AVR272: USB CDC Demonstration UART to USB Bridge

AVR272: USB CDC Demonstration UART to USB Bridge
AVR272: USB CDC Demonstration
UART to USB Bridge
Features
•
•
•
•
•
Supported by Windows® 2000 or later
No driver installation
Virtual COM Port Enumeration
USB to RS232 Bridge with dynamic baudrate
Bus powered
8-bit
Microcontrollers
Application Note
1. Introduction
The RS232 interface has disappeared from the new generation of PCs replaced by
the USB interface. To follow this change, applications based on UART interface have
to migrate to USB. Migration to USB can mean heavy development both on the PC
and on the device side. To avoid this development, Atmel offers you a solution based
on the CDC class (Communication Device Class) with the following advantages:
No need to change the PC application
Few modifications from the device side
The aim of this document is to describe how to start and implement a CDC (Virtual
COM Port and UART to USB bridge) application using the STK525 starter kit and
FLIP in-system programming software.
A familiarity with USB Software Library for AT90USBxxx Microcontrollers (Doc 7675,
Included in the CD-ROM & Atmel website) and the CDC specification
(http://www.usb.org) is assumed.
Figure 1-1.
Virtual COM Port Application
Software
based on
RS232 Library
USB interface
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2. Hardware Requirements
The USB CDC application requires the following hardware:
1. AVR USB evaluation board (STK525, AT90USBKey, STK526...or your own board)
2. AVR USB microcontroller
3. USB cable (Standard A to Mini B)
4. RS232 crossed Cable (DB9 male to DB9 female)
5. PC running on Windows® (2000, XP) with USB 1.1 or 2.0 host
Note:
An additional STK 52x and USB port are required if the PC has no RS232 interface.
3. In system programming and Device Firmware Upgrade
To program the device you can use the following methods:
• The JTAG interface using the JTAGICE MKII
• The SPI interface using the AVRISP MKII
• The USB interface thanks to the factory DFU bootloader and Flip software
• The parallel programming using the STK500 or the STK600
Please refer to the hardware user guide of the board you are using (if you are using Atmel starter
kit) to see how to program the device using these different methods.
Please refer to Flip(1) help content to see how to install the USB driver and program the device
through the USB interface.
Note:
2
1. Flip is a software provided by atmel to allow the user to program the AVR USB devices through
the USB interface (No external hardware required) thanks to the factory DFU bootloader.
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4. Quick Start
Once your device is programmed with usb_cdc.a90 file, click on Start Application button on FLIP
or push the reset button from the STK525 board to start the CDC demonstration. A new device
detection wizard will appear, point the wizard to the inf folder included in the CDC package. Check that your device is enumerated as COM port (see Figure 4-1), then you can use the
STK525 as a Virtual COM Port or USB to UART bridge.
Figure 4-1.
CDC enumeration
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The figure below shows the STK525 used by the demo (you may use another kit: AT90USBKey,
STK526, depending on the AVR USB product you are working with):
Figure 4-2.
STK525
R S 2 3 2 C o n n e c to r
U S B C o n n e c to r
J o y s t ic k
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4.1
Virtual COM Port Demo
The purpose of the Virtual COM Port demonstration is to communicate with a RS232 PC application without any software modification.
Follow the instructions below to start the demo:
1. Lauch the HyperTerminal application and select the correct COM port as indicated in
the device manager.
Figure 4-3.
COM Port selection
2. Press the joystick and you will see the selection or the direction status written on the
HyperTerminal window.
Figure 4-4.
Virtual COM Port Demo
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4.2
USB to UART Bridge
The aim of the USB to UART bridge is to transfer data in full duplex mode between UART and
USB interface. This application can be used to connect any RS232 device to a PC which does
not have an RS232 interface.
Follow the instructions hereunder to start the demo:
1. Connect the RS232 port of the STK 525 to The PC RS232 port.
Note:
If the PC has no RS232 interface you can use another STK525: Connect the two boards with a
RS232 crossed cable and connect each board to a USB port on the PC.
