Cirronet | CR-SEB/X | User`s manual | Cirronet CR-SEB/X User`s manual

Cirronet CR-SEB/X User`s manual
CR-SEB & CR-SEB/X
Wireless Ethernet Bridge
User’s Manual
5375 Oakbrook Parkway
Norcross, Georgia 30093
www.cirronet.com
(678) 684-2000
Important Regulatory Information
Cirronet Product FCC ID: HSW-2410
IC 4492A-2410
Note: This unit has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to
part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the
instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment
in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct
the interference at their expense.
FCC s MPE Requirements
Information to user/installer regarding FCC s Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits.
Notice to users/installers using the 24 dBi parabolic dish antenna in conjunction with all Cirronet
RF products.
FCC rules limit the use of this antenna, when connected to Cirronet RF products for point-to-point
applications only. It is the responsibility of the installer to ensure that the system is prohibited from
being used in point-to-multipoint applications, omni-directional applications, and applications where there
are multiple co-located intentional radiators transmitting the same information. Any other mode of
operation using this antenna is forbidden.
Notice to users/installers using the following fixed antennas, with Cirronet RF products:
The field strength radiated by any one of these
antennas, when connected to Cirronet RF
products, may exceed FCC mandated RF
Andrews 24dBi parabolic dish
exposure limits. FCC rules require
Andrews 18dBi parabolic dish
professional installation of these antennas in
Cushcraft 15dBi Yagi,
such a way that the general public will not be
Mobile Mark 14dBi Corner Reflector,
closer than 2 m from the radiating aperture of
Mobile Mark 9dBi Corner Reflector
any of these antennas. End users of these
systems must also be informed that RF
exposure limits may be exceeded if personnel
come closer than 2 m to the apertures of any of
these antennas.
Notice to users/installers using the following mobile antennas, with Cirronet RF products:
The field strength radiated by any one of these
antennas, when connected to Cirronet RF
products, may exceed FCC mandated RF
Mobile Mark 12dBi omni-directional,
exposure limits. FCC rules require professional
Mobile Mark 9dBi omni-directional,
installation of these antennas in such a way
MaxRad 5dBi whip,
that the general public will not be closer than
Cirronet Patch antenna,
20 cm from the radiating aperture of any of
Ace 2dBi dipole,
these antennas. End users of these systems
Mobile Mark 2dBi Stub
must also be informed that RF exposure limits
may be exceeded if personnel come closer
than 20 cm to the apertures of any of these
antennas.
Declaration of Conformity
Warning! The RLAN transceiver within this device uses a band of frequencies that are not completely harmonized within the
European Community. Before using, please read the European Operation Section of the Products User’s Guide for limitations.
0889 is the identification number of RADIO FREQUENCY INVESTIGATION LTD - Ewhurst Park, Ramsdell RG26 5RQ
Basingstoke, United Kingdom – the Notified Body having performed part or all of the conformity assessment on the product.
The WIT2410 to which this declaration relates is in conformity with the essential requirements
of the R&TTE directive 1999/5/EC and complies with the following standards and/or other
normative documents:
For Interfaces
For RLAN Transceiver
EN 55022
EN 55024
EN 300 328
EN 301 489 -1, -17
EN 60950
Canadian Department of Communications Industry Canada (IC) Notice
This apparatus complies with Health Canada’s Safety Code 6 / IC RSS 102.
"To prevent radio interference to the licensed service, this device is intended to be operated indoors and away from
windows to provide maximum shielding. Equipment (or its transmit antenna) that is installed outdoors may be
subject to licensing."
ICES-003
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions from
digital apparatus as set out in the radio interference regulations of Industry Canada.
Le présent appareil numérique n'émet pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les limites applicables aux appareils
numériques de Classe B prescrites dans le règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique édicté par Industrie Canada.
WARNING!!
≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡≡
For our Customers who wish to use this product in hazardous locations.
This CR-SEB, CR-SEBX has been tested by Underwriters Laboratories Inc. for use in Class I,
Division 2, Groups A, B, C, and D Hazardous Locations as specified in UL1604 and UL/CUL/Zones(UL2279).
Such areas may have Explosive Gases.
To install this radio in this environment the following steps must be implemented.
1) The power supply used with the product must be a UL Class 2 rated device.
2) Contract a Qualified Licensed Electrician to install and run the power wiring from a
screw type, hard wired 12 VDC 1A Class 2 Output power supply in a UL Listed Box
and route a conduit to the radio which must be installed in a UL Listed Plastic Box
suitable for the environment. The conduit must be gas tight so no gases can flow
through conduit.
3) Any Cirronet products with outdoor radio transceivers (tower mounted) marked for
Hazardous Locations must have the interconnecting multi-conductor cable run in
approved conduit for the location. The cable must be in the conduit until out of the
Hazardous Location and the conduit must be gas tight so no gases can flow through
conduit.
4) Do NOT remove the power connector to the device while circuit is live. Disconnect
power only while circuit is dead, or the location is known to be non-hazardous.
Failure to do so, may result in a “Risk of Fire or Explosion”
Only then is the unit suitable for a hazardous location.
For more information on Hazardous Locations contact UL and ask for UL1604 requirements.
www.ul.com
RF Exposure
WARNING: End Users of these systems must be informed that RF exposure limits
may be exceeded if personnel come closer than 45 cm to the antenna aperture when
exceeding 9 dBi of gain in conjunction with the transceiver.
Repairs
Cirronet does not recommend field repairs of the radio equipment. Surface Mount
Technology (SMT) has been used in the production of the transceiver module, which
requires specialized training and equipment for proper servicing. The equipment
should be returned to the factory for any repair.
Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 0
Getting Started .............................................................................................................................................. 1
CR-SEB......................................................................................................................................................... 2
Connectors .................................................................................................................................................... 2
Status Indicators ........................................................................................................................................... 3
CR-SEBX ...................................................................................................................................................... 4
Connectors .................................................................................................................................................... 5
Status Indicators ........................................................................................................................................... 6
Configuring the CR-SEB ............................................................................................................................... 7
Setting IP Addresses..................................................................................................................................... 7
IP Hunter Utility ............................................................................................................................................. 7
HTML Setup ................................................................................................................................................ 10
Console Port ............................................................................................................................................... 13
Filtering........................................................................................................................................................ 14
DHCP .......................................................................................................................................................... 14
CR-SEB Operation...................................................................................................................................... 15
Overview ..................................................................................................................................................... 15
Security Modes ........................................................................................................................................... 15
Point-to-Point Mode .................................................................................................................................... 15
Point-to-Multipoint Mode ............................................................................................................................. 16
Co-located Networks................................................................................................................................... 16
CR-SEB Command Set............................................................................................................................... 18
System Commands..................................................................................................................................... 18
Bridge Commands ...................................................................................................................................... 20
CR-SEB Security Commands ..................................................................................................................... 21
Radio Commands ....................................................................................................................................... 22
Specifications .............................................................................................................................................. 26
Connectors .................................................................................................................................................. 26
Indicators..................................................................................................................................................... 26
Power .......................................................................................................................................................... 26
Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................................................... 27
Technical Support ....................................................................................................................................... 27
Warranty...................................................................................................................................................... 28
CR-SEB
Introduction
The CR-SEB family of products from Cirronet Incorporated provides wireless Ethernet connectivity
between networks located more than 5 miles apart. Built around the WIT2410 frequency hopping spread
spectrum data modem, CR-SEB products provide a 10/100BaseT connection to Ethernet networks. CRSEB products operate in a point-to-point mode or a point-to-multipoint mode using a star configuration.
The center of the “star” is the Master device and the remote CR-SEBs are Slave devices. Peer-to-peer
communication is accomplished by using the master CR-SEB device to relay datagrams from one slave
CR-SEB device to another slave CR-SEB device.
Contained in a DIN Rail enclosure, CR-SEB is designed for factory and industrial applications. The CRSEBX features a remote radio in a NEMA 4X/IP66 rated enclosure that can be mounted outdoors up to
300 feet from the network connection. Communication between CR-SEB products is performed using the
Cirronet over-the-air protocol. Thus the CR-SEB products are 802.3 compatible but not 802.11
compatible and provide 400Kbps data throughput. Certified by the FCC and ETSI, and CE marked, CRSEB products can be deployed license-free around the world.
The CR-SEBs enjoy the benefits of frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology. Namely, the
immunity to multipath fading and resistance to jamming that is provided by changing frequency every
few milliseconds. Operating in the 2.4GHz ISM band, CR-SEBs can be used license-free worldwide.
The radios in CR-SEB products include a robust over-the-air protocol. This protocol insures error-free
data through the use of a 24-bit CRC and ARQ to detect errors and to automatically request a
retransmission. All of this is transparent to the network which just sees complete error-free data.
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Getting Started
The CR-SEB family of wireless Ethernet modems is easy to install and operate. In most instances, the
only installation steps will be setting IP addresses, configuring one CR-SEB as the master and connecting
the antenna, power and Ethernet cable. While the operation of the CR-SEB and CR-SEBX is the same,
the installation and connection is slightly different. Please refer to the appropriate section below for
connection and installation of your product.
Setting up a pair of CR-SEBs requires the following steps:
•
Enter IP addresses into each CR-SEB
•
Configure one CR-SEB as the Master
The default settings in the CR-SEBs are sufficient to allow connection to Ethernet networks and to have
the slave CR-SEB connect with the master. Other steps you may want to take include:
•
Enter a default route IP address if data is to be sent off the CR-SEB’s subnetwork (See Ethernet
Commands)
•
Enable one or more of the security features of the CR-SEB (See Security Commands)
•
Adjust the RF bandwidth allocation (See Radio Commands)
•
Filter out broadcast and multicast packets (See Bridge Commands)
•
Change the network number (See Radio Commands)
Instructions on setting up the CR-SEBs are detailed in the Configuring the CR-SEB section of this
manual. Details on the various operating modes and configurations can be found the CR-SEB Operation
section.
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Figure 1 identifies the various connectors and LEDs of the CR-SEB.
Figure 1. CR-SEB Front Panel Diagram
The RF connection on the CR-SEB is the antenna connector on the top of the CR-SEB. The antenna
connector is a reverse TNC type connector. An antenna may be connected directly to this connector.
Alternatively, an antenna may be located away from the CR-SEB using RF cable to connect the CR-SEB
to the antenna. Cirronet does not recommend using RF cables longer than 5 feet. If more distance is
required between the CR-SEB and the antenna Cirronet recommends using the CR-SEBX. If the CRSEBX is not used, high-quality, low-loss RF feed line must be used.
Connectors
The 10/100BaseT Ethernet connector is the standard RJ-45 connector and is located on the bottom front
of the CR-SEB. The CR-SEB is set up to use a straight through cable to connect to a PC. If a straight
through cable is used to connect the CR-SEB to other devices through a hub, the CR-SEB must be
connected to the uplink port on the hub. A cross over Ethernet cable is also provided to connect to
downlink ports on a hub.
The SYNC IN and SYNC OUT signals are provided for special applications where multiple master CRSEBs are co-located. The synchronizing signals are RS-485 levels and may be connected using an RJ-11
connector. If the sync signals are required, one of the master CR-SEBs must be designated as the sync
master. See the section CR-SEB/Radio Commands for details. If there are no co-located master CRSEBs, sync should be left disabled.
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The Console port is an RS-232 serial port that may be used to configure the CR-SEB. Connection to this
port is made with the 9-pinD to RJ-11 serial cable included with the CR-SEB. This is useful when the
default IP address of the CR-SEB cannot be used with the existing network preventing configuration
through the IPHunter utility. See the section Configuring the CR-SEB for details of using this port.
The power connector is a 2-pin terminal block connector. The provided AC adapter provides a 12 volt
power level to the CR-SEB. The CR-SEB can accept DC voltages ranging between 12VDC and 30VDC
if alternative power supplies are to be used.
Status Indicators
The PWR indicator on the front panel indicates that power is applied to the CR-SEB. The CR-SEB does
not have a power switch. Power is applied and removed to the CR-SEB by connecting and disconnecting
the power connector.
The Ethernet LEDs include LINK, TXD and RXD. The LINK LED lights when a valid Ethernet
connection is made. The CR-SEB is set up to use a straight through cable to connect to a PC. If a straight
through cable is used to connect the CR-SEB to other devices through a hub, the CR-SEB must be
connected to the uplink port on the hub or the crossover Ethernet cable must be used. TXD and RXD are
indicators of Ethernet data activity. They indicate the transmission and reception of data over the Ethernet
connection. Note that these LEDs can be active even when the CR-SEB is not communicating with
another CR-SEB. When on, the XCVR LED on the CR-SEBX indicates the remote radio of the
CR-SEBX is operating properly.
