22Mbps Wireless Network
PCI Adapter User Manual
version 3.1
Manufacturer's Disclaimer Statement
The information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not
represent a commitment on the part of the vendor. No warranty or representation,
either expressed or implied, is made with respect to the quality, accuracy or fitness for
any particular purpose of this document. The manufacturer reserves the right to make
changes to the content of this document and/or the products associated with it at any
time without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes. In no
event will the manufacturer be liable for direct, indirect, special, incidental or
consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use this product or
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this document are mentioned for identification purchases only. All trademarks,
product names or brand names appearing in this document are registered property of
their respective owners.
This product has been tested and complies with the specifications for a Class B digital device, pursuant
to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. T hese limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against
harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio
frequency energy and, if not installed and used according to the instructions, may cause harmful
interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur
in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television
reception, which is found by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct
the interference by one or more of the following measures:
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna
Increase the separation between the equipment or devices
Connect the equipment to an outlet other than the receiver’s
Consult a dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for assistance
FCC Radiation Exposure Statement
This equipment complies with FCC radiation exposure limits set forth for an uncontrolled environment.
This equipment should be installed and operated with minimum distance 20cm between the radiator and
your body.
Table of Contents:
TABLE OF CONTENTS:.....................................................................................................................................3
PRODUCT FEATURES ............................................................................................................................................4
SYSTEM R EQUIREMENTS .....................................................................................................................................5
GETTING T O KNOW T HE 22M BPS WIRELESS N ETWORK PCI A DAPTER......................................................6
WIRELESS NETWORK PCI Adapter’s LEDs ...........................................................................................6
SETTING UP T HE W IRELESS NETWORK ............................................................................................................6
INSTALLING YOUR 22M BPS WIRELESS N ETWORK PCI A DAPTER ................................................................8
CONFIGURING YOUR WIRELESS PCI ADAPTER.............................................................................. 13
Link Info. Page ............................................................................................................................................. 13
Configuration Page...................................................................................................................................... 14
Security Page ................................................................................................................................................ 16
SiteSurvey Page............................................................................................................................................ 17
About Page .................................................................................................................................................... 19
APPENDIX A: TROUBLES HOOTING........................................................................................................ 20
APPENDIX B: NETWORKING BASIS ........................................................................................................ 25
APPENDIX C: 802.1X AUTHENTICATION SETUP............................................................................... 39
802.1X AUTHENTICATION I NFRASTRUCTURE.................................................................................................39
SUPPLICANT : WIRELESS NETWORK PC C ARD............................................................................................... 40
AUTHENTICATOR: WIRELESS N ETWORK ACCESS POINT .............................................................................. 59
RADIUS SERVER : W INDOW 2000 SERVER ....................................................................................................... 61
APPENDIX D: GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................................. 83
APPENDIX E: TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ....................................................................................... 88
The 22Mbps Wireless Network PCI Adapter
delivers enhanced IEEE 802.11b high performance
for up to 22Mbps, which is double of that offered
by most of the current wireless products in the
The 22Mbps high data rate is made possible by the
latest advanced TI wireless technology, which incorporates the new PBCC modulation
method. Unlike the ordinary CCK modulation, not only the new PBCC modulation
method offers double data rate for up to 22Mbps, but also it gives 20% more distance
The 22Mbps Wireless Network PCI Adapter is fully compatible with other 11Mbps
wireless de vices. The simple step-by-step installation allows you to have the wireless
network setup in no time. The comprehensive configuration utility makes the setting
control for the PCI Adapter easier than ever.
The 22Mbps Wireless Network PCI Adapter is an ideal wireless device that truly
makes the idea of “wireless” come true. Please take a moment to read through this
manual and get acquainted with this cutting-edge product.
Product Features
Fully compatible with IEEE 802.11b standard for wireless.
Interoperatable with existing IEEE 802.11b standard devices.
Supports new data modulation PBCC technology from Text Instrument, which
enables high data with double speed of up to 22Mbps.
20% more transmitting and receiving coverage supported by PBCC modulation.
4X mode enhancing the transmission speed to over 12Mbps throughput.
Supports auto data rate fallback under noisy environment or longer distance.
Enhanced security on WEP encryption from 64, 128 to the maximum of 256 bits.
Supports SiteSurvey function with profile.
Easy setup and installation with Install Wizard..
System Requirements
Windows 98, 98SE, Millennium Edition (ME), 2000 and XP computers
PC with Pentium III 600MHz system or above is recommended
Equipped with at least one empty PCI standard v2.1 socket.
One CD-ROM drive
Getting To Know The 22Mbps Wireless Network PCI Adapter
Power LED
ON when the unit is powered up
Blink indicates wireless activity
Setting Up The Wireless Network
There two wireless ne twork topologies that you can setup your wireless card with.
One is called “Ad-Hoc”, and the other is “Infrastructure ”. On an Ad-Hoc network,
two or more computers each has at least one wireless network client device such as
wireless PCI Adapter installed, establish point-to-point data communication with each
other. While on an Infrastructure network, every wireless station communicates
through Access Points.
Setting Up Ad-Hoc Network
The idea of Ad-Hoc Network is rather simple. All the wireless station are set to use the
same BSS ID and channel to establish communication linkage with each other to form
a point-to-point network for data transmission and reception.
