TM-55-1500-342-23

TM-55-1500-342-23
* TM 55-1500-342-23
TECHNICAL MANUAL
ARMY AVIATION MAINTENANCE
ENGINEERING MANUAL
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A:
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
* This publication supersedes TM 55-405-9, 25 August 1966, including all changes.
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
29 AUGUST 1986
TM 55-1500-342-23
C12
CHANGE
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1 April 2010
NO. 12
ARMY AVIATION MAINTENANCE
ENGINEERING MANUAL
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 55-1500-342-23, 29 August 1986, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove Pages
Insert Pages
A/(B Blank)
i and ii
1-1/(1-2 Blank)
2-1 through 2-6
3-1 through 3-9/(3-10 Blank)
4-1 through 4-8.2
4-9 through 4-10.1/(4-10.2 Blank)
4-13 and 4-14
----4-15 through 4-18
----4-19 through 4-22.2
A-1/(A-2 Blank)
----Glossary 1 through Glossary 6
A and B
i and ii
1-1/(1-2 Blank)
2-1 through 2-6
3-1 through 3-9/(3-10 Blank)
4-1 through 4-8.2
4-9 through 4-10.1/(4-10.2 Blank)
4-13 and 4-14
4-14.1/(4-14.2 Blank)
4-15 through 4-18
4-18.1/(4-18.2 Blank)
4-19 through 4-22.2
A-1/(A-2 Blank)
B-1 through B-15/(B-16 blank)
Glossary-1 through Glossary-8
2. Retain this sheet in the front of manual for reference purposes.
TM 55-1500-342-23
C11
CHANGE
NO.
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 31 October 2008
11
ARMY AVIATION MAINTENANCE
ENGINEERING MANUAL
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
DISTRIIBUTION STATEMENT A:
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited
TM 55-1500-342-23, 29 August 1986, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text is indicated by a
vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing
hand.
Remove Pages
Insert Pages
A and B
2-1 and 2-2
2-5 and 2-6
4-1 and 4-2
4-3 and 4-4
A and B
2-1 and 2-2
2-5 and 2-6
4-1 and 4-2
4-3 and 4-4
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for references purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
GEORGE W. CASEY, JR.
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
JOYCE E. MORROW
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0831203
Distribution:
To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number (IDN) 311335
requirements for TM 55-1500-342-23.
TM 55-1500-342-23
C10
CHANGE
NO.
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 24 May 2007
10
ARMY AVIATION MAINTENANCE
ENGINEERING MANUAL
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A:
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 55-1500-342-23, 29 August 1986, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove Pages
Insert Pages
A/(B Blank)
i and ii
1-1/(1-2 Blank)
2-1 through 2-6
3-1 through 3-6
4-1 through 4-8
----4-9 and 4-10
4-10.1/(4-10.2 Blank)
4-11 through 4-22
------------Cover
A and B
i and ii
1-1/(1-2 Blank)
2-1 through 2-6
3-1 through 3-9/(3-10 Blank)
4-1 through 4-8
4-8.1/(4-8.2 Blank)
4-9 and 4-10
4-10.1/(4-10.2 Blank)
4-11 through 4-22
4-22.1 and 4-22.2
A-1/(A-2 Blank)
Glossary-1 through Glossary-6
Cover
2. Retain this sheet in the front of manual for reference purposes.
TM 55-1500-342-23
C10
By Order of the Secretary of the Army
GEORGE W. CASEY, JR.
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
JOYCE E. MORROW
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0710301
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with Initial Distribution number 311335 (IDN) requirements for
TM 55-1500-342-23.
TM 55-1500-342-23
C9
CHANGE
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 25 March 2004
NO. 9
Army Aviation Maintenance
Engineering Manual
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
ENVIRONMENTAL/HAZARDOUS MATERIAL INFORMATION
This document has been reviewed for the presence of Class 1 Ozone Depleting Chemicals. As of change
8, dated 17 September 1996, all references to Class 1 Ozone Depleting Chemicals have been removed
from this document by substitution with chemicals that do not cause atmospheric ozone depletion.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 55-1500-342-23, 29 August 1986, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
--------i and ii
3-1 and 3-2
4-1 and 4-2
4-5 through 4-10
4-11 through 4-20
Insert pages
A/(B blank)
i and ii
3-1 and 3-2
4-1 and 4-2
4-5 through 4-10
4-11 through 4-20
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
PETER J. SCHOOMAKER
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0402701
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN) 311335, requirements for,
TM 55-1500-342-23.
TM 55-1500-342-23
C7
CHANGE
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 4 APRIL 1994
NO. 7
Army Aviation Maintenance
Engineering Manual
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 55-1500-342-23, 29 August 1986, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
4-9 and 4-10
4-10.1/(4-10.2 blank)
4-15 through 4-18
4-9 and 4-10
4-10.1/(4-10.2 blank)
4-15 through 4-18
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
GORDON R. SULLIVAN
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
MILTON H. HAMILTON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
06559
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 1335, requirements for TM 55-1500-342-23.
TM 55-1500-342-23
C6
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 28 May 1993
CHANGE
NO. 6
Army Aviation Maintenance
Engineering Manual
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited
TM 55-1500-342-23, 29 August 1986, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
i and ii
4-1 through 4-6
4-10.1/(4-10.2 blank)
i and ii
4-1 through 4-6
4-10.1/(4-10.2 blank)
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
GORDON R. SULLIVAN
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
MILTON H. HAMILTON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
04206
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 1335, requirements for TM 55-1500342-23.
TM 55-1500-342-23
C5
CHANGE
NO. 5
}
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 31 July 1992
Army Aviation Maintenance
Engineering Manual
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
TM 55-1500-342-23, 29 August 1986, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
1-1/1-2
2-1 and 2-2
3-1 and 3-2
4-1 and 4-2
4-13 and 4-14
2028's and Envelopes
1-1/1-2
2-1 and 2-2
3-1 and 3-2
4-1 and 4-2
4-13 and 4-14
2028's and Envelopes
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
GORDON R. SULLIVAN
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
MILTON H. HAMILTON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
02398
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 1335, AVUM and AVIM maintenance requirements
for TM 55-1500-342-23.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 55-1500-342-23
C4
CHANGE
NO. 4
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 2 October 1990
}
Army Aviation Maintenance
Engineering Manual
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
TM 55-1500-342-23, 29 August 1986, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
i and ii
4-9 and 4-10
- - - -
i and ii
4-9 and 4-10
4-10.1/4-10.2
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
THOMAS F. SIKORA
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, AVUM and AVDM Maintenance requirements for all Fixed and
Rotary Wing Aircraft.
TM 55-1500-342-23
C3
CHANGE
NO. 3
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 13 November 1989
}
Army Aviation Maintenance
Engineering Manual
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
TM 55-1500-342-23, 29 August 1986, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
4-3 through 4-8
4-17 through 4-20
4-3 through 4-8
4-17 through 4-20
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
WILLIAM J. MEEHAN II
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, AVIM AND AVUM Maintenance requirements for all Fixed and
Rotary Wing Aircraft.
TM 55-1500-342-23
C2
This is a reprint of change 2.
CHANGE
NO. 2
}
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 11 October 1988
Army Aviation Maintenance
Engineering Manual
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
TM 55-1500-342-23, 29 August 1986, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
i and ii
4-3 through 4-18
4-23 and 4-24
i and ii
4-3 through 4-18
4-23 and 4-24
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
WILLIAM J. MEEHAN II
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, AVIM and AVUM Maintenance requirements for all Fixed and
Rotary Wing Aircraft.
CHANGE
NO. 1
TM 55-1500-342-23
C1
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 16 September 1987
}
Army Aviation Maintenance
Engineering Manual
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
TM 55-1500-342-23, 29 August.1986, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
3-3 through 3-6
4-1 through 4-4
4-7 and 4-8
4-9 through 4-12
4-17 through 4-20
3-3 through 3-6
4-1 through 4-4
4-7 and 4-8
4-9 through 4-12
4-17 through 4-20
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
R. L. DILWORTH
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, AVIM and AVUM Maintenance requirements for All Fixed and
Rotary Wing Aircraft.
TM 55-1500-342-23
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
Dates of issue for original and changed pages are:
Original . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 August 1986
Change 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 September 1987
Change 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 October 1988
Change 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 November 1989
Change 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 October 1990
Change 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 July 1992
Change 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 May 1993
Change 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 April 1994
Change 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 September 1996
Change 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 March 2004
Change 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 May 2007
Change 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 October 2008
Change 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 April 2010
TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 140, CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:
Page No.
*Change No.
Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1-2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
3-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-10 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-10.2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
*Zero in this column indicates an original page.
Page No.
*Change No.
4-14.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-14.2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-18.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-18.2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4-21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-22.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4-22.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4-25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
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Change 12
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TM 55-1500-342-23
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LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES (Cont)
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*Zero in this column indicates an original page.
B Change 12
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Glossary-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
* TM 55-1500-342-23
TECHNICAL MANUAL
No. 55-1500-342-23
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 29 August 1986
ARMY AVIATION MAINTENANCE
ENGINEERING MANUAL
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
REPORTING ERRORS AND RECOMMENDING IMPROVEMENTS
You can improve this manual. If you find mistakes or if you know of a way to improve procedures,
please let us know. Mail you letter or DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and
Blank Forms) located at the back of this manual, directly to: Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and
Missile Command, ATTN: AMSAM-MMA-NP, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898-5000. A reply will be
furnished to you. You may also provide DA Form 2028 information to AMCOM via e-mail, fax or
the World Wide Web. Our fax number is: DSN 788-6546 or Commercial (256) 842-6546. Our
e-mail address is [email protected] Instructions for sending an electronic 2028 may be
found at the back of this bulletin immediately preceding the hard copy 2028. For the World Wide
Web use: https://amcom2028.redstone.army.mil.
ENVIRONMENTAL/HAZARDOUS MATERIAL INFORMATION
This document has been reviewed for the presence of Class I Ozone Depleting Chemicals. As of change 08, dated 17
September 1996, all references to Class I Ozone Depleting Chemicals have been removed from this document by substitution with chemicals that do not cause atmospheric ozone depletion.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
Section I
Section II
CHAPTER 3
Section I
Section II
CHAPTER 4
Section I
Section II
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
GLOSSARY
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
PRINCIPLES OF WEIGHT AND BALANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
WEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
BALANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2
WEIGHING AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-1
WEIGHING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-1
WEIGHING PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-5
WEIGHT AND BALANCE RECORDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
TYPES OF FORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF DD FORM 365 SERIES AND CHART E . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-3
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-1
Example Charts and Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary-1
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
4-1
4-2
Title
Page
Asymmetric Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Balance Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locating Aircraft Center of Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weight Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic Weighing Kit (Typical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Platform Scale Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessory Weighing Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lowest Point of Meniscus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DD Form 365 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DD Form 365-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
* This publication supersedes TM 55-405-9, 25 August 1966, including all changes.
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-6
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-6
4-4
4-7
Change 12
i
TM 55-1500-342-23
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont)
Figure
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
B-1
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-5
B-6
B-7
B-8
B-9
ii
Title
DD Form 365-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DD Form 365-3 (Front) (Sheet 1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Adjuster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DD Form 365-4 (Front) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Adjuster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DD Form 365-4 (Reverse) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average Arm Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example AWBS Record of Weight and Balance Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example AWBS Chart A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example AWBS Form B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example AWBS Chart C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example AWBS Form F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example AWBS Form F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example AWBS Form B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example AWBS Chart A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example AWBS Chart C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change 12
Page
4-8.2
4-11
4-14
4-17
4-18
4-20
4-21
4-22.2
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-6
B-7
B-9
B-11
B-13
B-15
TM 55-1500-342-23
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1-1. PURPOSE. The purpose of this manual is to provide information necessary for the control of weight and
balance of Army aircraft. Much of the information contained herein is general in nature since it is applicable to
all aircraft. Refer to the appropriate -10 operator’s and
-23 maintenance manuals when specific weight and balance data is required for a particular aircraft.
1-2. SCOPE. Material presented in this manual applies to all activities that operate and/or maintain Department if the Army aircraft. Sufficient explanation of
principles, definitions, and procedural data are given to
provide weight & balance personnel with a general information manual pertinent to their particular function.
Also included is a complete description of related equipment and instructions for its use and operation. The
procedural data is an in-depth description of the system
used to control and document weight and balance on the
Army aircraft. This is accomplished through the proper
use of the following documents:
•
DD Form 365 (Record of Weight and Balance
Personnel)
•
DD Form 365-1 (Chart A – Basic Weight
Checklist Record)
•
DD Form 365-2 (Form B – Aircraft Weighing
Record)
•
DD Form 365-3 (Chart C – Basic Weight and
Balance Record)
•
DD Form 365-4 (Weight and Balance Clearance Form F)
•
Chart E (Loading Data and Special Weighing
Instructions)
While these documents all bear a concise title and a Department of Defense form number, Forms 365-1 through
365-4 have become known primarily by their abbreviated titles – – Chart A, Form B, Chart C, and Form F.
Therefore, in this manual the abbreviated titles will be
used. Proper use of these forms and charts is covered
in detail in Chapter 4.
1-3. USE OF WORDS SHALL, SHOULD, AND
MAY. Within this manual the word shall is used to
indicate a mandatory requirement. The word should is
used to indicate a non-mandatory but preferred method
of accomplishment. The word may is used to indicate
an acceptable method of accomplishment.
1-4. WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES DEFINED. Warnings, cautions, and notes are used to
emphasize important, and critical instructions and are
used for the following conditions:
An operating procedure, practice, etc, which if
not correctly followed, could result in personal
injury or loss of life.
An operating procedure, practice, etc, which, if
not strictly observed, could result in damage to
or destruction of equipment.
NOTE
An operating procedure, condition, etc, which it
is essential to highlight.
1-5. REASONS FOR WEIGHT AND BALANCE CONTROL. Flight characteristics of aircraft are directly dependent upon conditions of weight and balance. Gross
weight and center of gravity (cg) have a bearing on performance, stability, and control of the aircraft. For example, cargo placed too far aft in an already critically loaded
aircraft will move the center of gravity out of the permissible balance limits. This could easily cause the pilot
to lose control of the aircraft. Hazardous flight conditions and accidents resulting from these conditions can
be prevented by adherence to the principles of weight
and balance set forth in the manual.
1-6. RESPONSIBILITIES. Basic weight and balance
data is delivered with the aircraft. Once aircraft are delivered, however, it becomes the responsibility of maintenance and operating units to maintain accurate weight
and balance data. Maintenance activities are required
to weigh specific aircraft periodically in accordance with
the provisions of AR 95-1 or 95-23 to insure that basic
weight and balance data is correct. It is the pilot’s or operator’s responsibility to insure that the weight and balance conditions of the aircraft are within safe limits, in
accordance with the provisions of AR 95-1 or 95–23.
NOTE
Scheduled inspections for aircraft inventories
(Chart A), weighings (Form B), Form F reviews, and all other weight and balance records
shall be methodically tracked to ensure inspections are performed. Proper use of DA Form
2408–18, the AWBS Scheduler, or other similar
management tools are acceptable.
Change 12
1-1/(1-2 Blank)
TM 55-1500-342-23
CHAPTER 2
PRINCIPLES OF WEIGHT AND BALANCE
SECTION I
2-1. GENERAL. Weight is one of the most important
factors to be considered from the time the aircraft is designed until it is removed from service. It is of prime
importance to the manufacturer through all phases of
production and must remain foremost in the pilot’s mind
when planning and carrying out missions. Changes in
the basic aircraft design weight, either in initial production by the manufacturer, or in subsequent modifications by maintenance activities, will have to direct bearing on aircraft performance. Cargo/troop loading and
the aircraft gross weight should be examined closely by
the pilot as these factors may determine the safety and
success of a mission. Gross weight limitations have
been established and are in the applicable -10 operator’s manual for individual aircraft to insure successful
and efficient tactical operation.
2-2.
Deleted.
2-3. WEIGHT VERSUS AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE. An aircraft is designed for specific weight
limitations which cannot be exceeded without compromising safety. Overloading an aircraft may cause
structural failure or result in reduced engine and airframe life. An increase in gross weight will have the
following effects on aircraft performance:
a.
Increase takeoff distance.
b.
Reduce hover performance.
c.
Reduce rate of climb.
d.
Reduce cruising speed.
e.
Increase stalling speed.
f.
Reduce maneuverability.
g.
Reduce ceiling.
h.
Reduce Range.
i.
Increase landing distances.
j.
Instability.
WEIGHT
the load occupies. For example is determined as follows:
Base of container = 20 in x 20 in = 400 sq in
Floor Loading = 100 lb
= 0.25 lb per sq in
400 sq in
or 0.25lb’ sq in x 144 = 36 lb/sq ft.
Floor loading limits or a plan view of the cargo floor
showing variations in floor strength and weight concentration limitations for various compartments are specified in the applicable -10 operator’s manual.
2-5. BALLAST. Ballast is some form of weight placed
in a specific location in an aircraft to insure stability of
flight by compensating for unfavorable weight and balance conditions. Two types of ballast are permanent
ballast and temporary ballast.
a. Permanent Ballast. In certain instances modification work orders will call for the removal or addition
of equipment which will have a marked effect on aircraft
weight and balance conditions. When this is the case,
it is necessary to install ballast weights to maintain the
center of gravity position within the center of gravity limits. The agency responsible for preparing the modification work order will consider effects of the modification
on weight and balance conditions and will specify requirements for installation of permanent ballast weights
when required. Maintenance activities that install permanent ballast weights are responsible for making the
proper entries on the Chart A and Chart C.
b. Temporary Ballast. Temporary ballast consist
of such weights as may be necessary to compensate
for missing crew members, weapons systems, ammunition and equipment in order to maintain center of gravity
positions within the center of gravity limits. Shot bags
or other similar items may be used for temporary ballast
provided they are properly secured. The amount and
location of temporary ballast required to maintain safe
flight, will be determined by the pilot or weight and balance technician.