On a slave CR-SEB, the RF Link LED indicates the CR-SEB has established a connection with the
master CR-SEB. When a slave CR-SEB is powered on, it will take a few seconds for this LED to turn on.
On a master CR-SEB the RF Link LED is on as long as any one Slave is linked.
Figure 2. CR-SEB RF Indicators
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Figure 2 shows the various connectors and LEDs of the CR-SEBX. Figure 3 illustrates the remote radio
assembly. Connection between the CR-SEBX enclosure and the remote radio assembly is made through
the 16-pin remote radio connector on the front of the CR-SEBX. Digital signals, rather than RF signals
are sent over the connecting cable which may be up to 300 feet in length. These cables may be ordered
from Cirronet in lengths of 100 feet to 300 feet in 100-foot increments.
Figure 3. CR-SEBX Front Panel Diagram
The remote radio assembly has mounting holes to secure the antenna. The antenna is attached to the
remote radio through the included 24-inch RF cable. If the antenna is not to be mounted on the remote
radio assembly, connection between the remote radio and the antenna must be made with high-quality ,
loww-loss RF cable. Cirronet recommends limiting the length of the RF cable to 5 feet to minimize RF
signal loss.
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Figure 4. Remote Radio Assembly
Note that the remote radio assembly should be mounted on a tower or building top oriented as in Figure 4.
It is important that the RF connector on the remote radio assembly point to the ground to avoid any issues
with rain water.
Important Note:
If an alternate source of power is used with the CR-SEBX, it must be limited to
+12VDC +/-10%. Failure to meet this specification can result in damage to the
remote radio assembly.
Connectors
The 10/100BaseT Ethernet connector is the standard RJ-45 connector and is located on the bottom front
of the CR-SEBX. The CR-SEBX is set up to use a straight through cable to connect to a PC. If a straight
through cable is used to connect the CR-SEB to other devices through a hub, the CR-SEBX must be
connected to the uplink port on the hub. (See SEB Section)
The SYNC IN and SYNC OUT signals are provided for special applications where multiple master CRSEBs are co-located. The synchronizing signals are RS-485 levels and may be connected using an RJ-11
connector. If the sync signals are required, one of the master CR-SEBXs must be designated as the sync
master. See the section CR-SEB/Radio Commands for details. If there are no co-located master CRSEBXs, sync should be left disabled.
The Console port is an RS-232 serial port that may be used to configure the CR-SEBX. Connection to this
port is made with the 9-pinD to RJ-11 serial cable included with the CR-SEBX. This is useful when the
default IP address of the CR-SEBX cannot be used with the existing network preventing configuration
through the IPHunter utility. See the section Configuring the CR-SEB for details of using this port.
The power connector is a 2-pin DIN type connector. The provided AC adapter provides a 12 volt power
level to the CR-SEBX. The CR-SEBX must have a DC voltage of 12VDC +/- 10% alternative power
supplies are to be used.
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Status Indicators
The PWR indicator on the front panel indicates that power is applied to the CR-SEBX. The CR-SEBX
does not have a power switch. Power is applied and removed to the CR-SEBX by connecting and
disconnecting the power connector.
The Ethernet LEDs include LINK, TXD and RXD. The LINK LED lights when a valid Ethernet
connection is made. The CR-SEB is set up to use a straight through cable to connect to a PC. If a straight
through cable is used to connect the CR-SEB to other devices through a hub, the CR-SEB must be
connected to the uplink port on the hub. TXD and RXD are indicators of Ethernet data activity. They
indicate the transmission and reception of data over the Ethernet connection. Note that these LEDs can be
active even when the CR-SEB is not communicating with another CR-SEB.
The RF indicators include LINK and XCVR. On a slave CR-SEB, the RF Link LED indicates
the CR-SEB has established a connection with the master CR-SEB. When a slave CR-SEB is
powered on, it will take a few seconds for this LED to turn on. On a master CR-SEB the RF Link
LED is on as long as any one Slave is linked. The XCVR OK LED on the CR-SEBX when on
indicates the remote radio of the CR-SEBX is operating properly.
Figure 5. RF Indicators
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Configuring the CR-SEB
The network that the CR-SEB is connected to must be compatible with 10/100BaseT products. Before
connecting a default configured CR-SEB to an active network that does not have a BOOTP or DHCP
server, ask the network system administrator for an IP address for the CR-SEB that will not cause any
problems on the network.
Setting IP Addresses
CR-SEBs are shipped from the factory with default settings that include a default IP address of 0.0.0.0
and a default configuration as a slave bridge. In order to set up a wireless link, alternate IP addresses need
to be assigned and one of the CR-SEBs must be configured as a master device. If a BOOTP or DHCP
server is not present a different IP address must be assigned to the CR-SEB. If a DHCP server is present
on the network, the IP address can be set up through it.
The Master CR-SEB can obtain its IP address through a DHCP server residing on the Master CR-SEB’s
local network. The slave CR-SEBs receive their IP address through the Master CR-SEB from the DHCP
server on the Master CR-SEB’s local network. If the slave CR-SEB cannot establish a link with the
master CR-SEB (due to different network numbers or some other configuration setting), the slave CRSEB will need to have its IP address entered manually unless it will be configured through the console
port. If it is desired to configure the slave CR-SEB through a browser session instead of the console port
but use a DHCP server to provide the IP address after initial setup, a temporary IP address can be
assigned manually but the IP address will need to be reset to 0.0.0.0 to have the slave CR-SEB obtain its
IP address from the DHCP server.
IP Hunter Utility
The CR-SEB CD has a device detection and IP setting utility named IP Hunter. This utility will detect all
Cirronet Ethernet devices on the local network, even those with no IP address. For those units without an
IP address, IP Hunter can set the IP address and then open a browser session with that device to allow for
further configuration. The IP Hunter will display devices that already have IP addresses and will open
browser sessions with those units, but will not change the IP address already set.
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Open IP Hunter by double-clicking on the file iphunter.exe on the CR-SEB CD. The following screen
will appear.
Click on the Search button to begin the search for Cirronet devices. Only Cirronet Ethernet devices will
be displayed as shown below.
Ethernet devices from other manufacturers will not be displayed, even if they have no IP address. Any
devices found will be displayed on the screen along with the IP address (if any), the netmask the MAC
address and the DHCP host name.
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Double-clicking on a device with an IP address of 0.0.0.0 will bring up the following dialog box.
Enter the desired IP address and the default netmask will automatically be entered as shown below. A
new Host Name may be entered if desired; however, the MAC Address cannot be changed.