Setting Up Infrastructure Network
In order to setup an Infrastructure of a wireless network such as the example shown
above, you will need the following:
1. A broadband Internet connection.
2. ADSL or Cable modem provided by your ISP as part of the broadband connection
3. A Router that connects to the ADSL/Cable modem for internet connection sharing.
4. An Access Point to connect with the Router to form a wireless infrastructure
5. Wireless clients equipped with wireless networking devices such as wireless PC
Card for wireless connection.
In this case, all the wireless clients and Access Point operate under the same channel
with the same ESSID. The wireless clients are all connected to the Access Point for
data transmission.
Installing Your 22Mbps Wireless Network PCI Adapter
Make sure that the
22Mbps Wireless
Network PCI Adapter is
NOT inserted into your
Turn on the computer.
Insert the software CD
into the CD-ROM Drive.
Please note that the installation screens in this quick guide are captured from WindowsXP. The other
Windows systems will have similar screen for the installation procedure.
Click on the “PC
Card/PCI Card” option
on the left selection menu.
Click on “Install” button
to start Utility installation.
InstallShield Wizard
starts. Click “Next” to
Click “Next” to install the
program files in the
default folder.
Select the second option,
and click “Finish” to
complete the installation.
- Turn off your computer, and make sure the
power core is unplugged.
- Open the computer case.
- Insert the 22Mbps Wireless Network PCI
Adapter into the PCI socket on the mainboard
of your computer.
- Seal the computer case and plug the power back
- Turn on your computer
- Continue with Driver Installation.
Installation of Driver Files
Select the second option
and click “Next” to
Select first option then
click on the checkbox
click “Browse ” button to
specify the driver file
Go to D:\Driver\WinXP
Click “OK”
Please note that letter “D:\” represents the
CD-ROM driver letter, and select folder
“Win98” when installing under Windows 98 O/S
or WinME2000 for Windows ME or 2000 O/S.
Click “Next” to continue
Click “Continue
Anyway” to continue
Click “Finish” to
complete new hardware
After successful installation, an utility program icon will appear
on your desktop screen.
Simply, double-click the icon to launch the utility.
Link Info. Page
This is the default page when the utility starts up.
Status: Shows the BSSID associated, which can be used to identify the wireless
SSID: Shows current SSID, which must be the same for the wireless client and AP in
order for communication to be established.
TxRate: Shows the current data rate used for transmitting.
Channel: Shows the current channel for communication.
Radio Off button: When clicked, you disable the radio signal, and cut-off the wireless
Link Quality: Shows the link quality of the 22Mbps wireless Network PCI Adapter
with the Access Point when operating under Infrastructure mode.
Signal Strength: Shows the wireless signal strength of the connection between the
22mpbs wireless Network PCI Adapter with the Access Point.
Data Rate: Shows the statistics of data transfer, and the calculation is based on the
number of packets transmitted and received.
Configuration Page
This is the page where you can change the basic settings of the Access Point with the
minimum amount of effort to adjust a secure wireless network.
SSID: Service Set Identifier, which is a unique name shared among all clients and
nodes in a wireless network. The SSID must be identical for each clients and nodes in
the wireless network.
BSS Type: There are two types available for selection
Infrastructure – to establish wireless communication with LAN and other
wireless clients through the use the Access Points.
Ad-Hoc – to establish point-to-point wireless communication directly with
other wireless client devices such as wireless network PCI Adapter.
Channel: The value of channel that AP will operate in. You can select the channel
range of 1 to 11 for North America (FCC) domain, 1 to 13 for European (ETSI) domain
and 1 to 14 for Japanese domain.
Tx Rate: Select the data rate for data transmission.
Preamble: Select Long or Short Preamble type. Preamble is a sequence of bits
transmitted at 1Mbps that allows the PHY circuitry to reach steady-state demodulation
and synchronization of bit clock and frame start. Two different preambles and headers
are defined: the mandatory supported Long Preamble and header, which interoperates
with the 1 Mbit/s and 2 Mbit/s DSSS specification (as described in IEEE Std 802.11),
and an optional Short Preamble and header (as described in IEEE Std 802.11b). At the
receiver, the Preamble and header are processed to aid in demodulation and delivery of
the PSDU. The Short Preamble and header may be used to minimize overhead and,
thus, maximize the network data throughput. However, the Short Preamble is
supported only from the IEEE 802.11b (High-Rate) standard and not from the original
IEEE 802.11. That means that stations using Short-Preamble cannot communicate with
stations implementing the original version of the protocol.
Power Mode: There are 3 modes to choose from
Continuous Access Mode (default) – the PCI Adapter is constantly operating
with full power and it consumes the most power
Maximum Power Save – the PCI Adapter consumes the least power and only
operates when there is wireless network activity.
Power Save – the PCI Adapter consumes the moderate level of power.
4X Config.: When “4X enable” is selected, you will be running 22Mbps PBCC+4X
mode, the wireless transmission speed can achieve over 12Mbps real throughput
assuming that the other wireless LAN devices are also running 22Mbps PBCC+4X.
Note!: 4X mode is proprietary transmission mode available only with our solution
chipset. In order to achieve superb speed by 4X or 22Mbps PBCC mode, both the
transmitting and receiving parties must be using our WLAN solution products.
For the changes made to any of the items above to be effective, click “Apply”. The
screen will be changed back to Link Info. Page
Security Page
This is the page where you configure Security settings of your 22Mbps wireless PCI
Data Encryption: Click the box to enable Data Encryption feature.