2-4. FLOOR LOADING. Floor loading is the weight of
a load in pounds divided by the area of floor space which
Change 12
2-1
TM 55-1500-342-23
SECTION II
2-6. GENERAL The purpose of this section is to
outline the method for determining the cg position of
a loaded aircraft. Although location of the cg is very
important to safety of flight, it can be easily controlled
by proper loading of the aircraft. Balance or the location
of the aircraft’s cg, is of primary importance to aircraft
stability. A pilot should never fly an aircraft if he is
not personally satisfied with its loading and balance
condition. The cg is the point about which an aircraft
would balance if it were possible to support the aircraft
at that point. It is the mass center of the aircraft or the
theoretical point at which the entire weight of an aircraft
is assumed to be concentrated.
a. For most aircraft the prime concern is the Longitudinal balance, or the location of the cg along a designated reference line running from the nose to the tail.
Location of the cg with reference to the Lateral (side to
side) axis is also important for some aircraft. If an aircraft will be flown in an asymmetrical configuration, it is
required to calculate the Lateral cg. The design of most
aircraft is such that symmetry is assumed to exist about
a vertical plane through the Longitudinal axis. In other
words, for each item of weight existing to the left of the
BALANCE
fuselage centerline there is generally an equal weight
existing at a corresponding location on the right. This
Lateral mass symmetry however may be easily upset
due to unbalanced Lateral loading. Location of the Lateral cg is not only important from the aspect of loading
rotary wing aircraft, but is also extremely important when
considering fixed wing exterior drop loads. The position
of the Lateral cg shall be computed when a Lateral imbalance is present or when flying in an asymmetric configuration (see figure 2-1).
b. The cg (henceforth, reference to cg will mean
the longitudinal center of gravity) is not necessarily a
fixed point; its location depends on the distribution of
items loaded in the aircraft, and as variable load items
are shifted or expended, there is a resultant shift in cg
location. It should be realized that if mass center of an
aircraft is displaced too far forward on the longitudinal
axis a nose heavy condition will result. Conversely, if the
mass center is displaced too far aft on the longitudinal
axis, a tail heavy condition will result. It is possible that
an unfavorable location of the cg could produce such an
unstable condition that the pilot could lose control of the
aircraft.
Figure 2-1. Asymmetric Configurations
2-2
Change 10
TM 55-1500-342-23
2-7. PRINCIPLE OF MOMENTS. To understand balance, it is necessary to have a working knowledge of the
principle of moments. For those unfamiliar with weight
and balance terms, the word moment is the product of
a force or weight, times a distance. The distance used
in calculating a moment is referred to as the arm or moment arm, and is usually expressed in inches. To calculate a moment, a force (or weight) and a distance must
be known. The distance is measured from some desired known point (reference point or reference datum)
to the point through which the force acts. A moment is
meaningless unless the reference point about which the
moment was calculated is specified.
a. For the purpose of illustration, an aircraft may
be compared to a seesaw. Like the seesaw, in order for
an aircraft to be in balance, or equilibrium, the sum of
the moments on each side of the balance point must be
equal in magnitude.
For example, referring to figure 2-2, the moment
produced about the fulcrum (reference point) by the
200 pound weight is 200 lb x 50 in = 10,000 in lb counterclockwise. The moment produced about the same
reference point by the 100 pound weight is 100 lb x
100 =10,000 in lb clockwise. In this case, the clockwise
moment counterbalances the counterclockwise moment, and the system is in equilibrium . This example
illustrates the principle of moments which is as follows:
For system to be in static equilibrium, the sum of the
moments about any point must equal zero.
b. As illustrated in figure 2-2, the clockwise moment is arbitrarily given a positive (+) sign while the
counterclockwise moment is given a negative (-) sign.
Therefore, the sum of the moments about the fulcrum
= +10,000 in lb (clockwise) -10,000 in lb (counterclockwise) -0, and the system is in equilibrium. In determining
balance of an aircraft, the fulcrum is the unknown, and
the problem is one of determining the location of the fulcrum, or longitudinal center of gravity.
Figure 2-2. Aircraft Balance Point
2-3
TM 55-1500-342-23
2-8.
Deleted.
2-9. EFFECTS OF MOMENT ON AIRCRAFT. As in
the case of the seesaw, which can be balanced about
its fulcrum, an aircraft may be considered to be in balance about its cg. Loads placed forward of the aircraft
cg can be balanced by placing loads aft of the cg. Loads
located forward of the cg of an aircraft produce moments
which tend to make the nose go down, whereas loads
located aft of the cg produce moments which tend to
make the tail go down. If any item is added forward of
the cg or removed aft of the cg, a nose-heavy condition will result. Conversely, any item added aft of the cg
or removed forward of the cg will produce a tail-heavy
condition. It should be realized that a moment can be
changed without adding or removing a weight simply by
shifting weight forward or aft.
2-10. DETERMINATION OF BALANCE CONDITION
(LOCATION OF AIRCRAFT CENTER OF GRAVITY). To determine the cg location of loaded aircraft,
it is first necessary to obtain the basic weight and
moment of the aircraft from Chart C. Add the weight
of the items to be loaded to the aircraft basic weight
to obtain the gross weight. Compute the moment of
each load item by multiplying its weight by its arm. Find
the gross weight moment by adding the basic aircraft
moment and the moments of the load items. Determine
the cg location by dividing the gross weight moment by
the gross weight. Figure 2-3 illustrates the method for
determining the cg location of a loaded aircraft.
NOTE
In computations, any item of weight added to
the aircraft either side of the datum is a plus
weight. Any weight item removed is a minus
weight. When multiplying weights by arms, the
moment is plus if the signs are alike and minus
if the signs are unlike. The following combinations are possible:
Items added forward of the datum - (+)
weight X (-) arm = (-) moment.
Items added aft of the datum - (+) weight X
(+) arm = (+) moment.
Items removed forward of the datum - (-)
weight X (-) arm = (+) moment.
Items removed aft of the datum - (-) weight
X (+) arm = (-) moment.
Figure 2-3. Locating Aircraft Center of Gravity
2-4
Change 12
TM 55-1500-342-23
2-11. EFFECTS
OF
UNBALANCED
LOADING. When the aircraft is nose heavy (cg too far
forward), the pilot will experience difficulty in getting the
tail down during landing. Other unfavorable conditions
which may result are loss of aircraft maneuverability,
overstress of the nose, wheel structure in landing, and
increase of pilot fatigue. When a tail heavy condition
exists (cg too far aft), the aircraft may become unstable.
This condition increases pilot fatigue, and may lead to
structural failure and spins.
2-12. DETERMINING CENTER OF GRAVITY FOR A
GROUP OF ITEMS. It is sometimes desirable to find the
average arm or cg for a group of objects in an aircraft.
This is accomplished by finding the individual moment
of each object in the group, adding these moments, and
dividing this sum by the total weight of all the objects in
the group. It is expressed by the formula:
Average arm (in) = total moment (in lb)
Total weight (lb)
It should be noted that basic aircraft weight and moment
are excluded from this calculation.
2-13. CENTER OF GRAVITY LIMITS. All aircraft
have allowable limits between which the cg must lie.
After the cg position of a loaded aircraft has been calculated, it is necessary to ensure that the cg falls within
these allowable limits. These limits are specified in the
applicable -10 operators manual (alternate is Chart E
data) covering the particular aircraft. If, after loading the
aircraft, the cg does not fall within the allowable limits,
it will be necessary to shift loads.
a. The forward cg limit may vary with the gross
weight of an aircraft and is often restricted to control
landing conditions. It may be possible for aircraft to
maintain stable and safe flight with the cg ahead of the
forward limit as prescribed by landing conditions, but
since landing is one of the most critical phases of flight,
the forward cg limit is restricted to avoid damage to the
aircraft structure when landing, and to insure that sufficient elevator deflection is available at minimum airspeed. When structural limitations or large stick forces
do not limit the forward cg position, this point is determined as that cg position at which full up elevator is required to obtain a high angle of attack for landing.
b. The aft cg limit is the most rearward position at
which the cg can be located for the most critical maneuver or operation. As the cg moves aft, a less stable condition occurs which decreases the ability of the aircraft
to right itself after maneuvering or after disturbances by
gusts. The allowable aft cg limit may also vary with the
aircraft gross weight.
2-14. EXPRESSING CENTER OF GRAVITY. The cg
position is expressed in terms of inches from a known
reference datum.
2-15. WEIGHT TERMINOLOGY. Figure 2-4 illustrates the meaning of Army aircraft weight terminology.
For related definitions, see Appendix A and the applicable aircraft operator’s manual or Chart E.
Change 10
2-5
TM 55-1500-342-23
WEIGHT EMPTY
Fixed guns, unusable fuel, oil, ballast, oxygen, and other internal or external equipment not disposed during the
flight and not listed in the Chart E.
BASIC WEIGHT
Crew, crew baggage, steward equipment, survival kits, emergency equipment, special mission fixed equipment,
and all other non-expendable items (e.g. fixed pylons and racks) not in basic weight.
OPERATING WEIGHT
Payload items: such as cargo, ammunition, passengers, stores, disposable fuel tanks, and transfer fuel.
ZERO FUEL WEIGHT
Usable Fuel
RAMP WEIGHT
Taxi Fuel
TAKEOFF GROSS WEIGHT
Load items expended in flight: such as fuel, stores ammunitions, cargo, paratroopers.
LANDING GROSS WEIGHT
Figure 2-4. Weight Terminology
2-6
Change 12
TM 55-1500-342-23
CHAPTER 3
WEIGHING AIRCRAFT
SECTION I
WEIGHING EQUIPMENT
3-1. GENERAL. Weighing aircraft with accurately calibrated scales is the only sure method of obtaining an
accurate basic weight and cg location. The use of Chart
A and Chart C in accounting for correcting the aircraft
basic weight and cg is reliable over certain periods of
time. Over extended intervals, however, unknown service weight pickup and other factors will render the basic weight and cg data inaccurate. For this reason aircraft weighing’s are required periodically as outlined in
AR 95-1 and AR 95-23. Besides those times designated in the regulations, aircraft will be weighed when
major modifications or repairs are made when the pilot reports unsatisfactory flight characteristics, such as
nose or tail heaviness, and when basic weight data reflected by Chart C is suspected to be in error. In AR 95-1
and AR 95-23, aircraft are classified for the purpose of
weight and balance control. Reference should be made
to the regulations since weighing requirements vary for
the different classes. An aircraft is weighed for the purpose of determining its basic weight and balance. This
means that the aircraft should be weighed in its basic
condition; that is, with fixed normal equipment which is
actually present in the aircraft, less fuel and other expendable load items. This does not preclude weighing
the aircraft with expendable load items, if specific weight
of the items is available and proper computations are accomplished to determine basic weight. Supplied with the
basic weight and balance data, the pilot is able to compute the gross weight and balance of his mission-ready
aircraft to insure safety of flight and mission accomplishment.
3-2. COMBAT AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AND BALANCE
MANAGEMENT
a. Special circumstances exist in deployed locations which prevent ideal conditions for weighing. For
those aircraft deployed within the theater of operations,
weighing of aircraft is permitted in an open hanger if the
following conditions are met:
(1) There is no risk of aircraft falling off jacks (if
used) due to air movement.
(2) Scale readings do not change for a minimum
of 30 seconds prior to recording the weight.
b. A 90-day combat weighing deferment can be
granted to allow more time to coordinate issues with
weighing aircraft provided the following requirements
are met:
(1) An official memorandum from the unit commander stating the reason for the request, the unit designation and location, the aircraft serial number and airframe type.
(2) All of the weight and balance records to include Chart A, Chart B, and Chart C have been provided.
(3) Commander’s request with copy of aircraft’s
weight and balance file must be sent to the appropriate
contacts listed below, using the following address block
or the appropriate e-mail address:
CDR, USARDECOM
ATTN: (POC’s Office Symbol, Contact Name
See (1) - (5) below)
Building 4488
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898-5000
(a) AH-64:
AMSRD-AMR-AE-D, E-mail:
[email protected],
CC:
[email protected]
(b) UH-60:
AMSRD-AMR-AE-U, E-mail:
[email protected],
CC:
[email protected]
(c) ) CH-47: AMSRD-AMR-AE-C, E-mail:
[email protected],
CC:
[email protected]
(d) OH-58/Fixed Wing: AMSRD-AMR-AE-B,
E-mail: [email protected], CC: [email protected]
(e) Special Operations Aircraft:
AMSRD-AMR-T, E-mail:
[email protected],
CC: [email protected]
3-3. WEIGHING EQUIPMENT. Two types of scales
are generally used for weighing Army aircraft, portable
load cells (see Electronic Weighing Kit Figure 3-1) that
are used with jacks and platform aircraft scales (see
Figure 3-2). Stationary pit type scales or other devices
may be used as authorized for particular aircraft models
or activities. To ensure accurate results in determining
aircraft weight, the instructions provided in the technical
manuals for the specified weighing system must be
followed.
Change 12
3-1
TM 55-1500-342-23
1. ACCESSORY KIT ASSEMBLY
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
RING ADAPTER ASSEMBLY
PLUG ADAPTER
SPHERICAL ADAPTER
ALLEN WRENCH
REEL ASSEMBLY
SPARE TUBE KIT
SPARE TUBE KIT
9. CASE ASSEMBLY
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
INDICATOR ASSEMBLY
POWER SUPPLY ASSEMBLY
EXTENSION CABLE ASSEMBLY
CABLE ASSEMBLY
BATTERY CABLE ASSEMBLY
CELL ASSEMBLY
Figure 3-1. Electronic Weighing Kit (Typical)
3-2
TM 55-1500-342-23
NOTE
Aircraft weighing equipment shall only be used
to weigh aircraft.
a. Electronic Weighing Kit. An electronic weighing kit containing load cells which are attached to axle
or wing jacks for weighing aircraft. A typical kit contains
three or four load cells, power cords, ring adapters, and
weighing accessory kit. Jack pad adapters (typically
part of aircraft jacks) should be used (if required) to fit
the load cell to the aircraft’s jack pad.
(1) Ring type load cell adapters are usually used
with jacks. These load cell adapters must be securely
attached to jacks when employed. The load cell must
be placed squarely and symmetrically on top of the jack
head.
(2) Some weighing kits also come with two jack
pad adapters, the use of which depends upon the shape
of the aircraft’s jack pad.
b. Platform Aircraft Scales. A typical system
contains three or four platform scales, each with individual ramps and extension platforms, (see Figure 3-2),
power cords, and weighing accessory kit. The complete
system is portable with storage cases adaptable for a
cart mounted on casters. The aircraft is towed onto
the platform scales and the resulting weight forces are
measured. An advantage of this system is that the
aircraft does not have to be jacked, thus minimizing side
loads. Complete operating and weighing instructions
are contained in the applicable aircraft’s maintenance
manuals.
Figure 3-2. Typical Platform Scale Assembly
3-4. CALIBRATION
OF
WEIGHING
EQUIPMENT. Commanders of Army organizations which
operate, maintain, or modify aircraft are responsible
for ensuring that weighing equipment under their jurisdiction are calibrated periodically and certified by
a government inspector of weights and measures or
by commercial scale officials in accordance with TB
750-25 and TB 43-180. Unless directed in the above
TB’s, scales shall be calibrated or certified correct at
least once every 12 months. Aircraft manufacturers or
maintenance activities are authorized to use equipment
that has been calibrated by standards that are traceable
to the National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST).
3-5. ASSOCIATED TERMS, FIXTURES, AND ACCESSORIES. To measure such data as lengths,
angles, and densities, weight and balance personnel require accessories such as levels, plumb bobs,
measuring tapes, chalk lines, and hydrometers. This
equipment normally is included in electronic weighing
kits. It may often be necessary to prepare special
devices that will facilitate taking measurements and leveling specific types of aircraft. Special equipment, when
required, will be called out in the aircraft’s maintenance
manuals. The description and definition of several of
the more important terms and fixtures are provided as
follows:
a. Accessory Weighing Kit. A kit containing compartments for each accessory weighing item should be
provided for storing and carrying the weighing accessories. (See Figure 3-3). This is a necessary precaution against loss. Some electric weighing kits have the
accessories incorporated in the kit for convenience.
Change 12
3-3
TM 55-1500-342-23
Figure 3-3. Accessory Weighing Kit
b. Platform Aircraft Scales An approved type of
jack is required to raise the aircraft to a level position
clear of the hangar floor. A high quality standard jack,
with suitable capacity and extension range, should be
used. The jack must have an ample flat base area and
have a suitable head, or adapter, to retain the load cells
and thus prevent slippage and resulting damage to the
aircraft. The capacity of the jack points should also be
checked to ensure the points would not be overloaded
while weighing the aircraft.
c. Chalk Line. This is a string, covered with chalk,
which is used to mark a straight chalked line on the
hangar floor between the vertical projections of the main
reaction points or jig locations. The string should be
sturdy and hard finished. The electronic weighing kit
usually includes a chalk line reel.
d. Hydrometer. A hydrometer with a calibration
range from 5.5 to 7.0 pounds per US gallon should be
used for determining the density of fuel when required.
A transparent container for holding fuel samples and
a pipette at least 12 inches long or some other similar
device for withdrawing samples from the tank is necessary for use with the hydrometer. This equipment
3-4
Change 12
is incorporated within the weighing kit. Care must be
taken not to damage the glassware.
e. Jack pad adapters are spherical-type adapters
used to mate the conical protrusion (jack pads) and load
cell assembly
f. Jack pads are fittings attached to the aircraft
structure which are used for reaction or jack points. A
rounded or conical extension protrudes from the base of
the jack pad and serves as the point of contact for the
weighing cell assembly or jack.
g. Jig-located brackets and plates are used with a
plumb bob for leveling certain aircraft.
h. Jig points are established during construction
of an aircraft and are used as a reference for taking measurements during weighing. The jig point may be a hole,
fitting, or any other conveniently fixed station on the aircraft. Jig point locations are specified in the appropriate
maintenance manual (Chart E data).
i.