Click OK and the IP address will be entered in the CR-SEB and will be displayed in the IP Hunter
window as shown below.
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HTML Setup
Once an address has been assigned, double-click on the IP number to launch an HTML setup session in a
browser window. The login screen will display as shown below.
Enter the default Username, “admin” and the default Password, “Cirronet” (case sensitive).
(The password will be displayed as dots only for security purposes.)
Click on OK and the main browser window is displayed.
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System Status
This dialog shows the Mode (Master or Slave) and Link (Up/Down) status of each device. (Clicking on
Refresh should be used when System Settings have been adjusted to display current status.)
System Settings
This dialog allows the user to change the Hostname, set the Default Route, enter DNS entries or change
the Outmax (upload/download ratio for the radio) setting. If the CR-SEB is to transmit data to devices not
on its subnet, a default router must be specified. To set the default routing address, enter it in the Default
Route field. Click on Apply to invoke changes, click on Cancel to discard.
System Ethernet Stats
This dialog displays statistics related to the transmission and reception of wired Ethernet data.
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Radio Settings
This dialog identifies the radio and current operating mode. It also allows the user to configure radio
parameters for the Network, SPID, Master Bandwidth, Max Slaves, HopSet, Power, Sync and Retries.
Details on these settings are provided in the section on Radio Commands.
Bridge Settings
This dialog allows the user to set the Mode, (Master or Slave), any Filtering (see the section on Filtering
below) and whether or not a Login is required. Selecting “No” grays out the Username/Access-code,
Password and (Password) Verify fields. Selecting “Yes” allows entries to be entered into the fields.
Details on these settings are provided in the section on Bridge Commands.
Bridge (Connection) Status
This dialog displays statistics related to the connected radios including UserName (if no username is
assigned, N/A will display), IP Address, Radio ID and Packet/Error Information.
Access Control Settings
This dialog allows the setting of login preference, “admin” (default), “enable” or “guest”. Setting “admin”
allows the user rights to change parameters; setting “guest” limits the access to RF Tools only. After
changing the Console setting, click Apply to invoke the changes. Click on Cancel to discard any changes.
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Clicking on Enable IP address control and then Apply brings up the dialog below.
Enable IP address Control
This dialog is used to designate the Allowed IP addresses from which the SEB will accept a telnet session
request. Simply enter an IP address in the “Allowed IP address” field and click “Add IP address. Only IP
addresses designated by this dialog can access the device when IP address control is Enabled.
Access Control Users
This dialog allows the modification of logins and the ability to add new users.
Note: Click on Save Settings to store the system configuration changes in non-volatile FLASH
memory. The user may either click on “Reset” to reboot the processor, click on “Logout” to end the
browser session or simply close the browser window.
Console Port
The CR-SEB can be configured in two other ways. The first is through the console port. The settings for
the console port are 38400 baud, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity. The WinSEM program can be used
to set up the CR-SEB through the Console port. The appropriate serial port must be selected in WinSEM,
but the program will automatically set up the serial port. After a few seconds the CR-SEB firmware
version is displayed followed by the SEM> prompt.
To set the IP number of the CR-SEB, use the ip command.
ip <xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx> {yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy}
Where x is the new IP address, and y is the optional netmask number.
Once a valid IP address has been entered in the CR-SEB, a second method to configure the CR-SEB is
through a telnet session. Most telnet programs work with the CR-SEB. Windows 95/98/NT/2000/ME
have a telnet program that works with the CR-SEB. A telnet session can be started by clicking on Start>Run if you have Windows 95/98/NT/2000 and the TCP/IP client has been installed. For a CR-SEB with
an IP address of 192.168.0.254, enter the following information in the dialog box:
telnet 192.168.0.254
Note: If IP Address control has been enabled, the telnet session must be initiated from an IP
Address that is on the Allowed IP Address list.
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A telnet window will open up. The first line is the version of the CR-SEB firmware followed by the
prompt:
SEM>
If the CR-SEB is to transmit data to devices not on its subnet, a default router must be specified. To enter
the default routing address use the route command.
route add default <xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx> {yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy}
Where x is the IP address of the gateway device and y is the optional netmask number.
To configure a CR-SEB as a master device, use the bridge command:
bridge master<CR>
Store the changed configuration parameters in non-volatile memory with the save command:
save<CR>
The CR-SEB will report back the time it took to the save the information. Reset the CR-SEB by typing:
reset<CR>
The CR-SEB can also be reset by cycling power. Whenever a reset is executed on the CR-SEB, the telnet
session will be lost. It will take the CR-SEB about 30 seconds to reinitialize after a reset or after cycling
power.
Note: Failure to save and reset will result in the factory defaults being used.
Filtering
The CR-SEB includes provision for filtering of multicast and broadcast packets. In many networks, there
is sufficient multicast and/or broadcast packets to slow the overall performance of the CR-SEB. Based on
the number of broadcast and multicast packets, they can consume a substantial amount of the RF
bandwidth. By turning filtering on, the CR-SEB will ignore these packets and limit transmission to
packets with specific device addresses. In some instances, it will be desired to have the CR-SEB transmit
the multicast and broadcast packets; in this instance filtering should be disabled. Note that filtering
broadcast packets also filters multicast packets but filtering multicast packets does not filter broadcast
packets. To filter broadcast and multicast packets use the bridge filter command:
bridge filter bcast<CR>
Refer to the section Bridge Commands for details of the filter commands.
DHCP
A DHCP server can set the CR-SEB IP address as well as the default route IP address. This is
accomplished by setting the desired default route IP address in the DHCP server using Option 3. A DHCP
server will not overwrite a previously entered default router IP address in the CR-SEB. If a DHCP server
is not used to set the default router IP address, one must be entered using the route command. See the
previous section for details of the route command. If an IP address has previously been entered into the
CR-SEB but a DHCP server is to be used to assign an IP address, it will be necessary to set the IP address
in the CR-SEB to 0.0.0.0 using the ip command.
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CR-SEB Operation
Overview
CR-SEB devices are wireless Ethernet modems that perform bridging functions in point-to-point or pointto-multipoint configurations. CR-SEB products are designed to connect remote network segments
together while keeping the data traffic between the network segments to a minimum. CR-SEB products
use MAC-layer addresses to learn on which network segment a device is located.