Aut. Mode: There are three modes available to choose from.
Open Authentication – the sender and receiver do not share secret Key for
communication. Instead, each party generates its own key-pairs and ask the
other party to accept it. The key is regenerated when the connection is
established every time.
Shared Authentication – the sender and receiver shares the common key
for data communication, and the key is used for extended length of time.
Auto – depend on the communication to establish, and automatically use the
proper authentication mode.
The following will only be activated to allow for configuration when Data E ncryption
is enabled.
Default Key: select one of the 4 keys to use.
Network Key: enter values to these fields, either in HEX or ASCII formats. You only
have to enter the key that you will use
Key Length : select 64, 128 or 256 bits as the length of the keys
Key Format: ASCII or HEX (Please refer to Appendix G: Glossary for details about
these two formats).
SiteSurvey Page
This page allows to utilize the SiteSurvey function to scan for the available wireless
network (wireless clients and Access Points) and select one to establish wireless
1 Available Network – displays the wireless networks (wireless clients and Access
Points) that are in your signal range. Select any one of them and establish
communication by simply mouse double -click or a single click on the “Connect”
Click “Refresh” button to start scanning for available network again.
2 Profile – You can create and manage the created profiles for Home, offices or
public areas.
By double-clicking on one of the created profile, the setting will adapt to the
configuration such as SSID, channel, and WEP settings saved by that particular
Click to select any one of the profiles, and you can
Click on “Remove” button to remove the profile, or
Click on “Properties” button to view and change its settings. The Properties is
very similar to that of adding profile.
Click “Add” to add a profile, and the following screen would appear.
All the detail information about each settings and configuration item are described in
previous Configuration and Security Page sessions. Please refer to those two sessions
for more information.
When you finish enter the setting for this profile, click “OK” to add a new profile.
About Page
This page displays some information about the 22mpbs PCI Adapter utility, which
includes the version numbers for Driver, Firmware and Utility.
When there is new version of software available for upgrade, you will be able to
identify by version numbers.
This chapter provides solutions to frequently encountered problems that can occur
during the installation and operation of the 22Mbps Wireless Network PCI Adapter.
Please read through the following to solve your problems.
The wireless clients cannot access the network in the infrastructure mode.
Ø Check that the wireless network device is being installed and working
Go to “Start” >
Right mouse click
on “My Computer”
> “Properties”
Go to “Hardware”
Go to “Device
Right mouse click
on the 22 M WLAN
PCI Adapter and go
to “Properties”
Check and make
sure that the network
adapter is working
What is the difference between 22Mbps and 11Mbps wireless products?
What’s the benefit of 22Mbps Wireless Access Point?
The 22Mbps is made possible by the new modulation method called PBCC
developed by TI, which is different from the current CCK modulation method for
11Mbps. The 22Mbps Wireless Access Point offers double data rate than that of
11Mbps with 20% more distance coverage. The 22Mbps wireless products also
operate in the 2.4GHz ISM band and they are backward compatible with 11Mbps
wireless products.
What is Roaming?
Roaming is the ability of portable computers, e.g., Packet PC and notebook, to
have consistent and continuous data transmission/reception throughout an area
covered by more than one Wireless Access Point. In order to achieve seamless
connectivity, all the wireless clients and Access Points must be set to use the same
SSID. When a user walked out of the coverage area of one AP into another, the
wireless client network device will automatically reestablish connection with the
new AP.
What is a MAC Address?
The Media Access Control (MAC) address is a unique number assigned by the
manufacturer to any Ethernet networking devices, e.g. a network adapter, that
allows the network to identify it at the hardware level. Unlike IP addresses,
which can be changed or dynamically assigned by the network, the MAC address
of a networking device is permanent.
What is WEP?
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a type of data encryption mechanism
described in the IEEE 802.11 standard. The 22Mbps Wireless Access Point
supports 64/128/256 bit shared key for WEP.
Would the information be transmitted securely in the air?
WLAN offers two layers of protection for security. First layer is on the hardware
level. As with Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technology, it has the
inherent security feature of scrambling. Second of all, on the software level, the
security control is made possible by Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) for access
What is ISM band?
The FCC and their counterparts outside of the U.S. have set aside bandwidth for
unlicensed use in the ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) band. The 2.4GHz
unlicensed ISM band is available worldwide, which presents the opportunity for
the global market of 802.11b high speed wireless products.
What is 4X mode?
This is a proprietary wireless data transmission mode provided by TI, which
enhances TI’s 22Mbps PBCC speed to reach data throughput to over 12Mbps.
Since it is not IEEE 802.11b standard wireless data mode, in order to allow 4X
mode, both the receiving and transmitting parties must be using TI solution.
This chapter will help you learn the basics of home networking.
Using the Windows XP Network Setup Wizard
Go to Start menu >
Control Panel>
Network Connections
In the menu on the left
side of the window,
select “Set up a home
or small office
network ”
Click “Next” to
Click “Next” to
Select the option
that best describes
how you connect
your computer to the
In the case of using
router in the
network, choose the
second option.
Click “Next” to
1. Enter a short
description for your
2. Enter a name for
your computer to be
recognized among
the network.
3. Click “Next” to
Enter “Workgroup
name ” for your
home network.
Click “Next” to
Click “Next” and
wait for the wizard
to apply the settings.
You may create a
Network Setup Disk
which saves you the
trouble of having to
configure every PCs
in your network.