Leveling Bars. One set of leveling bars normally comes with the electronic weighing kit. This two-
TM 55-1500-342-23
part bar can be used in conjunction with the spirit level
for floor and aircraft angle measuring.
ical reaction points used for weighing aircraft are wheel,
landing gear, fuselage, and wing jack pads.
j. Leveling lugs are located on some aircraft to facilitate use of the spirit level in leveling aircraft.
m. Spirit Level. At least one spirit level is required
for leveling most aircraft. It is important that the level be
of the machinist bench type and of first-class quality with
ground and graduated main vials and plumb vials. A
calibrated inclinometer or digital protractor may be used
in lieu of a spirit level on some aircraft.
k. Plumb Bobs. Plumb bobs are used to project
points on the aircraft onto the floor for measuring dimensions in a level plane and for leveling most aircraft. Each
plumb bob should have a slot in the head so that excess string, which could interfere with the free swing of
the plumb bob, can be wound around the neck. Plumb
bobs are normally included in the electronic weighing kit.
l. Reaction points are those points upon which the
entire weight of the aircraft is supported when scale indicator readings are taken. Most aircraft are supported
on three reaction points; however, four or six reaction
points are required for weighing some helicopters. Typ-
SECTION II
n. Steel Tapes. A steel tape 600 inches in length
and graduated in inches and tenths of inches is desired.
Since all weighing dimensions must be read to one tenth
of an inch, and are frequently read to one hundredth of
an inch, this type of tape eliminates the nuisance and the
possibility of errors associated with converting common
fractions to decimals. Tapes, as described, are usually
in the electronic weighing kit.
WEIGHING PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES
3-6. PREPARATION OF AIRCRAFT FOR WEIGHING. The following general procedures are outlined as
an aid to preparing the aircraft for weighing. Detailed
weighing instructions for a specific type of aircraft are
contained in the applicable maintenance manual for
that aircraft.
d. The following actions must be performed prior
to aircraft weighing:
a. Thoroughly clean the aircraft inside and out, removing dirt, grease, and moisture. Allow the aircraft sufficient time to dry prior to weighing.
(2) Review aircraft historical forms and records
(DA Form 2408-5 and DA Form 2408-5-1) and the Chart
C to ensure all applied modifications has been properly
documented on all appropriate forms and records.
b. Remove load items such as expendables, ordnance, and equipment not having a fixed position. For
example: missiles, rockets, ammunition, cargo, flyaway
gear, chocks, toolboxes, survival kits, etc. These items
are not included as Chart A and should not be in aircraft
when weighed.
(1) Review aircraft logbook forms and records
(DA Form 2408-13-1 and DA Form 2408-14) to ensure
all aircraft parts/items are installed prior to weighing.
(3) The Weight and Balance Technician assigned to the aircraft IAW the DD Form 365 shall ensure
that all required parts/items are installed on the aircraft
prior to record weighing.
NOTE
c. Check aircraft equipment against Chart A and
correct form as necessary to itemize accurately all items
of fixed operating equipment that will be included in basic weight to be determined by weighing. The Chart A
serves as a check list for this operation and is necessary to accomplish the inventory. When such a list does
not accompany the aircraft, it is the duty of the Weight
and Balance Technician to prepare one before weighing.
The date the inventory is accomplished will be entered
at the top of the check column of Chart A; this shall correspond with that date entered on Form B and final entry
posted on Chart C. This inventory shall be done under
the supervision of the Weight and Balance Technician
responsible for the aircraft IAW DD Form 365.
Master Charts A are available at Army’s
Aeromechanics website at https://www.jtdi.mil
and should be implemented during the annual aircraft inventory and/or an official aircraft
weighing.
e. Prepare aircraft fuel tanks in accordance with
applicable maintenance manuals (alternate source
is Chart E instructions). All engines, transmissions,
reservoirs, and/or tanks should be full unless otherwise
specified in the applicable aircraft weighing instructions.
Weighing aircraft with full fuel tanks is not recommended
and in some instances not authorized. If it is impractical
Change 12
3-5
TM 55-1500-342-23
to drain the fuel (usually because of fire hazards or local
regulations), fill the tank(s) to capacity using the gravity
open-port method. Since the density of the fuel varies
with temperature and other factors, determine the actual
density (weight per gallon) by using a hydrometer. Multiply the density by the gallons of usable fuel capacity
obtained from the operator’s manual (Chart E) to determine the total usable fuel weight. The total weight of fuel
aboard may be calculated by multiplying the total number of gallons aboard by fuel density.
NOTE
Fuel draining should be terminated when fuel
flow becomes discontinuous or starts to drip. All
draining is generally done in the aircraft normal
ground attitude.
(1) If the aircraft is weighed with full fuel tanks,
the weight of usable fuel must be entered under Column I on Form B. Usable fuel is not part of basic weight.
Never weigh an aircraft with partially filled fuel tanks.
(2) Allow sufficient time for fuel temperature and
movement to stabilize after refueling and aircraft positioning for weighing. When determining the density of a
fuel sample, the hydrometer should be carefully placed
into the fluid within the transparent container. When
reading the density, the hydrometer must not touch the
container. Float hydrometer in a sample of fuel from
each tank just prior to weighing and record the weight
per gallon; read this value at the lowest point of the
meniscus (see Figure 3-4).
Figure 3-4. Lowest Point of Meniscus
(3) If the aircraft is weighed with drained fuel
tanks, unusable fuel listed on , Chart A will reflect "IN
A/C" and the data also entered on Form B, Column II.
(4) If the aircraft is weighed with a totally dry fuel
system(s), unusable and trapped fuel listed on , Chart A
will reflect "IN A/C" and the data also entered on Form
B, Column II.
3-6
Change 12
NOTE
It is not the intention herein to give detailed
instructions on methods used to level aircraft,
since methods vary with the type of aircraft and
the reaction points used. Normally aircraft are
weighed in a level position, which is defined
as that aircraft attitude in which the longitudinal
and lateral axes are essentially parallel to the
hangar floor. Leveling devices such as leveling
lugs and jig-located brackets and plates have
been accurately installed on the aircraft by the
manufacturer to facilitate leveling procedure.
TM 55-1500-342-23
3-7. AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATION FOR WEIGHING. The following conditions are general guidelines to
establish Basic Weight condition. Some aircraft maintenance manuals may require alternate configurations
to comply with specific aircraft design.
•
•
•
•
•
Pilot/crew access doors closed
•
•
Engine cowling closed
•
•
•
Vertical tail in flight position
b. Select weighing area that is free of cracks,
seams, and drain areas. The floor slope shall not exceed 1/4 inch (1.2 degrees) per 12 inches. To determine
floor slope, contact supporting Department of Public
Works (DPW) or servicing agency for hanger floor survey. For a field expedient method, contact supporting
unit Logistics Assistance Representative (LAR).
Cargo doors closed
Gunner’s window(s) closed
All main rotor pylon panels closed
Access compartment
latched, installed
door/panel
closed,
Main and tail rotor blades in flight position and
equally spaced (not folded)
Horizontal tails in flight position (level)
Unusable fuel (Unusable fuel is the fuel remaining in the aircraft after engine fuel starvation when the aircraft is in the specified flight
attitude)
•
Trapped fuel. (Trapped fuel is the fuel that remains in an aircraft after de-fueling the aircraft
and draining individual tanks and lines
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Unusable Oil in systems
•
All covers, plugs, ropes, etc… removed
Usable engine oil (normal full level)
Usable hydraulic fluid
Usable transmission fluid
Usable gearbox oil
Pilot and copilot seat in most aft position
Trackable swivel seats in most aft position, facing forward, seat back in upright position
3-8. AIRCRAFT WEIGHING AREA. Procedures outlined herein are general in nature, since methods of
weighing vary with each type aircraft.
a. Weigh aircraft in a closed hangar to avoid air
currents flowing over lifting surfaces and blowing against
the fuselage. This air movement would result in fluctuating scale readings and increase the possibility of error.
No ventilating system air shall impinge upon the aircraft.
Excessive side loads may cause load cell
breakage and incorrect readings.
During
leveling procedure, extreme care should be
exercised to avoid side loads which may cause
the aircraft to slip off jacks. For example, when
main landing gear jacks are in place while the
tail is lifted to a level position, it is likely that
side loads caused by rotation of the fuselage
will cause jacks to slip off the jack points causing severe damage personnel, aircraft, and/or
equipment. When raising the aircraft with two
wing or main landing gear jacks, actuate the
two jacks simultaneously to maintain a laterally
level attitude.
NOTE
Before attempting to raise an aircraft, relative
heights of main and nose or tail landing wheels
in both three-point and level attitudes should
be considered in order to determine the proper
blocking, lifting, and/or jacking equipment required. Raising a tail wheel to level an aircraft
may be quite a problem unless adequate lifting, hoisting, and supporting equipment is available. Jacks should never be employed at any
place on the aircraft other than specified jacking points.
NOTE
If wing and fuselage jacks are used to level
the aircraft, shock struts should be restrained
to prevent them from extending when aircraft is
raised.
NOTE
Adjust weighing equipment for current location’s
latitude and altitude IAW the scale manufacturer’s procedures.
c. Set load cells on their respective jacks, using
proper jack, and jack pad adapters. Be sure that jack
adapters are fully threaded into cell assembly. If a
ring-type adapter is used, see that it is centered flush
on ram applying a partial load to it before tightening
setscrews. Once the load cell is properly installed and
Change 12
3-7
TM 55-1500-342-23
the necessary jack pad adapter is attached, the jack
must be placed directly under the corresponding aircraft
jack pad. When the aircraft is raised and leveled, its
weight is measured and transmitted electronically from
the load cells to a weight readout device. Complete
operating instructions accompany each weighing kit.
Strict adherence to the instructions is necessary to
ensure accurate results.
Use proper jack pad adapters to prevent jacks
from slipping or buckling. Damage to aircraft
or inaccurate weight readings may result if improper adapters are used. Never apply loads to
the rim of a weighing cell.
Ensure all jack foot pads are properly seated on
hangar floor.
d. Actuate all jacks simultaneously until weighing
cells are in contact with aircraft jack pads. Apply actual
aircraft weight load two times as part of the warm-up
procedure. This will increase the accuracy of the actual
record weighings. Continue to jack aircraft, ensuring the
aircraft is kept level in accordance with aircraft maintenance manual(s). When aircraft is supported at weighing reaction points only, and is in level position, scale
readings may be obtained. Weight and balance personnel must be alert for possible errors in scale readings
(e.g., side loads or misaligned jack and cell, etc.).
NOTE
If the plumb bob target plate is missing, covered, or accuracy is questioned, contact the Airframe LAR for further assistance.
e. Measure and record dimensions once aircraft is
in a level position. Three longitudinal dimensions must
be either measured or otherwise known to determine the
longitudinal location of the center of gravity of the aircraft
as weighed. When landing gear are used as reaction
points, dimensions to be determined are as follows:
NOTE
The Basic Lateral cg is zero (0) unless otherwise specified by the aircraft’s operators manual.
(1) The longitudinal distance from the reference
datum to some known jig point. It is not necessary
to measure this distance as it is given in the appropriate maintenance manual (Chart E data) and will remain
fixed.
3-8
Change 12
(2) The distance from the jig point to a lateral
line passing through the main reaction points. This measurement must be made along a line which is parallel to
the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.
(3) The wheel base or distance between the
main and forward or aft reaction points.
f. Measure dimension in steps (2) and (3) above
by projecting required points to hangar floor. Project jig
point to hangar floor by suspending a plumb bob from
center of jig point so that plumb bob is approximately 1/8
inch above floor. Wait until swing of plumb bob stops,
and make a cross mark on floor directly under tip of
plumb bob. Print words JIG POINT near cross on floor to
distinguish it from other projected points. Main reaction
points are projected in the same manner as described
above for the jig point. After marking crosses for the two
main reaction points, stretch a chalked string between
them and draw taut. Snap string against floor, leaving a
visible straight chalk line between main reaction points.
Nose or tail reaction point is projected in a similar manner to plumb bob method.
g. Measure required dimensions after these
points are projected to floor. Dimensions to be measured are listed as B and D on Form B. Distance B is
the same dimension as discussed in step (2) above.
It is the perpendicular distance from the projected jig
point to the chalk line between the main reaction points.
Distance D is the same dimension as referred to in step
(3) above. It is the wheel base, or distance from the
centerline of the main reaction points to the nose or tail
reaction points. When measuring these distances, it is
necessary that the tape be parallel to aircraft centerline.
Measurements made from the main reaction points are
taken perpendicularly to the chalk line joining these two
points. These measurements may be made quickly by
placing one end of the tape on the point in question and
swinging the other end of the tape across the line in a
small arc. Notice the point at which the tape crosses
the chalk line which shows a shorter distance than any
other along the line. This is the shortest distance between the line and the point in question and, therefore,
is the perpendicular distance from the point to the line.
When fuselage and wing jack points are used as reaction points in weighing the aircraft, it is unnecessary to
measure dimension. These points will remain fixed with
respect to the reference datum and their moment arms
may be found in the applicable maintenance manual
(Chart E data). When measuring is necessary, the
required dimensions should be recorded on Form B as
soon as the measurements are taken.
h. To ensure accuracy of results, a minimum of
two independent weighings shall be performed that
meet the tolerances listed below. The individual weighings do not have to be consecutive.
TM 55-1500-342-23
NOTE
If variations in scale indications for any reaction point are greater than that prescribed in the
technical manual covering the kit, reweigh aircraft with another weighing kit.
1.
Rotor-Wing, Fixed-Wing, and UAV Aircraft
0.25% of Total (as weighed) weight and
0.10 inches in arm or 0.1% MAC (as applicable).
NOTE
Both weight and arm / % MAC tolerances shall
be met.
2.
3.
Example: During the first weighing, the
aircraft weighed 14,523 lbs with an arm
of 309.3 inches (29.3% MAC). The tolerances for the second weighing are +/-36
lbs (14,523 X 0.0025= 36) which results in
a range from 14,487 to 14,559 lbs. The arm
range is 309.2 to 309.4 inches or 29.2% to
29.4% MAC.
If these constraints are not met, additional
weighings shall be made until they are satisfied. Average the Net Weight and Measurements of the two suitable weighings to
complete a Form B.
i. Before removing the aircraft from the scales,
make certain that all necessary measurements and
scale readings have been obtained and recorded.
j. Compute the difference between the calculated
weight and arm (last entry on Chart C) and the actual
Basic Aircraft Weight and Arm to be posted to Chart C
(see Form B). If the weight differs more than 0.4% (WT
X 0.004) or the arm differs more than 0.2 inches or 0.2%
MAC, accomplish the following:
1.
2.
3.
Check calculations for errors.
Check scales for overdue calibration.
Check scales for correct altitude and latitude adjustments IAW the scale manufacturer’s procedures.
4.
Check slope of weighing area (REF PAR
3-8).
5. Check for hangar doors closed, fans and
heaters off.
6. Check the Plumb Bob for proper installation. i.e. string positioned in center of
bracket V-notch. Does the Plumb Bob, Digital Protractor, or other leveling tool show required longitudinal and lateral angles/alignment?
7. Check aircraft (inside & out) to ensure that
it is clean and completely dry.
8. Check to ensure chocks, flight gear, survival kits, fly-away gear, blade ropes, engine covers, and other non-basic weight
items were removed.
9. Check that aircraft doors and panels were
in proper configuration.
10. Check fuel tank sump drains for lack of fuel
flow (if defueled) making sure an appropriate container is in place in the event of fuel
discharge.
11. Check fuel quantity and density if aircraft
was not defueled (if authorized). Aircraft
must be fueled using the gravity open-port
refueling method to ensure maximum usable fuel capacity is achieved. Do not use
aircraft fuel quantity indicators to determine
the quantity. Use the applicable operators
manual (-10) for usable fuel capacities.
12. Check Chart C for errors since the last
weighing.
•
•
•
A. Posting Turned - Off.
B. Aircraft Modificaitons.
C. Chart A inventory doesn’t match the
aircraft’s weighing condition.
13. Did any maintenance action take place between inventory and weighing?
14. If errors are found, correct and repeat two
additional weighings (if applicable) that
meets the repeatable tolerances IAW PAR
3-8.h.
15. If no errors are found, post the weighing.
Change 12
3-9/(3-10 Blank)
TM 55-1500-342-23
CHAPTER 4
WEIGHT AND BALANCE RECORDS
SECTION I
TYPES OF FORMS
4-1. GENERAL. Specific weight and balance data is
contained in the -10 operator’s manual and the applicable maintenance manual for each Army aircraft. Standard forms are used in conjunction with this data to provide an effective system for weight and balance control.
Information to be inserted on the charts or forms is applicable only to the individual aircraft, the serial number of which appears on the various charts and forms.
The weight and balance data and related forms for aircraft are maintained in accordance with AR 95-1 and AR
95-23. Entries on DD Form 365, DD Form 365-1, and
DD Form 365-3 will be made using a pen, typewriter,
or a rubber stamp. Felt tip pens or grease pencils will
not be used. Pencils may be used on DD Form 365-4.
Electronic signatures are authorized when using computer data sheets (i.e: AWBS). Enter aircraft serial number format IAW DA PAM 738-751. The forms referred to
herein may differ from time to time, but the general principles behind their use will remain the same. Weight
and balance of aircraft is controlled and standardized
through the use of the following charts and forms:
a. DD Form 365 (Record of Weight and Balance
Personnel).
b. DD Form 365-1 (Chart A – Basic Weight Checklist Record).
c. DD Form 365-2 (Form – B Aircraft Weighing
Record).
d. DD Form 365-3 (Chart C – Basic Weight and
Balance Record).
e. DD Form 365-4 (Weight and Balance Clearance Form F – Transport/Tactical).
f. Chart E (Loading Data and Special Weighing Instructions).
4-2. RESPONSIBILITY FOR DD Form 365 SERIES
AND CHART E. Before delivery of an aircraft, DD Form
365 the manufacturer is responsible for inserting all aircraft identifying data on the various charts and forms.
The manufacturer completes all forms in AWBS format.
All DD Form 365 series charts and any other pertinent
weight and balance data relating to an aircraft will be
maintained in a permanent binder for the aircraft. The
binder and all forms contained therein will bear the aircraft designation and serial number. Any change that
affects aircraft weight and balance will be reflected in
these forms.
4-3. DISPOSITION OF WEIGHT AND BALANCE
FORMS. Weight and balance forms are to be
safe-guarded and maintained with the same degree
of importance as other records maintained for each
aircraft.
a. The individual weight and balance forms serve
various purposes. Therefore, the retention period of the
forms will vary, as follows.
