Kill or Get Killed U.S. Marine Corps FMFRP 12-80 PCN 140 128000 00

Kill or Get Killed U.S. Marine Corps FMFRP 12-80 PCN 140 128000 00
FMFRP 12-80
Kill or Get Killed
U.S. Marine Corps
PCN 140 128000 00
DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
Headquarters United States Marine Corps
Washington, DC 20380-0001
26 September
1991
FOREWORD
1. PURPOSE
Fleet Marine Force Reference Publication (FMFRP) 12-80, Ki/lor Get
Killed, is published to ensure the retention and dissemination of useful
information which is not intended to become doctrine or to be published
in Fleet Marine Force manuals. FMFRPs in the 12 series are a special
category: reprints of historical works which are not available elsewhere.
2. SCOPE
This reference publication was written in 1%’6 by Lieutenant Colonel Rex
Applegate, USA (Ret), with the help of the Combat Section, Military IntelligenceTraining Center, Camp Ritchi~ [email protected] At last there is one volume
which speaks to the subjects of unarmed combat (offensive and defensive),
combat use of weapons, disarming the enemy, handling of prisoners, the
handling of mob/crowd disobedience, the use of chemicals in such situations, and how to establish a professional riot control unit. This is an invaluable reference for officers and SNCOS whose duties encompass thtse topics.
The detail, techniques, and training procedures presented will enhance small
unit training, and every unit involved in the above activities should have
copies to which they may refer.
3. CERTIFICATION
Reviewed and approved this date.
BY DIRECTION OF THE COMMANDANT OF THE MARINE CORPS
L?L#?a
~.
i?
M. P. CAULFIEL
Major General, U.S. Marine Corps
Director, MAGTF Warfighting Center
Marine Corps Combat Development Command
Quantico, Virginia
DISTRIBUTION:
~4012800(x)()”
KILL
OR GET
RIOT
CONTROI.
hlANHANDLING,
FOR
By
KILLED
POLICE
Lieutenant
l“ECHNIQUES,
AND
ANI)
Colonel
Usf\-ltct.
CLOSE
THE
COM13AT,
N(llLITARy
Rex
App)egate
Copyright
Reprinted
Paladin
Boulder,
Web site:
1976
Paladin
Press.
with
permission
by
Press,
P.O.
Box 1307,
CO 80306.
http://www
paladin-press
.com
To
GUS
PERF,T
<111({thOSC? OflCCYS Nlld 711(311
0(
tiJC c0711fMf
Section,
Militwy
l?~telligence
Tr(linirzg
Center, C’mrIp Ritchie, MmylmId, whose
(ICCrmrf lflted esp erienc e and tmining help ecl
Tnflkc this text possible.
TIIc author, Cdoncl
irrg aurhuritics
m
I{cx .\pplcgJtc, is ot]e of the ivorld’s uutstandclose c(mbnr
and mulI cnntro] tcclmiqucs.
INTRODUCTION
KILL
the bombing
With
America.
Our
was the code
OR GET
of Pearl Harbor, war burst upon an unprepared
young
men,
by which
wrenched
all games
foe trained to ruthless killing.
meaner,
more efficient
and
country was to survive.
It was of this necessity
Techniques
Applegate
combat.
KILLED
from
were
Many
his staff were
taught
returned
“Kill or Get Killed”
worked
print,
the basic classic
the few copies
men the world
As a nation,
still
to thousands
to verify
was born.
the
of men going
rightness
text on close combat.
in existence
have been
Rex
into
of these
corrected
or
became, and
Now long out of
treasured
by fighting
over.
we are not now formally
by ever escalating
crime,
Study
of theprincipies
and practice
you and those
with a
out by then Captain
techniques
or to give information
by which they were
refined, In 1943, Applegate
published
this volume which
has remained,
“fair play”
faced
had to be taught to be tougher,
more merciless than the enemy if this
that the book,
of these
where
were
They
of hand to hand fighting
and
a world
conducted,
dependent
the need
at war. As a society,
for this book
explained
on you to survive.
was never
and illustrated
It’s reprinting
overdue.
Bill Jordan
Asst.
Major,
Chief,
U.S.
USMCR
Border
Patrol
(Ret.)
(Ret, )
Shooting
Editor, Guns Magazine
Author. “No Second
Place Winner”
menaced
greater.
will help
was long
Publisher’s Foreword
Human life is precious. To guard it and to permit the individual to enjoy various rights and privileges,
society has
esrablkhed
rules of human behavior
and has organized
itself
against unlawful
violence. Police provide protection
against
individual
criminals
or gangster
groups
and mob violence;
military
forces guard
against organized
armed aggression.
The presence of peace enforcement
officers is a deterrent
to
the criminally
inclined
individual.
Similarl_v, peace loving
nations, such as our own, find it necessary to mnintain armed
forces to deter aggressor
nations. Both our conlnlunities
and
our nfltioll seek to preserve the dolllcstic trmquility
nnd international
pexc.
Sometimes,
in spite of these efforts, tl~c
peace is broken and a war must be fought-to
defend our
homes, our way of life, or our pezce loving neighbors,
and
to restore peace. In our colnmunities
~ve must al~va~’s nlaintfiin law and order.
War is a brutal business, whether it be war against an enemy
or war against the criminal who strikes from within. And
personal combat, at close quarters, is its most brutal aspect.
Personal combat conforms
to no set rules of conduct,
as
the fighting in Korea so plainly proved. Were we, the United
States, the choosers, it would not be thus; the decencies of
human conduct would be observed. But we must be ready to
fight against an utterly ruthless communist
enemy, one who
feels he must win at any cost, even at the cost of human
decency.
The American
soldier who nleets such an enemy is forced
to adapt himself to a pattern of behavior that is foreign to his
education and his religious beliefs. If Ile would win the fight—
indeed, if he himself would survive—he must know all the
dirty tricks of close combat, even as the enemy knows them.
He must inatch them trick for trick. Further, he must be able
to take the initiative and attack an enemy soldier as ruthlessly
as he, in turn, would be attacked
if he waited. It is a split
vii
second business. There is no ti]]]e ~llowed for moral debate.
In close combat, it is now or never.
The same principles
hold when the enemy is domestic–
when he is a brutal criminal running at large; or when be,
with other subversives, in a critical hour strikes at our corn-”
munities. In any case—enemy soldier, dangerous
criminal, 01
fifth columnist–the
opponent
is playing for keeps. Whether
we like it or not, we can defeat him znd defend our decent
standards only by beating him at his own game.
This book is designed to meet this situation.
It is an intensely practical and forthright
description
of the techniques
of hand-to-hancl
cmllbzt and of nlot) control.
It is ~t,ritten
pri]nnrilv for nlcnlhcrs of our ArIIIcd Fi)rccs nnd tl~[)sc of (JLII
Allies (in the pcrft]r]l~oncc of tllcir ]l~ilit:lr>r tlutics); for the
police officer; and fur those Incmlxrs of civil dcfcnsc org:lni7.ltions who nlay some day be forced to deal w“it]l the cr]lninnl
subversives
in our midst, including
professional
fifth colunlnists who \vould stir up dissension ond incite disorders
nnd
riots.
The first edition of the I1OO1C~vas lvrittcn (Iurillg World
i)r:IIIclIcs
(If I-IIc
W2r 11 :Ind tvfis Ilsc(i I)y tllc vari(](ls ]I]ilir;lry
United St:ltcs :tild our Allies, :1s n rcxtlmok :ind refcrcllcc, ill
training for individu;ll colnlmt and survitnll. Subsc(lucnt
editions h~ve been bro:ltiened to cover the civilinn la~t” enforcement field as well 2s tllc ]llilittlry. Over thirty thous:lnd copies
nrc nolv in circltl:ltion. WC l)clicvc this text is nlonc and unitluc
in its field. The conlplctc[less
of the coverage of the subject
“has resulted in a stc:ldy dcIIMnd for its ]ll:ltcriill. It is felt
that public~tion
of this text is I public scrvicc, lx)tl~ to cnnb]c
those who have to fight in CIOSC combat to survive, and to
make more effective those ~vho serve in the field of law enforcement.
This edition is being published
at a time when the world
is in a state of unres;. ‘Race riots, intolerance,
Communistinspired
mob vioience,
and nationalism
emphasize
the importance
of mob control by the established
forces of law
and order. Three
new chapters
have been added on the
techniques
intwlved in riot control. Thc tinlel~’ incorporation
to the wdue
of these ne~v ch~pters has again added greatiy
of this text to la~v enforcement
agcncics.
There
is probably
nobody
better qualified
than Colonel
Applegate to describe the techniques
of close combat. During
World War II, as an infantry
officer, he served with military
police units, the Office of Strategic
Services
(0SS),
the
and the Military
Intellige~lce
Counter
Intelligence
Corps,
...
VIII
Division of the War Department.
During the latter part of
tllc wnr, he was in cllnrge of special training in close combat
at the Military Intelligence
Training Center at Camp Ritchie,
Maryland,
where high priority
intelligence
personnel
were
given the training described
in this boolc.
Colonel Applegate has attended many of the principal police
schools in the United States, has studied in foreign police and
special combat schools, and has undergone
British commando
training. He has worlced and studied with famous experts, including W. E, Fairbairn and E. A. Sykes of Shanghai police
and British commando fame; with Gus Peret of the Remington
Arms Company, J. H. Fitzgerald
of the Colt Firearms Company, and Colonel BiddIe of the U. S. Marine Corps. At one
ti]l]e, hc was assigned to spccinl duty with President Roosevelt’s bodyguard.
During recent years Coloncl Applcgfitc
lMS been actively
engaged in the field of riot control.
He has had an opportunity to observe at first hand several violent moh actions.
He has also had the satisf~ction
of seeing riot control units
which he has trained, succcssful]y
dol]]illotc z mob and restore
order.
Like the publishers,
Colonel Applegnte
believes that the
techniques he describes should be taught under careful supervision and used only for legitimate
purposes and in appropriate combat or law enforcement
situations.
ix
Author’s Preface
This book was ~rst conceived
and published
early in
World War 11. If it had not been for the type of conflict
experienced,
combined
with the circunlstmwes
and opportunities of my own personal assignments, it would never have
been written.
Frequent
armed conflict znd mob violence since the end
of \Vorld War II has brought
about an increasing
demand
for a text on these very difficult subjects.
This fifth edition represents
a further
effort to broaden
the scope of the text to cover adequately
the combat and
11101)control problc[lls of the civili:tn l:]lv enforcement
oficer
;1S \V(211:1S tllC lllilitil~y.
Wcnpons,
tactics and strategy
of Inodcrn warfare nmy be
aspects
of military
and
police
chnnging,
but the age-old
individual combat and of nmh control nrc still the same.
Since the time of tile caveman,
tcchnigues
of personal
col]]lxlt have been in the process of evolution.
There
are
lIIiIIIy nlcthocls and systc[ns of pcrsonnl combat. The methods
of teaching
thcln arc C( uzlly wwicd. Son]e are good, some
bad, some practical,
ot 11ers nonpractical.
This book does
not, and could not. cover all methods. It is a conlDilation
of
the most practical
methods
known
to the write:,
methods
that have been developed
and used during and after World
War 11 by our own police and military, those of our Allies
and even our enemies.
The soldier
must be trained
and indoctrinated
in the
offensive. Combat between
armies is only won by offensive
mctics.
The law enforcement
officer has a different
problem.
Hc
must first master restraint and nlnnhondling
tactics. He must
also he able, under extreme or necmszr~,, circulllst:lnces,
to
t:lkc strong defensive or offensive fiction.
The “Cold” War has placed incremcci emphasis on gucrril]a,
mob control, nnd fifth cwluinn tactics, This furnishes nn ndditi(lnnl reason \Yhy nlelnbcrs of tllc Alilitnry and of la~v en-
forccment
and civil defense agcncics must bc trainccl in some
or all of the offensive tactics covered in this book.
The tactics, training,
and strategy
of the enemy are in
process of inlprovcnlcnt
and change. This is especially true
of the direction and l]]nnipulation
of n mol] m m instruumnt
of gaining or destroying
po]iticd pow-cr.
I do not expccc tlmt III the mmvcrs X+ to Ilow best to conlbat the prufcssional
n]ob will k found lICrC, but t]lcy arc
the best known to the author
at this time. It is sincerely
hoped that the new material I have added on this subject will
be of interest and help to all legitimate
forces of law and
order. The counter mob tactics outlined here may not make
pleasant reading for Comnlunists.
But their willingness to use
mob violence as a weapon
in their drive to attain world
domirmtion is well known. The field of n.loh control and its
tactics is not a new one, but the interjection
into the picture
of the professional
Communist
agitator, trained in all aspects
of mob psychology
and incitation,
is relatively
recent. New
counter measures and tactics must now be employed by police
clen~ents to meet the situation.
The Culnnlunists
have taken
over forty yews to pwfcct tl]ci r tcclmiqucs of 11101)pcrsumion
find dirccti[m.
l}t~licc nl]~i ]l]ilit;ir~’ units will fin[l diflictllt}r
in trying to I]lcct such a thrcnt with Ilurricclly illlpro~’iscd
couutcr incxurcs.
Other than mentioning
general training aids, I have purposely avoided laying out specific, detailed training programs.
Each organization–military
or civilian–has
its own problems,
some phases of training de]nfinding more emphasis than others.
Although
this text has been pointed toward the training of
large groups of men, I hope that those individuals who have
sufficient interest to study it will, as a result, find themselves
better prepared should they suddenly find themselves opposed
by a killer.
REX APPLEGATE
xi
Contents
(:lJflpter
~t~ge
I
1.
INT~O~UCTION -ro UNARM~~ COhIIIAT . . . . . . . . .
?..
OFYENSIVF, UNARNIF,L) CONIMT
..............
6
3.
DIWENSIVK UNARMIW COMRAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
4.
l<~]~KArI”,\c~Ax~DEI:t~s~
67
5.
CokfBXrUsEoFTHEHAxDGux
6.
(hrmxr
7.
..................
..............
97
SIIOL’LIM?RIVICAPONS . . . .
I 79
DISARNIING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
190
N. PRISONER l-IANIII.ING ANI)(:{)NII{OI. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
229
Y.
~IRING \vl”rI[
....................
244
/\NO CO\lRAT I{ AX(:F.!. . .
273
....................
291
l{AII)s ANI)R(M)31 COAlnj\r
10.
“1’RAINIXG‘I”lK;llNlf
J1’lS
11.
E,LEAIi:XTARY Fllumwwr
12.
POLICE BATON A~II MISCELLANEOLISLVEAIWNSAND
TECHNIQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
298
crrltAllCALMUNI’IW)NSF ORc ONTROL OIJ MOBSAND
lN~IvIDuALs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
323
[3.
1+
15.
I6.
CIVIL DOAIESTKJ DISTURBANCES AW
‘l-IIEIJ{
CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
363
COAIAIUNIST TAcTlcS AN~Srl{AIFGY IN DIRIXTIN[i
h40R VIOLENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
371
-rIll? lJl(OFltssloNAl,ltrl)l’” ~ON”lRol.” Uxrr . . . . . . . .
INDEX
. .................... .................
389
417
xii
Chapter
I
INTRODUCTION
TO
UNARMED COMBAT
NY subject with as many variations in theory,
training,
and application
as there are in hand-to-hand
combat
should be presented
to the trainee in a simple manner, so as
to be easily understood.
The history and background
of close
combat without
weapons is a desirable beginning
for such a
training progran].
Unarmed
conlbat is just what the name implies-a
system
of fighting intelltled for use when weapons are not available
or when their use is not advisable. A soldier or police officer
carries weapons
in addition
to those given him by nature;
but he must not depend solely on his firearm, baton, or other
iwte equipment.
~“hcsc ~rc only mechanical
aids m-id will
not always sustain hiln. Long before the existence of the stone
knife nnd the bo\v find nrrow, prilllitivc mnn fought with his
hands, teeth, legs, feet, and body. But through the centuries,
unarmed
combat
~actics became more refined and skillful,
until they reached their peak in the comm~ndo-type
training
given in certain of our military units during World War 11.
Tibetan
monks of the I zth century
are reputed
to have
been among the first to develop a definite system of fighting
without
weapons.
These monks, prohibited
by the rules of
their order from bearing arms, developed n system of unarmed
combat to protect
themselves
from the brigands and robber
bands of that era. Their svstem of combat involved manv of
the basic principles
from ~hich our body-contact
sports’ and
iiu iitsu have been developed.
Some time after the J zth
century, the Japanese learned of this method of combat and,
characteristically,
copied it and claimed its origin. They gave
it the name of iiu jitsu, nnd claimed that it ww developed
during their mythological
~gc. For centuries
iiu jitsu was
practiced,
with many variations
and interpretations,
by the
Samurai warrior
clnns. About
1885, a Japanese professor by
A
1
2
KILL
01{ (;lt”r
KJI, I.F, D
the name of Kano established
a school in which a unified
version of the best of the many jiu jitsu techniques was taught.
He called his improved
version “judo.”
Today
the terms
jiu jitsu and judo are synonymous,
judo being in reality the
modern version of jiu jitsu.
Judo as a sport, and, with certain restrictions,
as a method
of combat, was practiced
universally
in Japan until recently.
It was advocated by the military as a means of body-building
and of developing
individual
competitive
spirit. Jiu jitsu, or
judo, employs a group of basic principles
that are common
to body-contact
sports, such as wrestling, boxing, and football.
Basically it is a system of holds and throws based on the use
of the mechanical principle of the lever and fulcrum. Properly
employed,
jiu jitsu enables a small man to overcome a larger
opponent by using his opponent’s greater weight and strength
to the latter’s disadvantage.
For years prior to World War II, this Japanese method of
combat was cloaked in mystery. It was regarded by the public
as a somewhat
miraculous
power that enabled the user to
conquer a hapless opponent
by a mere flick of the wrist. As
long as there was lack of knowledge
on the subject and an
element of mystery
surrounded
its use, this was to some
degree true. Taking advantage
of the element of surprise, the
jiu jitsu expert did not fight as his opponent
expected
and
could thereby
gain the initial advantage,
which he never
relinquished.
This was evident,
but not understood,
when
certain jiu jitsu experts publicly overcame unskilled opponents
in scheduled exhibitions.
The most optimistic
experts estimate that it takes several
years of consistent,
intelligent
practice before an individual
can use judo as a dependable
method
of unarmed
combat,
As a sport, it is practiced
in this country
by a small group
of devotees, but there are relatively few experts who can use
their skill effectively
against determined
opponents.
Based on
the application of holds, throws, and on the destruction
of the
opponent’s
balance, the jiu jitsu user has to be really expert
if he is to overcome
a determined
msault by an individual
skilled in the use of blows of the hands or feet.
Soldiers and police. can expect to encounter
few individuals
who will use judo against them successfully.
They will, however, probably encounter
certain judo tricks which have been
combined
with the type of rough and ready fighting tactics
advocated in the commando
style of personal combat.
The danger of overrating
judo as an effective
means of
ARMED
CO MIIA”r
3
combat lies not only in the aura of mystery
that has been
allowed to surround
it, but also in the overemphasis
placed
on it as an effective means of hand-to-hand
combat training
in World War IL As a result of that war and a demand by
the public for boolcs and techniques
on methods of fighting,
bookstores
were flooded with books and pamphlets
on the
subject of unarmed combat. Many of these, purporting
to be
genuine jiu jitsu, bore titles and slogans intended
to appeal
to the gullible. Courses
which would
take a sincere judo
student
months to master were offered in “ten easy, selftaught lessons.”
Extravagant
claims of success of the unarmed
judo exponent ag~inst an armed enemy are frequently
made. Students of many judo courses, given recently,
are “quiclcly”
taught a specific number of jiu jitsu tricks. When the course
is completed
and students
are called upon to use what they
have learned against a determined
opponent,
they usually find
themselves helpless, unless the attaclcer performs in the specified manner taught in the course. Such courses obviously
do
not give the student the training necessary’ to ad~pt him to
the uncertainties
of combat. Many tricks advocated in jiu jitsu,
and certain
combat
Iboolcs, are not practical
because they
cannot be applied quiclcly enough. They are based on the
assumption
that the opponent
will stand still, allowing
the
hoId or throw to be a:apIied.
The illusion of ease in subduing an opponent
and the implication that this can be accomplished
without
personal risk
or injury to the user, are also fallacies evident in many instruction
courses in close combat offered the public. An individual can test the efficacy of such combat methods
and
holds by asking himself a simple question: “ Wil/ thisuxmk so
that 1 can use it instinctively in vital combat against an
opponent who is determined to prevent me fr07Jl doing so,
and who is ,rtriving to eliminate me by fair means or foul?”
Considering
the small amount’ of time devoted to instruction
in fund~menta]s
and the scanty practice
demanded
of the
student in these courses, it is evident that mmy highly advertised tecl]niques cannot measure up to this simple standard.
To sum up, the average American
lacks the time, patience
and uswdly the interest to become a genuine expert at judo.
He does nc,t really need a complete course in jiu jitsu, as is
often claimed, to be able to take care of his opponent in unarmed combat. His athletic background,
physique and temperament are usually adaptable to a style of fighting which is
based more on the use of blows than on finesse. Military experience,
in combat
and training
centers
throughout
the
world, has shown that the average man can be quickly turned
into a dangerous, offensive fighter by concentrating
on a few
basic principles
of combat
and by advocating
,principaily
the use of blows executed by the hands, feet and other parts
of the body.
All types of combat can be divided into two phases, offensive and defensive. Knowledge
of both is necessary
to any
fighting man. In training for warfare, the emphasis is usually
on the offensive. In the case of the military
police or civil
law enforcement
officers, the. emphasis should be at least equal.
Only the local situation, as it affects hin]seIf personally and his
mis~on, can determine which type of combat a police officer
should use. At times, he will have to resort to extreme offensive methods, because they may be his only means of de:
fense. In other situations,
only simple defense and restraint
methods may be necessary. The judgment
of the officer will
determine
what tactics he must use. Hc usually carries a
loaded gun and is expected
to exercise proper judgment
in
firing it. Also, he must decide for himself whether
a given
situation calls for personal unarmed combat tactics, and which
of those tactics he will use.
The
unarmed
combat
methods
presented
in the initial
chapters represent a selection and combination
of techniques
taken from judo, wrestling
and other body-contact
sports,
from combat methods
used in other lands, and from selfdefense tactics, and those used in rough and tumble fighting.
The techniques presented have been tised successfully
in training and in recent combat. They can be learned easily and
applied quickIy
and instinctively—but
only after adequate,
but not excessive, practice.
No text, no mat~er how well-illustrated
or clearly explained
can, alone, teach a man to fight. It can only serve as an instructional
guide. Closely supervised
intensive practice is the
only path to practical knowledge.
There are no easy methods
or short cuts. Practice
must be intensive enough to render
the mechanics of each technique
automatic.
There is seldom
time to stop and think when the pressure of combat k on.
Being able to throw a man is much different from knowing
how.
Expert boxers and wrestlers will already be far along the
road to proficiency
in personal combat. The use of boxing,
wrestling and other body-contact
sports in training and condi-
Al{All
II) COAI IIA” I”
s
tioning programs will add materially to the student’s progress
and will speed up his development
as an aggressive
fighter.
An athletic background
develops the necessary
coordination
and muscular ability, and enables the student to learn combat
techniques
more easily. However,
experience
has shown that
such techniques
can also be developed in the trainee who has
had no previous
athletic
experience.
His progress
may be
slower, but practice and a desire to learn can develop the average trainee, who possesses normal courage, physique and the
will to fight, into a dangerous antagonist ar close ,quarters,
OFFENSIVE
UNARMED COMBAT
EITHER
war nor individual combat is won solely by defensive, Maginot Line psychology
or tactics. In personal
combat, it is often difficult to determine
where defense ends
and offense begins. Often the only defense is a good offense.
However,
in all cases, a knowledge
of possible methods
of
attack enables a defense to be better planned.
The methods advocated
in this chapter are si]nple and are
based on a style of figl)ting that kno\vs no rules, thnt depends
on speed and ruthlessness for results. Boxing and wrestling are
sports. They can be used only to a Iinlited extent in vit~l
combat. The fighting tactics discussed here, however, are designed to knock,. out, mai[ll, or kill, as the situation
may
demand.
TvDes
of hand-to-hand
combat that demand set t)ositions
,,
and complicated
nlzrteuvers—for
the attacker
and ‘his opponent–are
practically
useless when the ordinary
man finds
himself Droiected into Dhvsical combat at an unexpected
time.
To be a~)le ~o rely upo~ aid use instinctively
a spe~ific hold or
throw for each set or different position of an opponent
is a
dif?icult task. To be ~b[c to do so swiftlv and instinctively
demands months and sometimes years of p~actice. It takes ti~le to
train the mind and body to react to each set of conditions
instinctively
and in the Described
method. This is one of the
weaknesses’of the jiu jits~ technique. By certain maneuvers and
in the
movements,
a jiu jitsu expert can place an ant~gonist
l]r{)i~cr })f)siti(jll for :1 sl]cci(ic tlltwfv; but for the layl;lan it is
much too coll]plicated
and, according
to A]]lerican standflrds,
takes too long to learn.
The combat tactics advocated
here do not depend on any
set stance or position to achieve results. They are based on
wh~t the smallest man can do to the largest, using the eleN
6
ment of surprise when possible, with ruthless disregard
for
the opponent.
In the homespun
philosophy
of David Harum
“Do unto others as they would do unto you, Lut do it first.”
VULNERABLE
PARTS
OF THE
BODY
The human body is made up of many vulnerable
spots.
Some are nerve centers, some are organs unprotected
by a
bony or muscular structure,
and some are areas only lightly
protected
by bone or muscle tissue. About a dozen such spots
can be attacked with marked results in combat. A well-timed
blow or pressure brought
to bear on one of these vital areas
will disable an opponent
or force him to cease offensive
action.
Man has many
natural
weapons—his
head, teeth,
elbows, feet, knees, hands and fingers-which
he may use in
attacking vulnerable spots. These spots are listed below in the
order of their vulnerability
and accessibility.
Testicles. These organs are the most sensitive and vulnerable
of man’s body. A hand, knee, or foot blow to the crotch
GROIN BLOW
The best way to finish quickly
any close-quarter fight is to use a
strong hand, knee or foot blow to
the groin—the
testicle
area.
will disable the strongest
opponent.
The best and strongest
of holds can be broken if the testicles can be grasped or hit.
Because of their extremely
vulnerable
location in the body.
they are the most likely spot at which to expect an attack
from an unscrupulous
opponent.
It should always be remembered,
when closing in vital combat, that a good knee
blow delivered
to the testicle area will not only finish the
fight, but also, while in the process of being delivered, will
n
1,11.1.
(II{ (;l?’r
KILI.
s2D
protect
the user’s groin area by blocking
with the thigh a
similar attempt by an opponent.
These vulnerable
organs are
the principal reason why we have referees in such sports as
boxing and wrestling.
Not only the testicles, but the entire
groin area, issusccptible
to att~ck.They
arc the Achilles heel
of man’s anatomy.
Eyes. The eyes are delicate, easy to reach, and like the
resticles, are parts which any man instinctively
strives to protect. A gouge with thumb or finger to the eye will be effec-
FINGER
OR
EYE
GOUGE
The eyes, like the testicles, are
extremely vulnerable. A finger or
cye gouge will stop the most dctcrmincd 2traclc.
tive in breaking
up tile Illost deterrtlined
hold or attack. A
blow aimed or feinted at the eyes, or “family jewels” (testicles), will cause a man to move instinctively
to cover them.
Many times this will leave him wide open for other types of
attack.
Neck Area. An edge-of-the-hand
blow across the windpipe,
in the Adam’s apple area, will have fatal results. It has the
same effect as the crushin
of a piece of copper tubing with a
blow from a sharp-edge
instrument.
Blows delivered
by the edge of the hand to the sides of
the throat and to the back of the neck, at the base of the
skull, have a knockout
effect. Few physiques
can stand up
to these blows, the only exceptions being wrestlers and such,
who have exceptionally
well-muscled
necks.
The effect of a blow to the windpipe
can be demonstrated
by placing the thumb in the hollow at the base of the throat,
below the Adam’s apple, and pressing gently. Light, edge-ofthe-hanci blows, delivered to the sides m-id back of the neck,
will dcnloustratc
their cffcctivencss
to the nlost skeptical
pcmm.
f
,,. ~
PI
.4,
. .
.
,
WINDPIPE
“[-
..L
..,,
.
7
BLOW
The windpipe is un rotected. A
shar
blow here WII
r have fatal
rcsu ts. The area just below the
Admn’s apple is the most vulncrnh]e.
r
NAPE
OF
NECK
An edge-of-hand
cause a knock-out.
will
demonstrate
Cffcct.
BLOIV
blow here wili
A light blow
the
stunning
Back and Kidney Area.
A physiolog
book will show that
the main muscle cords and nerves o /’ the body branch out
from the base of the spine at a point very near the surface.
This region is commonly
known as the small of the back. In it
the kidneys are located, just above the hips on each side of
the spine. A horizontal
blow with the fist or edge of the
hand, or a kick delivered there, will have a disabling, if not a
knockout,
effect. Care must be taken to hit the area above the
hip bones and below the heavy baclc muscles. Not for nothing
are kidney pads worn by football players.
A low blow delivered by the edge of the hand to the end
of the spine is often efiectwe. It is easiest to deliver when the
opponent
is stooping
over, as he would be when grappling
some one about the waist. A kick delivered by the point of the
toe to this area often produces
a disabling effect.
Stomach Area. It is a big one and easy to hit. A hard blow
here by the fist, knee, or head is very effective, particularly
if the opponent’s
muscles are relaxed. The solar plexus can
be hit by driving the fist up and under the rib structure
at a
point about one inch above the navel. At a point about one
inch below the navel is another vulnerable
spot, which can
be reached by a k[luckle jab.
Chin. A blow by a skilled boxer to the point of the chin
will put a m~n down for the count. The same result can be
10
K I 1. [. () 1{ (; F.“1”K I 1. I.F. D
obtained by a blow using the heel of the hand. An edge-ofthe-hand blow, directed downward
at the point of the chin,
will cause a break or dislocation of the lower jaw bone.
Nose. A horizontal
blow, by the edge of the hand, at that
part of the nose which is ordinarily
covered by the bridge
of a pair of glasses will result in a knockout,
and possibly
death. The most fragile bones of the facial structure
are
cmshed
when this blow is used. It usually
results in a
hemorrhage,
from which a fatal infection can develop.
By placing the index fingers on both sides of the base of
the nose, where it joins the face, and pressing inward and
upward, another vulnerable
spot is reached. An edge-of-thehand blow directed
upward
at the base of the nose also is
most effective.
Temples. Blows delivered
by the knuc]des, or edge-of-thehand, to the temple area will often put an opponent
down
for the count. This area is small, but it is one of the most
sensitive on the head. By placing the thumbs on the temple
and exerting
a firm , steady, inward
pressure,
then movmg
them about, this most vulnerable
area can be located.
Jaw Hin~e Area. Where the lower jaw hinges to the upper,
near the base of the ears, is a sensitive point that is vulnerable
to a knuckle blow. By ~lacing the finger tips just under the
ear lobe and pressing m and up, another
sensitive area is
located. Pressure applied here is particularly
effective in forcing an opponent to release a hold or stop offensive action.
Joints. Nature made the joints of the knee, wrist, arm, elbow,
finger, and other members to bend only in certain directions.
Enough
pressure or strong blows applied to these joints in
the oppo$ite direction will cause a break or dislocation, or will
at least force the opponent
to yield temporarily.
Sensitive Bones. Many bones of the body are sensitive to
blows or pressure because they have not been furnished with
protective
coverings
of flesh or tissue. Kicks to the shins,
edge-of-the-hand
blows
to the collar bones, forearm,
or
wrist will often cause a break or effect a release. Many grips
may be broken by forcing the point of a thumb or knuckle
between the small bones of the back of the hand, or by plncing the point of the thumb in the hollow spot where the
opponent’s
thumb joins his wrist. Pressure applied on such
points is not disabling in itself, but is very good in effecting
releases.
Other Sensitive Areas. Nature has given man numerous other
unprotected
spots which can be hurt locally, to effect re-
ovl:lxsl\”l”
( s.\l{\ll.1)
(: OAIIIA” I
II
leases and create openings.
The following
actions are effective: Pulling hair, tearing a lip, grasping and twisting
(or
tearing)
the nose. A grip with the point of thtmlb and forefinger, or bite, on the thick muscles that extend fronl the
neck to the shoulder;
a thunlb and forefinger
grip, or bite,
across the breast
muscles to the arm; kicking or biting the
Achilles tendon hock of the heel-x]l
are effective.
FUNDAMENTAL
PRINCIPLES
There are a number of fundamenctl
principles in hand-tohand combac. Some nlttst be observed Zt a]] times, others are
used in special situations.
Where
the use of one begins and
the other leaves off is difficult to define md can only be
determined
by tile user. Often their application
is separated
only by a split second.
Balance. The
most basic fundamental
of all is that of
balance. Mental balnnce, or stability, is a state of mind that
is necessary before physical balnnce c~n be achieved. In exciting circun~stances,
such os viral coll]bat, the mental balance
of the opponent
cm often be upset by the surprise of the
attack. The use of yells, feints or deception;
throwing
dirt
or other objects in the opponent’s
face; or the usc of any
str:ltcg!,
tllor I]c dots ]1(1[ cxl)ccr f{)rccs Ilinl tt~ t:lkc ti[l~c
to condition
his lnind to o ncw set of circumstances.
The
tilnc necessary
for the mind to fidjust itself vflrics with [Ilc
individual, but it is during this period of adjustment
that the
attacker
can destroy
his opponent’s
physical
balance
znd
undertake
offensive action. Surprise is as effective in man-toman combat as it is in the strategy of nrmies. That is why the
successful
fighter
conceals
his true intentions,
so that he
never “telegraphs”
his intention.
He always strives to do the
unexpected.
Ph’ysical balance must bc rcctincd hy the attacker and destroyed
in the opponent.
The fighter who rctnins his body
balance can utilize his entire strength.
Conversely,
he can
have his lack of balance used agninst him by a skilled anta onist. The destruction
of the opponent’s
body bal~ncc, a / ter
he has been led by finesse and movements into an off-balance
position, is a fundamcnml
of jiu jitsu technique.
A sudden
push or pull applied to the shoulders,
or other [xtrt of the
body, will weaken or brefik body balance. Once t!us is accomplished, an opponent’s
offensive power ond strength,
no matter how
rest, cannot be fully utilized. The man who attacks
first an~F’ dc.stroys
his opponent’s
balance
has a decided
12
Icli
Cli lN PUS1-i
Greater pllysiquc and strcngtll n)can t)othing if you do nor h~ve
balance. 1[1 the illustration at the left, the larger and stronger nvrn
easily lifts the sndlcr
mtn. The illustration at the right shows how,
by pushing IMclc on the opponent’s chin, the srnallcr man destroys
rllc big nml’s l)hysical balance, thus preventing tllc usc of his superior
strength. TIIC I;lrgcr Inan is unalic to lift the smaller man when this
occurs.
regardless
of ~ djfierence
in size, Weight, or
advantage,
physique.
Once the opponent
is knocked
off-balance,
he
should ‘be kept struggling
to regain it and should never be
allowed to get set. The destruction
of body balance should
be followed immediately
by offensive tactics.
To get into a good balance
position
which
offers a
fighting stance, place the feet apart, about the distance of
the width of the shoulders, with the body crouched
and bent
slightly
forward
and with the knees slightly
bent. In this
position
the individual
can change stance readily and can
move about, facing his opponent,
so that he is always in a
store (If ph}sic:ll
bnl:lncc.
Momentum.
h
not worlc directly agxinst, or try to stop,
tllc nlomentum
of an opponent
in nmtion. Utilize his impetus
1)1’ 1:1:,,\slvl,
(“s\
l/.\ll:l)
110[)}’
(;()\ll!\l
11/\l,/\NCE
IN A-l-TACK
A good, bnlnnccd position with
which
to meet
an arracIc or
from which to launch mrc–body
crouched
and bent slightly for}vnrd, feet apart and knees f!cxcd.
TIIC bands arc out in from, to
IIC usc(l as a dcfcnsc. or to strike
a blow.
DLSI’l{OYING
WALKING
BALANCE
Another
siin )Ic dctl]nllsrrotim~
nf the value 01 txrlancc. [c, d,c
victiltl stnrt to wallc post you.
Then
reach out and. by plzcing
rhc forefinger under his nose and
by forcing his head back, prevent
him from walking pmt you. His
body is no longer in a srate of
physical balance.
by directing its force, once he comes in contact. For example,
if a man rushes you and you side-step and apply a trip, you
are utilizing his momentunl
and his resultant laclc of balance
to throw him. lf, on the other hand, you rcnlain in his path
and try to stop him and throw ]lilll in the opposite direction,
it becomes much more difficult; it mkcs a great (ic~l more
Iq
KILL
QR
GET
KILLED
strength and energy to accomplish
the same result. The same
principle applies if an opponent
takes a wild swing at you.
Duck, and let the momentum
of the swing take him off
balance; then attack.
Another
useful element is potential
momentum.
Assume
that an opponent
has grasped you by the wrist and is endeavoring
to pull you off balance, and that you are pulling
in the opposite direction to keep him from doing so. If you
suddenly
change your tactics and effect a wrist release, or
cease to resist the force of his pull by stepping toward him,
he will fall backwzrds in the direction in which he wns trying
to pull you. When this happens, hc loses balance and becomes
vulnerable
to ~[tzck. The same principle would apply if you
were resisting a push, and suddenly
gave way instead of
opposing.
Maximum Force. The principle
of maximum
force means
the concentration
of the greatest
proportion
of your
strength against some weak spot or area on your opponent’s
body. In other words, attack parts of your opponent’s
body
that are easily hurt, or concentrate
on an area that will cause
him intense pain if he does not move away. Instead of putting
your entire strength
against him in an area where
he is
equally strong, or perhaps stronger,
try to pic his weakest
point against your strongest.
A good example is the use of
the wrist throw, or n finger twist, where you concentrate
great pressure
against a weak part of the body which is
easily broken.
The principle of maximum force is not a magic formula,
to bring an individual through all types of combat unscathed;
but it will help by inflicting as much damage as quiclcly as
possible, while receiving as little damage as possible.
One school of thought,
in unarmed
combat
circles, advocates first closing with the enemy, throwing
him to the
round, then dispatching
him. The other, and most successFuI, insists that blows used to down the opponent
are preferable to throws, and that they can be taught to and used by
the average man much more speedily. Naturally,
throws will
have to be used in many instances; but actual combat has
shown that well-placed
blows by the hands or feet, in many
instances, can accomplish the desired result more quicldy and
more easily. Two good general rules in unarmed combat are:
(i) Keep your opponent at arm’s length by the use of band
and foot biou~s. Many times, when you are in a position to
start to close with an opponent
so as to throw or trip him,
you will be able to use blo~vs instead. (2) Avoid, if at all
possible, going to the ground u’ith your adversary. Try to
avoid getting close to him. Being close, you will not have
room to see what he is up to or be able to “work with the
best effect. If you are smnller than your opponent
and go
to the ground with him, his superior \veight and strength will
always give him an advantage,
whether
he utilizes it or not.
The danger of being stunned upon impact with the ground
surface also presents a good reason for not closing with the
opponent
if it can be avoided.
Falls. A knowledge
of the art of falling is very useful, because, in the varied conditions
of combat, there will be times
when the cardinal rule of never going to the ground will bc
violated.
Many practice
and training
hours could be devoted to training the student in how to fall correctly,
without harm to himself. Knowledge
of this subject can be obtained from any good boolc on tumbling
or jiu jitsu. In a
training
program,
such sports
as wrestling,
football,
and
gymnastics
will teach a great deal about proper methods of
falling. However,
there is a vmt difference
between
falling
on gymnasium
mats and falling on a hard, uneven surface—
as is likely to happen in combat. It is obvious that you should
stay on your feet.
One injunction
you should
heed:
Once going to the
ground, never stop moving. Start rolling and try to get back
on your feet m quickly as possible. If you car/t get up and
can’t roll, pivot on your hips and shoulders so you can face
your opponent and block with your feet any attempt to close
with you.
Remember,
it is not necessary to go to the ground once
YOU have placed
your opponent
there. You can finish him
off with your feet. Your enemy can do likewise if you remain immobile on the ground and stay within range.
MAN’S NATURAL
WEAPONS
AND
THEIR
USES
Offensive Tactics Using the Feet. The proper use of the feet
as weapons of combat is not generally appreciated.
Properly
used, feet can be the most potent of all natural weapons.
The Chinese and the French long ago developed methods of
using the feet in fighting; and loggers of the Pacific Northwest and Cnnada have long used their heavy boots as offensive weapons. However
the average person usually considers the feet only as a means of locomotion.
K 11.1, 01{
16
USE
OF
FOOT
IN
Gl; ”r K[l,
l<lCKING
The best kick utilizes the whole
Ien th of the foot, the striking
sur f ace being large enough to insure accuracy.
I.E1)
TOE
ICICIC
/\ kick dclivcrc[l t(w !irst nt a
or n)ovillg oppnncnt is
stmding
likely tu miss, causing the kiclccr
m 10SC his lxrkmce.
Many fights can be stopped before they have a chance to
start by a well-placed
kick to the opponent’s knee. When the
opponent
is standing, kicks should generally be delivered by
using only the outside edge, sole, or inside edge of the foot.
A kick delivered toe foremost,
aimed at a narrow target, is
not accurate;
the slightest movement
by the opponent
will
cause a miss and leave the kicker in an off-balance
position
where he is wide open for retaliation.
When
he is left off
balance, the opponent
may grab his foot and twist it for a
throw.
Feet often can be used offensively,
before body contact
is made, after contact is made, and as weapons to stun or kill,
once the opponent
is down. They can be used defensively
against attack with bladed weapons or striking implements.
When on the ground, subjected to attack from a standing op-
OF FE A’SIV1:
u
Nil{ ,\t
El)
(:().\ I B.i”r
17
poncnt, the individual
can usc his feet to prevent
the adversary from closing in or administering
a coup de grace.
A proper kiclc makes usc of the length of ths? foot (heel
to toe) and uti]izcs frsotwcnr,
the heavier the better. The
kiclc delivered
toc forclllost ulnkes usc of a striking area of
only the width of the toc of the shoe, whereas the lciclc dcwith the full length of the foot as the
Iivercd correctly,
striking area, uses a weapon almost four times larger. This is
especially
important
in view of the fact that the opponent
THE
BEST
WAY
TO
THE
FEET
USE
I::ICC sidmva)s
to rhc t:lrgct,
the kg, ;1[1(1 lash [)(lr. Body
I):dnncc is rct;lincd !Jy hcnding the
r:lisc
h)ily
ill the
the kick.
dircctt(m
Kslx-.
f)l)plwitc
to
KICK
A dotcrmincd
attack
can lrc
stopped quickly by using the knee
kick. This blow, rlircctcd at the
knee cap, will break or dislodge
the knee hinge. [t is very effective
~~.lmSt ally type of frontal at[i)~k,
is
the
Opponcllt
CVCI1 though
arn]cd ~vidt a club or Madcd
wcapcm. Notice hmv the kicker’s
bod
trunk is bunt back, uut of
Y
mms reach, as the kick is dcIivcrcd.
ls 11.1.
KNEE
JOIN”l”
(II{
(;l;l’
KII. I, F.1)
KICK
Kicks to the side of tllc kIIcc
juil]t will eid)er dcstr(ty lIalaIKX
or cause a break or dislocation.
may not be standing absolutely still when the kick is launched.
The knee is particularly
susceptible
to a kick, since it is
built to bend in only one direction.
Forceful
kicks delivered
on the knee cap area from the right or left side will cause a
break or a dislocation.
A kick delivered to the back of the
knee and accompanied
by a shoulder
pull to the rear will
destroy balance and take any opponent to the ground.
The knee kick, properly
used, almost always will be efFective. It should be one of the first basic attack methods learned.
The knee kick is correctly
delivered by raising the leg first
and then lashing straight
out with the foot, withdrawing
after contact. Balance is retnined by bending the body from
the hips in a dirt? ction opposite
to the force of the kick.
When
a kiclc is made from this position,
body balance is
always retained even though the target is missed. Thus the
danger of falling into the opponent
if he should evade the
blow is avoided.
Ordinarily
it is difficult to kiclc a standing
opponent
at
13ACl< OF
i
:
?
a’
l{NEE
KICK
A kick against the back of the
knee will cause an opponent to
topple baclcward, especially if it
is accompanied by a shoulder pull.
OI:FENSI
VI?
u N ,\ It l\I l,:D
(: OJ\l
19
u A ‘1’
any spot above his lcnee height and still retain body balance.
There may be instances,
particularly
when the opponent
is
crouching,
when a kiclc can be delivered by the toe or side of
situation must
the foot to the groin aren, but the particular
determine
whether
or not this nttcn)pt should Ix made. A
lcick that is too high can be dangerous,
and n miss causes a
very precarious balance position.
Too much cannot be said about the desirability
of using
this type of attaclc. lt can be learned without
an excessive
amount of practice and can be executed simply and effectively,
particularly
when accompanied
by the element of surprise.
Other types of lciclcs are also effective,
at close quarters,
in creating
openings
or effecting
releases. A Icick delivered
directly to the shins will cause an opponent
to release a hold,
or, if not in contact, will usuallv cause him to lurch forward.
leaving him wide open for an uppercut
or chin jab. A kick
delivered to the shins in a downward
direction, by the inside
or outside edge of the shoe, can be directed a little below the
lcnee, scraping all the way down the shin bone and ending
by crushing
the sl]]all bones on tile top of the opponent’s
foot. If gtnspccl around tl)c I)ody frolll the rcnr by an oppollcnt, :1 st;ll]lp lsy dlc heel 011 tl]c top of his foot, or a
bzclcward Icicle to the shin, will usually effect a release.
If dwo\vn to the ground
and unnble to regain a standing
in preventing
the enemy
position, kiclcs are nlost effective
the baclc and spin, so that the feet
from closing,
are alwavs. toward the ene]]lv. Bv Divotinr on the him and
shoulders,
and by using the ‘han& ;O help” propel the’ body,
the feet can be Icept in such a position that a kick can be
‘ru~[lon
m
SHIN
A kick,
t,f
rIIC
BONE
KICK
with the outside edge
shoe
scrzping
down
the
shin bone and ending with full
f,)rcc nil the small bones at the
tnl) of the opponent’s foot, is extrmwly Mcctivc.
20
1; I 1. 1. () R
(;
1:”1’ 1<I 1. 1. l:,1)
executed before tl~c opponent
can close in. Tllc flutter type
kick should not be uscti. Rsther, one leg should be bent back,
aIId the other
extended with
with the knee in a bent position,
knee slightly bent, to be used as a parry. If the opponent
attelnpts
to clo5e, a short lcick can be made with the extended leg. This can be followed by a more powerful
blow
from the leg in the more fully bent position.
When
this
last kick is made, it should be done in a piston-like movement
with all the force of the big leg muscles I.)chind it. Naturally
nn individual
cannot rnaintnin [his tiring, defensive
position
indefinitely.
At the first opportunity
l~e should try to regain
his feet.
Kicks to Stun or Kill. once
an opponent
has been downed,
the rest of the job should be done with the feet. This can bc
wcomp]ished
by n toc kick to the temple, throat or arm pit
~rea, or by driving the bock edge of the heel into the ribs, face,
heart, stolll;lch, thnmt, kidney or groin areas. The back edge of
the heel is nlucll ]]]OKCeffective Khan the lvh[)le flat of the
KICK
!
L
‘1’0
I“IMIPLE
A toe kick co the tcn]ple
area will cause a concussio(l
or a kill, if forceful enough.
IJXA1l~IED
Ol~NEXSIVl;
Cofi[IIAT
2[
foot inasmuch as all the force is concentrated
in a small sharp
area, thus getting more penetration.
When using the feet for
the coup de grace, it is best to stand at one side and use
ol~e leg only as the striking weapon, retaining balance on the
other leg. If you jump on the opponent
with both feet, as
there is always danger
of losing
some methods
advocate,
balance in case of a miss c~used by movement
of the opponent.
.
h
USING
.
v
The flar, or IMc
“ , of
tllc heel will crush the rib
c:lgc 111[1 mtlsc n focal injury.
)
BLOWS
..”..
THE
HANDS
Hand blows can be delivered
by using the fists, edge of
the hand, palm, or knuckle.
To use the fists effectively,
a
knowledge
of boxing is a prerequisite.
Experts state that it
takes up to six months to learn to deliver a knockout
blow
with either fist. The ability to box is very desirable and the
other principles
boxing
teaches, such as the use of body
balance, should not be underestimated.
However,
there are
other means of using the hands which the layman can learn
and use more swiftly, and at times more effectively.
K I 1.1, 0 It G K“t’ K I I. r.]:])
22
The Chin Jab. I<nockout
blows delivered
to the chin by
the fist may not only be ineffective,
they also present the
danger of a dislocated
finger or knuckle, or a cut from the
opponent’s
bony fqcial structure.
The use of the fist has
another shortcoming;
that it does not concentrate
the force
of the blow sufficiently.
Any part of the anatomy will collapse if it is struck many tinles in one place; but the average
individual
cannot use the fist effectively
enough to do great
damage in a single blow. The novice should limit the use of
his fists to such soft, vulnerable
areas as the stomach, groin
and kidneys,
and rely on other types of blows for other
parts of the body.
The extremely
effective chin jnb is so called because it is
used principally
in the chin area. It nlust be delivered
up
and under the chin with the heel of the palnl, fingers extended xnd spread for palm rigidity. The more directly underneath the chin the blotv falls, the more power it will pack.
It is executed
with a stiff, locked wrist and a bent elbow;
and a grent deal of upward body force can be utilized at the
time of impact. The further
forward
the chin is extended
at the time of the blow, the more devmtnting
the result.
If a knee thrust to the testicles or groin is used in connection
with tl~c chin jab, the body will be automfiticnily
bent forward, leaving a perfect
setup for this particular
blow. It
results in unconsciousness
and possible
neck fracture,
if
delivered with sufficient force.
CHIN
JAB
Correct hand and arm positio!l
for chin jab. Note how the fingers
are spread apart, giving the palm
rigidity.
C1-l IN JAB
WI”l”I[
BLO\V
GI{(IIN
A knee to tile groin. musing CIIC
opponent
tu lurch
for\var(l,
fol lo\vccl by a chin jfil), \vill rcsLI[t
in a l(oockout.
The arlll, or hxnd, CI(IM Ilt)t Ivlvc to I)c rlrnltn h:luk ill
l)cginning
cxccutioll
of rlIc I)lOIV. lt C: III I)e h;lnging at the
side, fingers llookccl in I)clt, I)ond rcstillg on s lapel, or in any
other nonclln]nnt position. }\II average 111211cnn C:)(ISCn kllockout with only six illchcs of tra\’clillg ~list; lncc frol]] rllc start of
tile I)Iow to the point of it]]pocr. ‘I”llc elelllent of surpriw is
Illost useful in close quortcrs, where tilllc, sp:]ce, or circull]stances do not allow the Ilonrl and nm] to I)e lvitlldra~vn
for a long haymaker.
A neck fracture
cnn be mused by
gripping
an opponent’s
belt with the left hand xnd jerking
him forward,
at the moment
of impact ~vith the right. It
is also desirable to use the fingers of the striking Imnd on
the eyes following
the blow. The heel of the hnncf also can
be used to strike n stunning
blow fit tl]e I)nsc of the skull.
Edge of the Hand.
The most effective of all lmncl blows is
that using the edge of the hand. It is valuable because it
can be utilized
against,
and will penetrate
to, vulnerable
spots of the body which would not be susceptible
to blows
‘from the fist or heel of the hand. It can be delivered with
varying
degrees of effectiveness,
froin nhnost any position
of the body and arms. The edge-of-the-bnnd
blow is properly delivered
with
the fingers extended,
close together,
and wrist locked. The striking surface is the
thumb upright
cushioned
part of the hand between
the base of the little
finger and the edge of the palm, where it joins the wrist.
Jt is very important
that the thumb be raised to an upright
position. Doing so prevents
the hand from remaining
in a
and it insures that the fingers
relaxed, clenched
position,
automatically
extend. The striking
surface
is well padded,
and its length, varying
with the sizes of hands, is usually
about two inches. Contrast
the striking surface of this area,
fist. The fist proin square inches, with that of a clenched
vides roughly
eight squme inches of striking
surface, but
with the edge of the hand the striking surface is only two
or three square inches. Therefore,
a blow delivered bv. the
INCORRECT
USE
OF
HAND
coRREcr
USE
HAND
OF
THE
The illustration at the left sho,vs tile Iland in a relaxed, bent position,
thus preventing its use as a weapon. AC the right, above, the fingers
are extended and the thumb is in the up position. This turns the edge
of the hand into a sharp, hard weapon.
RABB1-r
PUNCH
This blow, dcIivercd at [hc point
where
the
skull
joins
the
spine,
will cause a lcnockIn sporting
Out.
circles it is called
“the rnbbit puncl).”
.\
1( >1 1:.1)
11{151: 01” NOSE
nn[l Imssil)ic ltclnorrlln~c.
KIDATEY
IIlost
kidney
cficctivc
blow
will have
wllen
rile
31 II .\ ‘I”
25
BI.()\\’
‘1’l)is ctigc-(}f-ll:ltl<l
I)lo\\,
(Iircctc(l
[Ii)!\.nr{l
Nct)crc Illc Ixlsc ()( Illc III,W. j{)itls {I IL. (:,cc.
A
(;()
OIILI l:tlt(lillg
oIt tlIc
I)(]illr
\\. ill C;IIISC I[t)rol)scii)(]sl)css
BLOW
a temporary
opponent
is
stunning
stooping
cffccc.
over.
It is
2 (,
1<11.1.
01{
C1l.r
1;11.1,1?1)
I A1l. BONI1
111.o\\’
.\ I)l(,i{ rt, tl)c t;)il I) I)IIC arc:].
Iikc tllc kick ~!.irh tile I)oi,lt of
rl]c r(w. I‘ S (Iallgerous,
I)211L]!gi\’CS:1 Sl121”p-C(~gcd cfTec I, c;lmsi[lg x brcfll(, fra~t~lre or
stnall area.
‘1’IIc fore.c is expcllllc([ (III a relatively
IVIICI1 np~)licd to tl]c firca arr)(illd the neck, the cords 011
either
side of tl)c I)ock of the neck, tllc Ixlse of the skull,
or-en just below
the
the sides t)f tllc I] CCIC, tl)c \\ ’indpipc
Ad;lm’s opplc, tl)c I)ri(lxc of tl)c nose, tllc kidneys, and the
concussi{)l).
;.
L&r
Col,l, t\l{
A
d(IwII\vard
t
BONE BLOW
blow,
IiIce
the
of a p[)]icc I)lron, will fractuw tlw collm bone and incapacit,ltc the opponeut.
l)lI)\I,
()
b’k’1: s s
I
\’ l;, u N ,\
It Al E 1)
c [) Al n .i ‘r
27
end of the spine—this type of blrr~v IMs a devastating
effect.
The bones of the forearm,
the collnr bol~c, the end of the
chin, and the wrist area \vill frncture WIICII subjcctcd to such
a blow. It should be dclivcrerl \vith the ellro\v l)cnt, utilizing
body force by n chopping
motion. chopping
is ilnportant
becnuse it tends to localize tllc force of the blow even more
(.,
‘\ \,
‘h.,
..
\
I\’l{Is”l”
()[{
BICEPS
Br40\v
A slxuy chojq~il]g MOIV to the \vrist or forcortn will (Irtctl ca,]se a
frO~tllI’c. l~Cli!’CrCd to rllL> lIIIISCICS [If thC biCCpS, it ivill c211sc tllcnl
ro
crflmp.
BRIDGE
OF
NOSE
IILO\V
This blow will crush the most dclicmc bones of the facisl structure.
Delivered at rhc bridge of the nose, where the brow and nose join,
Cerebral hctnorrhage is a possibility.
it will cause concussion.
28
1<I 1. 1. (11{ (;l; ’1’ KILLED
in a small area. [f the edge-of-the-hand
blow is delivered
without
the chopping
motion, it will still be effective, but
a great denl of the striking force will be expended
over n
larger are~ than when it is delivered
properly.
Edge-of-the-hand
blows can be delivered
with either band
in a downwarcl
direction,
or can be directed
horizontally,
palm down, as in a backhand
saber stroke. The best position
from which to use the horizontal
edge-of-the-hand
blow is
with the right foot forward,
using the favorite hand (usually
the right). From this position, body weight can be utilized
more fully. The reverse foot position applies for the left hnnd.
With a son)e~vhnt lessened effect, the blow can be delivered
with either hand and fronl any free position where the arm
can be swung.
The Knuckles.
Many sensitive spots hnve been well protected by nature and can only be reached
by a striking
This particularly
applies
weapon that is small and pointed.
to the head and face area, wbcrc the knuckle
is tbc best
weapon to use. By “knuckle “ is meant the second joint of the
second or third finger, protruding
from the front of the
clenched fist. It is best used at close quarters where accuracy
USE
~
The
OF
knuckle
KNUCKLE
is very
effective
~gainst the temple or hinge of the
)aw.
is more certain. Properly employed,
the knuckle can be used
against the temple or hinge of the jaw area. It can cause a
knockout
or inflict enough pain to effect a release from an
opponent’s
hold; or it can create another,
more vulnerable
opening. Of course, the thumb and all the fingers can’ be
used as weapons, principally
for exerting pressure on vulnerable points, for gouging,
and for pinching
large muscles.
The Bent Elbow. The point of the bent elbow is long and
sharp and can often be used against tender parts of the anatomy, such as the stomach, groin, and throat. The elbow is
generally
best used when it is ilmpossiblc to swing the fist or
hand, or to use the feet because the opponent
is too close.
It is very effective when used against the jaw, as a follow
through
from a wrist release, or as a jabbing instrument
to
the opponent’s groin or mid-section,
oll.’l:\sl\l:
(’ s .\l{
Al 1:11
(:031
II IT
2()
USE 01: ELLtO\V
Usc of
the point of the elbow
in a horizontal
blow
against
the
in\v or temple.
Jab it into the
groin,
stomach,
scctiol)
\vllcll
2rises.
kidneys, or rib
[hc
npporv~nity
Odler Body Members. The he~d wdl nlalce a good battering
ram against soft areas, such as the small of the back or the
stomach.
If covered by a protective
helmet, it cm-s be used
against the bony facial area.
The knees are capable of delivering
extremely
powerful
1)1ow’s to the groin or testicles, or to the small of the back
and kidney arem. If the opponent
is bent forward,
they are
very damaging ag~inst the chin and face.
The teeth, in spite of any mental qualms as to their use,
are very effective weapons.
The jaw muscles can exert terrific pressure and a deep bite to almost any tender or exposed
area will effect a release or cause an opponent
to cease offensive action.
THROWS
Blows sho .dd always be used in preference
to throws; but
a well-rounded
fighting
man must understand,
and will at
times use, tl~e principles
of throwing.
In executing
a throw
he will utilize some or all of the fundamental
principles discussed at the beginning
of this chapter. When an opponent
is falling, he is off balance, unable to fight back, and therefore
susceptible
to blows. If a throw is correctly
applied, the
30
l< IL1.
OR (;E”I
1{11> 1.1:1)
adversary is usually momentarily
stunned on impact with the
ground, ]I]al{ing a good target Ior hand and foot blows.
The average man simply cannot pick up a determined
adversary and throw him to the ground by use of strength alone.
A person of great size and strength lnighc be able to acconlplish such a feat, but the average individual
must apply the
scientific principles
of throwing.
After ~n opponent
has been placed in an tm,balanced @sitio7z, he is thrown by the use of leverage, or by stopping or
sweeping aside some part of his body. His body balance may
be destroyed
by lifting him, stopping
him from advancing,
pulling or pushing hinl. When any of these things happen,
he is momentarily
off balance, and it is then that a throw is
applied. Leverage is applied by forcing the extremities
of the
opponent’s
body in opposite
directions.
For example,
kick
your opponent’s legs out from under him and at the same time
shove his head in the opposite direction.
Sweeping away part of the body is exemplified,
in throwing xn opponent,
by tripping
him. When
an individual
is
walking for~varti and his forefoot is caught nnd jerked just as
he is about to put it doivn, hc topples to the ground.
There are many ways to throw any opponent,
but most
of them are variations
of the few fundamental
throws described below. Although
every situation
in combat
cannot
be foreseen,
the adoption
and use of these simple tactics
will suffice in most instances. Some may be more adaptable
by individual
fighters than others, but tllcy n]ay serve as a
foundation
around which to build variations
that will apply
in most situations.
The Hip Throw. The principle of the see-saw is here applied.
The hip, acting as a fulcrum,
is placed under the center of
the adversary’s
body and his head is pulled toward
the
ground. One specific type of hip throw can be executed as
follows:
Facing your opponent,
grasp his right wrist with
your left hand; place your right arnl under his left arm pit
and around his back. Using the left foot as a pivot, step
across in front of hinl with your right foot, so that your
right side and hip arc against his stomach area. Use your right
arm to force the upper pm-t of his body down and your left
hand to pull down on his right arm while he is being forced
over the hip by your right arm. If successfully
executed,
he will hit the ground
head first. Simple variations
of this
throw can be used from the same initial position. This throw
may be initixted from a locked embrace or by stepping be-
OI’I.’I:NSI
VI:
1“ x \ 1{ ,\l 1;1)
co,~[n~l’
‘IW E I-I11’ TI-I1{OW
Tbe bip throw cni~ be initinmd in any situation where the upper
part of the opponent’s trunk can be grasped and d~e hip placed in a
position
ro act as a fulcrom. At the lcfr, above, enough clearance has
been obmincd by a tcsricle blow (or simihtr blow) ro allow the left
leg to cross in front, thus plncing tllc hip where it nets m a folcrum
The upper pnrt nf the body is then pulled down
(right above).
across this pivot point to complete the throw.
hind the opponent
and pulling
him baclcward
over your
right or left hip. The important
thing is to get your hip
in the center
of the opponent’s
body
before
downward
leverage is applied.
Shoulder Throw.
throw
is the
Another
simple, effective
“flying mme.” It can be applied swiftly by grasping
your
opponent’s right wrist with both hands, stepping in with your
right foot ~nd bringin~
his nrm over your right shoulder
~~-itll the hinge joint of his elholv up. in this position, you
will have a firm grasp of his arm. Pressure on the arm will
be exerted against the hinge resting on your shoulder, so that
any sudden downward
movement
of your body, combined
with a quiclc back thrust of your hips, will send him sailing
through
the nir. If he doesn’t go, his arm will break from
1.111
01{
(;1
I
1< i I 1 I 1)
He can then bc finished off in some
the leverage exerted.
other way. The flying mare , used with the elbow hinge
reversed, has been used in wrestling
circles for years as a
If you are working
on a hard
spectacular
type of throw.
surface, instead of letting go of your opponent,
after you flip
him over your shoulder,
maintain
your hold on his arm
and bring him down at your feet on his head and shoulders.
A concussion
or neck fracture
will result when he strikes
the mound.
T~e shoulder
throw is effective against an opponent
who
has grasped you around
the neck, or around the shoulders
from behind. Reaching
up, grasp your opponent’s
right arm
above the elbow with both hands, Pull his arm fortwtrd,
so
that his armpit is over the point of your right shoulder.
As
you do so, step forward,
bend down and bring your elbows
sharply down to a point level with the knees. The step forward or the usc of a backward
thrust of the hips will lift
him off the ground;
the downward
pull on his arm will
finish the throw.
In any of these throws,
the body must alwa s be bent
slightly forward
when the throw is initiated.
I /’ it is bent
backward,
the use of powerful
stomach muscles, as well as
balance, can be lost. This is why the victim should nlways
be DUIICCIbnckword
into nn off-bzlance
Dosition
in a skillful
,
attack from the rear.
Sometimes
a fall back may be usecl if an opponent
has
.SaSPCC1 YOUr bOdY fronl the rear and bent it backward
so
that n shoulder
throw cannot be applied. To execute this,
step to the outside and baclc of one of his legs, s!am backward with the upper part of the body and sit down. The
opponent
will land between
you and the ground
and the
possibilities
are good of stunning
him, knocking
hiln out,
or brezking
his hold.
The Leg Hook. This is a surprise tactic that will usually
cntch tm adversary
off guard, particularly
if he is coming in
swinging. Drop your whole body to a crouch position under
his swing as he closes in. From this crouch, drive upward so
that the shoulder
meets the pit of his stomach. At the same
time hoolc the arms nround his legs and lift upward. He will
hit the ground hard.
These tnctics can often be preceded by n feinted blow to
Ilis bend before the drop. Flying tackles, or dives, at an onrushing opponent
are dangerous
because the arms swinging
wide and the crouchin~
body telegraph
your intentions.
Be
34
1. I
1,1.
(lit
(; 1:,’1’ 1< I I.I.
careful to use 2 trick, such m a
tact is established,
not when the
away. If >(JU :Irc unal)le to grasl~
when contact is nmde, grasp tllc
leg and use the shoulder against
F 1)
leg hook, just I.)cfore conopponent
is some distance
hotll legs fronl the crouch,
ankle or lower part of one
tl~e knee.
Throws From the Rear. Alany tl~ro!vs cnn be applied against
a man who is ~ppl-oached from the rear, but the usc of blows
to the neck or a kiclc to the hinge of the knee is very simple
and effective. If body contact
is desired, a variation
of the
hip throw can be used; or the opponent
can be smashed to
the ground by driving against his buttocks with the shoulder,
as the hands pull his ankles backward.
STRANGLES
A properly
applied strangle should elinlinate all resistance
within five seconds or less. Great pressure n)ust be applied,
either to the windpipe or to the large arteries on both sides
of the neck. A stranple
which afiects both these areas is most
.
effective.
Strangling
can be accomplished
by use of mechanical aids (which will be discussed in a later chapter),
by use
of pressure against the hard bones of the wrist or forearm
(against a standing opponent),
or by the use of thumbs and
fingers, if the opponent
is down. The pressure applied by a
strangle must bc grent, and must be applied in such a way
that the victim’s neck muscles do not have a chance to resist.
In many cases a neck fracture
will accompany
strangulation.
Whenever
the edge-of-the-hand
blow can be delivered
across the windpipe
or Adam’s apple area, it should be used
in preference
to more complicated
methods.
It is advisable
to use it even after a strangle has been completed.
The Judo Choke. This is best performed
on the ground.
The pressure is applied against the large carotid arteries on
both sides of the neck. These vessels supply blood to the
brain. Unconsciousness
results within a few seconds when
they are closed by pinching. This choke is performed
by utilizing the shirt, or coat, collar of the victim as a base for the
application
of leverage.
There are two principal methods. The cross-arm
choice is
performed
by crossing the forearms,
grasping
the inside of
the collar with each hand (palm up) in a high up position,
so that the thumbs are under the ears. By taking a firm hold
and pulling the victim toward
you while you force your
elbows out, strangulation
is accomplished.
CROSS-AR/n
CI-1OKE
The cross-arm choke utilizes the garlllcnt of the victim.
the grasp on the collar is well back.
The outside choke will cut off the
too, uses the gnrmcnr of the victim.
blood
supply
Note
to the brain.
that
It.
j(-)
1. I 1. 1. !)1{
(; 1. 1
1, 1 1. 1. 1: 1)
‘Ihc
outside
cI1oI<c, best nppliecl on the ground,
is acco[nplishecl in the follo~ving manner. Astride your opponent,
who
is on his I)ock, grip tllc inside of his col Iar high Up on both
sic.lcs, so thnt the Iittlc fingers Irc next to t[lc ground and [hc
thumbs
to~vord you. The Cll)()\VS should
be CIOSC to the
ground
lvhcn gripping
the coll;lt-. Keep the wrists rigid,
straighten
out the elbows
find bring them together.
The
leverage that resulrs Will force the knuckles and thumb into
the zrteries at the sides of the neclc, causing the blood supply
to the brain to be shut off. Intense pain is caused by pressure agninst nerves in the neck.
Finger Strangle. 7“l~c ])luscles of the throat are strong and
(Iftcll 2rC dCVC](JpCd to [[IC p~illt W]lCIT dlCy Can IWik pU3sure hrougl)t to l)c:tr 1)~” tllc fil:gcrs across tile front of the
thmnt. To execute a str:lngle using tllc fingers, tl~crefore, an
arcl not so ~i”ell protected
Illust be ntt:lcked. ‘I-he best point
is the windpipe, in an nre:l as neat- the lo~ver jaw as possible.
Drive tile fingers and thul])h of the hand in a trmgs-like
action aroun(l ond l)chi[~d tllc lvin(lpipc. Close tllcnl togetl)cr,
:Ind p(lll otlt to cause str;l{lgulation.
Japanese
Strangle.
_131is nttnck
should
bc
launcllcd
fronl
the
should be driven
into the victinl’s right kidney section With such force thnt
hc \vill he caused to henti hackwrrd
and thus Iosc bal~nce.
At the SO[llCtin)c, your Icft forenrm should bc swung nt-oun(l
his neck in SOCII nlanncr fts to strike him across the Adnni’s
ilpplc. -l”IICSCt~vo I)IOIVS;Irc cnougllj initially, to stun him-for
tllc frflcrion of z scctmd ncccssflry to colnpletc
the strangle.
Froln this position, ~vitl~ your left forearm across his neck,
place your right hnnd on the bzclc of his head nnd hook your
left hand inside the bend in the elbo~v of your right at-m.
With your h~nrl in this position, you arc able to exert enormous le~’ernge by pushing
forward
lvith your right IMnd
and pulling him back With your left at the same time. In n
lmttter of seconds, you have str~ngled
hinl completely
or
broken his neck. One of tl~c most importatlt things to rcmenlber is thnt you lnust continually
pull your victim hnckwnrd,
so tlmt he is off b~ktnce at fill tii]lcs. This is even more inlportant
if you arc shorter
tha[l your victin). [11 that cme,
the use of the Ii[lec, instend of the fist, in the kidney section
is best for t[le first blo~v. Another
sntisfnctory
~vay to get
your victim off balnnce is to thrust your foot into the hfick
of his knee. This will cntlsc hiill to topple bncl(w~~rd on(l
ermblc you to apply the Ilold more easily.
rear
against
a stonding
opponent.
The
fist
/s
1.11,1.