A master CR-SEB can connect up to 15 remote slave CR-SEBs. The CR-SEB is a single channel device
with an over-the-air data rate of 460.8Kbps providing up to 400Kbps data throughput. The radio modems
in the CR-SEBs are factory configured with optimum settings for typical point-to-point applications. The
radio parameters can be configured to optimize data throughput, latency and range for whatever the
application. In addition, the radios in the CR-SEBs can be configured to allow multiple CR-SEB networks
to be co-located.
Security Modes
The CR-SEB provides several security modes that protect against unauthorized control of the CR-SEB
and unauthorized access to the network to which the CR-SEB is connected.
The first security feature is the need for a password to connect to a CR-SEB remotely through a telnet
session. The password is enabled and cannot be disabled. When a telnet session is initiated, a password
must be entered to gain access to the command line mode of the CR-SEB. The default password is
“Cirronet” (no quotes, case sensitive) but should be changed immediately. When you change the
password, please make note of it and save it in a secure location as there is no way to recover lost
passwords. Another feature is available to limit the ability to initiate telnet and web sessions with the CRSEB. The access ip add command is used to add specific IP addresses from which telnet sessions will
be allowed. Up to 10 IP addresses can be entered. This featured is defaulted OFF and is enabled through
the access ip enable command.
The same password required for a telnet session may also be required for a serial connection to the
console port. The default for this feature is Off. It is set using the access console enable command.
When enabled, the same password used for the telnet session will be required to gain access to the
command line interface of the CR-SEB through the console port.
Similar to the telnet/console password is the FTP password. This password is always required and cannot
be disabled. The default password is “Cirronet” (no quotes, case sensitive) but should be changed
immediately. When you change the password, please make note of it and save it in a secure location as
there is no way to recover lost passwords.
To provide security from unauthorized CR-SEBs gaining access to a CR-SEB network, an access
code/password feature is available. This features requires slave CR-SEBs to authenticate with the master
before being granted access to the network. This feature is defaulted OFF and is set up using the bridge
login, bridge access and bridge password commands.
Details of all the security-related commands are found in the Bridge Commands and Security
Commands sections of this manual.
Point-to-Point Mode
In point-to-point operation, one CR-SEB is configured as the Master and the other is configured as a
Slave. While this is necessary for operation, it does not matter which CR-SEB is the master and which is
the slave. The radio in the master operates as the base radio. Configuring the CR-SEB as the master
automatically configures the radio in the master as a base radio. Similarly, configuring a CR-SEB as a
slave automatically configures the slave radio as a remote radio.
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When a master CR-SEB is powered on, it becomes active immediately, even if no slave CR-SEBs are
detected. It will attempt to send packets addressed to devices that it thinks are not on its local network.
When a slave CR-SEB is powered on, it listens for a master CR-SEB and attempts to register with the
radio in the master. This detection and registration process typically takes 2 seconds. During this time, no
packets will be sent or received over the RF link by the slave.
If the application is such that more than one point-to-point link needs to located in the same area, each
master/slave pair must be assigned different network numbers. This will allow the CR-SEBs to identify
the appropriate other CR-SEB to which they should communicate. Because different network numbers
have different hopping sequences, this also allows various pairs to operate in the same area without
interfering with each other. Refer to the section on radio commands for details on setting network
numbers.
Point-to-Multipoint Mode
In point-to-multipoint mode multiple slave CR-SEBs link with a single master CR-SEB. Similar to the
point-to-point mode, each slave must register with the master, a process that typically takes up to 2
seconds. All of the radio addressing and registration occurs automatically and is transparent to the
application. A maximum of 15 slave CR-SEBs can be connected to a master CR-SEB. The amount of
data a slave can transmit depends on the number of slaves connected and the hop duration of the radio
network. Because packets from one slave that are intended for another slave must pass through the master
CR-SEB, the master CR-SEB should always be allocated 50% of the data throughput, even at the expense
of some throughput for the slaves. This is the factory default configuration.
In frequency hopping technology, the following applies… the shorter the hop duration, the lower the data
latency but also the lower the throughput. This is because the overhead required is the same regardless of
the hop duration. Thus at shorter hop durations, the overhead is a larger percentage of the hop time.
Longer hop durations provide more throughput but have a higher data latency. If data from a slave
appears just after the slave’s designated transmit time, the slave will have to wait one hop duration before
it can transmit the data. As the hop durations of the CR-SEB products are very short, ranging from 10ms
to 17ms, the better approach is to pick the hop duration to maximize data throughput without
unnecessarily penalizing latency.
The factory configuration is set up that the master will have one-half of the bandwidth reserved for it. The
slave devices split the remaining time equally and transmit as much as the can each hop. The amount of
time remaining will depend on the hop duration. The table below gives data throughputs for multiple
slaves based on the default hop duration for a CR-SEB.
Slaves
Hop Duration
Slave Throughput
Master
Throughput
Aggregate
Throughput
1
10ms
208Kbps
208Kbps
416Kbps
2
10ms
118.6Kbps
208Kbps
445.2Kbps
3
10ms
69.5Kbps
208Kbps
416.5Kbps
4
10ms
44.8Kbps
208Kbps
387.2Kbps
If the application has more slave devices, or if it is desirable to increase the throughputs of the slaves at
the expense of the master CR-SEB, contact Cirronet technical support for more details.
Co-located Networks
The radio architecture in the CR-SEB allows multiple networks to be located in the same area without
interfering with each other. Depending on the scenario, either the network and/or the sync commands are
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used to distinguish between networks of CR-SEBs and to prevent interference between the CR-SEB
networks.
If the master CR-SEBs are not located close to each other (> 30 feet or 10 meters apart), simply assigning
different network numbers to the various networks of CR-SEBs will allow the networks to co-exist
without interference. The network number selects one of 63 different hopping patterns, where the hopping
pattern is the pseudo-random sequence of frequencies over which the CR-SEBs hop. Because the
different networks are using different sequences they will transmit on the same frequency at the same
time only rarely. These infrequent collisions are not sufficient to reduce the throughput in any meaningful
way.
If the master CR-SEBs are to be located close together, the CR-SEBs allow the masters to be
synchronized as to when they send to slaves and when they receive from slaves. This synchronization is
allowed by the FCC in the United States. The FCC does not allow synchronizing of the hop sequences to
avoid all collisions. The CR-SEB accomplishes the send/receive synchronization through use of the Sync
ports. The Sync ports of the CR-SEB masters are connected using standard RJ-11 cables. There is a Sync
In and a Sync Out port to allow daisy-chaining of CR-SEB masters. One of the CR-SEB masters is
designated the Sync Master using the sync master command. Synchronization is enabled in the Sync
Master and all connected master CR-SEBs using the sync enable command. The sync wire
command must be issued to turn on the Sync ports. Refer to the Radio Commands section for details.