Select the first
choice, and insert a
floppy disk into your
disk drive
Click “Next” to
Click “Format
Disk” if you wish to
format the disk.
Click “Next” to
copy the necessary
files to the disk.
Click “Next” to
continue with the
Network Setup
!Note: Now you may use the Network Setup Disk you just created in any PCs in your
network that you wish to setup. Simply insert the Network Setup Disk into the disk
drive of a PC, and open to browse the content of the disk with “My Computer” or
“Windows File Manager”. Double-click and run the file “netsetup” for the program
to handle the rest.
Click “Finish” to
complete the
Network Setup
System will now
have to restart in
order for the new
settings to be
Click “Yes” to
restart the computer
Checking IP Address of Your Computer In Windows XP
Sometimes you will need to know the IP address of the computer that you are using.
For example, when you want to make sure that your computer is in the same network
domain as that of your Access Point for you can configure and access the AP.
Go to Start menu >
Run > type
Click “OK”
When the command prompt window appears, type command “ipconfig /all” and press
Enter. This command will display the IP addresses of all the network adapters in your
In this case, the IP address of your network adapter is, which means your
Access Point must have an IP address of in order for you to be able to
access it.
If the IP address is assigned by DHCP server on the network, there are chances you
might have to release the IP and acquire it from DHCP server again. Here is how you
do it.
Go to Start menu >
Run > type
Click “OK”
Type command, “ipconfig /renew” in the command prompt window and press Enter.
This command releases the current IP address and acquire it from the network, i.e.
DHCP server, once more.
In this case, the IP address that we acquired is the same as previous one, 192.
168.1.2. However, it’s often that the acquired IP address of the network adapter might
would not be the same.
!Note: To renew IP under Windows 98 and Windows ME, you will have to go to the
Start menu > Run > type winipcfg and click “OK”. The Windows IP Configuration
Menu window would appear, where you first click “release” button to release the
current IP address, followed by clicking of “Renew” to acquire a new IP address from
If the above methods for IP renew fail, you will have to try and restart the computer,
which will reinitializes the network adapter settings during startup including renewing
IP address. If you still have problems getting an IP address after computer restarts,
you will have to consult with your MIS in your office or call computer and network
Dynamic IP Address V.S. Static IP Address
By definition Dynamic IP addresses are the IP addresses that are being automatically
assigned to a network device on the network. These Dynamically assigned IP
addresses will expire and may be changed over time.
Static IP addresses are the IP addresses that users manually enter for each of the
network adapters.
Go to Start menu > Control
Panel > Network
Connections > Right-click on
the active Local Area
connection > Select
!Note: There might be two or more Local Area Connection to choose from. You must
select the one that you will use to connect to the network.
The Local Area Connection
Properties would appear.
Select “Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP)” and Click
“Properties” to continue.
Dynamically Assigned IP Address
The TCP/IP Properties window
Select “Obtain an IP address
automatically” if you are on a
DHCP enabled network.
Click “OK” to close the window
with the changes made
Static IP Address
Select “Use the following IP
Enter the IP addre ss and subnet
mask fields.
Enter the IP address of the Router
in the Default gateway field.
Enter the IP address of the Router
in the DNS server field
Click “Ok” to close the window
!Note: The IP address must be within the same range as the wireless route or Access
Wireless Network in Windows 2000
Go to Start menu > Settings >
Network and Dial-up
Connections > Double-click on
the Local Area Connection
22Mbps WLAN PCI Adapter
Select “Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP)” and click
The TCP/IP Properties window
Select “Obtain an IP address
automatically” if you are on a
DHCP enabled network.
Click “OK” to close the window
with the changes made
Select “Use the following IP
Enter the IP address and subnet
mask fields.
Enter the IP address of the Router
in the Default gateway field.
Enter the IP address of the Router
in the DNS server field
Click “Ok” to close the window
Wireless Network In Windows 98 and Windows ME
Go to Start menu > Settings >
Control Panel > Double-click on
Select TCP/IP of the network
Click “Propert ies” to continue
The TCP/IP Properties window
Select “Obtain an IP address
automatically” if you are on a
DHCP enabled network.
Click “OK” to close the window
with the changes made
Select “Use the following IP
Enter the IP address and subnet
mask fields.
In the DNS Configuration Tab
Page, (1) enter the IP address of
the Router in the Default
gateway field.
(2) Enter the IP address of the
Router in the DNS server field
APPENDIX C: 802.1x Authentication Setup
There are three essential components to the 802.1x infrastructure: (1) Supplicant, (2)
Authenticator and (3) Server. The 802.1x security supports both MD5 and TLS
Extensive Authentication Protocol (EAP). The 802.1x Authentication is a
complement to the current WEP encryption used in wireless network. The current
security weakness of WEP encryption is that there is no key management and no
limitation for the duration of key lifetime. 802.1x Authentication offers key
management, which includes key per user and key per session, and limits the lifetime
of the keys to certain duration. Thus, key decryption by unauthorized attacker
becomes extremely difficult, and the wireless network is safely secured. We will
introduce the 802.1x Authentication infrastructure as a whole and going into details of
the setup for each essential component in 802.1x authentication.
