
28.8Boundary-scan Description Language Files ........................................................301
29 Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming ......... 310
29.1Features ..............................................................................................................310
29.2Application and Boot Loader Flash Sections .......................................................310
29.3Read-While-Write and No Read-While-Write Flash Sections ..............................310
29.4Boot Loader Lock Bits .........................................................................................312
29.5Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming .................................................314
29.6Self-Programming the Flash ................................................................................315
29.7Register Description ............................................................................................323
30 Memory Programming ......................................................................... 325
30.1Program And Data Memory Lock Bits .................................................................325
30.2Fuse Bits ..............................................................................................................326
30.3Signature Bytes ...................................................................................................328
30.4Calibration Byte ...................................................................................................328
30.5Page Size ............................................................................................................328
30.6Parallel Programming Parameters, Pin Mapping, and Commands .....................328
30.7Parallel Programming ..........................................................................................330
30.8Serial Downloading ..............................................................................................338
30.9Programming via the JTAG Interface ..................................................................342
31 Electrical Characteristics .................................................................... 355
31.1DC Characteristics ...............................................................................................355
31.2Speed Grades .....................................................................................................357
31.3Clock Characteristics ...........................................................................................359
31.4External Clock Drive ............................................................................................359
31.5System and Reset Characteristics ......................................................................360
31.62-wire Serial Interface Characteristics .................................................................361
31.7SPI Timing Characteristics ..................................................................................363
31.8ADC Characteristics – Preliminary Data ..............................................................365
31.9External Data Memory Timing .............................................................................367
32 Typical Characteristics ........................................................................ 373
32.1Active Supply Current ..........................................................................................373
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32.2Idle Supply Current ..............................................................................................376
32.3Power-down Supply Current ................................................................................380
32.4Power-save Supply Current .................................................................................381
32.5Standby Supply Current ......................................................................................382
32.6Pin Pull-up ...........................................................................................................382
32.7Pin Driver Strength ..............................................................................................385
32.8Pin Threshold and Hysteresis ..............................................................................387
32.9BOD Threshold and Analog Comparator Offset ..................................................390
32.10Internal Oscillator Speed ...................................................................................392
32.11Current Consumption of Peripheral Units ..........................................................394
32.12Current Consumption in Reset and Reset Pulsewidth ......................................397
33 Register Summary ................................................................................ 399
34 Instruction Set Summary ..................................................................... 404
35 Ordering Information ........................................................................... 407
35.1ATmega640 .........................................................................................................407
35.2ATmega1280 .......................................................................................................408
35.3ATmega1281 .......................................................................................................409
35.4ATmega2560 .......................................................................................................410
35.5ATmega2561 .......................................................................................................411
36 Packaging Information ......................................................................... 412
36.1100A ....................................................................................................................412
36.2100C1 ..................................................................................................................413
36.364A ......................................................................................................................414
36.464M2 ....................................................................................................................415
37 Errata ..................................................................................................... 416
37.1ATmega640 rev. B ...............................................................................................416
37.2ATmega640 rev. A ...............................................................................................416
37.3ATmega1280 rev. B .............................................................................................416
37.4ATmega1280 rev. A .............................................................................................416
37.5ATmega1281 rev. B .............................................................................................417
37.6ATmega1281 rev. A .............................................................................................417
37.7ATmega2560 rev. F .............................................................................................417
37.8ATmega2560 rev. E .............................................................................................417
37.9ATmega2560 rev. D ............................................................................................417
37.10ATmega2560 rev. C ..........................................................................................418
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37.11ATmega2560 rev. B ...........................................................................................418
37.12ATmega2560 rev. A ...........................................................................................418
37.13ATmega2561 rev. F ...........................................................................................419
37.14ATmega2561 rev. E ...........................................................................................419
37.15ATmega2561 rev. D ..........................................................................................419
37.16ATmega2561 rev. C ..........................................................................................419
37.17ATmega2561 rev. B ...........................................................................................419
37.18ATmega2561 rev. A ...........................................................................................420
38 Datasheet Revision History ................................................................. 422
38.1Rev. 2549Q-02/2014 ...........................................................................................422
38.2Rev. 2549P-10/2012 ............................................................................................422
38.3Rev. 2549O-05/2012 ...........................................................................................422
38.4Rev. 2549N-05/2011 ...........................................................................................422
38.5Rev. 2549M-09/2010 ...........................................................................................423
38.6Rev. 2549L-08/07 ................................................................................................423
38.7Rev. 2549K-01/07 ................................................................................................423
38.8Rev. 2549J-09/06 ................................................................................................424
38.9Rev. 2549I-07/06 .................................................................................................424
38.10Rev. 2549H-06/06 .............................................................................................424
38.11Rev. 2549G-06/06 .............................................................................................424
38.12Rev. 2549F-04/06 ..............................................................................................425
38.13Rev. 2549E-04/06 ..............................................................................................425
38.14Rev. 2549D-12/05 .............................................................................................425
38.15Rev. 2549C-09/05 .............................................................................................426
38.16Rev. 2549B-05/05 ..............................................................................................426
38.17Rev. 2549A-03/05 ..............................................................................................426
Table of Contents ....................................................................................... i
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