01{
(;1;1”
l<ll.l.l
{1)
oll.l.,\sl\
’1,
(: s
\l(.\l
1:1)
(:1)/\l
l!.\
1’
.:9
Front Straogk. A str:lllglc llf)ld nx~y also bc fipplicd from
the front. In this applicatic)o, it is cmier when n l]mn’s hc:ld
Imppcns co bc Iowcrcd , M it would hc if hc were nttcl]]pting
to nlakc :1 grob fur yI)LIr legs or \vnist. lf IIC is stfinding upright, it c2Lt bc initlatcd as follows:
Swing your right firn)
forlvard and around, bringing
the paliu ot the hand against
tile back of lNS neck. By giving your body weight to tile
swing, you tvill cause hinl to bring his hcacf forivnrcl and
downward,
to a position
where your left forearll] con be
brought
across, up and under his throat and 10C1<CCIarounc]
his necl(, with your right Iwd talcing a grip on your left
imnd m a rcinforccmcnt.
\Vllcn you have hill] in this position, all you neccf to do to cause strangulation,
or z neck
break, is to push your hips forward and your shoulders well
page.)
brick, Ii fring upt\nrd :1s you do so. (See preceding
Rear Straight Choke. This choke can be executed
from a
standing or kneeling position in any situ~tion where the attocker is in back of the opponent.
Place the bony part of
your right forczrn} ncross the front or side of the opponent’s
ncclc. Grasp the wrist of the right hnnd with the left and
so tlmt the forcarttl
comes bard
exert Lmckward pressure
Place the point of the right shoulder
ag~inst the throat.
aglinst
the b~ck of the victill}’s I)efid, forcing
it forward
\vhilc
the forearm is being pulled back.
Criminals often attack their robbery victilns fronl the rear
tvith eirhc,- the rcnr s:tnight choke or the Jopnnese strangle.
S-IRANGLI;
HOLD
By plxciilg the bony Imrt of the left forcorm across the neck, gr2spillg tlm Icft ~vrist, aild pullil]g back, a wrangle con be mzde at the
time of b2ck pressure against ti]c neck. The point of the right shoulder
is pressed againsr tl]e back of tl}c llcad, pusl~ing it forward.
+)
1,11.1.
[)1(
GET
Kll,l.vl)
1)1: 11’\ sl\”l.
Althougtl
tllc
intcllt
I
ill
\\l
I)lost
L\ll’1)
cases
(:l),\ll\\l
is
only
rol)l)cry,
+1
II IJII!’
their lives when they attempted
to sttwgglc.
The attnckcr Ims often lost his head and applied too IUUCII
pressure to subdue the victim, with fatal results. This forl])
of a:tnck is coiled “mugging”
in some police circles.
victims
hiIve
lost
SPECIFIC
METHODS
OF ATTACK
The fo]louing
me additional
trieci and proved methods of
attack in given situations, when the element of surprise may
be applied.
Chin Jab and Trip. If, as you pass by an opponent, you wish
to down him by utilizing your advantage
of surprise, this
is n very simple and effective method. It c2n be use(l \vithout any suspicious
wnrning
movements.
As you pass your
on his right side, and are directly
opposite him,
opponent,
place your right leg in the rear of his right leg and execute
a chin jab from a starting position of hands at sicie. He will
go down nnd out. The lcg in the renr has a tripping effect.
[t c;llIscs tl]c 1)()(1!’to go ul), then do\\Il \\itll III(IW f(Ircc.
This suq)riw
;m;wk frfml the rmr is dcmlly aid silnidc. It t~ill rwlr
in m instant neck friicrurc,
42
Ii I 1. 1. OR
(; K’1”
I; II,
I.ID
Sitting Neck-Break. If your opponent
is sitting in a lowbacked chair, approach
him from the rear. As you pass by,
on the right o-r left side, and are opposite him, with the arm
nearest the victim reach across and under his chin, with the
hand coming around
to the back of the neck. ~rom this
position, a contraction
of the arm muscles plus an upward
and backward
jerk, will cause his neclc to break instantaneously. It can be done almost without
brefiking your stride.
Wrist Throw. The wrist throw has several practical applications. The most practical would be in a situation in which
a man has reached out and grabbed your shirt, coat lapel,
or belt strap, with his right hand. With your left hand reach
over to the inside of the grasping hand and place your Icft
thumb in the baclc of his hand across the smxll knuclcle bones.
Your fingers will pass underneath
the palm of his hand. With
your hand in this position, twist his hand back sharply toward him and to his right and force it toward a point on
the ground three or four feet from his right foot. He will
ilnlnedintc]y
I)c forced to drop ttj d]c ground.
FIXUII tllcrc,
you can either rclcasc your hold on his hand M IIC goes dowl]
or retain it, pulling his arm out straight above his head as he
goes down, and kicking him in the temple with your foot.
In many cases, particularly
when there is n great difference
in size of opponents,
it is advisable, after making the initial
hold with your left hand, to use your right to give additional
pressure and leverage in com Icting the throw. The same
technique
can be applied by f oing just the opposite in the
case of left-handed
prctcedure.
After practice, the individual
UK \[l
(11: 1:1.;xslvr.
\l I 1)
(:(1.\l
1{.1”1’
43
.-
WRIST
T[-IROIV
Grmp the (sl,poncnt’s hand so tllnt your tllulnb is across his knuckles.
as in the upper picture. Twist the opponent’s hand to his right, and out.
Usc your other hmd to add strersgtb, once tile initial grip and twisr
is made with the left, (See lower picture).
Continue the downward shove and step in as he starts to fall; as at
44
1<11,1. olt GF. ”1 KII. L1:.IY
left.
T“hc grip call he rclcasccl at any point, once Mancc
is dcs~oycd.
If desired, the grip oil the wrist con bc retained and a follow-up kick
to [IIC hcnd can bc Itladc, m at right.
can initiate the same wrist throws
has his hnnds horrging nt his sides.
against
the opponent
who
Pushing Counter. i14any times the soldier or police oflicer
lms been in a position where a belligerent drunlc has attempted
to antagonize him by placing a h~nd on his chest and shoving
him backward.
The counter is simple and effective. As your
opponent’s hand is placed on your chest, take your own turo
!mnds and, laying one flat on top of the other, raise them
above your opponent’s pushing hand, then come down sharply
with the edge of your hands at the angular bend where his
wrist joins his hand. Press his hand against your chest. AS
you do this, bend forward
and step bfick. Your opponent
will go down, for a very simple reason. When he is pushing
you, his. wrist is already at a right angle bend. Any additional
bend wdl cause a break. When you strike his wrist with the
edge of your hands and bend the body forward,
he can do
nothing
buc go to the ground
to protect
himself from a
broken wrist. As he goes down, you can use your knee zgainst
his chin, or you can hit him on the shoulder so as to destroy
his balance. It is important
that you bend forward in npplying
the hold, at the time of the blow on the wrist angle. By so
doing, you force bin] to the ground nnd also pin his hand
nqninst
vour chest so Ilc Cnnllor pull a~vny.
.
-+,i
PUSHING
COUNTER
10 rl~c positiuo sllotvn in upper pictore, tl~c opponcot’s tvrist is bcl~t
Ilack, I!ld Ilc lsys hililsclf opcII to Ittack. P12cc I)otll hands on Ilis
}luslliog Ilnlld oIIcI l>rcss brick agnillst your cllcst. DC sllrc the edges
Of your Iulnds nrc directly on the !vrm joint. Bcod sfviftly forward
and step back with onc foot, as in the loIver illustration.
#i
1<I 1. I.
PUSHING
01{
cl:.
. .. ..
1. i 1.1,1.,1)
I ” ““””
COUNTER
(Continued)
If a knockout is desired, a folloiv with the knee to the chin can
be made, as in lower left above. if it is cfcsired mereIy to spill the
oPPonent* reafh around. in back of him, as he goes down, and pull
him by grmpmg hts shmc or the point of his shoulder, as in lower
right above.
Ear Concussion Blow. Approaching
your opponent
from the
rear, you can rupture
his eardrums
by cupping both hands
and simultaneously
striking
them against his ears. A type of
concussion
results which causes the victim to become “slap
happy” and malces him an easy subject to do with as you will.
Elbow Break. This is a particularly
effective
hold from a
fland-shake
position. At the nlornent when your right hand
grasps the outstretched
right hand of the victim, jerk hi[n
fonvard
and step forward
with the left foot. Retaining your
grip on the hand, strilce the outside of his right elbow with
the palm of your left hand, or with your left forearm. A
break will result.
{)1.’I: I: XS1VI
EAR
CO AI IIAT
LIN,\l{Alttl)
47
CONCUSS1ON
Surprise approach
from the rcfir, m shown Icft above, and
simultancnus boxing of the opponent’s
ems, will rupture both
drums and cause a blackout.
the
ear
Testicle Blow. If you are standing beside an opponent
and,
for some reason, such as a difference
in size, a direct blow
to his neck or head is not advisable,
try the following.
Clench the fist of the hand next to him and swing it into his
groin, or testicle, area. When
he bends fonvard
from the
blow, use the edge of either hand on the back of his neck.
These specific attacks are only a few of many possible
ones, once the use of foot and hsnd blows is masmred and
other fundnmenta]s
of offensive combat
are achieved.
The
individual can worlc out those best suited to his need.
OFFENSIVE
GROUND
FIGHTING
Once an opponent
has been thrown, blows should be used
to finish him off. Most of the throws and trips described can
be used so that after practice
they are all completed
with
@
1; 11.1,
01{
(; 1:1”
K1l .1,11)
the attacker
still retaining
a controlling
grip on the opponent’s wrist or nrm. If the impact of the throw has not stunned
him enough to permit the use of the feet, he mny attempt
to roll away. If so, n jerk, spin, or a pull on the arm that you
have remined in your grasp (or grasped again if it has been
dropped),
will usually slow him up to the point where you
can use a kick. Always try to keep the opponent
from regaining his feet or from getting his feet or his arms solidly
under him. If he falls free and tries to get up by scrambling
forward
on his hands and knees, a well- laced kick to the
kidney or tail bone area will stop him. I [ he evades a kick,
jump astraddle his back, as you would that of a horse, then
drive your feet backward
under his body and between the
legs. Straighten
the hips and lean forward. At the same time,
reach under his chin and pull up hard. He will flatten out,
and a strangle can be applied that should remain unbroken,
even if he rolls over with you underneath
him. Naturally,
an edge-of-the-hand
blow should be used if possible at any
tilne during this nlancuvcr.
If n gcncrfll mclcc ensues, when
both of you arc on the ground striving for position and holds,
the first to resort to I)1ows, bites and gouges will come out
on top. Always attack parts of your opponent’s
body that
are easily hurt. If the enemy can be kept in pain, hc will be
unable to do much offensive fighting.
CONCLUSION
Again, unarlncd combat tactics should bc usecI when weapons are not available. It is not intended
that the soldier or
policeman lay aside his rifle and other weapons to engage in
such combat.
However,
he must not be dependent
on his
weapons to the point where he is helpless without them—for
psychological
as well as practica! reasons. Training
and skill
in this type of fighting creates all-around
self-confidence
and
enables the soldier or policeman
to handle all situations
in
which he must depend
only on those weapons
given him
by nature.
UCH
of tl~e reader’s
combat
experience
will begin
with the defensive
phase. Circumstances
will often
be such that he is attacked first, or at least must wait for an
initial offensive gesture from the enemy.
When
he meets
such an attack, his first movements
may have to be defensive.
From this defense he will either undertake
some degree of
offensive action or apply rcstrainc methods,
as the situation
{Iictfltcs. In the case of the law enforcement
o~lccr, as gusrdian
(If tllc law Ilc is pritll:)rily
conccrncd
with dcfcme
rather
than offense.
An attack by an opponent
will usually be launched in one
of three ways. He may try to strike the defender by using
blows of fists, hands, or feet–if he is skillful enough. He may
attempt to throw the defender to the ground by securing a
hold on his body; or third, he may simply rush him, trying
to upset him by the momentum
and impzct. When they can
he foreseen, all these attempts should be met by having the
body in the balanced,
crouched
position,
with the hands
poised, forearms
in almost a vertical position, palms of the
hands about six inches apart and facing each other, in position to protect the face and throat. The hands in this position are used to ward off and parry blows. They are also in a
position from which fist or edge-of-the-hand
blows can best
be launched.
In the balanced
position,
the body is slightly
crouched,
so that the upper middle part of the body, which
is the natural target for blows, is at a maximum distance from
the opponent.
To reach vulnerable
parts, the attacker
must
not only break through
the protective
screen of the hands,
he must also lunge and possibly overreach
in order to make
contact.
TYPES OF A’ITACK
The Striking Attack. Most individuals
who use blows to attack will prolxthly
bc unskilled in hexing and will attempt
M
49
$(,
1. I 1.1.
01{
(,1.
I
1.111
.1’1)
to hit by using wide, frequently
wild, swinging
blows with
the fists. Such blows may be pxrried outward with the edges
of the hands and forearms, while closing inside the opponent’s
arms-where
his mn nnd shoulders can be grasped preparatory
to a throw, fist or edge-of-the-hand
blows, a chin jab, or a
knee to the testicles.
If you are a skilled boxer, the attack can be met with
uell-delivered
blows of your own. Usually the knee kick
will be the simplest defensive
(or offensive)
measure. Frequently an upright swinging
attack of this type will be delivered with little thought given to balance. One knee or the
other of the attacker
will be well-advanced,
so that it presents a vulnerable
target for a well-placed
kick.
A successful alternatit-e
to meeting an attack by blows is
to use the hands and arms to parry the striking arm our, so
that you are on the inside of the striking arms. The parry
should be forceful
and the body should be moved sidewise
in the opposite direction
to the opponent’s swinging arm. In
this manner the force of the opponent’s swing, coupled with
your p2rry, \vill Ieavc hinl in an unl)nlanccd position and will
permit you to ]nove in to his side, where a blow, throw, trip,
or spin will put hiln on the ground.
A man who is trained in boxing usually leads with his left,
following up with his right. If confronted
by such an antagonist, duck quickly to his left as he jabs with his left fist.
At the same time, slap the outer side of his left elbow with
your right hand. He will spin into an ofi-balance
position.
Place your foot behind him and shove or hit him backwards
so that he trips over your foot.
2, is another
good
The leg hoolc, described
in chapter
method of meeting a skilled striking attack. It must be executed when the opponent
is very near and the element of
surprise is present.
Defense against an opponent
who attempts a kick usuallv
will also be against an unskillful
individual,
one who tri&
to kick, toe first, to the crotch or lcnee. By pivoting aside
and grasping
the heel and toe of his foot and twisting it,
you can easily throw him. Defense against a man who uses
his feet properly
is more difficult. The best tactic is to kick
him first.
The Rushing Attack. The attacker who charges like the proverbial mad bull, at a well-balanced
and trained opponent,
can be easily handled in a number of ways. His momentum
111’ I
1’ x s I \“ K
1“ Y \l{
\l 1,1)
(;(1 Al II ,\.1
j’1
can be used to his disadvont~ge
and do~vnfnll. In such on
2track, hc usunlly strives to grab tllc upper or n)iddle parr
of tile I)ody or drive i;lm tl~e legs. I-lc Illust not be n~ct head
on, as the force of his drive will corry o scmding defender
btckward,
and often to tile ground. Tllc simplest counter to
this type attack is to step aside and apply a leg trip, particularly
when attaclced
with great speed and momentum.
A drop and leg hoolc can be used if he is coming in upright;
but your own weight and body strength
must be enough to
counteract
anv advantage he ga; ns by momentum.
When the ‘opponent
drives in ~vith his head iowered
and
strives for a grip about the \vaist, he can best be met by a
blo\v into his face with the knee. It is also often possible to
deliver a trip and a blow by using the hands against this
attack. At other times, his drive can be met squarely
and a
any type of rush attack
front strangle applied. Whenever
is n]et bead on. contact should be nmde with the defender’s
legs stretched
out to tllc renr and his body leaning forward.
LLYI;. GouGt
As
.% RILI’ASI”.
The
eye gouge
will almost
zlwoys be an effective release. Jr
is best to use the thumb against
tile illsidc of tllc eye socket, wirl]
force exerted toward dle outside
of the head.
AIOL,-ll
1 OR NOS-i-RIL
AS A RELEASE
[HOLD
i-IOolcing the dwmb
in the
corner
of the mouth, or in the
nostril,
is au effective
release.
K 1 [.
52
BREAKING
REAR
1. OR
BEAR
HUG
From a rem bear hug that pins
the arms, the point of the elbow
can be used against the attacker’s
mid-section.
GI;
”I’
ICI1,
LED
EFFECTIVE
TO
RELEASE-BLOW
GROIN
The simplest and most effective
of all releases is a knee to the
groin or testicles.
No attempt
should be made to stop the opponent’s
drive
completely.
Rather,
the legs should be kept extended,
and
the force of the impact and momentum
should be absorbed
by “riding it out,” letting the attack carry you to the rear.
The opponent
who tries to drive to the legs in a footballtype taclcle can be handled as he is by the ball carrier+by
simply sidestepping
and pushing down on his head. He will
drive himself into the ground.
BREAKING
ENCUMBERING
BODY HOLDS
The following
breaks are intended for use in situations in
which the bodies of the attacker
and defender
are in close
contact.
They
will result from a surprise
attack, or from
faulty execution of a blow or throw. Obviously,
no defender
in possession of his normal faculties would permit any such
blows to be used if he could see them coming. Many of them
are of a type which would be applied only by an inexperienced individual.
Generally,
in such situations,
there is not
1)1’. l’l:~sli’l”
B1{EAI<ING
REAR
[“x
A_I_~ACli
A rear attack in tvllich the arms
arc not pinned can bc broken by
grasping a !ingcr and bending It
back, or by stanlping on tllc instep
with the heel.
\R,\ll:l)
(:()\l
llI{lMKING
r: \’1”
FRONTAL
53
HOLD
Tljis type of encumbering hold
COII bc broken by a Icick to the
shins with the inside edge of the
foot,
or by grasping
the opponent’s testicles.
much motion and the cncunlbering
or offensive action of the
attnc!cer must be broken (by some sort of a blow, or release,
before counter action c~n begin.
When a hold such m a bear hug, arm hug, or strangle is
applied and the trunk of the attzcker’s body is pressed against
that of the defender,
the following
general rules should be
observed:
( I ) Strive to keep balance; try to prevent your
body from being pulled, pushed, or bent off balance.
(z)
The instant contact
is made, drop tl~e body into a slight
crouch
and force the opponent
to support
part of your
weight. (3) Attack sensitive points. The opponent’s
testicles,
eyes, toes, and shins arc either collectively
or singly vulnerable–almost
inwtriably
when he is applying
encumbering
holds. Blows and kicks to these arens \vill loosen his grip,
or breal{ it so thnt other blo~vs and types of relemes can be
used, or a counter attack launched.
s’+
Iill,
l.
OR
GET
BREAKING
ABOUT
KILLED
FRONTAL
HOLD
THE
WAIST
A frontal hold about the waist
co!) be broken simply by pushing
I]nck on [Ile chin and desrxoyirsg
tllc aggrcssm’s balance.
The Wrist Release. The
of the wrist
release
principles
should be familiar to every soldier and police officer, The
wrist release IMS long been known in wrestling
and “iu jitsu
circles and has a practical application in lifesaving tec 11niques.
A knowledge
of the wrist release enables any person to
break any grip, no matter now strong, that is applied to his
wrists or arms by the opponent’s
thun]b and fingers. This is
important,
since defenses and many attacks, or throws, are
started when an opponent
grasps one or both wrists with
his hands.
When an opponent
grabs your wrist or forearm with his
hand, he will have four fingers on one side of the arm and
his thumb on the other. Regardless
of the strength
of the
grip, it wilI never be stronger
on the thumb side than the
strength
of your entire arm. The thumb side of the grip is
weak. The necessary force to effect a release is concentrated
against the thumb by always rolling the wrist outward against
it, and by jerking as the roll is started. The opponent’s grip
will be broken, no matter whether the grip is left- or riglltlmnded, as long as the roll is out~~’ard against the thumh.
If a tfvo-ll~nded
against the thumbs
grip is appIied to the wrist,
will break ir. It is advisable
a sharp pull
in this case
1)l’.1“ l:. s
s I \“ 1“
(’ \ ,i N .\l 1:.1)
[:()
,\l II .\”l’
?
,,
‘x -...
~.
.
“\
r’.,..
- -.
BREAKING
,/-”
lVl{IS-~
A grip tllu pinions the wrist, (iliustmtcd
tllun]b siclc. “I-o I]rclli it, forcefully
turn
(Iircctiotl
IJ[ rl)c
rlIt II IIl)
I;oll[)i! (Ii) !! illl rllc Ix}ill[
. .
arlll Is fl’rl<l$(l :lf\ ,l\,.
ISCC I)l)trottl
I)ll(,tol
,,( TIIc cII),,,!
GRIP
nt top), is weakest
tllc Ivrisr oummrd,
.III(I
jerk
tllc
:Irtll
on the
in the
:111.I!”.
r{, rllc (,l)llt,llcllr”s chill. .Is [Ilc
56
K I 1, r.
OR
Gl:l’
KII,
I.EI)
to use your free band to grasp the pinioned
hand and help
in the outward
jerk against the thumbs.
If the opponent’s
thumbs arc on the underneath
side of tile arm, reach under
with the free hand and pull down. Another
reason why this
grip is so effective is that zt the time the release is made
a follow-through
blow, with the elbow of the previously
pinioned arm against the body or face, can be made without
any extra motion. Practice
of the wrist release should be so
thorough
that it can be done instinctively,
and at the instant
. .
a grip :S made. The principle
of the wrist relense can also
be apphed
to break a grip made on the coat sleeve. A4ake
a circular, backward
and upward motion with the pinioned
arm. As the down swing is completed,
the grip will be broken.
Arm Jerk. An arm jerk, prior to the application
of a comealong or an attack, will help soften up the opponent.
It will
help destroy his physical balance and will result in a slight
concussion
when forcefully
applied.
Grasp
the opponent’s
arm at the wrist with both hands. Lift his arm about six inches
and jerk it sharply downward.
This often destroys his body
balance and causes a jolt to the brain. lf the ;ight am) k
jerked, the force of tl]e jolt will be felt on the left side of the
head. This tactic must be practiced
gently.
Although
it
sounds mild, it does have a very marked effect on the opponent. Some judo experts use it instinctively
whenever
dle}~
can grasp an opponent’s
arm. A po]iceman
IJ12Y wel] use i~,
before Opp]yiny nmn.v of tile co[nc-alf)n~
hol[ls. to dcstmy,
nlcmlcntarily,
tllc ol}poncnt’s Inclltal nn(l i~l~t,sical hnlnllcc.
COMBAT WITH TWO OPPONENTS
The defender may be confronted
by two assailants at the
same time. In cases where offensive action by his opponents
is imminent,
he should always take advantage
of the element
of surprise by launching
his attack first. A quick kick to the
knee, or an edge-of-the-hand
blow, delivered
without warning at one of the assailants, will incapacitate
him long enough
to permit special attention
to the remaining
opponent.
Tile
attack should be launched
before the two opponents
can
maneuver.
Prior to any action, the defender
should try to
keep the opponents
in front of him. He should never allow
them to close in simultaneously
from the sides or to attack
from the rear. If a surprise
attack is launched
against a
defender by two or more assailants, there is every justification
for using the quiclcest and most effective tactics to put them
out of action. Restraint
nlethocls are ineffective
and foolish
in such a situation.
,4
1
r-:.-
.’
J
.“”
ARhl
\
i
“.
RELEASE
If the arm is grasped with two hands, as shown at the top, the thumb
side is still the weakest.
Force must be exerted ag~insc it. With the
free hand, reach over and grasp the pinioned fist, as in the lower
picture, and jerk out agaiust the thumbs. Follow with the point of the
elbow to the opponent’s chin.
58
KIJ. L 01{
Gli”l’
l<ll.l,l;
.l)
Crowd Escape. A defender
cannot always choose the time
and place to fight. Frequently
escape should be his only
object, especially when he is unarmed and is faced by several
opponents.
He may be caught in the midst of a riot or may
be the victin: of a surprise gang attack.
The only hope of escape from an overwhelming
number of
opponents
is continual
movement.
Each time the defender
takes a new position
a few seconds are required
for his
antagonist
to balance
himself for a forceful
attack.
This
constant movement should be accompanied
by indiscriminate
blows of the hands, feet, elbows, knees. h40vement
may be
in any direction,
but must never cease. The body ,should be
Icept low, with the knees bent. A bobbing
motion is most
successful. Any of these movements,
made rapidly, will bewilder the opponent.
By the use of blows, and by shoving
one opponent
against the other, it will often be possible to
create more room in which to keep moving. This technique
can be practiced
by hanging dummies in a sma}l space and
letting the trainee work his way through
them. It should be
remembered
that the object is to get away, not to stay
and fight it out against hopeless odds.
COMIZ-ALONGS
AND RESTRAINT
HOLDS
A4ilitary and civil police ofIicers have frequent
use for
come-aIong
type holds. Once the criminal, or law breaker,
has been apprehended
or subdued, the olice must “take him
in,” in order to complete
the arrest. I f he is drunk, unruly,
or potentially
dangerous,
he must be kept helpless. By applic~tion of the proper come-along,
the prisoner is made amenable to movement or to other actions by the officer. A comealong, or other type pressure hold, also is often used before
handcuffing.
Usually
it is difficult to apply pressure holds when the
antagonist
is suspicious.
Such holds are almost always intended for use after the opponent
has been subdued. Certain
kinds of come-along
can be applied as a type of attaclc by a
skilled man; others can be used after a break from an encumbering
hold by the opponent.
However,
there is always
a risk in applying
the come-along
if the opponent
has not
been subdued, or if the user does not have a marked superiority
of physique, knowledge
and experience.
No come-along
hold, applied with the bare hands, has been
developed
that can be maintained
successfully
over a long
period of time against an opponent
who is in full possession
of his fact. dties and who is determined
to break it. It is true
that some escapes from come-alortgs
may be made-at
the
expense of broken bones or painful dislocations.
If the victim
is desperate enough, this will not deter him. If the come-nlong
must be mnintainccl
over a considerable
disrancc or for a
considerable
length of tillm, it is advisable to lcccp a dangcrotss
man groggy
by edge-of-the-hand
blows, short jabs to the
chin, or similar blows.
Mechanical
come-along
devices, such as the iron claw or
chain twister-when
they are available and if their use is
permitted-will
often provide better control and allow more
freedom of movement by the user. Handcuffs and their correct
use is a separate subject, warranting
complete training for any
low enforcement
of?icer (see chapter
8).
Come-along
holds can be divided into two general categories: holds which restrain by inflicting pain or the threat
of pain and those which
destroy
balance
or dignity.
In
the latter category
are the holds that cause the victim to
lose face and be an object of ridicule and laughter.
In some
cases, as when evicting a quarrelsome
drunk from a room,
tile policeman should use this type of hold. The come-alongs
~ncl restraint
holds dcscril)cd
below arc sclectcd
from the
best ald most pnwticnl of ninny l~olcls.
IVllcrc tllc coIIIc-a]rJIlg is USCd :Llld tl]c victilll 112s :1 free
arm tlutt con be used offensively,
Iw can bc nmic to Iceep it
inside his belt; or his belt can be removed, so that he must
hold up his trousers
with his free hand. Again, the comealong is not an attack; it is applied as a mastering hold after
the victim has been subdued by other means.
is the most
The Wrist Conle-Along. Thc following technique
effective of all come-alongs,
cspecinllv when you uc forced
to walk a man a long dis~ance- and l~eep him- under control.
YOU are facing your opponent,
who has his arms hanging
at his sides. With your right hand outstretched,
palm up,
hook your thumb inside his left thumb. With your left hand,
left elbow
and
reach over to the outside of your prisoner’s
pull
it townrd
your right foot to a point where you me
directly up against the victim. YOU will find that the victim’s
left elbow will be next to your body, with your right
elbow between his arm and his body. You have not changed
your grip during this process. By keeping his elbow close to
your body and locked in place by your right arm, and by
KILL
OR GET
WRIST
With
the palm of the right
KILLED
COME-ALONG
hand up, hook
your
thumb
with
dlc
Opponents left rhumb! as shown at’ top. An alternate ini~l gri
is to
gras
the back of the opponent’s left hand with your right han I , as in
the E ottom picture. After applying one of these grips, reach over with
your left hand and grasp the outside of your opponent’s left elbow,
as at left on next page. Pull his elbow toward you and step in to
his side. After getting his pinioned . . .
61
62
lil LL
OR
GE’~
KILLESI
raising his forearm
to a vertical position, you have a very
effective come-along.
This position is maintained
by twisting
his hand and wrist toward you at an sign of rebellion. By
applying a few pounds pressure on t i“lc wristl You can raise
your victim on his toes, and it is by this means that you will
know that he is completely
under your control. This comealong has the advantage
of allowing you, in most cases, to
maintain sufficient pressure
with one hand while you walk
along with a weapon, or some other implement,
in your left
hand. This application
can be reversed for the purpose
of
leaving your right hand free.
The Arm Lock Come-Along. Another come-along
which has
a great deal of merit is the arm lock. Properly
applied, it
makes a hold strong enough to escort a prisoner a short distance. If pressure is maintained
on the forearm,
you have
complete control of your opponent. This come-aIong is useful
in applying handcuffs or in taking a man to the ground before
tying him.
It is applied as follows:
Facing your opponent,
reach out
with your left hand, palm down, and grab the opponent
about the right wrist. Shove his arm to the side and rear of
his body. As you do this, strike his left arm on the inside of
the elbow joint with the flat of your right hand. The hand
should be withdrawn
immediately
after the slap has been
given, causing the elbow to bend. Step in and turn his body,
so that you are beside him, facing in the same direction. From
this position, disengage your left hand, which has been about
his wrist, and, grasping
his right hand, shove it under and
up between
the opponent’s
forearm
and his back. Place
your left hand on, or just below, the shoulder
point on
his arm. By bending
forward,
with his right arm locked
you
have him completely
under control.
in this position,
Your right hand can then be placed on his left shoulder,
to prevent
him from pulling
sideways
out of the hold;
or it can be used to exert extra pressure
on his pinioned
arm by pulling it out from his back. This will force him to
do as you wish, because of pain or the possibility of a broken
elbow. This come-along
can be maintained
over a long distance but has a disadvantage
in that your own body must
be bent forward, alongside and slightly over your opponent’s
body, in order to keep him under control.
However,
this
liability is offset by the fact that this hold can be used for
other purposes than those mentioned
above.
63
ARLI LOCK COME-ALONTG
l?~lce the opponent;
rcacll out al)d grasp his right
right
[Kind
left hind. m in left top al)ol,e. With your
wrist
strike
with
your
tl]e
inside
so as co I) CIICI rlIC 21111, as SIIOIVII
in right to[) above.
w
that
yuu
arc L)csi[lc tl]c opponcllt,
facing
it] t]lc SmIIC dircctio]~
hC
is fncinq. I]y
disengaging
your left h:lnd and
of his rigl]t
elbow,
Stcl> i]~ on,] tilr[l I)is body,
shoving it up ~n[l ulldcr,
(SW Inwer
lock is applied
ul)fu;lr(l
Your
])rcssurc
right
to prcve]lt
lIaIId
bctlf’c~n
the opprmcnt’s arm
find bock,
dlc
picture).
By bending
forward
911cI cxcrring
I)n the pillncd forclrl]l,
the vicrilll is I)ut ut}dcr control
caIl
bc used to grml)
Ilis Iwlling out sitlcw,l~s.
his shirt c(,lllr
nr left sl]nul~cr,
J?orearrn
right
taking
hand
Come-Along.
grasp
a firm
the
hold
Facing
your
opponent,
with
your
of his left hand, at the same time
on his left arm by grasping
the outside
back
FOREARM
COME-ALONG
This type of formsrm come-aIong will give you control of the most
unruly prisoner: Upward pressure on the arm will cause intense pain.
of it at the elbow with your
left hand and wrist up behind
hold his elbow tight against
bending the victim’s captured
pain can be inflicted. Once
in the same direction as the
with you.
left hand. Force the opponent’s
his back. Use your left hand to
the right side of your body. By
wrist toward his elbow, great
the hold has been secured, face
opponent.
He is forced to walk
Forearm Lock. Face the opponent,
reach across and grab his
right wrist with your right hand, raising it about waist high.
Move over to his right and slip your left arm over his forearm and under his right elbow, at a point just above the
elbow. In this position, the sharp bone of your left forearm
can be used to lift upward, against the elbow which the right
hand can press down. To make the hold more secure, grip
your opponent’s
coat or lapel with your left hand, once the
arm is in place.
REAR
CLOTHING
COhlEALONG
type
of con!e-tlong
This
is
effective
ag2insr
is troublcsolllc
drunlc. By grasping the seat of his
pants at the rear and lifting, and
or rhe snme time sllnvit]g fnrward
with the h~nd tllnt grasps his C(I)
Iar, he cr,n bc moved nl(,ng easily.
ARi\l COME-ALONG
CROSS
This
is
is anbdmr
eficctivc
inclsriated
come-zlrmg
that
against
a slnflll
or
person.
Grasp
both
wfrists, lift his arnls so as to prsL
I]irn off balance, then cross them,
Shove him forward. This is a good
method to use in prrtring a man
rhrmlgh a narrow hall or door.
*“
HEAD
HOLD
COME-ALONG
A mnn sitting in a chair, or in
the scot of a car, cm easily lsc
rmc “hand
Imllc(l o~lt h: putting
under the point nf his c!)in and
tl)c orhcr ml the bxck of his head.
I\y titistillg his bcfid and lifting
;It rhc sanlc tili]c, Iw call bc forcwl
to Coll]c.
66
KILL
OR
Two other humorous,
persons who resist getting
tion, are as follows:
GET
KILLED
but effective,
come-alongs
against
up from the prone or sitting posi-
( I ) With the thumb and forefinger
grasp the short hairs
on the back of the head or nape of the neclc, and pull forcefully. Although
most people can resist the pulling of hairs
on top of the head, the short ones on the back of the head
and neck are placed where pressure on them causes intense
pain. Men are usually more susceptible to this than women.
(2) A drunken man or woman can also usually be handled
by using the thumb and forefinger
to grab the lower lip. By
pinching
hard and twisting,
as the pull is made, the victim
will come along.
Chapter
4
KNIFE ATTACK
AND DEFENSE
is probable
that the soldier or law enforcen)ent
officer
sometime
will face an enemy, a criminal, or a demented
person who is armed with a knife or some other kind of
bladed weapon.
He may encounter
a trained knife fighter,
but it is more likely that he will be assigned to duty in areas
dominated by racial groups or by underworld
elements who
rely upon bladed weapons as their principal means of combat.
The average American
does not like the idea of encountering a knife in personal combat. He would much rather use
his fists, a hand gun or a club as a fighting weapon. He would
much rather
face such weapons
than an opponent
armed
with a sharp blade. Because of this repugrqnce,
he often
shrinks from the possibility of facing an adversary so armed;
and this destroys his self-confidence.
This condition
is especially true if a knife attack is made unexpectedly
and the
defendant
has had no time either to condition
himself mentally or to have a defense or weapon ready.
Because of the strong probab~lity
of his encountering
a
every soldier and law enforcement
o fi?cer
bladed weapon,
should receive training
in knife offense and in the general
defensive
precautions
and techniques
to be used in areas
where opponents
are likely to carry knives.
T
I
Before undertaking
a successful knife defense–which
should
be concluded
by disarming, subduing,
or killing-it
is necessary to understand
and practice the principal methods of knife
attack. Once a person with a defensive
mission, such as a
policeman,
understands
how the knife is most likely to be
used against him, he will be more confident
and proficient.
With respect to technique,
knife wielders usually fall into
three categories:
( I ) the trained knife fighter, who uses both
a cutting and a slashing type of attack; (2) the unskilled knife
67
68
KII. L OR (2ET
KILLEI)
user, who usually employs
either an upward
or downward
thrust in attacking;
and ( 3) the slasher, who usually uses a
short-bladed
knife, or razor, and who takes advantage only of
the cutting
effect of the blade. There
will always be exceptions.
Some knife wielders,
because
of animal courage,
past successes or reputation,
are, for defense purposes, in the
same category
as the highly skilled fighting
knife wielder,
even though they do not use the knife with the approved
and best fighting
technique.
This type of attack
can be
readily recognized
when made from the front, provided there
is time to see it coming.
The kinds of bladed weapons encountered
may vary from
the common pen knife to the World War I fighting knife,
complete with brass knuckles. The razor, the popular hunting knife, knives with retracting
or snapout
blades, the
standard
pocket knife, the kitchen or butcher
knife, or the
real fighting knife—may be employed
in an assault. All are
dangerous ~nd cm inflict serious wounds; but some nre more
to be feared than others.
THE
FIGHTING
KNIFE
This stiletto type weapon is idenl for cIose-in fighting. It
can be used both for cutting and thrusting,
and it is easy to
maneuver, because of its design and bnlance. This last feature
is very important.
The handle is similnr to tlmt of a fencing
foil, so the knife can bc used for cutting nnd thrusting in any
direction without a change in the grip. The weight is toward
the hilt. The blade is about six inches long, is double-edged
and tapers to a point. This length blade is ideal for balance,
is good for both the cur and the thrust, and is long enough
to penetrate
heavy clothing
without
losing its effectiveness.
Its width, at its widest part near the guard, usually is not
over one inch. It either can be hollow ground or can taper
evenly toward both edges, from the strengthening
ridge which
runs down the center of the blade to the point of the knife.
The handle is round or oval in shape, its largest diameter
is toward the center, and it tapers off toward the guard as
well as at the butt. The over-all weight is approximately
ten
ounces. The handle, in addition to being rounded, is checkered.
Such a knife, with balance toward the handle, is ada ted
more easily to tnaneuverability,
is more easily passed r rom
hand to hand, and, with more weight in the hnndle, affords a
better grip for prosing, thrusting and slzshing. Its very design
KNIFE
ATTACK
AA’ I) DE FE?J SIT
—
69
KILL
OR GET
I{ IL. LED
c!xmlnr---“’”~
.
Top:
Trench
knife, World
Second:
Utility
Third:
Fighting
War
knife, constructed
-
— - .,.. ._
,,.‘\
,. .. ----
I, with case shown above it.
along the lines of a hunting
knife.
knife.
Bottom: Fighting knife, modified from utility knife, issued to United
States troops. The cross gumd has been strengthened,
the blck edge
ground to a cutring edge, and the blade tapered to a point.
makes it a true fighting
knife, combining
with its doubleedge both cutting and slashing qualities. The double edge is
also useful in preventing
an opponent
from wresting it from
the hand of the user. The opponent
cannot grasp its blade,
in defense, without
receiving
a severe cut.
The proper grip on the handle of a knife of this type is as
follows:
The knife lies diagonally
across the outstretched
palm of tile hand. The small part of the handle next to the
cross guard is grasped by the thumb and forefinger.
The
middle finger lies over the handle at the point where its
largest diameter occurs. With the knife held in this fashion,
it is very easy to maneuver it in all directions. The direction
of the blade can be controllable
by a combination
movement
KNIIJK
CORRECT
The prop m grip
handle, Zs IIhmrated
ATTACK
GRIP
ANI)
OF
for usc on a
on page 69.
DF. FI;
FIGHTING
well-designed
NS
I.:
7[
I{NIFE
fighting
knife
w“ith
of the fore and middle fingers, plus a turning
of the wrist.
When the palm is up it is possible (holding knife in the right
hand) co slash to the right. When th; palm is turned down,
it is possible to slash to the left. The thrust can be executed
from either the palm-up or pahn-down
position, At the time
of contact, in- the thrust or the slash, the knife is grasped
tightly by all fingers. The initial controlling
grip of the fore
and middle fingers has not changed
and the blade becomes
a mere continuation
of the arm.
Such knife manipulation
is fairly simple. Skill can be ocquired after a few hours practice, but only if the handle is
generally
constructed
along the lines described
above, The
handle described here is round. However,
a handle of similar
size in oval shape works equally well.
The trained man will use this knife, in the attack, from a
crouch,
with the left hand forward
and the knife
held
(handle diagonally
across the palm of the right hand) close
to the body. The outstretched
left hand will act as a guard,
a foil or a parry, and will help to create the opening for a
slash or thrust. The left hand also may bc used to ciistracr
the adversary’s attention-by
waving it in his face, by throwing something,
or by making sudden darting motions toward
him. When the knife fighter is in the crouch, with his left
AT1’A(X
FROM
WITH
KNIFE
CROUCH
Beware
of the man who
holds his knife this way and
who attacks from a crouch,
with the blade held close to
his body and with his free arm
out in front to parry or to
help create an opening for a
slash or throsr.
KNIFE
ATTACK
AND
DIIFIZNSE
73
hand forward to parry, he is in a position of extreme mobility,
because his knees are flexed and he is in perfect balance. In
the fighting or crouch position, he also is protecting
his vital
mid-section
and throat
area from vital thrusts-by
an opponent who also may be armed with a knife or a club. In
this position, the trained knife fighter can foil the usual kniie
defenses of the unarmed
opponent.
Often he can maneuver
successfully
against such defenses as a chair, a club, or other
object used to strike or to throw.
The thrust and slash type of attack is best when used with
a knife of correct design. However,
any long-bladed,
singleedged weapon-such
as a jack knife or hunting knife—can be
used in the manner
described,
with a somewhat
lessened
degree of effectiveness
because of poorer
basic design. A
skilled knife user may employ such tactics as throwing
dirt
or other objects in his opponent’s
face when making
his
attack. This type of strategy is most likely to be used against
an o ponent who is standing his ground and readying
himself For a defense, or when the attacker has not had the advantage of surprise.
THE
UNSKILLED
ATTACK
If a knife attack is made by an individual
gripping
his
weapon in such a manner that he can deliver only an upward
or downward
thrust, he probably
is unskilled and has received little training in the use of a knife as a weapon. This
is the manner. in which a demented person will use the weapon,
or in which weapons such as the butcher knife are frequently
used in crimes of passion. When a knife is so gri ped that
the handle is directly across the palm, blade
rotru ! ing from
the little finger side, with all fingers wrappe Cf around the hilt
(as in using an ice pick), the user is limited to a downward
thrust.
The reverse type of grip is equally limiting. If the individual
grasps the knife directl
around the hilt so that the blade
protrudes from the fore Z nger side of the hand (as in gripping
a hammer) the same thing is true. Only an upward thrust can
be delivered. To execute either one of these types of attack,
the knife wielder must get close to his victim. It is easier to
see such an attack coming and to block or parry it. This
method of knife attack is the one usually demonstrated
by instructors of knife defense, and it is against this type of attack
that most common knife defenses have been developed.
COMMON
/?3
KNIFE
GRIPS
DEFENSSSAPPLICABLETO k DOWNWARD
KNIFE THRUST CM
BE APPLIEO M
WELL TO OVERHEAO OLOWS STRUCK
WITM A CLUB ETC.
}
-f!iT
THE
UNSKILLED K~!FE
WIELDER EITHER GRIPS
HIS wEAPON LIKE THIS /’
BLOCK DEFENSES
PuT lNTo
EFFECT BEFORE Mot4ENTu M
)S GAINED WILL SE EFFECTIVE.
HOWEVER. THE PARRY, WHICH
DIvERTS THE OIRECTl~N oF
BEST
AGA1NST
.
The average knife wielder, who has never had special rraining,
grip his weapon in onc of the two ways shown here.
will
When depicting
a knife attack, even the movies usualIy
resort to this method of use of the knife. From the point of
view of the audience,
it is much more spectacular
for the
knife user to be shown charging
his victim with a flashing
blade upraised above his shoulder,
preparatory
to mnking a
downward
thrust.
A ]cnowledge
of defense
against knife
attacks of this kind is necessary, but it is a serious omission
KNI1;
l?
A“~”l’,\[:lC
AX
I)
I) IF
I:. NS1;
by any instructor
to place all knife users in this category
to conduct a training program accordingly.
THE
SLASH
75
and
ATTACK
Any type of bladed weapon may be used in this attack.
However,
those most frequently
used m-c short-bl&d
pocket
knife, pen knives, razors, and similar instruments.
Since the
blade can be readily concealed, a surprise attack is very easy.
A planned defense often is difficult for this reason.
In a slash attack, the knife is commonly
held across the
palm with fingers wrapped
around the handle and with the
blade protruding
from the little finger side of the palm. The
cutting edge is to the outside, or toward t!~c fingers. It is very
easy, by this method, to carry a small knife with the handle
concealed in the hand and the wrist bent, so that the blade is
concealed
and lies flat along the inside of the wrist and
forearm.
When cmried in this nlntmer, the knife is in a ready positiol~, and attack Mn be mnclc without
giving flny warning.
An unsuspecting
person will not have enough warning
to
SLASH
ATTACK
GRIP
Slash attacks with the knife
usually are made with the knife
held m this manner. Note that
the handle lies across the palm,
butt on the thumb side and
hlndc facing out.
To get the
cutting
action,
a horizontal
swing is made. Straight razors,
pen lcnives and such are often
used in this manner. Gripped
IiIce this, with the palm down,
so thnt the. Made points up
the arm, the knife is hard to
scc until the swing actually
calms plsce.
76
1 <11.1
() R
(; I
I
K I !.1.1”1)
defend himself. I-Iv s~vinging the arm and hand in a horizontal
direction across the front of the body (called a “round house”),
the sharp edge of the blade will cut anything
in its path
becnuse of the trcll]cndous
force exerted
by the stvinging
arm. 13) 0 more ski]lcd uwr, the l)ladc is s)]lletilllcs used to
execut; a thrust on the return of the arm ftwnl the cross swing
slash. hlcn who use the knife this way must be classed as
skilled, or at least semi-skilled, and should be watched accordingly. The weaknesses of this type of attack, when nor acconlpanied by the element of surprise, is that the wielder must
get very close to his victim and that the basic strolce can be
bloclced.
If the blade of the lcnife is short, it usually is dificult
to
deliver an initial disabling wound, such as one to the throat.
The penetration
is not great enough, and any movement
of
the opponent’s
body, or his clothing,
will limit the depth of
the slmh. Knife fighting of this type, common among certain
racial minorities, can be and is a very bloody affair. It may
result in a prottztctcd
fight, due to the innbd]ty of the slash
type of 2ttack to pcnctratc
deeply Ctlotsgh to rcfich the vital
organs lnd blood vessels. NaturAly,
slashes across the throat
cfln be i[nmcclintely fntnl, but usuolly the cutting is confined
to tllc lCSSvulnerable parts of the arills, face and body.
KNIFE
THROWING
Knife throwing
can be largely discounted
m n pr~ctical
means of conlbat. There are few persons who can piclc up
a knife, throw it at a moving object at an unknown
distance,
and IIit n vital spot. In the main, knife throwing
is m art
rclegytcci to vaudeville and stage, because, to throw a knife
properly,
the ex~ct distance from the thrower
to the tmget
must be known. Since tl~c knife turns end over end as it
travels through the air, the thrower must know the exact distznce. He must be able to control the number of turns the
knife makes, so that it will hit the target point first.
There
are, indeed, methods
of knife throwing,
at close
ranges, without the blilde turning end over end in the air; but
considering
the movement
of the target, wtrying distances,
heavy clothing, find the fact that if you miss you are without
a weapon, I{nlfe throwing is not practical as a means of attack.
Knives with spikes on the end of the hilt or with brass
;lre very feorsoine
in appearance,
but are nor
knuckles attschcd
commonly
used and should not be greatly feared. In rezlity,
these extrx fe~tures only limit maneuverability
rind, in a melee,
present almost as much threat to the user and his allies as to
his opponent.
It is very easy to catch such extra attachments
as brass lcnuckles in the clothing. In turn, an attempt to use
the brass knuckles
for striking
a blow makes the blade a
hindrance
that can cut or catch on the user’s own clothing,
as well as on that of the victim.
The hacking type of attack with a light, bladed weapon,
such as a knife, generally
is not effective.
Ordinary
types
of knives do not weigh enough
to allow sufficient
force
to be employed.
Machetes,
brush knives, axes, and such are
sometimes used and are much more effective because of their
greater size and weight.
BODY
AREAS
MOST
VULNERABLE
TO KNIFE
ATTACK
A man attacked
from the front by a bladed weapon has
two spots he instinctively
protects–the
throat and the stomach,
or abdominal section. Perhaps the reason why he instinctively
protects these two areas is that they are easy for an opponent
to rench. In any event, the psychological
effect of a knife
wound in these “arcm, whether it is serious or not, is so great
that the victim is usually momentarily
incapacitated.
The throat area is vulnerable
to either the thrust or the
slmh, the thrust being Illost effective when driven into the
hollow at the base of the throat just below the Adam’s apple.
A thrust there, into the jugular vein, or n slmh on either side
of the neclc, cutting the m-teries which furnish the blood to
the brain, results in extreme loss of blood and death in a very
short time. Thrusts
in the abdominal
area, which can be
combined
with the slosh as the Icnife is withdrawn,
have a
great shocking effect find uswdly incapacitate
the opponent
to
the point where another blow can be given with the weapon
before he has a chance to recover.
A deep wound in the
abdominal area will cause death if unattended,
but it is much
slower in taking effect than a good thrust or slash in the
throat area. The heart, of course, is a vital spot for the thrust,
but the protection
of the ribs makes it more difficult to hit.
In some cases, knife thrusts directed
toward the heart have
been stopped by the ribs and the point of the knife broken off
by the bony structure,
without causing a vital wound. Usually,
however, the blade will slide off the rib and go into the vital
area. The heart thrust is, of course, fatal.
It is possible to get an effective slash across the sides of the
throat from the rear; but one of the most effective
knife
5trok?s in the rear of the victim is the thrust delivered into
78
Ii
I
1.
1,
() 1{
f; 1:”1’ K I 1, 1 1:.1)
FROiNTAL
ATT’ACK
The throat, stomach and abdominnl arcm are the points most vul neroblc to frontnl ottsck. These ore the areas thnt must be dcfcnde(t
against any type of attack. A slight wound in mY ,Jf these will
a serious psyclmlogitnl
effect;
and 2 deep wound
is potentially
have
fstal.
K N I F 1:
A “r ‘r A c K
ANI)
l)l;. FKNSlt
79
A SIXSI]across the Iliccps. A slash il]side the wrist OISOis vcr~
Cffccrivc.
the kidney
or slllall-of-tllc-bocl{
nrca. Pcnctmtion
here, in
the form of a deep thrust, will cause great shock, internal
hemorrhage,
and often death. This back, or kidney, thrust
is best used in the sentry attack, as will be explained later.
The vital areas still are the throat,
heart and abdominal
sections.
The slash attack can be used effectively to sever the tendons
on the inside of the wrist of an outstretched
hand. This is
most effective against a person who is trying to defend himself
by striving to grasp the knife hand. A slash renders the hand
useless. A slash across the large muscle of the biceps has the
same effect. Also, a slash on the inside of the thigh, or arm,
will cut arteries
and will incapacitate,
if delivered
deeply
enough. Slashes to these areas, in addition
to disabling the
opponent,
cut various veins and arteries. If left unattended,
the wounds will cause death from loss of blood.
KILLING
ENEMY
SENTRY
The following
description
of the correct attaclc technique
for killing an enemy guard or sentry should be of general
interest to any student of knife attack. To the soldier, plant
guard, and policeman
it will show the need for precautions
against a surprise attack from the rear. IC is a type of attack
v()
1.!
(
1.1,
(11(
(,1.1
1, I 1. 1,1
for lvhicll there is no defense if the
prise. It is not unlikely that it will be
individuals, in all arlnies during World
ing in it, just as they received training
l~tion.
Ii
victinl is taken by surused again, since ninny
War 11, received troi;in methods of srrflngu-
In killing an enc])ly sclltry, 011 factors regarding
the fipproach and initial attack, described for usc with a rear strangle,
apply. The approach
from the rezr is rmturaily
n noiseless
one. At the tilue of rising, a fe~v feet in the rcnr of the victinl,
the knife should be taken either frolll tllc sheath where it
has been duril~,g the crn~vl, or from the teeth where it may
have been cart-led. The nttnck is launched from n distnnce of
KILLING
AN
ENEMY
SllN-l”RY
the best mctltod of surprise Imifc attaclc tnoght in rhc Armccl
Forces. Approach from the rear, grasp the nose and mouth with the lefr
This
is
hand ro prcrcnr outcry, and thrllst the knife into the kiclncy arct, as
shown at the left. After a short interval, withdraw the knife and cut the
throat.
K N 1 1: 1:,
A “l”l’ A (; K
A\l
I
l}l.l:l.
XSI
HI
not less than 5 feet from the victiul and is initiated as soon
as the attacker
has arrived at thxt spot. It is important
that
the attaclc be immediate
because of the animal instinct, emphasized by lceeping your eyes steadily on him as you approflcll, which 1~’ill t)ltcll 11.ilrn tllc victiill that some one is
appruacllin~
and ~votcl~illg hill). ~l]c up\vnrcl thrust of the
knife into the right or left liidney section is executed at the
end of the leap to the attack. At the some time, the free hand
is clasped over the n)out!l and nose of the victim, pulling him
baclc\\-ard, off b~lonce. Tile tlwust into the kidney area has
initially a great shockin~ effect, but no outcry will occur if
the free hand goes over the nlouth ancl 7203e at the time of
the thrust. ‘rhc victilll is pulled l]acl{~vard upon the hlnde continually and after I felv seconds tllc knife is withdrawn,
and
mai[ltaining
the san]e grip on nose and throat, the head is
lifted up and the jugular vein slashed.
Another
]nethod of
common in sot]le areas
is m old as histo!y an{[
for usc in as.swsulatitjll
World War II.
knife attack or assmsination,
not unof tile world, nmy be encountered.
It
\vfls :1 ll)ctllo(l t~ught to cctwtin grmllm
ill (icr[ll;tll-tjcctlpicd
coolltries during
The assassin spies his victiln in a crowd and approaches
him fro!n tile front. His knife is held in his hand with the
hilt down and the blade lying flat along the inside of the
forearm, or concealed
Up the s]ceve. The halldle, of course,
is concealed
by the fingers. The msmsin, with the lcnife in
this position, faces the intended
victim, walking toward hi[n.
As he reaches a point directly
opposite the victim, a simple
movement of his wrist frees the blade, and a short arm movement, as he passes, plunges it into the lcidney area of the
victim. The knife is”either left sticking in the wound or may
be pulled out while the assassin walks on through the crowd,
his movement
generally
undetected.
LIKELY
PLACES
OF KNIFE
CONCEALMENT
The places in which a bladed weapon may be carried are
many. Usually local custom and the type of garment
worn
by the individual
will determine
the places in which it is
most likc]y to be carried, anti fronl which it is usually drawn
prior to an attaclc.
Knives have been carried
successfully
places: in a sheath at the side; on a string
the neck; up the sleeve; in a special llolstcr
in the following
down the back of
taped to the wrist;
KNI1~I?
.i”r-r Acli
AND
DtIFENSE
83
stuclc in the top of a boot or legging; with the sheath sewn
inside the front poclcet; under the lapel of a suit coat; in the
crown of a hat; between
the belt and the trousers; strapped
to the inside of tile thigh, beneath the trouser leg; in a sheath
sewn diogonolly across the chest, on a vest; or in any other
place that col)hincs
both concealn]ent
and the element of
surprise.
Small knives or cutting
edges, such as razor blades, have
been carried and concealed by criminals, sewn in all parts of
their clothing and taped to various parts of their bodies, even
to the bnlls of the feet. They have been carried sometimes
in special sbenths strapped to the testicles. Even though such
weapons mny seelll inadcquntc,
it must be ren~cmbercd
that,
in some body areas, a cut or slash one half inch deep can be
crippling
or perhaps fatal. Such bladed weapons can also be
used in cutting cords, ropes, and other temporary
means of
restraint. It should be obvious that, in any initial search of a
known
criminal,
or of a suspect from a racial group
or
crimimtl elclllcnt ad(lictcd to the usc of bladed weapons, the
scfirchcr sliould I)c cognizant
of and Illost careful of the
concealn]ent
possibilities
of this type of wenpon,
KNIFE
DEFENSE
A successful knife defense depends upon being able to see
the attaclc coming,
or at least being forewarned
through
Ii[lowledgc
and training.
A lcnife assault is many times
launched in darkness, or in such a way that it is impossible
to detect immediately
the opening move of the attack, such as
drawing the weapon.
The soldier, military policeman, or law enforcement
officer,
therefore, should use the following general precautions
in any
area where he suspects a knife may be used against him.
He should:
(I) Dominate
any
bearing that indicates
threatening
confidence
situation
by maintaining
and aggressiveness.
a
(z) Keep his back well-protected
at all times by keeping
WC1l away from dzrk corners,
the sides of buildings
and
driveways,
or by having a wall or some other solid object
immediately
at his rear.
(3) Keep his own hands and weapons in such position
they are readily availab!e for undertalcing
immediately
proper offensive or defensive action.
that
the
8+
1. 11.1.
OR
(;l.:
KNIFE
ARMED
—
SI+OO1
HIM
.
’1.
1< 11.1.1.1)
DEFENSE
.
.
UNARMED
—A
cHAIR (IF
NAVE ONE) PLUS A KICK
YOU
.
RR
(
-- — —
OR THROW
KNEE AND
ANY THINO
FOLLOW UP
AVAILABLE
—
THEN
KICK MIM
WITH
MORE KICKS AFTER
HESS ON
IN
lWE
THE
GROUND.
(4) Prevent being placed in such a position that unknown
and suspicious persons are within arm’s reach of his body.
(5) Always
watch
the movement
and position
of any
suspect’s hands.
(6) In areas where slash knife attacks may be expected,
wear heavy clothing
(overcoat,
shortcoat,
or other),
since
this will furnish a certain degree of protection.
Even strict observance
of these precautions
will not always
KNIFE
A“r”r.\ cl<
AXI)
DE FE XS1;
85
suffice to prevent a surprise attack. On the other hand, too
obvious
precautions
against possible attaclc may indicate
a
lack of confidence
and fear which will only encourage
an
attacker.
If an attack is launched at close quarters and the victim of
the assault is unable to employ any of the common defenses,
the only thing he can do is try to block or parry the thrust or
slash with his hands and arms. Such a reaction is instinctive
and is the only one possible under the circumstances.
Although inadequate,
it is better to sustain a wound on the arm
or hand than one on the body, face, or throat area.
A number
of unamzed knife defenses can be undertaken
in certain circumstances,
but the soldier or police officer on
duty should never be without
his weapons.
He should rely
on them first.
In poIice usage, certain types of knife attacks, such as those
made by demented
persons,
can be stopped
or otherwise
restrained
by conventional
nlethods.
At the other extreme
is the cold-blooded
attaclc made by the criminal of the most
vicious type. In such a cme, few explanations
will have to be
made if the officer draws his weapon and shoots the attacker
down. As in other cases, the degree of force used in knife
defense is dependent
on the local situation and the judgment
of the officer concerned.
If he is cnrrying
a baton or riot stick, the policclnan
can
stop such knife assaults with this weapon alone. A sharp blow
to the knife wrist, hand, or elbow will often stop the attack
long enough to permit a more disabling blow.
In many cases, if
of the weapon will
mits, a well-placed
to stop the assault.
to kill.
the hand gun is drawn, the mere presence
deter the potential attacker.
If time pershot in the legs or shoulder can be used
Other circumstances
may justify shooting
KINDS
OF KNIFE
DEFENSE
The following
knife defenses are designed for situations in
which the individual
is unarmed, or for some other reason
cannot use the weapon which he normally carries. It is here,
especially,
that knowledge
of the ways in which a knife
attack can be made is valuable in estimating
the capabilities
of the opponent.
For example, the man who holds his knife
diagonally across his palm and carries it close to his side while
advancing
to an attaclc in a crouch is obviously
to be re-
1<11.1.
c1 I.\ll{
1)1’.l’l’.xsl’
(11(
(;1;’1
AG,\lss-t’
l<ll.
I.
IJI)
I{A’II’l:
t\-1-lc\cIi
spectc(i, 3[IcI ticfclms such as the parry ;lnd the /)lock (silown
uncier “Dcfcnsc
IV”” find “l]cfcnse
]’” on the fc)lh)wing
pages) c;l[mot I)c uscLi m eflcctivcly
2s tilosc ciiscussc(i first.
Lk(e)lsc 1. Throfv anyt]ling tilat is within reach, a Iumdtul
of dirt, a hat, n piece of clothing,
fumiturc.
Follow up by
using any ol)ject at hand for striking a blow; or usc the feet
in o~Tcn;vc a’ction. Once the nggrcssor hm I)ecn nmlllcntnriiy
Stopped or (Iiwol)mrtc(i,
a coulltcratt; lck
Illust i]c l:lullchcd
im]nediately.
,.
e
“$?
.’
S-I-ICI<
I) IXI:.NSI:
A(; AINS1
KNIFE
,
A1-I”A(:K
Defense 11. Use a chair. The chair defense against a knife
man is good, provided you have a chair handy. Grip it by the
back and point the legs at your attacker.
Advance
toward
him, making short jabs as you advance.
The principle involved here is the same as that used in lion
taming. The knife man cannot possibly watch all four legs
of the chair at once when they are moving.
He becomes
confused
and is susceptible
to blows from the feet, which
can be directed
towards
his body in coordination
with a
thrust of the chair.
Defense 111. Kick out the opponent’s
knee. When he is
down, follow up with an attack on other parts of his body.
Stamp on his knife hand when he goes down, or kick him in
the ribs or the head. In some cases, a block of the thrust,
followed
by stamping
on his shin or top of the foot, will
suffice.
If you find yourself outnumbered
and facing attackers who
KNEE
KICK
The kick to the knee is one of the best of the unarmed deftroses
Note that the body of the kicker is bent baclc and is away out of ]:ange
of the knife wielder. Delivered properly, with the element of surprise, the knee kick will stop any knife or club attack.
88
l\l LL
() R G 1:“i’ Ii I L L l’. D
are apt to use knives, back into a corner and use your feet
to keep them out of arm’s reach. Never discount
the value
of the feet when facing an opponent
who is unarmed,
or
mmed with a club or a blndcd wcxpon.
Defense 1 V. The parry is a good defense against tile downward knife thrust. It diverts the initial direction
of the thrust
as it sweeps downward.
This is better than the block defense,
because the whole length of the arm can be used. By using
the right arm to parry to the right, the hand holding the
THE
“PARRY”
KNIFE
DEFENSE
00 WNWARI
UI=WARO
—
/!2
w
—-
IN SSOTHOF THESE oEFE~sEs
KNIFE
SIDE AWAY
D
THRUST
THRUST
~
D~W~~TTHE ‘~TH OF
THE
9LAlJE
BY
STRIKING
THE
BOOY
AREA.
PROM
KNIFE
ARM
TO
WITH
THE KNIFE ARM
AS SOON AS ‘PARRY’” cONTACT
IS MAOE , STEP IN FOR A Tu
ANO
A
FAcE
8QW,
GRASPING
THE
KNIFE
WRIST
WITM
THE
RIGHT
NAND,
FINISH
HIM
Wlr H YoUR
FEET.
‘ME
ONE
Kxl[w
,\ ’r’r Acli
AXI)
DKF INSI;
89
lcnife will follow down along the outside of the body. Even
in case the parry is not entirely successful, a flesh wound in
a non-vitzl
ai-ca will result. Here a~lin, tllc defender
takes
xdvantage of tile instinctive nlovcnlcut
of tlltwsting his master
hand above his heed in order to protect
himself from the
downward
blow. The only difference
is that the movement
of tllc right arm is a sweep to the right across the front of
the body in place of a block. Conversely,
one can parry the
downward
blow of a right-handed
man, by using the left
arm to parry to the outside; but in this case the chance is
greater
of the knife crashing
through
if the parry is unsuccessful.
This is because the defender’s
body is directly
facing the knife man; whereas when he uses his right arm,
the trunk of his body is turned away from danger.
When you are faced with a knife held in the hand of an
enemy for an upward
thrust
into your abdominal
region,
PARRY
DEFENSE
TIIC parry defense can be used even after the downward motion of
the knife arm has started. By using a sweeping motion with the right
the lcnife arm aside, so as to divert
arm across the body and knocking
the path of the blow, the attack is foiled. The picture on the right above
illustrates
knocking aside the arm of the knife wielder by the parry
method. The defender musr step in toward the atcrclccr the instant the
pad] of the blade is diverted to the side, as shown. A trip, mm lock, or
blow can be used as the follow-up.
90
1<I 1. r, OR
(: 1:..1’
K r 1, 1, 1:1)
Better Irllifc clcfclw,
using tllc
right hmd and twisting the body
so 2s to cscapc 2 blow if tllc grip
misses.
w>
a
&\vnward
Arln pnrry of a . . .
KNIFIL
PAI{RY
AND
ARhl LOCI<
thrust
KNIFE
AT’I’Ac
[~arryi,lg an ulldcrllltld
IC
AN DD1;171ZNSI:
tilrusr, using right,
or nxrsrcr, arn~.
Using the left hand to parry a
right-handed thrust to the outside.
KNIFE
PARRY
(Continued)
91
92
KII,
r,
on
GI;
I
Klr,r.[tl)
Usual knife defense, initiated with the left hand. Note
the hand misses the wrist.
KNIFE
PARRY
the danger
if
(Continued)
the parry figllin is n goml mcillls of dcfcnsc. 7’llc p:lrry c:ln
be executed either with d~e right or left arm as follows. As
the attacker
makes an upward
thrust, sweep your right arm
across the front of your body and catch the upward moving
knife arm on the outside of your arm. This will divert the
direction of the thrust to your right, or outside, of your body.
The left arm also may be used to parry the weapon to the
right, but better timing is necessary if the left is used.
Any forceful cross sweep of the arm in any direction, such
as in a parry, causes the body to pivot naturally
out of line
of the thrust. Once ‘the parry or block has been successfully
completed,
you must move in close to your man and attack.
Defense V. The block knife defeme. Almost all the knife
defenses involve a bloclc of the descending
knife arm by
grmping
the wrist or by using the forcmm.
However,
these
do not take into account the extreme force of the downward
thrust and its resulting momentum,
which may cause the blade
to crash through
such a defense and penetrate
II vital body
area.
Arm Lock Defense. The most cornn}on knife defense is the
one which utilizes a grip of the knife wrist by the left hand,
followed by an arm 10cIc. In this, the momentum
of the knife
93
PARRY
DEFENSE,
UNDERHAND
THRUST
An underhand thrust, shown above on the lcfc, can bc diverted by the
parry–as well as the thrust of the attacker who strives to thrust from
the arm-raised position. In this insrauce the right arm is brought across
to knock the knife arm aside, as shown above on the right. Either arm
can be used to pnrry, depending on whicl) is the more instinctive action
of the defender. Again the parry must be followed by closing in for the
:ltmck.
arm may crash through
the thumb to the knife’s objective.
Another danger in using the common block-type
defense–of
grasping
the knife wrist with the left hand–is
that such
a method
depends upon good light and perfect timing to
make possible a grip on the moving knife wrist. If the blow
is sweeping
down with great force and the recipient
tries
to grip the wrist in his left hand, the force directed toward
the body area may be such that the thumb side of the gripping
hand is liable to give way, thus allowing the thrust to continue toward’ its goal.
Block
Defense.
l-he
bloclc
defense
is best
when
it is still
momentum
employed
hand grmps the knife wrist while
tile gripping
cocked above the head, prior to the time when the
of the downward
thrust is initiated.
A block defense against the downward
thrust,
more certain to stop the momenmm
of the stroke
by crossing the arms and placing them above the
the body in a slight crouch, so that the arms are
which is
is executed
head, with
in the path
1~11.1. OR GI; T 1<1LLtl~
94
of the descending knife arlll. An attaclc may be initiated when
the knife arm is stopped.
The same procedure
is workable
against the upward thrust to the mid-section.
In this case, the
body should be bent forward,
so that the crossed arms divert
block of the
the thrust away fro[n tile body. A straight
downward
knife-thrust,
by the forearm
with the arm bent,
is not advisable, since the molncntum
and power of the blow
are usually sufficient to cause the elbow to bend and allow
the blade to continue in its original direction.
Block defenses
are best used against individuals
striving to strike overheadblows with clubs, and similar weapons.
The key factor in concluding
an unarmed encounter
with a
knife wielder is immediate
attsck,
moving in close to the
attacker’s body, once the thrust has been parried or blocked.
If the knife man is allowed to withdraw
and recover,
the
FOREARM
FOREARM
BLOCK
If the club, or knife, arm can be
grasped as shown, before the momentum of the downward sweep
of the arm is started, this block
knife defense will work. It can be
followed by an arm lock, by using
the right hand to reach up under
the knife arm, grasping the knife
wrist and pulling it baclc and
down.
BLOCK
This is another block defense,
successful only before momentum
is achieved. In this type of forearm
Moclc, as WCII as th~t illustrated in
Block Knife Dcfcnsc
and Arm
Lock, there is always the danger
of a miss, which will allow tbe
blade to penetrate the chest area.
Poor light, surprise, speed of attacIc, and slow reflexes will always
interfere with the onc-hmd or arm
IJloclc type of knife defense.
1<x
I l; 1: ,\ “1”
“i’:\ (: K AN])
KNIFE
BLOCK
l)F.FF,~sl;
95
DEFENSES
@T~&%
~
42\
/
m“
r~E
KNIFE
ARM
,s ALR~AOV
,N &.IfjT,~N
NHEN TNE BLOCK IS AT TEMPTEO.
THE
MOMENWM
OF THE AnM MAY cA”sE yo”
ro MISS THE WRIST GRIP.
KNIFE ARM 8LL)CKED 13EFORE 00WN
WARD THRUS.r COMMENCES.
USE AN
ARM LOCK FROM THIS POINT.
WRONG
i FORCCFUL
DOWNWAIU)
7LIRIIST CANNOI
hLwAY5 Eli s (OPllL_,Ls Hy I ills
U,,ocl(
‘Ill, UNIPE
ARM
MAY CRASII 1 II UOUCH
NTO A VITAL
8L)vY
AREA.
.)
RIGHT
8LOCK TNE KNlr E WRIST
WITII
lIIE ARM tEl FORE
IT GETS INTO
MOTION
THEN vOLLOw WITt4 4N
ARM LL)Ck,
1
.3/
<’, )
A
/’
m
LELOCK
OEFENSES
+
ARk
SE APPLIED
OEFORE
MOMENTu M
FOR THE
PRINCIPLES
THE sAME
WHEN THE
UPWARD
DOUBLE
ARM
6L0CK
CAN
BE EFFECrlVE
AGhl NST A
~FORcEFuL
oOwNwARD TNnOST
IT MUST BE FOLLOWED
jMcM;gATELY
8Y OFFENSIVE
CANNOT
OANGEROUS IF THEY
THE
KNIFE
ARM
HAS
GA INEO
UPWARD
OR DOWNWARD
TH RuST.
OF
DEFENSE
ANO
OANGER
ExIST
KNIFE
THRUST
IS USEO.
whole Procedure
will have to be repeated.