802.1x Authentication Infrastructure
802.11 Wireless
Access Points Support 802.1X
Authentication Request
Authentication Success
802.11 Wireless
Clients Support 802.1X
The Infrastructure diagram showing above illustrates that a group of 802.11 wireless
clients is trying to form a 802.11 wireless network with the Access Point in order to
have access to the Internet/Intranet. In 802.1x authentication infrastructure, each of
these wireless clients would have to be authenticated by the Radius server, which
would grant the authorized client and notified the Access Point to open up a
communication port to be used for the granted client. There are 2 Extensive
Authentication Protocol (EAP) methods supported: (1) MD5 and (2) TLS.
MD5 authentication is simply a validation of existing user account and password that
is stored in the server with what are keyed in by the user. Therefore, wireless client
user will be prompted for account/password validation every time when he/she is
trying to get connected. TLS authentication is a more complicated authentication,
which involves using certificate that is issued by the Radius server, for authentication.
TLS authentication is a more secure authentication, since not only the Radius server
authenticates the wireless client, but also the client can validate the Radius server by
the certificate that it issues. The authentication request from wireless clients and reply
by the Radius Server and Access Point process can be briefed as follows:
1. The client sends an EAP start message to the Access Point
2. The Access Point replies with an EAP Request ID message
3. The client sends its Network Access Identifier (NAI) – its user name – to the
Access Point in an EAP Respond message.
4. The Access Point forwards the NAI to the RADIUS server with a RADIUS
Access Request message.
5. The RADIUS server responds to the client with its digital certificate.
6. The client validates the digital certificate, and replies its own digital
certificate to the RADIUS server.
7. The RADIUS server validates client’s digital certificate.
8. The client and RADIUS server derive encryption keys.
9. The RADIUS server sends the access point a RADIUS ACCEPT message,
including the client’s WEP key.
10. The Access Point sends the client an EAP Success message along with the
broadcast key and key length, all encrypted with the client’s WEP key.
Supplicant: Wireless Network PC Card
Here is the setup for the Wireless Network PC Card under Windows XP, which is the
only Operating System that our driver supports for 802.1x. Microsoft is planning on
supporting 802.1x security in all common Windows Operating System including
Win98SE/ME/2000 by releasing Service Pack in 2003.
Please note that the setup illustration is based on our 22Mbps wireless PC Card.
Go to Start > Control Panel
double-click on “Network Connections”
right-click on the Wireless Network Connection that you use with our 22Mbps
wireless PC Card.
Click “Propert ies” to open up the Properties setting window.
Click on the “Wireless Network” tab.
Click “Properties” of the available wireless network, which you wish to
connect or configure.
Please note that if you are going to change to a different 802.1x authentication
EAP method, i.e. switch from using MD5 to TLS, , you must remove the current
existing wireless network from your Preferred networks first, and add it in again.
To configure for using TLS authentication method, please follow steps 7 ~ 25.
Please follow steps 26 ~ for using MD5 authentication method.
TLS Authentication
Select “The key is provided for me automatically” option
Click “OK” to close the Wireless Network Properties window.
Click “Authentication” tab
Select “Enable network access control using IEEE 802.1x” option to enable
802.1x authentication.
Select “Smart Card or other Certificate ” from the drop-down list box for
EAP type.
Click “OK” to close the Wireless Network Connection Properties window, thus
make the changes effective.
The wireless client configuration in the zero-configuration utility provided in Windows
XP is now completed for TLS configuration. Before you can enable IEEE 802.1x
authentication and have wireless client authenticated by the Radius server, you have to
download the certificate to your local computer first.
TLS Authentication – Download Digital Certificate from Server
In most corporations, it requires internal IT or MIS staff’s help to have the
certificated downloaded to your local computer. One of the main reasons is that
each corporation uses its own server systems, and you will need the assistance
from your IT or MIS for account/password, CA server location and etc. The
following illustration is based on obtaining a certificate from Windows 2000
Server which can act as a CA server, assuming you have a valid account/password
to access the server.
13. Connect to the server and ask for access, and the server will prompt you to
enter your user name and password.
14. Enter your user name and password, then click “OK” to continue.
Please note that we use IP addresses for connection with the server for our
illustration, and the IP of the server is
15. After successful login, open up your Internet Browser, and type the following
in the address field.
This is how we connect to the Certificate Service installed in Windows 2000
16. Now we are connected to the Certificate Service. Select “Request a
certificate ”, and click “Next” to continue.
17. Select “User Certificate request”, and click “Next” to continue.
18. Click “Submit >” to continue.
19. The Certificate Service is now processing the certificate request.
20. The certificate is issued by the server, click “Install this certificate” to
download and store the certificate to your local computer.
21. Click “Yes” to store the certificate to your local computer.
22. Certificate is now installed.
All the configuration and certificate download are now complete. Let’s try to connect
to the Access Point using 802.1x TLS Authentication.
23. Windows XP will prompt you to select a certificate for wireless network
connection. Click on the network connection icon in the system tray to
24. Select the certificate that was issued by the server (WirelessCA), and click
“OK” to continue.
25. Check the server to make sure that it’s the server that issues certificate, and
click “OK” to complete the authentication process.
MD5 Authentication
Select “Data encryption (WEP enabled)” option, but leave other option
Select the key format that you want to use to key in your Network key.
ASCII characters: 0~9, a~z and A~Z
HEX characters: 0~9, a~f
Select the key length that you wish to use
40 bits (5 characters for ASCII, 10 characters for HEX)
104 bits (13 characters for ASCII, 26 characters for HEX)
After deciding the key format and key length that you wish to use for network
key. Enter the network key in “Network key” text box.