(1) The DD Form 365 Record of Weight and Balance Personnel is a semi permanent form. It will be retained in the aircraft’s weight and balance file until space
for additional entries has been exhausted and a new replacement form started. At the time, the replaced form
may be destroyed locally.
(2) The DD Form 365-1 Chart A – Basic Weight
Checklist Record (Chart A) us a permanent form and will
be retained in the aircraft’s Weight and Balance file for
the life of the aircraft. As new forms are started because
of exhausting entry space, the new form will be stapled
to the original form.
(3) The DD Form 365-2 Form B – Aircraft
Weighing Record (Form B) is a semi-permanent form.
The current completed form will be retained in the
aircraft’s weight and balance file until the aircraft has
been reweighed, a new form started, computations
verified, and necessary entries made on the Form B.
Upon completion of the above, the old Form B may be
destroyed locally.
(4) The DD Form 365-3 Chart C – Basic Weight
and Record (Chart C) is a continuous and permanent
history of the aircraft Basic Weight, Basic Moment, and
Basic CG position. The form will be retained in the aircraft’s Weight and Balance file for the life of the aircraft.
As new forms are started because of exhausting entry
space, the new form will be stapled to the original form.
Change 12
4-1
TM 55-1500-342-23
(5) The DD Form 365-4 Weight and Balance
Clearance Form F (Form F) which has been used to
compute standard loads, utilizing the aircraft’s current
basic weight, is considered a current work form as
long as the load weights and locations remain current
and until the basic aircraft weight has been recomputed/changed. A copy of the current form will be
retained in the aircraft’s weight and balance .le until the
entries require revision at which time the old form will
be destroyed locally or marked void.
(6) Chart E, Loading Data and Special Weighing
Instructions. The Chart E is considered a semi–permanent Chart and is to be retained in the aircraft’s weight
and balance file until a revised Chart E is published in
the aircraft maintenance manual. Following publication
of the Chart E in the maintenance manual, the Chart E
in the aircraft file is no longer required and shall be removed and destroyed locally.
b. The weight and balance file shall be maintained
and kept current for each aircraft from the time of delivery of an aircraft to the Army until salvage or retirement
of the aircraft. Upon transfer of an aircraft, the commanding officer of the transferring activity is responsible
for insuring the weight and balance file accompanies the
aircraft.
c. Any of the DD Form 365 series can be duplicated for reason of replacing lost, mutilated, or illegible
forms. When the action is taken, each form duplicated
shall contain a statement to the effect that the entries are
certified true and accurate, followed by signature of certifying individual, date, and organizational identity. Duplication of lost or illegible forms requires a physical inventory for Chart A and weighing the aircraft for Form B.
d. The aircraft weight and balance file for aircraft
stricken from the Army inventory is to be disposed of as
follows:
(1) Destroyed/damaged aircraft. Destroy file
locally, after necessary investigation and reporting, provided the aircraft does not fall into any of the following
categories:
4-2
Change 12
(a) Weight and balance records of aircraft
that have been involved in accident(s) resulting in
death or injury to any person, and/or damage to other
than Government property that is classified as combat
loss IAW AR 385-10, para 2–5 are to be disposed of
IAW Final Disposition Instructions issued by AMCOM,
AMSAM-MMC-MA-OS. If the loss is not classified as
combat loss IAW AR 385-10, para 2-5 the weight and
balance records are to be stored and secured with the
wreckage and treated as legal evidence IAW DA PAM
27-162. The period of retention is variable; Final Disposition Instructions will not be issued from AMCOM,
until a letter of release is issued by controlling Staff
Judge Advocate (SJA), with AMCOM legal review and
concurrence.
(b) Damaged aircraft which are uneconomical repairable (by Army standards), under disposal conditions, may be transferred or offered for sale to other
than an Army custodian. The weight and balance file for
such aircraft shall accompany the aircraft to the acquiring agency/individual(s).
(2) Excessed aircraft. For aircraft whether in a
serviceable or repairable condition which are to be transferred or offered for sale to other than Army custody, the
weight and balance file will accompany the aircraft to the
acquiring agency/individual(s).
4-4.
a.
RELATED PUBLICATIONS.
AR 95-1 Aviation Flight Regulations
b. AR 95-23 Aviation Unmanned Aircraft System
Flight Regulations.
c. DA PAM 738-751, Functional users manual for
the Army Maintenance Management System–Aviation
(TAMMS-A).
d. Society of Allied Weight Engineers, Inc (SAWE)
Recommended Practice Number 7 (RP 7).
TM 55-1500-342-23
SECTION II
4-4.1.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF DD FORM 365 SERIES AND
CHART E
Deleted.
4-5. DD FORM 365, RECORD OF WEIGHT AND
BALANCE PERSONNEL. DD Form 365 (see Figure
4-1) provides a continuous record of weight and balance
personnel (civilian or military) who is responsible for
correctness and maintenance of the weight and balance
records for a specific aircraft. The form has spaces
for model/design, serial number, name, grade, station,
date assigned and date relieved from duty of weight and
balance personnel. The WHERE AND WHEN block
is not required to be completed on this form. The last
entry shall indicate the Weight and Balance Technician
who is currently responsible for maintaining the specific
aircraft’s Weight and Balance file.
a. The weight and balance technician will transfer
when one or more of the following occur:
(1) Aircraft is transferred/received to a new organization.
(2) Work ordered to next level maintenance
which results in the weight and balance records requiring updates. An update constitutes any entries made to
the Chart C.
Change 12
4-3
TM 55-1500-342-23
Figure 4-1. DD Form 365
4-4
TM 55-1500-342-23
4-6. DD Form 365-1 CHART A-BASIC WEIGHT
CHECK LIST RECORD.
a.
There are two primary purposes of the Chart A.
(1) A definition of what is included in Basic
Weight for the particular aircraft.
(2) Mass properties data for items that may be
removed from or added to the Basic Weight of the aircraft.
b. The Basic Weight Check List Record (see Figure 4-2) is a list of all equipment that is or may be installed and for which provisions or fixed stowage has
been made in a definite location in the aircraft. Items
should be listed on the Chart A only if they weigh 1.0
pound or more for aircraft under 5,000 pounds weight
empty (OH-58’s), 2.0 pounds or more for aircraft between 5,000 and 50,000 pounds weight empty, and 5.0
pounds or more for aircraft greater than 50,000 pounds.
Weights are listed to the tenth of one pound. Items which
weigh less than the above criteria may be listed if it facilitates the aircraft inventory process. Further guidance
may be found in SAWE RP 7 (Mass Properties management and Control for Military Aircraft.
(1) The weight, arm, and moment or simplified
moment (moment divided by 100 or 1000) of the individual items must be listed for use in correcting the aircraft
basic weight and moment on the Chart C as changes are
made in these items. All entries shall be typed or clearly
written in ink. When check marks (X) and zeros (0) are
entered in the IN AIRCRAFT column, the Chart A serves
as a record of equipment included in the basic weight of
the aircraft at the last inventory. When a check mark is
entered in Chart C ENTRY column, the check mark is
an indication that an entry has been made in the Chart
C as a result of a change in the status (in or out of the
aircraft) of an item since the previous inventory.
NOTE
Marks in the In Aircraft and Chart C Entry
columns are made only at the time of a complete inventory. Never change the marks or
add new ones under a previously accomplished
inventory.
(2) Weights, Arms, and moments shall be listed
to one decimal place. Moments are simplified by a constant (100 or 1,000).
c. The Chart A inventory shall be performed
whenever:
(1) The aircraft is transferred to a new unit with
a change of weight and balance technician.
(a) The custodian receiving the aircraft shall
perform a Chart A inventory of the aircraft to ensure
that the delivery condition or assumed operating condition recorded by the manufacturer in Charts A and C
matches the actual operating condition to be used by
the custodian. If not, the necessary adjustments shall
be made.
(2) The aircraft has a major overhaul. For example, the following actions could constitute a major
overhaul: aircraft phase inspection involving replacement of large items such as main transmission, rotor
head, extensive airframe repair, RESET, tail boom replacement, etc.
(3) The pilot reports unsatisfactory flight characteristics with weight and/or balance implications.
(4) The aircraft is weighed.
(5) At time intervals required by regulation.
d. The initial Chart A for each aircraft is established by the manufacturer as follows:
(1) At the time of delivery, the manufacturer
inserts the designation of the AIRCRAFT MODEL
(MODEL/DESIGN) and SERIAL NUMBER in the spaces
provided at the top of the Chart A. Enter serial number
formatted IAW DA PAM 738–751.
(2) Each CHART A item shall be assigned an
alphanumeric number. These numbers shall run consecutively and indicate the alphabetical designation of
the compartment; for example, items A-1, then A-2, then
A-3 and so on listed compartment A. These item numbers shall be listed in the column titled COMPARTMENT
AND ITEM NUMBER.
(3) The alphabetical and descriptive designations for each aircraft compartment (in capital letters,
such as A-NOSE) shall be shown in the ITEMS AND
LOCATION column at the top of each compartment’s
equipment list. The compartment designation shall be
underlined and separated from the equipment list by one
blank line. The dimensional limits of each compartment
shall be stated in terms of inches from the reference
datum, such as A-NOSE STA 5 - 64, B-PILOTS STA
64 - 104, and should agree with those compartment
limits shown in the aircraft’s operators manual (Chart
E). Compartment equipment lists documented in the
ITEMS AND LOCATION column shall present individual operating equipment items by description and part
number (such as, Preamplifier APR-25/AM-2348 and/or
PN 12345). The description and part number presented
in this column shall be common with that shown on the
equipment item identification plate or applicable aircraft
parts manual. Equipment within each compartment
Change 12
4-5
TM 55-1500-342-23
should be listed such that the arms (in the column titled
ARM) progress numerically from the forward to the aft
limit of the compartment. If a compartment is divided
into an upper and lower section, all items within one
section should be listed before continuing to the next
section.
(4) The weight, arm, and moment of each item
shall be listed in the appropriate columns. A constant
may be used to simplify the moment. If a constant is
used, it will be listed at the top of the MOMENT column.
(5) The manufacturer of the aircraft places
check marks or zeros in the first IN AIRCRAFT column
under the RECORD OF CHECKING section of the
Chart A. This is done at the time of delivery of the
aircraft to indicate its delivery condition. This delivery
inventory shows the equipment that is included in the
aircraft’s initial basic weight and moment as listed on
the Chart C.
e. All Chart A inventories subsequent to the manufacturers delivery inventory shall be completed as follows:
(1) Inspect the aircraft for equipment actually installed. Place the date on which the inventory was made
at the tip of the next unused RECORD OF CHECKING
column. If all columns have been used , complete a
new Chart A and mark the entries in column 1. Place a
check/X in the IN AIRCRAFT COLUMN if in the aircraft
or a zero to indicate its absence. When missing basic
weight items are added to column II on the reverse side
of FORM B, they should be checked on Chart A as IN
AIRCRAFT.
(2) Compare this new inventory with the last
completed inventory under the RECORD OF CHECKING column, noting any changes in the items installed
in the aircraft. Refer to Chart C to make certain whether
the necessary weight and moment corrections have
been made. If so, place check marks opposite such
items in the Chart C ENTRY column of Chart A. If
not, correct the calculated basic weight and moment
data on Chart C and then enter the Chart C ENTRY
column check marks. A check mark in the Chart C
ENTRY column indicates that the appropriate weight
and moment change has been recorded on the Chart
C. Make sure that the inventory date is entered in the
RECORD OF CHECKING column on the Chart A. Enter
the same date in the DATE column of the Chart C for
the corresponding weight and moment calculations.
f. When a new item of equipment which is not
listed on the Chart A is added to the aircraft, determine
4-6
Change 12
its weight, arm and moment from the applicable Modification Work Order (MWO) or by actual measurement
and calculation. Enter an item number, the name or
description, weight, arm, and simplified moment on an
open line under the proper compartment on the Chart A.
Also, make the required entry on Chart C. When a new
Chart A is initiated, the entries should be rearranged
so that the equipment within each compartment is listed
such that the arms (in the column titled ARM) progress
numerically from the forward to the aft limit of each compartment. Then numerically rearrange item numbers in
sequence.
g. Chart A is used primarily as a record of all items
installed at the time the aircraft is weighed. When equipment is permanently removed, refer to the instructions
for Chart C form entries. When a complete inventory is
made, line completely through the removed items from
the compartment and item number column through the
check column on the Chart A. When all the check column blocks have been filled, it will not be necessary to
include those items lined out when initiating new forms.
(1) The following list represents types of items
which should be tabulated on the Chart A:
• Aircraft Battery
• Armament systems
• Auxiliary power unit
• Avionics equipment (not including mounts)
• Ballast, permanent and/or temporary
• Ballistic protection systems (removable)
• Doors
• Emergency axes, first aid kits
• Engine Oils
• Engines/Assemblies
• Fire extinguisher
• Heating and cooling equipment
• Mission Equipment
• Hoists and winches
• Navigational equipment
• Oxygen equipment
• Ramps
• Rotor blades
• Seats and related equipment
• Unusable and trapped fuels (separate entries)
Figure 4-2. DD Form 365-1
4-7
TM 55-1500-342-23
Change 10
TM 55-1500-342-23
4-7. DD Form 365-2, FORM B – AIRCRAFT WEIGHING RECORD. This form is used to record the data
obtained from actual weighing. The form provides the
necessary instructions for computing the current Basic
Weight, Basic Arm (CG), and Basic Moment of the aircraft. Diagrams of the aircraft are shown in figure 4-3 to
illustrate dimensions required during weighing process.
Form entries are made as follows:
a. Fill in identifying data and enter actual scale
reading in first column.
b. Record measurements taken at time of weighing. Only dimensions B and D need actually be measured. Distance I, from the reference datum to jig point,
is obtained from appropriate aircraft manual(s) (Chart E
data). Dimensions E is determined by addition or subtraction (average the two dimensions).
c. In the separate CORRECTIONS block, enter
the CALIBRATION CORRECTION as given by the
calibration laboratory; SCALE CORRECTION factor
(correction factor necessary when the scale does not
return to zero after unloading and gravitational or latitude correction factor such as Tare - see scale operating
instructions); TEMPERATURE correction factor (see
scale operating instructions); EQUIPMENT such as
chocks, blocks, slings, and jacks included in the scale
reading but not part of the aircraft weight, and any other
appropriate corrections. Tare is the weight of supports,
such as jacks, that may be placed on a platform scale
to raise the aircraft or residual weight reading on a
particular load cell/platform scale after load is removed
for two minutes. The CORRECTIONS column shall be
used to record tare and/or correction factors. Follow
the instructions provided in the Technical Manuals for
the specific weighing system being used to arrive at
net weight. Add all the corrections and enter in the
appropriate blocks. Enter the sum correction value in
the CORRECTIONS column of the Form B and adjust
the actual scale reading data in the SCALE READING
column to obtain the net weight. Enter in the NET
WEIGHT column.
d. Multiply subtotal net weight of reaction (jack
points) by their respective arms (dimensions E and F)
to obtain their moments.
e. Add net weights and moments of reaction (jack
points).
f. Divide total moment by total net weight to obtain
as weighed cg location in inches from reference datum.
Enter this distance in Total Block under ARM column.
4-8
Change 12
NOTE
Use the TOTAL (as weighed) weight and arm
values for the repeatable reference tolerances
of ± one quarter of one percent in weight and ±
0.10" in cg (Example: If the total reading was
11,600 pounds for the first weighing, the tolerance for the second weighing is ± 29 pounds.
11,600 x 0.0025 = 29 or a range from 11,571 to
11,629 pounds).
g. Average each reaction’s NET WEIGHT and
measurement dimensions of the two acceptable weighings to complete a record Form B.
h. Transfer TOTAL (as weighed) weight, arm, and
moment to the reverse side of form.
i. Record weight and moment of all items in aircraft when weighed that are not a part of basic weight
(COLUMN I, reverse side of aircraft weighing record
form).
j. Record weight and moment of all basic items
that were not in aircraft when weighed (COLUMN II, reverse side of aircraft weighing record form). Items listed
in this column must be checked on Chart A as IN AIRCRAFT to indicate their inclusion in basic weight.
k. Subtract total weight and moment of items entered in COLUMN I.
l. Add total weight and moment of items listed in
COLUMN II to obtain basic aircraft weight and moment
respectively.
m. Divide basic moment by basic weight to obtain
basic arm. Transfer basic weight and moment to Chart
C.
n. Reactions Used: Enter "Jack points or wheels"
(as applicable) used.
o.
Type Scale (Scale information):
(1) Enter
Model
and
manufacture
of
scales/load-cells.
(2) Serial number of each scale/load-cell shall
be listed. Do not list the scale set serial number. (use
the REMARKS block if more room is required for data
entry).
(3) Calibration Accuracy: This block is not used.
(4) Calibration Date: Enter the date when
scales/load-cells were last calibrated.
TM 55-1500-342-23
p. Remarks: At a minimum, the following information shall be entered: “Acft washed, dry, fuel
system empty or full using open-port method (select
one), Fuel density x.x lbs per gal, (if fuel system is
full), weighed in level or non-level condition (select
one), aircraft weighed at 0 degrees nose up attitude or
x.x degrees nose up attitude (select one), inside enclosed hangar, using jack/load cells or platform scales
(select one). Scale Settings: Altitude:_______ and
Latitude:________." The AWBS software may populate
some/all required information.
Change 12
4-8.1
TM 55-1500-342-23
Figure 4-3. DD Form 365-2 (Sheet 1 of 2)
4-8.2
Change 12
TM 55-1500-342-23
Figure 4-3. DD Form 365-2 (Sheet 2 of 2)
Change 12
4-9
TM 55-1500-342-23
4-8. DD FORM 365-3, CHART C – BASIC WEIGHT
AND BALANCE RECORD.
a. The Chart C is a continuous and permanent history of the aircraft Basic Weight, Basic Moment and Basic CG position (see Figure 4-4). All permanent changes
to the aircraft basic weight and moment, regardless of
size, shall be recorded (typed or clearly written in ink) on
the Chart C to keep it correct and up-to-date. The last
Basic Aircraft Weight, Moment, and CG or Index shall
be considered the most current data and the baseline
for all subsequently dated aircraft loading calculations.