Either twe
of
knife d~fense, par~
or block, involv~s a certain anl&’nt of
risk. This risk can be decreased
only by the increased proficiency achieved in przctice.
Instruction
in knife
defense
must be preceded
by a
thorough
demonstration
of the various types of knife attack.
Afterwards,
trainees may practice the techniques
against one
another. For this purpose rubber knives, wooden
knives, or
pup tent pegs, as issued in the Army, are ideal substitutes for
knives.
06
1. !1.1.
(IIJ
(;!:1”
Iill.l.
l?l)
I<NII:E
\VIUST
BLOCK
If the right hand is used to blo~li
dle Icnife wrist,
the follow-up
be as illustrated,
retaining
on the knife wrist
l~ft hand
backward
to
knuck
can
the grip
and using the
the
co the ground.
attacker
There
the
feet cnt) be used to finish him off.
Training
Iror tmining
Aids
aids in knife t:lctics, sec IxIgc I 2;.
Chapter
5
COMBAT USE
OF THE HAND GUN
C
OMBAT
shooting
with a ~istol or revolver is 2 type of
shooting that occurs frequently
in certain types of military service and between
police and criminal elements. It is
neither target shooting nor defensive shooting. It is oficnfive
shooting, and is the quickest way to insure the successful conclusion of a gun battle with a shooting enemy.
The Imnd gun is the basic weapon of many milicmy and
police units. Like other skilled craftsmen,
members of these
organizations
must be trained to use it as a tool of their trade.
When a man is faced by an assailant who has a gun in his
hand and murder in his heart, he must be ~ble to use his
only
his superior
spcecl and
firearm instantly and effectively.
accuracy
tions
will
enable
hinl
to
come
out
of
most
colnl)ot
situa-
alive.
Some persons carry their sidearms for years without actually
having to fire them; while others, by virtue of their assignments, have to use them frequently.
Regardless
o,f the number of times a shooter has to use his weapon, he should always
employ it so as to get the maximum result from its offensive,
combat potentialities.
To do t!~is, he must have had thorough
training in its combat use. Training and skill in target shooting
alone will not make him proficient
in actual combat. This is
especially true when he is under combat tension and is faced.
at close quarters, by a target that shoot~ back.
HISTORY
OF THE USE OF THE HAND
GUN
The hand gun made its appearance
upon the American
scene in the days of our pioneer West. At that time it was
considered
primarily
a weapon for use in personal combat.
“Six-gun”
experts, such as Hickok,
Hardin,
Holliday,
and
98
KILL
OR GET
KILLED
Wyatt Earp, regarded
their revoIvcrs as took of their trade,
not primarily
as “game getters,”
or for use in the sport of
target shooting.
The person
who carries a pistol or revolver professionally
should consider
his sidearm in a IiIce
manner.
It has been almost four score years since gunmen of the
pioneer West fought–and
lived or died according
to their
individual skill in the combat use of the revolver. From then
until World War II, military and law enforcement
agencies
gradually came to consider the hand gun a target-type
shooting and training weapon rather than a close combat weapon.
In World War 11, contrary
to early predictions,
there was
a reversion to close-quarter,
individual combat. It was evident
in street fighting, in house fighting, and in the jungle:, woods
and mountains. And there was an increased emphasis on night
attack and night combat. All this underscored
the need for
skilled, close-quarter
combat use of tbc pistol or revolver.
Early in World War 11 it was found tlmt target shooting
skill with the band gun was not enough for the soldier in
combat. It wzs proved that a man trained only in the target
base of the hnnd gun wns proficient
up to the point where
rle could kill an enemy only when hc Id ti717e to fiin] flncl fire,
nnd providing
k
could
scc the sights.
Unformnnrcly,
such
ideal conditions wcrc found to bc the exception in most close
combat situations. For this reason, military training with the
hand gun and with other bmic weapons
changed from the
formalized
“by the numbers” turget style of the prewar days
to more refilistic training. Brittle and infiltration
courses, where
live ammunition
and demolitions
were used, were constructed.
These simulated, as nearly as possible, the terrnin conditions,
tension, physical exertion and realities of “actual combat. Such
courses are now prescribed
as standard methods of training.
The rifle and bayonet are used on them as they would be in
battle. In a like manner, combat training with the htind gun
has been improved,
so as to enable the soldier who carries
a Imnd gun to get the most from its offensive potentialities.
Early in World
War 11, American
and Allied authorities
were inclined to discount
the pistol and revolver
as firstIine combat we~pons; but this trend did not last long. Due
to military necessity, combat firing training programs, stressing the use of the hand guns without the aid of sights, were
soon instituted,
nnd millions of hand guns were issued and
UST? OF
TIII?
JI AND
GUN
99
used with deadly effect. The British and Canadian
armies
purchased
many hundreds
of thousands
of Smith & Wesson
revolvers, which were used by their troops.
The United States Army began the war with the theory
that the hand gun should bc repktced by the new carbine.
It WIS found tlmt nlost soh.liers who cm-ried sidearms had
little skill or confidence
in their combat use. It was recognized, however, that most of the poor performance
with the
Pistol ‘r revolver bY our trooPs in combat was due not to
the weapon itself but to the old concept of it as a defensive lastditch weapon, and to the type of training which concentrated
solely on aimed fire at stationary
targets and bobbers.
Toward the end of the conflict pistols and revolvers were again
and combat
training
courses, films and
issued in quantity;
training techniques
were institumd
to make up for previous
training deficiencies.
THE HAND GUN AS A CLOSE-QUARTER
WEAPON
The hand gun is indispensalsle
in law enforcement
and in
the Armed Forces, becnusc a snmll firem-m is needed that cm
be used nt close qwtrters. It is always present in its holster
and prewnts no cnrrying
discomfort
or inconvenicncc,
Tile
soldier-, or police officer, thoroughly
trained in Iltsth the aimed
and ntsn-nimed
phases of a sidearm, has a wenpon
that is
superior
to n club, knife, blnckjnck,
or other type of individwtl weapon in close-qtmrter
fighting.
The. average individual will nlways be a little skepticfil of his
prowess if he has been trained only in the target, or aimed
fire, phase of hand gun em loyment. There is a vast difference
between the training and ?ormalized atmosphere
of the target
range and the scene of a gun battle or other combat situation.
In reality, after the target, aimed-shot
phase of training has
been completed
and the shooter becomes
familiar with his
weapon, he is only about 50~0 combat efficient, because the
conditions
under
which
most combat
shooting
occurs are
entirely different from those presented
in the bulls-eye type
of training.
In a gun battle, the utmost speed, confidence,
and ability to use the hand gun from any position—usually
without
the aid of sights—are
paramount.
The man who
can instinctively
handle his weapon q uiclcly and accurately,
in
varying
degrees of light, under all terrain
conditions
and
while under the physical and mental stress and strain of actual
combat,
stands a good chance
of avoiding
becoming
an
object of interest to the stretcher
bearer.
1. I
10[)
[.
1,
OR
(; 1[ I
1, I 1, [,1,1)
Visualize the first-cktss target snot in the following
combat situation:
It is darlc, he is in an alley, ~ poorly lighted
He can hardly see his gun
street, or a room in a building.
at arm’s length, to say nothing
of the sights. His muscles
are tense, his nerves lceyed up to a fighting pitch. Suddenly
the enemy starts shooting at him from an unexpected
quorter.
Even if he could see the sights, wordd he take ti7Jte to line
thm
up and fire at the enemy’s gun j?ash ? Does he take up
the trigger s/ack and sqz[eeze OH t/2e s/3ot as ]le has been taught
to do in target shooting?
Will he make sure that his feet
are properly positioned and that he is breathing correctly? He
certainly will not! He will grip his gun convulsively,
raise it,
point or shove it in the general direction
of tile enell)y, and
pull (not squeeze) the trigger. That is the natural, instinctive
thing to do. Most of the formalized
styles he has been taught,
for making good scores on paper targets, are dropped
by
the wayside and forgotten.
In daylight he will do exactly the
same thing, for it is still a znztter of “getting
there fmtesr
with the mostest lead.” Of course, when there is time, when
the enemy is moving away from him, when he is lying in
ambush, or when the range is great, the sights should be
used; but when being fired upon at close quarters, few men,
unless they have the attributes
of z superm~n, will take time
to use their weapons as they are trained to do on the target
range.
DEVELOPING
THE
ALLAROUND
COMBAT
SHOT
Few pistol shooters, whether
they are expert or only fair
at regulation
bull’s-eye
targets, are good all-around
comh~t
shots. The kind of training that makes fine scores on bull’seye targets does not produce skill in the lcind of shooting most
frequently
needed for man-to-man
combat. However,
to say
that skill with a hand gun acquired in the usual kind of tar~et
shooting is not desirable for the man who principfilly c~r~ies
his gun for use in combat, is a mistake.
To be the ideal all-around
combat shot, the shooter must
first have the necessary
Icnowledge
in the loading, maintenance and capabilirics
of his weapon; and he must be compet~nt in the use of his weopon when deliberate sighting shots
are possible. While target shooting skill is being acquired, he
naturzlly
becomes fnnliliar with his weapon; and after considerable training,
he is able to score hits at a considerable
range. Consequently
he call usc tllc wcapun
an enemy when he can take a deliberately
ciTectivcly agilinst
aimed shot.
The average hand gun user can do a much better job, when
using sighted shots ag~inst a live enemy,
if he uses both
hands, or a I-W, to steady the weapon. In some circumsutnces,
of course, time and local considerations
may prevent
him
doing so. The use of these expedients
to ermblc the shooter
to hold his weapon steadier may .be severely criticized by the
better-than-average
pistol shot, who can shoot as well in the
customary
one-hand position; but the psychologic~l
factors of
combat and the strain upon the muscular
and nervous systems of the shooter
must be compensated
for by the best
nvailable menns. In cxscs of extreme
physiml
cxh~ustion,
or
in situations in wl~ich there Ims been sudden physicnl exertion,
the pistol shooter, no matter how good he is, cannot use his
weapon
and malce an aimed shot as well with one hand
as he can with two, regardless
of how well he does under
ideal conditions
on the target range.
In many training progrfinls, the avernge trainee is not given
the time, nor clocs hc hfivc the n)oncy, inclinflri(m, or opportunity,
on his own, to perfect
n high degree of skill,
even in target shooting.
Usufilly, he fires only the course required by his department
regulations
find puts his gun back
in its holster.
Such a concept eventually
costs lives.
POLICE
DEPARTMENT
TRAINING
The law enforcement
oflicer must bc trained in the sanle
technique
as the soldier, and under like conditions,
if he is
to realize the most from his hand gun. A pistol or revolver
in the hands of a confident,
well-trzined
policeman will cause
more respect and be much more effective
than any other
weapon of similar size he can carry.
Those police departments
that provide a financial incentive
to increase shooting
efficiency
are on the right track; but
again too much emphnsis is placed upon bull’s-eye or silver
cup shooting
and too little on the more practical
training
~nd ranges which
will develop,
not
techniques,
programs
an occasional craclc-shot who can lcill fin encn]y at 200 yards,
but an average officer who cfin use I]is sidearnl quickly and
accurately
in most man-to-mon
con]bar. situations.
If the trainee is not interested
in target shooting as a sport,
in developing
Ilis Rlrgct
Ilc lt~ill not SIIOW’ lllucll cntl~usinslll
once his rookie training days arc over.
slcill with his sidcmm,
102
K I 1. 1, OR
(; 1;”1” 1{ 1 1. 1. It 1)
He will always question in his own mind the need for inrecreasing his sc[)rc frm]l X()’~0, or whntevcr his orgnnizmion
quires, to 90 or 95~6. Hc will realize tlutt such an increase
in his target sllootiqg
ability has little relation
to IIOW hC
will use his gun against an enemy who shoots IMC1{. However, the same trainee, who shows little interest in developing himself as a target shot, will readily sce tl)c advantages
of a training program thzt will enable him to use his gun in a
practical
manner in tense situations.
Practical
combat firing
training will enable him to use his gun effectively
at close
quarters, under conditions
which demand skill and accuracy,
without recourse to the sighted or aimed shot. Knowing
this,
he will apply himself accordingly,
because he can see the
personal
benefit
to hc derived
frolll such a Incthod
of
shooting.
Many police and military
police departments
encourage
and develop fine pistol teams, which in target competition
gain fame for their organizations.
It is argued that the reputation and attendant
publicity
given these teams will increase
respect for the law enforcement
agency in the eyes of criminal elements. This may be uue, but organizational
or indiof a few men are of little help to the
vidual reputations
average officer when he is actually involved in a fire fight.
Nearly every large police depat-tmcnt
has on hand records
of shooting
affrays with criminals
in which fin incredible
number of shots were fired at ch)sc range by both pnrties with
few if any casualties resulting.
Despite this conclusive
evidence of something
lacking in the training
programs,
relatively few departments
have taken steps to improve the combat efficiency
of the individual
officer with his sidearm.
Although
target shooting,
beyond
a certain point, will not
fill such n need, many departments
still try to adapt the
sport of target shooting to the realities of combat. Actually,
combat firing training is needed, to enable the officer to shoot
his weapon without the need of sights. Only thus can he become proficient with the hand gun.
In the past decade, a few of the more
forcement
organizations
have instituted
that have stressed
to some degree the
gun shooting,
without
the aid of sights.
that can be made of these departments
is
stressed it enough, that in some cases the
advanced
law entraining
programs
combat-type
hand
The only criticism
that they have not
training and shoot-
USE
OF
T1l E II AND
103
(7L7N
ing techniques
Imve not been the best, nnd that
officer does not achieve real, lasting proficiency.
the average
Some departments
hzvc called the courses in the combat
use of their sidearms “defensive shooting”;
yet the very word
“defense” is a misnomer when applied to any type of closccombat shooting in which the enemy returns the fire. A pure
definition of the term “defensive shooting” is: “fire returned
by an individual
after the enemy fires the first shot.” The
individual is then considered
to be shooting in defense of his
life. This often occurs in law enforcement,
without
any intent of the officer involved. In some cases, such instructions—
that is, to shoot only when shot at–have actually been issued
to law enforcement
officers in combating
known desperate
men. The result has been casualties among those who have
faithfully
tried to follow them. Fortunately,
in most cases,
the criminals involved
have been even less skilled than the
police in combat firing.
THE
FALLACY
OF DEFENSIVE
SHOOTING
We must recognize
that there is no such thing as “defensive” shooting where lives are at stake. This is as true in police
circles as it is in the armed services. When
a weapon is
primarily
cnrried for the e]inlinntion
or subjugation
of an
enemy ic ccmcs to bc clcfensive. Neither
wars nor individual
combat can be won by a defensive spirit. Rather, the nlLimportant
o~~cnsive spirit must bc developed
in the training
for ~ny type of combat work. l-his is true of hand guns.
Courses in the combat use of these weapons should be called
just that: Combat Shooting.
Once a man has a pistol or revolver in his hand, it should
be considered
that it is there for immediate
use against an
enemy. There should not be any hesitation
in using it if
conditions require its use. If the gun is in the hand, it should
be there for the pur ose of shooting. Otherwise,
it should be
left in the holster. I ! this seems to be too strong a statement,
it should be remembered
that a gun in the hand implies that
the trigger will be pulled—if the mere presence of the weapon
is not enough to stop the criminal. If this implication
were
not under:nmod by the criminal, there would be no reason
for the aDoearance of the weamm in the officer’s hand. If the
as a sporting
police offi;er considers his re~olver principally
weapon, a badge of authority,
or something
to be used only
i 0+
in self-defense,
basic sidearm.
1; I 1. 1.
OR
GK”[’
K1141.1:tl
he does not appreciate
the capabilities
of his
This deficiency
must be made up in training.
COMBAT
SHOOTING
What is meant by c]ose-quarter
combat shooting?
It is a
matter of record that the average hand gun shooting affrav
takes place at a distance not exceeding 20 feet. Any distant-e
not exceeding 40 feet can be considered
as close quarters in
the combat use of the pistal or revolver. Beyond that distance
the capabilities
of the average individual and of the weapon
show a marked decline.
This applies either when the sights are used or when they
are not. It must be remembered
that the enemy will seldom
remain stationary
and that many times the Ii ht and other
external conditions will be very poor, making s flooting conditions far from ideaL hluzzle blast from an enemy gun at close
quarters
will also have a decided effect on the shooter and
his accuracy,
particularly
if he is using aimed fire.
A study of the records of military and police comb~t use
of hand guns shows that use of these wcaprms falls into onc
of the following
categories,
listed in tile order of frequency:
( i ) Close quarters, where the firing
aid of, or without time for, the sights.
(z) Instances
is employed.
where
the deliberate
is done
without
the
type of aimed shooting
(3) Instances where the enemy fires the first shot without
warning and a draw of the weapon has to be made prior to
firing. In this category
of shooting
incidents,
many men
lose their lives without being given the opportunity
to shoot
back. If the enemy’s shot is a miss or is not incapacitating,
the draw is made and either combat type or the deliberate
aimed type of shooting is used, depending
on the situation.
(4) Circumstances
where the shooter and the enemy “go
for their guns” at the same instant, the one making
the
quickest draw placing the first shot. There are not many instances on record where a situmion such as this, reminiscent
of
the gunmen of the old West, has occurred;
but there have
been enough to justify, in varying degrees, the amount of
training given in quick draw to selected categories
of military and police units.
Principles of Combat Training.
fly proper
Aat ranges, wawkil[ing accuracy, without
training at COnzthe use of sights
Lsl;
and
dier
less
even
ol~
‘I’ll
K
11,!>[)
(;LS
1oj
with extreme speed, cm be acquired by the average so[or police oficer. This can be done in less time, and with
expenditure
of armnunition,
than is required
to beconle
n fair utrgct shot.
The training course must be bakmced, with equal emphasis
on the aimed shot and on combat type training. The combat
phase should not consist of shooting 50 shots every I z months
at silhouettes
hanging
in the target range, then no further
training
until another
year. After initial familiarization
and
training on the target range, the shooter should be required
to shoot regularly
a balanced
program
of both types of
shooting as long as he remains on the nctivc list. This kind of
shooting
pro~rml~ will cnnblc him to do the most effective
job when cnllcd on to shoot his wcaprm. At the smnc tinle
it will give him the confidence
in hi[nself and his sidemvn
that will carry him through
emergencies
successfully.
The training and combat shooting techniques described below have stood the test of recent battle and are based on
results achicvcd by all c:ltcgorics of troops in all imaginable
clOSc-cOltlbot simfitions.
It is assumed that in the vast majority
of cases involving
use of the sidearm,
the policenmn,
or soldier, will be forewarned and have his weapon already in his hand. This is a
sound assure ption because, in most situations,
hc will know
approximately
when he may have to use it.
This is the type of shooting
that is designed
to fill in
the training gap between the aimed shot find the close-quarter
use of tllc hand gun without aid of sights. Its objective is to
present
a method
of shooting
and training
whereby
the
average man, who is not too interested
in becoming
a good
target shot, can learn to use his hand gun more effectively m
a tool of his trade. It is a type of shooting based on a simple
common sense approach
and is adaptable
to the realities of
combat. A quick, offensive shooter can be developed by using
this technique,
with little expenditure
of money, ammunition
and training
time.
The best-descriptive
term for using the hand gun in combat without the aid of sights is shooting by “instinctive
pointmethod and should not generally
ing.” This is a close-quarter
be advocated
for distzrtces greater
than fifty feet. Combat
proficiency
at ranges of fifty feet and less will be attained by
using this technique,
Almost all pistol shooting affrays will
take place within this distance.
i 06
KILI.
ON GET
ICIL LED
Combat Firing vs. Target Shooting. Three
basic
exist between combat firing and target shooting:
differences
(:) in close combat work, the sights will not ordinarily be
used, due to lack of time, darkness or poor light conditions,
enemy fire, or other considerations.
To shoot without
the
sights, consider the frame of the gun merely as an extension
of the hand, and the barrel as an extension of ,the forefinger,
which you are able to raise and point instinctively,
accurately,
and naturally
at any close object. In other words, all that
is being done, is to add a gun to the hand, the barrel being an
extension
of the forefinger.
If, when looking
at an object,
you instinctively
rzise your hand, point the finger toward
the object and sight along your finger, you will find that the
forefinger
is pointing at it accurately.
This is a basic principle
in combat
shooting
of the hand gun without
the aid of
sights.
(2)
The basic position for all combat firing is w“th the
body in an aggressive forwmd crouch. When a man is in comcrouch.
bat or subject to enemy fire, he will instinctively
This is especially true when he is stealthily moving forward.
No one will have to tell him to assume a crouching
position
when he is being fired upon or expects to be fired upon. In
practice,
however,
he will have to be forced to assume this
basic firing position.
The crouch which he assurncs should be natural, with the
knees flexed and the trsdc
bent forward
aggressively
from
the hips. The position of the feet must be natural, and although he may ordinarily
pause when actually firing, he must
be able to take another
step in the target direction
in a
natural manner. Unnatural
and forced positions assumed in
practice are not desirable. Many shooters, when firing from a
crouch, negIect to put one foot in front of the other in a
natural manner. They are inclined to place their feet in a
straddle-trench
position
which,
although
seemingly
more
ideal in mactice. will not be instinctive
or normal in combat.
There dill be umes when immediate
circumstances
will not
allow the shooter to use the crouch, but in most cases this
will be his basic firing position.
The instinctive
pointing
method, however, can be equally accurate and effective from
an upright standing position.
(3) The grip on the weapon in actual combat, when firing,
extremeiy tight and convulsive, and double action is always
tmd when the revolver is carried. When a man is in combat,
is
(JS5!
01:
.rlIlt
ll,\sl)
(;11s
A
LOOSE
WRIST
[07
PERMITS
THIS>
3 ...... . . -------. . . . . . . . . -------..,
. . . . . . . -----.. . ..,-------. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .....----------
i=%f=!-s:.
I
hml~
~
A LOCKED
WRl~T
STRAIGtt
U-S-
, ,
‘“A
;.
. . . ~~
CKX4VlSLSl V& z D
---—
:
PISI”OL
OR
——
->
IUiVOL.VEI< Gl{l~
The grip on the weapon must be extremely tight, as it is in combat.
The wrist must be locked, since any flexing will result in extremes in
elevation, even at close range. The pistol or revolver must be gripped
in a vise-like manner in order to have COlltro] when more than one shot
is tired.
his muscles and nerves are tense, because of the excitement
and danger to which he is being mentally and physically subjcctcd. ‘1’here \vill hc no inc]imltion to tolcc a stance, rinse the
weapon, line up the sights, and squeeze the trigger when the
108
1; I 1, 1. 01{
~F,”~
KIJ.J.F,D
enemy is firing or about to fire at him. The shooter will
grip his weapon, exerting
great pressure when he fires it.
The Convulsive Grip. The extremely tight grip used in combat has a decided effect upon the accurate application
of the
weapon in the fire fight. This is due co difierent
pointing
qualities
of various
weapons
when
gripped
convulsively.
There are two general classifications
of these weapons. The
first is the .45 Colt Automatic
Pistol, the official Army issue.
It is in a class by itself with respect to pointing
qualities. In
the second category will be found the two well-known
makes
of revolvers, Colt, and Smith and Wesson, both of which are
generally
favored
by our law enforcement
organizations.
Then there are two popular
German
military
pistols, the
Luger and Walther.
The .45 cal. pistol has pointing
qualities unlike those of
any other weapon and it is because of these pointing qualities
that inaccuracy
often results in combat. When the .45 pistol
is gripped in a vise-like tnnnner by the shooter, the structure
of the weapon affects accurate
firing. The combination
of
the convulsive grip and the general structural
design causes
the barrel to point down when it is forcefully
shoved out at
the target, as it will be in combat when used by an untrained
combat shooter. This fact, although long known in sporting
circles, was not considered
until recently in training for its
combat use.
CONVULSIVE
GRIP
Note how the muzzle of the .45 automatic is pointing down, not
straight. This is what happens when the average shooter, engaged in
combat firing, shoves chc weapon at the target and instinctively uses a
cmnvulsivc grip.
1’>1.
INCORRECT
01
READY
‘1 II I
ll\\l)
OR CARRYING
(; (“ \
log
POSITION
From this carrying position, the weapon must bc shoved toward the
target in order to bring it into action. When the weapon is shoved
(orce(ully, as is done under combat conditions, the barrel will point
down, nrx straighr.
I:(jr
tlw
~)r{,~wr
I]ositiot]” scc }mgc
I I j.
Shoving
Weapon
at Target. When
the hand gun user carries his wenpon at any degree of a raised pistol position, which
is a habit he acquired on the target range, and he is suddenly
confronted
with a target at close quarters,
his nztural reaction is to shove tllc wcfipon at the target and pull the trigger. When hc dots this with the .45 flutonmtic,
the lmrrcl
110
KILL
OR GE”r
KILLED
RAISE PISTOL
READY
POSITION
From the raise pistol “ready” position, the revoIver will point horizontally if nor shoved forward too forcefully. The pistol points downunless the wrist is cocked.
Inaccuracy
will result, with either type
wc~pon, if the arm is shoved forward forcefully, to bring the hand gun
into action from d~c raised pistol position.
points down and a miss usually
distances of less than I o feet.
results,
sometimes
even
at
Any shooter can test this fact for himself by grasping the
.45 convulsively
as he would in combat,
holding
it in a
raised pistol position, picking out a target a short distance
away, closing his eyes, and shoving the pistol forcefully in
the direction
of the target. Upon opening his eyes, he will
see that the barrel is pointing down at a decided angle.
This structural
effect of the weapon must be counteracted
from the outset. It can be done in two ways: One is by equipping the gun with an adapter which will cause it to point
straight when shoved forward forcefully,
and the other IS by
developing
a slight upward cocking of the wrist to compensate for the barrel sIant. The latter method is used in target
shooting when the arm is outstretched,
but will not be used
instinctively
in combnt without
a great amount of practice.
USE
or
‘l’It];
ll,\~ll
(;UN
111
Neither
of the above expedients
will be necessary
if the
weapon
is carried
pointing
toward
the ground
at about n
45 degree angle from the body. Then, if the individual will
have his arm extended
and will raise the wespon to a level
with his eyes and fire it, he will do so accurately,
without
having to compensate
in any manner for the gun type.
When the Colt or Smith and Wesson, and the two German
automatics
mentioned,
are tested by the convulsive
grip,
raised pistol, shoving method,
they point more s uarely at
the target, and [he bnrrel remnills nlorc ncarl~ parn 1 lel to the
ground. These weapons will point satisfflctorily,
if not shoved
too forcefully
toward the target. This does not mean, however, that they should be fired in combat
by the raisedpistol, shoving method,
although
this method
is commonly
accepted
as a way of firing without
the sights. It is not
always accurate
and results in loss of control,
particularly
when the target is in any position except directly
in front
of the shooter.
When the gun arln is shoved forcefully
tu the front, the
structure
of the arm itself and the effect of the momentum
of the forward shove upon the wrist, when the arm becomes
fully extended, will cause the wrist to drop and the barrel to
point downward,
regardless
of the. structural
design of the
weapon. This effect in firing will occur with most individuals,
regardless
of the good pointing
quolities of any hand gun.
However
i~ is not so appnrcnt with tl)c revolver, as with the
colt .45 pistol. The combination
of the convulsive grip, the
structural
design of the various weapons, and the effects produced
when shoving
the weapon
forcefully
forward,
are
such that few men can use hand guns instinctively
and accurately
in com.bnt, when firing them in the above manner,
without
a prohibitive
amount
of practice.
The size and structure
of the shooter’s hand and arm and
the design and size of the grip of the weapon will also affect
accuracy
when the weapon
is fired by the point-shoving
method.
If possible, all weapons should be selected so that
they fit the individual’s
hand, whether
it be large or small.
However,
in the Army
and in large police organizations,
such practices m-c not always feasible. Rather, the hand must
fit the gun, not the gun fit the hand.
Position of Wrist. Bec~use one of the basic fundamentals
of
combat firing is shooting
with the weapon grasped convul-
Ii I 1. 1, () 1{ (; 1 “1’ 1;
112
In combat
gun
hand
“road
y”pa
taword
at
DON’T
firing,
any
degree
Under
shove
toward
pistol
reedy
af
carry
target
your
a raise
DON’T
sit ian.
the
11.1,11)
pistol
shave
it
,
combat
the
tansion,
tar~et
position
the
from
forceful
the
results
in
raise
th is-,
(’-’-(>F)
.--..
.
p..--
-. ,\-------------_-;2,H.A::
---F’
k
.:.,’
o
1
J
------
:“4d
------
-----’
----
y. ..~-------
~
‘o
Use
a downward
“ready.
hav~
elbow
~u~?b”’(’igh’)
‘x
position;
o locked
when
READY
wrist
you
raise
POSITION,
‘ .---<----
‘.
and
‘--.,
pistol
COMBAT
to’6ye
;:+’3
level
to
fire.
FIRING
the position of the wrist will exercise great influence
upo~ accur~cy.
At the time the trigger is pul~d, whether it
be a single shot or a burst, the wrist must be in a stmigbt
locked position and should not be flexed or “cocked.”
The
slightest variation of the wrist up or down from its straight
locked position creates a difference
in elevation of the barrel
of the weapon which is translated
into extremes m the impact point of the bullet, even though the target is very close.
Any cocked and locked, up-and-down
position of the wrist,
sively,
(7s1’
SHOOT
FROM
POSITION
[)1:
A FORWARD
ALLOWING
WRIST
AND
ELBOW.
RAISE
WEAPON
PROPER
‘Ill
1’
CROUCH,
ANOTHER
AND
THE
AND
113
(:(”x
FEET IN A NATURAL
STEP
WITH
SHOULDER
TO EYE LEVEL
READY
ll\\l)
AND
THE
A LOCKED
PIVOT
POINT-
LET 60
FIRING
POSITION
which is developed
to compensate
for the effect of the convulsive grip upon pointing
qualities of a particular
weapon,
such as the .45, is not advisable because ir cannot be used instinctively in combat without an extreme amount of practice.
Another
disadvantage
of the habit of cocking the wrist to
compensate
for the downward
pointing qualities of a specific
hand gun, such as the Colt .45 autom~tic,
when it is fired
by the pointing
nletl~od,
is thnt all gum
do not re~ct in the
Once
n certain
style
san]c way to the cocked wrist position.
of wrist COC!CIms been developed
for use on a particular
114
K [ L r, 01{ GET
KILLED
weapon, it will instinctively
be used on all types of hand
guns thereafter.
Because of different structural
characteristics
of hand guns and the effect of the convulsive
grip on them,
their pointing
qualities react differently
to a certain
wrist
adaption
or “cock,”
developed
for usc on one particulm
md{e and model of gun.
Forward Crouch. The best all-mound
method
for combat
firing without the aid of sights is as follows: the body is in a
forward crouch; the feet are in a natural position, permitting
another step forward.
To fire the weapon,
the shooter will
grip the weapon com.ndsively and with a straight
locked
wrist and el~ow (the pivot point being the shoulder joint),
raise the weapon from the ready position to a level with the
always should be raised high
eyes, and fire. The weapon
enough so that, at the time the trigger is pulled, the gun is
directly in the shooter’s line of vision to the target. Do not
let the shooter pause before firing, once the gun is at eye level.
The weapon should be carried in the ready position, with
an extended
arm poirlting
downward
at about a +5-degree
angle from the body. This does not mean that it will always
be carried with a convulsive
grip and the arm rigidly extended. It will ordinarily
be carried with the arm and hand
relaxed and the elbow slightly
flexed; but in all cases the
arm and elbow should be well out in front of tfle shooter.
ARM POSITION
IN RAISING
GUN
TO EYE
LEVEL
After initial practice, the hand
gun should be carried
in this
“ready” position.
The elbow is
slightly flexed, to prevent tiring.
It is an easy matter to straighten
tllc arm to the strfiight Ioclccd
position wllife tl:c glln is being
miscd to eyc Icvel.
UsE
OF
THE
HAND
GUN
IIJ
F~om this natural, relaxed, carrying
position it is very easy
to assume the srraight-arm,
locked-wrist
position before or
while raising the weapon for firing, This will be done naturally by the shooter;
no special emphasis will have to be
placed on it after initial training.
At the outset, the straight,
locked-wrist-and-elbow
ready
position should be emphasized,
so that the student can develop accuracy
and will understand
the shooting
principles.
Later on, after proficiency
is acquired,
he can be allowed to
carry his weapon in the more relaxed ready position in which
he will normally
carry it in potential
combat areas when
not actually firing.
Looking at the carrying
or ready position from the front,
it will be noted, in the training stage, that the gun arm ideally
PROPER
“READY’
RELATION
TO
POSITION.
THE BODY
The gun is carried toward the body
eye level and between the eyes.
WEAPON
CENTER
center
IN PROPER
AND EYES
and, when raised, it is at
KIL1.
116
(IR ~ET
KILLED
should be swung in toward
the body center and that the
wrist of the gun hand should be flexed slightly to the right,
so that a perpendicular
line could bc drawn fronl the belt
IIUCICIC,
through
the Inu!zdc of the wmpon,
the tip of the
nose, and exactly through the center of the forehead between
the eyes. If the shooter carries his weapon in this basic ready
position and raises it straight up until the gun is between his
eyes and the target, as he would in raising his hand to point
w.,
LET
THE
MOVEMENT
/=&&/J
CHANGE
\
OF POSITION
If the weapon is always kept in the same relative position to the
From the basic
eyes and body, ,you will shoot where YOU look.
“ready” or cmrymg
position, the shooter wheels his body for angle
shots. Tile gun is brought up ro . . .
USE
THE
OF
11/\ND
117
GUN
at an object, windngc automatically
takes care of itself. The
elevation will always be accurate as long as the shooter raises
the weapon so that it is ot eye level when it is fired.
The basic position, with the gun llcld in LIocly ccntcr and
the wrist slightly
(Icxcd to the right, slluuld be mnintaincd
throughout
the cnrly training stage. Later, as proficiency
develops, the shooter will adapt his own particular
ready posi-
T--WR”NG
‘-u-..
WHEN
‘“
/;
,
/
‘7 h?%’
.-
‘ 8
z
5HOULOER
JOINT
$
IS
PC)INT
FOR
., ; , \,
IN
P
,,
‘//;;’
Ill / ),.,,’
II,JU!I
CHANCES
ARE
CHANGE:
DIR ECTl
ONE
ON,
THE
OF A HIT
OUT
OF THREE
You R SHOT
PASS
-
PIVOT
cAtd
EITHER
6E-
FOR OR BEHINO ulM
wHEN
YOU SWING
L
YOUR
CHANGE
OF POSITION
the eye (firing) level during the time that
is made.
To hit angle tmgcts without changing
arm; point the body at the target.
ARM
(Continued)
the change in body direction
direction,
don’t
swing
the
118
KILL
OR GET
KILLED
tion, which may not carry the weapon as near to body center
as the ideal. However,
if he still gets the weapon up to the
firing position so that it is in line with the eyes and target,
and if he is making hits, no correction
need be made.
Pointing the Body. The individual who shoots in this manner is directly
facing the target and firing in the direction
his body is pointing. In other words, with the wrist and elbow
locked and the arm extended and maintained in the same relationship to the body center and eyes, he will shoot where he
looks. In firing at a target dkectly
in front of him, it will
be necessary
only to raise the weapon from the ready position, using the shoulder as a pivot point, and fire.
Whenever
the shooter is forced to fire at a target which is
not directly at his front, he need only wheel his body so that
he is directly
facing the targe~
then fire. In other words,
the body points the weapon, and as long as the same relationship beween
the weapon, the body center, and the eyes
is maintained,
accuracy
will result. He will shoot where he
looks if he points his body at the target instead of swinging
his arm.
When the shoorer wheels his body to make an angle shot,
the gun hand should be brought
up to eye level while the
body is changing direction.
The shooter should not raise his
weapon to eye level and then wheel; nor should he wheel
and then raise it. To make either of these movements
prior
to, or after, the actual wheeling
of the body complicates
the
action and makes the shooting more difficult, since a separate
movement
must be mastered.
Most shooters,
when making
angle shots, will automatically
raise their weapons gradually
upward in a curve so that the gun is at eye level at the time
the body comes to a stop in the new direction.
It is usually
not necessary to stress this in practice since most shooters do
it automatically.
Naturally,
a correction
will have to be made for those who
are observed trying to make two separate niovernents
(body
and arm) when the change in body pointing direction occurs.
A few shooters, when they change body direction,
will force
the arm separately,
so that the body and arm are not synchronized.
When this occurs, the basic body-center
weapon
relationship
will not be maintained.
To demonstrate
the desirability
of wheeling
the body instead of swinging the arm, to shoot at a target which is at a
right or left angle, place yourself so that your body is facing
USE
01:
ALTERNATE
TIII?
II AN II GUN
FIRING
119
POSITION
r-
ELBOW
SLIGHTLY
FLEXED
BUT LOCKED
\
\\
The firing posirion with the slightly bent and locked elbow can be
used, but more practice will be needed than when using the straight arm
method. The p&ition shown by the shaded arm is be~t for the ~verage
shooter.
at a right or left angle from a chosen target. Instead of turning your body to face the target, and raising the weapon to
fire, merely
turn the head and swing the arm forcefully
from the right or left toward the target. It will be apparent
that it is very difficult to swing your arm horizontally
in a
new direction and stop it in time to obtain the proper windage
for accurate
firing. This is especially true in combat. Ordinarily, two-thirds
of the shots will be fired at the target either
before the weapon
reaches it or after it has passed across
it and is on the other side. You can’t make your arm stop
in the same place twice without
excessive practice.
After
the advantages
of using the body
this simple demonstration,
to do the actual pointing
of the weapon
at angle targets
should be apparent.
1.?0
Kll,
Usc
l,
a locked
01{
1<1 J, I.ED
GE’~
wrist
ond
o locked
elbow.
.
-“
--
---
~--
1---;&+==-----------. #-
---
---”
~.-
~.
-----
----
---
~il)
b
1
1
11>)
‘-
----
-.
___
/J’~/
+&@’,
“’’’,,.
--
“-
‘1
Morgin
of
error
-
‘.
possible
with
o flexed
.
wrist.
---.
—
——
1
-—
__-_>
‘%)-----—-
Morgln
o? error
possible
with
o flexed
--—
----
elbow.
/)
The elbow and wrist must be kept ltruigbt and locked for consistent
shooting. A slight movement of the wrist from the locked straight position will result in cxtrcmcs of elevation, even at close range. To a lesser
degree the bent elbow has rhc same effect.
There is another slight variation of the method of shooting
by instinctive
pointing which is used successfully
by a number of shooters.
However,
it takes considerably
more practice to acquire the sanle degree of accuracy
and proficiency.
The only difference
between
it and the method
discussed
above is that at the time of firing the arm is not in a straight
USE
(JF
‘rl[E
II AND
GUN
121
locked position,
but rather the elbow is slightly bent and
locked. The arm is still well out in front of the body. This
method is favored by certain shooters because it brings the
barrel of the weapon to a horizontal
position at a point half
way between
the ready position and eye level. This allows
the shooter to bring the weapon into play a frnction
of a
second sooner than if he raised it the remaining
distance, as
he does in the straight arm method. Although
some shooters
favor this method because of the time elemen~ the fraction
of a second saved in bringing
the weapon into play is not
enough of an advantage to justify its adoption by the average
shooter.
Shooting from the Hip. Although
the method
of shooting
by instinctive
pointing has been called hip shooting, it is not.
A pure definition
of the term hip shooting is: “the type of
shooting done when either the wrist or the elbow is pressed
or held tightly
against the side or center of the body at
hip level at the time of firing.” There are many who can shoot
accurately
at targets on a horizontal
level from the hip position, but it is not a method by which the ordinary individual
can achieve proficiency
without a prohibitive
amount of practice.
There are numerous
disadvantages
in the hip method. Facing the man who fires from the hip, it will be noted that the
barrel (gun hand resting on hip) is usually pointing
about
eight or i o inches to the right of the body center, hence to
the right of the line of vision. This does not help accuracy
and will have to be compensated
for in practice.
The hip
shooter will also be unable to fire at targets above his natural
eye level from this position. He will be forced to extend his
arm and raise it to shoot at high targets. It is awkward
and
impractical
to shoot from the hip position when the body is
in a crouch.
In this position,
the shooter is forced to extend his arm. Bulky clothing,
ammunition
belts, and such,
interfere
with placing the elbow or wrist firmly against the
hip in the same place each time the weapon is fired. All such
minor considerations
cause changes in eIevation which will
influence accuracy,
especially at distances greater than ro feet.
Using Your Own Weapon. Although,
above, the .45 pistol
has been mentioned
specifically,
the principles and the system
of firing discussed are the same regardless
of the kind or
caliber of weapon, whether
it be automatic
or double action
revolver. It is only common sense to advise that it is always
THIS
‘“OFF
POSITION
TO
f3A1-AtNc~”
NECES5ARY
SHOOT
AT
HIGH
TARGET.
HIP
SHOOTING
from the hi~ at targets above or below
YOU can’t shoot accurately
the horizontal.
Except wh& firing to th~ front, ~he arm will usoally
have to be extended in order to get accuracy,
as in the instinctive
pointing method.
best
to
carried
practice
in actual
with
combat,
the
weapon
if it can
which
be
will
determined.
be
used
A
gun
and
is
club. Different
makes of guns and revolvers, like various kinds and sizes of clubs, feel different in
the hand of an individual.
The balance and feel of one particular weapon
will usually appeal more than any of the
others. Whenever
possible, let each shooter choose hk own
like
a favorite
golf
USE
OF
TIIE
II ANtl
GUN
123
LIKE THE FLEXED
WRIST- AN UiUXKED
ELBOW PERMITS
EXTREMES
IN
ELEVATION
I
I
I
HIP
SHOOTING
(Continued)
There
are too manv danper Doints affectirw accuracv
in this type
firing. A prohibi~ve a~ou~t of mactice ‘is necess~rv to achieve
of
any deg-ree of “combat proficiency by ‘this method.
‘
weapon.
For psychological
reasons, a man will have more
confidence
in a weapon
of his own choosing;
hence the
weapon will have a direct bearing on his proficiency
in practice and in combat.
TRAINING
METHODS
In training groups of men in combat firing, it is very important that the proper introduction
be given. In the introductory phme, the differences between target firing and combat firing must clearly be defined. Each must be put in its
proper perspective.
It must be stressed that each way of firing complements
the other, to malce the ideal hand gun user,
124
KILL
OR GF. T KILLED
HIP
SHOOTING
(Continued)
It is diilicult :0 master
this
method of shnoting, where
the
elbow is bent as much as shown
above, or when it is resting on
It is hard to achieve,
the hip.
tl~rough
‘
ways to ~~$c%et%b~$%
;:
same angle under combat condi.
tions.
[t is advisable to show the various methods of combat firing
and to explain why one method is superior to another. American shooters, more than those of any other nationality,
have
to be shown the whys and wherefores
of anything
they use
personally,
especially
when it is to be their basic combat
weapon.
Define the term “instinctive
pointing”;
then let each student
raise his arm and point toward any object, sighting along his
finger to see the accuracy
with which he instinctively
points
at the object. Then explain that this is the basis of combat
firing.
Ideally, before a group of men is introduced
to combat
firing, they should have completed
the target phase of instruction
and be familiar with the weapons which they are
going to use. The three basic differences
between
target
work and combat work must be clearly explained and demonstrated. If the men are to use the .45 pistol, the effect of the
convulsive
grip upon the weapon’s
pointing
quaIities must
especially be emphasized.
Each student should make for himself the simple test described
above, so that he can see the
effect of the tight grip on the weapon when it is shov~d toward the target. It should be brought
out that, from the
USIL
OF
“IJIK
II ANLI
(;UN
125
raised pistol position, other hand guns, when shoved at the
target, will react in the same manner in lesser degree.
All members of the group will not have the same degree
of familiarity
with hand guns and their firing, but all, including the dyed-in-the-wool
target shooting
advocates,
must be
convinced
of the limitations
of sighting
methods
in close
combat.
Every possible means must be used to dew-lop an aggressive
spirit in the hand gun user. In the “fire fight” the shooter
should always be going in toward the enemy. If he remains
stationary,
he is a better target. If he fires and keeps advancing, he is harder to hit, and the psychological
effect on the
enemy is great, even if he misses. Tell him, right off the bat,
that he can get shot just as easily bzcking
away from an
enemy as walking toward him.
The Safety Habit. As in any type of shooting,
the safety
factor must be stressed. However,
in combat work the emphasis can not be too great, because training
methods
and
practice
will include pointing
the gun at other individu~ls,
as is necessary in conll)at. It must be impressed upon the student that he must never point his gun at another student until
so instructed.
The importance
of automatically
checking
the
weapon for live ammunition
each time it is picked up must
be drilled in from the very start. The student should do this
until checking the firearm, whenever
it comes into the hand,
is instinctive.
Impress upon the student
that he is checking
the piece not only because of the safety factor, but also because, prior to possible combat,
he should be sure that the
weapon he will use is loaded.
One of the most direct methods
of ingraining
the safety
habit in men who have not Dreviouslv been associated with
weapons
of any type is the ‘followin~:
Get a large leather
paddle, such as is popular in a college fraternity
house, and
hang it where every one can see it. Make it a rule that any
man who carelessly or thoughtlessly
points his gun at another
without
being told to do so by the instructor,
will have it
used on him in the traditional
manner by the man at whom
is direct and is much
he pointed the gun. Such a method
better than a mere reprimand
by the instructor.
It will serve
to make the shooter safety-conscious
in a short time.
Combat Shooting. A ve~y successful
means of introducing
combat shc oting is to line the students up against the butts
and have the instructor,
from a distance of not more than
xo feet in front of the group, fire a foot or two to either
126
KILL
OR GET
KILLED
side, or above their heads. This will demonstrate
the effect
of muzzle blast and will give a picture of what a gun looks
like from the receiving
end. Naturally,
this must be carefully executed
by reliable shooters;
but it will serve better
than anything to put the student in the proper frame of mind
for an introduction
to combat
shooting.
Then
it is only
necessary to ask any dyed-in-the-wool
tmget enthusiast in the
group if he would have deliberately
raised his gun and used
the sights against an enemy who was shooting
at him from
close ranges in such a manner.
The question of how he would react in the face of firing
directed toward him, and of whether his reactions would be
the same as in practice, has often arisen in the shooter’s mind.
The answer is Yes; the reaction
will be the same, because
practice will make firing instinctive
and he will not realize
that he is actually
being fired upon. This is best shown by
the following
example:
A spectator
watching
one of the
famous Army infantry assault courses–in
which live charges,
live grenades, and live rounds of ammunition
are fired around
the men participating
in the course-asks
himself if he would
actually be able to take such a course. From his viewpoint,
it looks very spectacular;
and the element of danger thrown
in by live ammunition
strilcing close to his feet, charges
bursting around him, and all the other battle effects, is very
real. The same spectator,
once he enters upon such a course,
is so intent on firing his own weapon,
throwing
his own
grenades and reaching
his objective,
that he does not notice
the various charges bursting around him. In general, this explains a man’s reaction in combat. He is so intent on his own
job that, after the initial effect, he is not bothered.
He does
not think about what is going on around him but concentrates
on his mission.
During
a demonstration
of the right and wrong way to
shoot without
the aid of sights, a small toy gun, which can
be purchased
at most toy counters and which fires a wooden
dart with a rubber suction CUD on the end. can be used to
illustrate the effects of various ‘body, arm and wrist positions
upon accuracy.
It will give the student visual proof at the
outset. Such toy guns, or small B13 pistols, can be issued to
students
during the dry-run
phase and will help speed up
individual proficiency.
Using the suction tipped darts against
a full length mirror, where the student can see his own mistakes and can aim at the reflection
of his own body, will
help a great deal. The darts will stick on the mirror at the
USL
01”
lIIB
TRAINING
11..\Nl)
GUN
127
AIDS
These are valuable and readily procurable tmining aids. The toy gun
with the rubber-ti~pcd dart is available at most toy stores. The rubber
knife and the millt~ry-type
tent peg also are easily obtained and are
useful in teaching knife dcfcnsc.
point of impact, showing
where the bullet would have hit
if a gun had been used. Basic errors are much more easily
corrected
with
training
of this type.
Even
after actual
proficiency
has been achieved, the toys can be used for practice with or without
the mirror. Shooters can also use them
when ranges are unavailable.
Practically
all basic firing principles can he proved with these toys.
Actual
ractice for the student
should
roceed in somewhat the [ ollowing manner. He should be Yaced initially at a
distance of not more than 6 feet from a fu r1 length mirror, or
facing a fellow student who will act as a coach. He should
then be told to assume a crouching
position.
He must be
checked to see that he has a natural foot position for a forward crouch (either right or left foot may be forward).
To
ascertain whether
the position is natural, have him advance
four or five steps rcmurining in the crouch. He should walk
128
1<I 1. I.
OR GET
KII. LI’. I)
This is the normal grip used by the target shooter. The thumb is
extended along the side of the frame, so that the weapon can be held
steadier.
GRIP FOR COMBAT
SI-IOOTING
when
double
action
is
This is the best grip to use in combat shooting,
the only method of firing used. TIIC thumb, in this case, touches the
second finger. This is a better grip to use when the gun is grasped
tightly.
evenly, without
any bouncing
effect caused by bending the
knee joint and raising the body up and down.
Once the instructor
is certain that the shooter has assumed
a natural crouching
position, he should check to see that the
body is bent forward from the hips in an aggressive manner.
The student’s right hand and arm should be forward in the
45-degTee-angle
ready position. The right shoulder must not
be shoved too far forward;
it is as nearly parallel to the
left as is natural. It should be explained that this is the basic
ready position and that the student need only raise hk arm
and point in order to fire at the target.
The student should practice
about x5 minutes raising his
arm (to eye level) and pointing
his finger from the ready
usK
THUMB
OF
AND
TIIE
II AND
FOREFINGER
GUN
129
POSITION
These downward views of the gun hand show the proper position of
the we~pon with respect to the thumb and forefinger. In both cases the
hand gun points straight and the gun bisects the angle between thumb
and trigger finger.
position. When the instructor
is satisfied that he has mastered
the fundamentals,
he may be given a weapon and the same
type of practice should be continued,
with the trigger being
snapped when the gun is raised to a point where it is in line
with the target. The loclced wrist and elbow must be checked
continually
during this period. If the toy dart gun is used,
or cocking
his wrist or elbow,
let the shooter try dropping
so that he may sce the effect of this action upon the impact
points of the dm-t.s.
COLT
DETECTIVE
.38 CALIBER
SPECIAL
MODEL
SMITH
SAFETY
AND WESSON
.38 CAL.
HAMMERLESS
MODEL
When li~ht, fairly heavy caliber guns of the types above are used on
double action, they often are hard to control after the first shot. The
grip of the weapon is usually best taken by placing the little finger under
the butt, so as help prevent the gun from bucking too much. Guns of
these types usually have smaller grips than larger models, making possible
the style of grip described here.
130
KILL
ORG1l’lKILLIZD
After he has mastered these first steps, the student should be
made to advance toward the mirror, raising his weapon and
firing as he walks, because, in reality, the stationary
position
is only the pause for firing which he malces if he is walking
forward
with his weapon
ready for any enemy who may
appear. Care must again be taken to check for the bouncing
habit as the student walks forward
in his crouching
position.
After the instructor
is satisfied that the student is qualified
and is doing the dry-run
properly,
he should have him face
away from the mirror at right angles and allow him to wheel
and snap the weapon at his mirror image.
Movement of the Feet. Any tendency
to swing the arm and
not point the weapon by the body, when turning to look at
the target, should be stopped immediately.
The question of
how the shooter should move his feet, when usin
his body
to point the weapon, will arise. Because of the di 4 erent positions in which the feet will be when firing in combat, the
shooter
should
change his body direction
by moving
his
feet in any natural manner. To wheel to the right, some men
will start off by shoving the left foot forward;
others will
bring the right foot around to the rear, using the left as pivot.
Either is correct as long as the desired change in body direction is accomplished.
Stay away from any set method of
SPECIAL
ROPER
STOCKS
This Colt Banker’s Special is equipped with a special
Roper Stock. This type of stock affords a better grip on
the weapon, because of irs design and larger size. A grip
of this type on the small hand gun gives better control in
double action combat shooting.
USE
OF
THE
HAND
GUN
131
changing body direction.
Terrain is uncertain,
and the actual
position of the feet in combat may not always be the same.
There may be times when the feet cannot move at all, but the
body can still be twisted to get necessary accuracy.
which
involves
The method
used by some instructors,
jumping instead of a natural foot movement
to change the
body direction, is not advisable because of uneven ground and
the possibili~
of losing balance and a sense of direction.
You can’t jump and always land in the same place.
During practice in wheeling or changing
direction
of fire,
it is well to let the student demonstrate
to himself how much
better this body pointing method really is by allowing him
to face at a right or left angle from the target. Then, instead of wheeling his body, have him swin
his arm from the
right or left toward the target. The difficu Yty of stopping the
swing of the gun arm, so that accurate windage will be maintained, will then become apparent.
Next the student
and made to wheel
can be placed with his back to the mirror
conlplctely
:Irounci to fire It his reflection.
After this last exercise the desirability
of firing always with
the arm extended, the gun raised to a point in line with the
eyes and target, and letting the body do the actual pointing of
the weapon, should be apparent. The question of what is the
proper position for the free hand (left for a right-handed
shooter) , will be asked. It is best that it be used for maintaining balance or carrying otl~er equipment,
such as a grenade or
flashlight. Set positions for this Imnci shoulci not be empilasized, although
some coaches do make the student place his
ieft hand on the inside of the left thigh so as to square the
body. This will work all right in practice, but it is not naturai
and will not be used instinctively
in combat.
silhouette Firksg. After not less than three hours of “dry”
work, in which the fundamentals
have been mastered,
the
shooter may be allowed to fire live rounds at a M silhouette.
ln the i~troduction,
or prior to actual firing, the student
should be told that the most vulnerable
part of an enemy’s
is his mid-section.
When
firing at silhouettes,
all
anatomy
shots should be concentrated
in this area. If the impact point
of the buiiet is a little high or low, to tile left or right of
the navel, it wili stiii be a man-stopping
shot. When a hit is
scored in the mid-section,
no matter how siight, the psycoIogical, as well as the physical, effect is very great.
In combat
firing,
it is usually
advisable
to fire either
the
KILL
132
HAND
GUNS
OR GET
FOR
KILLED
CONCEALED
POSITIONS
These types of hand guns are easily carried in concealed positions, such as coat pockets. The police officer
who approaches suspicious automobiles or persons will
do WC1l to have his hancl on a weapon of this type.
These guns are relatively inexpensive and often provide “cheap” life insurmlcc, when shooting starts from
an unexpected quarter.
pistol or the revolver in bursts of two, and during the dry
run and actual practice the trigger should always be pulled
twice. A study of the spacing of the two-shot
burst on a
silhouette
will show that, even when a weapon is fired from
a convulsive grip, the shots will be spaced from 6 to 8 inches
apart, and on approximately
the same horizontal
level. This
spacing, which is caused by the recoil of the weapon when
two quick shots are fired successively,
provides an additional
hitting probability . This is a good reason why it should be
used in combat z ring.
It is a good idea to have the silhouette
target hanging, or
suspended above the ground, so that its center is at approxi- ‘
area. Place the
mately the same level as an enemy’s stomach
student, initially, not over 8 feet from the silhouette.
Have
him assume the crouch position, with his weapon at ready,
USM
OF
“rHE
HAND
[33
GUN
and let him raise his arm to fire in bursts of two. He should
then lower the arm again to the ready position, then raise it to
fire another burst. Never allow the gun arm to remain pointing at the silhouette
between bursts, because the student can
easily observe where the first bursts hit and move his arm
accordingly.
In combat, it is the first shots that count. There
will often be no opportunity
to observe a miss and to correct it. This point should be emphasized;
the student should
consider each time hc raises his arm, fires, and lowers it a$ain
m a separate shooting
incident.
In this way hc will zclucve
proficiency
with first bursts.
Common Errors.
muse be corrected
The following
at the outset:
are collunon
errors
which
(I) If the groups of shots are consistently
hitting the lower
portion of the silhouette,
it indicates that the shooter is not
raising the weapon high enough, so that the barrel is parallel
with the ground
surface; or that he is shoving the weapon
at the target, causing the barrel to point down.
(2) If the shots are scattered
over the silhouette,
a loose
wrist
is usually
to
blame.
~3) If the group is consistently
to the left, the shooter’s
grip on the weapon
is wrong,
or he is shoving his right
shoulder
too far forward
when he raises his arm to shoot.
If hc is using a double-action
revolver,
he may be slapping
the trigger on the right side, causing the gun to point left
when it fires.
(4)
A loose grip on the weapon,
as WCI1 m a failure to
lock the wrist or elbow, wilI also result in the shots being
widely scattered.
(5i Some shooters may bounce up and down by springing
at the knees every time they fire. This is not a natural moven]cnt and must be corrected.
(6)
When bringing
the weapon back down to the ready
position after firing, many shooters
let the weapon
swing
down until it is pointing directly at the feet. This is dangerous.
The coach must check to see that the gun arm stops at no
less than a 450 angle in practicing
the ready position.
Advanced Training. When the shooter has mastered his first
firin lesson and is consistently
placing his shots in the center
of t{ e silhouette,
so that the group is no larger than ten
inches, he can be gradually
moved backward
until he has
reached a distance of not over 50 feet. This incremc in the
range must be gradual and done in not less than three steps.
I 34
1< 11.1.
01{
GE”l’
KILLED
II ANI)
GUN
135
GROUP TO LEFT
OROINAQILY
CAWEDWY:
& 1. [email protected]
_MD ARMAT TIMEff FIRING .:
[email protected]
~ 2. ShULLm Rm+’mcrmrm
,.
GROUP-TO
!4
RIGHT
C/jJSED BY IMPROPER .GRIP
.
JSUAtiY A RESULT
DF A SA4ALLHAND
- [AND sy37T TmGCER FiffiER
:>
DIS1’ERSION
Wl]enever
should
possible,
fit the
gun.
with a small grip,
OF SI-IOTS
the
The
who
[land
shooter
carries
I
hand gun with
coo large
often overshoots
to the right. This
is because he cannot
weapon
a grip,
so grasp
that the tang is in the
of the thumb and forefinger.
the
V
(Continued).
Point 2 above al>l]lies
here. Th.
.,
man with 3 small hand who shoots
a weapon, the grip of which is too
kqy,
is often unable to get his
trigger finger far enough around
the trigger to pull straight back
on double action. He then “slaps”
the trigger
with the tip of his
trigger
finger. This results in a
shot group to the left.
Consistent
hits in the center of the silhouette
must be made
each time before he moves further
away from the target.
From the m~ximum 50-foot distance, a ~roup which can be
covered
by the spread of two hands IS very satisfactory.
After the strictly
frontal firing stage has been mastered by
the shooter, move him back to the eight-foot
station and have
him practice firing at the silhouette from right and left angles,
each time mal<ing a complete body turn, to get his windage.
The wheeling action should be begun from the ready position. The weapon should be brought
u
naturally,
so that
ShOU r d be pulled
at the
it is at eye level, and the trigger
time when the ~ody faces its target. After the shooter can
136
KILL
01< GSi’1
KILLED
consistently
place the bursts in the body center from both
right and left angles, repeat the process of increasing
the
range.
In actual firing, the speed with which the arm is raised
and the weapon is fired from the ready position must be slow
in the beginning.
It can be increased
as proficiency
grows.
However,
after considerable
practice, each individual shooter
will find out for himself the speed with which he most accurately brings his weapon into play. Naturally,
this will increase with practice, but the average shooter will do well not
to try to force himself
to get his weapon into play so fast
that he loses control.
To repeat, combat
firing and target firing are different
types of shooting.
This difference
must be strongly
emphasized. The objective
of target shooting is to be able to
achieve a good score on a bull’s eye target and to be able to
use an aimed shot in combat. Its training methods and practices are principally
directed toward this goal. On the other
hand, the objective
of combat firing is to shoot the enemy
before he shoots you. It is difficult to draw a clear-cut line
between
the two types
of firing,
but the well-rounded
shooter should be trained in both phases. Each complements
the other.
Training Suggestions. After basic combat-firing
training has
been completed,
variations and more advanced shooting problems can be given to the shooter. Additional
training suggestions and techniques, which will be of practical use in combat,
and the completion
of which will increase the combat proficiency of the shooter, are as follows:
8 or I o feet apart and
(I) Place two or more silhouettes
let the shooter fire first at one and then at the other, using
his body to do the actual pointing.
(2)
He should be able to shoot and hit any man-sized object as long as he can see its outline, regardless of the light.
Make him shoot in all degrees of light. Targets which should
be used include: silhouette
targets–which
come u from the
ground, out from behind corners, over the tops o r walls, out
of windows, from behind trees, from places higher and lower
than the shooter;
and running-man
targets.
(3) ThrOugll
repeated
experiences
in night shooting with
the hand gun, it has been found that the shooter instinctively
fires at gun flashes of his enemy. This provides a real reason
for moving,
rolling, or otherwise
getting
out of the area
of your gun flash the moment you fire. If, in darkness, a gun
USE
OF
THE
HAND
137
GUN
flash looks oval (the shape of a football)
you will know that
the enemy is firing directly at you from your front. If on the
other hand, the gun flash is a streak, you will know that the
shooter is firing from mt angle and that you are not directly
facing each other.
(4) Teaching
a man to reload his wenpon quickly is often
neglected. Skill in reloading can be attained only by practice
among students, to see which
and by establishing competition
one reloads ithe f astest. This should be practiced
slowly at
first, with the tempo speeded up after proficiency
has been
reached. This practice should also hc done in pitch darkness.
(5) Students should be instructed
in two-handed
firing for
TWO-HANDED
GRIP
The type of two-handed grip used by the shooter should be tbc one
that fits and feels best. Ihcb shooter should experiment to find the one
best suited to his weapon md his bands.
KNEE REST
In this position, the arm resting on the knee is far forward,
the elbow is not the point of support.
more
satisfactory.
Some shooters
so that
find this position
138
1 {11.1. OR
PRONE
Gl?”l’
K1l. LED
SHOOTING
Prone shooting nt Inng rmgc should bc practiced by all law enforcement officers. fhch ofliccr should do enough shooting to know his limitations and capabilities, in accuracy and range.
sighting shots. They should be shown how
long, deliberate,
to take advantage of such cover as telephone poles, posts and
windows. They should be shown the proper method of prone
firing in a two-handed
rest position. The student also should
be instructed
in, and allowed to practice, firing with his left
hand (that is, the hand not naturally
used). Sometimes
the
right hand is put out of action and it should then be possible
for the man to use his gun at close quarters in his other hand.
(6)
Give the student
all sorts of practical
problems,
in
which he is walking in one direction and is forced to fire at
a right or left angle from his line of march. Change the size
of the silhouettes
from ~ to head and shoulder size as his
proficiency
increases.
(7) Place rubble and all types of debris in his path, such
as he would find in a dirty back yard or alley. Over this uncertain footing,
let him advance
toward
the target, firing.
This provides good simulation
of combat conditions.
Even
here his eyes should be constantly
on a possible target and
not on his feet.
(8)
Give him firing problems where he will not be able to
turn his feet, but must twist his body to clmngc the angle of
fire.
[.:
II AXI}
(; 11 N
FIRING
139
FROM
SITTING
POSITION
Range
practice
like
which
simulates
firing
the seat of a car at an
this,
from
angle
good addition to
any practical
combat training
program.
‘a%et~
S[-1OOT1NG
AROUND
BARRICADE
Is .a
A
Range practice such as this
is valuable, to simulate shooting around the door or edge
of a building. The thumb of
the hand
against
the
wall
forms supporr for the gun
%and.
(!)) Give shooting exercises where he will fire at sound in
complete darkness. Teach him to fire and roll, arm extended,
when shooting
from the prone position under these conditions.
( IO) In the initial phases of instruction,
when live rounds
of ammunition
are used, a ktr e dirt bank against which silhouettes can be placed is usefu Y, because misses can be spotted
i 4U
on the bank.
other objects
KII.
L
OR
Gk’1’
K1l.1.l;l)
If silhouettes
are unavailable,
can be laid ~gainst the bank.
boards,
boxes,
or
(II)
Night
training
can be accomplished
against a dirt
Have
the lens of the flashlight
bank by using a flashlight.
specially covered,
or adjusted,
so that it throws a clear-cut
spot
about 18 inches in diameter.
The coach should stand
directly behind the shooter and flash the spot on the bank at
various places. The shooter will fire at the center of the light
circle on the bank. The bullet im act can be observed without
P
too much trouble.
This is a sunple but valuable form of
practice which does not involve too much in the way of
training aids.
( 12)- Don’t ever try to teach a man the combat use of a
hand gun, when only a few practice rounds and limited time
are available, by allowing him to shoot at a standard bull’seye target. Missing the bull’s-eye makes him feel that he is
not handling the weapon accurately.
He will have no confidence in it.
If you have a group
which
IMS never previously
fired
weapons and you have avail~ble only a few hours for training
in shooting
before they are expected
to carry and use the
gun, the following method is successful. Show them the rudiments of the proper stnncc for firing froln a stnnding position.
Let them grasp the pistol for firing as they would in the instinctive pointing type of shooting,
using a stiff arm and a
tight, almost convulsive,
grip—which
will be the instinctive
grip in combat. Instead of using a target, let them practice
firing using the sights and pointing the gun at silhouettes
at
a distance of not more than 5 yards. Even the poorest student
will score a fair percentage
of hits on the silhouette. He will
then feel he can hit a man if forced to. His confidence,
in
himself as well as his weapon, will be greatly increased.
(r 3) In combat shooting,
the shooter should always fire
his weapon from a stationary position. To attempt to hit a
running target while the shooter himself is in motion is foolhardy. It generally would be just as well to throw a handful
of rocks. Aimed shots fired at moving
targets
(such as a
man running down a dimly lighted alley) can best be done
using any of the various
two-handed
positions
described
in this chapter. The free hand and arm can be raised simultaneously
to support the gun hand and make for a steadier,
more accurate aim. This is particularly
true when the shooter
is out of breath from running or under the stress and strain
of the combat situation.
USE
OF
TIIE
HAND
GUN
141
In training have your men run for a distance of 50 yards
and then have them stop and fire immediately
an aimed shot
at a distant silhouette
target with one hand. Have them repeat, using the two-handed
system. The advantage
of using
both hands will then be very obvious.
target by stuffing an old pnir of
( 14) Make a dummy
coveralIs with rags or excelsior. This dummy can be dropped
from a concealed
position such as a tree or slid down an
overhead wire on a pulley to give realism in shooting at moving targets. An old automobile
tire, with center filled with a
cardboard
target, rolled down an incline will also provide a
very difficult but practical target. The difficulty in hitting a
moving target in contrast to the station~ry
one will then be
more vividly emphasized
in training. There are many other
variations
of moving-type
targets, such as the running
deer
target used on sporting rifle ranges, which can be improvised
using inexpensive
or scrap materials; these will gretitly aid in
achieving combat realism. Agnin don’t neglect the use of twohanded shooting techniques
in this type of firing.
( t 5) Wfz.r Az/llcts can bc usc~ to good advantage in combot
training.
The empty,
prinzed pistol cartridge
case can be
filIed with wax or pmdlin
and used to simulate duels—or
fired against mirrors, etc. The power of the primer is sufficient
is n?
to propel the wax, as a bullet, up to 15 feet. There
damage to the weapon or the target. The .38 Special revolver
cartridge
is ideal for this purpose. It is best to take a small
drill and enlarge the primer hole in the case so as to get
maximum propulsion.
If a duel, quick-draw
ty e of training
between indiwduals
is used, plastic goggles, suc i as worn by
industrial
workers,
can be worn for safety. A little experimenting
can develop
some very realistic types of training
techni ues with this method. The method is a new one as far
as mo 1 ern combat training is concerned
lbut it was practiced
by French duelling instructors
over I so years ago.
Any practice training method that can be devised by instructors
which will fit the student for hk particular
mission
should be included.
Such training methods are just common
sense. Unfortunately,
they are not used to any great extent
in many training
programs
involving
the hand gun and its
combat
employment.
MENTAL
ATTITUDE
hlost irzlportant, in training wirh the hand gun, is the attitude toward the weapon and its use. The student must never
K 1 L 1. 01{ GET
1’$2
KII. LI?D
forget that combat shooting
is different
from shooting at a
fixed target. In combat, he is shooting at a target that shoots
back. No time is permitted
for the precision
of the target
range.
The stance, grip and acmal firing taught
must be
that which come naturally
to the man who may himself
be under fire.
The individual shooter should be cautioned
repe:ltedly during the training period that he should have a previously
fixed
a rest
G
When
You
for
your
hove
aimed
time,
cover
on, ,,
j1“: !
“-
‘-eHand
USE OF COVER
use
shots.
FROM
rcsf
THE
PRONE
POSITION
USE
OF
“~IIE
GUN
11 AND
143
idea in his mind of what he will do in combat. While he is
engaged
in practice
firing his mind as well as his reflexes
should be in unison in order to nvoic] panic. r~e should in
practice, every time he pulls the trigger, visualize in his mind
that he is firing at a torget that shoots tmck. In this manner
the reflexes of drmving, nirning, or firing a gun at a hunmn
target become an instinctive,
automatic
reaction.
Use
WRONG
can
covsr
for
an
when
aimed
you
shot.
RIGHT
stan~ln,
~~~
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~
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Prone
-k
If
your
penetration
USE OF COVER
AND
cover
by
REST
FOR
is
subject
enemy
AIMED
fire,
to
use
SHOTS
KILL
I44
Taking
advantage
ualng
o hand
OR GET
of
rest
KILLED
available
far
th~
coveraimed
shot.
out
of
Thu
USE
OF PROTECTIVE
COVER
AS A REST
OF
USE
A
standing
aimed
TIIE
shot
II AND
usinq
two
GUN
J45
handed
grip.
Alternate
TWO-HANDED
GRIP
The average shooter can shoot much more accurately
when under combat
the weapon.
conditions,
by using a two-handed
with aimed fire,
grip to steady
i 46
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I,
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When
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your
“45”
still
be
empty
can
used.
v
‘*,
g
FOREHAND
r=?!
THE
HAND
GUN
‘“
AS A CLUB
An empty gun can be used as a club against the face and temple area.
Heavy automatics and long-barreled
fully in this manner.
revolvers
have been used success-
USE OF THE FREE HAND
REVOLVER
VS. AUTOMA~C
Much has been written on the merits of the revolver versus
the automatic
as a weapon of personal defense or offense.