Please note that that value of Network key entered, and key format/length us ed, must
be the same as that used in the Access Point. Although there are 4 set of keys can be
set in the Access Point WEP configuration, it’s the first set of key that must be the
same as that we used by the supplicant wireless client.
Click “OK” to close the Wireless Network Properties window, thus make the
changes effective.
Select “Authentication” tab.
Select “Enable network access control using IEEE 802.1X” to enable
802.1x authentication.
Select “MD-5 Challenge ” from the drop-down list box for EAP type.
Click “OK” to close Wireless Network Connection Properties window, thus
make all the changes effective.
Unlike TLS, which uses digital certificate for validation, the MD-5 Authentication is
based on the user account/password. Therefore, you must have a valid account used
by the server for validation.
WindowsXP will prompt you to enter your user name and password. Click on
the network connection icon in the system tray to continue.
Enter the user name, password and the logon domain that your account belongs
if you have one or more network domain exist in your network.
37. Click “OK” to complete the validation process.
Authenticator: Wireless Network Access Point
This is the web page configuration in the Access Point that we use.
1. Enable 802.1x security by selecting “Enable ”.
2. If MD5 EAP methods is used then you can skip step 3 and go to step 4.
3. Select the Encryption Key Length Size ranging from 64 to 256 Bits that you
would like to use.
Select the Lifetime of the Encryption Key from 5 Minutes to 1 Day. As soon as
the lifetime of the Encryption Key is over, the Encryption Key will be renewed by
the Radius server.
4. Enter the IP address of and the Port used by the Primary Radius Server
Enter the Shared Secret, which is used by the Radius Server.
5. Enter the IP address of, Port and Shared Secret used by the Secondary Radius
6. Click “Apply” button for the 802.1x settings to take effect after Access Point
reboots itself.
!Note: As soon as 802.1x security is enabled, all the wireless client stations that are
connected to the Access Point currently will be disconnected. The wireless clients
must be configured manually to authenticate themselves with the Radius server to be
Radius Server: Window2000 Server
This section to help those who has Windows 2000 Server installed and wants to setup
Windows2000 Server for 802.1x authentication, which includes setting up Certificate
Service for TLS Authentication, and enable EAP-methods.
Login into your Windows 2000 Server as Administrator, or account that has
Administrator authority.
Go to Start > Control Panel, and double-click “Add or Remove Programs”
Click on “Add/Remove Windows components ”
Check “Certificate Services”, and click “Next” to continue.
Select “Enterprise root CA”, and click “Next” to continue.
Enter the information that you want for your Certificate Service, and click
“Next ” to continue.
Go to Start > Program > Administrative Tools > Certificate Authority
Right-click on the “Policy Setting”, select “new”
Select “Certificate to Issue”
10. Select “Authenticated Session” and “Smartcard Logon” by holding down
to the Ctrl key, and click “OK” to continue.
11. Go to Start > Program > Administrative Tools > Active Directory Users and
Computers .
12. Right-click on domain, and select ”Properties” to continue.
13. Select “Group Policy” tab and click “Properties” to continue.
14. Go to “Computer Configuration” > “Security Settings” > “Public Key
15. Right-click “Automatic Certificate Request Setting”, and select “N e w”
16. Click “Automatic Certificate Request ...”
17. The Automatic Certificate Request Setup Wizard will guide you through the
Automatic Certificate Request setup, simply click “Next” through to the last
18. Click “Finish” to complete the Automatic Certificate Request Setup
19. Go to Start > Run, and type “command” and click “Enter” to open
Command Prompt.
20. Type “secedit/refreshpolic y machine_policy” to refresh policy.
Adding Internet Authentication Service
21. Go to Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs
22. Select “Add/Remove Windows Components” from the panel on the left.
23. Select “Internet Authentication Service ”, and click “OK” to install.
Setting Internet Authentication Service
24. Go to Start > Program > Administrative Tools > Internet Authentication
25. Right-click “Client”, and select “New Client”
26. Enter the IP address of the Access Point in the Client address text field, a
memorable name for the Access Point in the Client-Vendor text field, the
access password used by the Access Point in the Shared secret text field.
Re-type the password in the Confirmed shared secret text field.
27. Click “Finish” to complete adding of the Access Point.
28. In the Internet Authentication Service, right-click “Remote Access Policies”
29. Select “New Remote Access Policy”.
30. Select “Day-And-Time -Restriction”, and click “Add” to continue.
31. Unless you want to specify the active duration for 802.1x authentication, click
“OK” to accept to have 802.1x authentication enabled at all times.
32. Select “Grant remote access permission”, and click “Next” to continue.
33. Click “Edit Profile” to open up
For TLS Authentication Setup (Steps 34 ~ 38)
34. Select “Authentication” Tab
35. Enable “Extensible Authentication Protocol”, and select “Smart Card or
other Certificate” for TLS authentication
36. Go to Start > Program > Administrative Tools > Active Directory Users and
37. Select “Users ”, and double-click on the user that can be newly created or
currently existing, who will be configured to have the right to obtain digital
certificate remotely.
Please note that in this case, we have a user called, test, whose account/password are
used to obtain the digital certificate from server.
38. Go to the “Dial-in” tab, and check “Allow access” option for Remote Access
Permission and “No Callback” for Callback Options.