Note: When synchronization is used in the United States, the hop fcc parameter must be
left enabled. Disabling this parameter will violate FCC rules governing spread spectrum
radios.
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CR-SEB Command Set
The CR-SEB supports a series of commands that allow for configuring the Ethernet interface as well as
the radio parameters of the on-board WIT2410. These commands can be entered during a telnet session or
by using the WinSEM utility when the SEM> prompt is displayed. The commands are grouped into
System, Bridge, Security, Ethernet and Radio command sets. The commands are summarized here with
detailed explanations following.
System Commands
Command
Description
help
Displays command help screen
arp –a
Displays arp table
-d <ipaddr>
Deletes arp entry
-s <ipaddr> <eaddr>
Adds arp entry
default
Sets CR-SEB configuration to factory default settings
echo
Toggles user screen echo mode
ip [
Displays current CR-SEB IP address
<ipaddr> <netmask>]
Sets CR-SEB IP address and optionally the netmask
ping <ipaddr>
Pings TCP/IP host
reset
Resets the CR-SEB activating changed configuration
parameters
route [ help
Displays help screen for command
add <default> <gwaddr>
<netmask>
Adds IP address and netmask to route list
del <ipaddr>
Deletes IP address from route list
list ]
Lists route IP addresses
Stores current configuration to memory
save
sys
help
Displays sys help screen
mode
Displays Master/Slave mode of the CR-SEB
outmax <1..208>
Sets maximum number of bytes Master CR-SEB can
transmit per hop. Range is from 1 to 208
(Master only)
Default = 208
Diplays CR-SEB firmware version
version
help
Displays a list of all the CR-SEB commands. Most commands that require a parameter also
have a help mode that displays the help screen for that command.
arp
Manipulates the address resolution procedure table. This command is provided primarily as
a debugging tool for setting up networks. ipaddr is the device IP address and eaddr is the
physical Ethernet address of the device
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default
Resets CR-SEB configuration parameters to factory default settings. This command does not
reset the radio parameters. Use the radio default command to reset the radio parameters.
See the section on Radio Commands for details.
echo
Toggles the user screen mode to echo characters typed by the user. Default is on. If echo is
turned off, characters typed will not be displayed on the screen unless echoed by the
terminal program.
ip
Sets the IP address of the CR-SEB. The default IP address is 0.0.0.0. When specified
netmask sets the netmask number. The default netmask is 255.255.255.0.
ping
Sends inquiry packets to TCP/IP host specified in <ipaddr> and displays the amount of
time that elapsed before a response was received. Continuously sends requests until a key is
pressed.
reset
Resets the CR-SEB and loads saved parameters into active memory. Also causes the CRSEB to reinitialize which can take 30 seconds. If reset is issued before the save command,
the new parameters are lost and the last saved parameters are used.
route
Displays and manipulates gateway IP addresses to route IP traffic off the subnet. Default
sets the first gateway attempted.
save
Saves changed parameters in non-volatile memory to be loaded on power up. Must be issued
before the reset command or cycling power to have changed parameters take effect. (An
exception is the sys outmax command which becomes active immediately after it is
entered.)
sys
mode displays whether CR-SEB is configured as a Master or Slave. Setting Master or Slave
mode is performed using the bridge command. Refer to the section Bridge Commands for
details.
outmax controls how data is presented to the CR-SEB radio. This command should not be
used without advice from Cirronet Technical Support.
version
Displays the CR-SEB firmware version.
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Bridge Commands
Command
bridge help
Description
Displays help screen for command
access <accesscode>
Sets access code to allow slave CR-SEB onto to
Master’s network. Slave accesscode must match
accesscode of desired Master
filter [disable, bcast,
mcast, show]
Selects filtering operation and level.
login
Enables/disables accesscode/password login
authentication. Must be set in master and slave
[enable|disable]
master
Sets CR-SEB as Master bridge
password <pwrd>
Sets login password. Slave password must match
password of desired Master CR-SEB
slave
Sets CR-SEB as Slave bridge (default)
Displays status of active connections
status
(Master only)
access
Sets the accesscode portion of the accesscode/password pair to allow slave CR-SEBs
to connect to a master CR-SEB. accesscode must match the accesscode in the master
CR-SEB.
filter
Selects Ethernet traffic filtering mode.
filter disable turns filtering off. filter bcast filters out broadcast and multicast
packet while filter mcast filters out just multicast packets. filter show displays the
filter settings.
login
Turns the authentication login requirement off and on. When on, Enabled, an accesscode and
password must be entered in the slave CR-SEB that matches the accesscode and password of
the master CR-SEB with which the slave CR-SEB wants to establish a connection. Note that
the network number of the CR-SEBs must also agree. See the section Radio Commands for
details on the network number. This feature prevents unauthorized CR-SEBs from
connecting to a CR-SEB network.
master
Sets the CR-SEB as the Master CR-SEB.
password
Sets the password portion of the accesscode/password pair to allow slave CR-SEBs to
connect to a master CR-SEB. Password must match the password in the master CR-SEB.
slave
Sets the CR-SEB as a Slave CR-SEB.
status
Displays the status of active slave CR-SEB connections. Only available in the master CRSEB.
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CR-SEB Security Commands
Command
Description
access help
Displays command help screen
console [enable|disable]
Enables/disables password requirement for direct
console communications.
ip [help
Displays command help screen
add <ipaddr>
Sets IP addresses (up to 10) from which telnet
sessions will be accepted
delete <ipaddr>
Deletes ipaddr from list of allowed telnet initiators
disable
Turns off telnet initiator limitation
enable
Turns on telnet initiator limitations
show]
Displays telnet initiator limitations settings
show
Displays console and IP setting
ftpw
Changes the password for FTP sessions
password <pwd>
Changes the password for telnet/console sessions
access
Group of commands that limit access to the CR-SEB through the console port and telnet
sessions. Note that there is no command to enable or disable the telnet session password. It
is always enabled.
console enable sets the requirement that a password be entered when starting a console
connection. The password is set using the password command. The default setting is
disabled. console disable removes the password requirement.
ip enable sets limitations set on initiating a telnet session to the CR-SEB. When enabled,
only network devices with IP addresses on the list of IP addresses added can initiate a telnet
session with the CR-SEB. Up to 10 IP addresses can be added to the list. The list is modified
with the add and delete subcommands. ip disable allows telnet sessions to be initiated
from any IP address (a password will still be required). show will display the setting of the
ip command and the list of IP addressed entered when enabled.
ftpw
This command changes the password required to initiate an FTP session with the CR-SEB.