In American law enforcement
circles, over 90 percent of plainclothes men and uniformed
police carry and use the revolver
type. The reasons for their choice are varied, many being attributable
to the fact that the revolver
is the historic-type
148
KILL
OR GET
KILLED
hand gun used throughout
the winning of the West. Primarily
they chose the revolver because it has better frame construction for a swift and comfortable
grip and draw. It is faster
on the first shot (double action) than most automatics,
when
complete
draw and firing are necessary.
It has better allaround balance and pointing
qualities than most automatics
and, by using various grip adapters, can be fitted to any type
of hand. European
arms manufacturers
have never put out a
revolver comparable,
in shape or feel or shootin
qualities,
with those of our country.
Their principal manu Facture has
been the automatic
hand gun. Just prior to, and during
World War II, the Germans
began to manufacture
double
actimz automatics,
the Walther
and Mauser. Manufacture
of
these
uns was discontinued
at the end of hostilities. This
year, f or the first time, an excellent, commercial
model of a
double action automatic suitable for both police and military
use has been in~oduced
by Smith & wesson.
Another reason for the use of the revolver in law enforcement has been the fact that more powerful
calibers could be
used than in an automatic
without
entailing
excess bulk,
weight and size.
The widespread
belief that the automatic
is not a reliable
weapon and is subject to jams and malfunctions
is erroneous.
Well-made
automatic weapons, given proper care, will function dependably
and efficiently.
Where
the weapon
carrier has no articular liking for the weapon and considers it
in the same 1’ight as any other piece of equipment,
it is necessary to have periodical inspections and checks to keep the gun
at its top mechanical
efficiency.
Some of real advantages
of the automatic type weapon are that it is easier and quicker
to reload, and, after the first shot, it can usually be fired with
greater accuracy and rapidity. In the instinctive pointing type
of shooting, groups or bursts may be initially more accurate
for the beginner because the trigger pull is lighter and shorter
than on the double action revolver.
The majority of jams in the automatic
type of weapon can
be directly traced to the magazine. On close examination,
you
may find that the lips which hold the shell in place under
the spring tension have been dented, bent outward, or forced
from their original position by dropping
the magazine, or by
improper
loading. Magazine
springs should be treated properly. It is inadvisable to leave a magazine fully loaded over a
period of years, causing the spring to lose its tension. When-
USL
MILITARY
OF
‘rkIE
AND
11AND
POLICE
GUN
149
.38 SPECIAL
Tbe Smith & Wesson Military and Pofice model caliber .38 Special
is probably the mosr popular revolver in its field. Since World War II
its makers hate concentrated
on making many improvements nnd additions to their extensive line of hnod guns. The f~ctory now offers the
world’s most com >Ietc Iinc of hand guns tl]nt have been especially
designed to meet a \1 conccivnb]c police and milimry needs.
Goocl basic design hm long mncfe the Smith & Wcsson
revolver the
choice of most experts for double action co7}1bflt shooting. The trigger
action is smooth, shorr, and positive. The trigger guard is large enough
to allow fast and positive entry of the trigger finger in the quick draw.
Due to the frame and grip design in reIation to the angle of the barrel,
the gun does not climb during fast, double action shooting. Recoil is
qtraight to the rear.
A strong frame, with locking lug on the barrel, maintains cylinder
alignment under the most adverse conditions. Although it is not generally realized, a handgun is frequently used as a striking instrument,
blows being delivered by the use of tbc barrel or the butt. This is an
additional reason why strength in the frame and locking mechanism of
the cylinder is so important in a revolver.
ever possible,
and change
with one or
be kept dry
where they
and denting
have more than one magazine for your weapon
magazines
frequently.
Carry the spare ‘magazine
two shells less than its capacity. Magazines should
and should not be carried loose in the pocket
will be subject to body perspiration,
lint, dust
from other objects in the pocket.
COMBAT
LIGHTWEIGHTS
Any revolver so small that it can almost be covered by an
ordinary
mm’s hand. weighing
z I oz. or less and shooting
the .38 Special cartridge,
can hardly bc considered
as the
ideal target weapon.
Even though
creditable
scores can be
achieved by using their fixed iron sights agoinst conventional
targets, such guns am designed, manufactured
and intended
for use against targets that csm shoot bsrck.
Recently
there has been developed
for special police, military, and self-defensive
purposes some interesting
new hand
guns. The
are important
advancements
in the firearms field
and are o ? special interest to anyone who carries a hand gun
for defensive or professional
purposes. Because of an entirely
new design, use of a coil mainspring,
and special
steels
and alloys, the shooter
now has available a small revolver
that combines
the shocking
power
of the .38 Special cartridge with most of the desirable features of the small automatic pistol.
Th~e
new, poteng lightweight
revolvers are easy to conceal, comfortable
to shoot and to carry, practical
and safe
in design and also reto in the double action feature which
enables greater
and more
dcpcndoblc
speed on the first
shot. A40re shocking
power
in relation
to size and wci ht
places them ahead of present automatic
pistol design. 7! wrr
of these new revolvers,
the Smith & Wesson
Chief Special
and the Smith & Wesson
Centennial
are about as close to
,,. -
MILITARY AND POLICE 2-IIPJ. BARREL MODEL
The .38 S ecial cartridge is generally considered to be the best allaround revo ver cartridge for police and military purposes.
Modern metallurgy has made it possible to greatly reduce the size
and weight of undercover revolvers, such as the Chief Special, without
any sacrifice of caliber or shocking power.
The Smith & Wcsson z-in.-barrel. A4ilitary and Police Model shown
above was a general favorite before World War II. It is still preferred
by some users.
f
USF,
OF
‘l’IIV. lIANZI
GUN
151
can
the ideal undercover
hand gun as an arms manufactul%r
design and mass-produce.
Members
of plainclothes
divisions of military and civilian
law enforcement
agencies
have ~ definite
need for such
weapons.
Also, umformed
officers of these organizations
often have occasion to use n “second gun” in the performance
of their duties. one of these new lightweights
in the trousers
or overcoat
pocket is on many occasions
good “life insurance” against surprise
attack when the conventional
holster
weapon
is not immediately
or convenientl~~
available
for
action. Unfortunately,
most law enforcement
officers often
have to let the other party mike the first hostile move.
Although
it is possible to fire a creditable
target score
with almost any of the new lightweight
guns, it does not
necessarily
follow that they will perform equally well when
a raDid serwence of double action shots is fired. Under conlbat ‘condi&ons there is usually no time to use the sights or
rendj ust point of aim or ilnpxct. Therefore,
these recentlv
introduced
lightweights
must be judged primarily
on their
merits as combat weapons.
They will be used principally,
and therefore
shouId be expected to perform best, on double
action.
The combination
of small size, light weight,
recoil, anti
fast double action crentrx a condition
mquirirtg
that specinl
cc)nsiderztion
be given to frame construction
and design,
THE
LIGHT-WEIGHT
REVOLVER
On light-weight revolvers, like the one shown here, or like the Colt
Detective Special, a man with a large hand should grip the weapon
with the Iittle finger under the butt. This prevents the weapon from
climbing, and prevents loss of control in fast double-action shooting.
152
KILL
OR
GE’S’
KI1.
LF, I)
particularly
of the grip. This is not so evident orseeming]y
important
when the weapon is fired single action, permitting
the grip of the hand to be readjusted
between
shots, or
where the size and purpose
of the gun permits the use of
specially made grips or adapters.
The recent introduction
and use of nc\v lightweight
metals
and alloys has further made it possible to reduce the weight
of these guns to a point where it is hard to conceive how
the .38 Special cartridge
could be contained
and fired with
effectiveness
if the manufacturer
made them any lighter in
rnanllweight.
The ne~v light~veight
guns were originally
factured
and still are produced
using conventional
weight
metals. Recently,
however,
in rcs ]onsc to special nli[itary
and civilian needs, and by usc o I new, ]ight alloys, their
weight has been reduced
almost 50 percent.
Currently
some
models are being produced
which have an overall weight
of apprOXinlate]y
1 I OUnCeS. The law of “diminishing
returns” 112s just about set in. It is fit this point, particularly,
that the basic shape of tl~c fm]nc and design of the grip
position to usc tt~ nchicvc
An cscclknt
shooring the slmrt bnrrcl, smIb-IIoscd ty})c
grcfitcr
rcvo]vcr.
nccunrcy
when
Usu
01
“11
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II ,\ N o
(; u IN
become
so important
in relation
to t!le
the shooter’s hand and his fire control.
recoil
lj~
effect
on
Smith& Wesson
can bcgivenduccrerlit
forthetmditional
fine finish of their guns, the sulooth
double
actiou,
anti
cye-pleming,
strclintincd
appcnrflncc,
but the design of the
revolver grip find the recoil rc:lction against the shooter’s
hand of their ne~v lig]ltweigllts
are perhaps the most important features of their new models.
Recoil of any hand gun and its effect can be explained
simply by the following
illustration:
take a book and inc]inc it on n tnblc top ot fl~>proxinmtciy a +S-dcgrcc angle,
:IIIL1
p:lr:lllcl
to
tllc
t:ll)lc top in
move a pencil ff)rccfully
Such :1 Ill:lnncr th:lt {)ilc end strikes tllc under sillc of tllc
inclined book. l-l]c striking cnd of the pencil deflects down;
the other end goes up. This is essentially
\vhat hqppens
Training
in this type of support shooting to give stcndicr aiming
position is cxcc]lcnc for woincn menlbcrs of police organizations C.S
well as for nlcn.
I 54
KIL1.
OR
GF,I
KILLF,
D
when you shoot a revolver with a powerful
cartridge,
especially a lightweight.
Bccnusc
of frame
curvature
of the
upper part of the grip, the butt tends to slip down in the
the
hand and consequently
the muzzle goes up. The lighter
gun, the more recoil shock against the web of the shooter’s
hand. This tends to loosen the grip. When
the firing is
done on fast double action, the gun butt moves down and
the barrel up, in direct relation to design of the revolver
grip. For this reason, the shooter who buys z lightweight
hand gun should never take it out and test it solely by
using single action and aimed fire against the conventional
bull’s-eye or silhouette
target. Primarily
he should find out
how the gun reacts when he fires it fast double action and
if he can control it. There are too many people who buy
small hand guns without
regard
for anything
but weight,
appearance,
carrying
ease, and concealment
advantages.
Anyone who has fired one of the new .38 Special lightweights will not argue as to the necessity for a strong, hard
grip. Instinctively
under combat tension, the normal shooter
will exert a great deal of grip pressure. In addition to this,
because of the cartridge,
weight, and size factors, he must
grip the new .38 Special lightweights
very hard. He cannot expect to control them on double action unless he does
SO. If the shooter exerts the correct,
strong grip on these
guns and fires them using a Iockcd wrist, hc has done about
all he can to control
the weapon. From this point on the
particular
revolver’s recoil renction will be dictated by the
shape of the grip and general frame design. It will be evident
that revolvers differ from one another and that some models
perform better on double action than others.
It should also be recognized
that hand gun manufacturers
design their guns, grips, etc. to fit the hand of the “average”
shooter.
Generally
speaking,
we are writing
about
this
average shooter and must remember
that in this, as in all
types of mass-produced
weapons, the gun must be designed
by the manufacturer
to fit the “average” hand. Guns obviously
cannot be designed for quantity
production
to fit all varieties, shapes, and sizes of hand.
Ideally, the recoil of any hand gun should be straight back
in line with the horizontal
center
line of the gun. Any
climbing
tendency
after the first shot on double
action
should be eliminated
as much as possible. If a hand gun
USE
OF
TIIE
HAND
GUN
155
The length and size of the shooter’s arm and general body construction
will determine the most comfortable
position in the arm
support type of shooting. There is no one best position which will
adapt itself to aU type of physiques. For a person with long arms
the right position is many times the most steady and comfortable.
In
the Icft illustmtims note tl~at the gun butt is rcstillg on top of the
Icft arnl an{l the Icft hand is grasping the sl)irt scorn on tllc right
shoulder. Generally mm support type ainlcd shooting should bc done
with dle arn]s c[cwrtcd to n l~igll enough position so t]tat it is not
necessary to lower the head too much for the eye-s to bc in line
with the sights.
An excellent, ste~dy position with the back supported
solid object for long range accurate revolver shooting.
against
were designed only with this purpose in mind, it probably
would
be better
to have the barrel protruding
between
the middle fingers and to have the body of the gun completel
round. Some years ago a frealc gun of this type was
actua rly designed. It was called the Chicago Palm Pistol. This
a
156
1. I 1. 1.
[) 1{
G
1:”1’ K I 1, 1, 1;1)
Aia!i
4strs-’
This position, although not as steady as those when fully standing
has certain advantages if the body
or when the back is supported,
physique permits it to bc assumed comfortably.
Not;
that the heels
to give m Inuch stabili~
as possible.
are in contact with the ground
This position has some merit when it is desired to present as little
a target as possible to return fire while at the same time taking advantage of both arms to achieve greater steadiness and accuracy.
type gun was designed principally
for purposes of concealment ,by a manufacturer
who was not concerned
with recoil features aS the caliber used was small.
The more the grip on any revolver,
particularly
lightweights, resembles a saw h~ndle, the better for double action shooting. Any design of grip and frame which permits
recoil straight
to the rear is desirable.
It is in this respect
that the Smith & Wesson
revolvers
generally,
and their
lightweights
especially,
are effective
on double
action m
combnt wenpons.
The Cl}icfs Special is now well-known,
having been in
production
several years. Currently,
the gun is also being
manufactured
wit]l a light, alloy frame giving an approximate
overall weight of 13 ounces. Many shooters,
by reason of
past experience
snd personol choice, desire a double action,
USE
OF
THE
TIIF.
CHIEFS
[[AND
GUN
157
SPECIAL
The Chiefs Special, caliber .38, is dcsigllcd to n)cct CIICiwcds of the
shooter whrr wants a snmll powerful undercover
gun with m cxprrscd
hammer. The gun cm ,bc used drsublc action or dclibcratc aimed fire is
possible by cockin~ the piccc.
The Chiefs cnn be fired nnd cuntruilcd in rspid double nctiol) shooting
lsy maintttining a hmrd grip. For those wit[l Isrgc Immls the Iittlc finger
umlcr the en(l of the bt]tt ivill cl)ablc I.wttcr fire conrrul and I]cll> mainrain Stroigllt-tn-the-rmr
rccnil.
“Ilw Chiefs and its coulbat tivin tllc Ccntcnninl weigh nlxsut 19 ouuccs
iii the st:lll[lilrll-~vcigllr, nll-steel [])~xlcl. ‘I-hc sir-weight models, a crmlbinnti{m of steel Larrc[ i(id cylildcr
with Iigllt alloy frnlllc, weigh apI)roxinlatcly I ~ UUIICCS. Ih tll air\vcigllt
nlodcls
control
cxccllcntly
when
[ircd fast cf(sublc nctiun if a tight grip is IIlaintaincd.
undercover
un with the hnmmer
exposed
that can also
be fired singe! action. The Chiefs Special fills the bill.
The combination
of the shape of the frame, giving a SaWP
handle effect, plus the Magna type grip, makes a Smith R
Wesson pleasant to shoot. When their new lightweights
are
gripped
hard for double action shooting,
the violent handjarring
recoil is changed
to a pushing
effect against the
whole hand. This results in a recoil wni~ln
to the rear and
is one of the most important
features of these new guns,
accordbecause the control and hitting fnctors are increased
ingly.
Thc control-destroying;
clinlhing
tendency
is practically eliminated. By the u~c 01”the Magms type grip, which
was originally
developed
for the target shooter,
the shoclc
ogzinst the web of the hand is correspondingly
lessened.
The Nlngna grip also fills the web of the hand so that no
x58
KIJ. L 01{ GE’I’ KILLED
looseness is prestnt. This prevents any side movement
may result from recoil of successive shots.
which
Over 60 years ago Daniel Wesson produced
a new model
Hinge Frame
Revolver.
He called it his New Departure
model. It became better known
to the shooting
fraternity
as the Safety Hammerlcss.
It was manufactured
in caliber
.38 Smith & Wesson and caliber .32 Smith & Wesson Short
and immediately
became a great favorite among law enforcement officers who valued it as a hide-away
gun. Along the
frontier the gun was popularly
called the “Lenlon Squeezer.”
Smith & Wesson
made many thousands
of this model and
many are still being carried today by law enforcement
officers and civilians who want a slllall, high-grade
pocket revolver for defensive purposes.
The old Safety Hammerless
model has long been considered the safest and most dependable
kind of a pocket gun
to carry or h~ve at home in the bureau drawer.
It could
not be left in a cocked position and could only be fired by
holding it in a shooting
position so that tile grip safety on
the rear was prcssccl ill, pcrlllittitlg
the trigger to 1x2 pulled.
Lacking a hammer, the trigger pull On the Safety Hamnlerless was intentionally
hard and 10JIg so it could only be fired
of accidental
disdouble action. There
was no possibility
when
charge, as the firing pin could OIIly stri]ce the primer
the internal
hammer was cocked and released by the long
trigger movement.
The Safety Hammerless,
being without an outside hanlmer,
could be fired safely and rapidly from the pocket, if necessary, or drawn easily from wherever
it was carried without
on the clothing
or
danger
of the hammer
spur catching
pocket lining.
The trigger
pull on the original hammerless
was in two
stages. It came to a definite stoj] just before releasing the
hammer.
This permitted
accurate
firing, using deliberate
aim, or, if the shooter desired, he could pull right on through
the first stage and fire the gun dtmh]c action, increasing the
volume of fire.
Over the years the demand
for the Safety Hammerless
hm been one urhich has continually
incmascd. Consequently,
the factory
has produced
the Centennial
nlode], a modern
version of this dependable
old timer.
The current
as fine a short
production
model Centennial
is just about
range defensive
or coml]nr gun m can be
USE
OF
THE
HAND
GUX
[ 59
. .
THE
SAIJE-~Y
HAklIMl!llLIXS
.%}ith & Wcsson producctl the Safety Hmnmerlcss until about 1900.
when manufacture was discontinued for unknown reasons. Irrespective
model is still one of the most
of this, their Safety Hammerless
iMany thousands are still in use and
popular and practical revolvers.
carried by men who want a dependable pocket hand gun.
secured. It incorpomtcs
n]orc improvements
thnn its famous
pI.cdcccss(jr :Illd, in ndditit]n, it NIs() shoots tl~c .38 Spcci:ll cartridge,
The new Centennial
model fills a long-neglected
gap in
the hand gun field. It is manufactured
using both normal
steels and the new lightweight
alloys. The two-stage
trigger
pull present in the early models has been eliminated.
However, with a little practice
it is very easy for a shooter, if
he desires to make a deliberate
aimed shot, to usc his trigger
finger against the trigger
guard
to make a definite
stop
just prior to firing.
Unlike the earlier top-break
or Hinge Frame model, the
stronger swing-out-type
cylinder
design is used. As a result,
the gun is very rugged, as well as pleasing to the eye. From
the muzzle to the rear of the cylinder,
the frame is similar
to that of the Chiefs Special,
but because
the hammer
mechanism
is concen]erl
in the frame, the overall grip is
longer than on the Chiefs Special, providing
a better grip
for the lured and emphmizing
the snw hxndle effect. When
fired rapid double zction under combat conditions,
the reback.
coil is strnigilt
Climbing
tendency
resulting
in successively higher shots is practically
eliminated.
The Centennial
\vill probably
prove to be the most satisfactory
to shoot and proctical
to carry for the n~mt who
carries a gun for Lsusincss or defensive purposes.
160
1;
[(.1.
01{
TI-I E
GF,
”I’ KILI,
I?l)
CENTENNIAL
The Smith & Wcsson
Centennial model shoots the powerful
.38
Speciaf cartridge.
It is the modern counter art of the Caliber .38
Smith & lVcss[]n A’cw Dc]mrture model (Sa 1’cty I-Ianmlcrlcss) wbicl]
for many yc:~rs hm lwc,~ ennsidcrmf the idcnl undercover
gun.
The grjp safety, which must bc dcprcsscd
to fire the gun, is a
valrsablc safety feature; possibility of 2ccidental
discharge is almost
nil. A dclibcmtc grip on the gun plus the need to pull the trigger
completely through the double xction cycle is necessary to fire. The
nxmufacturcr
lias also provided
for the profcssionxl who wants the
ndvantoge of tllc I:nlnmcrlcss feature but dots not need the grip safety.
13y removing the grips o locking pin may bc inserted in a hole through
dlc safety mci frnmc so that the grip safety can bc permanently
hc[d down in the “OFF” position.
The Smith and Wesson Bodyguard,
also a .38 Special snubnose revolver built on a .32 frame and holding five rounds,’
fills the gap between the Chiefs Special and the Centennial.
The frmne of the Bodyguard
has been built up on both sides
of the hammer, so that it is not exposed as is the case with the
convcntiomsl
revolver.
A slight hammer spur protrudes
(see
bottom
illustration)
permitting
the gun to be cocked
for
single action firing.
Although
the lines of the Bodyguard
are not m pleasing to
the eye as in other models, the result is a practiczl sidearm
combining
the adwmtages
of the Chiefs with those of the
Centennial.
The built-urr side walls on either side of the hanlmer provide a longer g~ip and enable more speed on the draw
and better control on fast double action. The Bodyguard
cm
be drawn rapidly without
danger of the hmlmer spur cntching on the lining of the pocket, clothing,
etc. It also can be
Usl?
01:
‘1’1I
THE
fired
of
from
the
x pocket
hammer
Smith
or
being
& Wesson
II A N I)
]:
(;UN
161
BODYGUARD
other
conceded
Moclced
r-luring
have
a new
gmm
location
without
fear
its fall.
automatic
pistol
which
The man who
carries it has all of the quick draw and speed on the first shot
advantages that were formerly
available only to the revolver
user. The gun is simple to strip, the safety is positive, and it
performs
well under all combat conditions.
The design and
angle of the grip in relation to the frame and barrel are such
that it does not climb in rapid fire as is the case with many
has
about
other
the
desirable
automatics.
shooting
back
all
and
In
it performs
control
the
features
instinctive
in a superior
is easy
possible.
pointing
manner.
type
Recoil
combat
is straight
to maintain.
The revolver type of hand gun is basically popular in the
United States and Great Britain. Throughout
the rest of the
world the automatic
has been most used by police and military units.
This new double action automatic
should find
ready acceptance
in all of those areas where the automatic
type of hand gun is most popular.
162
THE
K I 1. 1.
ShlITH
AND
I) K
(; I.:1
K I
r. I, I; D
WESSON
CM.,. .357 AIAGNUAi
P.4TROL
hlODIZL
I lIG1 l\\’AY
This cnlihcr hand gull is mnnufncturcd in varilnis Ill(xicls 30(1 bmrcl
lengths by Colt, by Rugcr, and by Smith ond Wcsson.
It
has
long
I)CCII
:1 ftloritc
:IIIIIIllg
10\r
cnforccllll~llt
[)lficcrs
\rl}()
desirccl a more potcllt cortridgc
timtl tllc sctndard .~fl Special
wh]cll cm 21s0 bc fired in tllc mmc gllll.
Until the recent odvcnt of the .44 nl:)gnutll, the .357 cnlibcr was
ccmsidcrcd
the ultinwc
in lol)g rongc,
pcllcrotinn,
nnd sllocliing
poIvcr,
have
s\l I 1“1I
&
’I’MoN J)oul;l.l;,
,\(;”l’lo A”
AUTO(\IA”lIC
PISI”OL
\\
011111)
I.)(lring 1~$$ Smirh & \Vcss[m nlmounccd dclivcrics on a ncw line
of 9nlin nutf)lnatic pistols dcsignccl for milimry and pulicc use.
The 9nml Luger or Pmzbcllum (Luropcan nmnc) is USCCIby military
it is considered to
and police units throughout
tllc ~vorlcl. Ballistically
be one of the best all-mound pistol and submnchinegun calibers. Although
there were double actiwl autrmlztics, such m the \Valther, mimu-
LISK
OF
‘1’11 It
II ANI)
163
G[JN
factured and USC(I by the Gcrnmns during M’orld War 11, there has
not previously been Irnilnble a good commcrcia]
automatic.
This fine cornbat-dcsigncrl
sutommic
has x magxzinc capacity
of
mom
cirbt rounds. Ilrith nnc round mrricd in the clmmiwr half omrin
.
tl]:ln
ill
in tllc
cxl)ort
st:1)1c12rtl rcvtjlvcr.
I)t]t
rccclltl\,
Al(]st
sales
some U. S. po]icc
of
this
agcncics
-. .._- <.
Y-1
..-:
“.{-”.
‘9
...
4
-
.*A
—w“ 1-—.—
B
r“’*’
.
t
AhIy
po[icc
oficcrs
prefer
to
c~rry
n
sccowl
SIIYIU
“hideout”
scrvicc mm. These Izuns arc carried
Icg rmd srmho]c
holsters and other places
I)ur
acccssil)lc.
wllcrc
tllcy arc cnsily c(JIIccnlIJ~l
-J”@’
arc ‘n~”Y
from top to bottom)
times 31s0 carried as “011 duty” guns. (Rmding
No.
x is the original Remington
.41 crdibcr two-shot
Derringer
f~vored by- g~mblcrs during the Amcricln
frontier
period. No. z
is the Amcricmr manufacturer
copy of its famous predecessor,
the
Great Western caliber .38 S. & }V. Derringer. No. 3 is the Gcrmmr
rifle Derringer
manufncturcd
cnlibcr .22 long
type currently
being
rnnrkctcd in tllc Unitccl States. No. 4 is the Colt Ascra Cub Autonmtic. This and otllcrs of similar type m-c also Fovorcd as “hideout”
guns. The small autmll~tic type weapon proviclcs more fire power
and is awrilzblc in caliber .25 and caliber .22 short and .22 long.
Al[hougil the shocking power is limited, the .ZZ caliber cartridge is,
contrary
to popular belief, coosidcrcd
to be more
cfiective
than
IZUO is addition
to their
m wrist, ankle, groin,
Y
the
.z5
caliber
auto
rcrrulm
“
cartridge.
164
COL”r.
KI1. L OR GET
KILLED
OI~I;ICIAL
CAL.
POLICE
.38 SPECIAL
This nv.xlcl rcv{)lvcr lurs hccn a fsvorcd sidearm of the uniformed
police for ninny years d~roughout the world. It has a smooth action
and trigger pull and is a rugged heavy-duty hand gun.
THE
COLT
COBR.4
CAL.
.38 SPECIAL
version of the well known Colt Detective
This is a Iightw,cight
Special that has been manufacturc{i
211CIUSC13for nlany ycacs. It weighs
less than a pound md rctnins [IIC six sll[}t ca ncit uf its hcxvicr counterpart. It is an exccllcnt undercover weapon lx tfosc who prefer a lightweight handgun.
Usrl
THE
OF
COLT
‘1’}ll? ll,\ND
AGEN”~
CAL.
G(JN
16$
.38 SPECIAL
This is a six shot lightweight revolver for plainclothes
and concealed
carrying. It is like the Cobra mwlcl except it has a shorter grip, which
is suitable to those shooters with smaller hands,
COLT
PYTHON
CAL.
.357 hlAGNUhI
COlt produces this fine revolver with either four or’ six-inch barrel.
It Wili ako shoot all standard .38 Spcciol cartridges. 1[ k rccolllnlcn~cd
either as a targcr or service l~,eapoll. ‘I]Ic
,357 nl;lgnun) is still favored
by many officers over the more powerful .44 nmgnum.
KILL
166
THE
SNIITH
AND
OR GSIT KILJ.12D
WESSON
CAL.
.44
MAGNUM
Many modern police officers, where personal choice of their sidearm
is poxibIe, prefer calibers greater than the standard .38 Special.
Double action revolvers that will handle the .357 magnum, the +
~P,e~l~l*or the new .4+ magnum are deservedly popular. Their greater
mlual shocking power and “man stopping” abfiity is well known.
Under combzr conditions,
a criminal who is under stress of extreme rage or excitement has so much extra adrcnnlin pumping into and
through
his systcm that nvmy tinlcs hc is tcnqwrmily
imlnunc to
normal shock. It is for this rcmxm tll:u l]mly colnbnt cxpcricnccd
officers prefer the more powerful caliber hand gun. A heavy lead brdlet,
moving at high velocity, has great shocking power and will usually
knock down the criminal and put him out of the fight if it hits
him almost anywllcrc
in the head, body, mms or legs.
hfany officers feel that the extra bnrrcl length, weight and bulk of the
Iargcr caliber hsi)d gun is more than compensated
for by the incrcasccf “knoclcdown” potential.
The new .++ magnum cortridge has far greater shock power thzn
any other hand gun cartridge commercially
produced. It is replacing
the less powerful .357 magnum that has been a favorite for the past
two decades, when it was known as the most powerful revolver cartridge in existence.
S & W manufactures the .44 magnum revolver in barrel lengths from
4 to 10 inches. The same gun will also shoot the less powerful w
S & W Special and .++ S & \V Russian cmrridgcs.
THE
QUICK-DRAW
The ability to get his hand gun out of his holster and into
action quickly
and accurately
is a desirable
asset for any
quick-draw
soldier or law enforcement
officer. However,
training should not be undertaken
until the more important
types of shooting-aimed
fire and combat firing-have
been
mastered. Incidents calling for the quick-draw
are relatively
infrequent,
but they have occurred
often enough to justify
the training of selected individuals–those
who are likely, by
the nature of their assignments,
to have to stint hand p-m
shooting by drawing the weapon from its carrying position.
(JS
1.
01
,
,1 ,:
lI\Yl)
(;US
167
Tllc
mII(IUIIr of CIIIph:ISiS plflccd (m ti)c quicl(-d141v
vfirie>
greatly in the thousands of police and military orgnniz;ltions,
[n sol]Ie instmces, it is ncglcctcd entirely; in others it is given
too nluch tilllc find enlphmis in a limltcd training program.
It is difficult to deternline
just ~vl]crc and when this specialized type of training should he initiated,
and exactly what
it.
clcIIcr311!.,
plainclothes
In\\,
tvpc of of%ccr sIIOUIL[ rcceivc
cnforcc]]lcnt
o(]iccrs arc rllc IJIICS I\’110 arc nlost ]ikcly
tr)
nceti
skill
211cI tr;lillin:
ii] (luick-(lr[l\v.
situ;ltions
in \tillicll
they trccome in~ro]vcd III(JIC frcxlucntlv
require speed. The
uniformed
officer
also will occosiol{olly
encounter
some
nl~lcc
a quick
dr~w.
situations
in which he should
Holsters.
Unifonncd
police n(IrIII;ll,l: c:lrry tilcir sidewms in
holsters tlmt arc not designed to f:tclllc~te quiclc-dmw.
Safety
straps arc used to prc~+cnt acciclcntd
105s of tile Itc:lpon, or a
RUGER
.44 SUPER
IILACl{HilWl<
Rll\~O1.VER
is [IIlc (If tllc Iil)cst prl)(lllCcd.
l-ilk Il:{)(lcrll sillglc :Ictiol) t~l)c rcv(jvcr
It is nv~ilnblc in 6!< bitrrcl Icllgllls and Iollgcr. Almy l\’cstcrn
pcacc ofliccrs still prefer to czrry single action 11oIILIguns of this and
tllc Colt Fr[)r]ticr cal. .45 tylm. Tllcir longer range nnd grcntcr pnrcntiol Occurflcy, c[lll)bincd II,itll grcnt shocking power, N)okc thclll prcfcrrcd.
168
Ii [ f,
1. OR
GE’V
ICIL LED
4“?
IR;
QUICK-DRAW
FROM
THE
CONVENTIONAL
HOLSTER
After the weapon is grasped it must bc lifted euough to clear the
b~rrel from the holster. At the lcfr is shown tbc wrong way [o rfo
this. Note the hunched shouklcr and the elbow way out from the body.
As shown at the right, the draw is much easier because the elbow k
well in toward the body. The lifting of tbe gun is accomplished by
bending the elbow instead of lifting the shoulder. More speed and
greater ease in drawing and firing will result by observing this fundamental principIe.
flap holster completely
covers the butt. An increasing number
of police departments
now issue holsters which are de..igned
to fulfill the two most important
requirements:
first, a holster
that will protect and safely carry the weapon; and, second a
holster so designed that the officer can get his gun into action
quickly and easily. T1~e needs of each police department,
and
the viewpoint of officials in charge of equipment
and training,
will usually determine
what type of holster is carried and
how much emphasis is given to quick-draw
training.
By practice, it is possible to become proficient in the quickdraw, even with a hand gun scabbard not basically designed
for that purpose–but
it is more difficult.
Usl;
01;
“1’1111
llAh’1)
(;LIN
I 60
COhlPLfi-llNG
THE
DRAW
QUICl{-
The
quick-draw
s h o u ! d be
finished by raking tllc Iveapon to
the eye level, then firing. Greater
when
Iccuracy
will result thm
firing
from
tl)e
hip
level.
The
short
time lost in rlising
the
wcaj}t)!l higtl Ivill I)c n)orc tl)nn
co[]llwm.ltcd
for hr ~rrc:ltcr wcuracy. To the mm who has been
trained in the instinctive pointing
rcchnique this will come naturally.
Safety
is now
Super
Smith
Speed or Clam
Sl}ell Type
nvajla~]e
the
.38
Colt
for
autolnatic,
& Wesson
It is built
and
on a base
colt
Outside
Standard
and
.45
standard
Holster.
Colt
This
holster
autom~tic,
police
models
the
of
revolvers.
of light
steel
and
is covered
with
high
more than the conventional
all-leather
type. The difference
in weight
is not
noticeable when it is attached to the belt. At the present time
it is replacing the older type holsters in many uniformed
state
and city police organizations.
It is also being tested and
studied for possible adoption
by the United
States Armed
Forces and by the military
departments
of many LatinAmericm
countries.
quality
leather.
It
weighs
only
slightly
This holster is spring activated;
it “splits open from the
front.” Many additional
~dvantages make it superior to the
conventional
types of holsters. It must be seen and tested to be
fully appreciated.
Quick-Draw—with the clam shell holsters.
After
utes pr~ctice, the average shooter is able to draw
from his holster and get off his first shot–with
a few minhis weapon
revolver or
KI1. L OR GET
170
KILLED
p
/
;.
i.. ----
SAFETY
SPEED,
OR
CLAM
SHELL,
OUTSIDE
HOLSTER
At the top is shown the Colt auromatic, cocked but not on safety.
BeIow, the open holster is shown, after the release in front of the
trigger has been pressed.
automatic—in about half the time it would talce from a holster
of the conventional
type. In the old standard
type holster,
now generally in use, two motions are necessary to draw and
fire. The first motion draws the gun up and out of the
holster; and the second points and extends the gun to the
firing position. With the new type holster it is not necessary
to draw the gun up and out. The holster permits the gun
to be raised and fired from the original holster position, in
the same way a person would raise and point his finger at
an object.
By its design and construction,
the holster aids in the
technique
of combat hand-gun
shooting
that was used by
the United States and Allied forces during World War II.
This method of firing was based on the gun being carried in
the hand of the shooter in a barrel downivard
position. Firing
was done by raising the gun mtd arm to eye level and firing.
The same type of cx)nlbat shooting fronl the holster position
is now possible.
USE
SAFETY
SPEED,
OF
OR
TIIE
CLAM
11/\NIS
SHELL,
171
GUN
OUTSIDE
HOLSTER
At left is the Smith & Wesson target revolver, in the holster. It is
locked in position but is available for instant drawing and firing.
At right is shown tbc open lwlstcr after the release h~s been pressed,
Nocicc how tllc high, sqwtrc-type,
target front sight is kcl>t froin con.
tact with the leather lining.
With the new holster, the SUpC~ .38 mId .~j Colt automatics are immediately
in firing position. They can be carried
cocked and not on safety with perfect protcct]on and security.
A metal
rong on each side of the cocked hammer prevents
accidenta r discharge while in the holster. When the weapon
is drawn it can be fired instandv without hoving to release the
safety or COCICit, or without ‘having to pull back the slide,
as is the case when the gun is cnrricd in the smndard holster.
This feature alone makes it superior
to any other type of
automatic
holster. The shooter who cfi rries a Colt automatic,
can now do so safely and will be able to get his gun into
action immediately,
with no extra movements.
In speed of
drawing and firing, this puts him on an equal basis with the
shooter who carries a doulslc action revolver.
It eliminates
one of the biggest objections
to the police use of the Colt, or
171
1< 11.1.
ON
“1’yPES
(;c”I”
KII.
r.Kl)
OI; I-IOLS-l’fLRS
At the upper left is shown a good blsic-type, quick-draw holster. It is
made of heavy, stiff ]cathcr that will Ilot bind at the time Of draw.
Notice how it tilts forward to facilitate the draw. Tllc trigger guard
is exposed, to permit easy entry of the trigger finger. This style holster
is favored by many pkrinclothcs men.
The Myers Detective Special holster, shown upper righr, is a good
one. The gun hangs, butt doww, al~d no cnctrn]bcring shoulder straps
are used.
Spring shoulder holsters, as shown below, and the hiyers type, are
much superior to the conventional
under-arm type, where the gun is
carried in the b~rrel-down,
butt-up position. A quicker draw can be
made, with the hinds starting from a more natural and less suspicious
position. In the conventiotml
under-mm
type, where the gun hangs
barrel down, it is always necessary to start the draw by raising the
hands high, so as to gcr them near the gun butt. This motion is a
give-away to an alert enemy; it tclcgr2plts tl)c draw before it actually
starts.
These holsters arc very pr~ctical for usc with a sport shirt of
the type that is open at tlic bottom. Their design makes them ideal
for usc with the ncw snmll lightweight
undercover
revolvers such
as the Ccntcnnill and the Chiefs Special.
Ustl
01:
“rlllI
most other malces of automatic
action feature.
II AND
pistols
GUN
which
173
lack the double
Safety. The holster securely locks the revolver, or automatic,
in place. The gun cannot
fall out of the holster
or be
snatched
out by another
person. It cannot be accidcntal]y
dischmged. The weapon is released from the holster by pressing a concealed
trigger on the inside of the trigger guard.
The release mechanism
is so placed that when the gun is
grasped naturally
for the draw, the holster trigger can be
pressed by the trigger finger without
any fumbling
or additional mouon, On the revolver-type
holster, between the gun
trigger and trigger guard, is a raised metal projection
which
revents the revolver trigger being pulled or the weapon being
i red while in the holster.
The objection raised against this holster–that
anyone knowing the location of the special release that opens the holster
could npproach
and easily steal the weapon—is
without
foundation,
This same thing could be done just as easily when
the person is ~vc~ring sny other stsndard type of open holster.
In fact, a person wearing this new holster will always knolv
if his gun is being stolen. The noise nnd rnovcment
of the
the old stnndard
holster when it opens will tell him. With
types, the gun coulci bc stolen wit]lout tllc weorer kno\ving it.
Protection.
The light steel metal bme, with the leather
lining inside and out, provides a protection
for the hand gun
that is superior to lclthcr alone. In addition, an automatic
or
revolver equipped
with target sights can be carried in and
drawn from the holster without any damage to the sight, or
to the Icatller of the holster. The holsters also me made to
fit exactly the various models and sizes of Colt or Smith &
Wesson revolvers, and the gun is so sccurcly locked that no
movement
takes place in the holster. This also prevents the
gun blue wearing off.
The uniformed law enforcement
officer wearing this holster
can draw his gun easily and fire while seated in a car. He
cannot do this with most conventional
types of holsters, because his elbow is against the baclc of the car se~t and he is
thus prevented
from drawing
his gun up and out until he
changes his body position.
Faster speed of draw, and prevention
of loss of the gun by
its falling out, or by someone snatching
it from the holster,
has made the new type holster a favorite among uniformed
state and municipal
law officers in the United States.
174
1< I 1. 1.
1) It
(; 1; ’1’
K I 1. r. K n
-,
in
THE
CROSS
D1tAW
When carrying tile holster on the left side (gun butt foremost),
as
advocated in some law enforccnlcut
dep~rtments, the truss draw should
be made by grasping the gun and bringirlg it strtight cmt and up-in a
swing to eye level—as shown at the right. In the illustration at the Ieft,
the gun is drawn and the swing is made too far out to the side or too
wide. This results in the gun bciug swung into action by a horizontal
swing instead of a vertical one. Inaccuracy results, because it is difficult
to stop the horizontal swing when the gun comes into line with the
target,
TRAINING
IN QUICK-DRAVl
Quick-draw
training
is highly personalized
and depends
largely on the individual.
He must have sufficient interest to
desire to improve
practice on his own time. A departmental
this phase of pistol or revolver employment
can be realized
only by organizing
quick-draw
practice and competition,
as
is done on the target range.
To get men to practice the quick-draw-in
the complete
movement
of pointing,
drawing,
and snapping
the trigger—
the following
method has been used with success. Pair off
USE
OF
THE
HAND
G UN
175
.-
EXECUTING
THE QUICK-DRAW
In the quick-draw from the hip holster. the method now practiced
by most is to bcncl forwnr[l, tllcn slilp b:lclc rllc coot toil with tllc
baclcward swing of d~c hand to dic gun. Tlic draw is tl)cn made and
the shooting is done from the aggressive, forward
crouch.
This is
the best and most instinctive shooting position for combat. The holster
shown is the Clark, a spring type favored by many police officers and
shooters.
trainees who will lbe working
together
for several hours.
Have their weapons double-checked
for safety. (It is best to
fill the cylinders with wax and cut off the firing pin, or by
some other means make it impossible for a live round to be
fired in the weapon.)
Let the trainees carry their guns in
their holsters and proceed about other training in which they
may be engaged. While they are proceeding
with their duties,
have one of them, when m contact with the other, give a
previously
arranged signal (such as “reach” or “draw”)
at an
unexpected
time. The student receiving
the command
will
execute a quick draw, point his gun at the one who issues
the command and pull the trigger. This gives the student the
closest thing to actual combat drawing
and firing that can
be devised. The element of surprise–having
to draw from any
position and follow through with pointing the weapon; pulling
the trigger af if an actual shot were fired-closely
simulates
the real thing. A similar quick-dtnw
situation can be injected
into the practical combat range training that is described in
the chapter
on ranges.
176
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
The actual quick-draw
and firing of live ammunition
should
always be preceded by plenty of dry practice, which must be
closely supervised.
The speed of the draw should be slow at
first, so tll~t the initinl grip on the weapon is correct and so
that pull on the double action makes the hammer fall at the
instant the gun is pointing
properly.
Quiclc draw can be
learned properly
only by starting at a slow tempo. Through
practice, speed will increase; but, once the peak of speed for
the individual is reached, it can only be sustained by frequent
periods of practice.
Each shooter will learn the speed at which he can draw and
fire his weapon most rapidly without losing control and accuracy. Thus, actual drawing and firing speed will vary with
individuals; but the average, well-coordinated
officer can make
the complete movement of drawing and firing in a half second
or less without
having to devote excessive time to
ractice.
Quicker draws can be made if the gun is fired from Eip level
after it leaves the holster. However,
although
it may take a
fraction of a second longer, the ordinary shooter will he more
accurate or will gain accuracy
sooner if he raises the gun to
eye level before firing. If he has been trained in instinctive
pointing,
as previously
described,
this will be a natural
sequence to the draw.
Since the advent of tclevison with the very popular and
numerous Western programs, the quick draw hobby has swept
Americz.
Spcci:d tin}ing dcviccs, special llolstcrs, nnd special
model weapons h:ive been devclol)cd. Most of the quiclc drmv
techniques advocated are for use with the Western style (Colt
Frontier)
single action revolver.
Quick draw clubs abound
and quick draw competitions
are being held throughout
the
country.
However,
the weapon
used and the style of holster and
quick draw arc more historic than practical for law enforcement officers. The principal benefit of this particular
style of
shooting to the man who carries hk more modern type hand
gun for professiomtl
purposes,
is to emphasize
the potential
speed and possibilities
of the quick draw which
he may
By the use of special timing
achieve after e.Tte71she practice.
devices incredible
quiclc draw times have been recorded.
Position of Wearing Holster.
As to the position in which the
holster should be worn, that is entirely a matter of individual
taste or departmental
regulations.
If you are working
with
the holster in the open, have it in a place which permits you
Usu
01~ TIIE
HAND
GUN
177
to move freely, where the butt is easily grasped, and where it
can be drawn with speed and fired without unnecessary
deks .
If it is x conccalccl holster, always bear in mind tlmt it shou rd
be in such a plncc that, regardless
of the type or sutte of
your clothes, you can get at it with little delay and unnecessary movement.
Once having chosen the spot for carrying a weapon, do not change. Practice
drawing
the gun a
few minutes daily.
Reading References.
Various techniques,
types of draws, and
holsters are well documented
in books, such as those written
some years ago by Ed McGivern
(Fast and Fancy Revolver
(.Sl)oothg).
A very fine coverShooting), and by Fitzgcmld
age of the subject has also just been written by Chic Gaylord
(Handgunner’s
Guide). This new book gives a complete and
current treatment
of guns, holsters, and quick draw methods.
Any serious student or instructor,
in this phase of shooting,
will do well to use these books for reference.
The above
texts also will furnish
fidct]tmtc autlmntic
information
on
ho]stcrs.
Illdividu:l]s
a[ld firllls SUC]l m I+ciscr,
George
Lawrence,
Myers, and Gaylord
can make and furnish almost
any type holster to fit any gun, individual, or situation. Their
products
are well known. Information
concerning
them cm
be obtained from any large sporting goods dealer. A holster
should be mzdc of the best lczd~cr. A che:lp holster of flinviy,
lightweight
construction,
Inny c;lusc tllc gun to stick U’IICOa
draw is attempted.
178
Ii 1 1, J.
OK
(;lj’1’
1<1 LL1;
I)
LOOK AND LEARN
The
pictures
on this and the preceding
page show
in an
featurt !s
War
object lesson training course in combat shootsng during World
11.
[email protected]
6
CO.MJ3AT FIRING WITH
SHOULDER WEAPONS
T
HE actual combat life of the soldier or police officer
who may carry a shoulder weapon is often measured in
seconds—split seconds. In close-quarter
combat, or in-fighting,
he must be able to use this weapon quickly, accurately
and
instinctively.
Close-quarter
firing, in the case of shoulder
weapons, 1S presumed
to be any combat situation where the
enemy is not over 30 yards distant and the elements of time,
surprise, poor light and individual
nervous and physical tension are present.
In street and jungle fighting and in police worlc, tl~e opportunities for skilled, close-quortcr
work with the rifle, riot gun,
cxt-ljinc and sul~l)lacllillcglln
arc bccon~ing incrcnsingly
frequent.
It follows,
then, that a method
of shooting
these
we~poIIS
possible
SO d)lt
&!J7
delay should
Cfl[l bc bK)Ugllt
bc
enlplmslzcd
into
flctiotl
With
the
kaSt
in training.
The aimed shot always should be made when the time
and light pernlit.
Ho\vever,
in close-quarter
fighting them
is not al\vays sufficient
time to raise the weapon
to the
shoulder,
line up the sights and squeeze off the shot. Consequently,
training only in the aimed type of rifle fire does
not completely
equip the man W1]O carries a shoulder weapon
for all the exigencies of combat. As in combat shooting with
the hand gun, he should be trained in a method in which
he can use a shoulder weapon quickly and instinctively
and
without sights.
Some authorities
attribute
the failure of certain
known
target-shooting
experts to hit an enemy who is shooting at
them at close quarters
entirely to a lack of the fighting instinct. The real reason usually is that the target expert has
not received the most effective type of training.
A lack of
Itlorol qualifications,
guts, and courage ~vill allvays contribute
to poor close-quarter
rifle or hand gun shooting, but lacl< of
179
180
1. I 1.1.
01{
1; 1:,”1” K I l.l.l~.
D
combat training is the principal
cause. It should be evident
enough
to most shooters
that the forn]rdized
techniques
learned on the rifle range cnnnot al\vays be applied Ioo percent in battle.
Rifle nlarksnl~nship
tr~ining tcacl~cs tllc correct use of the
sights and the oimcd snot. ‘rhcsc principles are correct wl~en
time and light are present, so that the rifle, carbine, riot gun
and subl)lflchinesun
can be used in conlbat as on tl~e range.
Flolvever, d~rlc olleys and streets, night raids, poor visibility,
and street and house fighting-all
create combat
situations
where the opportunity
for the aimed shot will not always be
present. The soldier or law enforcement
officer lnust be able
to shoot a shoulder weapon in these situations without taking
time to sight. First hits are tf~e ones that count.
SNAP SHOOTING
There are two methods of close-combat
firing with shoulder
weapons by which satisfactory
man-hit[ing
accur~cy
can be
achieved. The first is called smrp shooting, the other instinctive
is a technique
of ~vcapon
pointing
pointing. Snap shooting
in which a gre~t amouilt of prnctice is needed to achieve
individual
proficiency.
As in skeet shooting,
the butt of the
weapon must be snapped to the sllou]dcr prior to firing, and
the firing must occur at almost the exact instant that the butt
of the piece comes to rest. The construction,
balance, weight,
rnechmical
characteristics
find gcnernl
design
of various
shoulder
\\reapons dificr grc;ltly, find these variations
affecr
is more
adaptable
to
their “snapping”
qualities. A carbine
this type of shooting
rhnn n lilr~cr rifle. SulJnlachinc
guns,
at-e much less adaptable,
because of
such ;S the Thompson,
their design, balance and weight. The snapping
technique
takes a great deal of practice
and must be largely selftaught. It follows, therefore,
to the
that it is not adaptable
training of large groups. Conlparatively
few men have been
adequately
trained in it.
For tllow individufl]s \vitll tl)c ti[l]c znd interest to devote
to the instinctive
type of sllouldcr or mop shooting,” n very
interesting
:llld cffcctivc ncfv tmining systcln has been developed by B. L. AlclllnicI,
v’llich is clc2rIy clcscrihcd in his
h Icd
& comptn
y, New
hoolc ZJjstil[ctive s/Joot;/)g (Dodd,
York).
A spcci:ll prncricc kit, I)uilt orouud the use of n Dnisy air
illcll:lnic]
I[lstiuct Sl~ootrifle, ulldcr the trade ]I:u]lc “L~l~]iy
nvailab]c. The Imsic
illg ‘1’rfiillcr ou[fit, “ is nf)\\’ conlil]crcially
ide.1 of the systcm and kit is to develop \\!ith n rifle the prom hit snmll, nmving, ncrixl
ficiency :md ability i7zsti}]ctizely
targets !i’itll(lut the mc of convcncionnl
sigl]ts. [t folloll’s that
this systcm ollcc IIlw+tcrc(l !iould nntumlly I)c {Iircctly rcl:ltcd
to the usc of more (Icadly sllo(tl(lcr Jvc2pons i[l collllmr.
INSTINCTIVE
POINTING
Instinctive
pointing,
bip-~/Jooti7zg
or
sometimes
called
is the best method
of shooting
shoulder
body-pointing,
weapons
in close-quzrter
combat,
when the time or light
element is not grent enough to permit the conventional
use
position.
Reports
from
of the weapon
from tile shoulder
recent conltsat theaters continually
refer to hip-shooting
in
close-qu~rter
fighting. In World
War II, the Allies trained
their men intensively
to usc instinctive
pointii~g when they
reached
the combat
theaters.
It is an effective
method
of
combat shooting and its principles should be understood
by
to cngoge
1vI1o fire likely
all shooters, civili~n and militory,
in close-quflrter
combnt.
This style of shooting,
which c~n be nlastered in n relato all military and
tively short training period, is adaptable
\ve~pons,
sporting rifles, find to shotg~lns ~nd light autolllatic
Rcising stll)lll~cl~illcgulls.
011([
Sllcll ns the 1113, Tholllpson
With these or comparable
weapons, 2 man-killing
single shot
or burst can be fired. Instinctive
pointing
is not an indiscriminate
sproying
of lead in the general direction
of the
enemy, m some of its critics have declnred.
Instinctive Pointing Technique. To fire a rifle, or any of the
shoulder weapons mentioned
nbove, by instinctive
pointing is
simple. The body is used to do tl~e nctunl pointinu of the
weapon. The barrel is so placed and held that the muzzle and
the eyes are in the some perpcnclicolar
plane. As long as the
relationship
of barrel and eyes is Icept the same, the shooter
will hit where he Ioolcs and his body points. He mzy not be
able to hit a 4-inch Imll’s-eyc at zo ymls, but hc will be able
to hit the center area of 2 man-sized silhouette.
Ch2nges in
direction of fire are nmde by shifting the feet so that the body
points at the target.
The position
and technique
himded) should practice arc the
he would use the hand gun. The
the feet in
aggressive
crouch,
which
the shooter
(rights~me as those under which
body should be in a forward
n naturfil position,
and the
182
KILJ,
OK
(;[;1”
l<ll.
LLD
INSTINC1”IVE
POINTING
TECHNIQUE–FRONT
VIEW
This is ho~v the gun looks from the front when the instinctive pointing technique is used. Note that the muzzle is in line with the eyes. The
shooter wilf hit where he looks so long as the gun is kept in this relationship to the eyes and the body center.
(;().\ll\,
\l
1:11< 1s(;
\\. I’[1[
SIIOUI.
I)IR
\vE,\110Ns18~
l~OS1-I’loN 1~01{ CLOSE COAIBAT F1[tlNG
At the left is shown the correct position for C1OSCcombat firing of tbe
sllouldcr wezpon. ‘lllc butt rests on tllc Ili[), elbow tight agpinst tllc
stoclc. The grip of both hands is convulsive, The bzrrcI is horizontal and
parallel to the ground. The body dots all the pointing of the weapon,
which is never swung incfcpcndcntly by the ~rn)s. Clmngcs in body position, using the feet, will cnal]lc the shrmtcr to Ilit where hc looks and
io the direction ill ~vllich his body is poiotit]g. At tllc riglit is shown an
flltcrllntc position fnvnrcd by Sr)tllc sll[mtcrs. Tllc stock of tllc weapon
is in the arl~]pir instcnd of 00 the hip. Other shooting priucip]cs arc the
salt)e.
weapon gripped very tightly. The butt of the piece should be
pressed firmly against the right side of the body just above
the hip bone and should be held there by the elbow and right
forearm,
which should be pressing in toward
the side. The
grips of both hands on the stock and foremm of the \veapon
should be tight. In the I.Nsc of the shotgun, sul}l]mchinegun,
or rifle, the foremrrn of the piece should be lying flat in the
palm of the left hand, the elbow of the left arm swung in as
far toward body center as is comfortable.
In this position,
the eyes, the 111uz7. Ic, and the belt buckle
fire slmut in the sanle
dlis position, the gun is automaticall)~
vertical plane. FroIN
in line, so far as windage is concerned.
As long as the bnrr;l
of the piece is nl~intaiiled
in the sanle eye-body-center
reIatiomhip, the shooter will hit iv[lcrc Ilc looks.
There
will be no need to look at the gun while firing,
K
I
1. 1.
(1 It
(; 1{ “1” K 1 1. [, 1:1)
SUB,\ lACHINEGUN
Canting to the side causes the
gun to shoot high and to the side.
HELI)
INCO1{l{LCI”LY
Slll]lil:lcllillcgtlll is I]ot Ilcld ill
lit]e wirll body center or eyes.
and the direction in which the body is pointing and tile eyes
the barrel of the
are looking should be the sxme. Generally,
weapon should be parallel with the ground.
With a little
elevation
can be controlled
for targets up to 30
practice,
yards. This position can be’ taken with any shoulder-fired
weapon, slight modifications
being necessary
in the case of
some subm~ehineguns,
for exnmple,
where
the left hand
grasps the magazine housing instead of the forearm. The M-3,
Thompson
~n,i the Reising sublllnchineguns
can be fired by
instinctive pointing with the stock collapsed or detached, by
placing the end of tl~c bolt housing in the middle of the body
and resting both elbows firmly against the sides of the body.
Alternate Position. There
is one alternative
butt position
which should be mentioned.
All principles are the same except
that the shooter crouches
even more over his weapon.
His
head is lowered until his line of vision is on a plane about
10 or I z inches above the barrel. The I)utt of the weapon is
placed under the pit of the arm instead of resting above the
hip bone, as in the first method. This position has the advantage of bringing
the eyes closer to the line of fire of the
weapon.
Consequently
some shooters,
whose physiques
are
best adapted to this style, can fire with more initial accuracy.
C0311);
\”J”
I:[I{IXG
1! ’1”1’1[
S1l[)l’
1.1)11(
!YF.
AI’ONS
18j
Some instructors
have advocated
placing the butt of the
piece in the center of the stomachinstead
of on the hip. This
position will give accuracy
but it is not a nztural one. It is
difficult to assume correctly
when in combat and carrying
full equipl}lcnt.
It is particularly
difficult to place the butt
of the wcfipon in cxacdy the sal]]e place in the body center
every tilllc, since it must be placed dmre quickly.
Foot and Body Positions. The stance should be a natural one.
The feet should be placed so that a forward step can be easily
taken, since the weapon may be fired either from a stationary
position or while moving.
Unnatural
foot positions and set
stances, SUCI1as a straddle-trench
position, should bc avoided
in pritcticc, because dlcy will be hard to sssumc in comb~t.
Clmngcs in body direction,
in order to shoot at angle targets,
should be made by changing the position of the feet. Pivoting
should be done in any manner
which comes instinctively.
No rigid set foot position should be forced upon the shooter
in practice,
and when firing at angle targets he should be
allo~ved to change tile position of his feet naturally.
If he is
unable to move his feet, he still can get accuracy by twisting
As
wit]l
the lmnd gun, jumping
his body for gllll pointing.
to change body direction is not advisable.
TIIc. nounnl “ready,”
or carrying
position,
of a rifleman
who expects to use his welpon
at any time, lends itself to
quick adoption
of the instinctive
pointing
type of firing.
Alost shooters carry their weopons in some degree of a port
position or with the butt of the piece near the hip; consequently
the assumption
of the proper
position
for hip
shooting is simple and fast.
TRAINING
METHODS
A ftcr the instructor
preswts
the need for instinctive
pointing and outlines situations
in Which it will be used, tile
shooter
should be given a weapon
and taught
to assume
the correct basic firing position. This can be done by either
the coach-pupil
method or the use of a full-length
mirror in
which the student can checlc himself.
After he has learned to assume the correct firing position,
the student should be made tp advance toward the mirror, or
toward the coach, with his gun in the correct firing position.
This is important,
because shooting
of this type is strictiy
offensive. The aggressive
spirit must be further
developed
I
86
Ii
I
1. 1. (II{
f; 1:”1’ Ii I [, 1. 1: 1)
by having the shooter go in toward his target as he fires. He
should be told that he can be hit just as emily going back from
a bullet m he cnn if Ilc were st;lncling still or ndvancing.
with
tllc wcnpon
in d~c firing
position, the
While advxncing
shooter should bc chcckccl to sec tlmt he nlovcs forward
in
bobbing
as hc
tnkcs
his steps.
Most
his crouch,
without
shooters will ndwmce naturzlly, with the b~rrel of the weapon
held steadily on the some plane, but a few hove a habit of
bouncing up and do\vn by bending at tl~e knees as they walk.
at the outset.
This must be corrected
The next step in training should be dry firing at angle
targets. The shooter must be watched to see tlmt there is no
independent
swinging of the arms when changing direction of
fire. For this type of tr~ining, silhouette targets can be placed
to the right and left flonks of the shooter, and he can be
directed
to ~~heel and fire ~t these flank targets, on verbal
commands
of the instructor.
Jumping,
to chnnge
bodv
direction, should not I)c pctvnittcd.
After the dry work lms been cmnplctcd,
the initill firillg
should be done ~t a range not cxcecding
ZO feet against a
silhouette
mrget on a paper background,
or ngninst a stalce
target placed in a dirt bank so that the shots can be observed.
To be able to observe the impact points of bullets is par.
titularly
important
in the cflrly phmcs of actual firing, so
that correct
elewttion
and windogc
can be Ienrned faster.
After the shooter is able to place his shots in the center area
of a 3/4 silhouette,
he cm be pcnnittcd
to shoot at frontal
targets from grezter ranges. Ordinarily
these ranges should
not exceed 30 yards, although
accurzcy
at greater disctnces
can be achieved through practice. After proficiency
has been
achieved, the shooter should then be made to face at a right
or left angle from silhouette
targets, wheeling
and firing at
the targets on verbal commands from the coach. Here again
the range can be increased as accuracy and proficiency
grow.
The shooter is now ready for advanced worlc, and all types
of practical
shooting
conditions
can be devised. He can be
made to advance to\vard a stationary
silhouette over all types
of rubble and debris, firing as he goes in. In all cases, his eyes
should be on the target. Bobbing targets and other surprise
targets should be used in this training
period. Courses can
be laid out over various types of terrain, with silhouettes
hidden at various angles to the path of the shooter, so that
confn
A-r
FIRING
WITH
Sli OULDER
L
WEAPONS
2.
4.
COMBAT
Assuming
SLING CARRY
the firing position
from
the combat
sling carry,
187
188
KII.
L
OIt
GE’~
he is forced to fire at angles
the horizontal.
lCILLtl
D
and at targets
above
and below
The ability to do this type of shooting is a prerequisite
for
the infantry soldier on the battlefield and for the police officer
in the performance
of many of his combat missions. It is not
intended
to be a complete
substitute
for the conventional
type of aimed fire, but rather a method of shooting wherein
the kill can be made when time and other conditions
are
lacking for the more deliberate
type of aimed shooting.
Combat Sling Carry. At times, a shooter has been unable to
get a shot at a target of opportunity
because he could not
get his riot gun, or rifle, into action in time from the customary carrying
position on the shoulder.
}Vhen rifle, carbine, submachinegun,
or riot gun is carried
in the conventionally
slung nmnner, barrel up behind the right
to bring
the weapon
into action
shoulder,
it is difficult
smoothly. lt can be done, but it takes an excessive amount of
practice. The method portrayed
here is a simple, emily-lezrned
sling carry for use in combat nnd hunting. It is a good addition to the bag of tricks of any shooter.
It has the following
advantages:
( [ ) The
muzzle
RUGER
of the piece is down;
therefore
+
CARBINE
MAGNUM
CALIf3ER
r~in, snow
This new semi-automatic carbine is gas operated and weighs less than
six pounds. It has a capacity of five rounds when onc is cmried in the
chamber. The gun WM originally designed as a short-range
powerful
brush gun for deer bunters. Police ~gcocics often ncccl a good powerful
short-rmsgc rifle for special action and cmergcncics.
Onc of the big
ol.rjcctions to the higlwr powered rifles such m the 30/06 has been that
the muzzle velocity and the range were too great, especially when used
in crowded urban nrcm where dmqgcr exists of hitting an innocmt
bystamler well removed from the sccnc of action. Many ofliccrs carry
from choice the powerful .4+ magnum revolver and the new Rugcr
carbine in the same caliber should be a tvclcomc addition to police
armament.
coNIll,
\r
II I{IN(;
REISIhTG
\vl”rl
I Slloul.l)ltn
SUBMACHINE
GUN
MODEL
\vrl AI’o
50 CAL.
Ns18rJ
.45
This is z well-known
poIice and military arm. It has been in production since Wnrld
War
II and is still cornmcrcinlly
avaikrblc. It
has a cyclic rztc of 5oo-~so rounds pcr minute. Ir con be fired eichcr
Magazine
capacity
is 12. This
gun call be used
on semi- or full autoinatic.
wirh the sights with accuracy
duc to its stuclc design.
and other types of foreign matter are prevented
from entering
the bore.
(2) The muzzle of the piece does not extend above the
shoulder. It is easier for the carrier to make his way through
dense undcrgt-owtll
without
hnving
the weapon
catch in
branches.
(3) The shoulder wcapom carried in this rmtnncr conforms
to the shape of the body and, by placing the hand on the
forearm, the weapon can be carried with more comfort
and
is in a faster rendy position than when carried by the conventional method.
(4) After a short period of practice,
the average person
can take a slung weapon from this position and bring it into
action for a shot faster and more accurately
th~n the ordinary
man can draw a pistol or revolver from his holster and fire it.
(s) It provides an alternative
ing position when the shoulder
to the customary
tires.
sling-carry-
CluJ~Wr
7
DISARMING
STUDY
of this chapter will enable the soldier and law
enforcement
officer to handle most “of those situations
in which he finds himself held at the point of a gun. By
proper
training
and practice
in disarming,
skill and self-confidence can be developed to a point where the student will
become master of any situation
in which he is confronted
by a gun pointed at him by an enemy who is within arm’s
length.
A
Disarming has already been taught, in one form or another,
to many men in the military, police, and civil defense services.
If disarming
and its possibilities
are understood
more thoroughly it will be given greater
emphasis in future training
programs.
T-here are nxtny cases on record in which prisoners of war
and criminals have escaped, killed, or seriously injured men
who were holding them at gun-point.
On the other hand,
many military and police organizations
have cases on record
in which their own men have successfully
disarmed
anmed
individuals.
Disarming
is a technique
that can be successfully
used by
trained men. Recent military
history contains numerous
examples of successful disarming.
It is a subject which cannot
be presented
cold to trainees, but requires proper indoctrination and training. If a method of disarming is presented without a proper introduction,
the chances are that the pupil will
practice it only half-heartedly
and will never have the conresents itself.
fidence really to use it when an opportunity
The factors which influence disarming must be f ully explained
before a man can evaluate his chances of success in my given
technique.
A study of the numerous
techniques
being taught in the
armed services and police schools indicates that most methods
of disarming
are not introduced
properly.
The methods ad190
DISARMING
191
vocated by diflerent
instructors
are usually too complicated
for easy performance
and demand too much practice before
efficiency and self-confidence
can be gained.
The methods presented
here have stood the test of actual
combat. They come from experience gained during the study
and intensive training of several thousmd
men. ‘l%e average
individual
can use them successfully
if he understands
the
basic principles
and has had a moderate
amount of training
and practice.
These
techniques
succeed
principally
because
they are simple.
TYPES
OF DISARMING
TECHNIQUES
There are two general types of disarming techniques.
Both
advocate the removal of the weapon from the body area as
the first move. The more successfu!
advocates
an instant
follow-up body attack on the gun wielder. The other one, too
generally
advocated
by law enforcement
officers, concentrates on wresting
the gun from the hold-up man. If this
succeeds, it still is necessary
to subdue him before he can
be brought in under arrest. How he is to be subdued seems
to be left entirely
up to the individual.
In this type of disarming, there are too mmy possibilities
of something
going
wrong. What starts out to be a scientific disarming trick can
easily turn into just another struggle for a dangerous weapon.
All disarming methods which involve handling and wresting
the gun away, while it is sti”llbetween the bodies of the gunman and his m“ctim, are too dangerous to use.
The gunman who points a gun at anyone is “asking for it”
and should receive
rough
treatment.
Because of this, the
student should be trained to disarm and incapacitate
at the
same time. If disarming
is taught and advocated
in a police
department,
it should be a type that will give the officer confidence in its use; and it should be efficient enough to discourage like attempts
in the future,
by the same or other
criminals.
At the best, the disarming
of a man who holds a loaded
firearm involves a certain amount
of risk. If this risk can
be calculated, and if the, person held at gun point realizes that
he has a good chance of success, he will undertake
to disarm
his opponent.
If it has been shown in practice that he can do
an effective job without too much personal risk, by a method
he has proved to himself during his training, there is a much
greater likelihood that he will disarm an enemy if he is given
192
KILL
OR GET
KILLED
the opportunity.
He will also apply himself to practice much
more assiduously. After all, when a man holds a loaded gun
at your stomach and you are going to start an action to disarm him, you start something that must he jinished, the sooner
the better. Distirllling in actual practice
is a very personal
matter and one that must be undertaken
by a person who has
confidence in himself and his skill.
No two situat~ons will be exactly
alike. Differences
in size
and temperament
of the individuals
concerned,
light, terrain
and other circumstances
surrounding
the scene of action will
cause variations
in when and where to initiate a disarming
action. It is entirely up to the man with his hands in the air
to decide when disarming shall be started.
Some techniques
call for a person to initiate a disarming
action at the very instant that he is told to put his hands in
the air. Such methods
advocate
disarming
with the hands
down at the sides. Although
there are a few men who might
have the skill and the instant reflexes ncccssary
to do this
successfully,
it is not for the average mm to ~ttelnpt to disarm a man with a loaded weapon in this manner, or at this
time. It is much too dangerous
and demands
an excessive
amount of practice in order to achieve only a fair chance of
success.
Other disarming tactics are presented
with the idea that, if
the gunman is armed with a certain type weapon, a specific
disarming
method
must be used. It is easy to see that to
recommend
the use of a different
technique
for each of the
various types of weapons soon ends in endless complications
and results in confusion to the person who is expected to go
out and actually to disarm a dangerous
man. For example, a
double action revolver that is not cocked can be immobilized
by grasping the cylinder and preventing
it from turning. This
technique is all right when used in conjunction
with another
disarming method, but should not alone be depended
upon
Likewise,
a .45 cal. automatic
against a dangerous
gunman.
can sometimes be immobilized by ressing the hand or stomach
against the muzzle so that the sli Cfe is pushed back; but again,
none but the most foolhardy
would attempt this in an actual
situation. Not only is the element of chance too great in depending
on this type of disarming,
but poor light, heavy
clothing,
gloves, and such would prevent
success. A simple
disarming
technique
that cm bc used against all weapons
in all normal situations
is much to be preferred.
DISARMING
193
BASIC PRINCIPLES
When a gunman uses his weapon to hold up another individual
he is unknowingly
placing himself in a defensive
frame of mind and a defensive situation.
It is perfectly
obvious that he does not wish to shoot;
otherwise
he would
already have done so. The reason restraining
him in a simple
robbery, for example, is fear of the law and its consequences.
The mere fact that he has not fired his weapon indicates that
he does not desire to do so. This gives the man with his hands
in the air a psychological
advantage,
if he recognizes
it as
such, which he may use at the proper time.
We are assuming, at this point, that the average disarming
situation
encountered
by the soldier or the police officer
will be one in which he is faced by a lone gunman. There
are methods by which a single man might be able to disarm
more than one person at a time, but generally
they should
be used only in extremely
desperate situations or by an extremely skilled man. In any case, a very careful evaluation
of the chzoccs of success Illust bc Hmic before attempting
such a feat. Several practical nlctllods of securing z weapon,
for use against its former possessor, will be discussed later;
but they are advocated
only for specific situations.
Another
assumption
is that the gunman
will be holding
his weapon within arm’s length of his victim. If he is not
doin
so ac the period of initial contoct, he can often be entice ! within disarming range by certain stratagems.
It is only
when the gun, or the gunman, is within arm’s reach of the
victim that most disarming
should be undertaken.
Usually
the gunman will lmdertake
his “stick up” at close quarters,
because he wants to emphasize the presence of the weapon in
his hand and its authority.