For MD5 Authentication (Steps 39 ~ 54)
39. Go to Start > Program > Administrative Tools > Active Directory Users and
40. Right click on the domain, and select “Properties”
41. Select “Group Policy” tab, and click “Edit” to edit the Group Policy.
42. Go to “Computer Configuration” > “Windows Settings” > “Security Settings”
> “Account Policies” > “Password Policies”
43. Click “Define this policy setting”, select “Enabled”, and click “OK” to
44. Go to Start > Program > Administrative Tools > Active Directory Users and
Computers .
45. Go to Users . Right-click on the user that you are granting access, and select
46. Go to “Account” tab, and enable “Store password using reversible
47. Click “OK” to continue.
48. Go to Start > Program > Administrative Tools > Internet Authentication
49. Go to Remote Access Policies
50. Make sure that MD5 is moved up to Order 1
51. Right-click “MD5 ”, and select “Properties”
52. Go to “Authentication” tab
53. Enable “Extensible Authentication Protocol”
54. Select “MD5-Challenge” for EAP type.
Access Point ? An internetworking device that seamlessly connects wired and
wireless networks.
Ad-Hoc ? An independent wireless LAN network formed by a group of computers,
each with an network adapter.
AP Client – One of the additional AP operating modes offered by 22Mbps Access
Point, which allows the Access Point to act as an Ethernet-to-Wireless Bridge, thus a
LAN or a single computer station can join a wireless ESS network through it.
ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange, ASCII, is one of the
two formats that you can use for entering the values for WEP key. It represents English
letters as numbers from 0 to 127.
Authentication Type ? Indication of an authentication algorithm which can be
supported by the Access Point:
1. Open System : Open System authentication is the simplest of the available
authentication algorithms. Essentially it is a null authentication algorithm.
Any station that requests authentication with this algorithm may become
authenticated if 802.11 Authentication Type at the recipient station is set to
Open System authentication.
2. Shared Key : Shared Key authentication supports authentication of stations
as either a member of those who knows a shared secret key or a member of
those who does not.
Backbone ? The core infrastructure of a network, which transports information from
one central location to another where the information is unloaded into a local system.
Bandwidth ? The transmission capacity of a device, which is calculated by how much
data the device can transmit in a fixed amount of time expressed in bits per second
Basic Rate ? the fixed transmitted and receiving data rate allowed by the AP with the
value 1,2,5.5, 11 and 22 Mbps for selection.
Beacon ? A beacon is a packet broadcast by the Access Point to keep the network
synchronized. Included in a beacon are information such as wireless LAN service area,
the AP address, the Broadcast destination addresses, time stamp, Delivery Traffic
Indicator Maps, and the Traffic Indicator Message (TIM).
Bit ? A binary digit, which is either -0 or -1 for value, is the smallest unit for data.
Bridge ? An internetworking function that incorporates the lowest 2 layers of the OSI
network protocol model.
Browser ? An application program that enables one to read the content and interact in
the World Wide Web or Intranet.
BSS ? BSS stands for “Basic Service Set”. It is an Access Point and all the LAN PCs
that associated with it.
Channel ? The bandwidth which wireless Radio operates is divided into several
segments, which we call them “Channels”. AP and the client stations that it
associated work in one of the channels.
CSMA/CA ? In local area networking, this is the CSMA technique that combines
slotted time-division multiplexing with carrier sense multiple access /collision detection
(CSMA/CD) to avoid having collisions occur a second time. This works best if the
time allocated is short compared to packet length and if the number of situations is
CSMA/CD ? Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection, which is a LAN
access method used in Ethernet. When a device wants to gain access to the network, it
checks to see if the network is quiet (senses the carrier). If it is not, it waits a random
amount of time before retrying. If the network is quiet and two devices access the line
at exactly the same time, their signals collide. When the collision is detected, they
both back off and wait a random amount of time before retrying.
DHCP ? Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, which is a protocol that lets network
administrator s manage and allocate Internet Protocol (IP) addresses in a network.
Every computer has to have an IP address in order to communicate with each other in a
TCP/IP based infrastructure network. Without DHCP, each computer must be entered
in manually the IP address. DHCP enables the network administrators to assign the IP
from a central location and each computer receives an IP address upon plugged with the
Ethernet cable everywhere on the network.
DSSS ? Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. DSSS generates a redundant bit pattern
for each bit to be transmitted. This bit pattern is called a chip (or chipping code). The
longer the chip, the greater the probability that the original data can be recovered. Even
if one or more bits in the chip are damaged during transmission, statistical techniques
embedded in the radio can recover the original data without the need for retransmission.
To an unintended receiver, DSSS appears as low power wideband noise and is rejected
(ignored) by most narrowband receivers.
Dynamic IP Address ? An IP address that is assigned automatically to a client station
in a TCP/IP network by a DHCP server.
Encryption ? A security method that uses a specific algorithm to alter the data
transmitted, thus prevent others from knowing the information transmitted.
ESS ? ESS stands for “Extended Service Set”. More than one BSS is configured to
become Extended Service Set. LAN mobile users can roam between different BSSs in
an ESS.
ESSID ? The unique identifier that identifies the ESS. In infrastructure association ,
the stations use the same ESSID as AP’s to get connected.
Ethernet ? A popular local area data communications network, originally developed
by Xerox Corp., that accepts transmission from computers and terminals. Ethernet
operates on a 10/100 Mbps base transmission rate, using a shielded coaxial cable or
over shielded twisted pair telephone wire.