Weights, Arms, and moments shall be listed to one decimal place. Moments should be simpli.ed by a constant
(100 or 1,000).
b. At the time of delivery of a new aircraft, the
manufacturer enters the aircraft basic weight, moment,
and cg or index on the Chart C. The itemized list of the
equipment which is included in the aircraft basic weight
is shown in the first IN AIRCRAFT column under the
RECORD OF CHECKING section of the Chart A.
c. Additions and/or subtractions to the basic
weight and moment/index on Chart C will be accomplished as follows:
(1) Whenever equipment is added to or removed from the aircraft, an entry must be made on this
chart. If the item is listed on the Chart A, enter the identical item number, description and applicable weight,
arm, and moment data on the Chart C. If the item is
not listed on the Chart A, determine its weight, arm,
and moment by actual measurement or obtain this data
from the applicable MWO and record it on the Chart
C. Add a Header that reflects the completion of the
modification. Any change which is caused by a specific
MWO will carry a reference to the MWO number. Do
not enter check marks on the Chart A for these items
until a complete inventory is made.
(2) Subsystem modifications or structural
changes shall be recorded in the same manner with the
change in weight and moment added to or subtracted
from the current total. Whenever such changes are
provisions for equipment such as structural mounts,
electrical wiring, or air conditioning, they will be listed
as separate line items.
4-10
Change 12
(3) Whenever a Chart A inventory reveals
equipment changes, subsystem modifications, or structural changes not already recorded in the Chart C,
the change in weight and moment shall be posted as
required in the preceding paragraphs. The newly calculated basic weight, moment and index shall be dated
to agree with the inventory date enter on the Chart A.
(4) Whenever an aircraft is weighed, the Chart
C will be updated to : reflect any changes resulting
from the Chart A inventory and (2) show the new Basic
Weight, Simplified Moment, and Index or CG from the
Form B. The date entered on the Chart C shall agree
with the inventory date entered on the Chart A and the
weighing date entered on Form B.
d. Whenever the Chart C basic weight is changed
by ±3/10 of 1% and/or basic CG is changed by ±0.3
inches, a new Form F which reflects this change, must
be prepared. The requirement for originating new Form
F’s when aircraft equipment, which is part of the aircraft
Basic Weight, is temporarily added to, removed from,
or relocated within the aircraft because of maintenance,
specific mission requirements, etc..., may be eliminated
by making the following entries on the Aircraft Inspection
and Maintenance Record (DA Form 2408-13-1).
(1) Status: Enter a red diagonal (/).
(2) Fault/Remarks: Enter a description of the
aircraft equipment temporarily added, removed, or relocated. This entry shall conclude with the following statement: CHANGE NOT ENTERED ON CHART C.
(3) Continue to perpetuate the entry on DA
Form 2408-13 or transfer to the Uncorrected Fault
Record (DA Form 2408-14) in accordance with current technical manual procedures until the aircraft is
returned to the previous configuration or the Chart C is
updated to reflect the change.
(4) Temporary changes in basic weight may be
reflected on DA Form 2408-13-1 or DA Form 2408-14
for a period not to exceed 90 days. If not accomplished
sooner, the DD Form 365-3 will be updated to reflect the
temporary change at the expiration of this 90 day period.
TM 55-1500-342-23
e. The temporary equipment changes listed on
DA Form 2408-13-1 will be considered changes in
aircraft loading. These changes will be accounted for
on the Form F by entering the notation, "Equipment
Changes" near the top of the corrections table. A brief
description, weights, and moments of the equipment
change will be entered in the columns below this notation. Aircraft equipment changes are treated the same
as any other variation in loading. If there are enough
completed Form F’s in the aircraft weight and balance
.le to verify that weight and cg will remain within limits
for anticipated flight in the changes configuration, it is
not necessary to prepare these forms for the specific
configuration.
f. All weight and balance records will, as a minimum, be reviewed every 12 months.
(2) Review of the DA Form 2408-5, DA Form
2408-5-1, and the Chart C for correctness in aircraft
modification documentation.
(3) Review Chart C for accuracy.
(4) Review all associated Form F’s for accuracy,
to include accurate weights and arm locations of all expendable and non-expendable items.
(5) Upon satisfactory review of all weight and
balance records, enter the following statement on the
Chart C: "Annual review and inventory completed." The
data and adjusted Basic Weight, Arm, Moment (if adjusted) will accompany this entry.
(1) This review must include a Chart A inventory
of the aircraft.
Change 12
4-10.1/(4-10.2 Blank)
Figure 4-4. DD Form 365-3 (Front) (Sheet 1 of 2)
4-11
TM 55-1500-342-23
Change 10
Change 10
TM 55-1500-342-23
4-12
Figure 4-4. DD Form 365-3 (Reverse) (Sheet 2 of 2)
TM 55-1500-342-23
4-9. DD Form 365-4, WEIGHT AND BALANCE
CLEARANCE FORM F.
a. This form (see Figure 4-6 and 4-8), is used to
derive the gross weight and cg of an aircraft for flight.
The Form F furnishes a record of the aircraft weight and
balance status at each step of the loading process. It
serves as a worksheet on which to record weight and
balance calculations and any corrections that must be
made to ensure that the aircraft will be within weight
and CG limits. Sufficient completed FORMS F must be
onboard the aircraft to verify that the weight and center-of-gravity will remain within allowable limits for the
entire flight. Sufficient forms can be one (for the specific
flight) or it can be several. Several Forms F for various
loading of crew, passengers; stores, cargo, fuel sling
loads, etc., which result in extreme forward/extreme aft
CG locations and variations in gross weight, but which
remain within allowable limits may be used to verify that
a particular loading which is clearly between these extremes would remain within limits.
b.
An Important Safety Consideration.
(1) Aircraft performance and handling characteristics are affected by the gross weight and center of
gravity limits. An overloaded or improperly balanced aircraft will require more power and greater fuel consumption to maintain flight, and the stability and controllability
will be seriously affected.
(2) The aircraft performance characteristics adversely affected by overweight are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Increased takeoff speed
Increased takeoff runway length
flight maneuvers or operation of the aircraft. Aircraft
stability decreases as the cg moves aft and the ability
of the aircraft to right itself after maneuvering will be
correspondingly decreased. The aircraft will be highly
unstable in gusting or turbulent air, making attitude, and
directional control extremely difficult. If a helicopter is
loaded "out of cg limits," the pilot may find that when
maximum collective cyclic control is applied, the helicopter’s attitude will remain low in the direction cg
limits are exceeded. The ability to level the aircraft,
decelerate, and land safely may be lost.
NOTE
When aircraft are operated at critical gross
weights and near the CG limits, the actual
weight of each individual occupant, equipment,
and all loaded items shall be used.
(4) The basic weight and moment obtained from
the Chart C serve as the basis for the calculations on
the Form F. Some minor exceptions to this rule are provided in AR 95-1 and AR 95-23. Small changes in Basic
Weight and Moment due to removal or installation of aircraft equipment or other actions may be allowed to accumulate on the Chart C without changing the Forms F.
A basic weight difference of ± 3/10 of 1 percent (example: 12,900 x 0.003) and/or CG difference of 0.3 inch at
the basic weight are the maximum differences allowed
by AR 95-1 and AR 95-23 when comparing the Form F
and the last entry on the Chart C. Also, the Form F can
be utilized to record certain items of aircraft equipment
which is part of Aircraft Basic Weight when it is temporarily added to, removed from, or relocated within the aircraft because of maintenance, specific mission requirements, etc. Procedures for this situation are described
in the Chart C discussion.
Reduced rate of climb
Reduced maximum altitude capability
Reduced operational range
Reduced maneuverability
Reduced controllability
Increased stall speed
Increased approach speed
Verify on-board flight performance system (e.g.
Perf Page, FMS, CAAS) Basic Weight and
Basic Moment/simplified matches Ref 1 of the
record DD Form 365-4 , Weight and Balance
Clearance Form F located in the aircraft logbook.
(5) Weights , Arms, and moments shall be listed
to one decimal place. Moments should be simplified by
a constant (100 or 1000).
Increased landing distance
(3) A forward cg limit is specified to assure
that sufficient elevator deflection is available at minimum speed. The aft cg limit is the most critical during
c. There are two versions of the Form F: Transport and Tactical. They are designed for the respective
loading arrangement of these two types of aircraft profiles. Aircraft designed to transport personnel will
Change 12
4-13
TM 55-1500-342-23
use the Transport Form F; those aircraft not designed
to transport personnel, will utilize the Tactical Form F
regardless of the operating environment. Instructions
for completing both versions are as follows:
(b) Reference 1. Enter aircraft basic weight
and moment/constant (or index). Obtain this information
from last entry on Chart C.
NOTE
(1) Transport.
NOTE
The following instructions are intended for calculating the longitudinal, lateral, and/or vertical
axes if required. Separate Form F’s shall be
prepared for each of the required axes to be
computed if using the manual paper method.
When using AWBS, select AIRCRAFT DESCRIPTION and select the applicable Axis or
Axes.
If a load adjuster (see Figure 4-5) is used in
loading the aircraft, enter opposite Reference
1 the index figure obtained from Chart C and
use index figures throughout the form. Enter
plate number of load adjuster (located on the
left end of base) on the Form F. If the -10 operator’s manual data (Chart E) is used instead
of a load adjuster, enter moment/constant values throughout the form. Instructions for using
a Load Adjuster, see the Navy’s weight and balance control manual, NAVAIR 01-1B-50.
(a) Insert necessary identifying information at
top of form.
Figure 4-5. Load Adjuster
(c) Reference 2. Use as required.
(d) Reference 3. Enter number, weight and
moment of flight crew (pilot, co-pilot, and observer). Use
separate entries for each Arm location (i.e., Pilots, CE,
Gunner, etc). Use Reference 2, 8, and 13 as needed.
(e) Reference 4. Enter weight and moment
of crew’s baggage.
(f) Reference 5. Enter weight and moment of
steward’s equipment, if applicable.
(g) Reference 6. Enter weight and moment
of emergency equipment not included in basic weight.
(h) Enter weight and moment of any operating items not included in basic weight. Examples are
chocks, fly-away gear, flight gear, cargo straps, servicing & cleaning supplies, etc.
(i) Reference 9. Enter sum of weights and
moments for Reference 1 through Reference 8, inclusive, to obtain OPERATING WEIGHT.
4-14
Change 12
(j) Reference 10. Enter the number of gallons, weight and moment of the fuel on board at takeoff.
List under REMARKS the fuel tanks involved and the
amount of fuel in each tank (as required).
(k) Reference 11. Enter the number of gallons, weight and moment of water injection fluid, if applicable.
(l) Reference 12. Enter sum of weights and
moments for Reference 9 through Reference 11, inclusive, to obtain TOTAL AIRCRAFT WEIGHT.
(m) LIMITATIONS. The maximum ALLOWABLE LOAD is based on takeoff, landing, and limiting
fuel restrictions determined from the -10 operator’s
manual or Chart E loading data. (In most helicopters,
the takeoff and landing gross weight limitations are the
same, and there is no "zero fuel" restriction). These
values are computed in the LIMITATIONS table on the
lower left-hand corner of the Form F as follows:
TM 55-1500-342-23
NOTE
Rotor-Wing Aircraft with Non-Retractable landing gear should use/verify the following limitations: Ramp Weight Limit, Takeoff Weight Limit,
Landing Weigh Limit, Takeoff CG (Gear Down),
and Landing CG (Gear Down). Fixed–wing and
Rotor-wing aircraft with retractable landing gear
should also use/verify Takeoff CG (Gear Up)
and Landing CG (Gear Up). Other limits to include zero fuel may require computing IAW the
individual operator’s manual.
1 Enter the ALLOWABLE GROSS
WEIGHT for TAKEOFF and LANDING. If the aircraft can
have a gross weight restriction above which all weights
must be fuel in the wings (zero wing fuel gross weight),
enter the ALLOWABLE GROSS WEIGHT for LIMITING
WING FUEL in the last column of the LIMITATIONS
table.
2 If the aircraft’s ALLOWABLE GROSS
WEIGHT can be limited by a taxiing and/or ground
handling gross weight, use the REMARKS section
for subtracting the warm up and/or taxi fuel from the
maximum permissible ground handling gross weight.
The resulting value will be entered in the ALLOWABLE
GROSS WEIGHT for TAKEOFF block of the LIMITATIONS table and a statement similar to the following
will be noted in the REMARKS section: ALLOWABLE
GROSS WEIGHT FOR TAKEOFF LIMITED BY MAXIMUM TAXI GROSS WEIGHT.
3 Determine the ALLOWABLE LOAD
for TAKEOFF by subtracting the TOTAL AIRCRAFT
WEIGHT (Reference 12) from the TAKEOFF ALLOWABLE GROSS WEIGHT. For most helicopters, this
is the only ALLOWABLE LOAD calculation required.
Determine the ALLOWABLE LOAD for LANDING by
subtracting the OPERATING WEIGHT (Reference 9)
plus ESTIMATED LANDING FUEL WEIGHT (Reference 23) from the LANDING ALLOWABLE GROSS
WEIGHT. Determine the LIMITING WING FUEL ALLOWABLE LOAD by subtracting the OPERATING
WEIGHT (Reference 9) from the LIMITING WING FUEL
ALLOWABLE GROSS WEIGHT.
Change 12
4-14.1/(4-14.2 Blank)
TM 55-1500-342-23
(n) Reference 13. Using same compartment
letter designation as shown in Chart E (aircraft diagram)
or on load adjuster, enter the number, weight, compartment, and total weight and total moment of passengers.
Then enter weight, compartment, total weight, and total
moment of cargo.
(o) Reference 14 is provided for aircraft requiring Zero Fuel Weight, Zero Fuel Weight Moment,
and Zero Fuel CG computations. For helicopters these
blocks are not used. The required values are determined as follows:
1 Add the weights and moments of OPERATING WEIGHT, (Reference 9) and DISTRIBUTION
OF ALLOWABLE LOAD (PAYLOAD), (Reference 13).
Enter the calculated total weight in the ZERO FUEL
WEIGHT block. Enter the corresponding moment in the
ZERO FUEL WEIGHT MOMENT BLOCK.
2 Compute Zero Fuel CG for that weight
and enter in the ZERO FUEL % MAC block. (Cross out
% MAC and enter value in IN.).
3 Enter on the LIMITATIONS table in the
ALLOWABLE GROSS WEIGHT (FUEL) block any Zero
Fuel or Limiting Wing Fuel limitation set forth in the -10
operator’s manual or Chart E loading data. This .gure must be compared with the calculated value in the
ZERO FUEL WEIGHT block. If the calculated weight
exceeds the limits adjust the load accordingly.
4 The Zero Fuel CG cannot exceed the
forward and aft cg limits at the Zero Fuel Weight. These
may be found in the -10 operator’s manual or Chart E
loading data. If it is within limits, enter the PERMISSIBLE CG ZERO FUEL WEIGHT forward and aft limits at
the Zero Fuel Weight in the LIMITATIONS table. If it is
not, adjust the load accordingly, and repeat the process.
cg of Reference 17 is within these PERMISSIBLE CG
TAKEOFF limits, and no other corrections are necessary, (i.e. temporary equipment changes), enter the
permissible limits in the space provided in the limitations table. Enter the uncorrected weight and cg values
from Reference 16 and Reference 17 into the blocks at
Reference 19 and Reference 20 respectively.
(s) Reference 18. When the takeoff weight
of Reference 16 and/or the takeoff cg of Reference 17
are not within permissible takeoff weight and/or cg limits,
changes in the amount or DISTRIBUTION OF ALLOWABLE LOAD (PAYLOAD) (Reference 13) are required.
The necessary load adjustments must be noted in the
Corrections columns on the left-hand portion of the Form
F. Enter a brief description of the necessary load adjustment in the left-hand column with the weight and moment listed in the columns provided. Sum all the weight
and moment increases and/or decreases to obtain the
net change (+ or -) in the amount or distribution of the
load. Transfer the total weight and moment adjustment
to the spaces provided for Corrections (if required) at
References 18.
NOTE
If there are any temporary equipment changes
listed on DA Form 2408-13-1 or DA Form
2408-14 they shall be considered changes in
aircraft loading. These changes shall be entered with the notation "Equipment Changes"
near the top of the Corrections table. A brief
description, weight and moments shall be entered in the columns below this notation. These
entries shall be treated as a variation in loading
and applied to the total entered in Reference
18.
5 Enter the Zero Fuel weight and moment
in Reference 21.
(t) Reference 19. In the space provided for
TAKEOFF CONDITION (corrected), enter the sum of
Reference 16 and Reference 18. (Add if Reference 18
is positive. If it is negative, subtract Reference 18 from
Reference 16).
(p) Reference 16. Enter sum of Reference
12 and the compartment totals under Reference 13 opposite TAKEOFF CONDITION (Uncorrected).
(u) Reference 20. Enter the TAKEOFF CG
(Corrected), as determined from the weight and moment
values of Reference 19.
(q) Reference 17. Enter the TAKEOFF CG
IN % MAC or IN as determined from weight and moment
values of Reference 16.
(v) The weight value from Reference 19 must
again be compared with the allowable GROSS WEIGHT
TAKEOFF as shown in the LIMITATIONS table to ensure compatibility. At the Reference 19 TAKEOFF CONDITION (Corrected) gross weight, again determine the
PERMISSIBLE CG TAKEOFF forward and aft cg limits
from the -10 operator’s manual or Chart E loading data.
Re-check the Takeoff CG. of Reference 20 to ensure it
is within the PERMISSIBLE CG TAKEOFF limits. Enter
these limits in the space provided in the LIMITATIONS
table.
(r) The weight value from Reference 16
must be compared with the allowable GROSS WEIGHT
TAKEOFF as shown in the LIMITATIONS table to ensure it is within limits. Use the Reference 17 TAKEOFF
CG IN % MAC or IN to determine the PERMISSIBLE
CG TAKEOFF forward and aft cg limits from the -10
operator’s manual or Chart E loading data. If the takeoff
Change 12
4-15
TM 55-1500-342-23
(w) Reference 21. Enter Zero Fuel Weight
and moment. This is normally calculated by subtracting
TAKEOFF FUEL (Reference 10) from corrected TAKEOFF CONDITION (Reference 19). If Zero Fuel weight
limitations apply, this figure will match the values Reference 14.