The gun muzzle is often placed
against the victim’s stomach or back. However,
if the gunman
initially keeps himself and his weapon
out of arm’s reach,
he can often be forced to close in by reacting to his orders
too slowly, or by pretending
fright or indecision. When the
hold-up victim acts in this manner, the gun wielder will often
close in, so as to re-emphasize
the gun and his authority
with
it. If robbery or disarming is the motive of the gunman who
works alone, he will be forced eventually
to come close in
order to operate.
With the exception
of those who are aware of the special
training
in disarming
given during
the rcccnt
emergency,
most criminals arc ignorant of the practicability
of disarming
194
KILL
OR GET
KILL12D
and will keep tllcir wcapoos
C1OSC to tl}cir victims. The
average gunman feels that the mere presence of the weapon
in his hand wiil be enough to discourage
any opposition.
It is
a well recognized
fact in law enforcement
that, were it not
for the possession of a firearm, the average criminal would
not attempt many of his more violent crimes. The gun is a
prop which he must have to commit his crime. If it were
gone, he would not attempt the crime. He knows how helpless
he would be if it were not for the wea on in his hand, and
therefore
thinks that his victim should [ eel and act the same
way. Consequently,
his complete
reliance on his gun and its
efficacy makes him more susceptible
to surprise attack and
actual disarming.
When
the command
“hands up” is given, the gunman
experiences
a period
of tenseness,
during
which
he is
keyed
up for possible
resistance
to his command.
This
period of initial contact
with his victim finds him more
alert and trigger conscious.
At this time it is not advisable
to start any disarming
action, since he is more dangerous
and less susceptible
to surprise attack than he wiIl be later.
This
is the principal
reason
why
disarming
techniques,
which start with the hands at the sides and are initiated at
the moment
of the “hands up” command,
are not advisable.
One of the oldest “gngs” in the movies is for the victim
to say, to a fictitious individual
supposedly
standing behind
the man with the gun, “Don’t shoot, Joe.”
In the movies,
the gunman turns to encounter
the fictitious
character
and
the hero immediately
jumps upon him and disarms him.
This, to use a slang expression,
is “corny.”
However,
old
though it is, in many cases a slow-witted
individual may fall
for it. One variation,
which has been used with success
a ainst more intelligent
individuals
is this: Cast an obvious
g7ante behind your attacker,
as though
you saw someone
return
your
approaching
from his rear; then as quickly
glance to him, making no comment.
Although
he may suspect a trick, he still will be uneasy because a doubt has been
created in his mind.
He begins to think that it would be
entirely possible for another person to come up behind him,
and that you are too smart to say anything
about it. When
possible,
a hold-up
victim
should
attempt
to keep
the
thoughts
of the gunman
on something
other than his gun
before initiating
the disarming
action.
If he can get the
DIS,\Rht
IiV(;
195
gunman }0 tall: by asking him questions, or by volunteering
reformation,
11]s mind cm be distracted
and the sta~e can
be sec for disarming.
Considering
all these factors, which help to lay the ground
work for physical disarming,
remember
that the element of
surprise is still the biggest single factor in SUCCCSS.The man
with his gun ttnincd upon you may consider the possibility
of your trying to escape or of your trying to disarm him, if
you are desperate
enough; but the longer you wait before
attempting
your attack,
the less paramount
this consideration is in his mind, and the more careless he becomes.
By the very nature of the situation,
the individual
with
his hands in the air has an advantage
he can and must use.
Usually
he can pick the time and stage for his disarming
action. The man with the gun cannot anticipate
it, if no
give-away
indications
are made.
TRAINING
PROCEDURES
Before going into a detailed discussion of various disarming methods,
it is well to consider
the conditions
under
which thev must be Dracticed.
The element of uncertainty .
in an indi~idual’s mind, when practicing
disarming,
must be
reduced
to the lowest possible point before confidence
will
develop.
All the demonstrations
and Icctures in the world
will not enable a person actually to perform disarming unless
he has practiced it in circumstfinccs
as close to the real thing
as posshlc. Unless proper tr~ining indoctrination
is given by
the instructor,
covering
such material
as presented
above,
much time and effort can be wasted.
Practice must be realistic and real weapons must be used.
These practice weapons may be londcd with blanks for the
more advanced trainee, but, at the very. least, they. must be in
such rzood condition
that the haml]~cr will fall when the trirger i: pulled.
Most police departments
have on hand nu~bers of cheap weapons
which have been confiscated
from
criminals.
They are ideal for this purpose.
By sawing off
the firing pins and plugging the cylinders or barrels, the safety
factor can be increzsed without reducing the realism.
With
most of these weapons, it is advisable to saw off the front of
the trigger
guard: so as to prevent
broken fingers during
practice, and to cut off any front or back sight blades that
may cause cuts or scratches during practice.
Position for Disarming. Disarming
with firearms
practiced
with hands upraised, so that the elbows
should
be
are not be-
196
lC ILL
(
Gl; ”r KILLED
INCORRECT
DISARMING
POSITION
The elbows should not be held
below shoulder height when practicing. Here is shown the imp~per
position from
which to initiate
disarming because, in most cases,
to lower the arms in this manner
would arouse suspiciun.
low shoulder height.
All disarming methods can be successfully undertaken
from this arm position.
Although a prisoner
may be allowed, by some gunmen, to let his elbows drop almost to his sides, he may as well practice from the higher
arm position, especially since he probably
won’t be able to
lower his arms without
creating suspicion.
The position of
the hands clasped behind the head, as in handling prisoners
of war, may also be used in practice.
Anticipating Movement. The element of surprise is difficult
to achieve in practice, because the man with the gun knows
when you are going to disarm. Anticipation
on the part of
the holder of the weapon must be constantly
watched
and
checked.
It can usually be detected:
( x) when, at the slightest movement of the man whose hands are in the air, the trigThis is not natural and would not occur in
ger is pulled.
actual disarming; and ( 2) when, at the slightest movement of
the trunk of the body, the man holding the gun turns the
barrel to follow ‘the movement.
This means that he is anticipating, because the holder of the gun, under ordinary
circumstances,
cannot think fast enough to follow the movement of the body with his gun. He will pull the trigger while
I) IS AR A[[NG
the weapon
not be able
lowing. the
he pulls the
197
is still pointing in its original direction;
he will
to think fast enough to move the gun barrel, folchanges in the position of the opponent,
before
trigger.
In practice, any devices which will enable the student
to
evolve surprise
in his disarn)ing
attempts
will make him
progress that much faster. Unless checked at the outset, the
anticipation
by the man with the gun will cause the student
to lose confidence,
and he will not get the full benefit of his
practice.
If the instructor
can’t break the person who holds
the gun of the anticipation
habit, it is best to replace him with
another man.
The instructor
nlust watch
for evidence
of anticipation
very carefully
and check it at once. It is best to explain to
the entire class all the factors involved.
Ask the students
holding the guns to pull the triggers at the first indication
of
disarming movement
by the victim, but to be sure that they
do not try to follow any slight changes in body direction
of
their opponent
by moving the gun barrel before pulling the
trigger.
This is especially important
during the body twist
demonstration
and practice,
which will be described
later.
Looking the Gunman in the Eye. In all cases, in practice and
in actual disarming, the man with his hands in the air should
look the gunman in the eye and keep his eyes off the weapon
which is threatening
him. This is especially true just prior to
initiating
any disarming.
The body should be Icept relaxed,
and tensing of muscles prior to any offensive action should
be avoided.
Many times it is so evident that it acts as a giveaway to the gunman.
If possible, the action should be initiated when the gunman’s eyes and mind are on something eke
besides the weapon in his hand.
A difficulty
that is often encountered,
preceding
actual
participation
in disarming practice, is that, once the introductory instruction
is completed,
many students immediately
become “wise guys”; they fail to hold the gun within arm’s
reach during practice. This is a natural reaction.
It can be
largely overcome by the instructor
as follows: At the outset,
before any introduction
or discussion; give half the students
guns, pair them off and instruct
them to “stick up” their
partners.
It will usually be found that most of the stick-ups
will take place with the gun within arm’s reach of the victim. Call the attention of the class to this point; then proceed
with the introductory
material.
198
KILL
OR GET
KILLED
that
The Trigger Reaction Demonstration.
It is only natural
any one participating
in disarming
instruction
will doubt
his abili~
to accomplish
disarming
fast enough to beat the
man who pulls the trigger.
Naturally,
the first move in any
disarming method
is to remove the weapon from the body
area so that, even if a shot is. fired, it will cause no injury.
But before this first move, the student must prove to his own
satisfaction,
in practice,
the following
point:
HE CAN
MOVE
HIS BODY OUT OF THE LINE OF FIRE BEFORE THE
GUNMAN
CAN THINK
TO PULL THE
TRIGGER.
A small amount of time elapses between the instant the gunman’s
brain orders the pulling of the trigger,
and the instant when it is actually pulled.
This time, while
the mind is telegraphing
its message to the finger to @l the
trigger, is sufficient to enable a man to move his body away
from the weapon’s muzzle, or, as he actually will do later,
to knock the gun away from the body area before the hammer falls.
This is the first and most important
phase of instruction.
It is the basic principld
around which all successful disarming techniques
must be developed.
Without
actual knowledge of this fact and the consequent
confidence
in his ability
to beat the man with the gun, the average individual
will
to disarm a real gunman.
seldom undertake
Demonstrate,
then let the student
practice,
the following
procedure:
Stand facing the class; then have a student press
a cocked gun, or double action revolver, against your back.
Instruct the man with the gun to pull the trigger the instant
he detects any movement
of your body away from it. Place
your hands in the air and keep them there. Explain to the
class that this is only a demonstration
of the slowness of the
gunman’s
trigger
reaction
and that the hands will not be
used at this time, as they will be later in the instruction
on
actual disarming.
Execute a body twist, so that the trunk of
the body is bent away from the gun muzzle. The twist can
be done to the left or right, whichever
is easier. In doing the
twist, keep the feet in place, flex one lcnee a great deal, and
let the other knee remain almost straight.
When this is done,
the body will be turned sideways enough so thaL the muzzle
of the gun is pointing past it, not at it. If the gunman pulls
the trigger at the first sign of movement
and does not follow
the body by turning the gun wrist, he wiil always pull the
VI SARM IN<;
TRIGGER
REACTION
I99
DEMONSTRATION
Face the class, with the gunman holding the weapon pressed against
your back, as at the left. Tell him to pull the trigger the momcnc your
body moves. Execute a body twist by keeping the feet in place and
flexing the right knee a great deal, and by keeping the left knee almost
straight, as at the right. The muzzle of the gun will then be pointing
pmt the body when the trigger is pulled. Note the position of the
revolver muzzle in relation to your body.
trigger after the body is out of line of fire, even though
is expecting
the movement.
be
After
the demonstration
has been successfully
executed
from the rear, do the same thing from the front.
Place the
students
bt hind your back and let the opponent
press the
Point out to the class
gun muzzle against your stomach.
that, even though the man with the gun knows fully what is
going to t:d{e place, he still cmnot think fast enough to pdl
the trigger and register a hit. in other words, even without
the element of surprise, the body can be moved away from
the muzzle area. In a like manner, the weapon can be knocked
It should be emphasized
at this
away in actual disarming.
200
K I 1.1. OK
Gl; ’1” KIL1>I!D
point that, if it is possible to keep from being shot and to
disarm a gunman when he is expecting you to do something
(as in practice),
it will be 50 percent easier to do the same
thing when the element of surprise is on your side. The gunman’s reactions, and the thought processes necessary to pull the
trigger, will be considerably
slowed when he is surprised.
At this point the same demonstration
should be performed
by each pair of students.
Let the student practice front and rear until he is satisfied
in his own mind that he is actually clearing himself from the
bullet’s path. Even a slow body twist is fast enough to prevent a serious wound; a crease will be the only result.
Although the body twist is used in all disarming, both front and
rear, in reality it is not a separate movement
of the body
It occurs naturally in conjunction
with the downward
sweep
of the hands in the actual disarming.
Any disarming method or technique
will not be successful,
from the standpoint
of the student having enough confidence
to use it, unless he is satisfied in his own mind about his speed
of movement
and chances of success. This can be proved by
the body twist demonstration.
The arms and hands have as yet had no place in the disarming procedure.
It is well to emphasize again that the purpose of the body-twist
trigger-reaction
delllonstration
is
that he actually can move
merely to prove to the individual
his body out of the path of the bullet faster than the trigger
man can think to fire his weapon.
Use of Arms and Hands. After
the body-twist
demonstration has been practiced,
so that each individual
has achieved
proficiency,
the arms and hands can be brought
into use.
With the gunman
facing the student
and having the gun
within arm’s reach, have the man with his hands in the air
slap the gun away from his body area; or have him strike the
inside of the wrist of his opponent’s
gun hand, using the flat
of the hand to knock the gun away from his body.
Again
the student will find that he can actually knock the gun away
from his body area before the weapon is fired. He must, of
course, observe the simple rules, such as looking his opponent
in the eye.
METHODS
OF DISARMING
Following
practice and proficiency
in this first procedure,
the following
disarming
methods
can be introduced
and
practiced.
Knowledge
and proficiency
in the execution
of
LSISARA[l
NG
201
these two techniques
are all that is necessary
to handle all
disarming sitrmtions in which the gun band is within arm’s
reach of the hold-up w“ctim. They are effective, regardless
of the type of weapon used by the gunman, and they can be
used in all normal circumstances
by the average individual.
They are designed for use primarily
against persons armed
with hand guns; but only slight variations
arc necessary
to
make them equally effective
against shoulder
weapons.
Frontal Disarming (Hand Gun). Fint step. Facing the gunman with your hands in the air, look him in the eye, be relaxed, and use surprise if possible.
Second step. Swing the arm, which is on the same side
as the opponent’s gun hand, down forcefully,
so that an edgeof-the-hand
blow is delivered
against the inside of his gun
wrist.
Let the force of the blow and the downward
swing
of your arm carry the gun as far out to the side as possible.
FRONTAL
Face the gunman
as shown at left.
an edge-of-the-hand
at right.
The gun
fingers gripping the
DISARMING
with your body relaxed and look him in the eye,
Swing your left arm down forcefully,
striking
blow against the inside of his gun wrist, as shown
will be knocked away from his body and the
butt of the gun wiU fly open . . .
202
KILL
FRONTAL
OR
GET
KILLED
DISARMING
(Continued)
The way in which the edge-of-the-hand
blow should strike the gun
wrist, on the inside and on the downward
sweep of the arsrs, is
shown at the left. Follow through with a knee to the testicles and
a chin-jab blow, as shown at the right.
Note, at the right, that the
fingers of the gun hand are open.
For that reason it is well to use
old weapons in practice.
his gun away from
edge-of-the-hand
blow
will knock
your body area. At the same time, the force of the blow
on the wrist tendons will cause the fingers of the gun hand
to fly open and the gun m drop from your opponent’s hand.
Usually the trigger will not be pulled; and if it is, the gun
will be far out to the side, away from the body, before it
goes off.
This
Third step. At the instant your edge-of-the-hand
blow,
and the follow-through,
carries the gun away from the body,
follow up with your knee to his testicles, and use your free
hand to give him a chin jab.
This method
of disarming
combines
surprise, attack and
other elements. previously
mentioned,
and is practically
foolproof wl]en properly cxecutcd. The wcnpon is lcnockcd out of
l)ls:\RAI
203
IFIG
the hand, and the attack, by blows to the testicles and chin,
downs the opponent.
Even in tile fcw cflscs where the man
rctoins hold of the \vc:lpon, hc will not bc al)lc to usc it bcclrcct
of lllc I)IIJWS to his
cnusc of the fmin nnd knockout
t)ody.
‘rllis cm] IN2 pmcticcd
u“ith NI{])C rmtrniut
by using
the flat of the hand a~~inst the inside of the wrist, instead
of the edge of the hand, and bV pulling up shurt on the chin
!ab and knee.
Its efficiency
~nd sureness will prove
itself
.
to the student after a short ‘period of practice.
FRONTAL
,,,
.... . ..
14
PR15E
UScSW
.”
,..
.. .
PISTOL
DISARMING
w
..”..-
A%~
,/,/’-
/.’-
?+ h\
,,~
6$$
-)
$)
2
.,
/
pi —~
2
-——
%,
EOGE-OF.HAND OLOW ON TUE
INSIOE OF THE WRIST WILL Nor
T84C
ONLV FORCE WEAPON ASIDE BUT
WILL FoRCE HIM TO OPEN HIS
FINGERs ANO LOSE MIS GRIP.
204
Ii I r. 1. OR
Cl?”l
K1l.l.
rrl
Rear Disarming (Hand Gun). The same general
principles
apply when the hold-up is from the rear. In this case, however, glance over your shoulder
uiclcly, at the moment of
contact, so as to see in which han 3 the weapon is held. This
is necessary
to determine
whether
or not your opponent
is
using the gun barrel in your bnclc or is using a finger to
simulate his gun, while having the gun out of arm’s reach on
his hip. It is also important
to know which arm to use in
REAR
~p
(~
flSTOL
CtAS~%EWHO
)4
EAOI. BE RELAxED. USE
OF SUIEWIISE.
KNOW
THE
C.UN MANO.
c)~
DISARMING
FORCE FuLLY.
PIVOT
INTO
ELEMENr
WMICH
IS
U>E
lHf KNt
A KNU(NOUT.
C AHO ChIN
WRIST
YOUR
s~Iik
(FOLLOW
lMRU)
EIIM WITH
MoMENTUM
WITH
YOU
HOLOING
MAY
LEFT.
ONTO IT.
OF
4A8
FO*
GRASP WN
IF
ME
IS
SWING.
l)ls,!it.\ll x(:
i
REAR
PISTOL
DISARMING
After
determining
in which
hand the gun is held, initiate the
disarming action. MaIce a clownward sweeping movement
across
your baclc with your left arm.
Knoc]c the attacker’s gun hand out
to the right, m is shown in the
uPPer right Picture. Then Pivot
on the left foot, stepping mound
with the right. End the body pivot
with a chin jab and a knee to the
groin, as in the lower right pictore. Note that, because of your
follow through
with a striking
arm, the attacker’s gun hand is
way out to the side and is empty.
206
lill,
L 01{
GET
KILI.
ED
making the first blow in disarming.
Normally,
the gunman
will carry his gun in his master hand, usually the righ~ and
will keep it there after contact
has been made.
He may
change gun hands while conducting
a search, but usually not.
First step.
After determining
where, and in which hand,
the gun is held, make a downward
sweeping arm movement
to the rear, directed at the inside of the gun wrist.
Be sure
to use the arm that will strike the gun wrist on the inside
and knock the gun out to the side, away from the body.
Use the full length of the arm to strike the gun hand. Either
clench the fit so as to make the surface of the striking arm
hard, or use the edge of the hand.
It may not be possible
to hit the gun hand exactly on the inside of the wrist, as is
the case in frontal
disarming;
but by striking
with the
clenched fist, or edge of the hand, on the inside of the wrist
or forearm, a stunning blow can be delivered that will knock
the gun aside and usually cause the grip on the weapon to
be released.
Second step.
Finish the body pivot, with a chin jab and
a knee to the testicks for the lcnoclcout. A complete followstrikes the gun hand, will
through,
with the arm which
knock the gun way out from the body area. At the same
time, the blow to the inside of the gun wrist or forearm will
ordinarily
cause the gunman to let go his weapon.
In some
cases, the grasp on the gun may be retained by the gunman,
because the blow to the rear is not as well directed as is the
edge-of-the-hand
blow in frontal disarming.
In any event,
the gun hand will be far out from the body and the gun wrist
can be grasped at the instant the chin jab or testicle blow is
delivered.
Disarming Against Shoulder Weapons. It is even easier to disarm a man armed
with a shoulder
weapon,
because the
weapon is longer and more unwieldy.
The opponent’s
grasp
on the rifle, shotgun
or submachinegun
is with both hands.
All that is necessary in this case (gun held with butt on the
opponent’s
right hip) is: ( I ) Strike the barrel a hard blow
with your right hand, with the flat of your hand towards the
left, knocking
the gun out of fine with your body.
(z) Retain a grip on the weapon after knocking it away from your
body; then jerk the gun forward,
at the same time kicking
out his left knee with the edge of your right foot, or kicking
him in the testicles.
(3) When he receives the blow of your
foot on his knees or testicles, depending on position of his feet,
l) Is.\
l{,\l
Ix(;
207
SIHOULDER WEAPON
DISARMING
Dismming of chc shoulder
\VCfljW1l—SllCh aS th
sawed-off
shotgun, s(llj[llilcllirlcg~lll, or rifle
—is cmicr than dismming of the
Imtirl gun. Sweep down with the
rigl]r mm and use the right hand
to knoclc the muzzle asiclc, as in
the first two poses above. Retain a
grip on the piece, as is shown
bclo\v.
Once
the
weapon
is
Icoockcd
away from
the body
area, kiclc the gunman’s knee or
tcsriclcs, M is shown in the third
I)icturc. Jerk the we~pon away
from him at the instant the kick is
dclivcrcd.
the gunman will release his grip on the weapon. This will
enflble you to fire the weapon or to use it as a club, because
your opponent Will go clo~tin and be helpless. It is important
body toward your left
to strike tile weapon a~vay from your
side when your opponent has the butt resting on his right hip
Strilcing it from left to right leaves you open for the military
butt stroke.
When
the rifle barrel is placed in your back, the same
2d
KILL
GE”r
OR
KILI.~D
principles and methods apply as in the case of the pistol. With
the gun butt resting on your opponent’s
right hip, sweep
your left arm down to the rear; strike the gun barrel on the
left side; follow through,
pivoting
on your left foot, then
move in to the gunman,
giving him a kick in the testicles
and a chin jab.
These methods of rifle disarming
can be used equally well
against a gunman armed with a sawed-off
shot pun. a sub.machineg~n,
or any other type of shoulder weap~n. ‘
F~
DISARMING
TO
_
SECURE
WEAPON
~~j
..
L~M”lN-THE
USE
THE
ELEMENT
EYE.
-
OF
—
USE
PXTO
‘sLAp R!”F[EiSiRREL AiiOi-JERK IT TOwLllD YOU AS YOU KICK TESE
NEAREST KNEE. HE’LL LET 00 ANO 00 00WN
SURPRISE.
OR AS A Ci.UEA
THE WEAPON
FOR
A BUTT SMASH
DISARATTNG
20 9
SI IOUI.I)EIL
WEAPON
l) ISAR,?IING-R
EAR
After
the
dctcrmioing
cm which hip
is resting,
you are
rc;I(ly
tu wrrt
disnrlning
acti(m.
It
is itt]l)(>rr;lt]t tllnt y(Itl oltvlys
hit
tl)c Xvcajx)n 011 the side thlt will
preve[]t
a butt stroke being used.
gIIn
I)utt
Sweep down and across rhc back.
with the left arm rigid, and knock
the wcaprm aside, m is shown in
icture ahove. Pivot on the
the
Icft f oot, stepping around with the
right. Step in and place your right
font in rcfir of the gunman, as is
shown in the lower picture. With
your right hand, strike an edge-ofthe-hand blow to his face or throat
area. If he still retains a grip 01the weapon, grasp it with your
left Imnd. With-your
foot in rear
to trip, and with the backward
blow of your right hind, he will
go do~vn on his bnclc and the gun
cm hc jcrkul
from him.
21(s
1 <11.1. OR
REAR
RIFLE
GET
KILLED
DISARMING
s
Pwc
FRO*
STROI
~
HANO,
“P
OR
C-D
BEHIND
HEAD. BE RELAxED, KNOW
wHAT NIP HE’S HOLDING
FSIFLE ON,
BRING LEF r ARM 00WN FORCEFULLY
ASIOE . PIVOTING
TO KNOW. WEAPON
WITH MoMENIUM
OF SWING INTO
OPPONENT,
@
IF HE STILL IS )! OLOING WEAPON,
GRASPIT WITH LEFT HAND —
uSE THE WEAPON OR YOUR
FEET
TO FINISM HIM.
PLACE FOOT IN REAR OF IFIS LEG
AND SLAP W M 00WN.
ADDITIONAL
DISARMING
TECHNIQUES
There are many kinds of disarmitw
tricks, but tl~e verv
fact that there a~e so many is a go~d reason for limitin~
training to a few tried and proved methods.
Those students
who are interested
may be permitted
to explore other techniques on their own.
The inclusion of too many types in
a training program will lead to confusion and a lack of proficiency in any of them.
If time is available in the training
program,
the following
techniques
can be demonstrated
DISARA[l?JG
211
REAR
PISTOL
AND
First dctcrminc
~}plwncnt’s
DISARMING
ARM
LOCK
in which
hands the
~un
of your
is
held
to
your bdr. Then pivot to the right
nn your right foot, so that on
completion of the pivot you are
(m tile outside of the gun arm and
ore facing
the gunman,
m in the
mnci
whccher
it
is
held
close
“’”t
pose
%%
swce~
your above”
right ‘s.::
krroc mrg the gunmm’s arm to his
Icft. Bring your right hand -up
and under his gun arm, placing
your hand on the biceps of his
gun arm. The completion of the
movement
rcsuks
in your
left
hand grasping the gun barrel or
gUII
hand,
exerting
backward
Icveragc and forcing the gunman
to release the gun. The movement ends in an arm lock. See
lower picrure.
212
after proficiency
discussed.
I< r I. [.
OR
Ilas been
GET
KILLED
acllievccl
in the methods
already
The Arm Lock.
following
method
of disarming
a
l-he
man who holds up l)is victiin frotn the rc~r is a good one.
It has been used with success I)y wtrious 12\v cllforcclnenc
\i’llicll
l]~iIIJ is llddI):IC!<
[() scc
~l~cnCiCS. ( 1) AfcCL’ lool(hl~”
ing the gun (the right in this case), pivot on your right foot
to the right, so that you complete
your pivot facing the
gunman and place yourself
on the outside, or to the right,
of his gun arm. As the pivot is being made, sweep the right
arm down, outstretched,
knocking
the gun arm to the gunman’s left.
(z) Following
through
with your right arm,
bring it up under the opponent’s
gun wrist, plscing your
right hand on the biceps of his gun arm.
(3) lVith your
left hand grasp tile barrel of the piece and exert downward
and backward
leverage, bending forward as you do so. When
this leverage is exerted against the gun hand, the grip on the
weapon will be broken and the gunman will find that, not
only has he lost his weapon,
but also he is the victim of a
painful ari]) 10cIc. ‘171is \vill ]lclp in subduing
Ilim.
Securing Pistol from Opponent.
“Jle
following
dixtrming
method enables the victim not only to get possession of the
gunman’s weapon,
but also to have it in immediate
firing
position.
If a lone gunman
is encountered,
the use of the
more simple edge-of-hand
blow is advisable.
However,
there
may be times when the gunman
is accompanied
by companions. In this case the method of disarming must result in
your having control
of the situation
and possession of the
weapon, so you can use it to shoot, or as a threat against its
former owner and the other members of the hold-up party.
Naturally,
if more than one gun is trained on you, even this
method will stand little chance of success, no matter how
perfectly
executed.
A great deal of practice
is necessary
to master this particular technique;
but slcill in its execution, coupled with correct judgment
as to when it should be used, has proved it
to be successful.
It is a more spectacular
type and can be
used by an instructor
to introduce
disarming
and its possibilities to a group of students.
It is not advocated
for -use
against small automatic
weapons,
but works
well against
revolvers and automatics
having a barrel length of 4 inches
or more.
First step. With
your hands in the air and facing the
213
DISARAIIN(;
t
“4
--.
&
‘,
SECURING
PISTOL
FROM
.
.
OPPONENT
Facing the gunman, as at the Icft, bring your left hand down
on top of the weapon, grasping it around tllc cylinder, with your thumb
on the inside. Knock it away from the lJody, to the left, in the same
motion. As the gun is Imoclccd away, bring your right hand down forcefully, striicing a blow with the flat of your hmd against the inside of
the attacker’s gun wrist.
Retain a grip on his wrist, as shown at
right. Gripping the wrist tightly, jerk it up with your right hand . . ,
opponent who has the gun in his right hand, bring down the
left hand so that your left thumb hooks on the inside of the
frame, with the thumb of the left hand on the inside of the
weapon, and knock it to the left, away from your body.
Second step. Exert downward
pressure on the frame and
barrel of the gun. In conjunction
with this downward
leverage, slap the inside of the gun wrist with the right hand. This
blow to the inside of the gunman’s wrist, together
with the
leverage being exerted down by the left hand, will cause the
gunman to release the weapon.
Third step. The gun, being gripped in your left hand, or
initial grasping hand, can be placed butt first into your right
hand and is in immediate firing position. It is best to take a
214
KILJ.
SECURING
PISTOL
OR
(21Z”r
FROhf
KILLED
OPPONENT
(Continued)
. . . at t[)c SIMC time, exert d{nvn!vxrd pressure w,ith your left hand, the
onc that is grasping the gun , as shown at Icft. Note that this whole
procedure is done, out and to the side away from the body. After the
leverage has forced the gunman co release his weapon, the action winds
;~h~th
YOUr left hand plac~g the gun butt in your right hand, as at
Step backward as tlus transfer is made. The gun is now in
a firing position.
step to the rear as the transfer of the gun is made from your
left to your right, or shooting, hand.
To Take Over a Shoulder Weapon in Shooting Position. A
similar disarming tactic, to secure a shoulder weapon so that
it is in immediate shooting position is as follows:
First step. Facing the opponent
who has a rifle (butt on his
right hip) pointed at your stomach, strike down with the left
hand so that your left thumb hooks on the inside of the
weapon. Knock it to your left, away from the body area.
Grasp the barrel of the weapon with the striking
hand as
you knock it aside.
Second step. Using the right arm, step in and hook it
under the weapon near the trigger guard, and jerk up. With
the original grasp on the barrel by the left hand (which is
used to push down)
and the use of the right arm to jerk
the gun upward,
the gunman’s
grip on the gun will be
broken by the great leverage exerted.
Third step. As the rifle leaves your opponent’s
hands, a
step backward
may be taken, so that the gun can be placed
in a firing position. If desired, a knee can be used against
215
DISARMING
SECURIhTG
SHOULDER
kVEM?ON FROM
OPPONENT
Face your opponent and look him in the eye, as
down and out to the left with your left hand, grasping
top of the barrel, with your thumb on the inside, as
By this first movement, the muzzle is forced out to
from the opponent’s body. Step in, hook your right
weapon, near the trigger guard, -and jerk up . . .
at Ieft.
Strike
the weapon on
shown at right.
the side, away
arm under the
his groin as the gun is jerked from his grasp. In addition to
wresting the weapon from him, dwre is also a good chance
that he will receive a knockout
blow on the chin, from the
butt of his own weapon as it is jerked upwards
out of his
this last feature
must be watched
to
hands. In practice,
avoid injury.
Hand in Back Attack. It is possibIe to disarm a man who
places a hand in the middle of your back and keeps his drawn
gun on his hip whert he holds you up. When
you find
yourself
in such a predicament,
you should realize at once
that the man with the weapon has hzd some sort of training in the proper methods
of restraining,
an individual
at
the point
of his gun. Most
attaclccrs,
when they have a
prisoner at gun point in this, manner, feel thar if the prisoner makes an attempt to disarm, he will fail. Consequently,
216
1. I 1. 1. 01(
(;l;
’1’ KILLED
WEAPON
FROM
OPPONENT
ontinued)
At the same time, force the muzzle down, as shown at left. The
gunn)lll’s grip nn the wcnpol] Ivill I)c IJrnl;c,l, filltl tllc cl)nnccs nrc
good that tllc butt of dlc piccc will hit hiln on dlc chin as the
weapon k released. A Icnce blow may bc made to his testicles, In
the final step, right, the weapon leaves the opponent’s hands. As
you grasp the small of the stock, the gun muzzle is raised to a firing
position.
At this point
a step backward
is advisable,
so as to be out
of reach.
the element
you actually
of surprise
here is much
disarm your opponent.
in your
favor
when
The method
is little Icnown, but is simple and can be
The necessity
always of lookaccomplished
with practice.
ing to the rear when somebody
orders “hands up” is very
obvious. Once having ascertained
that a hand is in the middle
of your back and having found the location
of the gun,
decide for yourself
which direction
of body turn would
bring you into the weapon,
or away from the weapon.
It is assumed that the gun is held in your opponent’s
right
hand close to his hip, and that his left hand is in the middle
of your baclc. After determining
this, start your disarming.
Pivot to the outside of the arm held in the middle of your
f) IS All
J\ll
S(;
217
back. Pivot completely
around on your left foot, talcing a
step towards him as you complete
the pivot, until you are
him
at a point opposite
him. The pivot and step toward
will be so fnst that hc will be unable to pull the trigger in
time. Once beside him, you arc naturally
out of gun range.
A blo\v and trip, or throw, tnny cmily be applied bccouse,
with
the
first
this
particular
and
piclc
the
body
contact,
method,
stage
for
you
he
must
disarming
beconms
be
sure
cnrefully.
off
of
If
balance.
your
In
ground
he attempts
to
of his hand, a good time
to initiate
your disarming
is at the time when he shoves
you forward,
because at this moment
he is most likely to
be off balance.
shove
you
forward
with
the
palm
Weapon-in-Pocket Attack. The man who places his weapon
in his coat pocket and approaches
within arm’s reach demanding
“hands up” is laying himself wide open for disarming.
He can be handled
with ease. Facing him, with
your
bonds raised (the weqpon
being in his right coat
pocket and within arm’s length),
all that is necessary
is to
shove him backward
by hitting him sharply on the point of
the shoulder of the gun hand; that is, on his right shoulder.
A violent blow will pivot his body to his right, so that the
gun barrel points away from you. His hand on the gun is
locked in the pocket and is useless. At this point, step in
beside I)im and apply a trip, edge-of-the-hand
blow, or other
method of elimination.
The attacker who carries his gun in
his pocket will usually come into arm’s reach without being
enticed, for three reasons: first, he hides the gun. from other
people’s
view;
second, he will come close enough to use his
free hand for searching;
third, since he wants to emphasize
to the man being held up that he has a weapon, he has to
get close in order to prove it. This type of hold-up occurs
daily and is one of the easiest for a trained man to handle.
Attack in an Automobile.
There is a distinct
possibility
of
successful disarming
when you are sitting in a car, driving
or not, with a man covering you with a gun. If you have
had a little practice, you can readily analyze your disarming
possibilities. Supposing
the gun is in the man’s right hand,
or in any position away from his body and left arm—you
can knock the gun hand against his body by a sweeping
movement
and deliver a knockout
punch with your free
hand, a chin jab, edge-of-the-hand-blow,
or other. This
method has many variations.
A serious student should prac-
z18
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
tice it with various individuals
and try to visualize all possible situations.
He should be concerned
particularly
with
how the gun is held in the gunman’s
hnnd and its relation
to his own body. Practice in this type of disnrming will SI1OW
up your limitations, and the various possibilities of disarming,
so that you will soon be able to recognize
them as circumstances
occur. Knowing
the fundamentals
of disarming,
it will be easy to devise tactics for use against the gunman
who points a gun at your head. He should know better; he
shows his ignorance
in attempting
hold-ups
of this type.
When the Attacker is Out of Reach. All methods
of disarming when the gunman is out of arm’s reach and cannot be
enticed in should be based on the circumstances
of your own
situation. How desperate are you? Your chances of success
are good, but by no means certain. You have a possibility
of kicking the pisto~ out of his hand by a sudden horizontal
sweep of the foot, kicking
the gun aside, and following
right in. Itick with the side of the foot, with the impact
being on the inside of the gun Imnd. Since this lcick will
place you off balance, follow through
with your body and
fall forward
on the gunman. If he is out of kicking range,
your chances are that nluch poorer, but there is still a 50-50
chance. The best action is to catch him off guord and execute
a forward
dive or tackle
to the side of the gunman
on which the weapon is held. This tackle, naturally,
should
be followed
up by bringing
the mnn to the ground
and
subduing him. Expcrilllcnts
Imvc SI)OWN tlmt it is much more
difficult for a man to fire at a moving object directly
off
and down to the right (gun in right hand), thfin it is for hinl
to fire to the left and down. If the man is holding n rifle
on you, your chances are much better, bccnuse the larger
it is for quick,
sudden
the weapon
the more unwieldy
movements.
Another
consideration
pull the trigger
while
more or less horizontal
your attempt
properly
will be in a horizontal
at the time of the firing
you receive a head shot,
than a crease are good.
is that ordinarily
the gunman will
the weapon
is still pointed
in a
position.
Consequently,
by timing
and being fast enough, your body
position
during
the forward
dive,
of the weapon. In this case, unless
the possibilities of getting no more
When Moving Forward.
forward and the weapon
Suppose you have started to move
is being held in your opponent’s right
219
DISARMING
hand,
or butted
against
his tight
hip, as in the case of a rifle.
The sweep of your left arm down and to the rear, strilcing the rifle or pistol aside, and the following
blows to his
tcsticlcs find chin rcll~flin the same. The only thing which
you
have to consider,
then, is t]]c \vay in which you will
initiate your pivot.
The best way to do this is to start the pivoting movement
when your right foot is just being advanced
and your left
foot is still on the ground. In this position, by pushing with
with the ball of the right foot and pivoting
on the toe of
the left, a quiclc and satisfactory
pivot into your man will
result.
DISARAIING
WHEN
lVEAPON
IS CONCEALED
Whcll apprwrchcd and ordered to put up yuur hands by the gunman
who cotncs in C1OSCand concco]s his \vcapon in [Iis coat pocket, watch
for the opportune tin]c. T“hcn, ~vitll tllc hmd opposite his gun arm, strike
a hard blow to the point of tl)c gunrnm’s si)ouldcrt cnusing him to spin
ro the right, mmy fro?~l yozi so tl}zt your body is out of range. See Icft
above. When your blow pivots I)ilo ~ivay, off balwrcc, step in immediately.
Place onc foot, the right, behind him and deliver a blow as
shown at the right above. I IC \vi[l go down Ivirh his right hand still
feet can be
grasping the no\v USCICSS ~(111 iil IIis pocl;ct. If need bc, }our
used, once he is 011 the ground.
220
KII.
L
OR
GET
KILLED
left hand or
If the weapon
is being held in the attacker’s
against his left hip, the reverse procedure
will apply.
The same method
of pivoting
will suffice if a hand, or
finger, is in your back and your opponent’s
weapon is held
again to pivot towards
on his hip. If this occurs, remember
the side away from the gun hand.
Some instructors
believe it is advisable
to fake a gun
barrel in a prisoner’s back by using the stiff forefinger,
or
knuckle, to imitate the gun barrel.
The gun hand is kept
back out of arm’s reach, so that any attempt directed against
the “fake” gun hand will fail. This type of procedure
particularly
is not one for law officers to use, since it really
tempts the victim to try disarming
and thus causes him to
be shot. A police officer or soldier whose object is to bring
in the prisoner, not to kill him, should let the prisoner know
that the gun is on his hip. He should use his free hand to
shove the prisoner along, not to fake a gun.
PRISONER HANDLING
AND CONTROL
T
HE soldier or police officer should avoid
sclf into a situation
which would permit
to nttempt to disarm llilll.
HOLDING
A PRISONER
getting
hinlan opponent
AT GUN POINT
A? previously
stated, the man with
fidva, Cage; he does not want to shoot
have done so. This is especially true of
officer; his mission is not to kill but to
1lC l}iust tskc nlorc chnnccs in hnndli[lg
nccessnry on a battlefield.
the gun is at a disor he would already
the law enforcement
restrain and capture.
Ilis prisnncr tluln nrc
The man held at gun point is usually an unknown
quantity; he may be meelc and docile, or he may be so desperate
that he will attempt
disarming,
given the slightest
opportunity. Fear of capture,
punishment
for crimes committed
in his past, dope, or just plain viciousness,
coupled with the
possibility
that he Ims rcccived
training
in disarming,
make.
every such prisoner
potentially
dangerous.
Therefore,
he
should be handled carefully.
Too much reliance should not
be placed upon the mere presence
of the weapon
in the
hand to control or to command
obedience
and respect.
Generally,
police and military
departments
do not question too closely the man who is forced to shoot an antagonist
who attempts to escape; but they certainly
hold responsible
the policeman or soldier who permits a prisoner to disarm him
and escape. The publicity
given to a successful disarming
or
an escape attempt undermines
public and organization
confidence. ‘_l%erefore, if it is necessmy for the policeman or soldier
to use a gun to restrain a prisoner, he should be trained to
use it pIoperly
as a means of enforcing
his authority.
Prisoners
who are desperate
enough
221
to attempt
escape
usu-
liII.
222
TAKING
L
OR
GET
A PRISONER
I{ IL
AT
LELI
GUN
POINT
Keep out of arm’s rc!ch and keep the gun hod
WCII back on the
hip. From this position, the ~risoncr usunlly should bc ordered to
rum around, raise his hands higher. and spread his legs apart, before
he is searched from the rem.
ally are quick to take advantage of carelessness and overconfidence on the part of the officer. They make full use of the
element of surprise and the slowness of the officer’s trigger
reaction.
Rules for Handling
Prisoner. The following
general
rules
should be followed
when handling
n criminal at gun point.
( I ) Give every indication–by
inference,
speech, actions–
that you will unhesitatingly
shoot at the slightest provocation.
Dominate
all the actions of the prisoner.
(2)
Keep out of arm’s reach until you are ready to search
for weapons.
(3) Make the prisoner keep his hands
and his back toward you, if possible.
way
(4) DO not allow
or otherwse
distract
look back,
(s)
the prisoner
you.
If the immediate
to talk,
area of the action
up in the air
gesture
is not suitable
for
1>It I
s
()
,s [: [(
2n initiol search for Wcopons n]ovc hiln by
to z tllorc suitable area. Usc well-plmxxl kicks,
the free band, if necessary to malce him move
orders promptly.
(6) lf possible, usc the wall scnrcll IIlcthtxl
for weapons.
(7) If no
legs until he
from the rear
alone, search
223
II A,NI}LI,NG
oral commands
or SI1OVCSwith
faster and obey
whcnscarching
wall is available, make the prisoner spread his
is in an awkward
position before approaching
to search for weapons or other items. Do not,
from the front, if it can be avoided.
(a) Keep your gun hand back against the hip and use
your free hand to make the “frisk.”
(b) Keep your foot that is on the smmc side as the searching hand against the heel of the suspect’s shoe. Search the
closest half section of his body; then move to the other
side, change gun hands, and repeat.
y&
..j
WALL
SEARCH
The prisoner’s haods and legs
are spread far apart. He is forced
to lean forward and support himself with his arms against the wall.
The se~rcher hooks his foot inside
the prisoner’s foot. At the Ieasr
hostile act, the foot is jerked out
and the prisoner falls. This is an
effective way of searching
and
handling one or more prisoners.
HANDS-ON-HEAD
POSITION
The prisoner’s legs are sprczd
far apart, putting him in a very
unbakmccd position. His hands, in
this CS.SC,are resting on top of his
head. The hands-on-held is a good
position. It can be maintained a
Iol]g time without tiring, and the
arms are prevented from gradually
Iowcring, as is the case with the
hands-in-ak position.
Ii I 1, 1.
12+
CLOSE-IN
(Ilt
(; [:1’
SEARCHING
The man with the gun can oper2tc n)uch closer to tl]e prisoner if
he places one foot against the prisoner’s heeI. The side of the body
is toward the prisoner, so that the
groin area is protected.
l;
11, I,r:D
SWIVEL-TYPE
CUFF
After practice,
the swivel-type
cuff can be affixed with one hand.
The prisoner’s hand that is being
cuffed is pulled way out from his
back, thus increasing his unbalanced position.
(8) After the search for weapons,
apply handrl~ffs, use
a come along, or have him precede you, at gun point, to
whatever
destination
you select. If there is a possibility
of
the prisoner
making
a brealc—because
of crowded
streets,
narrow
doorways
and hallways,
poor light—grasp
his belt
in the rear with your free hand. Keeping the gun back on
your hip, control
the prisoner’s
movements
by kicks and
the grip on his belt. It is extremely
difficult for him to disarm you as long as a strong grip is maintained
on the belt
and the gun is held well back.
Trouser and Coat Tactics. There is a variation of this tactic
which permits free movement
and still prevents
a sudden
break. Cut, or take off, the prisoner’s belt or suspenders;
rip
the top buttons from his trousers, if necessary, so that he is
forced to use one hand to hold them up. This prevents any
sudden action on his part; the nlinute
he lets go of his
trousers,
they will slip down and bind his legs. It is also
very difficult for a prisoner
to run if he is forced to hold
up his trousers with one hand. Not only does removing
the
trousers
support
create a physical
handicap,
it also has a
psychological
effect. If a person is partly undressed, it tends
I]l{lsl)xllf
ll,\\llll\(:
4
USl~ OF
CLOTIHING
I\~lIcn [IIc occasion wzrrants, the
I]risi,llcr’s clothing can be used to
illll]]ol)iliz.c him. Not only are his
;Irll IS 21K1 legs tempormily
restricted, hc also is under a psychological disndvmtage
in his partly
drmed condition.
to subdue impulsive
moves. Just so, pulling a coat down
over the prisoner’s shoulders
will bind his arms temporarily,
while he is being searched, or until final disposition is made.
In emergencies,
soldiers and police officers have followed
both procedures–they
have dropped
the prisoner’s trousers
around the ankles nnd pulled his coat down over his arms,
thus ancl]oring
hinl in one place until the situation
warranted more permanent
measures. This strategy
is particularly good if a lone individual
is forced to stand guard over
a number
of potentifllly
desperate
prisoners.
Occasions may arise when it is expedient
to approach
the
suspect from the front while conducting
a search for weapons.
This is more dangerous than a search from the rear. The gun
must be Icept well back; and the body must be lcept sideways, hip foremost,
so as to protect
the more vulnerable
spots—groin,
testicles—from
a hand, foot, or knee blow.
If visibility is good and the situation
is otherivise
favorable, a suspect can be ordered to lower one hand and unfasten
his belt buckle,
or other
means of trouser
support.
His
trousers will drop, binding his legs and providing
an additional precaution
while making a frontal search. Likewise,
his co~t c~n be pulled down over his arms so m to bind
them at the elbow.
Although
these
methods
of prisoner
control
and
contact
226
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
is
from the front are good, they are more risky. There
always a possibility that the more desperate type of prisoner
will try to draw and use a concealed weapon, or will attempt
a disabling blow and disarming.
THE
INITIAL
SEARCH
FOR WEAPONS
When a desperate
mm is apprehended
and held at gun
point, the arresting officer always should search for his weapons. Usually, this search should be made from the rear, so
that the prisoner is in doubt about the officer’s position and
the exact whereabouts
of his gun.
This initial frisk for weapons is very important.
Although
it is often hurried, it should never be done carelessly. The
prisoner’s hands, feet and legs are sources of danger. The
searcher should keep his groin, or other vulnerable
parts of
his body, and his weapon, out of reach of the prisoner while
making the search. However,
if the searcher
is forced by
circumstances
to get close to his prisoner, he should get his
body so cIose that any blow delivered by the prisoner cannot
be executed with full force.
The “Pat” Search. The initial search for weapons,
sometimes called the “pat” or “feel” method, cannot in any sense
constitute
a thorough
body search; but it can detect most
weapons
and other bullcy objects.
After
this initial “pat”
search, the prisoner is usually taken to a headquarters,
where
to a dehe is disrobed and his clothes and person subjected
tailed examination.
The pat search should cover the pris-
Deadly weapons cm be carried in any number of places where a
hasty search will fail to locate thcm. A knife in wrist holster taped
on inside of arm when concealed by sleeve of shirt or coat is many
times initially overlooked,
as is a small “hideout” gun when carried
in the same locarion.
I>RIsoNJjl{
:.
—.
227
~IANDLING
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.
Weapons are many times carried by assassins and criminals in seemobjects such as a book where the inside pages have
ingly innocent
been hollowed out.
oner’s arms, armpits, waist line and back, his groin and testicle area, and the entire surface of his legs, down to the
shoes. In addition
to the more obvious places, firearms and
bladed weapons have been found on prisoners in the following places: the hat, hair, necktie, shoes, belt; suspended
by
a string
down the back of the neclc; tied or taped to the
arms; inside the wrists, groin, legs and armpits. The senrcher
should look with suspicion on such innocent objects as fountain pens, .pcncils,
cigal~ttc
casw. Mnny such items hzve
been adapted to conceal knife blades, or tear gas projectors,
or small caliber cartridges
which cm be fired by nlanipulcstion of concealed
trigger mechanisms.
A collection
of items
of this type should be displayed in every training school.
If, in the searcher’s
judgment,
the situation
is serious
enough, the prisoner can be knocked
out, or stunned, by a
gun butt or edge-of-the-hand
blow, so as to permit a more
thorough
search and provide a better means of handling the
situation.
Searching More Than One Prisoner. In some circumstances,
a lone individual may be required to search and disarm more
than one prisoner or suspect. He shouId require the prisoners
to raise their hands, stand in column about 4 feet apart with
their backs towzrd
the officer and their feet spread. The
nearest prisoner should be searched first and, on completion,
should be directed
to proceed
to the front of the column;
then the next prisoner should be searched, and so forth. By
remaining in the rear of all the suspects and Iceeping them
under surveillance,
the officer should be able to control the
~~~
1.11.1.
1)1(
(; 1:1”
COLUAIN
If a Ionc ofiimr or mm
suspects should bc made
unbalanced position. The
move to the head of tile
so on,
entire group. The
cases of this kind.
I.lfl,
ll)
SEARCH
is forced to search Inorc than ollc Susl]cct, tllc
to stand in column, about 4 feet apart, in m
rear man is sczrched first, then is directed to
column. Then the next man is searched, and
wall
search
method
con also be used
in
Searching When Carrying a Shoulder Weapon. Although
the
law enforcement
officer usually carries a hand gun, he may
find himself in situations in which he carries only a shoulder
weapon,
such as a rifle, submachinegun
or shotgun.
The
normal methods
of search, employed
when using the hand
gun, will be extremely
difficult. If he has enough confidence
in himself physically
he can lay down his weapon and search
in the same manner he would use when covering the prisoner
with a hand gun. If he wishes to keep the weapon trained
on the prisoner,
he can conduct
a search in the following
manner. Direct the prisoner to lie on his back, with his arms
outstretched
close together
over his head and his feet close
together.
Place the muzzle of the rifle in the pit of the suspects stomach
and keep the gun upright,
with the trigger
finger inside the trigger guord. Then, to fire the weapon,
it is necessary
only to lift the finger against the trigger.
The weight of the wcaprm will be enough to ct)untcrbalance
the trigger pull, so that the piece will fire with slight movement. Conduct
the search with the free hand. Then direct
PRISON
ltl(
II AN
I)
I. IN(;
prisoner co turn over, xnd repeat the process. lhe
of the rifle can be twisted in the prisoner’s clothing
vent it slipping off.
tile
229
Illuzzle
to pre-
In ccrtai~l s~uations,
tlm finger has been used successfully
by umrmcd
individuals m a bluff in silnu]ating a gun barrel.
The chances of success in z str~tt%em
of this kind will
depend entircl
upon the searcher’s force and command
of
the situation. {f the approach
is made from the rear and the
prisoner is not allowed to turn to see what is pressing against
his baclc, he usually can be controlled
long enough to permit
a search of his person and the securing
of his weapon. The
knuckle of the forefinger
will be a suitable imitation of a gun
barrel when pressed in the middle of a man’s back. The
forefinger,
when applied
in its full length,
may bend if
weight is pressed against it, thus giving away the situation
to the more experienced
type of criminal.
HANDCUFFS
Military and civil police records are replete with cases in
which seemingly docile and subdued prisoners who were not
properly
secured have escaped, either lcilling or injuring
the
guards.
Although
each service IMS its own instructions
on the type
of persons to be handcuffed,
it is still up to the individual
officer to rely on his judgment
of the potential danger and
the difficulty in handling the prisoner. In most police departments the officer is instructed
to use handcuffs whenever
the
status of his prisoner is doubtful,
and in other ordkary
circumstances.
However,
the degree of desperation
of a prisoner
is frequently
an unknown
factor, and the conventional
application of handcuffs
will not always suffice to prevent
a
desperate man from attempting
to escape. After the shock of
capture and arrest has worn off, an escape attempt will often
be made, even though handcuffs
have been applied.
The proper use of handcuffs on various types of prisoners
requires individual
practice
and the exercise of good judg
ment. Although
the officer may have been told when and
where to use handcuffs,
he must have training in applying
them so that they perform
their function
efficiently
in all
situations.
With his wrists pinioned by handcuffs, a desperate prisoner
is still far from helpless. If his hands are cuffed together
in
front, so that the arms swing free, it is possible for him to
230
i<lr.
r< on
ADJUSTABLE
cr~,.r
Krr.
r.r:[)
HANDCUFFS
This is the more popular type of hmrfcuffs, with an mijostrncnt that
permits a CIOSCtit to 211 sizes of wriws. ‘lhc nmthod of culling shown
here permits tllc prisoner to usc his halltls for cntillg a}ltl otlwr normal
actions. IIut it nls,, IImkcs hi:,, n,orc d:,,)gcr{,us, since Iw can grmp a
gun, strike n blow, or usc a conccdcd
wc~pon, CVCIItlwugh both hands
arc pinioned. Prisoners lmvc irccn known to pick, or otherwise break,
locks or links NIIC[l they orc sccurcd ill this numncr.
deliver a knockout blow using both his hands or the handcuffs
thenlselves. When an officer is alone, it is not advisable to handcuff himself to the prisoner. This leaves the prisoner with one
hand free for attack and restricts
the officer in preventing
any attempted
escape. Many officers who handcuff themselves
to their prisoners deposit the keys to the cuffs with another
officer, in the prisoner’s presence. This usually discourages
an
attempted
escape by the prisoner,
although
it also inconveniences the officer. Generally
it is much better to use die
handcuffs to pinion both the prisoner’s hands.
Since there are many methods
of using handcuffs,
each
prisoner can be cuffed in a manner which will prevent him
attempting
to escape or attacking,
according
to the officer’s
estimate of his dangerous
potentialities.
This is particularly
important
if the prisoner is being moved from one locality
to another.
Types of Handcuffs. Tlwrc are two gcnernl types of hnndcuffs. One is n cuff of fixed si~.c which is ni>plied to all prisoners, regardless of wrist size. Tl~e more popular type is an
adjustable
cufl, w’hich makes possible a secure grip on any
size wrist or other part of a limb that is to be pinioned.
PRISONER
lIANOI.
231
INC
No attempt should be made to apply handcuffs until the
prisoner has been subdued, by physical or mechanical
means.
Handcuffs
are often applied after the prisoner has been subdued by the hands, fists, baton, blackjack
or other weapons,
or when the prisoner is held at gun point. On other occasions,
such pressure holds as the arm 10C1Care applied before cuffing.
There
are methods
of applying
handcuffs
in a surprise
attack on the prisoner, but this procedure
is often very risky.
It should be used only by extremely
slcilled persons. If he so
CUFFING
TO
POST
secure a pristo a mcc, posr, or pole tmtil
Usi}lg
(mcr
I)c con
El~FE.C”Il\’E
PI. ACIFJG
OF
the
[m
cuffs
tnkcII
to
ill.
I-IANDS
When appl cd in this manllcr, with die b~cks of the Iumds, not the
palms, facing each other tllc handcufh arc effecrivc. The prisoner is
given less frsedom, but he cannot usc his Ilands effectively, even though
his arms are free.
232
1< 11.1.
()!{
Glt”I’
KII.
Lt?ll
:- --. .,
‘ ,/jp-’%\
S.lll”l-l 1 &
\VESSON
HANDCUFFS
They
There
trc many clmscs anti types of i)andcufis.
price and quality from the chcopcr Spmlish-mmle cuff to
f[)r (JIIly a littic
more.
fincsc which cm be purclmc(i
range in
tile very
Handcuffs,
Iii(e the sidearm, shouid lsc of the best type and quality.
Failure of either one at a crucial time con result in disaster. The
best type handcuffs arc those tilat have a rousting jaw, ailowing the
cuffs to be applied swiftly and fitting the smallest to iargest wrist.
These new’ ‘Smith & iVcsson
are also ligilt in weigilt. They
cuffs iurve grczt strcnith
arc so dcsigncci that they
and yet
nmy IJc
ciarnped
on tile wrists
witil
Imtil
kcy boles toward
tim body and
away from tile prisoner’s hands. This makes picking more diificulr.
A double lock is anotiler new fcarure.. By using the punch on the
handle of tile key to depress a plunger, the rotating jaw is secured
.
.
against tr~vel. m either direction, thus preventing increased tightening
after appilcatlon and the consequent loss of blood circulation
in the
pinioned wrists.
chooses, a prisoner who,, has not been subdued prior to actual
cuffing can be very difficult.
Rules for Handeuf%ng. The following are good general rules
when handling a potentially
dangerous
prisoner.
(I) When moving the prisoner by car, the wrists should be
handcuffed,
or tied, and then held to the body by the belt,
tied to the outside door handle, or tied to the leg.
(2)
The legs and feet are dangerous.
Loop a belt around
the feet and tie to the cuffs if the situation
warrants.
The
officer should always consider
the knees, feet and manacled
hands of the prisoner as potential weapons and should restrain
them from free movement
whenever
possible.
(3) Many fanatical
prisoners
who have been only hand-
I) I/ IS ON
El{
233
II A.NDLING
cuffed have escaped, while traveling by bus or train, by crashing out through
the window.
A common
dog chain, with
padlock,
can be put to good use on persons of this type,
binding
the ankles to the handcuffs.
Special leg irons are
available for this purpose, but a dog chain will make a satisfactory substitute.
(4) In case of an emergency
at the scene of action, use the
handcufls,
or any of the other tying expedients,
to secure
the prisoner to a post, tree, or such. Then proceed with the
other elements of the situation.
To secure more than one
prisoner
in an emergency,
use an automobile
skid chain.
Loop it around some stationary
object, such as an automobile
bumper, then handcuff the prisoner by locking a section of
the chain within the cuffs.
(5) In handling and moving a prisoner, alwaYs staY a little
to his rear and make him precede you. He is then in a position where his every action can be observed, yet he is unable
to see what his captor is doing. Always use this procedure
when passing through doors.
(6) Firearms must be lccpt out of possible reach of the
prisoner; and the officer’s master hand should be kept free for
action-the
right hand in most cases.
(7) Violent prisoners must first be subdued physically,
or
held at gun point, before handcuffing.
In all cases of this type,
the cuffs should be applied with the prisoner’s hands behind
his back. The arm lock, hammer lock, and similar holds are
useful when physical force is used. Force the prisoner to the
ground on his stomach. By applying pressure, make him put
his free hand back so it can be secured by the cuffs or a tie
can be made. If a dangerous
prisoner is handled alone and he
is held at gun point, arms in the air, make him keep his back
to the gun, spread
his legs apart and bring one hand at a
time down to the rear for cuffing.
(8) In extremely violent cases-where
time is short, use the
gun butt, edge of the hand, baton, or blackjack to knock him
out or stun him before cuffing.
(9) When
forced
to han~le dangerous
prisoners,
either
stay entirely out of arm and leg reach, or get in very close,
so that an attempted blow cannot be delivered with full force.
OTHER
MEANS
OF SECURING
PRISONERS
When there are no handcuffs avaiIable, the officer may have
to use emergency means of securing his prisoner. Any of the
234
I< ILL
OR
GEr
KILLI;
D
..
INTERLOCI<lNG
CUFF
Onc wrist is Iucl;cd and pinioned, with el)ougll room to permit rhc
jaw of the other cuff to bc inserted lrct~vecn tllc cuff and the wrist of
the loclced cuff, as shown m upper right. The second cuff is then locked.
In effect, the cuffs mc Iinkcd together like a chain while, at the same
time, the wrists mc kept pinioned in I rigid posirion. \Vith the inter.
locked cuff, the use of tl)c I]ands is greatly rcstrictcd, as shown at lower
left. Any exertion cm hc painful if the cuffs are applied tightly.
Dmgerous prisoners can bc further limited in action by pointing the
hands in opposite directions, as shown at the lo~ver right. The restriction
here is so complete that, even though the prisoner were given the key,
he stilI could not unlock the cuffs.
PRISONF,
R
lIAND1,
INC
235
following
articles may be satisfactory:
a piece of rope, the
prisoner’s shoe laces, adhesive or tire tape, flexible wine, the
prisoner’s belt, necktie,
or handkerchief,
a silk stoclcing, a
long, twisted piece of cloth. The cffcctivcncss
of these exIw(llcnts is cvlnrc]y (Icl)cll{lcllr ul)~IIl tr:lilling :IIltl l)r:lcricc ill
their use. lZrrors in tying proccdurc
arc usually glaringly
apparent
during practice sessions.
CUFFING
BEHIND THE LEG
This method is especially good when a lone officer is transporting a
prisoner by automobile. It can be used also to lock a prisoner to a chair
in which he is sitting, the links of the cuffs being passed around the
rung or leg of the chair. The same method, locking a single leg, may
be used in the seat of a car, as shown at upper right. Or both legs may
be passed through the loop of the arms, as shown at lower left. The
use of cuffs shown at lower right secures the arm of the prisoner
that is next to the driver, but leaves one arm free for maintaining
balance or smoking.
236
CUFFING
BEIHIND
THE
BACIL
Should circumstances
wmr%mt, the hands cmr be cuffed behind the
back in this manner.
This is a good method to use when forced to
walk tile prisoucr a long discancc.
CUFFING
TO COUPLING
By passing onc cnd of die cuffs through a trailer coupling or
wagon wheel, before completing the cuffing of the other hand, the
prisoner can be firmly secured.
Pl\l
SONltl[
llANl~LI
X(;
237
CUFFING
TO SOLID OBJECTS
\Vllen there me two or nlorc prisol)crs, they can bc temporarily
secured, under light guard, in this n)allncr. In this cme three pairs of
cuffs are used. An mltonml~ilc Ail],
witl] {JIIC (w Inrrrc poirs of cuffs,
also is useful in sccoring prisoners to any solid object. llc
clmin can bc
used, together with the cntl~s, to wrnp nruund tllc lrodics of several
prisoners, thus restricting their inovcmcnts.
CUFFING
THREE
MEN
Three
airs of cuffs can bc used to restrain tllrec men. Although these
men are 1’astencd only by tllcir hands and nre free to use their fee~ it is
diilicult for thcm to move swiftly, since onc man must always walk or
run backward.
238
/1{ GET
CUFFING
KILLED
TO THE
BELT
The. wrists cuffed with the link under the belt, as shown in the first
picture, will greatly reduce the freedom of arms and hands. This is a
good method to use when walking a prisoner a long distance, or when
transporting him by car. Ideally, the belt buckle should be moved far
enough around to prevent its being loosened by the hands, as shown in
the second picture. The belt can also be used to restrict the hands
further, when the hands are cuffed behind the prisoner’s back as is
shown in the third picmre.
Another variation is to remove the belt and force the prisoner to
hold up his trousers with his hands. Still another method, when transporting the prisoner by car, is to roll down the window and put both
his arms outside, with the link of the cuff over the outside door handle.
l,RIsoN~R
IIANDLING
239
A TIE
USE OF SHOE LACES, OR LIGHT CORD, TO EFFECT
Boot or shoe laces can be used effectively, provided they are pulled
tight enough and providing the wrists are pulled together, with a wrapping around the cord bccween tile insides of the wrists, as shown at
U,PPer left. This method is efiective when the thumbs, as weu x *C
llttlc iingcrs, have been tied to each other, as illustrated at right. This
prevents twisting of the hands and possible breakage of the wrist cord
by exerting leverage. An outside view of the same method is shown at
lower left. If the hands are placed back to back behind the body, an
almost unbreakable tie is made.
1< 11.1.
240
01{
Gl~.
I’
Kll,
l,l:i)
Tying
with shoe lace or cord is most
effective when the hands are placed first
around a pole or tree. PIacing the victim’s
back to a tree and tying his wrists, little
fingers and thumbs, provides an inescapable
tie, es ecially if the arms are placed around
a sma r 1 tree,
as shown
at right.
CHAIN
AND HANDCUFF
COMB~ATION
(Right)
Here is shown a pair of handcuffs used in transporting
two
prisoners. A 5-foot chain is attached to the connecting links of
the handcuffs and a 3-inch ring is
attached at the other end of the
chain. This combination is available commercially,
or can be improvised by using a dog chain
with the handcuffs.
PRISONF.
R
TIANt’SLTh’G
....—- .....
I-I(JG
TIE
The hog tie, an extremely effective method, is initiated from the arm
lock, with your opponent face down on the ground and his forearm
bent up behind his baclc in a painful position. A little additional pressure
on his bent arm will force him to place his other hnnd bchincl his baclc,
at your order. With a rope, tie his wrists together. Take unc cncl of the
cord, run it around his neck, and tie it to his pinioned wrists. There
should IIc enough pressure on the cord to force his hands up high
toward his shoulder blades. Cross his ankles and, after doubling his legs
Up ~:hiyl
him: tie them with the other fnd of the cord, So that tjleY
remam m prmtlon. Any struggle to free himself will result in strangulation. When correctly
applied, there is no escape from this tie. Various
knots have been advocated in making this tie, but any standard tying
knot may be used. The essential thing is that the victim shall be unable
U] make any effort to release himself.
242
KILL
OR
GET
KIL1.
F.D
USE OF TAPE
TO
A TIE
EFFE(X
A tie using tape, strips of twisted
wire,
electric
insulated
cloth,
twine, or rope, as shown at left,
is always effective. Above adhesive
(or tire) tape is used to tie not
only the wrists but also the forefingers. By taping the forefinger
of each hand to the opposite forearm, the victim is prevented from
obtaining
leverage
and twisting
his arms so as to break the tape.
Tape
is also a good reinforcement of any other material used
for tying.
IJI{ISOXFR
USE
OF
BELT
lIAND1.
TO
EFFECT
ING
243
A TIE
Acanwrs or leather beIt, or a nccktic, makes an effective tic. The belt
is wrapped around cich wrist several times, as shown at upper left.
After tightcnillg, the belt buckle is fmtcncd, m shown at upper right.
The krcklc should I)c plxccd undcrnetth.
so tlmt the prisoner cannot
Iooscn it with his teeth. The method shown at Iowcr left is cspecial[y
effective if the victim’s arms me first placed around a post, tree, or other
solid object. Again, it is well to keep the buckle out of reach of the
victim’s teeth. At lower right is another method of belt tie. Here the
wrists have been wrapped before tightcniog the belr. The material used
for this tie must besrrong enough to withstand the leverage that can be
exerrcd by pushing the elbows in opposite directions.
Chaf!ter
9
RAIDS AND ROOM COMBAT
-HERE
are manv cases on record in which law enforce1 ment officers hive cornered desperate criminals or insane
persons in buildings
and have had to resort to gunfire
to
subdue them. These cases range from an armed criminal in
a room to the planned raid against a building. The latter has
its counterpart
in combat
patrol operations
and in street
fighting, and the same principles apply.
Properly
planned raids will result in the subjugation
and
capture of criminals with a minimum of casualties. Iln roper
planning, and failure to know and appreciate the many f actors
revolved,
have caused
many
needless
casualties,
without
achieving the desired result. Training-in
common sense precautions and in the basic principles
of cover, concealment,
fire and movement, as practiced
by the combat infantrymanshould be given every law enforcement
officer.
A raid–properly
led and executed
by well-trained,
adeqwttely arlned men-will
result in SUCCCSS;but police history
is replete with hastily planned,
poorly
executed
operations
which not only have failed to apprehend
criminals but also
have resulted in the untimely
death of police officers.
today
have gas
Most well-equip
ed police departments
equipment
on han J . When at all possible, it should be used.
However,
because circumstances
will arise when gas munitions are not readily available, law enforcement
officers must
be able to execute
raids which
depend
solely
on prior
planning, skilled execution,
and firearms. For, if they assume
that gas will be available in all emergencies
and then are
forced into a situation where it is not available, a psychological prop is knocked
from under them and failure may
result.
The Barrow Brothers Incident. A classic example
of what
can happen \\’hen a roid is poorly planned and executed
is
the incident
involving
the notorious
Barrow
brothers,
m
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({escribcd hy Colonel Stcrlil]g A. Wood
in his book, Riot
Control. Although
outnumbered
and surprised,
they successfully “shot it out” with twelve Imw enforcement
officers
and escaped.
On the night of 17 July 1933, the two Barrow brothers,
wanted for murder,
accom~tnied
by two woman companions, rented a cabin at the Crown
Cabin Campl six nlilcs
southeast of Platte City, Missouri. It was a double briclc cabin,
with a covered garage between
the two rooms. lhcb room
had one door facing to the south and one door opening into
the garage. After the gangsters
had parked their car in the
garage, it could be baclced out only on the south side.
Late in the next afternoon
a tip was received by Sheriff
Coffee at Platte City. He posted deputies to watch the cabin
and asked the State Highway
Patrol
and the Sheriff
of
Jaclcson County
for assistance.
The mixed force included
four deputy sheriffs from l<ansas City in a police squad car,
armed with one submachinegun,
two riot shotguns,
and onc
revolver;
three State Highway
Patrolmen,
armed with another submachinegun
and their revolvers;
Sheriff
Coffee,
and four deputies, armed with
with another submachinegun;
one rifle and their revolvers.
The cabins were dark as the officers approached.
Tile sqwtd
car was driven to within about fifteen feet of the garnge
door, and the l~cfidligllts were plnycd 011 tllc door of tllc
east cabin. Captain
Baxter, of the State Highway
P:ltrol,
and Sheriff Coffee, carrying
bullet-proof
shields in front of
them, went toward
the east cabin.
Captain
Baxter
was
armed with a submachinegun.
Sheriff
Coffee commanded
the occupants to come out for questioning
and was answered
by a woman’s voice, saying “As soon as we get dressed.”
After a few minutes wait, the Sheriff called that unless they
came out the cabin would be bombarded.
His answer was
a fusilade of shots. The sheriff was hit three times, but the
shield protected
all vital spots. As he commenced
firing,
Captain Baxter’s submachinegun
jammed.
The two officers withdrew.
Rifle bullets
ing the squad car and the “bullet-proof”
about six shots, the submachinegun
in the
at about the same tinlel the driver was
legs. The squad car was then backed away
were now pepperglass After firing
car jammed and,
shot through
the
fronl the garage.
246
li ILL
01<
[;t?’r
KILLED
Another
officer was wounded.
Just then the door of the
east cabin flew open and a man and a woman ran out. They
stumbled
under a burst of fire but made the garage, raised
its door, and reached their car. Here they were joined by
the
ocher
the garage.
drove
off
pair,
The
into
who
came
directly
from
car dashed
backward
the night.
It was a
the
out
clean
west
cabin
into
of the garage
and
geta~vay,
thouqh
of weapons were left behind and fresh blood stahls
a number
indicated that at least one of the group had been wounded.
Despite the complete
surprise
of the attack, the bandits
had fought
their way through
a cordon
of officers and
escaped—twelve
armed officers qgainst only two men and
two women.