Fragmentation ? When transmitting a packet over a network medium, sometimes the
packet is broken into several segments, if the size of packet exceeds that allowed by the
network medium.
Fragmentation Threshold – The Fragmentation Threshold defines the number of
bytes used for the fragmentation boundary for directed messages. The purpose of
"Fragmentation Threshold" is to increase the transfer reliability thru cutting a MAC
Service Data Unit (MSDU) into several MAC Protocol Data Units (MPDU) in smaller
size. The RF transmission can not allow to transmit too big frame size due to the heavy
interference caused by the big size of transmission frame. But if the frame size is too
small, it will create the overhead during the transmission.
Gateway ?
a device that interconnects networks with different, incompatible
communication protocols.
HEX – Hexadecimal, HEX, consists of numbers from 0 – 9 and letters from A – F.
IEEE ? The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, which is the largest
technical professional society that promotes the development and application of
electrotechnology and allied sciences for the benefit of humanity, the advancement of
the profession. The IEEE fosters the development of standards that often become
national and international standards.
Infrastructure ? An infrastructure network is a wireless network or other small
network in which the wireless network devices are made a part of the network through
the Access Point which connects them to the rest of the network.
ISM Band ? The FCC and their counterparts outside of the U.S. have set aside
bandwidth for unlicensed use in the ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) band.
Spectrum in the vicinity of 2.4GHz, in particular, is being made available worldwide.
MAC Address ? Media Access Control Address is a unique hex number assigned by
the manufacturer to any Ethernet networking device, such as a network adapter, that
allows the network to identify it at the hardware level.
Multicasting ? Sending data to a group of nodes instead of a single destination.
Multiple Bridge – One of the additional AP operating modes offered by 22Mbps
Access Point, which allows a group of APs that consists of two or more APs to connect
two or more Ethernet networks or Ethernet enabled clients together. The way that
multiple bridge setup is based on the topology of Ad-Hoc mode.
Node ? A network junction or connection point, typically a computer or workstation.
Packet ? A unit of data routed between an origin and a destination in a network.
PLCP ? Physical layer convergence protocol
PPDU ? PLCP protocol data unit
Preamble Type ? During transmission, the PSDU shall be appended to a PLCP
preamble and header to create the PPDU. Two different preambles and headers are
defined as the mandatory supported long preamble and header which interoperates
with the current 1 and 2 Mbit/s DSSS specification as described in IEEE Std
802.11-1999, and an optional short preamble and header. At the receiver, the PLCP
preamble and header are processed to aid in demodulation and delivery of the PSDU.
The optional short preamble and header is intended for application where maximum
throughput is desired and interoperability with legacy and non-short-preamble capable
equipment is not consideration. That is, it is expected to be used only in networks of
like equipment that can all handle the optional mode. (IEEE 802.11b standard)
PSDU ? PLCP service data unit
Roaming ? A LAN mobile user moves around an ESS and enjoys a continuous
connection to an Infrastructure network.
RTS ? Request To Send. An RS-232 signal sent from the transmitting station to the
receiving station requesting permission to transmit.
RTS Threshold ? Transmitters contending for the medium may not be aware of each
other. RTS/CTS mechanism can solve this “Hidden Node Problem”. If the packet size
is smaller than the preset RTS Threshold size, the RTS/CTS mechanism will NOT be
SSID ? Service Set Ide ntifier, which is a unique name shared among all clients and
nodes in a wireless network. The SSID must be identical for each clients and nodes in
the wireless network.
Subnet Mask ? The method used for splitting IP networks into a series of sub-groups,
or subnets. The mask is a binary pattern that is matched up with the IP address to turn
part of the host ID address field into a field for subnets.
Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol. The basic
communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a
communications protocol in a private network, i.e. intranet or internet. When you are
set up with direct access to the Internet, your computer is provided with a copy of the
TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get
information from also has a copy of TCP/IP.
Throughput ? The amount of data transferred successfully from one point to another
in a given period of time.
WEP ? Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is an encryption scheme used to protect
wireless data communication. To enable the icon will prevent other stations wit hout the
same WEP key from linking with the AP.
Wireless Bridge – One of the additional AP operating modes offered by 22mpbs
Access Point, which allows a pair of APs to act as the bridge that connects two
Ethernet networks or Ethernet enabled clients together.
802.11b compliant (wireless)
Data Rate
Emission Type
1 / 2 / 5.5 / 11 / 22 Mbps
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
Data Modulation
1 Mbps – BPSK
2 Mbps – QPSK
5.5 / 11 Mbps – CCK
5.5 / 11 / 22 Mbps - PBCC
RF Frequency
Operating Channel
2412 MHz – 2462 MHz (North America)
2412 MHz – 2472 MHz (General Europe)
2412 MHz – 2484 MHz (Japan)
11 Channels (North America)
13 Channels (Europe)
14 Channels (Japan)
RF O utput Power
16 ~ 18 dBm (typical)
-80 dBm (Typically @25? +5? )
- 85 dBm (Typically @25? +5? )
- 82 dBm (Typically @25? +5? )
Antenna Type
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) 64 / 128 / 256 bit
Dipole with Antenna Gain of 2 dBi max.
Antenna Connector
Reverse SMA
PCI Standard v2.2
133.0 x 121.0 x 22.1 mm
8Kbytes EEPROM
Power Voltage
Power Consumption
5V + 5%
Operation max. 650 mA by TX
350 mA by RX
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