(ac) When the ESTIMATED LANDING CONDITION of Reference 24 and/or the ESTIMATED LANDING CG of Reference 25 are not within permissible landing weight and/or cg limits, changes in the amount or distribution of load and/or fuel are required. A new Form F
will be completed.
(x) Reference 22. Enter weight and moment
of any aerial supply load(s) to be dropped before landing.
(ad) Most FWD and Most AFT calculations
are not utilized for Army aircraft. Multiple Form F’s
are required to verify the aircraft remains within limits
throughout the entire flight.
(y) Reference 23.
Determine the ESTIMATED LANDING FUEL weight and moment and enter
it in the space provided.
(z) Reference 24.
Determine the ESTIMATED LANDING CONDITION by subtracting the
weights and moments of Reference 22 from Reference
21 and adding Reference 23.
(aa) Reference 25. Enter the ESTIMATED
LANDING CG as determined from the weight and simplified moment values of Reference 24.
(ab) The weight value from Reference 24
must be compared with the allowable GROSS WEIGHT
LANDING as shown in the LIMITATIONS table to ensure compatibility. Use the Reference 24 ESTIMATED
LANDING CONDITION gross weight to determine the
PERMISSIBLE CG LANDING forward and aft cg limits
from the -10 operator’s manual or Chart E loading data.
If the ESTIMATED LANDING CG is within the landing
cg limits, enter the forward and aft cg limits in the PERMISSIBLE CG LANDING blocks of the LIMITATIONS
table CG.
4-16
Change 12
(ae) REMARKS BLOCK: Enter pertinent
information regarding mission loading, takeoff, and/or
landing conditions, as required. Enter any significant
information that needs to be conveyed to the aircraft
operators.
(af) Enter signature or Technical Inspector
stamp of the person computing this form in the COMPUTED BY SIGNATURE block.
(ag) WEIGHT AND BALANCE AUTHORITY
SIGNATURE block. Enter signature or Technical Inspector stamp of the person assigned to aircraft IAW DD
Form 365.
NOTE
Local Commander may establish policies
and procedures allowing deviation from the
WEIGHT AND BALANCE AUTHORITY SIGNATURE instructions above.
TM 55-1500-342-23
Figure 4-6. DD Form 365-4 (Front)
Change 10
4-17
TM 55-1500-342-23
(2) Tactical.
NOTE
NOTE
The following instructions are intended for calculating the longitudinal, lateral, and/or vertical
axes if required. Separate Form F’s shall be
prepared for each of the required axes to be
computed if using the manual paper method.
When using AWBS, select AIRCRAFT DESCRIPTION and select the applicable Axis or
Axes.
If a load adjuster (see Figure 4-7) is used in
loading the aircraft, enter opposite Reference
1 the index figure obtained from Chart C and
use index figures throughout the form. Enter
plate number of load adjuster (located on the
left end of base) on the Form F. If the -10 operator’s manual data (Chart E data) is used instead of a load adjuster, enter moment/constant
values throughout the form. Instructions for using a Load Adjuster, see the Navy’s weight and
balance control manual, NAVAIR 01-1B-50.
(a) Insert necessary identifying information at
top of form.
(b) Reference 1. Enter aircraft basic weight
and moment/constant (or index). Obtain this information
from last entry on Chart C.
Figure 4-7. Load Adjuster
(c) Reference 2. Use as required.
(d) Reference 3. This section takes into
account all nonexpendable items not in the basic weight
(and not otherwise accounted for). Using the same
compartment letter designation as shown in the operators manual (Chart E) or on load adjuster, enter
operating item description, weight, and moment for
crew, flight gear, baggage, cargo, emergency equipment, racks, chocks, fly-away gear, servicing & cleaning
supplies, etc.
(i) Reference 8.
Enter item description
weight and moment of miscellaneous variables (such
as water injection fluid).
(j) Reference 9. Enter sum of weights and
moments for Reference 4 through Reference 9 opposite
TAKEOFF CONDITION (Uncorrected).
NOTE
(f) Reference 5. Enter by compartment the
item description (type, number of rounds), weight and
moment of all ammunition.
Rotor-Wing Aircraft with non-retractable landing gear should use/verify the following limitations: Ramp Weight Limit, Takeoff Weight Limit,
Landing Weight Limit, Takeoff CG (Gear Down),
and Landing CG (Gear Down). Fixed-Winged
and Rotor-Wing Aircraft with retractable landing
gear should also use/verify Takeoff CG (Gear
Up) and Landing CG (Gear Up). Other limits
to include zero fuel may require computing IAW
the Individual Operator’s Manual.
(g) Reference 6. Enter item description,
weight and moment of all other expandable ordnance
such as bombs and rockets.
(k) Reference 10. Enter TAKEOFF CG (Uncorrected) as determined from weight and moment values of Reference 9.
(h) Reference 7. Enter number of gallons,
weight and moment of fuel. If auxiliary fuel is carried,
make appropriate entries in space provided.
(l) Enter the allowable GROSS WEIGHT
TAKEOFF and GROSS WEIGHT LANDING in the
LIMITATIONS table at the lower left-hand corner of the
Form F. This data is found in the -10 operator’s manual
(Chart E). Loading data.
(e) Reference 4. Enter sum of weights and
moments for Reference 1 through Reference 3 to obtain
OPERATING WEIGHT.
4-18
Change 12
TM 55-1500-342-23
(m) The weight value from Reference 9 must
be compared with the allowable GROSS WEIGHT
TAKEOFF as shown in the LIMITATIONS table to ensure it is within limits. Use the Reference 9 TAKEOFF
CONDITION (Uncorrected) gross weight to determine
the PERMISSIBLE CG TAKEOFF forward and aft cg
limits from the -10 operator’s manual or Chart E loading
data. If the takeoff cg of Reference 10 is within these
PERMISSIBLE CG TAKEOFF limits, and no other
corrections are necessary, (i.e. temporary equipment
changes), enter the permissible limits in the space
provided in the limitations table. Enter the uncorrected
weight and cg values from Reference 9 and Reference
10 into the blocks at Reference 12 and Reference 13
respectively.
Change 12
4-18.1/(4-18.2 Blank)
TM 55-1500-342-23
(n) Reference 11. When the takeoff weight of
Reference 9 and/or the takeoff cg of Reference 10 are
not within permissible takeoff weight and/or cg Limits,
changes in the amount or distribution of load (Reference
3 through Reference 8) are required. The necessary
load adjustments must be noted in the CORRECTIONS
columns on the left-hand portion of the Form F. Enter a
brief description of the necessary load adjustment in the
left-hand column with the weight and moment listed in
the columns provided. Sum all the weight and moment
increases and/or decreases to obtain the net change (+
or-) in the amount or distribution of the load. Transfer
the total weight and moment adjustment to the spaces
provided for CORRECTIONS (If required) at Reference
11.
items listed as LESS EXPENDABLES are considered
part of Reference 14.
NOTE
(u) Reference 17. Enter the ESTIMATED
LANDING CG as determined from the weight and simplified moment values of Reference 16.
If there are any temporary equipment changes
listed on DA Form 2408-13-1 or DA Form
2408-14, they shall be considered changes
in aircraft loading.
These changes shall
be entered with the notation "EQUIPMENT
CHANGES" near the top of the CORRECTIONS table. A brief description, weights and
moments shall be entered in the columns below
this notation. These entries shall be treated as
a variation in loading and applied to the total
entered in Reference 11.
(o) Reference 12. In the space provided for
TAKEOFF CONDITION (corrected), enter the sum of
Reference 9 and Reference 11. (Add if Reference 11
is positive. If it is negative, subtract Reference 11 from
Reference 9).
(p) Reference 13. Enter the TAKEOFF CG
(Corrected), as determined from the weight and moment
values of Reference 12.
(q) The weight value from Reference 12 must
again be compared with the allowable GROSS WEIGHT
TAKEOFF as shown in the LIMITATIONS table to ensure compatibility. At the Reference 12 TAKEOFF CONDITION (Corrected) gross weight, again determine the
PERMISSIBLE CG TAKEOFF forward and aft cg limits
from the -10 operator’s manual or Chart E loading data.
Recheck the takeoff cg of Reference 13 to ensure it is
within the PERMISSIBLE CG TAKEOFF limits. Enter
these limits in the space provided in the LIMITATIONS
table.
(r) Reference 14. Determine total TAKEOFF
FUEL weight and moment from Reference 7 and enter
in Reference 14. List weight and moment of expendable items such as ammunition (not including the weight
of cases and links if retained), bombs, rockets, and external fuel tanks that are intended to be dropped during
.ight. Explain under REMARKS, if necessary. These
(s) Reference 15.
Determine the ESTIMATED LANDING FUEL weight and moment and enter
it in the space provided.
(t) Reference 16.
Determine the ESTIMATED LANDING CONDITION by subtracting all of
the expendable weights and moments of Reference 14
from the Reference 12 weight and moment and adding
the weight and moment of Reference 15. The use of
a minus sign (-) before the Reference 14 entries and
a plus sign (+) before the Reference 15 entry helps
prevent errors in completing this step.
(v) The weight value from Reference 16
must be compared with the allowable GROSS WEIGHT
LANDING as shown in the LIMITATIONS table to ensure compatibility. Use the Reference 16 ESTIMATED
LANDING CONDITION gross weight to determine the
PERMISSIBLE CG LANDING forward and aft cg limits
from the -10 operator’s manual or Chart E loading data.
If the ESTIMATED LANDING CG of the Reference 17
is within these PERMISSIBLE CG landing limits, enter
them in the spaces provided in the LIMITATIONS table.
(w) When the ESTIMATED LANDING CONDITION or the Reference 16 and/or the ESTIMATED
LANDING CG of Reference 17 are not within permissible landing weight and/or cg limits, changes in the
amount or distribution of load and/or fuel are required.
A new Form F will be completed.
(x) Most FWD and Most AFT calculations are
not utilized for Army aircraft. Multiple Form F’s are required to verify the aircraft remains within limits throughout the entire flight.
(y) REMARKS BLOCK: Enter pertinent information regarding mission loading, takeoff, and/or landing conditions, as required. Enter any significant information that needs to be conveyed to the aircraft operators.
(z) Enter signature or Technical Inspector
stamp of the person computing this form in the COMPUTED BY SIGNATURE block.
(aa) WEIGHT AND BALANCE AUTHORITY
SIGNATURE Block. Enter signature or Technical Inspector stamp of the person assigned to aircraft IAW DD
Form 365.
Change 12
4-19
TM 55-1500-342-23
NOTE
Local Commander may establish policies
and procedures allowing deviation from the
WEIGHT AND BALANCE AUTHORITY SIGNATURE instructions above.
Figure 4-8. DD Form 365-4 (Reverse)
4-20
Change 10
TM 55-1500-342-23
4-10. SAMPLE AIRCRAFT MWO FORMAT. The
following example serves as a general guideline for
documenting aircraft modifications with regards to permanently installed/removed items and those items that
have provisions to be installed/removed.
variations in actual weight. By conducting a sample
weighing of many items, a more accurate weight is obtained.
(2) Exceptions to the pound rule are applicable
for inventory control, continuity of compartment items,
etc. Example would be aircraft First Aid Kits which normally weigh less than 2 pounds.
a. Accuracy of actual item’s weight and location is
critical in maintaining safe, reliable aircraft operations.
Increased airframe and component stress, handling
quality degradation, and aircraft accidents are likely
consequences of poor weight and balance maintenance.
c. The Arm (Fuselage Station) is measured to the
tenth of an inch (rounded to nearest 10th). Calculate the
cg of each item listed on the Chart A and C using engineering drawings and confirm by actual measurements
with regards to location.
b. Items should be listed on the Chart A only if
they weigh 1.0 pound or more for aircraft under 5,000
pounds weight empty (OH-58’s), 2.0 pounds or more
for aircraft between 5,000 and 50,000 pounds weight
empty, and 5.0 pounds or more for aircraft greater than
50,000 pounds. Weights are listed to the tenth of one
pound.
d. To consolidate multiple items into one assembly, the average Arm must be calculated using each
item’s Arm and Moment (not simplified). Average Arm is
calculated by dividing the total Moment (not simplified)
by the total weight (see Figure 4-9).
(1) Items should be weighed to capture the actual weight. Avionics and composite items often have
Item
Weight (lbs)
Arm (in)
Moment (in-lbs)
Wire Harness
4.3
321.1
1380.7
Wire Connectors
1.9
319.2
606.4
Mounting Hardware
2.6
323.6
841.3
a) Sum the weight of all the items: 4.3 + 1.9 + 2.6 = 8.8 lbs.
b)Sum the moments of all the items: 1381 + 6056 + 841 = 2828.4 in-lbs.
c) To calculate the arm of the combined assembly, divide the total moment by the total weight: 2828.4/8.8
= 321.4 in.
d) Final Entry:
Item
Weight (lbs)
Wire Harness with Mounting Hardware
8.8
Arm (in)
Moment (in-lbs)
321.4
2828.4
Figure 4-9. Average Arm Example
e. Moment is calculated to the tenth (rounded to
the nearest 10th).
f. Make sure that all items listed from Chart A are
also listed on Chart C.
NOTE
The items listed are for example purposes only.
i.
g. The Moment simplifier is MDS dependant
(MOM/100 or 1000) IAW applicable technical manuals.
Start of Example for MWO’s, A-MWO’s, Etc...
(1) Make entries on DD Form 365-1 (Chart A)
and DD Form 365-3 (Chart C), in accordance with TM
55-1500-342-23 as indicated below:
h. References: See Appendix A, SAWE Recommended Practice 7, and AR 95-1.
(a) Chart A. Items that are removed, when
using AWBS, unselect "In A/C" and follow the software
instructions.
Change 12
4-21
TM 55-1500-342-23
Item No.
Item
Weight
Arm
MOM/1000
B-XXX
CHAFF/FLARE DISPENSER CONTROL PANEL, P/N 9272533
2.1
240.3
0.5
(b) Chart A. Items that are installed, when
using AWBS, make entries in the appropriate compartments as shown below. Enter new item numbers as re-
quired. Select "IN A/C" only after item(s) is actually installed.
Item No.
Item
Weight
Arm
Mom/1000
F-XXX
SEQUENCER, #1 SA-2669/ALE-47(V), P/N A100685
4.3
515.2
2.2
(c) Chart C. Make entries for items removed/added as shown below. When using AWBS,
Chart A items should automatically be removed/added
to the Chart C. Ensure a Header that reflects the beginnings of the MWO and a second Header reflecting the
end of the MWO.
Item No.
In/Out
B-XXX
OUT
F-XXX
OUT
IN
IN
NOTE
When using AWBS version 9.2 or later Aircraft
Modification Wizard, do not enter the Header as
this is auto-generated by the software.
Item
CHAFF/FLARE DISPENSER CONTROL PANEL,
P/N 9272533
M-130 SYSTEM WIRING, P/N 3954-228
SEQUENCER, #1 SA-2669/ALE-47(V), P/N A100685
CMWS WIRING HARNESS W/HARDWARE, P/N 274-005
NOTE
The next paragraph is applicable only for aircraft
modifications that contain Form F items.
Weight
Arm
Mom/1000
2.1
240.3
0.5
1.6
4.3
12.4
380.1
515.2
258.4
0.6
2.2
3.2
added as required on Form F. Changes to the appropriate technical manual must also be made to list these
new Form F items.
(d) DD Form 365-4, Weight and Balance
Clearance Form F (Form F). Make entries for items
Item
GAU-19 MACHINE GUN
GAU-19 GUN MOUNT
GAU-19 W3 GUN CABLE
Weight
143.0
26.0
4.0
END OF EXAMPLE
4-22
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Arm
102.6
102.6
102.6
Mom/1000
14.6
2.6
0.4
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(2) If items are installed prior to flight and then
removed afterwards or numerous configurations are
used, the items should only be listed on the DD Form
365-4, Weight and Balance Clearance Form F.
4-11. CHART E. LOADING DATA AND SPECIAL
WEIGHING INSTRUCTIONS. The original Chart E
placed in the weight and balance file will be retained in
the file until a revised Chart E is present in the aircraft
maintenance manual(s). Following publication of the
Chart E in the maintenance manual, the Chart E in
the aircraft file will no longer be required and will be
destroyed locally.
4-12. AUTOMATED WEIGHT AND BALANCE SYSTEM (AWBS). The purpose of this section is to provide
information and instructions regarding the use of the Automated Weight and Balance System.
a. Introduction. The Automated Weight and Balance System (AWBS) is a computer program used to
maintain weight and balance records for both fixed and
rotary wing aircraft.
(1) Aircraft weight and balance data is stored on
magnetic media and may be updated via the computer
thus achieving two main objectives: reducing mathematical errors and increasing efficiency.
(2) The system is designed to support all U.S.
military services and government agencies. AWBS versions 9.2 and higher are the only versions approved
for Army use. The printouts of the program are authorized in lieu of the DD Form 365 Record of Weight
and Balance Personnel, DD Form 365-1 Chart A - Basic
Weight Checklist Record, DD Form 365-2 Form B - Aircraft Weighing Record, DD Form 365-3 Chart C - Basic
Weight and Balance Record, and the DD Form 365-4
Weight and Balance Clearance Form F.
(3) Electronic signatures are authorized in lieu
of normal pen or stamp signatures.
(4) The Scheduler provides an automated
scheduling/tracking utility, which automatically updates
and tracks the current Basic Weight, Basic Arm, Basic
Moment, Percent of MAC, and accomplished inspection dates for each assigned aircraft. The Scheduler
automatically updates the scheduling information when
a task has been completed.
and Form F Users Manual. These manuals can be
obtained from the Army’s Aeromechanics website at
https://www.jtdi.mil. Once the AWBS program is installed (default path), the AWBS and Form F Users
Manual can be located at the following computer file
location: C:\Program Files\Weight and Balance\AWBS.
c. Basic Concepts. AWBS functions almost identically to the manual method of performing aircraft weight
and balance.
(1) The printed forms it produces were designed
to be as similar as possible to their DD Form 365 series
counterparts without compromising the benefits of being
automated. They are designed to be printed on regular
8½" x 11" bond paper and to replace the usage of DD
Form 365, DD Form 365-1, DD Form 365-2, DD Form
365-3 and DD Form 365-4.