The Barrow incident is not an isolated example; there are
many others. Not only does a failure such as this cost lives,
but law enforcement
in general
loses prestige
and public
confidence. Also it increases the arrogance and sdf-confidence
of the more desperate crin~inal types.
PLANNING
THE
RAID
In planning a raid, tile objective
is the first consideration.
This may be the apprehension,
or subjugation,
of crin]inn]s
or insflnc persons; or it n]zy be sezrch and seizure of the
prelnises. Next is tllc e]cmellt of surprise.
If at all possible,
the raid SI1OUICIbe executed
under such conditions
nnd at
such times that it will be a complete surprise to the defending party.
A well-planned
raid, executed without
the benefit of surprise and n)ade in the face of enemy fire, obviously is much
more difficult than one where surprise is present. It involves
more risk and requires more skillful execution. No raid should
ever be undertaken
against armed, desperate
men without
careful planning of the most efficient employment
of weapons.
The following
discussion should be considered
only as a
general pattern for the planning of a successful raid. No two
raids will be exactly alike. The local situation, the time element, and the nature of the objective will influence the planning and execution
of each. Initiative
and common
sense
must be coupled with the experience gained in actual combat,
if police operations of this type are to be generally successful.
RAID COMMAND
Any group action which
the consequent
possibility
AND PERSONNEL
involves the use of weapons
of casualties
must be well
and
led.
RAIDS
AND
ROOhl
COhflt
AT
247
World
War II reemphasized
that there must be a unified
supreme command in all military operations,
small and large.
This holds true in law enforcement.
The raid commander,
once chosen, must be given authority
and his decisions must
be carried out explicitly by all members of the raiding party.
Innate qualities of leadership,
experience
and sound judgment
are requisites in any commander.
In the Armed Forces, the
choice of a commander
for any given operation is ordinarily
dictated by rank; but in civil law enforcement,
the selection
of the leader and of the personnel
to carry out the raid is
sometimes not so simple. Raiding pnrties often are made up
of representatives
of different lnw enforcement
bodies. Overlapping jurisdiction,
nnd a need for additional
strength
znd
experienced
personnel,
will often result in the raiding party
being made up of representatives
of State, Federal, county and
municipal
police forces. Such a mixed personnel
situation
presents problems in the planning and execution
of the raid
and in the selection of the raid commander.
If at all possible, the major phases of the raid should be carried out by
one police organimtion
under the ]eadcrship of a t-mm known
for his ability–one
who has the confidence
of the men)bers
of the raiding party and who lcnows the individual cap~bilities of the men in his command.
Mixed raiding parties often operate under a handicap because of difiercnces
in training, expcricncc
ond cooperation.
This handicap
must be recognized–and
surmounted–in
the
planning stage. Failure to cooperate
or to ohe~ orders, for
any reason, after the actual raid has started will lead to posjealousies
sible casualties and failure. Petty or jurisdictional
must be kept to a minimum.
The raid commander
shouId be selected and his authority
established;
and he should be given his choice, when possible, of the men and equipment
necessary
to do the job.
He must then consider the following
factors as they pertain
to his mission.
Estimate of the Situation. By observation,
information
and a
study of past records of the individuals involved, the following facts should
be ascertained,
if possible,
prior to the
planning and execution
of the raid.
([) The number of criwinals or other per~ons involved,
and their individual characteristics.
a. Will they surrender
peaceably
if given the chance?
b. Will they fight it out?
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What kind of a leader have they?
d. Is the legal penalty
due for crimes already committed
such that anything
other than force is likely to succeed?
e. Are they skilled in fighting?
Have they had combat
experience
against police ? Have they been in the Armed
Forces ?
c.
(z)
Ammwnent.
a. What
specific types of weapons
shotguns, hand guns, submachineguns
?
do
they
have—rifles,
b. What
do their past records, if any, show about
attitude toward the use of weapons?
c. Is their ammunition
supply limited? Extensive?
their
d. Is there a possibility,
due to military
experience
and
training,
that they may employ trip wires, booby traps, or
explosives ?
e. Are they particularly
skilled in the use of their weapons ? What particular
weapons?
Location and Surroundings.
What type of building
arc they occupying?
Is it constructed
of wood, brick, concrete?
How many floors?
15. Where are the doors, windows, skylights located ? What
is their relation to adjoining
buildings and to the terrain?
1S it a
c. Is the roof accessible from adjoining buildings?
possible source of enemy fire, or a likely means of approach?
d. Is there a basement?
What and where are its entrances
and exits ? Does it connect
with basements
of other buildings ? Is it a likely place for enemy fire or approach?
(3)
a.
e. Is there a garage? Can it be entered without
exposure
to gunfire?
Could a car from the garage be used to make
a sudden break to escape?
f. Where, exactly, in the building are the criminals located?
If unknown,
can this best be determined
by drawing
fire
or by studying
the defense possibilities?
g. What is the exact interior
plan of the
this information
be obtained
from the owner,
ant, architect,
city records ?
building?
landlord,
Can
ten-
(4) Other Facto~s.
a. Is it safe to use high velocity
weapons
(or any firearms)
because
of the proximity
of other
residences
and
civilians ? By delaying the action, can gas equipment
be obtained ? Can it be used to good advantage?
b. Wh2t is tlm attitude
of the populace
and local civil
authorities,
to~vard the use of extreme force, if necessary?
c. Will the death of any of the cri]nina]s or their associates, due to police ~ction, bring on undue criticisnl
from
the press or the pub]ic ?
ill tbc action?
Any hostages?
d. Arc any \voIIIcIl iuvolvd
(j)
E?le?lzy Capabilities.
a. Considering
the characteristics
of the criminals involved,
what reaction can be expected from a surprise attack?
b. Is a surprise attack possible?
Do they have lookouts
posted ?
c. Should a contact
be made with the defending
party
to try to bring about a peaceful surrender?
Is a last ditch
fight to be expected?
d. Can contact
be made by phone, sound system, voice,
or intermediary,
if desired?
e. What will be the probable
result of an overwhelming
display of force and zrmament?
f. Can the water, light, gas, and other utilities be cut off
convcnicutly ? What will he tlw result?
g. Can a break bc expcctcd,
once it bcconles
too hot
inside the building ? Where is this most likely to take place?
The raid commander
who has the answers to these questions should, by the exercise of good judgment
and with
suggestions
from other members
of the raiding party,
be
able to work out a successful attack.
Caution should be exercised during the planning stage to
avoid too much high level planning.
Persons in higher authority,
who are not going to participate
physically,
should
avoid entering
into detailed
operational
plans. Their
arbitrary decisions may cause the raid commander
and his men
to act against their own good judgment.
Members of the Raiding Party.
Personnel
making up any
raiding party should be selected by the officer in charge, if
possible, and should be Icnown by him. Men with courage,
initiative and ability, coupled with past experience
in combat
and raids, are most desirable.
hflen who have had actual
combat infantry
experience
can also be valuable.
The size of the raiding party will depend on the resistance
expected.
Generally
it is a sound plan to use the military
axiom which demands a superiority
of at least three to one;
provided,
of course, that the number
of the defenders
is
known. Situations may arise where such a ratio is not pos-
250
Kll, l. 01{
CUT
KII.l.
l? II
armament
and faultless
sible. In that case, surprise, superior
planning and execution must compensate
for lack of numbers.
If time permits,
it is usually
possible to concentrate
a
sizeable superior force of officers against any group of criminals. Providing
the raid commander
can maintain
control,
through
his own abilities and through
trusted subordinates,
he should take advantage of any possible superiority
in numbers and armament.
If the size of the raiding group is such
that the commander
does not have personal knowledge
of
the experience,
training and abilities of all the men at his
disposal, he should try to assign key missions to men of
known ability.
Briefing the Raiding Party.
The plan for the raid should
be presented
to all members
of the raiding party and the
mission should be stated clearly and in detail, with generalities avoided. The commander
must make clear who is to do
what, when, where, and how. Each man should be briefed
exactly on his duties and also should be given an opportunity
to ask qucstimls.
Tl~c r~id commander
should,
as
for certain steps. If
much as possible, explain the “whys”
each member of the raiding party understands
why, he cooperates more effectively.
This is especially true if the men
in the raiding
party are inexperienced,
unknown
to each
other, have had different levels of training, or are from different organizations.
If the raiding party is large and has been assembled from
various localities
and departments,
subordinates
should
be
assigned, during the preparation
stage, to arrange for weapons and munitions,
transportation,
communications,
equiPment, and first aid. If the operation
is of considerable
size,
the leader can issue maps, sketches, written
orders and oral
instructions.
Any action
that will eliminate
possible error
and strengthen
control is certainly
advisable.
THE
ACTUAL
RAID
The decision on the type of raid to be undertaken
will
depend on the local situation and the opposition.
A surprise
raid, which requires simultaneous
entry into the building in
order to force immediate
surrender,
may be one plan. Or
it may be desirable to place the men in position, contact the
defenders and order them to come out and surrender.
Where
the defenders
have been alerted and have made known their
intention
to fight, the opening
phase of the operation
will
RAIDS
be a simultaneous,
AND
ROOM
concentrated
251
COMBAT
fire
upon
the
building.
A raiding party,
of any size, normally
should be split
into two sections.
One section should
surround
the area,
and the other should malce the actual assault, if it has been
decided to storm the objective
and force a quick decision.
The Party Surrounding the Area.
Usually this group will be
rwponsible
for cutting off any attempt to escape, for setting
up roadblocks
if needed, and for covering
the advance of
the assaulting party by fire or gas. It should also provide
for any unforeseen
incident
by holding
some men and
important
function
will
special weapons in reserve. Another
be to throw
up a protective
cover, so as to keep vehicular
traffic and the inevitable
curious
public from getting
into
the area, where they are actually in danger and might hamper
the operation.
In heavily populated
districts, this alone may
take as many, or more, men as are in the entire assault
group.
Fire departments,
auxiliary
police,
and additional
police drown in from other areas, have all been used to
control
dlis plmse of the operation.
Maintaining Control. In a situation
involving
a fire fight,
prior to a physical assault, the raid commander
must have
complete
control and must be able to direct the actions of
his group at all times. The only way he can do so is by
having his men well briefed on their exact duties and by
l)nving n logical plfin which is flexible enough to meet any
situation. Methods of coillmunicatiun
must be devised during
the planning stage. The leader can best maintain control by
placing himself where he can observe the major phases of
the action. This does not mean that he should lead an initial
assault, thus limiting his view. He should select a position
that is strategically
located for his command
post. He should
tell all his mcn where it is located and when and where, in
the various pllnses of action, he can be contacted.
As the
action progresses,
this command
post may be changed;
but
in a limited action, such as a raid on a building, it ]s usu~lly
not necessary
to move about until the ktst assault phase,
when the raid commander
may move in as he sees fit. Control est~blishcd by a worlmblc
means of communication
is
especially ncccssary when the raiding party is large and when
the opcr~tion
takes place at night. In darkness, particularly.
the final assault phase must be well-organized
and controlled,
to prevent confusion and the possibility of the attackers
firing on one another.
252
K I 1, 1. OK {;l,; ”I’ K1141, KD
Means
of Control.
( 1) Ti7J7e. Using a set time to initiate
an action is a good method, if all watches are synchronized
and if a surprise assault is to be launched.
Time cm also
be the nle.iins of launching
other set phases. It is well, also,
to have 2 seconcilry
prepflrecl signal for launching
the msault, in mse son~ethirtg goes wrong before the synchronized
time.
(2) Sou72d. Signals, such as whistle blasts, horns, sound
systems and voice, can be utilized, but they must be used at
times ~vhen outside noises (gunfire,
for example)
do not
drown them out. They must be strong enough to cover the
entire area of the operation.
(3) Sight. At night, colored flares, if available, provide an
efficient method of controlling
v~rious phases of the action.
(4) Radio. The use of radio-equipped
cars, walkie-talkies,
or other types of portable
sets, should be mandatory,
especially in a large operation.
The recent development
and use
of tiny transistor type radio tubes and miniature batteries has
wrist rodio an actuality.
made the “Dick Ttvtcy” two-way
Before too long a raid comlnflnder
will probably
be able to
h~ve direct communication
with ezch nlan in the action.
Written
l]lossagcs delivered
by hand are
(s) Messengen.
better than oral ones. Under the stress of colllb~t, orol nlessages are subject to distortion,
especially if they are lengthy.
In planning
a rnenns of conununicotion,
it is obvious that
speed of contact is imfmrtant.
For this remon, messages sent
by motorcycle
or foot should not ordinarily
be used if a
swifter means is awtilable.
A few of the basic signals which should be included in the
briefing
are those for attack,
open fire, cease fire, hold
ground, retreat, and for tile reserves or surrounding
pm-ty to
close in. The character
of each raid will determine
which
of these signals, or others, will be necessary.
The Approach.
An assembly
point for all members ,ofq the
party should be designated
in the immediate
vicinity of ‘the
objective.
In a surprise raid, this point must be out of siglit
and hearing. After the members have assembled at a designated time, a ]mt-nlinute
check shoul(i be made of pktm,
\veapons, communications,
and other equip incnt. Lost-mmute
instructions
should be issued by the le~der, watches should
be checked
(if a set time is to be used), and last-minute
questions should be answered.
The raid commander
should
then send the men to their positions.
I-Ie must be sure to
l{,\ ll)S
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25,;
allow ample time for them to get into position. If the attack
has been set for dawn, information
about the time of daybreak obviously is necessary.
Up to the point of attack, the
organizational
phases of all raids are similar. The scope of
the raid and the local situation will influence the initial phm.es
once the operation
is
the
actwd
action,
and determine
htunched.
Every
police dcpxrtmcnt
should have on hand specizlly
prepared “canned” plans which are to be used for emergency
raids. These plans should be standardized,
to take care of
all foreseeable
situations.
They should be taken up during
departmental
training
sessions, just as disaster
plans and
other emergency
situations
are covered.
SURPRISE
RAID TACTICS
In a surprise raid, calling for entry of a building, the following points should be considered:
(I) A covering
party should remain outside to block all
possible exits (roof, doors, \vindows).
(2)
A plan of the inside of the building should be studied
in advance, and the Iocqtion of sleeping quarters ascertained,
if the raid is to be nlade tit night.
(3) [email protected],
entry should be made at one point only,
cspecmlly lf the raid. M made at night. Simultaneous
entry
from dit~erent
direc :ions is apt to cause members
of the
r~iding pmty to shoot e~ch other instead of the criminals.
If it is necessary
to enter from more than one point, adequate recognition
and cease-fire signals should be prepared.
If a plan of the building is available, definite limits of pcnetr~dition for each nlan can be set, to prevent confusion.
Men
should be placed outside to cover all exits.
(4) Entry from a point where it would be lenst expected
should always be considered.
For example, if available and
accessible, a skylight in the roof is often a good point of entry.
(5) A signal should be arranged for the coveringparty oUtside to clcse in when the criminals hzve been apprehended.
(6) In a night entry, at least fifteen minute; ‘should be
allowed for nlernbers
of the party to condition
their eyes
to darkness.
Night
sight al\v:lys must be gained prior to
entry of :1 dnrk building. In like manner, a brightly
lighted
room should be entered from darlcness only after the eyes
have been conditioned
to bright light outside; otherwise,
the
officer may be blinded by the sudden glare.
25+
KILL
OR
GET
KI1.
LED
(7) Entry should be made with gun in hand. Doors and
windows should be entered and passed through
diagonally,
so as to avoid being silhouetted
against the sky or outside
light. A listening pause should be made after the initial entry.
(8) Each man should carry a flashlight,
for possible use
after entry.
(9) Once the effect of surprise
is lost, by shooting
or
other noise, it is sometimes
advisable to have the headlights
or spotlights
of squad cars turned
to cover the outside of
the building. These lights will help prevent possible escape.
If this maneuver
is desired, it should be planned in advance,
so that squad cars are in position.
(10) It- is best to stay close to the walls when advancing
down hallways or up stairs.
buildings,
watch
out for squeaky
(II ) In old wooden
floors, steps or doors. Doors with creaky hinges can often
be opened
more silently
by lifting up the door slightly,
thereby
talcing the strain off the hinge.
( 12) In advancing
through
a darlc roonl containing
furniture, it is best to keep to the middle of the room, to avoid
encountering
obstacles that may produce noises.
( t 3) If a noise is inadvertently
made while trying to move
silently through
a darkened
room, a pause should be made
until it is certain that no alarm has been given. If the noise
alarms the occupants,
it is best to drop to the floor in a
prone position and face the source of dangct-. The wmpon
should be in hand and out in front of the body.
(14) Patience
in this type of entry is invaluable.
If two
hostile parties are aware of each other’s presence in the same
darkened
room, the best strategy
is to remain still and let
the opponent
move first, thus disclosing his location. When
under this strain, heavy breathing–which
is natural–should
be suppressed, as it will give away your position.
If a gun battle is imminent,
throw
some object carried
in your pocket,
such as a pencil or comb, into a corner
away from you. If the enemy fires at the noise, shoot at
his gun flash. It is well to place a shot on each side of his
muzzle blast. When
you fire first from a prone position,
roll over and away, if possible, so as to escape return fire
at your muzzle blast. If standing upright when opening fire,
drop down the instant the shot i; fired.
A position on top of a piano or table is very advantageous
in a dark room, especially if it places you above the normal
RAIDS
ANU
ROOA1
COh[
BAT
255
line of fire-and
if it can be occupied
prior to contact and
maintained
without
noise.
( 15) Hand guns are the best weapons to carry in making
silent entry in darkness. Shoulder weapons and submachineguns are too unwieldy
and can be noise makers. Parts of
the clothing
or uniform
that make a noise when moving,
such as gun and belt harnesses, should be removed
before
entering.
Shoes also should
be removed
unless they are
sneakers or have rubber soles. Luminous dials on wrist watches
can be a give away in a silent night entry. They should be
removed
or covered.
( 16) When a lone suspect is finally located in a darlcened
room and is in bed asleep, shine a flashlight on his face when
awalcening him. The sudden glare will blind him when he
opens his eyes. Hold the flashlight away from the body, to
one side or the other if there is any chance of the suspect
being awake or opening fire. Desperate
criminals often sleep
with their weapons
under the pillow or under the covers.
If possible, mfikc your initial ap ronch from behind
the
head of the bed occupant.
This wi T1 place him in n osition
from which he cannot fire accurately
when awakene (1’
.
Night entry presents many hazards, especially where desperate men are lilcely to be encountered.
Unless the members
of the raiding party have unquestioned
skill, training, ex erience and courage, it is often better to cover the house f rom
the outside, awaken
the occupants
and denmnd
that they
surrender-even
though they may not do so without a fight.
This is especially
true when the building
is large, the OCcupants many, and the exact interior construction
and room
arrangement ‘unknown.
TACTICS
OF AN EXTERNAL
ATTACK
(I J The tactics to be used when attacking
armed opponents without
entering
a building
depend
on local police
equipment.
Whenever
possible, tear gas, smoke, or sickening
gas (CN-DM)
should be used. See chapter t 3 Chemical Mzmtions for Control of Mobs and Individuals.
(2). The capabilities
of individual
police weapons must be
explo:ted to the fullest. Use the right “weapon for the right
job.
(3) Fields of fi~e must be set up that will cover all possible exits. If avadable, automatic
weapons should be concentrated
on the area from which the defenders
are most
likely to make a brci~k and from which most of the gunfire
.2 yf’1
K I 1. 1. () I(
(: It ‘r
K I 1. 1. It II
in the building is being rcccivcd. SufTtcient police, with adequate weapons, should be assigned to cover all possible exits.
(4) Adequate cover should be selected for all firing points.
If such cover is not available at close range, where low velllighcr-po\vcred
weapons
ocity wezpons
may be effcctivc,
should be used from arem further
:I\v:Iy, where cover is
available.
(5) Closed garages and other possible exits of cars should
be covered,
so as to prevent
a brealc using a vehicle. If a
possible escape car is visible, the tires, gas trink, radiator, or
other vital part, should be punctured
by gunfire.
(6) If men who are in position,
or who are advancing
while firing, are likely to be subject to crossfire from their
flanks, they must be protected
by placing additional
n}en
and weapons to provide covering fire on these danger areas.
(7) ‘The types of weapons
used by the defenders
should
in planning
m advance and selecting
always be considered
cover. Bullet-proof
vests, portable
armor plate, shields, and
bullet-proof
glass will not stand up nglinst high velocity rifle
bullets. If a car is used for cover ag~inst rifle fire, the hood
and engine bloc]c will provide
sor, )e protection.
The body
of the car will not.
(8) Any attack that has as its objective
the entry of a
and covcrcd
I)tiy hcnvily conbuilding
should bc initintcd
centrated
fire on windows,
doors, roof, or other points frolll
which enemy fire is being received.
fronl cover to cover or toward
(9) A running
advance,
the defended
building, should be made in a zig-zng manner,
with the body
in a crouched
position.
Such an advance
should be Imnde under covering
fire if possible.
It should
be made in short runs, or bounds,
so that the time of
exposure to gunfire is short.
( 10) An assault in the face of gunfire
should
be so
organized
and plmmed that there are sufficient numbers
in
the assaulting
party to enter the building
and subdue the
defenders.
Single, isolnted clmrges, carried out by individual
members
of the fittacking
party,
often result in needless
casualties.
arn}ccl with telescopic-sighted
(II ) Well-trained
snipers,
rifles, often can be used to great advfintage
in combnt of
this sort; and the use of binoculars
by the controlling
officer
has a definite advantage.
have blind
sides–with
few, if any,
( 12) lvlany buildings
doors and windows-so
that they can be approached
safely.
1{/\
ll)s
AXI)
1{ ()(1,11
c;OAI
II A’I’
157
(lnce the blind side of x building is reached, the party can
follow around
the outside walk and enter at a previously
chosen section. If accurate
covering
fire supports
the men
who are gaining entry in this manner, it is difficult for the
cfcfenclers to reach tllenl by fire without
unduly
exposing
tllclnsclves.
( 13) The
attaclcers
should
always
avoid bunching
u .
Any concerted
advance on dle besieged area should be ma { e
in Iincs of skirmishers,
one Inan running
forward
to
cover, then another.
Since there is always a possibility
of
subnmchineguns
or shotguns,
a concriminals
possessing
certed frontal assault should be made only ~fter such weapons
have been silenced,
or made inoperfltive,
by covering
fire
in volume.
( J4) If the number
of the defenders
is snlall and their
exact location
is known,
a basic strategy
of keeping
them
and their weapons
busy by returning
i-we, no matter tiaw
inaccurately
directed, should be used. This will enable other
officers to approach
and enter the building
from unprotected or blind sides.
( ] 5) When
are barricaded
in such a
approached
fronrolly, a truck
or fiutotllohile,
\vitl] dlc rcm colnpartll~ent
lo:lclcd with a
bullet resisting
Il)aterid
can be used. Pac]cccl newsp~pers,
magszincs, firewood
and sacks of coal arc effective for this
purpose. The vehicle is backed up to the desired position
in the attaclc.
Ill$lllncl’
tlmt
~rmed
ClIcy
Gln
opponents
only
be
Bundles of magazines and newspapers,
tied together
con~pactly, will provide a s~tisfactory
shield against small arms
fire. Twenty
pounds
of newspaper
tied in a bundle
(full
slmct size) will stop orclimu-y lmnd gun and shotgun bullets—
but \vill not stop high-velocity
rifle bullets. Magazines, being
a higher quality paper, can be made into even more effective shields. Scoop shovels, heavy planks, the old type folding automobile
hood, pieces of furniture,
doubled up nlattrcsses, hove also been used successfully.
In improvising
such
a shield, it is only common sense to consider the armament
that will bc used against it, and to test it with a comparable
weapon.
one that
(16) In a large r~id, especially
night, the protective
cordon placed around
al\vays
include
several
squad
cars, with
is conducted
at
the area should
engines
idling,
258
KILL
OR
GET
UIL
LED
to be used for pursuit in case the unexpected
happens and
the criminals make a successful
break in an automobile.
If
there is a possibility
of escape by car, and there is a lack
of pursuit vehicles or an insufficient
force, road blocks can
be constructed.
These may consist of logs, spiked boards,
commandeered
cars or trucks, or any other bulky material
that will impede a speeding vehicle. A man with a shotgun
or automatic
weapon, stationed
in a covered
position near
a road block, will make it all the more effective.
to flush the occupants
of a house into
( 17) An attempt
is possible, place men
the open can be made, If surprise
a procovering all exits. Then, with a squad car, approach
tected side of the building
and sound the smen. This may
succeed in flushing the occupants
into the open in an attempt
to escape, especially
if the covering
party
is not visible.
Once the occupants
are out of the building,
the covering
party can force a surrender,
or can at least be in an adv?illtageous position should a fire fight ensue.
If the criminals
fail to leave the building,
they can he
ordered
to surrender.
If this fails, the covering
party can
remain in place; and time can be taken for organizing
a
concerted
attack.
( 18) When
tear gas, CN-DM,
or smoke bombs are not
available, police may resort to demolitions.
Dynamite
sticks
with short fuses may be used as concussion
grenades,
to
be thrown
through
windows;
and charges
to blast down
barricades
and walls can be prepared.
Of course, men with
a knowledge
of demolitions
should handle this sort of action.
( 19) When a criminal is holed up in an outhouse, or some
type of building where there is no danger of fire spreading,
a fire bomb can be used to force him to come out into the
open. Such a bomb can be easily prepared,
as follows: Fill
a glass container
(such as a beer bottle)
with gasoline. Plug
or seal it securely
and tie a strip of soft cloth, about two
feet long, around it. Saturate the end of the cloth in gasoline and light it. Throw
the bottle
against the building.
When the glass shatters, the gasoline will be splashed around
and ignited by the flaming streamer attached.
(zo) In a night operation, all criticnl arcwi of the defensive
position should be subject to instant illumination
by means
of spotlights,
flares, etc. Cars with spotlights
should, when
possible, be placed in protected
positions to eliminate drawing fire. Portnblc spotlights
should be used in like manner.
RAIDS
AND
ROOM
259
CO NIIIA”r
Aside from the obvious advantages of being able to light up
any given area at will, the psychological
effect on defenders
is sometimes very great.
THE
USE OF POLICE
WEAPONS
IN RAIDS
The weapons available to a police organization
must be
used intelligently
if the most is to be made of their inherent
combat
qualities. The use of the right weapon
often will
make close-quarter
physical
assault
unnecessary.
Concentrated
firepower,
accurate
sniping,
and the use of arms
capable of penetrating
the walls and barricades
of buildings
often will eliminate
armed resistance
and prevent
needless
casualties.
The Pistol and Revolver. The combat use of these weapons
is practically
limited
to distances
of not over 50 yards.
They are most useful at close quarters
and inside buildings,
especially
if the men carrying
them have been trained in
combat shooting. The hand gun, with the two-hnndcd
grip
and utilizing a rest where possible, can bc effcctivc up to
2 so yards,
pmfidcd
tllc
shooter
has been
trained
to
usc
his
weapon this way and has had practice.
Sawed-Off Shot~ns. Sawed-off shotguns, or riot guns, as used
by police, have two principal advantages–one
psychological,
the other practical. In handling prisoners and mobs, the large
bore of the sawed-off
shotgun
(usually
I z-gauge)
has a
deterring
effect on anyone who looks at it from the muzzle
end. It is also a most practical police weapon because of its
wide shot-pattern
and its effectiveness at ranges up to 60 yards.
The normal police load for this gun is Double 00
buckshot. In the cartridge,
this consists of 9 pellets, about .32
caliber in size.
The pattern diameter of this shot group should be known
to all law enforcement
officers who are likely to use the
weapon. Normally
the 9 pellets in the cartridge
will spread
about one inch to a yard of range. The spread of the pellets
is uneven; even at a distance of 15 yards all of them will not
hit a man-size target. Depending
upon the individual
gun,
at 50 to 60 yards the pattern will be 5 to 6 feet in diameter,
and some of the pellets will hit a man-size target consistently.
Beyond this distance, it is quite possible that all nine pellets
might miss a man, even though the charge was aimed at him.
It is obvious, therefore,
that the most effective use of the
riot gun and its buckshot
charge, at a single target, is at dis-
26(J
KIL[.
OR
GIZT
KILLED
The saivcd-off shotgun is one of the most dcodly weapons in the
police or gwrgstcr arsenal. Commercial type 12 gauge sporting weapons
can easily be made into dc~dly short range combat arms by cutting
off the barrels and stocks. The shotgun is thereby nmdc more malleurerablc and concealable.
Cutting off the barrel also eliminates tl~c
choke. rcsu]ting in a wider dispersion and pattern of buckshot pellets.
Tear gm cartridges mc dso avnilab[c for firil)g in this type gun. They
arc best fired and loacfcd on a single shot basis duc to chanhcring
and
ejccti{)n prohlcn]s.
tances of lCSS tlmn 60 yards. At night, \vIIcII used for guard
duty or in covering
a designated
area, as in a raid, it is a
better weapon than a rifle, where a single poorly aimed bullet
may miss by 3 or 4 feet.
It is usually effective to use the riot gun when covering
a door or window from a distance of 30 to 40 yards, so as
to get the benefit of dispersion
and cover the entire area.
When used against a crowd, or when more than one gun is
fired on a specified area, the riot gun naturally
can be employed at greater
ranges than when used against a single
target. Beyond effective range (50-60 yards) the 9 pellets of
the charge will spread over an area of about 25 feet at 100
yards, and so to 75 feet at zoo yards. Stray pellets have been
known to wound or kill up to 500 yards.
After the policeman
u~derstand~
the capabilities
of this
weapon, he will also better appreciate
the danger of using it
in areas where its scatter qualities may injure innocent persons.
a 4-inch
At close ranges, the lead pellets will penetrate
piece of pine; at 40 yards n z-inch piece of pine; and at
z 50 yards a %-inch piece. Beyond
point-blank
range, the
Double 00 buckshot is not likely to pierce the walls of any
well-built
house or the body of an automobile.
In addition
charges,
the
to the rnmy kinds of lighter
modern
rifled shotgun
slug
commercial
shot
(instead
of the
lt:i
Il)S
AXtJ
ROOX1
(: OAIIIA’l°
26[
round ball) should be considered.
In tl]c I z-gauge size, this
firing it is
single slug weighs about an ounce. A shotgun
capable ot shouting a I z-inch group at 100 yards. Its extrelne
the
range is Ibout onc mile , and it is capable of pcnctmting
average frame 11OUSCor an automobile
body and killing the
occupants. When rifles arc not available, a supply of this type
cartridge for use in the riot gun, in place of the Double 00
buckshot charge, will result in more effective all-around
usc
of the weapon.
Submacbinegum.
i\lost police departments
of Iny size have
one or more subnlachincguns.
This weapon is accurate
only
at medium ranges, and, in renlity, fills in the gap between
the hand gun and the rifle. Most American-made
guns of this
type fire .45 caliber automatic
pistol amnmnition.
In World
War 11, the weapon was used extensively
by all participating
armies, the European
type being about ,35 caliber
(ynm).
This gun can be fired from the hip or the shoulder.
Its
accuracy is compnnble
to a rifle up to 200 yards, depending
on the type of anmmnition
used. It can also be used from the
hip most effectively
at close quarters,
under poor light conditions, or when time is not nvail:d)lc for nn ainlcd shot, or
burst, from the shoulder firing position.
Although
it is possible to use this gun on full automatic
and to fire it effectively
in bursts of 3 or 4 shots, its best use
for police is as a semi-automatic
weapon, pulling the trigger
for each shot. 10 ordinary
circumstances,
the gun can be
fired much more effectively,
and rapidly
enough, on semiautomatic.
It is easily possible, after training, for the average
officer to shoot one aimed shot a second. To be able to use
the gun effectively
on full automatic
under combat conditions, requires
a great deal of firing practice
and training.
With an untrained
man, there is a tendency
to spray lead
indiscriminately,
as though he were spraying
water from a
hose. This is especially
true in combat,
when an untrained
user will not only exhaust the ammunition
supply rapidly,
but also may lose control of his weapon, due to recoil.
as part of its
If a police department
has a subnlacbincgun
equipment,
provision must be made for instruction
and practice. Adequate
ammunition
must be. supplied, and either instruction
must be limited to the select few who will be
required to use it, or an extensive program
must be undertaken to instruct the whole department.
Too often a weapon
of this type is misused by personnel
unfamiliar
with it.
is not used or taken out of its
Usually the submachinegun
262
KII, l, 01{ CK’1”
KI1,
I,I:U
case until
a specific situation
demands
it. For this reason,
congealed
grease and dust, as well as unfamiliarity
with the
weapon,
have often caused it to jam. On the other hand,
proper
training,
normal
care and an appreciation
of its
capabilities
can make the submacllinegun
a valuable weapon
in the police arsenal.
Rifles. A well-stocked
police arsenal should always include
a number of rifles for possible use in riots, road blocks, raids
and other special situations.
The caliber of these rifles may
vary with individual
choice, but they usually will be .30
caliber or over. A police department
that is made up of ersonnel who use not only their sidearms but also their shou rder
weapons accurately
and effectively,
is much respected.
As in the case of the subnmchinegun,
the rifle should only
be used by men who have had training and practice with it,
even though this may limit its employment
to a few selected
individuals. From the standpoint
of ammunition
supply, comand training,
it is best to have shoulder
bat effectiveness
weapons standardized
so they are all of one type and caliber.
This should apply also to hand guns, riot guns, submachineguns, and all other equipment.
Rifles are very effective when fired by men trained to use
their inherent accuracy, range and penetrating
ower. In addition to having all, or a selected part, of the r orce trained in
use of the rifle, having a few such weapons equipped
with
telescopic sights and mounts is much to be desired. In most
departments,
the type of officer who is a “gun crank” can
usually be found. In all probability,
he will be skilled in rifle
shooting and may personally
own a scope-sighted
rifle. Such
A rugged scope sighted high powered rifle such as this Remington
model 72 t caliber 30/06 with Lyman telcscop ic sights is a potent addition to the standard police armory.
an officer, who can serve as a sniper at longer ranges, will
be most valuable in a combat situation
calling for precision
shooting.
Accurate
long-range
rifle fire will often eliminate
the necessity
for close-quarter
work and therefore
reduce
casualties.
RAIDS
THE
BULLET:
AND
I{(IOAI
C(),\T
PENETRATION
AND
203
RAT
CAPABILITIES.
The policeman
who uses firearms in combat should know
of his tveapons—in
the potentialities
range,
man-stopping
h’ot
only
that;
qualities and penetration
of solid substances.
he should also be aware of the danger of misusing his weapons
in areas and situations where innocent persons are endangered.
Every training course in weapons should cover this phase of
their employment.
An especially effective way of impressing students with the
power of weapons is by actual demonstrations
of bullet penetration and range. Permanent
displays, showing the penetrating qualities of the weapons in such substances
as hard and
soft wood,
automobile
bodies,
brick,
sand, plaster
walls,
newspapers,
mattresses, bullet-proof
glass, magazines, bales of
straw, and so forth, are most effective in making the point
clear.
Another effective demonstration
is to use laundry soap, wax,
or lard to simulate
human flesh, showing
the reaction
to
various bullets. Large sheets of p~per can illustrate the pattern
of riot guns at various ranges.
Stopping
versy
over
Power
of Various
the stopping
Calibers.
power
There
of bullets
is
endless
of various
muzzle velocities. Argulnents
have been long
whether
or not a smlll-power,
high-velocity
deadly than a large-caliber,
low-velocity
slug.
controsizes
and
and loud M to
bullet is nlore
Generally,
it has been considered
that the big, slow moving
pellet, such as the .45, is superior
to a light-weight,
fastermoving bullet. If you hit a man on the chin with your fist,
all the force of the blow is transmitted
to the recipient. The
big, slow-moving
bullet functions
in this manner;
all the
ener y of the bullet is exhausted at the tillle of implct
and
the E ullet does not penetrate
and go on through.
However,
when a target is hit with a speedy, light-weight
bullet, it
generally penetrates
the target and sings off into space, wasting a lot of velocity and shocking
power. Although
this is
generally recognized
as the standard argument
for the larger
caliber hand gun, many instances are on record of such large
calibers failing to stop individuals
in combat. On the other
hand, there are instances
where small caliber bullets have
done the job as well as any other size.
No one caliber is best in ali cases, and, although
larger
calibers generally
are better,
they are not infallible.
The
human factor enters in–the position of a man’s body at the
16+
1;[1.[,
OR
GE”t’
KILI.
F.1>
time
of impact, whether he is off ur on balance; the spot hit;
the size of the man; his rcsistonce to sudden shock; his animal
spirit—all affect the stopping
power,
courage
and fightin
regardless
of the ca f iber of the weapon
or the size of the
bullet.
Most police dcpartn]ents
have cases on record which will
illustrate the stopping power of bullets. Such cases should be
covered in the training period devoted to this subject. And
students should be informed
by lecture and demonstration,
of the specific penetrating
power of certain calibers of bullets.
Bullet penetration
tests are usually based on firing at %”
pine boards stflckcd together
to the required
thickness
at :1
15 ft. range. A pcnctmtion
of one inch in tl~c pine is considered suficicnt
to give a serious WOUIIA Tl~c follo\ving
calibers will penetrate
as follows:
In inches
Caliber
4+
.357
.30
Pine
Bzdiet- JVeig)Jtf
MAGNUill
MAGNU141
LUGER
(7.65 hl\l)
MM LUGER
SPECIAL
9
.38
.45 COLT REVOL1’ER
.380 AUTO.
.32 AUTO.
4$ CAL. AUTO.
.38
.32
.25 Au-l-o.
s&w
s&w
240 gr.
lj~ gr.
93 gr. ~~’l~r~lJ:l~k~tc~l
[ Ij gr. Llctfil Jackctcd
1$8 m.
255
“ gr.
“
95 gr.
Jackered
7 I gr. Mcml Jacketed
230 gr. hlctal Jacketed
145 gr.
8$ gr.
so gr. hlmrl Jackctcd
Penetrmio7z
11”
1o“
~)l~..
xx”
6“
,,
5
4%:
4
4:
3
~!< ,,
Metal
z Y*“
Heavy
lead alloy bullets are gcnera]ly
carried
and used
in most police revolvers.
Automatics
gencmdly
fire jnctal
jncketed bullets \\hich increase penetmtiwl
ond I}ettcr }~revent the automatic
from jamming.
In modern warfare
Ieati
ils “alum
duln” and
bullets are Lmned as they are considered
inhumane. The peoce officer, however, can take full advantage
of the solid lead bullet in his fight against crinlina] elements.
The heavy lead slug ~vhcn driven at high velocities expands
in diameter on impact m-id develops n~uch greater shocking
and stopping power. ‘1’hc Illctal jacketed butlct \vill give more
penetration
everything
else hcing c(lual but it holds its
shape and dii~meter due to its col~structiort.
It is easy to scc that any such flilnsy Imrricades as bureaus
fallacy
and tables will not necessarily
stop bullets. Another
is that
a mattress
is mIIplc
protection
ag~inst
snMll
artlls
fire.
R.\l
Ds
ANI)
l{(. )OA1
CO XIlt
AT
26j
Actually,
the .38 and .45 will penetrate
I o inches or more
of solid rsm[tress, not of the box spring type. Either the .38
or .45 will penetrate
most pktster walls found in d\vellings.
ROOM
COMBAT
attacks or
Combat inside .builtfings, ~vhere one individual
defends himself against another,
where criminals and insane
persons are cornered
in rooms, differs from street fighting.
Street fighting, in the “Stalingrad”
sense, means heavy artillery, mortars,
smoke, grenades,
automatic
weapons,
flame
throwers, and similar equipment
of the modern army.
Normally, in room combat, the only armament will be small
arms such as the police officer nor]nally
carries, plus any
other weapons he may improvise on the spur of the moment.
Naturally,
if time and circumstances
permit, special equipment
and armament-such
as tear gas, riot guns, and submachincguns–should
be used; but in most situations it is necessary to
get the opponent, dead or alive, in the shortest possible time,
:Ind the officer must de end UpON Ililtlsrlf, his assistants and
tile SI]M1larms Ile norms Yly cflrrics.
Tactical Considerations.
in one respect, room entry and fighting is not unlike kmd warfare, where the terrain is decisive.
Here the construction
and architecture
of the house and its
individual rooms play an important
role. A hasty survey of
the building and the exterior of the individual room, once it
is locnted, is the standard procedure.
Common sense then will
usually dictate the course of action. Of course, all possible
n]eans of escape should be blocked.
It is well to consider the mental attitude of the individual
Is he frightened,
desperate,
cold-blooded?
being attacked.
Can he be induced
to surrender
without
a fire fight?
Naturally,
oral persuasion should be tried before making any
physical attempt.
If possible, there should be a numerical superiori~
of 3 to I
in an attack of this kind. There will be occasions when one
or two officers may be forced to make a room entry and
shoot it out; but three or more make a better combination.
It is important
to know the gunman’s exact location in the
room. If you can get him to talk, you may be able to place
him. The movement
of furniture
or a barricade
will often
give a clue. If the attaclc is in a hotel, often, by Ioolcing at
the rooms next door, an idea can be gained as to ho\v the
Rooms of many American
and
besieged room is furnished.
European
hotels are built and furnished alike.
KII.
266
L
01{
GET
KILLED
If unable to get any definite indication
of the defender’s
location in the room, there are some general rules which can
be applied. Instinctively,
a desperate,
armed man will take
up a position in a room where he cm see the door and what
comes through
it. In other words, he will be on the side of
the room opposite
the door side. On the other hand, an
unarmed man, who is hiding and scared, will be on the door
side of the room, or even behind the door, as it opens. That
is why, when searching a house or a room, you should slam
each door lmrd as you open it. If it doesn’t bang against the
This
wall, but only makes a thud, cover the area immediately.
behind-the-door
cheap
crooks
technique
is an overworked
movie
trick,
but
and the IiIce pick up and use such methods.
In actually entering the room, the door itself must first be
breached. It will be locked, or have a chair against it, if time
has been permitted
the defender.
It is a simple matter to
blow the lock of a door with a couple of well-placed
shots.
Or fire IXCS ~nd such cvsn be used if they me avnilable. If the
door is heavily blocked on die insiclc, time will have to be
talcen to get rid of this block and still avoid being in the
line of fire. Care should be taken, at all times, to avoid being
in front of the door. Shots from the interior
may cause
casualties.
Tactics
of Entering
a Room.
Once
the
door
is breached,
com-
mon sense and strategy
enter into the picture.
There
are
numerous stratagems [hat should be employed before physical
entry is made. If possible, the dcfcndcr’s fire should be drawn.
It will disclose his position and deplete the limited amount of
ammunition
usu211y carried by criminals.
If the action is at night, as it often is, be sure that your
eyes are conditioned
to darkness and that lights outside the
room are extinguished.
Any movement
outside or into the
room will cnuse a sillloucttc
if the light is on. Often the
defender, in the room, can 1001c under the door and determine
your Iocfition.
Improvised
dummies, or other larger objects, c~n be thrown
into the room or pulled by a rope across the door, to draw
fire. A light bulb thrown
into the room, to cause a loud
pop; a flashlight on a stick, in a dark room; a bottle of ammoni~;
burning
oily
rags;
dust
from
a vncuum
cleaner—all
nnd often cause n break, especially when
accornpnnicd by shouts of fire, or by tear gas. On one occasion,
when a fire ex~inguishcr was used through a trmlsom, following up a threat to use tear gas, the defender gave up. These
will
create
confusion
RAIDS
AND
I{ 00
AI
(: OAIIIAT
267
methods are simple and may be improvised
from material at
hand. They often work because of the nervous condition
of
the dcfemicr.
If tl]cy don’t worlc, a physical entry will be
necessary.
Typical Example. Here is a typical problem
of room entry
and its solution, oversimplified
for instructional
purposes.
Sitz[ation. A desperate
man is cornered
in a single room
which has no exits except the door. He will shoot it out;
all methods of cajolery have failed. All ruses to draw fire have
failed; an attack is necessary, The room is an ordinary
hotel
room. It is dark. His location
in the rooln can not be
ascertained.
Attacken. Three
not permit getting
submachineguns.
men armed with pistols only. Time does
special equipment,
such as tear gas and
Solution. The leader decides on the plan of attack. A leader
is necessary, even if the attacking party consists of only two
men.
After tllc Ioclc has been sl~ot off dle door and it is found
that the door s\vings freely on its hinges, lights in the hall
are put out.
Acting on the premise that the defender
is in one of the
corners,
across from the door side of the room, attacker
No. r dives from around the side of ihe door into the center
of the room, on his belly. He stays flat on the floor and
holds his fire until the defender
fires. At the same instant,
Nos. 2 and 3, from a standing position at each side of the
door, fire into each corner.
Chances are good that one of
these initial bursts will get the defender.
If not, No. t must
finish him off. No. I also must watch the corners on the door
side of the wall, in case the defender is holed up there. No. I
has remained on the floor all this time, in a prone position.
His is the position of risk; he should be the coolest head and
the best shot. No. z will stay outside the room until told to
enter by No. 1. No. 3 after the first burst, goes down the
hall and covers that avenue of escape, in case a break is made.
It is important
that clearly understood
signals be arran ed
for contingencies
that cannot be foreseen. Never more $ an
one man of the attacking
party should be in the darlc room
with the opponent at any time. In the dark there is too much
danger of firing at a friend instead of a foe.
The solution
described
is only one
sound and has a good chance of success.
of many, but it is
It is certainly better
than the door-crashil~g technique so overworked
in tl~e movies.
Pkms must be flexible, however.
The diagonal
method
of
cross-firing,
for exalnp]e, will often succeed without
entry
into the rum
at all. “lhis is cspccial]y true in a small room.
DEFENSE
IN A ROOM
From the discussion
of attack above, the following
facts
are obvious, if you should have to defend yourself in a room.
1. Don’t imprison
yourself
and limit your mobility
by
placing yourself behind a flinlsy barric2de–made
up of what
is on hand-which
ordinarily
a bullet will penetrate.
If you
do place yourself
behind such a barricade,
you will lirl)it
your mobility,
for when you want to leave the room in a
hurry, you are at a disadvantage.
z. Have the lights out in your room, The longer the lights
are out, the more conditioned
your eyes become to darkness.
This will give you an advantage;
for if the lights are out in
your room, and if the att~ckers
Ienve the lights on in the
hall, you can easily plncc thcm by h]oking under the door.
A few well-placed
shots through the walls or door then ]m~y
solve your problenl.
3. There are two places where the attackers
will Iemt expect you. Both are good because they combine,
with the
element of surprise and cover, the factor of mobility. If you
lie on your stomach in the middle of the room away from the
door, you will lnake a very small target; and you will be in n
good firing position. Or plnce yourself
somcwhcrc
near the
center of the wall facing the door, on top of a table or any
other furniture.
This is the last place the attacker will expect
to find you; and you also are in a position of mobility, once
the firin is over. It is most likely that you will be above the
line of i re during the initial bursts.
4. Hold your fire. Remember
that, in darkness, you alwavs
instinctively
fire at the other man’s muzzle blasts. You w~ll
always know where the attacker is when his gun goes off. So,
when you are on the floor, it is wise, if possible, to roll over
and out of the area each time you fire.
SHOOTING
THROUGH
WALLS
AND DOORS
A factor not often enough
considered
in combat inside
houses, is the penetrating
power of sidearms through ordinary
walls and doors.’ With
due allowance
for the ammunition
factor, certain well-placed
shots through
doors, down or up
1{,111)s
through
finish
gctring
floors,
the
or
i~tt~ck
AXI)
1{ (1011
through
ceilings
before
it starts.
[:()
or
One
:{) ()
,AI II A’r
sections
of
the
of
wall,
easiest
ways
mav
of
a room, if n subnlachine:un
is availnblc, is
n line about a foot above the floor for the Icngth of
a n)~n
in
to slwot
the room.
The .38 caIiber pistol, or larger cdibcr, is normally carried
by the law enforcement
officer. He should realize the penetrating power of this weapon, so as to apply it best when the
need arises.
For dctailcci information
on the penetrating
power
of
various calibers, see the section on The Bullet: PenetratioTz
and Calamities, earlier in this chapter.
BULLET-PROOF
VESTS
AND
POLICE
SHIELDS
Police Departments
and certain types of military
organizations should have avai]xble bullet-proof
vests and police
shields for use against armed individuals in raids and in situations where frontal
attack is necessary.
Law enforcement
supply agencies, such m W. S. Dmley nnd Co. and Federal
arc rclntivcly
incxpcn1.;l[)orntorics, stock these itcllls. T]lcy
sivc find Ilclp to rc~ucc
cxsu:lltics
IVhCII
they arc used propcrl}z.
Practice in shooting
from behind the police shield shou’ld
be mandatory
during combat firing training. Shooters should
not be allowed to stand and use the shield. All shooting should
be done from a kneeling position.
IJtlllct-proof
vests, espccinll~,
should
be ~v~ili~blc. These
vests forillcdev were citllcr solld nlct:ll plate or n clmin t.ypc
steel strips. Thcv were
of n)nil, or w“cre mndc of overlapping
quite restrictive in the body movement
of the individ~ltil and
were hcnvy, so that they could not be worn with comfort for
any length of time. They cm, ho\vever, be issued for special
missions. The ovcrlapping+trip
type and the solid-plate
type
ore more sfitisfactorv
find more bullet-rcsist~nt
than the chain
mail vest, Nc\ver b-ody armor vests are made of plastic and
nylon, increming
the protection
to the body, greatly reducing the weight, and making the vest less cumbersornc.
Since Wor]d War II increasing use lMS been made of body
armor vests. Two types tested by the U. S. Army have proved
most successful
thus far. Each weighs about eight pounds.
One is made of twelve layers of spot-bonded
nylon. The
other, the hlarine
Corps model issued to the Ist Marine
Division in Korea in 1952, consists of a vest with “built-in”
inside pockets into ~vhich twenty laminated film-glass “doron”
armor plates, each about five inches square, are inserted, to
270
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
A protective police shield can be constructed of bullet-proof steel
plate or preferably of the new light weight fiberglass material. Every
police department shouId have on hand this item of equipment for
use in combat situaticms.
Firing position when using police sbicld. Note that gun is being
fired through a firing slot in the upper right hand corner. The shield
protects all vital parts of the body. It can be constructed
in various
sizes by the individual department,
if desired. Fiberglass panels can
be purchased for this purpose. Steel type shields arc commercially
available. It is generally a good idea to paint the outside of the shield
a dark color so as to nmrc readily conceal the firing position when
used at night.
RAIDS
AND
ROOhl
271
COMBAT
protecr
the tllomx,
abdomen,
and back; nylon is used in the
shoulder areas where flexibility is needed. Such a vest gives
great protection
against grenade
and bomb fragments
and
o~ainst bullets whose velocity at time of imp2ct is not over
1~tlo f~ct pcr SCCOnd. l“]lc un~rsal
Motdded l~rodllcts Corp.
of Bristol, Virginia,
1s m lxwc rmmufncturer
of the doron
nlntcrial, which cm be made to any thickness needed, depending on the type of protection
desired.
This new light weight armor is also being used in armoring
police automobiles,
bank trucks,
and automobiles
for important dignitaries;
and our military services are continually
experimenting
and developing
new uses for it. Eventmlly
it
could rcpkce steel armor plate entirely, because of its lighter
weight. Currently
it is being used in lining cockpits
of airplanes and by the Infantry for protecting
body arex that are
subject to long range rifle, pistol, and subrnachinegun
fire, and
grenade, mortar
and artiHery shell fragments.
The United
State Army
has a quantity
of vests available for issue to
selected assault units.
In training,
a dcmonstrxtion
should be nmde of a bullet-
Individual wearing ne]v type bullet-proof
vest, holding one of ~le
white curwxf fibergims “doron” bullet-resistant
panc~s: A vest for a
normal sized individual, giving front and back protection,
consists of
about ZO pane]s. It is approximately 750/0 lighter in weight than the old
tylm vest made of steel p]atcs, strips or chain mesh. Approximate
\reigllr
is nearly
eight
pounds.
For
additional
pznels CXII bc inscrrcd
in rhe pockets,
depending
we3rcr.
on
prwcctiou
tlIc desire
Joublc
of the
272
r,osidc viciv of
fibf:rglass “doron”
1<1 [,1,
[)1{
vestshowing
panels
are
(;E”~
pockets
KILL1:D
in
which
protective
cur Vccl
inserted.
proof vest, placed around a sand bag and fired at by conventional police and sporting hand guns. In any firing demonstration involvin,q-. 2 pmtcctivc-tvpc. . vest, it ShOtlld be stressed
that cartridges
developing
II)UZLIC
velocities
grentcr
than
1400
The chnin mail type
feet a second will possibly penetrate.
ordinarily
will be penetrated
by bullets of much lower velocity.
IMPORTANCE
OF TRAINING
Little has been written
on the subject of room combat.
needless
Too often such combat is left to trial and error–and
loss of life. It is important,
therefore,
thzt consideration
be
given, in police training, to all aspects of this dangerous type
of criminal apprehension.
The basic principles, at least, should
be deeply ingrained
in students.
Once these principles
are
learned, their application
in each raid will not be too difficult.
A basic principle is that the leader must take the time to
think through his plan to its logical conclusion.
Only so will
casualties be kept to a minimum.
Room entry is a case in
point. The movies are prone to show attackers breaking into
a room by putting their shoulders
to the door. This tactic,
except as a last resort, is foolhardy.
Became of it there have
been too many dead “heroes.”
Chapter
Io
TRAINING TECHNIQUES
AND COMBAT RANGES
T
O cushion the initial shock of battle and to provide
realistic training and practical tests, the modern soldier
h required
to participate
in an “assault,” or “blitz,” course
before being sent into actual combat.
In this course he is
subjected to live ammunition,
demolitions
and other simulated
battle conditions.
He uses his rifle, bayonet,
bnnd grenades
and other personal weapons in a realistic tmmncr.
Similarly, if n soldier’s or police officer’s bnsic weapon is
his hand gun, he should ll~ve a certain amount of a cwnparnble
training. When a hand gun shooter becomes familiar with his
weapon and can use it accurately
for nimed shots, after training on the target range, he should be projected into situations
where he will be forced to use his weapon M he will use it
most frequently
in nmn-to-rnan
combar.
This, of course,
applies not only to the hand gttu, but also to the rifle or
other firearm which he Ilmy tnrry.
Soldiers and law enforcelnent
officers do not carry weapons
urpose of shooting bull’s-eyes.
Primarily,
for the exclusive
their weapons are or use against enemies and criminals. Those
concerned
with hand gun training sometimes lose sight of this
simple truth and place overen)phmis
on the bull’s-eye target
type of training, with a consequent
neglect of the other.
Target training and colmbat firimg arc both needed to make
a proficiej~t, all-around
combat shot with the hand gun; but
those trainers
(and they arc legitm)
who consider
pistol
mar!{ smanship training the complete answer to training a nmn
in the combat usc of his hand gun, are like the proverbial
ostrich with his head in the sand.
It is unfortunate
that many soldiels and la\v enforcement
officers !lave an impersonal
attimde toward their training in
to those shooters
weapons firing. This applies particularly
in WWpons am-l shooting in general
who ~re not interested
f
,-,
-,>
274
K1l.1,
OR CKT
KILLt?D
!pk!kdxs&iiA,
I
--1
COMBAT
FIRING
RANGE,
WITH
BULLET-PROOF
ALLEYS
This type is suitable for traioing wirh either the hmrd gun or shoulder
weapon. Each shooter is sepmaretl from others. NOCC the silhouette
targees.
and to those who subconsciously
feel that the technique
of
hitting an inanimate black dot on a white piece of paper is
not closely related to the man targets they will encounter
in
combat. This leads to an indifferent
attitude during training.
Consequently,
for psychological
2s WC1l as practiczl reasons,
realistic combat shooting ranges, involving the use of lifelike
targets, are especially beneficial. They arouse the individual’s
interest by injecting the personal element into the use of his
weapon. By means of practical ranges and training, the shooter
who looks on his hand gun as he would any other piece of
equipment,
can be made to appreciate
his weapon and his
capabilities with it. Being able to use his gun effectively
on
a. practical
range wdl develop his all-around
confidence-in
himself, hls abdlty, and his weapon.
POLICE TRAINING
PROBLEMS
The problems
of the civilian police de artrnent
are not
always the same as those encountered
on t Re battlefield.
Although training in combat firing is essential, there should be
additional variations added to the shooting program
to meet
specific law enforcement
needs.
Aimed,
accur~te
fire (single
or double
action)
has a
TRAINING
Tl?CtINIQUES
275
,,;
.,
‘>
INDOOR
COMBAT
FIRING
PRACTICE
RANGE,
DIRT BANK
AS BULLET
CATCHER
WITH
The white stakes me used in practice. Bullet impacts are easily
observed Isccarrsc of dust crcmcd on impact. The dark spots represent
places where water has been thrown, to prevent too much dust arising
from the impact of bullets.
USE
OF
BOBBING
TARGETS
The same range with bobbing targets exposed. The target in the
ccntcr runs across the range; the others bob out from behind wa!ls. The
curtains hanging from the ceiling reduce concussion.
276
K I 1.1, 01{ {;r”r
KILI.l;O
definite pl~ce in police combat training, After bull’s-e e target accuracy
is achieved,
the police trainee should t 1 en be
projected
into practical
police-type
combat
ranges, where
he shoots at silhouettes
under simulated
conditions
such as
he may encounter
during
the routine
performance
of his
many and varied duties.
Since World War II, and as a result of combat experience,
there has begun
a gradual
increase
in practical
weapons
training
programs
and techniques
by police
departments.
that a few shots a week
There has come about a realization
at a paper target do not qualify the law officer for actual
fire fights with criminals.
Unlike the soldier, the police officer is faced with an additional hazard. Once he Collllnits hinlself and his firearm to
action, he must not only hit his man but he must also avoid
wounding
or killing innocent bystanders.
The fear of police
departments
of injuring
innocent
spectators
is a real and
ever-present
one. The unfavorable
publicity
resulting
from
such an accident is often so great that the department
will
swing almost entirely away from advocating
the usc of firearms. Regulations
sometimes
make it almost in+possib]e for
the average officer to use his hand gun with any degree of
confidence
or skill. His firearms t ‘aining is cut down to the
but
extent that not onl}~ is he hcsita. .t to use his weapon
when he is forced t’o do so, to perform his duty or save his
than
own life, hc becomes a greater hazard to the bystander
ever.
medium”
There
has to be a “happy
in police training.
The current
trend by progressive
police departments
has
been to give more emphasis to practical range firing and to
create a state of balance with the conventional
target range
firing. One complements
the other.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation
is
to develop and encourage
practic 1 police
Along with the regular
training
program
sonnel, trainees from various ci~, state
de artments are invited to participate.
A
has been in a
e z ective course in shooting
of development
for many years at the
Quantico,
Virginia.
The F.B.I. Practical
developed to properly
self and the citizens
doing a great deal
weapons training.
for bureau
perand county police
very practical and
continuous
process
Bureau
ranges in
Pistol Course is one of the finest ever
train the police officer to defend himof his cwnmunity.
A total of fifty
‘1’ I{ AI
rounds
time
arc
of
fired
NI
at
X(;
‘r KC
a man-sized
six minutes
and
ten
silhouette
seconds.
from the T-yard line to the 60-yard
firing
are used and many different
All
trainees
get
weapons.
police
sound
Those
information
in their
One
own
of
training
the
called
most
programs
Ohio, Police
that simulate
be
that
local
in
trninecs,
from
outside
upon
to
use
a total
departments
cases
are
the
ordinary
the
Bureau
training
passed
on
doctrine
and
used
rograms.
practica !
and
“Combat
Department.
the situations
in
assumed.
use of
many
the
positions
in the
training
is
target
In this period, firing is
line; right and left hands
training
ran]cs, take back to their various
and
277
II N’IQUl:S
well
lcnown
Course”
civilian
of
the
police
Toledo,
This course
has a series of targets
under which
a police officer
may
his
gum
approximately
8 acres of ground
The Observation
Course–here
and windows
of simulated
house
denly among trees, disappearing
single action.
The Bull’s-eye Target–a sound
bull’s-eye target set at 30 yards;
The range facilities cover
and include:
metal men appear at doors
fronts and spring up sudagain in 10 seconds. Fired
recording,
optical illusion
and fired single action.
The Rodeo Course–a series of metal targets
placed on a %-mile, twisting,
up-and-down-hill
double action from a moving automobile.
strategically
road; fired
The Running Man Target–a moving figure which threads
its way through
stationary
figures, to be hit without
inor be penalized
in points. Again,
juring the “bystanders”
firing is double action.
An Anatomical Target–shaped
like a man. Four-inch
areas
are located in six vital areas of this figure, and shots hkting
any of them would theoretically
make a person unable to
proceed.
(Three
areas would be fatal and three disabling.)
Firing, at a distance of 15 yards, is timed, and the target
requires
the officer to fire double action,
6 shots in I o
seconds, simulating
actual conditions
where he might meet
an armed adversary who is ready to shoot or shooting.
Most of the targets are fired double action instead of single,
thus accuratel
duplicating
the type of firing that officers
would be like ry to encounter
in actual combat situations.
The importance
of the combat type pistol training is finally
becoming more and more recognized.
The Indiana University
Center for Police Training,
in combination
with the Colt
in~tational
Patent
Firearms
Company,
is now sponso~ng
KI1. L 01{ G1.ZT KII. LIZD
278
police combat pistol matches. Individuals nnd teanls composed
of regular members of any orgznizecl police department
are
eligible to compete. Regularly
organized
bmk, rzilroad, and
industrial
police fiiong with Fedetnl ogencies are also eligible
\vhicll is no\v being held mlnualley
to enter this coillpctition,
nn~l entries are inlndi:lna. ‘l-he interest
in Bloolnington,
creasing yearly. It is hoped that from this and other type
combat training courses a standardization
of “practical”
firearms training for police officers will eventually
be achieved.
Generally
too few civilian police departments
are using
Most sticlc to the conventional
practical
range training.
bull’s-eye
training while others emphasize the “safety with
degree. Too many
weapons mpect” to an almost ridiculous
have no training
at all, after the btdgc
is pinned on the
officer. In almost all cases not enough attention
and training is given to the close-quarter,
i%tinctive-pointing
type
of shooting,, even though police case histories SI1OW that this
is the type of combat they encounter
the most and usuallv.
under poor lighting or adverse shooting conditions.
SIMULATING
COMBAT
CONDITIONS
The conditions
of actual close-quarter
combat with hand
guns–which
make instruction
and training in the instinctive
pointing technique necessary–are
as follows.
(I) In most cases, the ti7ne to take an aimed shot will not
gun ordinarily
will be used at
be available,
and the band
distances of 50 feet or less;
(2) The light necessary
to see ~nd use the sights (if the
time were available), is not nl\vaw sufficient;
(3) The grip on the weapon ‘is a convzdsive one, because
of combat tension; and
(4)
The
in a fire
Most
instinctive
fight
will
or all of
position
usually
these
assumed
by a hand
be an aggressive
conditions
are uswdly
gun
user
forward
crouch.
present
in every
which hmd guns are used by men shooting at each
other. It follows, then, that systems of practice and practical
ranges should be developed,
to give the shooter actual experience in shooting under combat conditions.
Silhouettes.
Silhouettes
are facsimiles
of rncn. If the primary
objective of hmd gun trainin~ is to teach men to shoot men,
these silhouettes
should hc the principal
type targets used.
They should be phtced, and fired ~t, on ranges that simulate
all foreseeable
conditions
under which a soldier or law enofficer
would ordinarily
use his weapon.
forcement
case
in
TRAIiNING
279
TECIINIQUES
After being trained in combat firing on silhouette
targets
-under
all possible light, terrain and other conditions–and
after he has had shooting training on a range of the type to be
described, the student no longer will harbor doubts as to why
he should receive training
in combat firing. He will realize
that there is a vast difference
between
being able to hit a
stationary
btdl’s-cye twgct, at a given number of yards md
under ideal conditions,
and being able to hit a target that
shoots back under combat conditions.
Results of Practical Range Training
The practical
hand gun
range described
below, known as the “House of Horrors,”
was in operation
over a two-year
period. During this time
several thousznd Iland gun shooters, of all degrees of training
and experience,
fired over it. A study of the records led to
the following
conclusions:
(I) That target shooting
proficiency
done is not enough
to equip the average man for combat, where the hand gun is
his primary
weapon.
(2)
That
is the best
out
tllc illstinctivc-pointing
nlcdlod
technique
of combat
firing
of shooting
the hand gun with-
this type range is a reiiable
of all the known techniques
the aid of sights.
test of the combat
of hand gun shoot-
all-nround
the aid of sights.
(3) That
effectiveness
ing without
(4) That there must be greater
appreciation,
by most
training officers, of the physical and psychological
effects of
combat tension upon the hand gun user. In addition to the
changes in established
techniques
which were demonstrated,
those shooters who were ps chologically
unsuited for combat
or who had the wrong kin l’ of temperament
were discovered.
Constructing a Practical Range.
If an old unused
basement
or a warehouse
of medium size is available, a good combat
range can be constructed
at very little expense, using local
materials. The first precaution,
naturally, is to make the walls
and ceiling bullet proof against the caliber gun to be fired.
This can be clone ~~ adding 5 or 6 inches of rough plinking
to the walls or cell]ng, or by sand bags, or by a dirt filling,
inside a wood retaining
wnll.
In this range, at irregular intervals, place bobbing silhouette
targets,
and actuai dummies.
targets,
st~tionary
silhouette
These can be painted to resemble men and can easily be set
up, using hinges, s,prings, and trip latches, so that they pop
out, or up, by pulling a cord or wire control. Steps, movable
280
K
I 1. 1,
01(
cl;’]’
KI1.
I,K1)
floor sections, or silllilar innovations
may be built into this
basement. Passageways,
nlade of scrap lumber or burlap hung
from the ceiling, can be built in or installed, m give real;wi.:
close-quarter
effects such m might I)c found
in a I]OUSC,
alleyway,
or basement. Tl}c silhouette
targets may be placed
at appropriltc
intervals, in conjunction
with whatever
builtin effect it is desired to simulate. The result, naturally,
should
be that which tile students
expect to encounter
most frequently.
General lighting effects should be dim, so that only
outlines are visible. A sound effect system of amplifiers and
records can be installed, if availfihlc, nnd can be coordinated
with the targets. Guns which fire blanks at the silooter can be
put into dumnlies.
Other innovations
which help to create
cojl)bot tension and rcnlisll} cfln bc installed. Tile possibilities,
in building a range of dlis type, arc almost endless, largely
depending upon the availxble local materiels xnd the ingenuity
of the builder.
A word of caution here. The tendency
to use booby traps,
false floors and other tricl( devices, such as are found in a
carnival “fun house,” should be avoided. These trick devices
can, in a large measure, defe~t the purpose of the rsnge.
Described
in the following
pages is one such r~ngc (The
House of Horrors),
constructed
and used for tile successful
training of Iargc groups of men for specialized military duty.
The basic floor plan took its shape simply because of the
original construction
of the only availnblc basement,
which
The floor is dirt and
consisted of three sepamtc compartmcots.
walls and pillars am covered by 6 inches of
the original rocli
dirt held in by a womlcn form ]Nadc of z-inch pl~nlciog. The
training
weapons
used in tl]is rfingc were stnndard
mode]
.38 Spl. revolvers, the .45 cnl. automatic,
and the Colt Ace.
In all cases the shooter
is nccolnpnnicd
by an instructor,
who guides him through
the course and tmtlces comments
or
makes corrections
during
the shooting
sequences
and immediately after they occur.
.22
THE
COMBAT
COURSE—STEP
Let’s follow
a shooter
who,
cal.
colt
Service
Ace.
First,
BY STEP
in tills case, is armed
he
is
brought
into
with
a
a
small
room at the head of the stairs, indicated
in the lower left
in diagram.
He is seated in a chair and left alone in this
room, which has dim lighting. He is given a knife and sheath
to strap on, and is told to read the following
instructions,
which arc posted on the wall:
T[t/\l
NIN(;
YOU arc equipped
tion,
and
depends
a fighting
M you
go
181
I’I!(:IINIOLII;S
\vith a pistol,
knife.
Upon
down
into
24 rounds
these
the
of amn]uni-
wenpons
darkness.
your
Below
life
arc
you as you make your
way along. You will fire at these enemies in lmmts of
times.
two Jhots. You will use your knife at flppropriatc
You will fire directly to your front, to your left, or to
your right. You will never fire to your rear. A coach
will follow immediately
behind you to act as your guide
and confessor.
Are you one of the quick or one of the dead?
There
are no booby traps, collapsible
stairs or trick
devices in the dmkncss below. Just enemies who shoot
back!
If you come out alive, please tell no one else the details of what you have been through.
twelve
of
our
enemies
nwaiting
While he is reading
the instruction;,
he is subjected
to
several record sequences
(broken English)
of typical enemy
propaganda
newscasts. Interspersed
with the records are other
sound effects, such as organ music; or morbid symphonic
airs
may be used. (In this range the extracts from the Firebird
Suite by Stravinsky
were used. ) After not less than 5 minutes
of this indoctrination,
the student is called into a little annex
at the head of the scnirs and given his pistol and 3 magazines
of ammunition,
8 rounds to a magazine. The instructor
tells
him to insert one magazine wtd place the other two where he
can get thcnl in a hurry. He is then mkcd if he IMS any questions; if so, additional last minute instructions
m-e given. When
hc is ready, he is told to pull IMCICthe slide, loading Ilis weapon,
tllcn procccd cautiously
down the steps. The instructor
follows immediately
behind him with one hand in contact with
the shooter.
The instructor,
aside from acting as a guide and making
trips all targets at the appropriate
on-the-spot
corrections,
times. For obvious safety reasons, the instructor
at all times
maintains contact with the shooter
(usually with one hand
hooked into the back of his belt) while he is carrying
his
pistol. The instructor
stays out of reach when the knife is
used and when the student is in complete darkness.
As the shooter
descends
the steps, a record
sequence
(Stravinsky)
is started and is interspersed by shots and screams.
When he reaches the bottom of the stairs, the coach pulls
target No. i, which is a bobbing target concealed
behind a
pillar. It is dimly illuminated
by a red light. After firing,
=EG9END—
PAT+ FOLLOWED BY STUDENT ---+-
. . .
SILtiOUEVrE TAIU.ET$
CUMMIEI FOR <NIFE TfiR6ET$
. . .
CUUTjAIN$
Yumwi ha~ art,f~{af
0
cubwebs and mzrfube
floarltiq.
—
TRAINING
283
TECHNIQUES
shooter
and instructor
continue
around
target No.