The default password is “Cirronet” (without quotes). It is not possible to disable this
password.
password
This command changes the password required to initiate a telnet session with the CR-SEB
and initiate a serial connection through the console port when enabled. The default password
is “Cirronet” (without quotes). It is not possible to disable the password requirement for a
telnet session, but it is possible to disable the password requirement for the console
connection.
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Radio Commands
Command
Description
hop [help
Displays help screen for command
fcc [enable|disable]
Enable/disable FCC hop synchronization
length <hoplen>
Sets/displays hop dwell time in radio and CR-SEB
sequence [75|25]
Informs CR-SEB of number of frequencies in radio
hop pattern
set <pattern>
(Master only)
slave
Sets/displays the hop pattern to be used. This is
required in countries with limited spectrum.
Displays help screen for command
[ help
disconnect <id-id-id>
Disconnects slave CR-SEB with the radio serial
number entered
list]
Displays slaves currently registered with the CR-SEB
(Master only)
Displays help screen for command
sync [help
disable
Turns sync off (default)
enable
Turns sync on
master
Sets CR-SEB as sync master
override
Toggles master backup override
settings
Displays synchronization settings
slave
Sets CR-SEB as sync slave
Sets synchronization mode to use RJ-11 wire ports
wire]
(Master only)
hop
Used to set the hop dwell time or the number of frequencies in the hop pattern of the radio in
the CR-SEB. Master only.
The fcc command enables the FCC rules regarding synchronization of frequencies when
CR-SEB masters are co-located and synced using the sync signals. The sync signals
synchronize the CR-SEB masters such that they will transmit at the same time. FCC rules in
the US allow synchronization in time but not frequency. That is, the master CR-SEBs cannot
by synchronized in such a way that they would never transmit on the same frequency. While
this only happens so infrequently that throughput is not substantially impacted, FCC rules do
not allow this mode of operation. Other countries’ rules do allow spread spectrum radios to
be synchronized in time and frequency. If the co-located CR-SEB masters are deployed in
such a country, the fcc disable command can be issued to allow synchronization in
frequency. The co-locate CR-SEB masters must have their sync ports connected for this to
have any affect. The default is fcc enabled.
The parameter entered for length is the decimal value of the number of 625 µsec ticks in
the desired dwell time. A value of 10 (decimal) corresponds to a hop dwell time of 6.8
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msec and is the default. 5 is the minimum value and 24 is the maximum value. The dwell
time is changed to optimize the data throughput for a given installation.
set selects a limited frequency band to be used. The default value is 1 which uses the entire
frequency. For operation in France use a value of 5, 6 or 7 and for Israel, use a value of 4.
The CR-SEB radio also has hop sets that avoid 802.11b channels. This allows the CR-SEB
to operate in environments with an 802.11b network without interfering with the 802.11b
network. The table below provides details of the hop sets.
Hop
Set
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
802.11b Channels
Avoided
None
1 – 6 & 14
1 – 6 & 14
1 - 10
1 – 6 & 14
6 – 14
8 – 14
1 & 10 – 14
1, 2 & 11 – 14
1 – 4 & 14
Frequency Range
2400 – 2472MHz
2448 – 2474MHz
2448 – 2474MHz
2471 – 2497MHz
2452 – 2477MHz
2400 – 2425MHz
2409 – 2435MHz
2419 – 2445MHz
2430 – 2455MHz
2440 – 2465MHz
# of Channels
75
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
The frequency of the 802.11b channel avoided refers to the center frequency of the 802.11b
channel.
slave
list displays the serial numbers of the radios in the CR-SEBs that are currently registered
with the CR-SEB. disconnect terminates the connection between the master CR-SEB and
the slave CR-SEB with the radio serial identification number entered. The radio serial
identification number must be entered with the “-“’s and can be found using list.
sync
These commands set the operation of the synchronization signal used in co-located CR-SEB
networks. The default mode is the sync OFF. Sync is enabled by selecting a synchronization
master. Synchronization will occur over the RS-485 SYNC lines. One co-located master
CR-SEB must be configured as the sync master. If sync has been enabled, the other colocated master CR-SEBs will listen for a sync signal from the sync master. If no sync is
heard, a co-located master CR-SEB will make itself a sync master and provide a sync signal.
This is called the master backup override mode. override toggles the master backup
override on and off. The default mode is ON. In standalone CR-SEB installations,
synchronization is not required and should be left disabled.
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The following commands are issued by typing radio and then the subcommand followed by the
subcommand parameters if any.
Command
radio
Description
help
Displays command list
banner
Displays power on banner for the radio in the CR-SEB
defaults
Resets the radio parameters to the factory shipped values
masterbw [
Displays master to slave bandwidth in percentage
10..80]
(Master only)
maxslaves [
0..15]
(Master only)
network [
0..63]
Sets master to slave bandwidth in 10 percent increments between 10
and 80 percent. Remainder of bandwidth is shared among slaves for
slave to master communication
Default = 50
Displays value currently in use
Sets the maximum number of slaves the master will allow to register.
Default = 5
Displays current CR-SEB network number
Sets the network number for the CR-SEB
Default = 0
power [low|high]
Displays radio output setting: low = 10dBm; high =18dBm (Default)
Sets radio output power
show
spid
Displays radio parameters that have been modified from factory
settings
[
0..254]
Displays service provider ID
Sets service provider ID
Default = 0
help
Displays list of sub-commands under the radio command.
banner
Displays the power on banner of the radio inside the CR-SEB.
defaults
Replaces any modified parameters with the factory default values.
masterbw
Sets the percentage of the total RF bandwidth to be allocated to the Master
transmissions. Ranges from 80 percent to 10 percent in 10 percent increments.
Default is 50 percent. The RF bandwidth not allocated to the Master transmissions
is shared among the slave SEMs for transmissions to the Master.
maxslaves
Sets a limit to the number of slaves CR-SEBs that a master CR-SEB can have registered
simultaneously. The default is 5 but the parameter can range from 1 to 15. If more than
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maxslaves slave CR-SEBs attempt to connect to the access point, they will be denied
access.
network
The radio in the CR-SEB has 64 preprogrammed hopping patterns or network numbers.