(2) AWBS is comprised of two modules. The
core AWBS program which handles the Chart A, Form
B, Chart C, and the Form F Generator, which handles
the Transport and Tactical version of the Form F. Aircraft
specific Subsystems of AWBS, called Automated Form
F (AFF), are used to automate the generation of the DD
Form 365-4, Weight and Balance Clearance Form F
(3) AWBS is serial number driven. This means
that at any time during AWBS usage, the software will
only concern itself with the aircraft that it is currently
working.
(4) AWBS shall not completely replace the
Weight and Balance Handbook, nor will it replace the
user’s knowledge of performing aircraft weight and balance. It is simply a tool to perform weight and balance
tasks more efficiently and accurately. When AWBS is
used correctly, mathematical errors are reduced and
efficiency is increased.
NOTE
Use of AWBS does not relieve the Weight and
Balance Technician of responsibility for determining safe weight and balance conditions.
d. Distribution of AWBS. The current version of
the Automated Weight and Balance System (AWBS)
may be obtained via download through the Aeromechanics’ website http://www.jtdi.mil or mail via the
following address:
NOTE
The Scheduler, if used, shall be maintained with
current information as required by Army policies
and procedures.
b. The following is a general guide for the AWBS.
A more detailed explanation can be found in the AWBS
CDR, USARDECOM
ATTN: AMSRD-AMR-AE-A (Mass Properties)
(Mass Properties) Building 4488
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898-5000
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APPENDIX A
REFERENCES
AR 95-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flight Regulations
AR 95-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unmanned Aircraft System Flight Regulations
AR 385-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Army Safety Program
DD Form 365 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weight and Balance Personnel, Record of
DA Form 2408-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Modification Record
DA Form 2408-5-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Modification Record (Component)
DA Form 2408-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aircraft Status Information Record
DA Form 2408-13-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aircraft Inspection and Maintenance Record
DA Form 2408-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uncorrected Fault Record
DA PAM 27-162 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Claims Procedures
DA PAM 738-751 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional Users Manual for the Army Maintenance Management System – Aviation
DD Form 365-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weight Checklist Record, Chart A – Basic
DD Form 365-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weighing Record, Form B – Aircraft
DD Form 365-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weight and Balance Record, Chart C – Basic
DD Form 365-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weight and Balance Clearance Form F – Transport/Tactical
NAVAIR 01-1B-50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handbook of Weight and Balance for Models S-61A and S-61V
SAWE RP#7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Society of Allied Weight Engineers (SAWE), Recommended Practice
Number 7 (RP#7), Mass Properties Management and Control for Military
Aircraft
TM 55-1500-342-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Army Aviation Maintenance Engineering Manual for Weight and Balance
TB 43-180 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calibration and Repair Requirements for the Maintenance of Army Material
TB 750-25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance of Supplies and Equipment: Army Test, Measurement and
Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE) Calibration and Repair Support (C&RS)
Program
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APPENDIX B
EXAMPLE CHARTS AND FORMS
B-1. The following examples represent the proper completion and use of the AWBS charts and forms as shown
in Figures B-1 through B-9. The AWBS charts and forms are equivalent of the DD 365 series.
B-2. On 7 July 2005, a Sikorsky UH-60L, serial number 0518105 received a production inventory and weighing
under the responsibility of Mr. Roy Smith (Figure B-1) IAW the other figure references listed. Mr. Smith completed
the first check mark column of the Chart A (Figure B-2), derived the basic weight condition of 11,636 pounds, 358.61”
Arm, and 4172770.4 Moment (Figure B-3) from weighing, and entered the Basic Weight, Arm, and Moment condition
into the Chart C (Figure B-4). Note that because the aircraft was weighed completely dry (no trapped or unusable
fuel) both Trapped Fuel and Unusable Fuel was added to COLUMN II on the DD Form 365-2, Form B- Aircraft
Weighing Record. Trapped and unusable fuel is part of Basic Weight and must be entered in the calculations of the
aircraft’s Basic Weight, Arm, and Moment.
B-3. Later the same day, SSG King, from Ft. Bragg, NC signed for the aircraft. SSG King is the Unit Weight and
Balance Technician and was given the responsibility for maintaining this aircraft’s Weight and Balance Handbook
(Figure B-1). The next morning, he performed the acceptance inventory and completed the second check mark
column of the Chart A (Figure B-2). A new Form F was assigned to aircraft 105 (Figure B-5).
B-4. On 9 December 2005, equipment changes were made (Figure B-4). Results of the additions were made in
the Chart A (Figure B-2). Since the aircraft’s Basic Weight change was more than +/- 3/10 of 1 percent and/or +/0.3 inches change of Basic CG, all applicable Form F’s were required to be updated.
B-5. Using the aircraft’s operators manual-10, an additional Form F (Figure B-6) was completed on 18 May 2006
for a “Combat Troop Infil” mission. A takeoff condition with two pilots, two crew chiefs, flight bags, fly-away gear,
survival kits, extra food and water, machine guns, ammunition, main fuel tanks full, and 12 combat soldiers was
calculated and found to be NOT WITHIN the prescribed weight and cg limits. The aft cg was calculated to exceed
the permitted limits. SSG King calculated that 90 pounds of fuel must be burned prior to takeoff in order to stay within
the permitted limits. SSG King also recommended that actual Crew Weights be used due to the sensitivity of the aft
cg condition. This information was entered in the REMARKS section of the Form F along with the TAXI FUEL Block.
The pilot doors were removed that resulted in a temporary equipment change as noted in the CORRECTIONS table
for the Form F. The temporary equipment changes were also listed on the aircraft’s forms and records IAW DA PAM
738–751. For landing condition, the loads of usable fuel and 12 combat soldiers were consumed/expended. The
estimated LANDING CONDITION was calculated and found to be within the prescribed weight and cg limits (Figure
B-6).
B-6. Unit pilots reported unsatisfactory flight characteristics on 3 June 2006 of which the cause could not be satisfactory identified. CW3 Neal, the unit maintenance officer directed troubleshooting procedures be performed. No
findings were noted. CW3 Neal submitted a work order for the aircraft to be reweighed. The aircraft was reweighed
on 7 June 2006 (Figure B-7). The weighing inventory was performed using the third record of checking column on
the Chart A (Figure B-2). The new inventory was compared with the last completed inventory, noting the changes
of items installed in the aircraft. The Chart C was reviewed to ensure that the weight and moment corrections were
made for those items added and removed since the last inventory, using dates in the Chart A items and location
columns as an aid in locating the item on the Chart C. After verifying that the correct Chart C entry had been made, a
check was placed in the third record of checking Chart C ENTRY column on the Chart A. The weighing was accomplished using jacks and load cells. The dimensions E and F were taken from the applicable maintenance manual.
The aircraft was refueled using the gravity open-port method. The aircraft was level, in an enclosed hanger with all
fans/ventilation systems turned off. The new basic weight condition of 11,664 pounds, 355.3 inches Arm and 4145.2
Moment/1000 was derived and entered into Chart C (Figure B-4).
B-7. On 17 October 2006, the aircraft had MWO 1-1520-237-23 AWIS installed. The Chart A and C were updated
as instructed in the modification work order (Figures B-8 and B-9).
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B-1
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Figure B-1. Example AWBS Record of Weight and Balance Personnel
B-2
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Figure B-2. Example AWBS Chart A
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B-3
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Figure B-3. Example AWBS Form B (Sheet 1 of 2)
B-4
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Figure B-3. Example AWBS Form B (Sheet 2 of 2)
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B-5
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Figure B-4. Example AWBS Chart C
B-6
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Figure B-5. Example AWBS Form F (Sheet 1 of 2)
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B-7
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Figure B-5. Example AWBS Form F (Sheet 2 of 2)
B-8
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Figure B-6. Example AWBS Form F (Sheet 1 of 2)
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B-9
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Figure B-6. Example AWBS Form F (Sheet 2 of 2)
B-10
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Figure B-7. Example AWBS Form B . (Sheet 1 of 2)
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B-11
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Figure B-7. Example AWBS Form B . (Sheet 2 of 2)
B-12
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Figure B-8. Example AWBS Chart A (Sheet 1 of 2)
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B-13
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Figure B-8. Example AWBS Chart A (Sheet 2 of 2)
B-14
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Figure B-9. Example AWBS Chart C
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GLOSSARY
A
Actual Weight
The weight of a component, subassembly or the entire as determined by actually
weighing at least one representative article. Frequently the actual weight for record
keeping purposes is an average of several representative articles.
Aft Center Of Gravity Limit
The aft center of gravity limit is the most rearward permissible aircraft center of
gravity location for a specific weight and configuration. Center of Gravity limits may
be expressed in inches (arm), %MAC, or index.
Air Cargo (CARGO)
Stores, equipment or vehicles, which do not form part of the aircraft, and are either
part or all of its payload.
Aircraft Modification
A change in the physical characteristics of aircraft, accomplished either by a change
in production specifications or by alteration of items already produced.
Aircraft Reference Axes
A set of three mutually perpendicular reference lines (longitudinal, lateral, and vertical) established to define the basic geometry of a major aircraft component, such
as the wing, fuselage or nacelle. Each Model, Design, or Series aircraft have their
unique reference axes which must be provided to the customer or user of the aircraft. The fuselage reference system is normally used as the common set of axes in
locating the aircraft center of gravity. The aircraft reference system shall be defined
early in the aircraft development and is usually located in front of the aircraft and
below the static ground level to eliminate the need for negative arms. However, the
lateral reference axis is usually located down the centerline of the aircraft to make
symmetrical calculations easier.
Aircraft Station
An aircraft station is a position defined by a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal
aircraft axis. The number designation of this station signifies its distance from the
reference datum. A station forward of the reference datum is negative (-) while a
station aft of the reference datum is positive (+).
Aircraft Store
Any device intended for internal or external carriage and mounted on aircraft suspension and release equipment, whether or not the item is intended to be separated
in flight from the aircraft. Aircraft stores are classified in two categories of expendable and non–expendable
Aircraft Weighing Record
An Aircraft Weighing Record, DD Form 365-2, is the form used to record data obtained from aircraft actual weighings and to derive the Basic Weight and Moment
from the As-Weighed Weight and Moment.
Allowable Gross Weight
The allowable gross weight is the not to be exceeded weight of a loaded aircraft.
The aircraft flight manuals (i.e., Operator’s Manual and/or Chart E) specify allowable weights for particular configurations or conditions. Some examples are allowable takeoff weight, allowable landing weight, and allowable limiting wing fuel
weight.
Arm
An arm is the distance of the center of gravity of an item from a reference datum.
When computing arms, note that arms are not additive and must be calculated by
dividing the moment (not simplified) by the weight.
Automated FORM F (AFF)
Generator
An AFF is an electronic Form F Generator that is used to determine the aircraft
weight and center of gravity location for any flight or ground configuration and produce a Form F.
Automated Weight And
Balance System (AWBS)
The Automated Weight and Balance System (AWBS) is a system that utilizes a
computer to fill out forms similar to the DD 365 series forms. Aircraft weight data is
stored in the program and may be updated via the computer, thus reducing mathematical errors and increasing efficiency.
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Glossary-1
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Average Arm
The average arm is the distance from the reference datum to the cg of a group of
objects.
Average Weight
The summation of the individual weights divided by the number of the individual
weights, i.e., (First Weight + Second Weight/2 = Average Weight).
B
Balance
Balance is a condition of stability, which exists in an aircraft when all weights and
forces are acting in such a way as to prevent rotation.
Balance Arm
The balance arm is the arm at which a number of weights could be concentrated
to produce the same effect as they produced when separated. The balance arm
results from dividing the total moment by the total weight.
Balance Computer
A balance computer is a calculating device, mechanical or electronic, which is used
to determine the aircraft center of gravity location for any flight or ground configuration.
Ballast
Ballast is any weight put in an aircraft to balance the aircraft so as to remain within
the aircraft permissible center of gravity limits.
Basic Arm
The basic arm is the distance from the reference datum to the aircraft basic weight
center of gravity. Basic arm is determined by dividing the aircraft basic moment by
the aircraft basic weight.
Basic Index
A basic index is a number, which represents a basic moment on an aircraft load
adjuster.
Basic Moment
The basic moment is the sum of the moments of all items included in the aircraft
basic weight.
Basic Weight
Basic weight of an aircraft is that weight which includes all hydraulic and oil systems
full, trapped and unusable fuel, and all fixed equipment, to which it is only necessary
to add the crew, fuel, cargo, and ammunition (if carried) to determine the gross
weight for the aircraft. The basic weight varies with structural modifications and
changes of fixed aircraft equipment.
Basic Weight and Balance
Record
The basic weight and balance record is a continuous series of DD Forms 365-3,
referred to as Chart C. It is a continuous and permanent record of aircraft weight,
moment, and load adjuster index or center of gravity position.
Basic Weight Checklist
Record
The basic weight checklist record is a completed collection of DD Form 365-1, referred to as Chart A. It is a list of equipment by aircraft compartment that is, or can
be, installed in the aircraft.
Buttlines
Buttlines are reference locations in the lateral (left or right) direction from the aircraft
longitudinal (forward to aft) reference datum, which is usually the aircraft centerline.
C
Calculated Weight
The weight of a component or subassembly, as determined by calculation using
engineering data that has completed the design and approval cycle during the detail
design phase.
Caution Range
A caution range is a region of a weight and center of gravity diagram, or table,
which indicates reduced aircraft capabilities, such as aircraft control or structural
limitations.
Center Of Gravity
The center of gravity, cg, is that point at which an item’s weight may be assumed
to be concentrated and about which the item would balance if suspended. Center
of Gravity may be expressed in inches (arm), %MAC, or index.
Glossary-2
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Centroid
Centroid is commonly used as the average arm or geometric center of a compartment.
Chart A
See Basic Weight Check List Record.
Chart C
See Basic Weight and Balance Record.
Chart E
See Loading Data.
Chord
A chord is an imaginary straight line joining the leading and trailing edges of an
airfoil (such as a wing or tail surface).
Configuration
Configuration is a particular arrangement and quantity of structure, systems, internal and external equipment, stores, fuel, and other items, and the positions of such
things as wings, slats, flaps, and landing gear.
D
Danger Range
A danger range is a region of a weight and center of gravity diagram, or table, within
which flight and/or ground operation of an aircraft is not permitted.
Datum
SEE REFERENCE DATUM
DD Form 365
See Record of Weight and Balance Personnel.
DD Form 365-1
See Basic Weight Checklist Record.
DD Form 365-2
See Aircraft Weighing Record.
DD Form 365-3
See Basic Weight and Balance Record.
DD Form 365-4
See Weight and Balance Clearance Form.
Drainable Fuel
Drainable fuel is that portion of the fuel that can be drained out of an aircraft through
drain points after defueling in accordance with appropriate instructions.
E
Empty Weight
The empty weight of an aircraft is the maximum gross weight less the following:
a. All fuel and oil except system fuel and oil. System fuel and oil is that amount
required to fill both system and tanks, where applicable, up to outlets to the engine.
When oil is used for propeller feathering, such oil is included as system oil.
b. Crew and crew baggage.
c. Drainable anti-detonant injection, augmentation and deicing fluids.
d. Passengers and cargo (revenue and non-revenue).
e. Removable passenger service equipment, food, magazines, etc.
f. Emergency equipment (over-water, tropical, frigid).
g. Other equipment, variable for flight.
h. Flight spares (spark plugs, wheel, cylinder, etc.)
This term is used for design purposes and should not be confused with weight
empty
Expendable
Includes items planned to be dispensed during flight such as usable fuel, paratroops, airdrop, ammunition, expendable stores, flare /chaff or any item dispensed
during flight.
Expendable Store
An aircraft store normally separated from the aircraft in flight such as a missile,
rocket, bomb, nuclear weapon, mine, torpedo, pyrotechnic device, sonobuoy, signal underwater sound device, or other similar items.
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F
Flight Gross Weight
Flight gross weight is the weight of the aircraft, its contents, and external items
during flight. It is also known as flight weight and in-flight weight.
Floor Loading
Floor loading is the weight of a load divided by the area of the floor upon which the
weight is placed. Specific aircraft Operator’s Manuals, Cargo Loading Manuals,
and/or Charts E will usually specify floor loading limits and total load capacity for
various compartments of the aircraft.
Form B
See Aircraft Weighing Record
Form F
See Weight and Balance Clearance Form
Forward Center of Gravity
Limit
The forward center of gravity limit is the most forward permissible aircraft center
of gravity location for a specific weight and configuration. Center of Gravity limits
may be expressed in inches (arm), %MAC, or index and are normally listed in the
aircraft Operator’s Manual.
Fulcrum
A fulcrum is a pivot or support about which items can be balanced or rotated.
Fuselage Station
Fuselage stations are reference locations measured in the longitudinal direction
(forward or aft) from a reference datum which is usually well forward of the aircraft.
G
Gross Weight
Gross weight is the total weight of the aircraft, including its contents and externally
mounted items, at any time. The gross weight is continually changing throughout
flight and/or ground operations.
Gross Weight Arm
Gross weight arm is the distance from the reference datum to the cg of an aircraft in
its gross weight condition. The relationship between the gross weight, gross weight
arm, and gross weight moment is as follow: gross weight arm (in) = gross weight
moments (in lb) gross weight (lb)
Gross Weight Moment
Gross weight moment is the sum of moments of all items making up the aircraft in
the gross weight condition. The gross weight moment is the product of gross weight
times the gross weight arm.
Group A (A-Kit)
Group A items are provisions for avionics line replaceable units (LRUs or WRAs).
Group A items include wires, wire bundles, cables, RF transmission lines, connecting devices, mounting hardware, cooling plumbing and ducting, and items required
for the installation of antennas, LRUs, WRAs control display, etc.
Group B (B-Kit)
Group B items are those “black boxes” such as antennas, LRUs, WRAs, control
and displays that are easily replaceable items in the electronic system.
H
Hoisting Weight
The hoisting weight is the highest weight required for hoisting at the designed hoisting points considering combinations of hoisting points. The weight is usually defined
as the maximum ground weight minus the crew and passengers, and is used to design the hoisting point loads and related structures. This is to allow for a more timely
removal of an aircraft disabled on a runway.