I to
target No. 2, which is also a dimly illuminated
quarter-size
silhouette
target popping
out at e e level from behind another pillar. Target No, 3 is a hal {-size stationary
silhouctre,
which is exposed to the sllootcr’s view by puI1ing aside a curtain. This target is illurninntcd by a dim green light. Target
No. 4 is next, concealed behind a curtain.
This dimly-lit full
silhouette
is exposed when the curtain is pulled.
A blankfiring revolver
placed in the center of the target fires in
conjunction
with the opening of the curtain.
At this point, the shooter’s gun should be empty, if he
has fired the required
bursts of two at each target.
In any
event the gun is taken from him by the instructor
and he
is told he will proceed
alone through
the tunnel using his
knife at appropriate
times. Just as he is about to go down
to his knees to enter
the tunnel,
the instructor
exposes
Dummy A, which is constructed
of old fatigue clothes and
excelsior; and the shooter
uses his knife on it. While
he
has been proceeding
from Target
I to Target 4, a locallymade Gestapo-type
torture
scene record
sequence,
interspersed
with cursing
and other sound
effects,
has been
played.
Wllilc the shooter is going through
the pitch dark
tunnel on his hands and knees, with his knife in his hand,
he is subjected
to the Stravinsky
music sequence and to ad
Iibs given him over the sound system by the instructor
or a
helper.
Progressing
through the tunnel, he encounters
strings hanging from the ceiling to simulate cobwebs,
and crawls over
partially inflated inner tubes (inclosed in fatigue suits) which
simulate dead bodies. While he has been progressing
through
has moved to a position where he
the tunnel, the instructor
can see. him emerge from the tunnel. Upon emerging,
and
after stabbing a stationary
Dummy
B, he proceeds up the
stairs to the platform
and then down the stairs—into a pit,
then up out of the pit by means of another set of steps. The
DIAGRAM
OF THE
HOUSE
OF HORRORS
All numbered targets are to be fired at. Lettered
(See
opposite)
targets, - with the
exception of D, are dummies for knife targets. Dummy H is an American so placed th~t the student will have to choose between tiring at the
soldier or passing him. This teaches recognition
of U. S. troops. All
targets and curtains are controlled by an accompanying
oflicer. These
devices are moved bv attached strings. Target NOS. 4, S, 8 and 9 m full
silhouette targets w(th blank-firing pistols attached.
z8q
KILL
OR
GL’”1’
KILLED
latter procedure
imparts
an illusion of height and depth,
which is enlphasized by a lack of light and the artificially developed conlbat tension.
As the stuclcnt proceeds, a sentry-lcillin
sequence is started
over d~c rccurd player and a curtain is pul f cd, exposing a moving dummy
which, for a short distance,
falls towards
him.
This dummy is dressed in “aggressor”
uniform and is illuminated by a dim blue light. After using his knife on Dummy C,
the instructor,
remaining out of contact with the shooter, tells
him to place his knife on the ground. Then he is given back
his pistol, which he loads, proceeding
under the guidance of
the instructor
to Target
No. 5. A sound sequence of a dog
barking and growling
is sent out over the record player at
this time.
As the shooter goes through
the open door at point D, a
half silhouette
which rises from the floor is pulled and he
fires the first two shots of his second magazine.
He then
direction.
If
approaches
a door which
s\\ ’ings in either
he kic~~
Tat-get
window
tllc
No.
door
6,
frame.
open
which
It
and
enters
is a qunrtcr
is exposed
when
the
next
silhouette
a shutter
room,
he fires
concealed
swings
in
out,
at
a
as
controlling
tllc spring latch is pulled by the inthe cord
structor.
Oo tile other hand, if the shooter pzdh open the
door, he fires at Target
No. 7, a half silhouette
w’hich rises
frolll the floor and is illuminated
by a red light. A discussion
of the best ways to enter doors of rooms occupied
by an
enemy is held at this point.
During the firing at Target Nos. 5, 6, and 7, sound effects
over the anlplifier have consisted of n whispered conversation
interspersed
with faint groans and pleas, such as would be
made by a wounded
rmn asking for water. Proceeding
on
toward Target No. 8, over a flooring, sections of which have
been placed on pivots so they will tilt s!ightly to simulate unsteady footing, he enters the area of Target No. 8, which is
in total darkness. There he returns the fire when Target No. 8,
soldier, illumiwhich is a life-size silhouette of an “aggressor”
nated by the muzzle blast of a blnnk-firing
pistol installed in
the dummy. At this point, after a short pouse, the instructor
tells him to proceed
and, at the same time, pulls a string
rattling some cans to his immediate
left. These cans are in
complete darkness. If the shooter fires at them, a discussion
is carried on by the instructor
as to the advisability
of shooting at something \\rhich hc cznnot sec. I-Ie then ~pproaches a
door at point (F). Hc pauses there and a record sequence of a
“rl{AININ(;
rflpc
sccnc
involving
285
‘t’l\cllNl(jUIJ.S
a young
won]an
is played.
Hc
is told
As he goes through,
size silhouette
fires at Ili[ll; and hc returns the Iire.
These arc the last rou[]ds ill his nmgazinc ( provided
l~e has
not fired at dlc inns); so hc is told to relofld before proceeding on to a curtain at point (G).
A short music sequence
commences
over the amplifier nt
this point, and a conversation
is heard involving
a number
of persons. He is told to listen, and hears the sound of bottles,
laughter,
and cards being shuffled. The instructor
tells him
there are enemies in there playing cards and he is to go in
and get them. The instructor
te!ls him to jerlc the curtnin
aside at (G) and enter the room. In the corner,
under 1
bright light, is standing a dummy of an Amcricvrn soldier in
full equipment–a
sergeant with his stripes exposed, to facilitate recognition.
If he fires at it, he is reprimanded
for
shooting
one of his own men, when recognition
WaS easily
possible (this happens to about lo~~ of the shooters).
He k
told thnt the Anlericnn
(dunllny)
is there for tile same purpose and has been awaiting In opportune
tin]e m do the same
thing Ile is about to do.
Proceeding
on around
the pillar, he approaches
a curtain
and listens to continued
sound effects of the card game in
progress beyond it. If he has not fired at the American dummy,
he has eight rounds left in his gun. As he pulls aside the
curtain, !te fires at 7“argct hros. Io, I I and 12. These targets
are life-size silhouettes of 3 men sitting at a table playing cards
by candlelight.
After firing at the three seated targets
(3
bursts of z–seldom
done–usually
one of the card players is
missed), he should have two rounds ren]aining
in his pistol.
Seeing no other targets, he is allowed to relnx. As he does so,
pulls
thinlcing he has completed
the course, the instructor
Target No. [3, which is a three-quarter
size silhouette bobbing
out from behind a pillar, firing a blank shot as it comes into
view. The shooter fires his las: two rounds. At this point, his
gun is taken from him and he proceeds out through the exit.
to kiclc
z life
open
the
door” nnd get
the
rapist.
A brief, general critique of the shooter’s firing technique
and his reactions to the targets during his I S-minute orclcnl
is given.
It is difficult m describe by written words nnd diqgrams the
effects of this rnnge on the she, oter. All the elements involving
n]entioned
earlier, hove tsl; en place
the use of the handgun,
the course.
while the shooter was nla]cing his \vny through
Hc W2S subjcctcd
to physical and mcnml tension, to the ele-
2X6
K I r.
r.
OR
GET
K[LLF.
D
ment of surprise, ml to the unknown.
Realistic and difficult
shooting and reloading conditions were caused by poor lighting, unsteady footing, and sound effects; and the loss of sense
of direction, bec~use of his irregular progress, was emphasized.
In this sequence, the shooter Icarncd by his own mistalces.
He also had the opportunity,
which seldom occurs in combat,
of being corrected
on the spot by the instructor,
at the time
and under conditions
in which the mistake occurred.
There
is no better way to teach and to learn the use of weapons
and their employment
than by practicing
under conditions
as close to the real thing as possible.
In The House of Horrors
there were twelve silhouette
targets at which the shooter
fired in bursts of t\vo shots.
None of these silhouettes
had been at any greater distance
than ten feet from the shooter.
After the period of trial, error and experiment
was compIeted, a careful
observation
and study was made of the
records of 500 men, who had just previously
qualified in the
prescribed
course on standard
target rmges, either as marlwmcrt or experts.
These 500 men, when projected
into The
House of Horrors
averaged
four hits out of a possible 12
silhouette
tnrgets.
After these same 500 men hnd received instruction in instinctive pointing, they were again sent through
this range. (Necessary
changes in lighting and target location
were made, to provide a fair test by eliminating,
to a great
extent, any benefits derived
by previous
fruniliarity).
The
average number
of hits on the silhouettes
increased
from
four to ten for this group. On this range, or any similar one,
it is not difficult to establish a system of scoring after a number of shooters have gone through
and an average number
of hits is determined.
After
this test, many more hundreds
of men were put
through the range, with the same general improvement
noted.
It was particularly
noticeable
that men who had received
training in instinctive pointing only, and who had never fired
the hand gun previously,
did as well as those who had had
previous buli’s-eye instruction.
Once realistic conditions
and situations are created, under
which men will actually be firing, and after training and improving the ability of the shooter to fire under these conditions, confidence
in himself, his ability and his weapon will
be achieved.
Again, the payoff will be in LIVES–enemy
and criminal
lives.
“I’lt Cll
“r N /i 1 ‘w 1 ,N (;
BOBBING
This
tyi~c of surprise
operation.
It
does
so forth,
whicl]
arc
not
NIQUlt
287
S
TARGETS
target
contain
is practically
the
a continual
usual
suurcc
fool-proof
in
hinges,
and
springs,
of
trouble
and
which
found in bobbing
tnrgets. These targets can
bc best installed Lcllind the edges of walls and behind trees,
and in ranges such as the House of Horrors.
is
The counterbalance
principle
used in their operation
the secret of their success. The “offset” hole, through
which
a bolt or lm$e spike can be driven into the target support to
make the pivot point, is largely responsible
for ease and
simplicity
of operation.
This pivot point eliminates excessive
weight on the eucl of the arlu opposite the silhouette.
The
more the pivot point is offset and the more weight added on
the end opposite the target, the faster the bobbing action of
the target will be.
In the first illustration
the release cord is pulled and secured
tight, holding the target from view. When this cord is re-
are
commonly
—
\
$:}
WFILL
—
—
Id
—
.&&
,.--’.,
—-#----
:;
--w” —
---
*
wurmw
.--—
F-a----
‘:;=—.
—
‘i “=:.5--+=---====
-,s..
IF
[
SURPRISE
,’
‘,
.
-. ,
‘5, LHOU6TTE
SILHOUETTE,
.OLe
~==.
$
-----=-------;’
—/
//
II
OR
BOBBING,
TARGET
These surprise targets are foolproof and easy to make. The counterbalance weight and off-center pwot make for smooth, easy operation.
Weight on the target, as shown above, swings the silhouette into view
when the cord is pulled.
KILL
288
01{
CII”L’
KILLED
leased, by trip or other mechanism,
the weight falls until
it hits the stop and exposes the target.
The device in the second illustration
works on the opposite
principle, the cord being pulled to bring the silhouette down
to
where
it
is
expuscd.
‘he
target
disappcms
ilnmediatcly
the cord is released.
Awning
pulleys and sash cords have produced
the best
results on such target devices.
The silhouette,
which can be of any size, is tacked on the
end of the arm and is repl~ced when it is shot up. Likewise,
the end of the arm which is exposed to the fire can be replaced
merely by splicing on another piece of wood, thus eliminating
the replacement
of the whole weight and counterbalance
system.
from
sight
once
Old pieces of plywood are good as a backing for silhouettes,
with light paper replacements
stapled on the plywood backing
when needed. A piece of plywood
will talce an incredible
number of shots before it falls to pieces; and it is not as susceptible to splitting or damp weather as is a solid piece of
wood or cardbom-d.
-,
“4 ‘.
——1— —— —--.1
mLL ccuo
—
—..—..—-—.
Wmrh
.—
w
SURPRISE
SILHOUETTE,
OR
BOBBING,
TARGET
(Cont.)
Here the cord pulls the target down and the weight swings it up.
Awning pulleys and cords make the best reIease devices, and plywood
cutouts mnlrc durable silhouettes. (Illustrations are from Tube Awericun
Rif?eman.)
TRAINING
TECHNIQUES
‘-An object lesson course, to impress upon the trainee . . .
289
Chapter
II
ELEMENTARY
FIELDCRAFT
KNOWLEDGE
of the elementary
principles of movement
and concealment
in hostile territory
is essential,
not only for those who are in the Armed Forces but also for
members of state police forces, sheriffs’ offices, and civil defense organizations.
Army manuals, covering
the subject in
detail, may be purchased
from the Superintendent
of Documents, Government
Printing
Office, Washington,
D, C. It is
intended
here merely to set forth some of the basic tech-
A
niques
for
that
members
Typical
thetical
can
of
problem.
situation,
be
covered
civilian
This
such
in
a lecture,
designed
primarily
organizations.
lecture
may
as the one
be
described
based
below,
on
a
hypo-
elaborated
in the narrative
localized
to lend greater
interest.
Points
may be discussed as they arise.
Training
aids are suggested, as follows:
(I) If the elms is small, a sand table for demonstration
purposes.
(2)
If the class is large and if the facilities are available, a
film strip, or glass slides, in a darkened room.
(3) Or, as an alternative,
each student can be issued a map
to follow; or a large map may be drawn on a blackboard.
and
The Situation. Corporal John Thomas,
of the State Police,
is one of the surviving members of an ill-fated patrol. He has
is standing
escaped an ambush and at 1700, 15 Septembe~,
on a ridge above the Jones Farm, in hostde territory.
The Objective. To return to a selected rendezvous
point on
the outskirts of Blank City.
Rendezvous Time. The patrol members had agreed to stay
at the rendezvous
point until 2100.
Equipvrellt. Corporal
Thomas
has a nmp, a revolver,
a
carbine, a compass, aw-1 his wits.
291
292
KILL
OK
Gll”l’
KII,
l.1~,11
Preparation. Thomas
has devoted
considerable
time to
studying
the map, and has located himself on it. He now
compares
the map with the terrain. He knows that the map
may save him many mistalces.
After locating
kmdmarlcs and choosing
a tentative
route,
Thomas then divides the ground into sectors, with a recognizable landmarlc in each sector. I-Ie rules out of consideration
all paths, trails, and roads, which might be covered by the
enemy and selects the most difficult and wildest route—because it is least likely to be covered. He realizes that the sun
is in front of him and may shine on him; so, to make the
CONCEALMENT
When possible, your clorhing should
not be in contrast with k.
blend
with
the
terrain
and
l:. 1. [: ,11 Ii N ‘1 A R Y
best of
the sitwttion,
ln
way,
this
escape
he tiarkcns
his figure
detection,
\vill
he must
I: II;
I. I) CRAFT
his f:wc,
blend
usc every
with
293
hands
the
ditch
or
and clothing.
background.
depression,
To
and
piece of terrain.
dark or shadowed
Technique. At 1830, Corporal
Thomas leaves his observation post ocw the Jomx Fanll and prf)cccds north about 800
yards througil
the woods. As hc takes cover and observes
around a rock, he sees a herd of sheep in his front. He does
not want to disturb then], because that would indicate to tiny
one watching
that something
is wrong. Thomas decides that
it will be easy to go below them and keep out of sight.
every
Before he proceeds,
however,
he checks on the direction
of the wind by wetting his cheeks. The cheek is extremely
sensitive to moisture and wind. The wind, he finds, is coming
from the northeast;
so it should be safe to pass below the
sheep, who have a keen sense of smell. After he is well past
them, he checks the terrain with the map and finds that his
detour was too long and that, if he were to continue,
he
would walk into the center of a road net, where enemy
guards are certain to be.
Heading east, the Corporal crosses a small stream and begins
nlore happens until he is within to climb a ridge. Nothing
zoo yards of a big rock. Suddenly,
from behind the ridge,
two crows rise and fly quickly about him, cawing as they go.
A good woodsman
is always
Immediately
he is suspicious.
suspicious of disturbed
animals or birds until he learns the
cause of their alarm. The Corporal
kno\vs that something,
probably a man, has frightened
the crows. He takes cover and
looks around for a line of retreat, if that becomes necessary.
Ten minutts
later, three sheep come trotting
onto the
skyline. They stop every now and thco to look behind them.
Since the sheep arc still frightened
and continue
to trot on,
Corporal Thomas is even more certain that a mm is somewhere on the ridge. If the man were a sheepherder,
he would
undoubtedly
have a dog with him.
The Corporal
tests the wind, finds it from the right direction and remains concealed.
After tcn minutes of cautious
waiting,
hc continues
uphill toward
the roclc. The roclc
proves to be an excellent landmark.
From his present site,
but its distinctive
size enables him
it looks quite different,
to recognize it and locate himself on the map.
From his map he finds that he is now near the Hanson
Farm. Looking around, he is able to see a good deal of the
KILL
29-I
OR ~r’r
KILLmD
COVER
To
be effective,
cover
must shield the user from
enemy fire.
country
he had not seen before. To observe from the top of
the rock would give him an excellent view, but it would also
silhouette him against the skyline. A place in the grass beside
the rock, although
it restricts
hk vision, gives him more
security.
He 100Ics around–very
slowly, for he knows that quick
movements
are easily seen. To his rear he sees a bright flash,
several hundred yards above him. At first he is dazzled, then
identifies
the glare—a man with fieldglasses. The Corporal
thinks to himself, “It is lucky that the observer does not know
he should shade his glassc;, to keep them from flashing a
message over the hillside.”
The observer
seems to be looking
directly
at Corporal
Thomas, but Thomas does not move. His safety lies in perfect stillness. After a few minutes, the observer gets up and
starts walking toward the Blanlc City road.
The Corporal continues his observation
and makes a mental
note to avoid all houses as he goes forward.
One of them
might have a dog that would bark and give him away. He
remembers
that the same warning applies to farmyards;
there
is always some animal which will make a noise. Alarm noises
of domestic
animals are better known
than those of wild
animals; people recognize
them for what they are.
--
,.
,.
--~
...
‘-“ ;r&&
/..’
‘&
DECEPTION
An old Ir.dian trick
pomson.
that often
draws
fire and discloses an enemy’s
296
KILL
OR
THE
GET
KILLKD
~lGHT WAY
I
OBSERVING FROM COVER
Never look over an object when you can look around
ic. This
holds, also, when
firing
a gun from
the side of
cover.
At this point, he sees a shepherd only Ioo yards away. Since
it will soon be dark, he does not want to wrote time. I{eeping
his head down, he crawls on his stomach for about 30 yards
tots deep ditch, down which he makes his way unobserved.
After about 300 yards, he rests. His crawling
and rnpid
withdrawal
have tired him. He crawls into some brush, keeping his carbine close by and spending
the last half hour of
light observing
the countryside.
To the left and below him, the Corporal sees a small stream,
which he knows leads to a road and then joins the main stream.
His
Ian is to get to the road by moving down the stream
in t [ e water. The high bank will hide his body and the
noise of the water wdl maslc the sound of his movements.
If this were still water, he would avoid it as a plague, because
still water, like dead wood and Ieavcs, is a sound trap. But
this stream flows rapidly because of the sharp decline; so he
proceeds
to the stream and follows it to the road.
The stream leads into a culvert too small for him to crawl
cross the road. His point of
through.
He must, therefore,
crossing gives him a clear view of the road. He sees that the
road is gr~vel and dmt he cannot move up or down the road
because there is a guarded road junction several hundred yards
He must then wait for a counteraway in each direction.
poise.
After a half hour a car finally comes by, and the” Corporal,
the sound of his rnovelnents
covered by the cm noise, dashes
across the road to the grove on the other side. As soon as
he is again ready to move forward,
the door of a house to
the right of the grove opens and an armed mm steps out.
Thomas, knowing
that the man will be unable to see clearly
for a time because he has stepped from a lighted room into
darkness, quietly leaves the immediate
vicinity, continuing
on
through the trees.
He then gets Lnck into the stream. He is still too far from
safety to risk leaving footprints
in the soft mud banks of
the creelc.
He follows the stream along the edge of the woods, then
cuts through the woods to the junction of the creelc lending to
Bkmk City. The first 500 yards along this creelc are easy
enough, but the creelc bed becomes so shallow and roclcy that
he must move forward
on the ground. So he walks through
the high grass, stepping high and taking each ste very carefully. This avoids the brushing
noise of the [ oot moving
through
tall grass and keeps him from tripping
over low
obstacles.
In this way, Corporal
Thomas
reaches the rendezvous
at
2015.
He waits in the shadows .of the designated
building
until he is joined by the two other surviving members of the
patrol. The three men then return to their headquarters.
Chaptey
12
POLICE BATON AND
MISCELLANEOUS
WEAPONS
AND TECHNIQUES
HE police boton in the hands of a guard or police
officer is an additional
symbol of his authority
and implies that he know-s how to use it. If he is skilled and practiced
in its use, he can cope with most situations
where physical
force is ncccss;lry. B:wica]ly, the police baton is an offensive
weapon. It is usually used dcfcnsivcly only to cn:ll~lc fin officer
to survive an mtack so that he nlzy retaliate \vith offensive
action of his own. “l-llc m:lnncr in which hc uscs his baton
depends upon the Iocd situation.
It can bc used m a club, as
a jabbing or parrying instrument,
or as a restraint device.
THE NIGHT STICI<
Tl~c short lmtm~ is roilnil ond ]N:ldc of hnrd wood or plmric.
It is I t{) [ U incllcs ii] di:l]llctcr nnd ol)ollt J 2 to 36 incl~cs long.
Generally
the sl~ort I)aton, or nigh: stick, is carried by the individual patmhnan
on his bc~t, while the h]ng baton, or riot
stick, is n]orc uscfttl in handling crowds, mobs, riots. Whether
long or short, tile technique
of using the weapon is much the
same.
The Grip, Either Baton. The
grip is most important.
place
the loop or thong of the stick over the right thumb so that
the stick will hang with the thong crossing over the back of
the hand. Turn the hand in and grasp the handle so that the
thumb points parallel to the stick. Raise the baton to a 45degree angle-and
the grip is complete. The thong must be
adjusted in length to fit the hand. When correctly
adjusted,
the butt of the club should extend slightly below the edge
of the grasping hand. If gripped in this manner, the baton
will not fly out of the hand when in use; but, if an opponent
should seize it so that it can no longer be used as an effective
weapon, it can be released by relaxing tile grip. The thong
T
[email protected]
A(l
SC F. LLAN150L7S
\! ’1~. Al~ONS
299
should never be looped about the wrist, for then an opponent who grabs the baton and twists it prevents
the officer
from releasing it and pinions his hand in a painful manner.
Left: Blton grip No. 1. Initial
position to enable the lmton to
bc grasped propcdy.
Ntm
the
Icstbcr loni~ is hoolccd rrvcr the
thumb snd paws over the bock
of the hallcf.
Right: Baton grip Ko. 2, Note
that the grip is tow~rd the place
where dlc leather loop is fastened
to the ts2ton, and that the Icathcr
1(x)1> pmscs across tlw lmclc of
the hind.
,,
_—
———
Left: Baton grip No. 3, inside view. Note that the Icatber 100P
dues not pass around the wrist as would commonly be assumccl. Only
the thumb is encircled by the leather loop. In the event that the baton
is grasped by a mob member (this is not a likely event if the batrrn
wielder has been properly trained) and the baton is lost to the mob
member, the leather loop will slide off the thumb and the policeman’s
arm will not be pinioned in the loop, with the hand immobilized also.
l?i~ht: The WRONG
way to use the leather loop on the police
baton. If m opponent gains control of the baton hc can, by twisting
it, immobilize the policeman’s arm and take him out of action.
The thong can be fastened to the hnton either nt the butt
end or approximately
six inches from the butt end. The length
of the thong will have to be adjusted according] y.
The Blow.
A blow
delivered
by the baton is generally
effective in the same body areas m those in which the edge
Umrmed
of the hand is lscst used. (See chapter 2, Oflensive
Co??hrt.)
However,
the policeman
should not, ordinarily,
use his
baton m a bludgeon to strike blows about his opponent’s head.
Used in this manner, the night stick is dangerous
and fatal
injuries can result. Side blows to the temple and throat area
also are potentially
fatal when delivered with enough force.
B1OWS delivered to the top of the head and forehead are also
dangerous,
yet at times even this kind of blow has been ineffective. Wild blows, using the full length of the arm in the
swing, are not nearly as effective as they seem; they leave a
police officer wide open for parry and retaliation by a trained
opponent.
Well-directed
blows to the following
areas are usually as
effective as head blows, with less chance of serious injury to
the recipient.
A man who is moving in to attaclc can be
dropped with a downward
blow to the collar bone; or by a
shoulder shove, to twist the body, followed by a hard blow
across the big muscle in the back of the thigh. This can be
delivered
with full force and results in cramping
the leg
muscle so that the victim is temporarily
unable to walk. If
the opponent’s arm is outstretched,
a blow to the back of the
hand, or the outside of the elbow or wrist, will suffice. Blows
to the shin bone will often block an attempted
Icicle and can
BLOW
TO
TEMPLE
A blow to the temple, the top
of the head, or the side of the
throat,
is potentially
dangerous.
Concussion, skull fracture, or ru ture of the neck artery may resu 1’t.
,AIIS(;
1~,l. I. AN
F.()
11S
30[
lvEAPONS
BLOWTO
COLLAR
BONE
A downward blow to die collar
bone will break up the mon deterIl]ined attack.
The brolccn collar
bone will make the wllolc arm
useless,
but
will
not
inflict
an incapacitating
injury
that is porcnrially fatal–as will blows to the
Ilead area.
T}-IRUST
‘ro SOLAR PLEXUS
By using the night
stick,
or
baton,
as an extension
of the arm.
and thrusting at the solar plexus
about 3 inches above the navel,
~ay~~~~e;ai~s~~~~~eEdg~Z~
clearing a way through a hostile
crowd.
It does not inflict an
serious injury, but causes enoug {1
temporary dlscnmfort to be effective.
BLOW
TO
SHIN
A sharp blow to the shin will
discourage an atrem~ted kick. Also,
a blow to the inside, outside, or
edge of the wrist will prevent use
of the hand, or any weapon it
may be grasping.
302
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
BLOW TO REAR LEG
MUSCLE
When an op orient advances
from the front, srr10VChim shar Iy
on the left shoulder with the eft
hand, causing him to spin off balance. Strike him hard with the
baton on the big rear leg muscle.
This Mow can be delivered with
all possible force.
It will cause
the muscle to cramp
and will
down the opponent. It will not
cause permanent
injury but will
prevent the opponent from wall<ing for a short time.
BLOW
TO
INSIDE
OF WRIST
A blow to the inside of the
wrist will cause the opponent to
rclcssc his grip on any wen mn
hc may be grasping. Like a b Iow
by the edge of the hand, the blow
on the wrist tendons forces the
fingers to release their grip.
THONG
PINION
OF WRISTS
The thong of the baton can be
looped
around
the
wrists. By
twisting the baton, the wrista can
be so inioned that a painful and
com e ling control of the prisoner
is e 2rected.
Atl
SC EL
LA
NEOUS
WEAPONS
303
also be used against a kick after it has been launched
and
sidestepped.
of the arm, the night
stick
By using it as an extension
the same
cnn bc an effective
pnrrying
instrument
in much
manner
m the foil serves a fencer.
A powerful
thrust delivered to the solar plexus will tcmpormily
disable the opregion
arc
ponent; and short jabs to the plexus and stomach
effective
in clearing
away crowds
or clearing
a pathway
through a mob.
LONG
BATON
OR RIOT
STICK
The English peasznt in the mcdiewd times of Friar Tuclc
and Robin Hood fought with n long, stout, round wooden
stzwc called a qum-tcrstaff.
It vmicd in length from six to
eight feet and was quite a fomlidable
arm. He used it as a
mvo-handed
offensive and defensive weapon. Because he was
seldom pem~itted to bear other arms, such as edged or other
lethal weapons, the peasant developed
the technique
of fighting with the qufirtcmtflfi
to z high art. Competitions
were
held at county f:lirs ill sotllc\vllat tlw sailw Illanllcr as wc Imvc
ch:)llcngc wrcstiing
Iilatclws ac county
fflirs today.
In the Orient, a similar long stick has bccu used over the
centuries.
Tradition
has it that the ancient Buddhist
monks
carried the stick on their wanderings,
using it as a defensive
weapon M WC1l m n cane. I?olicc in Japan and other areas usc
it in mob control today.
During World Wor 11 interest was revived in tl~is type of
fighting aid Iwmy n]cu)bcrs of tllc armed scrviccs were given
instruction
in stick and cane fighting. The principles are much
the same; only the length, diameter, and strength of the stick
cause variation in the technique.
THE LONG BATON
For purposes of this discussion we will use the word hto}t,
considering
it to bc synonymous
with the term “riot sticlc”
in modern police terminology.
This is a formidable
weapon
in the hands of a tmined man who has confidence in his ability
and training.
The long baton,
riot control. With
hesitation in making
When it is used in
tected on his flank
n nlol) cnn bc sl)lit,
properly
used, is an important
wcxpon in
this weapon,
trained men ~t~ill have no
ph)”sicd contact with the mol.) members.
tactical for]] )ation so tlkt cacll man is proby other stlund meml)crs sinlilady armed,
forced to flee, or l)c subjcctcd to casualties
304
KII,
J, 01{
rn
Cl:
’1’ KII,
I,EI1
;Pll
.
..-
L.cft.’ Port arms is the position that the policeman armed with the
baton will normally use when moving into action and from onc area
to another. The better the appearance, the more psychological
effect
it will have on the mob. The baton can be used in various drill formations in the same manner as the rifle. The combination of white baton,
white hchnet, mrd white gloves, gives a well-drilled
unit a very
“snappy” aPPearZOCC! and has. a practical use also. In night actions
it enables the leader of the umt to have better control of his mcn as
he can better see them. The glnves-aside
from the visual effect-also
protect
the hands of the soldier against cuts, blows, and thrown
objects. The helmet can be plastic or metal. The plastic type safety
nnd steel construction
is light
hehnct now used by workers in mhcs
and tough and will give protection
against practically
all types of
thrown objects.
Zlight: The p~racfe rest position,
aside from the drill aspect, should
bc used wbcn the unit is facing a potential mob action but there is
still no activity.
lVhcn standing in the parade rest position it is sometimes ncccssary
to prevent non-~ggrcssivc mob members from getting too close to the
police line. A sudden series of rapid thrusts with the boton to the eye,
throat, stomach, or testicle area will keep the desired interval. The
thrusts, should be rapid and the withdrawal also rapid to prevent the
mob member from grabbing the baton. Note that the thrust is made
with the leg extended to the front to give the maximum distance to
the movement. The object is to force the individual back and keep
his distance, not to bit him.
tlw lnay not be fatid but m-e nt least tcmpormily
disabling.
The full potential
of this weapon
and its tactical value in
riot control is not yet realized by most police and military
organizations.
An examination
of various training manuals on riot control written
in the years past for civil police and military
units, will indicate tncntion of the riot stick m an issue weapon
i)ut Iittlc is snid concerning
its proper USC. Tl~c boton is not
a weapon to be used by e~ch man m he sees fit and to permit
him to engage in individual
combat with various members of
a mob. It is a weapon
best employed in mass in attack or defensive formations.
The tip and butt end are used to deliver blows and jabs.
Its full lcngch is used in rcsttztint and in defense. Its thong is
used as a means of restraining
prisoners. In addition its use in
drill and dress formation
adds much to the appearance
of the
unit, which in turn hw a sobering effect on the mob.
Trainccl units using the riot stick alone are capable of handl.
A
f.t,ft: A forceful blow or thrust tn the tcsticlc, groin, stonmch, or
srslar p]cxus orca will put rrlf~st mob mcnlbcrs nut nf nction. It would
nmnudly bc fnlhnvcd by tdvancing with the rcnr f{wt and delivering
2 butt stroke Mow to the chin or hwd area. This is a disabling t~ctic
fur usc against a violent adversary.
onc of-the best rncthnds of forcing a nmb to brcnk ranks and leave
itrcn into which the formation nf baton mcn arc advzncing, is to
usc s[utrr thrusts to the st(llnach md solar plexus atwa. “l”IIc force of
the thrust cm bc regulated by the situation. A Iinc nr wedge fornlation nwving qyinst a crowd using this tcchniquc can ofrcn clcm dw
arcn !vith(mt resorting to nl[wc vi(dcnt tslnws.
WI
such
as this to the Adan)’s
apple or” point of jatv
Right: Blows
arcn arc cfismbling and can bc fnt21. Nornmil)’, the smnc upw~rd thrust
to the tsody area with force tvill disable the OppOIICIIL with nluch
less cl)ance of a fatality.
ing mobs of Iargc size. V\rllcn tllc riot stick is cf)ll)l)illcd in the
unit with the cnpobility
to mc gas lnunitinns
and fircmvns, a
complete range of lvenpons is :lv2i12ble to apply the principle
of “ncccss~ry force” agninst tllc nlob.
Left:
A
butt stroke to tbc jaw or tcniplc cm c~usc
o frnct(lrc
{jr
“ ‘l-his blow dclivcrcd
frnn} the imradc rest pusition will
nnrnlaIly be f(dlo\vcd by a butt smash to the rioter’s f~cc on the return to the port or ready position. Note that in this and all ilhrstrations, the leg of the baton man is advanced toward the adversary.
Blows are delivered by “stepping in” to the opponent. At the same
time the forward Icg always protects against a kick to the groin area
by the mob member. A return to the ready position so that the sticlc
man is in a forwnrd crouch with stick nt port arms is always advocated. In this position the stick man is rcdy
for the next adversary,
since be is in a position of mobility and balance ancl one leg is
normally forward making his body area “out of reach” to the mob
member.
a “knockout.
Right: Baton blow from the chest position that can result in a
knockout or other serious injury. This blow would normally be a
follow-up to an upward two-handed
blow with the baton from the
parade rest position.
‘I II
SC
EI.
I> AN
F.OUS
lVF,
307
APOXS
Blows to the inside or outside of the ankle, shin bone, and
knee cap are effective. These. blows arc given from the port arms
position, with the hand On the point of the baton shoving to give
more momentum.
In the illustration a blow is bciug struck to the
inside of the ankle which is a very sensitive spot md is one that can
hc used og~insc a rioter Inunching t kick. All Mmvs arc followed up
witlt citllcr a rcturll to rhc 01) gtl:trd position or followed lip with
lvhcm the rioter
uthcr thrusts or Mmvs umii the I)uint is rcxhccl
either is out of action or flees.
A Mow from the port arms position breaking the collar bone
a man out of action. The blow is not
is very effective in
“r~ting
only painful but WL1
Immobilize the whole side of the body and
put
the
most
aggressive
snob
merrlber
out
of
action,
with
Iittlc
pos-
sibility of a fatality. l“hc blow can also Ix clclivcrecl from the rear.
Nornmlly, blows to the heml nrco arc dongerous and should not bc
used when fatdicics m-e to bc avoided.
308
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
E1OWS to the biceps, elbow,
and inside and outside
of the
danger of permawrist, are very effective. These can be used without
nent damage
as a club.
whether
or
not
the
rioter
has
a striking
-.
weapon
such
Left: Blow to and across the large leg muscle–No.
t. The left hand
is used to strike a forceful blow or thrust to the point of opponent’s
right shoulder. This places the o pooent off-balance and forces him
to pivot, exposing the rear of his feg to a blow with the stick.
2. As the body
Right: Blow to and across the large leg muscIe–No.
pivots exposing the rear of <he leg, a blow of maximum force is given
to the large leg muscle. The more the victim is turned exposing the
striking area, the better. A blow delivered with all the force possible
The blow
will do no permanent damage but will be very effective.
will normally cause the muscle to cramp and, aside from the
inflicted, will shake him unable to run, walk, or move about. J&any
times the effect of the cramp is such that the recipient will fdl to
the ground and stay there until the cramp leaves. The principal aftereffect will be a brui= area at the point of impact.
A{ IS CELL
AN
KOUS
\VEAl)ONS
309
Left: The long baton is very useful wbcu it is ncccssmy to rcsrrrtin
mob
members
who
are pressing
~gainst
force btck non-violent
the police lines. A shoving motion cm bc chmgcci to a lslmv at any
time, either by llringiug the botun upw2rd against the chin or by a
forward thrust m the Ada[II’s apple nrc~. The kocc ivill bc used agzinst
ti}c groin should the mob member try to groppic with the baton.
or
Rig/Jt: When the stick mmr is facccl with n passive mob, espccimlly
when women a[ld children arc in the front line, hc cm often force
a retreat by shoving against the throm or face area. Such a thrust can
vary from a forceful one to z “shoving” action. It is usually sufficient
to use this ~pc of baton action almrc against female mob members
nnd chilclrcn that arc often put in the front ranks against the police
is not sufficient, or
by trainccf agitztors and leaders. If this mlncuvcr
cfrsc to pressure from
tl]c Iinc can not be muvmf back by this mcms
the rear, gas munitions arc ncccssary.
310
KILL
OR
Gt?”r
KILLED
COME-ALONGS USING THE BATON
After the rioter has been subdued, mmy times it is necessary to
walk him to a rear area where he ,cao bc held for questioning or other
purpuscs. Tile rim stick is very useful to control the prisoner. Those
come-alongs which necessitate the usc of both of the policeman’s bands
are all right for short
disraoces
and cn:lhle comp]ctc
control.
Note in both the left and right illustrations that the elbow joint is in
such a positiun th2t tllc outside of tbc elbow or the point is resting
against the stick. Downward pressure exerted by the policcmau on the
hand results in a painful, controlling pressure on the prisoner.
The method at Icft is only effective for a short distance without tiring the policeman. He is
shoving
forward
with
his Icft
hand which is ~ping
the shirt
to create an o -balance positinn.
At tbc same time hc is lifting
with the hand on the stick to
impose a greater degree of control on the prisoner. This type
of come-along is more s ectacuIar
than others and puts t[ e victim
in a ridiculous position—that can
create much humor among onlookers
with the definite psychological
advantage
thus
obtained.
hll
SC E1,
LA
LONG-RANGE
NF, OUS
\Vtt APONS
311
COME-A1.,ONGS
co transport a rioter over a considerable
Many times it is ncccssrry
tfistaocc to a puint where hc cm bc rclcmcd to the custody of others.
This type of prisoner control must bc such thzt, regardless of zttcmpts
by the captive to rclcmc hill}self, hc ims Iittlc opportunity.
It should
also pcrollt the policcnum to nl~intlin control
with ooly onc band
on the stick, lcn~,ing the otllcr hand free if ncccssmy
to grasp his
pistol, or at Icnst have *CCCSSm it.
The left illustration shows the rioter Ivith onc Ivrnd pinioned by the
thong on the stick and being forced to hold up his pants with the
and
tl)c buttons
on tllc
free hand. The belt sl]tmld Ix c[lt or rcmovcd
they Ivill fall if not IIcl(l up Ijy tlw prisuncr.
plots
ripped
ot~ so tl)~t
The right illustration shuws Ix)th Iurnds pinionctl by the thong,
which is twisted so m to mzkc a tight bind. In this position the rioter
can be kept tmdcr control by 00C or two hinds by pulling back on
the arms, or by jabs with the butt of the stick to the small of the
back or kidney area.
The IJpIlOSiLC i]lttstration is
very usable for a potentially
violent
prisoner.
Strangulation cm be effected by pressure on the thrcmr. Ajylin, the
belt can bc cut to occupy his
hands.
312
KILL
OR
MOVING
GET
KILLED
A PRISONER
This method of moving a prisoner with the baton is a good one
when the prisoner must be taken a long distance. A firm grasp on the
rear of the collar with sharp thrusts to the kidney area with the tip
of the baton will normally be sufficient to keep a prisoner under control once he has been subdued enough to permit the ap Iication of
the come-along
in the first place. If he gives trouble a lick to the
back of the knee joh-it will put him on the ground and subject him
HOLDING
A
PRISONER
Many times in a general riot
there will not always be calm
in the back areas in the rear
of the main action. Attempts
may be made to liberate prisoners. In this case the prisoner
can be controlled
by having
both wrists pinioned by the
thong of the baton. At the
appe~ance
of possible trouble
the pohceman
can force the
prisoner to the grnund with
iabs to the kidney area and a
kick to the back of the knee.
With
one hand he can still
control
the prisoner
and at
the same time have his sidearm available for instant action
against a rescue attempt.
AI IS CELL
AN
EOLJS
J\’ EAPONS
Stick rcfcflrc-1.
If I nlob mcmhcrfpsps
tllc riot stick it usunlly
can
hc forcibly.
retrieved
by
q~llck counter 2ctwII, that can bc
followed by offensive tactics.
Stick release–z. Step quickly toward the adversary, and grasp the
end of the stick m the rioter’s
hand, either above or below his
Ivsntf.
Stick
releare—3.
Exert
full
strength and jerk the end of the
stick from the rioter’s grasp and
stcl~ haclmvard. As the pomc of
the stick is released, a follow-up
can be made to the point of the
jaw with the right elbow.
Stick release–+. Once the stick
has been rcleasccl it normally will
be in a r~iscd position, high above
the left shoulder. From this position a butt smash can immediately
be delivered to the throat or jaw
area. Practice in this type of release will develop great confidence and make it a very rare occasion when any rioter is able to
wrest the stick from its owner.
314
KILL
OR ~FT
KILLED
Another very effective means of releasing
the rioter. Tl)c counter must be immccliltc
not pulled off IxLmcc. The kick to the knee
port given by the thong, will usually effect
that the body of the policcmm
is leaning in
.. . ...
the baton if grasped by
ss
so that the policcmms
joint, JIUS the cxtrl SUPthe rc 1case rapidly. Note
the direction of his pull.
--;--Y?v#[email protected]
,.
’-
.
Using the baton to strike a blow or a lifting effect against the
testicle area. Nlany tirncs it is necessary to clear a crowd from around
a speaker or agitmor and approach is made from the rear. The force
of this blow can be as the situation dictates. A jab to the kidney is
also an alternacivc.
hIISCELL.
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ANlt
OUS
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,\
lVlc
315
AI’ fJNS
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,,
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&\
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.. ,,:. :;,
.,:i.~.
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y
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j ‘-r
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—-
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..
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.. . .
The riot stick can be used as a defensive
underhand attacks with cutting or bladed
or other weapons.
. .. . .
—
weapon against over of
weapons, clubs, bottles,
In the upper illustration a block is being made of the rioter’s overhead blow. This must be followed u either by withdrawing
to an
on-guard position or b immediate o 2 ensive action against the enemy.
From this position a ~llow-through
butt stroke to the rioter’s head
and jaw area is indicated.
In the lower illustration a blow is being delivered to the inside of
the wrist. Note that the biade is still our of range of possibIe contact.
A blow to the inside of the wrist will force the fingers of the hand
holding the blade to open and drop the weapon. One to the outside of
the wrist, if forceful enough, will have the same effect. Generall
blows with the baton dclivcrecl to the smnc arem that arc vulnerab r’c
to edge-f-the-hand
blows will be mosL effective.
3x6
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
PRACTICE
with use of the long baton is vitaI. Training must be
of the type that will give the policeman the “feel” and have confidence
in the stick as a weapon of offense. 1[ is not enough to simulate thrusts
and blows. A durable canvas bag filkrd with a substance such m sawdust that will give slightly with each blow is best for usc in trninil)g.
Kicks are also delivered against such a training aid.
.’,..,.,
..
. ...,,.,”, ,..
..~
RIOT UNIT. A diagonal view of a squad equipped wi$l riot sticks
and, in this case, short 37mm gas guns. Note that the squad leader is
in the rear wit!l a submachine gun. A formation of this type, with
each member of the group giving flank support to the other, whether
it is a squad, platoon, or company, can present very formidable offensive action. If the formation is not brolccn and the nlcn are disci lined,
there can be no real opposition to it from the unarmed mob. I ! pressure of numbers is too great, the riot unit should not be committed
until gas munitions are used. Always in the reserve should be the
necessary firepower to back up vioIent opposition.
Ml
SC5i
L,LANEOUS
WEAPONS
317
THE BLACKJACK
In addition to the baton, many police officers carry, as an
article of issue or personal choice, the blackjack
(slapjack,
sap, persuader,
pciiier,
billy). This strilcing instrument
consists of a somewhat
cylindrical
leather case with a lead shot
fillin
in its striking end. It may or may not have a spring
hand Te.
The blackiack ranges, in design and size, from the so-called
vest-pocket
model—which
is round and about 5 inches long
and three-quarters
of an inch in diameter
at the striking
end—to a larger variety, which is about ~o inches long and
is either round or flat on the striking end. Although
such a
wea on is most useful in handling unruly
risoners, it can
be (fangerous. Lack of appreciation
of its e d cacy has caused
many officers
to use it too freely and too forcefully.
The Blow. In subduing
dangerous
criminals with the blackjack, blows are usually
directed
against the head. B1OWS
against the face will cause bad bruises and may break bones
in the facial structure,
but are not always sufficiently stunning.
The blaclcjack is best used” a ainst the top portion
of the
back of the head. Blows shoul % be struck no further forward
than a point opposite the ears and no lower on the back of
the head than ear level. Because of the structure
of the skull,
COMMON
TYPES OF BLACKJACKS
At the top is shown a common
ty e blackjack, carried by police
officers. It is made of cow-hide, is le~ J -filled on the Strikhg end, and
has a sprin~ handle. The thong is so made that it can slide back and
forth, snakm[; difIerent grips possible.
The blackjack shown at the bottotn is an effective type and is safer
for genersl law enforcement.
It stuns, but does not have as much
cutting or abrasive effect. Because of the wide striking surface, concussion is leas likely.
318
Kll,
l.
OR
GET
KILJ.
ED
%P
MISCELLANEOUS WEAPONS
At the top are brass knuckles, a well-known implement for use in
hand-to-hand fightin
Next is shown a t eavy-type, round, blackjack with spring handle
and then
Third From the top is the mosr vicious type of blackjack known. The
brass knob on the end of the telescoping spring shaft will easily penetrate the skull bones. This weapon was developed during World War 11
and was used in underground
warfare.
At the bottom is the iron claw, the most effective of all mechanical
come-along
devices. This is particularly
suitable for handling unruly
prisoners. Its use should be advocated where departmental regulations
permit.
a stunning
in
the
this
top
fracture
or knockout
area.
of
Vexy
the head,
~nd
blow
hard
or
blows
the
can
be effected
against
forehead,
with
the
tern
le
can
easi t’y
less danger
or
against
cause
skull
concussion.
Those blackjacks
which are entirely
round
or are
slightly
elliptical
on the striking
end, tend to localize
force of the blow in a small area because of their shape.
type is more likely to cause a fracture,
a cut, or a bad
tusion, depending
on the weight of the weapon and the
of the blow.
only
the
This
conforce
A~ISCtZJ.l.
AN
EOUS
\VEAPONS
319
Of allthe types of blaclcjacks, those with aflatstrilcingcnd
about 3 inches wide are the best. They have as much stunning
effect as is needed and, because of the width of the striking
surface, the full force of the blow is not pin-pointed
on a
small area. There is therefore
less probability
of a cut or
fracture. Blackjacks which contain either a flat or coil spring
in their handles will deliver hartlcr blows with less manual
force, because of the whipping effect of a snappy wrist action.
It should be remembered
that the blackjack is a dangerous
The
instrument
when used improperly
or too forcefully.
officer who carries it should experiment
on various obj~cts
before attempting
to use it in subduing a criminal. By lightly
tapping on the back of his own head with his blackjack,
or
by using it against the back of his hand, he will more readily
appreciate
its effectiveness
and be better able to “judge the
amount of force he should use in its application.
METAL
TELESCOPING
BLACKJACK
At the top is shown the metal telesco ing blackjack in the carrying
position. It s usually carried with the t [ ong around the wrist and the
weapon lying in the palm of the hand.
Below is shown the extended striking position. Note the metal ball
striking
on the end of the spring. The tremendous “whip” given the
end by the spring will cause skull fracture
w]th very little effort.
This type weapon definitely is not for police use, since it is intended to maim or kill, not stun.
r
EMPTY
GAS
GUN
KILLED
AS WEAPON
Left: Thrust blow with muzzle to stomach area. The man armed
with the emmv ms smn stil} has a ootent weaoon to strike blows.
Although th~ ~ho%er”gas gun is nor’ desizned for use as a weapon
for clo~e-in fighting, i; ca~ be used as su~h when ncccssary and ‘the
man armed with it is in C1OSC contact with the mob. All men armed
with the gas gun should have practice and confidence
in its usc as
a striking or thrusting weapon, even tkough they nornxtlly are protected from actual physical contact
by their comrwlcs
armed with
batons.
Right: Butt stroke from the port position, striking with the toe of
the gunstock. A butt smash can be delivered to the head on the follow-through
when the gun is. being returned to the port arms or
ready position.
Left: Two-handed
blow to the jaw area from the parade rest
tion. This is usually a surprise blow and can be accompanied
knee to the groin. The gas gun can also be used to shove a mob
ber to the rear in a situation where no actual violence is taking
Right: Thrust
to small of back or kidney
area.
posiby a
memplace.
MISCELLANEOUS
WEAPONS
321
STRANGULATIONS
In addition
to the strangles which use the bare hands or
the victim’s garments
(see chapter
2, Oflensive
unarmed
Combat), there are three other types which have long been
used in military and criminal circles. Some or all of them have
been taught in military training ccntcrs where close combat
instruction
is given.
from the attacker’s
viewpoint,
are much
These strangles,
more efficient and deadly
than those employing
the bare
hands. The necessary mechanical
aids are always available or
can be easily improvised.
The Garrotte. Thugs
in India have long been known
for
their method
of strangling,
called garroting.
It can be
executed with a ro e, strong cord, or piece of twisted cloth
—about three feet r on$ with a noose in one end. This is a
garrotte. Properly apphed, it produces a deadly, silent strangle.
Slip the noose over the forefinger
of the right hand so
that the loop lies down across the palm toward
the little
finger. Close the right hand and pick up the free end of “the
cord with the left hand, so that the thumb and fingers are
on the inner side of the cord and the end is even with the
little finger. Approach
the victim from the rear and, opening
the right hand, throw the loop over his head with the Ieft.
Use the left hand to draw the noose through the right hand
until it is nearly taut about the neck. Then close the right
hand about the noose at the back of the victim’s neck and
twist as you would in a plying a tourniquet.
With your
hand against the back of [ 1s neck and your right arm stiff,
the victim is held at arm’s length and is unable to free himself from the strangling
cord or to reach his attacker. A hard
pull to the rear at this point will make the victim fall backward and cause his chin to fold down over the cord, thus
adding his body weight to the’ pressure of the strangle.
Other cord strangles can be effected with the noose, in the
manner in which the cowboy
uses his lariat. They are not
nearly as reliable, however,
because the user does not have
the extra hand to twist and tighten the noose, as in the case
of the garrotte.
Tlte Stick Strangle. This very efficient strangle can be done
with a stick, cane, or similar object,
18 inches or more in
length and roughly
one inch in diameter.
The stick should
be gripped in the right hand 6 inches from the end, wi~h
long end of the stick parallel to the forearm.
Approaching
322
K[LL
OR
GET
KILLED
the victim from the rear, with the stick gripped correctly
in
the right hand, place your right foot against the inside of his
right knee, to knock him off balance. Placin
your right hand
over his left shoulder, sli the long end o F the stick underneath his chin from the reft side. With the left hand reach
across, grasp the loose end and exert pressure to the rear.
This strangle has been used in combat areas with definite
effectiveness. With the stick across the throat against the windpipe, but little pressure is necessary for complete
strangulation. By throwing
the victim off balance and applying
this
strangle quickly, you Ieave no hope of escape. It IS probably
the fastest of all lcnown strangles,
because the windpipe
is
crushed instantly.
The Cord Strangle.
Another type of strangulation,
as old as
history in the Far East, is accomplished
with any light cord
or wire of good tensile strength,
about :8 inches long. The
thinner the cord or wire, the quicker will be the effectiveness.
Tie a loop at each end of the cord, or tie small wooden blocks
on the ends, so that a secure grip can be taken. Approaching
the man from the rear, throw him off balance, as with the
stick, with your right foot against the inside of his right knee.
With a hand on each end of the cord (the cord held taut),
bring the cord over the victim’s head and back against his
throat. Cross the hands at the rear of the neclc and apply
pressure both ways. Strangulation
is quick and silent. The
advantage
of having one end of the cord in each hand and
the cord held taut when putting
it over the victim’s head,
is apparent
when you consider that he may wear a hat or
helmet, or the light conditions
may be poor, thus preventing
a noose or loop from being thrown
over accurately.
Chapter
13
CHEMICAL
MUNITIONS
FOR CONTROL OF MOBS
AND INDIVIDUALS
HE use of tear gas and other chemical agents should be
considered
as an effective weapon to be used, with discretion, against the individual
and collective
enemies of law
and order. Preservation
of the peace \vith less bodily harm
and violence to all concerned
is the cnd result.
The past decade has seen increasing use of tear gas (CN)
and nauseating gas (1<0 or DM) by military and police units
throughout
the world. This method of maintaining
“Iaw and
order” and protecting
life afid property
has many advantages
over the use of guns, bzyonets, or brute force in genernl.
Tear gas when properly
used is the most effective means
known to swiftly and temporarily incapacitate and break up
a mob or capture and subdue dangerous criminals or insane
persons. When employed in the correct manner, it is the most
humane way possible to handle a dangerous situation with the
least risk to law enforcement officers and minimizes the possibilities of loss of life and property, and of bloodshed.
Unfortunately,
the proper use and value of tear gas and
other chemical agents have never been fully explained or
understood by many police and military agencies. There has
always been, and remains, a certain amount of mystery and
lack of full confidence in the use of this relatively modem
humane weapon.
Military personel and members of law enforcement agencies
will find the following
manuals to be informative
and helpful
in using irritant gmcs: Field Manual 19-15, Field Manual 2 II I, and Technical
Manual 8-285. These may be purchased
from the Government
Printing Office, Washington
25, D. C.
Types of tear gas, means of projecting
it, and techniques
T
323
324
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
in its use, have improved
much since the World
War II
period. Increasing
world tension, nationalism,
and racial unrest, combined
and motivated
by doctrines
and creeds such
as world Communism,
have now reached a dangerous
stage.
Directed
mob violence is now one of the rncans most commonly USCCIto gtin or destroy political power. Tcxr gas and
other chemical agents, when properIy used, in tile right concentration
at ~he right time, are often the only means to control an ugly situation without resorting to actual bloodshed.
Many times the use of extreme force and deadly weapons
onIy increases the violence potential.
Tear gas has equal value when used to subdue, capture, or
restrain criminals and insane persons. Discipline in penal institutions and control of prison riots are usually largeIy dependent on the use of chemical agents. Tear gas, released by
special “trip” devices, is now commonly used to protect banks
and vital industrial plants. Plant police in many large factories
are now equipped with tear gas munitions.
To properly use tear gas, the individuals or agencies employing it must undcrsmnd its nature, limitations, and effects
and after effects on the individual, M WC]] as the correct
tactics of emplo~ment. Once there is confidence and there
has been success m its use, police will seek increasing opportunities to use it.
Tear gas and other chemical agents manufactured and used
today are generally projected and liberated by three methods:
Grenades, projectiles, and cartridges.
in nearly every case where the use of gas has failed to produce the desired results, it has been caused by using too little
gas or because of a lack of training or proper equipment.
SOURCES
Tear gas, other chemical agents, and equipment for their
use are manufactured in the United States by two companies:
LAKE
ERIE
CHEMICAL
COMPANY,
30120 L&eland
Blvd., Wickliffe,
Ohio and by FEDERAL
LABORATORIES INC., Saltslmrg, Pennsylvania.
The products of both companies are well known and are
used throughout the world. Both companies also manufacture
their products under special contracts for the United States
and foreign governments.
TYPES
OF GASES
Tear gas (CN-Chloracetophenone)
is manufactured in two
forms, liquid and crysrallinc. Both are used in grenades and
USE
OF
CHEMICAL
AI UNl”rl
ONS
Jzj
projectiles. At the time of exposure of either type to air, the
gas is released.
The liquid, invisible type of tear gas is generally considered
to be the most modern and effective. It is contnined within
the grende, or projectile, in a hcrmctica]ly scaled gloss vial.
At the time of the explosion of tl~c grenade, or projectile, it
vaporizes instantly and totally.
The crystalline type tear gas (powder form) is released at
the time of the explosion of the grenade, or projectile, by a
burning process; the CN powder mixed with an inert material
is activated by a special powder, as a fuel. The gas, during the
burning process is more slowly liberated and is accompanied
by a distinctive white smoke created by the burning process.
Tear gas is also released by the dust dispersion method. Fine
tear gas particla in the form of dust deposited as a thin coating on some inert carrier material are blown into the air by
the force of an explosion or by a blast of air or nitrogen from
a pressure cylinder.
VISIBLE TEAR GAS
Visibic tcnr gns takes up to 60 seconds after the explosion
of the grenade, or projectile, to bc entirely dispersed from its
carrier by the burning process. The white smoke, created by
the burning process which liberates it, indicates the area of
the gas cloud and coverage.
Visible tear gas in combination with smoke sometimes has
a beneficial initial psychological effect on rioters, by tending
to discourage thcm. It also cnab]cs the police or users of the
gas to locate by means of the smoke cloud the concentration
of gas released, so they can incrcasc coverage and concentration in a given area when necessary. If all of the police are
not equipped with maslcs it also indicates areas to be avoided,
etc.
By its very nature of operation
and liberation, visible gas
has three definite disadvantages when the combustion or
burning-type of gas release is used:
(I) The smoke cloud containing the gas can be seen, so it
is easy for individuals or mobs to avoid the gas concentration as they as well as the users can see it. The burning type
grenade or projectile usually needs ZO to 40 seconds to dispel
its gas contents. This permits plenty of time to avoid or
bypass it, even when it is thrown into the midst of the
crowd. The projectile dispelling the gas, being on tl~e ground
326
KILJ,
OR
GET
l{[l.
LED
with the smoke pouring out of it, is usually easily visible,
day or night.
(z) One of the worst disadvantages of this type of tear gas
projection is that individuals in the mob have time to pick up
the grenade and hurl it back at the police, or kiclc it aside,
if it is too hot to handle. This has happened countless times
in the past, in action against aggressive mobs.
(3) The burning type grenade also provides a fire hazard.
Because a burning process is necessary to liberate and dispel
the gas, this must always be considered when these grenades
or projectiles are used in areas, rooms, and buildings where
there is flammable material such as grass, gasoline, paint, waste
paper, etc. Injudicious use of this type of grenade and projectile in the past has resulted in severe fires and personal
injuries brought about by the fire hazard always present.
During World War II, the fuse time on the standard U. S.
Army fragmentation hand grenade had to be shortened. Even
though the grenade had a 5- to 8-second expIosion time after
it left the thrower’s hand, enemy troops often picked up the
grenade and threw it back. The fuse time was shortened to
3 seconds to eliminate this possibility.
The burning type hand grenades heat up during the discharge pcriocl. Anyone trying to throw them back can be
burned on the hiinds. This is only a partial deterrent. Many
times during the hysteria of a mob action this does not
discourage the rioters. In recent planned Communist inspired riots, the participants have even come prepared in
advance, wearing heavy gloves, to enable them to grasp
and throw back the burning type gas grenade.
INVISIBLE
TEAR
GAS
Invisible tear gas, being in liquid form, is volatile and instantly dispersed at the time of the explosion and release from
the grenade or projectile. Being liberated in one blast at the
time the grenade explodes, the entire concentration covers the
target area immediately, so that there is no time to run away
from it or avoid it.
Being invisible, this also has a much greater psychological
effect especially if a heavy concentration
is created. Something that is unseen but felt always causes more hysteria and
panic, as it is intangible.
Because of the rapidity of the release of the gas, grenades
and projectiles carrying the liquid type tear gas cannot be
effectively thrown
back. The time element is such that any
Usl?
0[:
CIIl;
Ai ICAL
327
MUNITIONS
grenade, thrown back by the rioters, is only an empty shell,
having already ejected its contents.
As there is no slow burning action necessary to liberate the
gas, the fire hazard, when used around flammable material, is
also eliminated.
Early objections to the use of liquid type gas being placed
or projectile in a sealed glass container are
in the grenade
now not valid. The manufacturers now use special cushioning
devices and specially tempered tough glass ampules to eliminate premature breakage in handling, transit, or in action.
In commercial advertising it is claimed that the burning or
combustion-type gas grenades liberate more gas in relation to
size and weight than do those of the blast type. This may
be true but it is of little importance in a major mob action,
especially when the necessary wind conditions are not present
to aid in the dispersion of the gas. The important factor is
that ihe mob members or other recipients of the gas attack
must get a heavy co~lcentration of gm imtmtmeousiy,
in
such a mnner
that they cannot moid it. By actual scientific
test the burning type grenade may give off more gas by
volume than the liquid type gas delivered by blast dispersion.
However, the burning type grenade needs up to thirty-five
seconds to libcrntc its contcllts. Memwhilc,
the rioters can
see the area covered by the gas cloud and con avoid it. They
may even throw the grenade back or kick it aside. It would
therefore appear that the greater gas content claimed for the
combustion-type
grenade has little pr~ctical effect on the
situation.
THE EFFECT
OF TEAR GAS ON THE
INDIVIDUAL
CN is easily generated
and is promptly
effective. It produces severe irritation to the eyes. The nasal passages and
throat are also affected. Tears flow profusely. When a dense
cloud of tear gas strikes a victim, the latter involuntarily
closes his eyes and endeavors to keep them closed in an
effort to escape the irritation and discomfort. A feeling of
helplessness and personal panic is created.
All tear gases are toxic to varying degrees. However, tear
gas has no lasting damaging effect on the lungs or eyes in
any concentration that will be met with in the field. Following exposure to the tear gas, there will be some discomfort,
but this is of relatively
short duration,
except in those cases
of exposure
to very high concentrations
for a prolonged
period. The discomfort
to the eyes will last from several
minutes to several hours. In rare cases of extreme exposure
.
328
KILL
by a high concentration
fort
to the
eyes
OR
for
has lasted
GET
KILLED
a prolonged
as long
period,
the
discom-
as 24 hours.
Eyes should not be rubbed. Fresh air is the best cure. Treatment for persons exposed to tear gas usually consists of
merely washing the eyes with a solution of boric acid or
sodium bicarbonate. If the clothing is wet, the tear gas has a
tendency to be absorbed by the cloth, therefore it has a more
lasting effect. Such clothing should be removed.
The main principle to practice and remember in using this
humane means of controlling, subduing, or capturing mobs
and individuals is that itshould he used in heavy enough coFzcentrations at the beginning so that the initial impact is severe.
If this is done, the individuals or mobs will be more easily
controlled or dispersed at the outset.
Although tear gas causes no permanent damage to the eyes
or lungs, lack of knowledge of this fact coupled with m~licious propaganda (sponsored by subversive groups) as to the
“deadly” and “permanent “ ill effects of tear gas have in the
past, unfortunately been successful in discouraging its use by
forces of law and order. Trained agitators are usually persons
who have previously been exposed to tear gas. They will
minimize its effectiveness to their adherents, but even they
will not be able to withstand the gas or control and direct
mob action if the initial concentration
of the gas is heavy
enough.
Pure tear gas (CN) can be and has been comb~ned with
other chcrnical agents to increme its effectiveness.
Experience 111sshown that, unless a very heavy concentration of pure CN gas is used, a determined or dedicated ind~viduaI can still do a lot of damfige. He may be crying profusely but he still has vision. He will always try to avoid
visible areas of gas concentration. In those instances when he
is subjected to an intense concentration, such as when trapped
in a room or building, the concentration
of pure tear gas
will eventually subdue him.
On the other hand, in the control of mobs and individuals
operating in the open air, the actuaI effect of producing a
lot of tears does not necessarily stop the action. This is
especially true when the mob is made of, or led by, experienced agitators \vho continually whip up the emotions of
the participants. A crying person can still do a lot of damage.
During recent years CN gas has been successfully combined in liquid form with another tear-producing
chemical,
EBA (ethyl brom~cctatc).
EBA is a powerful eye, nose,
throat, and skin irritant. Rather than producing tears profusely and imnlcdiatcly, it prevents the tears from coming
USE
OF
CHEMICAL
MUNITIONS
329
during the initial exposure. The eyelids stay tightly closed
until the CN can produce some tears and relieve the effects
of the EBA so that the eyes can open. With the eyelids
tightly closed, a person or mob cannot do damage, and more
individual panic is created.
This combination of chemicals with its temporary blinding effect better serves the purpose. It results in incapacitating the mob or individual at the outset, providing the gas
concentration is great enough. It has no more harmful after
effects than the pure CN.
Tear gas has little effect on horses. Mounted police can be
very effective in mob control and fortunately can operate
without special masks for tf~eir mounts.
NAUSEATING
OR SICKENING
GAS
The effects of this type gas are much more spectacular
severe than those of tear gas.
and
Sickening gas has a continuing disabling effect that can
last as long as 24 hours when the victim has been exposed
to a severe, pro]ongcd
concentration.
It should be used
judiciously and only in extreme cases of emergency. Adverse publicity, political repercussions, and the effect of the
gas on innocent bystanders must always be considered. This
chemical agent should never be used in an unrestricted manner. In most cases, normal tear gas will perform the job. The
decision to use nauseating type gas should be made well in
advance, when possible, and after duc consideration Ixts been
given to the factors mentioned above.
This gas was originally designated by the military and
manufacturers as DM (diphenylarninechlorasine).
It can be
used in its pure state or combined with tear gas (CN-DM).
It is released by both the burning process and in liquid form.
Although called a gas when actually released by the burning
process, it is an irritant smoke. The effects are produced by
the action of the smoke particles on the respiratory system.
DM irritates the nose and throat more violently than it does
the eyes.
This agent produces: first, sneezing and coughing; second,
choking and gasping; then sickness in the stomach and uncontrollable retching and vomiting, followed by violent headaches. Severe cases will frequently collapse and faint. The
prolonged nausea leaves the rioters weak and helpless with
no desire for further particip~tion. The reaction is so violent
that the effects can last up to 24 hours.
330
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
The delay time of the burning process of DM gas release
along with the smoke generated, may enable some of the
rioters to avoid the concentration.
Previous comments regarding the merits of visible and invisible tear gas apply
equally in this cme.
The combirmtion of the siclccning gas with a tenr gas is to
be recommended because it is always necessary for a certain
time element to pass before the sickening gas takes effect.
Consequently, tear gas with its initial impact slows up the
initial individual or mob action until the more severe nauseating type gas takes effect. Generally, all current DM (sickening) gas is mixed with CN (tear) gas by the manufacturer.
Nauseating gas is also currently available and projected in
liquid form. Its manufacturer designates it as KC) gas. This
is a combination of tear and nauseating gas which is especially
effective.
After one minute of exposure to KO gas, the following
effects begin to set in z or 3 minutes later. Great irritation is
caused to the upper respiratory tract, the sensitive peripheral
nerves, and the eyes. The irritation begins in the. nose, as n
tickling sensation, followed by sneezing, with a flow of
viscous mucous, similar to that which accompanies a bad
COIL The irritation then spreads down into the throat and
coughing and choking set in untiI finally the air passoges and
the lungs are also afiected. Headache, especially in the forehead, increases in intensity until it becomes almost unbearable. These symptoms are accompanied by an oppressive pain
in the chest, shortness of breath, and nausea which soon
causes retching and vomiting. The victim has an unsteady
gait, a feeling of vertigo, weakness in the legs, and a trembling
all over the body. These effects usually reach culmination
in about r5 minutes after exposure to the KO gas and continue until exposure ceases. After 15 minutes in uncontaminated air, the symptoms begin to disappear and in from one
to two hours recovery is nearly complete in the average case.
Treatment for persons exposed to KO gas consists of: rest,
fresh air, and removal of- contaminated clothing. Wash the
nose and throat with saturated solutipn of boric acid. Relief
for the burning of the nose and throat is afforded by inhaling
the following mixture:
Alcohol
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4070
Chloroform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..40970
Ether
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..zo?ZO
Ammonia
. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .5 to I o drops
USE
OF
CHIt
Ai ICAL
NI UN IT IONS
331
T%e ammonia will also give some relief from the nausea.
Glycerine
and menthol lozenges also help to allay the burning
of the throat. Aspirin may be used to relieve the headache
and other pains, and single dose of morphine will usually relieve the worst of the symptoms.
No treatment
ocher than
symptomatic
is required,
since almost all victims will make
complete recovery in the course of a day or two.
It would be possible, under extremely high concentration
conditions, to develop a near fatal effect on a victim of DM
or KO gas. This situation is very unlikely to happen in normal field use. Sickening gases are best used against mobs and
rioters in open-air conditions. The effectiveness of this gas,
which is very volatile under these circumstances, automatically prevents the concentration from developing dangerously.
Generally, the necessity should seldom a&e- for ~ing the
nauseating type gases against persons or groups confined in
rooms, buildings, etc. If it is used, provision should be made
in advance so that the victims can be taken out into the oDen
air as rapidly as possible. Again a heavy concentration’ of
tear gas will produce the same desired effect with Icss con~placations.
Another factor that must always be considered when using
DM or 1{0 gas, is the protective quality of the masks used
by the police. Unfortunately,
many masks in the hands of
law enforcement officers today are out-moded and of types
that will not give protection against nauseating gases. The
nature and after effect of this gas is such that if there is any.
doubt or lack of confidence in the protective equipment
issued to the users, there will be a very natural reluctance to
use the gas.
It is a simple matter to train units or individuals in the usc
of tear gas, where the after effec~ are mild after exposure
to limited quantities such as used in training. It is not the
same when nauseating type chemical agents are covered in
training sessions. It is not generally advisable to expose
trainees to effects of this gas. Its effects need only be described. At the same time the effectiveness and confidence
in the protection provided by the masks to be used when
it is employed against mobs and rioters must be emphasized,
SCREENING SMOKE
Smoke (HC) is very useful in riot control. It is generally
projected by grenades or by slow burning candies. It is also
loaded in projectiles in place of tear gas for use during visual
KI[.
332
L
01{
(iE”r
KILLELs
training.
HC smoke is non-lethal
and when relensed forms a dense
white cloud of great obscuring
value.
Smoke also is very useful in cletcrmining
wind direction
prior to release of CN or DM-KO concentrations. Naturally,
smoke is best used for screening purposes when the prevailing wind is favorable. Once released, the air currents
prevalent will dictate its value during a given mob action.
The use of a smoke screen permits police or troops to conceal their final movements before making actual contact with
the mob. Used properly,
smoke enables police or troops to
approach mobs and individuals in barricaded
buildings so that
gas munitions
can be more safely and effectively employed.