2. Lauch two HyperTerminal applications (one with the RS232 port and the second with
the Virtual COM port) with the same configuration (Baudrate, Data bits, Parity, Stop
bits, Flow control).
3. Write something in one HyperTerminal, it will be displayed in the other.
Figure 4-5.
6
USB to UART Bridge
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5. Application Overview
The CDC application allows the user to simulate an RS232 port using the USB hardware. The
device appears as a COM port instead of USB device in the device manager. This allows the
user to use his RS232 application without changing his PC application.
From the embedded side, the UART driver is replaced by the UART-USB Driver. The user has
to use the UART-USB functions instead of the UART functions to communicate with the PC.
Once the device has enumerated, the application ensures a full duplex data transfer between
the PC and the peripheral.
The figure below shows the structure:
Figure 5-1.
USB to UART migration
PC Application
PC Application
UART API
UART API
CDC Drivers
UART hardware
USB hardware
USB
RS232
UART hardware
USB hardware
UART Driver
UART- USB
Driver
Embedded
Application
Embedded
Application
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6. Firmware
As explained in the USB Software Library for AT90USBxxx Microcontrollers, all USB firmware
packages are based on the same architecture (please refer to this document for more details).
Figure 6-1.
USB CDC Firmware Architecture
config.h
CDC application
management
Start up
main.c
Enumeration
management
conf_scheduler.h
usb_task.h
cdc_task.c
usb_task.c
usb_standard_
request.c
usb_specific_
request.c
usb_standard_request.h
usb_specific_request.h
uart_usb_lib.c
usb_descriptors.c
usb_drv.c
Drivers
API
HID application
scheduler.c
uart_usb_lib.h
usb_descriptors.h
conf_usb.h
stk_525.c
usb_drv.h
Hardware
cdc_task.h
stk_525.h
USB hardware interface
Should not be modified by user
Can be modified by user
Added by user
This section is dedicated to the CDC module only. The customization of the files described hereafter allow the user to build his own CDC Application.
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Send data trough USB
UART<->USB
USB<->UART
??
Fifo endpoint size
=
Send data trough UART
??
??
Send data trough USB
on USB
UART
Bridge
USB-UART
??
!timeout
&&
UART !=0
Data received on
Figure 6-2.
Joystic pressed
Data received
Data received on
6.1
Port
Virtual Com
Initialization
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cdc_task.c
This file contains the functions to initialize the hardware which will be used by the application,
collect data and transfer it.
CDC Application
9
6.1.1
cdc_task_init
This function performs the initialization of the CDC parameters and hardware resources
(joystick...).
6.1.2
cdc_task
This function manages the data transfer for the two demonstrations (Virtual COM Port and
UART to USB Bridge).
6.2
uart_usb_lib
6.2.1
uart_usb_test_hit
This function checks if at least one character has been received on the USB.
6.2.2
uart_usb_getchar
This function returns the byte received in the OUT endpoint FIFO.
6.2.3
uart_usb_putchar
This function writes the byte put in parameter into the USB IN endpoint FIFO. It also replaces the
putchar function of the UART library. For example the printf will be based on uart_usb_putchar
fuction instead of putchar.
6.2.4
uart_usb_tx_ready
This function checks if a byte can be written in the IN endpoint FIFO.
6.2.5
uart_usb_flush
This function sends data stored in the IN endpoint.
6.3
stk_525.c.
This file contains all the routines to manage the STK 525 board resources (joystick, potentiometer, temperature sensor, LEDs...).
7. PC Software
The CDC application uses the native Windows drivers. It requires only an INF file located in the
inf folder from the CDC package.
8. Limitations
This application does not work with Windows 98 and ME (no native driver of CDC device).
This application can work with Linux OS, but support depends on configuration.
9. Related Documentation
• AVR USB Datasheet
• USB Software Library for AT90USBxxx Microcontrollers
• USB CDC class specification
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