By using different network numbers, nearby co-located networks can avoid interfering
with each other’s transmissions. Even if both networks tried to use the same frequency,
on the next hop they would be at different frequencies. nwt can range from 0 to 63.
power
This command sets the transmit output power level of the CR-SEB radio. The default is 1
which corresponds to +18dBm or 65 milliWatts. The other setting is 0 which corresponds
to +10dBm or 10 milliWatts. This command is useful in the European Union where the
transmit power is limited to +20dBm including antenna gain. Setting the transmit power
to +10dBm allows up to 10dBi of antenna gain to be used.
show
This command displays a list of the current radio parameters including the network
number, maxremotes and the sys outmax value.
spid
The CR-SEB has 64 different network numbers (hopping patterns) allowing multiple
networks of CR-SEBs to be co-located while keep the networks segregated. In some
situations, particularly in outdoor deployments, there may be other entities using CRSEBs. In most cases, the network number will be sufficient to keep the networks
separate. However, it may not be possible to coordinate network numbers with an
unknown third party. In this instance, the service provider ID or spid provides an
additional 255 codes to distinguish networks. This feature is particularly useful if the
slave CR-SEBs are setup to connect to the first master they hear. While they can link
with a CR-SEB with any network number, they cannot link with a CR-SEB with the
wrong spid.
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Specifications
Model
Data Throughput
Total over-the-air bandwidth
Network Interface
CR-SEB Network Topologies
RF Output Power
RF Modulation
Frequency Range
Operating Voltage Range
Enclosure
Dimensions
Operating Temperature
Humidity
Licensing
CR-SEB
400Kbps
CR-SEBX
460.8Kbps
10/100BaseT
Point-to-Point or Multipoint
10/100mW with included whip antenna
Frequency hopping, up to 64 user selectable hopping
patterns
2400MHz to 2483.5MHz
9VDC to 26VDC
12VDC +/- 10%
Polycarbonate
Network Interface Unit –
Polycarbonate
Remote Radio Unit – NEMA
4X UV- stabilized
polycarbonate
Network Interface Unit
Remote Radio Unit
201 x 144 x 53 mm
266 x 246 x 59mm
7.9” x 5.7” x 2.1”
10.5” x 9.4” x 2.3
(CR-SEBX only)
Network Interface Unit
Remote Radio Unit
-30°C to +70°C
-40°C to +70°C
0 to 95% humidity, non-condensing
Type certified for Worldwide License-free operation under
FCC Part 15.247 and EN300328
Connectors
Power
Ethernet
Console Port
Antenna
Sync (2)
Remote Radio (CR-SEBX only)
2-Pin Terminal
RJ-45
RJ-11
Reverse TNC Male
RJ-11
16-Pin Terminal
Indicators
Power
Ethernet Transmit Data
Ethernet Receive Data
Ethernet Link Status
RF Link Status
RF Transceiver OK
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Troubleshooting
Ethernet Link LED is not on.
Check the power LED on the CR-SEB. Check the Ethernet cable, making sure that it is fully connected.
Check the gender of the Ethernet cable. The CR-SEB can drive CAT5 cable to a maximum length of 100
meters. If a longer cable length is needed a signal regenerating device must be placed in line.
Cannot telnet to CR-SEB.
Check the power LED on the CR-SEB. Check the Ethernet cable, making sure that it is fully connected.
Make sure the CR-SEB has a valid, unique IP number on the network. If you are attempting to telnet to
the CR-SEB through a router, make sure that the correct address has been entered in the routing table. If
the telnet security is enabled, make sure a device with an IP address on the allowed list is being used to
initiate the telnet session.
The CR-SEB does not respond through the Console Port.
Check that a straight through serial cable is being used if connected to a PC. If you are not using
WinSEM, verify that the host serial port is set for 38.4Kbps, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit and no parity. If you
are using a terminal program, make sure that it is set up to transmit carriage returns when entered from the
keyboard. If the console security feature is enabled, the correct password must be entered at the prompt to
gain access to the CR-SEB command line.
Bridges do not link (RF Link LED is not on).
Check that one bridge is configured as a master. Also check that the bridges are set to the same network
number.
Technical Support
Technical Support is available from Cirronet from 8:30am to 5:30pm Eastern Time, Monday through
Friday. Contact Technical Support at (678) 684-2000 or by email at tech_sup@cirronet.com.
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Warranty
Seller warrants solely to Buyer that the goods delivered hereunder shall be free from defects in materials
and workmanship, when given normal, proper and intended usage, for twelve (12) months from the date of
delivery to Buyer. Seller agrees to repair or replace at its option and without cost to Buyer all defective
goods sold hereunder, provided that Buyer has given Seller written notice of such warranty claim within
such warranty period. All goods returned to Seller for repair or replacement must be sent freight prepaid
to Seller’s plant, provided that Buyer first obtain from Seller a Return Goods Authorization before any
such return. Seller shall have no obligation to make repairs or replacements which are required by normal
wear and tear, or which result, in whole or in part, from catastrophe, fault or negligence of Buyer, or from
improper or unauthorized use of the goods, or use of the goods in a manner for which they are not
designed, or by causes external to the goods such as, but not limited to, power failure. No suit or action
shall be brought against Seller more than twelve (12) months after the related cause of action has occurred.
Buyer has not relied and shall not rely on any oral representation regarding the goods sold hereunder, and
any oral representation shall not bind Seller and shall not be a part of any warranty.
THE PROVISIONS OF THE FOREGOING WARRANTY ARE IN LIEU OF ANY
OTHER WARRANTY, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL
(INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OR MERCHANT ABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE).
SELLER’S LIABILITY ARISING OUT OF THE
MANUFACTURE, SALE OR SUPPLYING OF THE GOODS OR THEIR USE OR
DISPOSITION, WHETHER BASED UPON WARRANTY, CONTRACT, TORT OR
OTHERWISE, SHALL NOT EXCEED THE ACTUAL PURCHASE PRICE PAID BY
BUYER FOR THE GOODS. IN NO EVENT SHALL SELLER BE LIABLE TO BUYER
OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FOR SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF
PROFITS, LOSS OF DATA OR LOSS OF USE DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE
MANUFACTURE, SALE OR SUPPLYING OF THE GOODS. THE FOREGOING
WARRANTY EXTENDS TO BUYER ONLY AND SHALL NOT BE APPLICABLE TO
ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION,
CUSTOMERS OF BUYERS.
 2000- 2004 Cirronet Inc
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