I
Index
Glossary-4
See Load Adjuster Index
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J
Jig Points
A jig point is a hole, fitting, or other fixture, which is the same known distance from
each reference datum for all aircraft of the same model designation.
L
Landing Gross Weight
Landing gross weight is the weight of the aircraft, its contents and external items
when the aircraft lands. It is also known as landing weight.
Leading Edge Of The
Mean Aerodynamic Chord
(LEMAC)
The LEMAC is the distance from the longitudinal reference datum to the leading
edge of the MAC.
Leveling Lugs
Leveling lugs are fixtures attached to the aircraft to support a spirit level or inclinometer when leveling the aircraft.
Leveling Plate
A leveling plate is a target, with index markings, which is attached to the aircraft
and is used with a plumb bob when leveling the aircraft.
Limiting Wing Fuel
Allowable Gross Weight
Limiting wing fuel allowable gross weight is the weight above which any additional
load must be fuel carried in the wing.
Load Adjuster
A load adjuster is a slide rule type mechanical balance computer.
Load Adjuster Index
A load adjuster index is a number that represents moment on the aircraft load adjuster and, in conjunction with aircraft weight or index formula, permits center of
gravity calculations.
Load Item
Any item that has a size and weight value that is added to an airframe/platform and
is not considered part of basic weight. Load items could be crew, crew baggage,
fixed equipment, emergency equipment, internal cargo items, external cargo items,
sling loads, external stores, expendable items, non–expendable items, jettisonable
items, fuel or temporary ballast. These items are listed in the Chart E.
Loading Control
Loading Control, as used in weight and balance, is the use of weight and balance
forms and loading data to ensure that the aircraft weight, center of gravity, and any
other loading limits are not exceeded during flight or ground operations.
Loading Data — Chart E.
Loading Data contains instructions for aircraft actual weighing, aircraft diagrams,
loading limits, general instructions affecting aircraft loading, and the weight, arm
and moment/index information necessary to perform loading control.
Loading Limits
Loading Limits are restrictions, such as permissible center of gravity range, floor
loading, compartment capacity, and gross weight, beyond which aircraft loading is
not permitted.
M
Maximum Gross Weight
See Allowable Gross Weight.
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight
(MZFW)
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight is the maximum permissible weight of the loaded aircraft before any usable fuel is added.
Mean Aerodynamic Chord
(MAC)
MAC is the chord that passes through the centroid of an aerodynamic surface (wing,
tail, etc.). The MAC of the wing is a primary reference for longitudinal cg locations.
Center of gravity limits for fixed wing aircraft (not rotorcraft) are usually expressed
in terms of % MAC (% of distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the
MAC). The % MAC can be computed from the following equation: cg (% MAC) =
(cg (Arm) – LEMAC) x 100 MAC
Change 12
Glossary-5
TM 55-1500-342-23
Moment
Moment is a measure of the rotational tendency of a weight about a point. The
moment of an item is the weight of the item multiplied by its arm.
Moment Arm
See ARM.
O
Operating Weight
Operating weight includes the basic weight plus aircrew, the aircrew’s baggage,
steward’s equipment and emergency and other equipment that may be required.
Operating weight does not include the weight of fuel, ammunition, bombs, cargo,
or external auxiliary fuel tanks if such tanks are to be disposed of during flight.
P
Payload
Payload is any item that is being transported and is directly related to the purpose
of the flight as opposed to items that are necessary for the flight operation. Payload
can include, but is not limited to, passengers, cargo, passenger baggage, ammo,
internal and external stores, and fuel that are to be delivered to another aircraft or
site. Payload may or may not be expended in flight.
Percent MAC (% MAC)
Percent MAC expresses a location along the aircraft longitudinal axis as a percentage of the mean aerodynamic chord of the aircraft.
Permanent Ballast
Permanent ballast is ballast that is required to be in the aircraft at all times.
Permissible Gross Weight
See Allowable Gross Weight.
R
Record of Weight and
Balance Personnel
The record of Weight and Balance Personnel, DD Form 365, is the form used to
provide a permanent continuous record of weight and balance personnel responsible for maintaining the aircraft weight and balance handbook.
Reference Datum
Reference datum is an imaginary plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the
aircraft and is usually located at or near the nose of the aircraft to eliminate arms
with a minus value. If a negative arm is encountered, the corresponding moment
will also be negative. Aircraft have three zero reference datum from which aircraft
locations are measured in the longitudinal (using fuselage station), lateral (using
Buttlines), and vertical (using waterlines) directions.
Representative Aircraft
A representative aircraft is one chosen as being typical of a number of aircraft of the
same Model/Design with similar structure, systems, and equipment configurations.
S
Scale Correction Factor
A scale correction factor is used to modify weighing scale readings because of
inherent inaccuracies of the scale. Such factors may be, but are not limited to: calibration correction factors with the use of mechanical scales, load cell correction
factors when the load cell readings do not return to zero after unloading with the
use of electronic scales, or gravitation correction factors which depend upon the
latitude of the earth and elevation above sea level. Refer to the scale’s applicable
manual for the appropriate factors.
Service Weight Pick-Up
Service weight pickup is the weight, accounted for and unaccounted for, which is
picked up by an aircraft during its service life. Service weight pickup is due to repairs and/or modifications (known pickup). Known pickup covers the actual parts
installed during repair, overhaul, and modification. These parts should be weighed
or, if weighing is impractical, the weight must be calculated. Unknown pickup results
from changes in temperature and humidity, moisture absorption by sound proofing,
accumulation of dirt, grease, etc., and can only be determined by periodic and accurate weighing of the aircraft.
Glossary-6
Change 12
TM 55-1500-342-23
Simplified Moment
Simplified moment is a moment divided by an established constant such as 100,
1000, 10,000, or 100,000.
T
Takeoff Gross Weight
Takeoff gross weight includes the operating weight plus fuel, cargo, ammunition,
bombs, auxiliary fuel tanks, etc at the time the aircraft becomes airborne.
Tare
Tare is the weight of equipment necessary for weighing the aircraft, such as chocks,
blocks, slings, and jacks, which is included in the scale reading but is not part of
the aircraft weight. It can also include a Scale Correction Factor.
Temporary Ballast
Temporary ballast is used to replace missing items, such as crew members, armament, and equipment, in order to maintain the aircraft center of gravity within limits
and/or to simulate a specific aircraft configuration.
Total Aircraft Weight
The sum of operating weight, weight of takeoff fuel, and weight of water injection
fluid, if applicable.
Trapped Fuel
Trapped fuel is the fuel that remains in an aircraft after utilizing applicable technical
manuals to defuel the aircraft and drain individual tanks.
U
Unaccountable
Weight/Moment
Unaccountable weight/moment is any change in basic weight/moment, which is not
reflected by an entry in the Chart C.
Unusable Fuel
Unusable fuel is the fuel remaining in the aircraft fuel tanks after engine fuel starvation when the aircraft is in the specified flight attitude.
Useful Load
Useful load is the difference between empty weight and gross weight and includes
fuel, oil, crew, passengers, cargo, and other material carried.
W
Waterline
Waterline are locations in the vertical (up and down) direction measured from a
reference datum which is usually well below the aircraft.
Weighing Reaction Points
Weighing reaction points are those points upon which the aircraft weight is supported during weighing.
Weight and Balance
Authority
Person who has the responsibility to ensure the weight and balance work is complete and correct.
Weight and Balance
Clearance Form
The Weight and Balance Clearance Form, DD Form 365-4, is referred to as Form
F. Tactical and Transport Forms F Record weight, moment or index, and center
of gravity calculations to ensure the aircraft remains within its weight and balance
limitations.
Weight and Balance
Handbook
An aircraft weight and balance handbook is a continuous and permanent record
of weight and balance of a particular aircraft. It contains the Record of Weight and
Balance Personnel (DD Form 365), the Chart A (DD Form 365-1), completed Forms
B (DD Form 365-2), Chart C (DD Form 365¬3), Chart E, and completed Forms F
(DD Form 365¬4) for the aircraft; and blank copies of the various DD 365 series
forms.
Weight and Balance
Technician/Personnel
Qualified person assigned to weight and balance work.
Change 12
Glossary-7
TM 55-1500-342-23
Weight Empty
Weight empty is an engineering term, which is defined for aircraft design and does
not affect operational activities. It is the weight of the aircraft, complete by model
design definitions, dry, clean, and empty except for fluids in closed systems such
as a hydraulic system. This term should not be confused with empty weight.
Z
Zero Fuel Weight
Glossary-8
Change 12
Zero fuel weight is the weight of the loaded aircraft without any usable fuel. See
also Maximum Zero Fuel Weight.
TM 55-1500-342-23
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
JOHN A. WICKHAM, JR.
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
R. L. DILWORTH
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, AVUM and AVIM requirements for All Fixed and Rotary Wing
Aircraft.
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1994-342-421/81480
These are the instructions for sending an electronic 2028
The following format must be used if submitting an electronic 2028. The subject line must be
exactly the same and all fields must be included; however only the following fields are
mandatory: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, and 27.
From:
To:
“Whomever” <[email protected]>
[email protected]
Subject: DA Form 2028
1. From: Joe Smith
2. Unit: home
3. Address: 4300 Park
4. City: Hometown
5. St: MO
6. Zip: 77777
7. Date Sent: 19--OCT--93
8. Pub no: 55--2840--229--23
9. Pub Title: TM
10. Publication Date: 04--JUL--85
11. Change Number: 7
12. Submitter Rank: MSG
13. Submitter FName: Joe
14. Submitter MName: T
15. Submitter LName: Smith
16. Submitter Phone: 123--123--1234
17. Problem: 1
18. Page: 2
19. Paragraph: 3
20. Line: 4
21. NSN: 5
22. Reference: 6
23. Figure: 7
24. Table: 8
25. Item: 9
26. Total: 123
27. Text:
This is the text for the problem below line 27.
Use Part II (reverse) for Repair Parts and Special Tool Lists (RPSTL) and Supply Catalogs/
Supply Manuals (SC/SM)
RECOMMENDED CHANGES TO PUBLICATIONS AND
BLANK FORMS
DATE
8/30/02
For use of this form, see AR 25--30; the proponent agency is ODISC4.
TO: (Forward to proponent of publication or form)(Include ZIP Code)
FROM: (Activity and location)(Include ZIP Code)
Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command
MSG, Jane Q. Doe
ATTN: AMSAM--MMC--MA--NP
1234 Any Street
Redstone Arsenal, AL. 35898
Nowhere Town, AL 34565
PART 1 -- ALL PUBLICATIONS (EXCEPT RPSTL AND SC/SM) AND BLANK FORMS
PUBLICATION/FORM NUMBER
DATE
TM 9--1005--433--24
16 Sep 2002
ITEM
PAGE
PARA--
LINE
FIGURE
TABLE
NO.
NO.
GRAPH
NO. *
NO.
NO.
1
WP0005
2
TITLE Organizational, Direct Support, And General
Support Maintenance Manual for Machine Gun, .50
Caliber M3P and M3P Machine Gun Electrical Test Set
Used On Avenger Air Defense Weapon System
RECOMMENDED CHANGES AND REASON
Test or Corrective Action column should identify a different WP number.
PG 3
* Reference to line numbers within the paragraph or subparagraph.
TYPED NAME, GRADE OR TITLE
MSG, Jane Q. Doe, SFC
DA FORM 2028, FEB 74
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/
AUTOVON, PLUS EXTENSION
SIGNATURE
788--1234
REPLACES DA FORM 2028, 1 DEC 68, WHICH WILL BE USED.
USAPA V3.01
TO: (Forward direct to addressee listed in publication)
FROM: (Activity and location) (Include ZIP Code)
Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command
MSG, Jane Q. Doe
ATTN: AMSAM--MMC--MA--NP
1234 Any Street
Redstone Arsenal, AL. 35898
Nowhere Town, AL 34565
DATE
8/30/02
PART II -- REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOL LISTS AND SUPPLY CATALOGS/SUPPLY MANUALS
PUBLICATION NUMBER
DATE
TITLE
PAGE
COLM
LINE
NATIONAL STOCK
REFERENCE
FIGURE
ITEM
NO.
NO.
NO.
NUMBER
NO.
NO.
NO.
TOTAL NO.
OF MAJOR
ITEMS
SUPPORTED
RECOMMENDED ACTION
PART III -- REMARKS (Any general remarks or recommendations, or suggestions for improvement of publications and
blank forms. Additional blank sheets may be used if more space is needed.)
TYPED NAME, GRADE OR TITLE
MSG, Jane Q. Doe, SFC
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/AUTOVON,
PLUS EXTENSION
SIGNATURE
788--1234
USAPA V3.01
Use Part II (reverse) for Repair Parts and Special Tool Lists (RPSTL) and Supply Catalogs/
Supply Manuals (SC/SM)
RECOMMENDED CHANGES TO PUBLICATIONS AND
BLANK FORMS
DATE
For use of this form, see AR 25--30; the proponent agency is ODISC4.
TO: (Forward to proponent of publication or form)(Include ZIP Code)
Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command
ATTN: AMSAM-MMC-MA-NP
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898
FROM: (Activity and location)(Include ZIP Code)
PART 1 -- ALL PUBLICATIONS (EXCEPT RPSTL AND SC/SM) AND BLANK FORMS
PUBLICATION/FORM NUMBER
DATE
ITEM
PAGE
PARA--
LINE
FIGURE
TABLE
NO.
NO.
GRAPH
NO. *
NO.
NO.
TITLE
RECOMMENDED CHANGES AND REASON
* Reference to line numbers within the paragraph or subparagraph.
TYPED NAME, GRADE OR TITLE
DA FORM 2028, FEB 74
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/
AUTOVON, PLUS EXTENSION
SIGNATURE
REPLACES DA FORM 2028, 1 DEC 68, WHICH WILL BE USED.
USAPA V3.01
TO: (Forward direct to addressee listed in publication)
Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command
ATTN: AMSAM-MMC-MA-NP
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898
FROM: (Activity and location) (Include ZIP Code)
DATE
PART II -- REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOL LISTS AND SUPPLY CATALOGS/SUPPLY MANUALS
PUBLICATION NUMBER
DATE
TITLE
PAGE
COLM
LINE
NATIONAL STOCK
REFERENCE
FIGURE
ITEM
NO.
NO.
NO.
NUMBER
NO.
NO.
NO.
TOTAL NO.
OF MAJOR
ITEMS
SUPPORTED
RECOMMENDED ACTION
PART III -- REMARKS (Any general remarks or recommendations, or suggestions for improvement of publications and
blank forms. Additional blank sheets may be used if more space is needed.)
TYPED NAME, GRADE OR TITLE
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/AUTOVON,
PLUS EXTENSION
SIGNATURE
USAPA V3.01
The Metric System and Equivalents
Linear Measure
Liquid Measure
1 centiliter = 10 milliters = .34 fl. ounce
1 deciliter = 10 centiliters = 3.38 fl. ounces
1 liter = 10 deciliters = 33.81 fl. ounces
1 dekaliter = 10 liters = 2.64 gallons
1 hectoliter = 10 dekaliters = 26.42 gallons
1 kiloliter = 10 hectoliters = 264.18 gallons
1 centimeter = 10 millimeters = .39 inch
1 decimeter = 10 centimeters = 3.94 inches
1 meter = 10 decimeters = 39.37 inches
1 dekameter = 10 meters = 32.8 feet
1 hectometer = 10 dekameters = 328.08 feet
1 kilometer = 10 hectometers = 3,280.8 feet
Square Measure
Weights
1 sq. centimeter = 100 sq. millimeters = .155 sq. inch
1 sq. decimeter = 100 sq. centimeters = 15.5 sq. inches
1 sq. meter (centare) = 100 sq. decimeters = 10.76 sq. feet
1 sq. dekameter (are) = 100 sq. meters = 1,076.4 sq. feet
1 sq. hectometer (hectare) = 100 sq. dekameters = 2.47 acres
1 sq. kilometer = 100 sq. hectometers = .386 sq. mile
1 centigram = 10 milligrams = .15 grain
1 decigram = 10 centigrams = 1.54 grains
1 gram = 10 decigram = .035 ounce
1 decagram = 10 grams = .35 ounce
1 hectogram = 10 decagrams = 3.52 ounces
1 kilogram = 10 hectograms = 2.2 pounds
1 quintal = 100 kilograms = 220.46 pounds
1 metric ton = 10 quintals = 1.1 short tons
Cubic Measure
1 cu. centimeter = 1000 cu. millimeters = .06 cu. inch
1 cu. decimeter = 1000 cu. centimeters = 61.02 cu. inches
1 cu. meter = 1000 cu. decimeters = 35.31 cu. feet
Approximate Conversion Factors
To change
To
inches
feet
yards
miles
square inches
square feet
square yards
square miles
acres
cubic feet
cubic yards
fluid ounces
pints
quarts
gallons
ounces
pounds
short tons
pound-feet
pound-inches
Multiply by
centimeters
meters
meters
kilometers
square centimeters
square meters
square meters
square kilometers
square hectometers
cubic meters
cubic meters
milliliters
liters
liters
liters
grams
kilograms
metric tons
Newton-meters
Newton-meters
2.540
.305
.914
1.609
6.451
.093
.836
2.590
.405
.028
.765
29,573
.473
.946
3.785
28.349
.454
.907
1.356
.11296
To change
ounce-inches
centimeters
meters
meters
kilometers
square centimeters
square meters
square meters
square kilometers
square hectometers
cubic meters
cubic meters
milliliters
liters
liters
liters
grams
kilograms
metric tons
To
Newton-meters
inches
feet
yards
miles
square inches
square feet
square yards
square miles
acres
cubic feet
cubic yards
fluid ounces
pints
quarts
gallons
ounces
pounds
short tons
Temperature (Exact)
°F
Fahrenheit
temperature
5/9 (after
subtracting 32)
Celsius
temperature
°C
Multiply by
.007062
.394
3.280
1.094
.621
.155
10.764
1.196
.386
2.471
35.315
1.308
.034
2.113
1.057
.264
.035
2.205
1.102
PIN: 060247-000
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