.,,
., ,Photo Courtesy of Lake Eric Chemical Co.
gas mask, Lecco No. 45,
tection against tear gas and nauseating
for storage and carrying. This mask
protection when properly fitted and
It does not fog up, and enables good
Lake
Erie
is of modern type affording
gas. It is packed in its own
is light, compact and gives
the wearer is trained its its
side vision.
probox
full
use.
USE
OF
CHEMICAL
MUNITIONS
333
A heavy smoke concentrauwt used against a mov also tends
to separate the various individuals so they cannot maintain
visual or physical contact with one another. When individual
contact is lost the capacity for collective mob action, arourd
which riots are born, is also destroyed.
A Iarge mob can often be split into sections by using smoke
screens in the form of distinctive boundary lines. Once this
is achieved and the mob is split into various sections without
contact with one another, it can be more emily dispersed.
Smoke. screening grenades or candles used in combination
with tear gas are most effective. The psychological effect is
quite great. Lack of visibility and profuse tears plus separation from his companions normally will panic thd individual
rioter, especially if he has no physical way of avoiding such a
gas-smoke concentration
Gas-smoke concentrations
are of particular value when
there is no necessity for the police to enter the smoke and gas
covered arm. In this type of situation, police units can cover
the edges of the smoke and gas area, and can pick up individual mob members as they finally emerge.
Screening smoke and its use in combination with tear gas
should not be confused with the type of smoke emitted by
the burning type tear gas grenade. This smoke is generally
not heavy enough to cut off visibility entirely as does HC,
developed especially for this purpose.
Many times rioters can be “suckered” into positions tlmt
will disorgimizc them even more rapidly than normally by use
of a combination of smoke and invisible tear gas grenades.
A concentration of smoke and tear gas is laid down directly
on the rioters. As they begin to leave the smoke gas concentration by an escape route purposely left open for them,
they can be met with a concentration
of the invisible type
tear gas, This strategy is very effective, particularly when it
is desired to apprehend the individual rioters, their leaders,
etc.
AvaiIable on special order from Lake Erie and other firms
are large “smoke pots.” These contain their own igniters and
are capable of giving off large quantities of screening smoke.
They are relatively inexpensive and the smoke is available in
various colors such as orange, red, yellow, and blue. The use
of these quantity-producing
special smoke pots against rioters
has a definite psychological
effect, apart from the screening
function. Instinctively,
mob members are affected by the
colored smoke. It is a new experience for many but more im-
KILL
334
OR
GET
KILLED
portant it leaves the uninitiated
with the impression that they
will become indelibly stained by contact. More panic results.
Civil police would be WCI1 advised to take advantzge of this
harmless
but
very
TRA~ING
useful
tactical
IN
weapon.
USE OF GRENADES
Chemical
agent grenades
arc commercially
available
io
several distinct t}-pes. They can be loaded with either pure
tear gas or nauseating gas or combinations
of both, and smoke.
Generally
they are used by police when in close contact
with rioters or individuals.
Commercial grenades containing tear and nauseating gas
will vary in size, shape, and diameter. They will weigh from
one to hvo pounds. None of them are of such type that they
are inconvenient
to throw or carry. All are designed for
practical use and are the result of many years of manufacturing experience in meeting a need.
These grenades contain a delay fuse that is activated when
the striker of the ignition mechmsism hits the shotshcll type
primer in the fuse body. The delay fuse bums for approximately two seconds and then either initiates gas dispersion by
the combustion process or by means of an explosion that
gives instant release of the gas contents. It is important that
police and military understand that their tactical use of the
grenade must bc based on the distance the grenade will travel
in the two-second interval during which the delay fuse is
functioning. It is not the maximum distance that the grenade
can be thrown that is important; claims of superiority of one
grenade over another due to its lighter weight which enables
it to be thrown further may therefore be discounted. By
practice and training, men must be taught to throw the grenades so that the! do not burst in the air above the heads of
the rioters. This IS especially true of the blast dispersion types,
that are designed to be thrown directly amongst the rioters.
(Combustion type grenades are NOT recommended for this
purpose).
The best manner to throw the grenade will depend on the
individual. Any type of throw can be effectively used. Bmeball t}:pe throw, stiff arm, or underhand are all acceptable.
The Individual grenade thrower should be permitted to use
the method easiest and the most accurate for him. For remons
mentioned above, tile distance factor is not importnnt and
any normal individual can launch any of the various conl-
USE
OF
CHEh[
ICAL
MUNITIONS
335
Left: The STRAIGHT
ARM THROW
is one advocated with the
heavier type grenades to avoid possible injury to the thrower’s
arm
or elbow joint in action and practice. As shown in the illustration, the
throwing arm is kept straight and a sweeping motion over the head
is used. The free arm is used to maintain balance and points in the
direction of the target area. The grenade thrower is just rezdy to
l~unch the grcnwde. In this and the other illusmttions it is assumed
th~lt hc Ills just pulled the safety pin with his free hand.
Center: The BASEBALL
THROW
is good for those n]cn who cm
use it witil accuracy. The man who has had bmeball experience USUOIIV
uses this one best. The lighter gas grenades are more suited for this
type of throw.
THROW
is often the best for close
Right: The UNDERHAND
range where it is dmircd to hit a specific tnrgct, such as a windo~v.
I?crsoos who hnvc never participated in bascba[l will usually find the
underhand throw more accurate.
In the case of gas grenades the maximum range of throw is not
always the desirable one. Gas
renades are usually equipped with a
two-second
fuse. The range 0$ the throw is therefore
that which
enables the grenade to explode at the time of impact. This causes the
gas to rise up past the faces of the mob members and provides maximum exposure. Longer
throws m-e not advisable, as they cause the
gas to dssperse in the air above the mob and arc more subject to air
currents. A Jo-yard throw is generally indicated with the arc or
trajectory high enough to go over the heads of anyone standing close
to the thrower.
.
mercial grenades the distance necessary
of its full capabilities of gas dispersion.
to take
advantage
Advertising claims that one type grenade can be carried in
more quantity than another, due to less weight, are also meaningless. To the writer’s knowledge, there has never been any
action yet where this was an important and limiting f~ctor.
Normally, grenades me carried into action either in im-
KILL
336
provised
sacks
grenade
weighs
normal
individual
any known
01{
or bags
one
~tZ’~
1<1 LLl?D
or in special
pound
from
or
carrying
belt
two
holsters.
should
sufficient
not
Whether
the
prevent
the
numbers
to
meet
situation.
while the bl~st dispersion type grenade cannot bc thrown
back by the rioters, it should bc thr(nvn in such z n]anner tlmt
it bursts on impact with the ground among or at the feet of
the mob elements. In this tnanncr, the gas will rise up past
the faces of the rioters and full advantage is taken of all the
contents of the grenade. A distance of 25 to 30 yards is normally the recommended distance for a throw into the mob.
This will take about two seconds of travel through the air,
and will result in the burst being timed properly with relation
to the delay fuse element. There may be some slight variations
due to make and model of grenade and this should be learned
and compensated for in training.
;ETTIA’G
R~.&DY TO THROW.
Grenades should be so placed
in their pouches that they can be taken out witl~ the throwing hand,
w h the safety lever in the correct
position between the thumb and
forefinger. This enab!es faster launching and eliminates the “juggling”
around in the hand to get the m-enade in the .rsroper
throwina rrosi.
tion. In the midst of aclion, anything that can be done to el~m~nate
the human error fnctor is indicsted. If the grenade is grasped in a
faulty manner, many times it will be dropped by a nervous individual
within his ofvn unit, or ollo~vcd to explode in his hnnd. Grenades
are nr)rmdly
throwm on order and ~re taken from their pouches
thrown in a “by the numbers” fashion. Grenades arc best not
and
carried in the hmd when in close contact with the mob. The safety
pin is drawn only just prior to throiving. The possible exception to
the rule of not carrying the grenade in the hand would be in those
cases where the scene of action and thrmving is not known or uncertain, such as in a dor!i alley or inside a building.
USE
OF
CHEMICAL
MUNITIONS
337
Gl{ENtdE
CARRYING
POUCHES.
Note that each grenade is
carried in a separate pouch. In this manner the individual can be
equipped for action with any variation of grenades and types, as the
situation demands. Norman
, sin le blast gas grenades are carried in
front. The heavier Jumper ~epea~er types are best carried in the rear.
Special grenades such as those loaded with nauseating gas and smoke
can also be best carried in the rear, to avoid errors during atxion
when such special type loadings are used on command.
It is essential to conduct intensive practice sessions in grenade throwing
to improve accuracy
and range of throwing.
Dummies of grenades made in approximately
the same size
and weight as the live grenades
actually stocked are very
useful in training. Empty beer cans filled with sand or cement
to the proper weight make good practice grenades.
Circles can be outlined on the ground as simulated mob targets. Skeleton door and window fmmcs cam also be constructed for the same purpose. Practice throwing of grenades
at a simulated window frame placed above the ground level
is recommended. Not only are grenades expensive, but misses
when trying to throw them into a building can cause them
to bounce back at the feet of the thrower.
If used against
armed, barricaded
individuals, there is often a lack of opportunity for a second try. Accuracy
in grenade throwing is also
important
when gas guns and the more accurate longer
range gas projectiles are not available. Underhand throws
can also be used where the range is short and the target is
a small one such as a small window.
During the training period men should be made to practice the proper method of handling the grenade with the
safety lever being held down against the body of the grenade
between the “V” of the thumb and the forefinger of the
throwing hand.
The motion of pulling the safety pin should always be
~imulated in practice at the time of throw. Untrained persons
using grenades for the first time under tension, have been
known to throw grenades without pulling the safety pin first.
On other occasions live grenades have been dropped amongst
338
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
the throwers
due to lack of training and excitement brought
about by the action itself.
The practice of pulling the safety pin in advance and
carrying the grenade in the hand for a prolonged
period,
prior to octual tlu-owing, is not rcccmunendcd. In this situxtion
it is too easy for tllc grenade to be dropped or accidentally
knocked from the hand during or prior to the action.
United States manufactured grenades available today can,
with few exceptions, be thrown directly into the mobs and
crowds with little danger of causing serious injury. About
the only hazard invoIved would be if an individual is struck
by the grenade while it is in flight, At the time of the explosion of the modern gas grenade, the body of the grenade
stays intact. The gm pours out through numerous vent holes
in the sides, top, and bottom, depending on the type.
During training periods all trainees should be exposed
to tear gas concentrations
with and without masks. Small,
special training tear gas ampules are commercially
available
for this purpose. A closed wnll tent, placed in an open field,
in which a quantity of gas has been released, is a simple but
cffcctivc w2y of training. Trainees can bc exposed m tear gas,
in the tent, using this system with and without masks for
any desired period.
In the above manner, the effect of tear gas is actually ex-
Left: AppIying gas mask-Step I. Note that the rubber face piece is
turned back fully and evenly on both sides so as to permit the mask
to be placed on the face quickly with a minimum of risk of damage
to the mmk.
l?i~/Jt: App[ying mmk-Step
z. Notice the chin bciog thrust WCII into
the mask, preparatory
to adjusting the bands on the head.
USE
OF
““ .- - :;.
-.
CIIENITC/\L
,4 ~A,
,
ilf UN
IT
IONS
339
-,...-,:..- . ...
- : : ., “... -
Left: Applying mmlc-Step 3. After the chin has been thrust into the
mask, the elastic head bmcfs must be adjusted evenly so that a tight,
uniform pressure on each band causes the face of the mask to fit
tightly without too much pressure, making a perfect seal around all
edges of the face piece.
Ri:qht: Aly)lyillg m:lsk-Step 4. }V1)cn dlc nmsk is correctly
fitted nll
clnstlc Il:tllds will hxvc CVCI1tcnsioli. I;,ncll IIl:ln sll[)(lld IIIVC IIis {jlv]l
Illnsk tllfit 11:1sl)ccn ndjustcd to his tsu,il fmc 21111rcfteti by Ililll ii] gm
tr~inirsg chmnbcrs,
in which he can have full confidence.
There
should be no intcrcballge of masks. All adjustments to insure perfect
operation should be nlade during the tr~ining period. After this plmse
tile mask should be kept in the wearer’s possession or marked for his
personal use in Zction.
perienced
and any mystery
m to its action and nature u-ill
be revealed, This in turn leads to gretiter confidence
by the
user in its use and effectiveness.
The fire hazard presented by the burning type gas grenade
(used by many police agencies) should be covered in training, particularly
if this is the type grenade which has been
purchased
by the department.
Individual
confidence
must also be developed,
during the
training program, in protective
masks against tear gas, nauseating gas, etc. h’onnally, police using grenades will, or should
be, wearing masks. The proper czre of the mask, drill in
putting it on rapidly, and practice in wearing it over prolonged periods, should all be covered in the training program.
The modern commercial type gas mask is generally light in
weight, gives good visibility and, when properly fitted to
the individual wearer who is trained in its use, will give complete protection.
For- obvious reasons, training in the usc of grenades and
]41)
K1l.1.
{)1{
Glt’1”
KILLED,
nmks
should bc simultaneous. Grenades can and have heel]
used, out of necessity, by police without protective masks.
However, the situation can usually be foreseen in advance
to eliminate this possibility.
COMMERCIAL
TYPE
GAS GRENADES
Lake Erie Model #34. This grenade discharges its gas instantaneously in a single blast in less than two seconds after
throwing. The gas is invisible and is liberated so rapidly
that there is no time for kicking the grenade aside or a
throwback. There is no fire hazard. It is available loaded
with pure tear gas, nauseating gas, or combinations. It does
not rupture or explode and can be thrown directly into the
mob. The invisible gas cloud liberated is about twenty feet
in diameter. There is no fragmentation.
Lake Erie Jumper Repeater. This instantaneous grenade, with-
TWO
TYPICAL
PllotO Courtesy of Lake Eric Chemical Co.
GAS GRENADES
Left: the Lake Erie Jumper-Repeater
grenade containing invisible
tear gas which is discharged in three heavy blasts during a four-second
period as the device bounces amongst the rioters. Right: the snialler
Lake Erie Model 34 grenade which discharges its contents of invisible gas in a single blast two “’seconds after throwing.
USE
OF
CIIF.
AI ICA1.
~lUNITIOh’S
341
Photo Courtesy of Federal Laboratories, Inc.
Federal
TripIe
Chaser hand grenade.
This grenade breaks into
three sections (as illustrated)
two seconds after being thrown. Each
section travels in a different direction,
functioning
as an individual
grenade and covering a’ wide area quickly with visible gas.
out rupturing the grenade body, discharges in rapid succession three heavy blasts of gas. As each blast occurs, the device jumps ten or twelve feet in a different and unpredictable
direction. The first blast or gas tlischmgc occurs two seconds
after the grermde leave.. the IMnd (this represents between
40 nnd 50 feet of tmvc!). I“lIc two succeeding blasts occur
at one second intervals. The total discharge of all gas in the
grenade is completed in four seconds. There is no opportunity or time for a throwback. The invisible gas released
is in a very heavy concentration.
The manufacturer states
tilat the total gas discharged is approximately 35 percent more
than the Army Fast Candle or the standard size burning type
grenade. No fire hazard is present. It is available in smoke.
It can be thrown directly into a mob. Each blast of invisible
gas is about ten feet in diameter.
Federal Spedeheat. This is a burning type grenade that
begins its action at the time thrown. The entire cqntent of
gas is discharged in about 35 seconds. This grenade is nonexplosive and becomes extremely hot during the burning
period. This makes a throwback difficult. The grenade discharges a heavy visible gas smoke concentration
through the
openings in the top, bottom and sides. A fire hazard is present.
It is available in tear gas or nauseating gas. The grenade body
342
KIL1,
OR
GET
KILLED
does not rupture. Due to the throwlxxk
hazard, the manufacturer recommends that it be used some distance from the
mob with a favorable prevailing wind: It is not recommended
to be thrown directly into the mob. The diameter of the tear
gas burst con emily be observed by the smoke cloud that
accompanies its release.
Federal Triple Chaser. This non-explosive grenade scptirztes
into three gas producing sections in about two seconds after
being thrown. Each section travels in a different direction,
functioning
as an individual grenade. A good volume of
visible gas is thus discharged in three places practically
simultaneously. The sections travel with a sizzling, hissing
sound brought about by the burning and moving action.
This has a definite psychological
effect. In this particular
grenade the hazard of throwback is minimized and a heavy
visible concentration
of gas is delivered over a larger than
normal area. This grenade is available with pure tear gas or
with sickening gas. The individual sections do not rupture
and it can be thrown directly amongst the rioters.
The Federal Triple Chaser and tl]c Lalcc Eric Jun]pcr l{cpmtcr type grenades ilrC best cl]ll)loycd Ilnong rioters, and
in situations where the mob members are rnthcr widely
dispersed. Densely packed masses of rioters are best attacked
by using blast type grenades such as the Lake Erie Model 34
that cm be thrown directly into their mob or by using the
Federal Spcdchcat grenade in conjunction
with a favt]rab]c
wind.
A blast dispersion type grenade that throws off a C1OUCI
of tem gas dust is now produced by Federal Laborxtorics.
Their Model I z I has an aluminuxn case that rips open but
does not thro~~’ any dangerous loose fragments. This grenade,
according to the manufacturer,
does not create any fire
hazard. Users are warned; however, not to permit the grenade
to go off accidentally in the hand as serious injury can result. An earlier blast type grenade listed by Federal was their
Model 120 which had a fiber body that disintegrated at the
time it released its charge of tear gas dust. This grenade is not
now manufactured as apparently there was danger to the user
from fragmentation.
In years past Lake Eric also produced a bursting type
grenade called the Green Bflncl. It was very effective but due
to fragmentation of the nlctal case at the time of gas release,
it also has been discontinued. At the present time all Lake
Erie grcnodes are of the inst:lnr I}lmt disi]crsion type but their
USE
OF
MUNITIONS
CIIEAIICA1,
343
steel grenade bodies remain intflct and there is no fragmentation. ‘Gas is dispersed instantly
through
holes in the ‘grenade
body but there is no danger due to flying metal fragments.
Smoke Grenades (Candles). Both Federal and LaIce Erie produce a large grenade for use in smoke screens and air cur_rent
testing. The smoke (HC) is oily white ~nd very thick. This
type smoke is generolly considered to be non-irritflnt and
non-toxic but a long exposure to a heavy concentration
can
result in irritation and discomfort.
For a heavy, prolonged smoke screen, it is recommended
that burning
candles be used. They burn continuously
for
several minutes. By plocing the candles to take advantage
of
the wind, streets znd other criticol m-cm can be tnorc completely blocked and obscured for Iougcr periods.
Shoulder Gas Guns and Projectiles. The development of the
37mm gas gun ( I ~“ caliber) along with accurate short and
long range projectiles has given law enforcement
another
very potent weapon to use against barricaded criminals, insane Dersons. and mobs.
Th&c gur;s, and mnmunitioll for thcm, ~re mfinUfOCtUreL]
by
botl~
Lake
lhic
and
13’cdcral. l-l~cy
:Irc sl~ouldcr
fired
and
cquippccl with sights that, after prflctice, cnxblc their accurate
use at ranges well out of physical contnct with dangerous
mobs or individuals.
Photo Courtesy of Federd
Laboratories, Inc.
FEDERAL
37mm gas gun for-use With long and short range gas projectiles against persons and mobs with barricade type” shells.
Photo Courtesy of Lzkc Eric Chemical Co.
LAKE ERIE TRU
FLITE
37mm
GAS
GUN
344
KILL
OR GET
KILLED
Trsining is necessary in their use and firing to develop
accuracy, as it is with any other type of firearm. Special individuals or units skilled in the use of this equipment will
“pay off’ in saving Iives and property and counteract all other
negative effects of individual and mob violence. Practice
projectiles are avzilable from the manufacturers for training.
Tear gas and nause~ting gas projectiles and combinations
can now be launched against targets up to 350 yards distant.
Accurate
shooting
with tail-fin projectiles
enable consistent
hits up to 75 yards on ordinary
window-sized
targets after
training.
Lake Erie 37mm shells are usable in the gun manufactured
by Federal and vice versa. Sight adjustments are necessary
when using the barricade shells in guns of the opposite make.
Short-Range Gas Shells. These 37mm shells are quite effective
against rioters at close quarters. They are excellent for protection of gates, entrances, or narrow approaches to buildings.
The gas is blasted directly from the muzzle of the gun with
effective ranges up to 35 feet (in still air). A cloud of about
x5 feet in diameter
is released containing
a heavy concentration of gas.
It is recommended
that masks be used in this type of gas
projection.
If masks are not available care should be taken not
to fire against an adverse wind. Due to eye danger from
flying particles of wadding
from the shells, the gun should
be aimed at the feet of the persons toward whom the gas is
directed.
Tear and sickening
gas are loaded.
Long-Range Gas Shells. This type has proven most effective
in controlling
or dispersing mobs beyond the effective range
of hand-thrown missiles. They are best used against large
mobs and are not intended to be fired directly at individuals
as is the short-range type.
With the long-range shell it is possible to lay down gas
barrages on the windward side of a mob or in the rear if
wind conditions make usq of hand grenades impracticable.
If the gas concentration is heavy enough, all physical contact
with the rioters can many times be avoided. Both tear and
sickening gas can be loaded in these projectiles. The gun is
usually elevated from 30 to 60 degrees for this type projection. Some guns have adjustable sights that have been developed to determine definite ranges, but again training must
be done to achieve efficient use of the long-range gas projectile. The various manufacturers
supply practice projectiles
and others containing smoke for training purposes.
Usl!
01.”
Cli
KAI
ICAL
hl uN
IT
IONS
345
-.---—
COLT
AR-IJ
GAS
GRENADE
LAUNCHER
MISSILES
The versatility
of this ncw arm and its application to police usc
has been increased greatly due to the fact that Lake Erie has produced
special grenades and missiles enabling its use in riot control with tear
gas, KO, and smoke,
Above: With the special gas grenade now manufactured,
sible to hurl a charge of tear gas approximately
400 feet
gun is held at a 30 degree angle.
it is poswhen the
Below: A finned barricade projectile can be fired with accuracy at
a window at ranges up to 75 yards. It will penetrate a one-inch thick
pine board.
346
KILL
OR
GET
IC IL
LED
,
Left: Types of leather car~ying cases for 37mm gas ~ un projectiles.
The policeman can carry a number .of projectiles com ortably in this
manner. On one side in front long-range projectiles can be carried
and short-range
on the other. In back, barricade shells, smoke, and
nauseating gas can be carried.
gas sbclls at
Right: Firing position used for shooting short-range
CIOSCrange directly ioto the front of the mob. This is also the position
for firing special finnccl projectiles
into windows against barricaded
criminals or rioters.
The Federal long-range
gas shell has a three-second
time
fuse. It burns expelling visible gas for between
20 and 30
seconds after the fuse has activated. The kick and throwback hazard during the burning period is present. The fire
hazard must also be considered. Range claimed by the mmlufacturer is 325 yards.
of the
The Lake Erie Company manufactures a projectile
liquid gas type. The claimed range is 450 feet. All the gas
is expelled in a single blast. The casing of the projectile tears
open rather than shatters. Invisible gas is liberated over a 20foot circle. This projectile has a six-second time fuse. When
fired at a 30-degree angle the time fuse will explode the gas
charge at about the time the projectile hits the ground. Lake
Erie claims that, duc to the type of gas used and the container in which it is carried, their shell liberates three times
more gas than the standard long-range burning type projectile.
COMMERCIAL LONG RANGE PROJECTILES
BARRICADE GAS SHELLS
AND
This type of projectile is designed for projecting tear or
sickening gas into barricades, defended rooms or buildi~gs,
USE
01~
CIIIlhf
IC.~L
MUNITIONS
347
..
sbft: Firing position wbcn firing a long-range gas projcctife in
front of, back of, or into the mob. l-he angle of the piece will dictate
the range. Practice with specially designed practice ammunition will
enabIe the shooter to hit his objective with sufficient accuracy
for
tactical USC.Note that the weight of the shooter is on the forward leg.
Ri~/Jt: Loading the gm gun is normally done frnm the port arms
positions nnd al[ Innding is done by the ntsndscrs, by command.
Normally,
tltc gm guns arc not carried Iowlcd, but arc charged with
the appropriate type of projectiles on command. In sonic cases, where
the action has been pre-determined and the time clement will be short,
rior loading instructions cm bc given, but for obvious safety f~ctors
~oading is best done just prinr to tlischnrgc of the piccc. Cocking of the
gun is done just prior to firing.
industrid plants, prisons held by rioters, or against barricaded
criminals or insane persons.
The-se projectiles are equipped with tail fins that spring
into position when the projectile leaves the gun muzzle.
These tail fins (like an arrow) keep the projectile
from
tumbling and keep it pointed toward the target. Good accuracy at window-sized targets from the smooth bore 37mm
guns at ranges up to 100 yards is possible, after practice.
This type projectile is not designed or intended for direct
use against crowds and persons, since its velocity and penetration potential is such that death or serious injury can
result.
The barricade type projectile that releases its charge of gas
on impact, can be used against mobs and rioters by firing it
so as to hit a wall or building above or near the rioters, to
release the gas charge.
This type of projectile is available in a number of loadings.
Tear gas and nauseating gas me the most common charges.
348
KII,
L
ON
GET
KILLED
On special order WP (Incendiary)
practice smoke, practice
inert, fragmentation,
and high explosive loadings can be obtained.
Because of the varied loadings available, law enforcement
units now have, through use of their 37mm gas guns, a type of
firepower for extreme situations that is similar to the military.
barThe Lake Erie Company manufactures its TRU-l?LITE
ricade
shell
for
this specific
type of law enforcement. This
shell has a stated maximum range of 350 yards and an accurate
Photo Courtesy of Lake Erie Chemical Co.
Left: LaIce Erie long rauge Tru-Flitc
tear gas shell with projectile.
This projectile is designed for use against criminals or insane persons
barricaded in rooms or buildings. On leaving the muzzle, tail fins
spring into position, permitting
accurate
shooting
at window-sized
targets up to loo yards. Right: Lake Erie long mngc riot shell for
use in laying down gas barrages, from a distance, against mobs.
Because of criticism of its Model 230 and numerous throwbacks,
Federal has recently introduced a new Mast type barricade shell that
explodes on impact and disperses a cloud of tear gas dust. The new
shell Model 232, should better serve the purpose and it is claimed that
the fire hazard is also eliminated.
Usl
01
CIIF,
AI IC/\L
MU
NI’~l
ONS
349
range of 100 yards. It delivers its gas charge, on impact, at
the end of the flight, in one blast. An impact fuse that is
activated
after the projectile
is in flight, sets off the g~sdetonnting
charge. The bocly of the projectile
rips open and
a]lows the gas to bc inscmdy
ciispcrscd. Tllc impflct fuse is
not overly sensitive, so clmt the projectile
cm penccratc window glass znd light board pfirtitions before the gas is released.
There is no fire hazard, or fragmentation.,
Federal manufactures
its #Z so FLrrE-Rm~ projectile for the
same purpose. Claimed range is up to 325 yards. Good accuracy is claimed up to 100 yards. The Federal projectile
carries a time fuse that automatically
ignites the grenade to
start the burning process, liberating
the gas at a flight point
about 50 yards from the gun muzzle.
This projectile
continues
to burn and expel its gas for
about 30 seconds after it is activated.
The projectile
body
stays intact and will penetrate
window glass and light board
partitions due to its velocity. The burning process of gas release makes the projectile
very hot to handle and minimizes
the possibility
of a throw back. The fire hazard is present.
Many police officers annunll.v arc wounded
or even lose
tllcir llvcs when nttclllpting
to dislodge
dcspcratc
arillcd
crilllinals
or insmnc persons
fronl
barricaded
roolns
and
buildings, This is one of the most hazardous
aspects of law
cnforccmcnt.
The 371111]]gas gun and special barricade shclk
provide a solution.
Newspaper
files and police department
records are rcplctc
with reports, good and bad, concerning
this particular
phase
of law enforcement.
The two newspaper
articles below are
very indicative
of the possibilities.
MURDER
SUSPEH
CORNERED,
KILLS
SIX
Springfield,
Me.,
Jan. z–.$heriff
Marcel
..~endrix
and five otl~er
oficers were slain late today when tl~ey attt-nlpted to capture Harry
Young,
zf, ai~d several companions” .in a ~arnz house jive miles west
of here, and late tonight the killers mere believed to have made their
escape into tile Ozurk Mountains.
of
oficers
and citizens
After a siege of several hottrs a new force
stormed
the house, only to find Young,
who was wanted for the
slaying of a city nlarshal at IZepuLdic, MO., and hif co7upanions bad
gone.
Young and his pals escaped from tl~e house after greeting the oficers
with a bail of ruachine gun lead that killed five outrigljt and fatally
wounded
a SI”xth.
Then started a ve71geance-7~~~ddened search tbrougl] the bill country.
To the oficials and guardswen
were added farmers, armed with sl>ot-
350
KILL
01< Cll T KILLl?D
guns, who traveled in groups and talked quietly
The dead are: Deputy Sheriff Wiley, Masbbum,
of a “lynching
Green
party.”
County;
Sbcrifl Marcel He?Idriz, Green County;
Detective
Chief Tony Olver, Springfield;
City ]>t%?CfjVc? Oliie Crosswbite, Springfield;
City Detective
Disney ii4eadowr, Springfield;
Patro17nan Charles Heuser,
Springfield.
–Cleveland
Plain
Dealer
KILLS OWN FATHER
Drink-Crazed Soldier Captured
After Augusta Squad Used Tear Gas Gun
MILLEN~
GA. April 26–(Speciai).
After
killing bis own father
and wounding a night policeman, David Hmnpbrcys,
28, a drink-crazed
ex-soldier, barricaded bi7nse1f in a room at Hotel Autery
early today
and for four hours defied oflcers
to “come and get me.”
Miilen oficers sought unsuccemfully
to rout birn from his fonress,
i?zwbicb he bad two shotguns, a case of ammu?lition and a baif gallon
of corn whiskey.
Officers Employ
Tear
Gas Gun
The slayer refused to budge and tbrcmened
with death any one
wbo approacbcd.
Tbcn, for tbe first time iti tbe history of dealing with
criminals
in tbh section,
a new weai]on wm brought
into play on
behalf of tbe law. A short g7m, of wide bore, gave a blast wbicb
a large projectile
hurtled
through
the
alarmed
tbe neigbborbood;
wi7zdow pane i71to tbe roonl where the sIayer was holding out; a gas
arose fro7n rbe floor; in a few seconds,
tbe cries of defiance
had
tbe fight taken
changed to one of “Co7ne and help me out.” Humpbreys?
fro7)z bi?n, staggered out of the roo?)l, bands over bead, ttJto tbe arms of
Lieutenant
Walter H. Hollyt of Augustf,
wbo bad fired tbe gas projectile into tbe roo?n. An incident wbtcb witl?out tbe new weapon
would have been a bloody battle was settled witbout further bloodsbed.
-Augusta
Georgia
Herald
Compiled statistics show that over 90% of barricade cases
occur in the second story of a house or building. Trajectory
and ballistics for barricade gas missiles are developed with
this in mind. Training targets should be constructed at varying heights up to ZO feet above the ground so as to develop
better accuracy and realism.
Parachute Flares. Illuminating parachute flares are also manufactured in 37mm to be used in the gas rifle. These cartridges shoot a brilliant flare into the air to an altitude of
about 225 feet. The period of illumination is about 40 seconds
and lights up an area such its would be covered by a circle
600 feet in diameter.
The brightness of the illulllin;lting
fl:]rc is S{ICI1tlmt, during
USE
OF
CIIJ?hl
ICAL
hiU
NIT
IONS
351
night action, individuals,
mob elements,
and police dispositions, are emily Iocated in the lighted aren. It is advisable
to plan to bc at some high point above smoke, gas, etc., such
as the top of a building, m the time the flnrc is rclcmcd, so
that all advant~ge can be taken of the brief observation
period
furnished by the flare.
Chemical Projectors and Billies. There are now available on
the market
a number
of hand tear-gas
projecting
devices.
The better types are especially manufactured
by Federal and
Lake Erie for use by police, plant and prison guards, and
night watchmen.
These devices are effective in direct proportion to the size of the shell and the nmount of gm pmjectcd in relation to the range used.
In addition, the general public can buy small imported .22
caliber automatic pistols shooting very small amounts of tear
gas plus a wide variety of tear gas fountain pens in calibers
from .38 to 410-gauge. The actual effectiveness of the concentration of tear gas released from these devices is variable
and questionable.
prison riot stic]cs such m nMnuGas projecting bi]lics d
facturcd by Lalcc Eric and l?cdcml have n definite value os
they arc multi-purpose weapons. They carry enough gas to
be effective against one or severnl individuals who arc closely
grouped together. Dischmgc of the gas cartridge can be followed up with use of the billy or riot sticlc for striking purposes. Tllc user has the advnntngc of utilizing offensive tactics
while the clement of surprise and immediate effects of the
explosion, plus the gas, temporarily disconcert the recipient.
The officer can utilize the short period after the release of the
gas to use his billy as a weapon, draw a firearm, retreat, or
close a door or gate.
In those cases where an officer is alone and in doubt about
the intent of an individual or group who approaches him, he
can utilize the gas in the billy either as a threat or by firing
to improve his position and thereby assume the initiative before coming into bodily contact. As the gas is basically hmmless no permanent damaging after effects result, therefore,
when in doubt, he should not hesitate in its use, Should it
develop that the parties on whom it has been used had no
actual hostile intent, still no real harm has been done.
It must always be remembered that gas billies, pens, etc., are
“one-shot” devices. A positive immediate follow-up ~ction
must be taken as soon m the gas is fired.
352
Kll,
l.
OK
G51’~
KII,
Llt
D
Where
possible this strategy
should have been decided on
in advance. The officer should not just stand immobile and
expect the victims of the gas to be and remain completely
HAND
TEAR
GAS
PROJECTORS
Top: Lake Erie xz gauge police billy that carries a spare gas shell
in handle. Middle: Detective gas billy manufactured by Lake Erie in
20 gauge. Bottom:
Caliber .38 mar gas fountain pen of a type commonly sold comnwrcklly
for individual prtrtectiun.
*,.
---- \<..
Generally speaking the ZO gauge tear gas sbcll such as used in the
Lake Erie Detective
Gas billy is the smallest caliber gas projectile
that can be expected ro give positive results from this type of handcarried weapon. Tbe billy itself is approximately
six inches in length
and can be comfortnb]y
carried almost as easily as the smaller .38
caliber fountain pen type. It discharges five times more gas than the
.38 caliber shell. In addition the round knob on the cnd of the billy
provides a potent striking weapon for a follow-up against the adversary
after the gas discharge has been made.
The .38 caliber and smaller sized cartridges are so limited in their
gas carrying
capacity
that too much reliance must not be placed
on their effectiveness against dangerous persons.
USE
OF
CIIKAIICA1.
NI UN
ITIONS
353
hc[plcss. In smnc crises determined individuals can and will
still attack, use fiream~s, etc., in spite of having received a gas
discharge. Tbe officer must take advantage of the surprise and
the immediate effect of the gas to assume the offensive, retreat, or whatever else is indicated under the circumstances.
Gas billies and riot sticks as projectors have little use in
mob control. In this CISC, of?iccrs equipped with standard
riot sticks reinforced by grenade throwing units or individuals in their rear, can best handle large groups of rioters.
Gas guns and billies which must be used at close range
to be effective should always be pointed at the middle or
chest of the victim at time of discharge. Otherwise, particles
of sealing compound from the end of the shell and wads may
injure the eyes.
At the time of the discharge the element of surprise along
with the noise of the explosion usually causes the recipient
involuntarily to open his eyes and gasp, thereby automatically
absorbing a good dose of gas.
On the other hand, if the blast is expected, an experienced
individual will immediately start moving, with his eyes closed
to avoid the gas cloud.
If the officer is confronted with a small group of individuals
who are close together, he should fire the gas without any
provocation, if hc sees the group beginning to spre~d apart
or to reach for what ma-y bc concealed ~vcapons. After firing
the gas discharge the officer should move rnpidly from his
firing point so as to disguise his physical position and to confuse his enemies while they are still under or avoiding the
effects of the gas cloud.
Lake Erie manufactures billies and riot sticks for use with
a [ z-guage shell that blasts a five-foot cloud of gas approximatcl-v I j feet. Provision is made in their products to carry
a spare shell in the handle and a special safety device presents
accidental dischm-ge.
Federal gas billies utilize a ten-gauge shell. One model projects a gas cloud of larger size at about the same range as the
Lake Erie. This company also manufactures a special billy
that fires through a choked opening a three-second corttinuous gas discharge. This permits moving the billy from
side to side to achieve a spraying effect. A special safety
device prevents accidental discharge.
Twelve-gauge shells available in tear and sickening gas are
also nmnufactured by L~ke Erie for use in standard covz7nercinl type shotguns. This provides the private citizen with
354
lC ILL
OR
GET
KILLED
a means of gas projection
at no more than the cost of the
cartridge. Police units equipped with riot guns also can utilize
this type shell to ndwtntage. Unfomunately, few police units
or individuals realize that this type of munition is zvailable for
use in the standard sporting type arm.
Lake Erie has also introduced in recent years a very effective double action twelve-gauge,
tear gas revolver. This hand
weapon fires five cartridges
as rapidly as the trigger can be
pulled. It is possible for an individurd officer to lay down a
respectable
barrage of gas with this weapon. The concentration of gas developed
coupled with the psychological effect
of the explosion of the individual shells on the victims, make
it a very useful wefipon. It is best used against small groups
Photo Courtesy of Lake Erie Chemical Cm.
The Lake Erie five-shot t z-gauge, double-action,
tear-gas revolver,
model 512. This is a very effective weapon for use by the individual
officer in laying down a maximum gas concentration.
lle
five separate
charges can bc fired in a three-second
period. This weapon is especially useful against small groups of rioters and in cnpturing criminals
or insane persons in cortfincd areas. Due to the rccoiI factor it can
many times be more advantageously fired by using a two-handed grip.
A five-foot diameter cloud of gas is projcctcd by each shell at ranges
from tcn to fifteen fccr.
USI?
OF
CIIEA[l
C.4L
NI UN
Phcito Courtesy of
FEDERAL
TEAR-GAS
DUST
IT IONS
355
Federal Laboratories, Inc.
PROJECTOR
This is a very useful device which will shoot tear-gas dust into
rooms through small open ings where there is no possibility of projecting tear gas co subdue the occupants in any other manner. Keyholes,
cmc]cs under doors, etc. em be utilized as ports of entry.
in street and prison riots or in capturing
criminals or insane
persons when they are cornered
in rooms.
Federal and other manufacturers
also market a complete
line of tear gas projecting
devices designed to protect safes
and vaults. These devices are usually placed inside the safe,
etc., and are activated when the safe is forcibly opened.
Other gas devices arc available for use in protecting
banks
from armed robbery,
industrial
installations,
etc. They are
activated
automatically
or by convenient
and strategically
located hand and foot controls which can be set off without
danger to the individual.
Cost of Gas Munitions and Equipment. The seemingly high initial cost of gm equipment rmmy times discourages its purchase or inclusion in the police budget. This is particularly
true in departments where it has never been used with success, previously, and tlw members and officials arc untrained
in its use nnd potential.
356
KI1.
L
OR
GET
KILLED
A40st modern police departments now maintoin inventories
of gas equipment and train in its use. [Many times gas munitions on hmd and in reserve me not enough to hwtdle any
large. and long-sustnined mob fiction. Reli~ncc is gcnernlly
placed on being able to get additional munitions from the
mmufacturcrs quickly, or on a loan bmis from other police
agencies.
Gas munitions, like raw camera film, have z smted shelf
life which is usually three years from date of loading. This is
usually stamped on the grenade or projectile at the time of
manufacture. This is. only an approximate figure but shoulLI
be used as a basis for purchase and consumption. Much depends on the storage conditions. Humidity, extremes in temperature, and other factors affect the actual ‘%hclf life” of gas
munitions. The manufacturers
do not know under what
climatic conditions their products will be used and therefore
give a dating for approximate guidance of the purchaser that
is within all known safety limits. The procedure in modern
police departments that have purchased their initial inventory,
is to rcplacc on a yenrly bnsis those gas munitions
that Ilnirc
been expended. If any znatericl is “outdated” or soon to bc, it
is used in training. In cmc of any action the munitions with
the oldest “dating” are used first.
Generally, liquid type tear gas munitions will last longer in
storage due to the fact that the gas content is hermetically
sealed in glms containers. In extrernc humid or hot conditions, munitions lo~ded with powdered or crystalline rype
tear gas, are more vulnerable to deterioration. Moisture enters
into the grenade body and starts deterioration of the CN crystals. This in turn starts an oxidation or rust action on the
inside of the grenade case, which is usually of steel. This
process cannot be avoided over a period of time becnusc the
body of the grenade itseif is perforated and the hoIcs for emission of the gas are covered with adhesive tape that seals off
the grenade contents for a limited time only.
Commercial type shotshell primers are used in the fuse as
the detonator. These primers me copper jacketed and are
well sealed against action of the elements. However, the
delay element or fuze, that is ignited by the explosion of the
primer, is the most susceptible to moisture penetration. Failure
of “outdated” grenades and projectiles to expel their contents is many times due to the malfunction of this element.
Taking into consideration
the above comments, serious
thought should be given by responsible officials to the actztal
econovzy of gas munitions
and equipment.
The savings in life, property, and casualties must be placed
on the opposite end of the scale from the initial cost. The
increased efficiency and high morale of department members equipped and trained in the use of gas munitions must
nlso be considered.
To dis]niss, or to fail to buy, gas equipment for reasons of economy is a very shortsighted and ill-advised action.
Dollar value of the life of an individual officer cannot be
determined. On the other hand, the expenditure of a few
Photo Gmrtcsy Of Lake Erie Clmmical Co.
LAKE
ERIE
SPECIAL
GAS
GUN
OUTFIT
Weight
of complete outfit, 5 r pounds. Carrying
case. dimensions:
length, 32 inches; height, 15 inches; width, s X imks.
x Tru-F1itc
37mm Super Long Range Gas
The outfit includes:
gun; 4 l“ru-Flitc
Super Long Rongc Tci-sr Gas 13arricadc shells; 4
Standard Long Range Tear Gas Projectile Riot shells; 4 Short Range
Tear Gas shells; Illuminating Parachtztc flares; 4 Model 34 Tear Gas
grenades; and I Ieatherette carrying case.
A kit such as the above costs approxinmtcly
$z75.00. lts contents
are especially selected to cnabic a flcsiblc all-around usc of tear gM
in small actmns and cmcrgcncy
conditions.
olicc and sheriffs
department,
no matter how small, as
Every
well as p i’ant guards and other organized protective
units, cm afford
are designed for
and should have this type of equipment. They
rapid easy transport and many departments have these kits permanently
assigned to each roving vehicle.
hundred dollars Ivorth of Juniper Repeater or Triple Chaser
hand grenades to break up a large and dangerous mob, that
358
KILL
OR
GE”r
KILLED
if unchcc]ced
would have caused possible loss of life and
property and damages running into thousands of dollars,
would seem to be a definite practice of economy.
The principal thing to remember is, that gas equipment
must bc on hmd along with personnel trnincd in its USC. It
cannot always be anticipated
in advance when emergencies
will appear.
U.S. ARMY
GAS
MUNITIONS
EQULPMENT
It is important
that civilian police and others have knowledge of gas equipment
in current
use by the U. S. Armed
Forces. Under emergency
conditions
this equipment
may be
made available to civilian police units or it may be used in
support of civil law enforcement
agencies by National Guard
or Army units in certain situations.
Generally,
commercial
equipment
such as 37mm gas guns
and the variety of gas grenades and projectiles offered give
more flexibility to civil police units in mob actions of moderate
size. In very large operations where thousands of dcnmnstrators are involved, the A ml y equipment such as mass gas
dispensers is many times more applicable.
In 196o the Army announced a new irritant gas agent for
riot control, designated as CS this gas is crystalline in nature
but is soluble in certain liquids. It is stable under ordinary
conditions of storage.
CS causes copious tears, a burning sensation in the eye..,
coughing and difficult brczthing, a stinging action on moist
skin areas, sinus and nasal drip, involuntary closing of the eyes
and nausea in high concentrations.
It has a pungent pepperlike odor and is accompanied by a white cloud during release. Its lasting effects are not harmful and most disappear
after 5 to J 5 minutes in fresh air. CS is also used by the
Army for training purposes to simulate more toxic types of
gases. Its nature and psychological
effects are stronger and
more varied than those of ordinary tear gas (CN). Projection,
handling, and decontamination
procedure
of CS demands
thorough training under the supervision of skilled officers.
CS is also used in bulk form for mass projections
from
planes, helicopters, special portable tank units Iike those of
a flame thrower, and special mounted blowers such as are used
in crop dusting. Grenades of the combustion and instantaneous
bursting type are also loaded with it.
The U. S. Army also still issues CN hand and rifle grenades
and smoke candles for riot control operations.
From exarninmion of all available data it wouId seem that
US1l
tile
CS
xfaptcd
mercially
OF
Cll
KAll[:\T,
AI UNl”~IONS
359
ciuc to its spcci:l] characteristics,
is not ideally
to usc I)y civil police, evcIl if it were made com-
gas,
avail:
ib]c.
(X
tc;l~ gas grenades in current usc or-c
frngllumtntion
types.
!jpccinl
of conlbustit][l :11111helxlll
rifle grenade laullcllcrs
:ln(l adapters arc issued. The U. S.
Army does not issue tlw m)t]llncrcid
type 371nm gas gun and
projectiles.
It is interesting to note whm the most recent U. S. Army
nmnwd (FM 19-15, Sept 1958) recolnmends regarding’ tactical use and limitations of its CN grenzdes. The hand grenade
M7A t uses the combustion or burning system of release of
tear gm. It takes from 20 to 60 seconds to dispel its contents,
with
the characteristic
white
smoke, which indicates the area
covered by the gas. The following statements are quoted:
“Riot control gases of the combustion type are not thrown
into the mob because they may be thrown back. . . . The burning type grcnfidc should not bc used where colnbustiblcs arc
present bccnosc of the imcmc heat gcneratetl by the grenade
and the drmgcr of starting a fire.”
The IMsclxdl type hand grenade M25A r, containing tear
gas is constructed with a frangible plastic case that shatters
into small fragments when the grenade bursts. Finely pulverized powdered tear gas is dispensed over the impact area
in from I x to q seconds after leaving the hmd of the
thrower. L~ispersion is causccl by an intcrnnl explosive element
Ii ICC a blasting cap. Tile lnznt.ml says “The avcrngc distance
that the btisebzll grenade may be thrown before bursting
is 35 to JO yards. Grenades should be lobbed into the air so
that the burst \\’ill occur several feet over the heads of the
]nembers of the mob on the up-wind side and sl)ozdd tzever
into
the ~aces o) tl]e i~)iiividuds
i7~ the
be thrown ,.iircctly
eyel?loh, as perimznent
bli?ldness 711ny result fro?n ruptured
lxdls torn @I pl,rstic ~rag712e72ts of the cases.”
‘rk
U.
S. i\my
There are several other points pertinent to use of this baseball type of grenade that should also be noted. ( I ) To use
the grenade as directed, by throwing so it bursts over the
heads of the rioters, is a very difficult thing to do under stress
of combat action. Usually in combat, the tendency is to throw
the grenade directly into the nlob elements. To be able to
judge corr:ctly
the bursting time so that it will occur as
recommended, is extremely difficult and not practical in mob
action. Even the Iistcd fuse time is too variable. Much training
is necessary. (z) If tile grenade is used as recommended, and
360
KILL
01{
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KILLli
D
bursts
over the heads of the mob, a great deal of gas will
be wasted in a windy condition. The gas cloud will be global
in shape and the wmd will carry away the gas thzt is not
blasted directly downward over the rioters. (3) There is definitely also another dangerous safety factor when using the
blast type, frangible case grenade. At times in the excitement
of mob action, the thrower will pull the safety pin and release
the safety lever accidentally
or unconsciously.
When this
happens and the grenade explodes in the thrower’s hand the
serious results can well be imagined. (4) Misuse of this type
of grenade so that a mob member will be blinded is almost
as bad as causing a fatality. Publicity and public reaction can
be very adverse.
it
GENERAL COMMENTS
An unruly mob or riot can be caused by anything; labor,
religion, politics, or the price of beans. Gas munitions are used
to dispel riots, not to settle disputes. Practical experience now
proves that chemical agents control these situations much
better thnn bullets. l-he policy of all law cnforccmcnt should
be to control riots by first, the prcscncc of po]icc or troops;
secondly, the use of chemical munitions; and lastly, by resorting to gun fire. The objective to be achieved through the
use of the gas is to create panic, confusion, and dispersion of
the mob.
In the employment of gas munitions it is basic that they be
projected in quantity so that there is a suficicnt concentration
to discourage and destroy concerted action of the mob. In
the long run it is much more economical to use more lnunitions at the outset than to have to repeat launching lesser
quantities several times to achieve the same result. The majority of the rioters must individually feel the pain or discomfort of the gas fumes if they are to be effective. A few
grenades thrown into the fringes of a violent mob will have
little real or lasting effect. The center, rear, and flanks must
feel the effects also.
Advantage of favorable prevailing wind is always taken
when possible but the fact that the wind is unfavorable must
not limit the projection of gas munitions. Long-range gas guns
and instantaneous dispersion blast type grenades are available.
Therefore strategy and tactics in employment of gas munitions must not be entirely
developed
around the prewtiling
wind concept.
Most mob actions take place in cities where
there are buildings which can block off air currents or
diminish them to a point where cffcctivc t~ctic:ll usc lJf gwi in
USE
OF
CIIEM
ICAL
MUNITIONS
36 I
combination
with a favorable wind cannot always be made.
The combustion
type grenade is particularly
dependent
on
favomblc wind conditions.
Tactics recommended
for usc by
the manufacturer
are always bmcd around this key factor. In
a condition of light or no wind, the combustion
type grenade
will liberate its contents so slowly that a great deal of effectiveness is lost. Blast type grenades
give instant dispersion
without depending
on the wind factor, and get a rapid concentration into the faces of the rioters.
Hand grenades and gas guns with short and long-range
projectiles can all be employed. The principle most advocated
is to keep up the pressure m-id flow of gas against the mob.
It should bc rernembcrcd thzt in the case of large mobs an
avenue of cxcape must always be left open through which
the rioters can flee.
Don’t fire a few gas grenades and visibly retreat to await
results. Avoid if possible, hand-to-hand contact by concentrated use of chemical agents. The less actual physical force
used in restraining
the, mob the more lasting will be the
rcsultnnt
peace.
chcmica] agents nre humane wcnpons
and other
m be used to preserve law and order. Communist and other
type agitators w-ho use riots as a means to power will always
directly and indirectly try to destroy the effectiveness of
chemical munitions by minimizing their usefulness and by
mdicimts propaganda as to the “deadly qualities” when employed. In Communist dominated countries, such as East
Germany, tear gas is also used, but the overwhelming tendency
is to use the less expensive bullets from rifles and machine
guns to achieve their purpose.
Another verv important factor in favor of the use of
chemical munitions in mob control, is that it will not injure
the so called “interested bystander,” as bullets can. Every
scene of violence, real or potential, always draws its share of
curious spectators. Physical damage to this type of person
usually results in bad publicity, law suits, etc. Here again,
in an indirect way, chcrnical munitions aid law enforcement
in carrying out its mission.
Police elements used in mob control should wear masks,
especially those in close contact. Protective masks are as an
important a part of the equipment as the gas itself. The use
of gas grenades involves close contact where variable wind
conditions can always expose the thrower as well as the target.
Another interesting side effect is the psychological
impact
l-enr
gns
362
1<r 1, 1,
OR
GI?T
KII,
I.ED
\Vorld Wide
photo
TEAR
GAS SCATTERS
DEN1ONSTRATORS
l“hc above illustrntinn wm taken from a press relensc covering a
dcmonstrntion nf tcachcrs in I.imn, Peru in (.hxobcr
INJI. Acctwding
to the Associated Press news story, the dctmsnstration was hrokcn up
by the police, util~zing .tcnr gas md night sticks.
The photo clw-ly shows thar tcnr gm grenades of the cmnhustion
type were used. A burning grcrtmlc with its distinct accumpmying
cloud of smoke generated during the burning process cm bc seen
in the cctmer. Individuals on the left Imve received a dose of the
gas. Those on the right can be seen runnin
awa
from the grenade
and its cloud of gas, thereby avoiding the ~urnesy’l%is is one of the
disadvantages of using the combustion type grctmdc. It is also interesting co note that the cloud of gas being relcmed in the smoke is not
being dispersed but is moving straight up, indicating a lack of wind.
This is visual proof of the rccornmcndation
that combustion
type
grcrmfes are best used with a favorable wind, so as to disperse the
gas among the demonstrators.
If, instead, an instant dispersion-blast
type grenade had been used with invisible gas, a much more effective
thatthe demonstrators could not sce or avoid, would
concentration
have been the result.
caused by the weird appearance of the gas-mask wearing,
grenade-throwing police elements.
Determined rioters will many times try to improvise protection against gas. This may take the form of goggles such
as worn by skin divers, handkerchiefs across the nose, or
impregnated cotton stuffed up the nostrils. These expedients
will only delay the action and will not stand up under a heavy
concen&ion-of
gas.
For further information on mob control, see chapters 14,
15, and 16.
Chapter
14
CIVIL AND DOMESTIC
DISTURBANCES
AND
THEIR CONTROL
WIDESPREAD
public disturbance which is not immediately suppressed but instead is permitted to grow,
becomes a threat to the effective functioning of legally organized government. Violent and uncontrolled mob action
destroys public morale and confidence in police and military
forces. Loss of life, property, and other dclctcrious side effects
always ncconqmny mob violcncc.
Causes of Disturbances. The causes of such disturktnccs m-e
varied. Social, economic,
and political conditions have a
marked bearing, as does the failure of existing authority.
Social, Racial and refigious clashes and differences have
always been a major cause of disturbances. Community activities which draw together large numbers of people to celebrate
a specific act, or a sporting event, have some times degenerated
into serious civil disturbances when tension exists.
Economic. Extreme poverty,
poor housing conditions,
lack
of food, differences
between labor and management,
devaluation of currencies,
high cost of living, and allied economic
factors will cause civil unrest.
Political. Efforts to gain or to destroy political power outside of lawful means is now a common motivating factor of
mob violence.
Absence or Failure of constituted Authority. The failure
of civil police or military authority to cope with a mob crisis
due to indecision, inability, or absence from the scene, can
ignite further action. In the absence of legal restraint, the
mob members begin to feel that they can act with impunity
and can impose their will, however capricious may be their
desires,
A
363
36+
KILL
ON
Gli’r
KILLEIJ
HOW MOBS FORM
A crowd is not a mob. lt is a gathering of people for either
a casual or intentional purpose that is legal under traditional
rights of assen]b]y. Mcmhcrs of such a crowd think and act
m individuals and arc without any> definite orgmization
or
united purpmc. However, under stinlulation of an act of
violence, or under the manipulation of professional skilled
agitators, this same crowd can turn into a violent mob. When
bethe crowd changes into a mob its purpose or objective
comes a unified thing. Its members lose their identity
as individuals and merge into a cruel, primitive body, which has
lost civilized restraints and suddenly has no respect for law
and order nor for those law enforcement forces that resist it.
Influences Affecting Mobs. Hate and revenge,
brought by
such incidents as racial tension, lynching, or inflammatory
political issues at local or national levels, provide strong motivation.
Numbers
a?ld anonymity. The individual loses his selfconsciousness. His normal moral restraints break down. At the
same time he gains a sense of strength
and security
due to
the presence of other people ncting in concert with him.
Almost instinctively present within him is the feeling that hc
has lost his identity as an inciividuai find thcrcforc will not
be personally blamed for his actions.
Suggestion and ngitation. Under the influence of the professional agitator, 2 clominant personality, or a “crackpot”
who assumes the mantle of lemlcrship, the mob member reacts
to exhortation and suggestions without giving any rational
thought to conscqucnccs. There is no follow-through
in the
thinking processes.
Imitation and contagion. There is a primitive urge to do
what others are doing and “to get into the act.” A mob tends
to increase in numbers automatically. The communication of
ideas and influence from one member of the mob to another
is quick and contagious.
Newness and novelty. Subconsciously
an individual welcomes anything new which breaks his normal routine. Any
novel and strange circumstance, such as joining a demonstration, will many times be welcomed enthusiastically.
If the
individual has had no previous experience and is lacking in
restraint, he will easily pass from the crowd to the mob phase,
wholly neglecting his usual pattern of reasoning.
Repressed desires. Those desires that have been repressed
or unsatisfied are many times released in a mob action. The
individual loses himself among the other mob members and
CONTROL
or
DISTUltt?ANCES
365
now may have an opportunity to do things he has always
wanted to do but did not dare do alone.
Mob Types. There are at least three types of mobs: aggressive, escape, and acquisitive. The aggressive type mob attacks and terrorizes. Mobs activated by agitation, r~cinl conflicts, lynching, desire to overthrow existing governments,
find prison riots fall in this category.
The escape type mob is motivated by panic. Its members
are trying to escape from some feared or existing situation by
physical flight. Terror
and lack of reasoning are present.
Escape is sought from the presence of some man-made or
natural disaster such as an explosion, flood, or earthquake.
Characteristic
fictivating factors are the breakdown of communications, transportation, utilities and blockadk of normal
means of exit.
The acquisitive mob has as its principal incentive the purpose of acquiring some specific thing. A mob action bent on
securing arms, equipment, or food would fall in this category.
The Heavily Armed and Organized Mob. The types of mobs
just indicated can most of the time be dealt with by normal
or reinforced civil police units. However, when mob members appear armed with firearms, in quantity, of the high
power or military type, police tactics must bc chmgcd or
revised. The use of cxtrcmc force is indicated and this must
bc done using heavily armed combat troops or military police
units. A mob armed with submachine guns, light machine
rifles, bazookas, dcmo]ition equipment etc., must be dominated
with similar and superior weapons. This type of an action is
nornudly countered by use of Regular Army or National
C umd cwnbat or military po]icc units.
Civil police are not normally equipped or trained to counteract this type of mob, which degenerates into armed insurrection.
U. S. Army Field Manual FM 19- 1s adequately
covers this
type of action. No clear definition can be made as to exactly
when to apply military force to reinforce
or replace a conventional civil poIice force. Each situation will differ and local
and national conditions
will dictate at what point military
force must be used to replace, supplement,
or reinforce
the
civil police.
THE ELEMENTS
AND PRINCIPLES
OF MOB CONTROL
There
is a distinct
divergence
of ideas as to the type,
tactics, and general concept of mob control m it is employed
throughout the world. Values placed on human life, types of
366
Krl.
L
OR
GET
KILr.17rI
equipment available, historic precedents, and general
concepts as to the dangers of the mob, vary.
police
Thk does not mean that the correct and best mob control
measures are always employed by the police. It does mean
that each force has to face up to its own siumtion and den]
with the mob as best it can, based on its own experience and
the judgment of its officials.
Unfortunately,
too little has been written
about this increasingly important
phase of maintaining
law and order. An
ominous note is the growing
use of mob agitators and subversives in various countries as a covert phase of cold war.
It cannot be said that the tactics employed in Caracas, Venezuela are the same as those which should be used in a sonlcwhat similar situation in Clevelzncl, Ohio.
The purpose of this chapter is to outline a number of general principles and basic precepts and to project some new ideas
which can be adapted by a military or police force to its own
situation to enable it successfully to cope with mob violence.
As previously indicated, the point where control of a given
mob situation should pass from civil to military author}ty
depends on the individual situation. In the U. S. the clwl
police of city, county, or state are first in direct control and
have the prime responsibility for civil disturbances. When the
civil police force fails to control a serious riot situation, the
procedure has been, and still is, to call for military units
either from the National Guard or the Regular armed forces.
Recent disturbances in Little Rock, Arkansas are a case in
point.
In many countries in the world the professional army and
the police force are identical. In some countries (such as the
Republic of Panama) no army exists as such, and there is
only a national police force. In Latin countries, the army
generally acts as the national police force even though the
various municipalities may have local police elements which
are civilian in nature and organization. Generally, municipal
police forces in Latin countries do not have either the numbers, training, inclination,
or equipment to cope with large,
violent mobs. Exceptions to this are not many, but do exist.
Mexico Cky, for example, maintains a large permanent special
riot group, which is part of the city police force. This group
has enough incidence of action to justify its pelmanent existence, and cost.
It is therefore suggested that the tactics and techniques to
be outlined hereofter, be not con..idered as definite, rigid,
(: ON”I’RO1.
01:
1)1
SI’IJltlIANCF.
S
367
fixed patterns in the control of civil disturbances,
but as guide
lines to aid in shaping the best solution
to meet the local
situation.
Riot Control in the U.S. by the Civil Police. In the United States
riots of any size and scope arc, or at least have been, relatively infrequent during recent years. There are reasons
for this, which do not necessarily apply in other countries.
The police force and the individual policeman are regarded
by the general public with respect, not fear. The great majority of the American public, like the British, considers its
civil police forces as guardians of law and order and a professional body of men whose sworn duty is to lceep the peace
and protect the individual citizen and his rights under the law.
Consequently, when riots occur in the U. S. they arc usually
short lived and spontaneous in nature which can be quelled
without resort to extreme force. Apart from the racial issue
there are no real issues of basic conflict. The public maintains a respect for forces of law and order and does not
regmd its police as an oppressive force.
For this renson our police forces, with thci r high-type
personnel, good equipment, ancl training nrc nblc to Ixmdlc
most civil disturbances with a minimum of Momlshcd and
violence. Tear gas as n means of mob control is well-known
and has been employed successfully to break up most donmstic
mob actions in the U. S.
There have been very few large, violent, mob actions that
have been professionally organized nnd dircctcd. On those
rare occasions where the National Guard or Regular A.nny
units have been called out in support of civil police, the
mere display of force by the troops has generally been sufficient to prevent mob action.
In addition to this, the average police dep~rtmcnt which
is faced with the possibility of a mob forming in its area
normally maintains a good intelligence
operation, and can
usually break up any pending action by taking into prior
custody the leaders and agitators; or by a prompt show of
force disperse the mob in its early formative stage.
Larger state and city police forces usually have previously
prepared civil disturbance and disaster phms ready for cmcrgcncics. These are covcrcd in trnining progrmns and are relied
upon to meet a riot situation on those rnrc occasions when
onc threatens to occur. These plans are usually part of the
civil defense effort and arc coordimttcd with all interested
government agencies.
368
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
Itisnot
economically possible, norisit
presendytactically
nece5sary, for U. S. civil police to maintain on permanent assignment special riot police units. In some departments selected
officers are given special training in riot control, use of tear
gas munitions, and riot formations. These officers lead the
riot squads or groups when the need arises. The bulk of the
members of the civil police making up the actual riot force
are drawn from “Off duty” elements, from men on other
routine assignments, and from other areas where they are on
duty but calm prevails.
Larger departments that have had to control disturbances in
the past and have a mob potential will maintain what is called
a permanent “gas squad,” which may vary in size from five
to fifty men. This squad trains together at given times,
and receives special instruction in all phases of mob control.
This type of operational planning is very good because, when
the emergency arises, its members can be assembled together
from their respective regular duty assignments, thus providing the [iep~rtmcnt with a more competent
trainecl unit
available for this spccinl duty.
At times, especially in the southern part of the U. S., local
civil disturbances of varying sizes have taken place due to
racial problems. It is interesting to note, that, even though
emotional feelings have been high, these disturbances have
been handled by local police with a minimum number of
casualties. In most cases there has been no bloodshed, due to
the physical presence of the law enforcement units in strength,
the occasional use of tear gas munitions, and the good judgment of both the police and even the leaders of the demonstrations. This is further proof of the statement that the U. S.
public, when not subjected to professional a~tation with international motivation, is an orderly and law-respecting one.
There has been one recent mob experience in the United
States where the hand of the professional agitator was strikingly evident. In May 1960 the Congressional Committee on
Un-American activities held hearings in San Francisco, California. These hearings and the police guarding them were
the target of pIanned Communist-inspired
demonstrations in
which many college students took part. This was a relatively
new experience in the U. S. law enforcement
field but it
followed closely the classic mob pattern that is now occurring in Latin America. The entire incident was well covered
by news cnmerzmen nnd reporters. The House Comrnittce
later published its conclusion and findings on the incident
CONTROL
OF
DISTUltll
ANCES
369
and Federal police agencies such as the FBI also took notice
of the nature and origin of the manifestation. A film has since
been made (“Operation Abolition”)
that is being exhibited
throughout the country. The film has been the subject of
controversy but it is of value for training purposes to law
enforcement agencies due to the coverage made, regardless
of political overtones.
While the public attitude toward police in the U. S. is one
of respect, the same cannot be said of some other parts of the
world. Especially in those areas where much illiteracy and
poverty exist, police and even the military are frequently
regarded as the instrument of oppressive forces.
It is also a fact that we are living in an era of great social
change and upheaval brought about b,y extreme nationalism
and a desire of the poorer segments of the population for
better living conditions and opportunity
for advancement.
The greater the unrest, the greater has been the Communist
effort to foment agitation and disturbance.
Although wc Iwpc th;~t, in the domestic U. S., cnhn will
continue to prcvnil, the world situation is such that we arc
no longer isolated from our neighbors and are therefore not
imnlune to alien influences. The threat (and certainly the
aftermath) of nuclear war could greatly disrupt civilian calm
and order. During times of tension the professional agitator
will seek to foment unrest and disorder. For this reason the
police of this country had better look ahead to the possibility
of more troubled ti]nes and prepare for use of mob control
techniques which previously have not seemed necessary to
our internal security and situation.
The Role of the U.S. Army and National Guard in Mob Control.
Rarely, during the past decade, has the U. S. Army been
called upon to control a civil disturbance, Usually the Natiomd Guard, under orders of the state governor, is called
out in the rare case when troops have been needed to support
or replace civil police unable to control a serious civil disturbance.
Regular Army units are generally called into action only
as a result of a national emergency or a situation where a
civil disturbance in a given area presents a serious threat to
the security of the nation or vital installations and operations
which the federal government must protect in the common
interest. It will be remembered that Regular U. S. Army paratroop units were ordered to duty in Little Rock, Arkansas
for a time, to insure the maintenance of law and order.
370
KILJ.
OR GtIT
KILJ. tln
U. S. Army Field Manual 19-15 covers legal considerations,
and policies and procedures
regarding the control of domestic
disturbances.
When national interest is at stalce, the national
Government
may employ Army units to maintain or restore
order. When this occurs the decision as to the degree of force
to be used must be made by the Army commander. The nlanual covers this aspect completely and it is recommended that
every civil police organization of any size, with a riot potential, be familiar with it. The tactics outlined are basic and
sound for military units but they are not necessarily those
which are best adapted to use by the civil police because,
once troops are committed, the desire to avoid casualties
among rioting elements may lx impossible to realize. The
Amly by its nature, training, doctrine, and equipment differs
in its basic concept of riot control. Any and all necessary
force will be used when it is finally committed to action.
Because of the numerous and sometimes complicated legal
restrictions on the usc of military personnel in riot control,
it is recommended that all officers in command of Regular
or Reserve units of platoon size or larger acquaint themselves
with the contents of the following Army Regulations: 500-50,
500-60, and 500-70. These, and Fill 19-15, should be kept
available at all times in the unit files.
ChapteY
15
COMMUNIST TACTICS AND
STRATEGY
IN DIRECTING
MOB VIOLENCE
HIS might well be called the era of the Communist
pro fe~sional mob. We are at present in a period of “directed” mob violence. The manhmlation
and extdoitation
of
.
.
this mob violence, and physical mass pressure, is a non-secret
w-capon which the Communists me employing on a worldwide basis with far reaching results. They are using this instrument of cold warfmc for purposes of Red diplomacy.
The Kremlin, using trained Soviet agents and agitators, by
this means is trying to force the hand of governments and to
achieve victory preferably without the necessity of firing a
single shot or loss of a single soldier.
There is no lack of evidence of this serious phase of the
cold war. The disturbances in Bogot~, Colombia in April
I948 ~vere Colllrllullist-i lls}]ired and were directccl ag~inst the
Amcrlcan
delegation
heodcd by General
George
Mmslxtll.
The purpose was the torpedoing
of the inter-American
conference, which had been called to plan resistance to the threat
of international communism. This riot, which cost hundreds
of live.. and millions of dollnrs in propcrt.v d~nmge nnd almost
upset the Colombian government, was the first of many in
this hemisphere in the last decade that have been Communistorganized and directed. In May 1958, Vice President Richard
Nixon was the center of Communist-inspired riots in Caracas,
Venezuela. These organized manifestations caused the Vice
President and his party humiliation and could lMVC cost his
life. Another riot of serious proportions was oqymized and
directed against the American Embassy, in March 1959, in
La Paz, Bolivia. During May and June of 1960, riots were
staged and organinxl in Tokyo, Japxn thnt forced President
T
371
372
K1l.1,
OR
Glt”r
K1l.
Li:rl
Eisenhower to cancel his proposed visit. The riots were so
violent and of such nature that the Japanese Government did
not feel it could guarantee his pcrsomd safety. At the time
this is being written (Fcbrwry
1962) Caracas, Vcnezuckt has
just undergone
nn~)ther series of riots organized and lcd hy
and
Colmrnunists. It was 72 hours before the manifestations
terrorism could be brought under control by the government
and at least 40 lives were lost. A Communist student, when
interviewed by a newspaper man, stated that the Communists
had expected and hoped that the government would have
in its suppression
of the manifestareacted more forcefully,
tions, so thzt more “martyrs” could have been crcfited.
Public incidents arc used or fabricated to spark riots. [n tl~c
case of the above-mentioned riots in Caracas, a transpot-c strike
was the basis for the beginning of the mob action, which
could have set off a full-fledged revolt against the government. It has become standard Communist practice, in the
course of mob incitation, m devc!op a situation thm will
produce
a “nm-tyr
“ in whose
mcnlo[}~
roiscd to fever i)itch.
case in Bogota in i948 and in Japan
ccntcrcd
and
Il]ol)
clnotions
cnn
1 his was csjwcia]ly
in 1960.
hc
the
Ekicwherc in the world, similar tactics have rcccndy
hccn,
or arc being, employed. It is to bc expcctcd that mob manipulation will be a continuing form of Communist strategy
due m its frequent succcss in the past. The overall strategy
is onc of armed revolution and subversion, supp(jrtcd
fostered frmll outside the target nation. Gucrrilia warfare is
coordinated
with sabotage, espionage, terrorism, and mob
violence. In actual fact, violence in a planned mob action
can be characterized as just another form of guerrilla warfare, although waged in urban areas.
illld
Communist minorities with party members strategically
located in places of powe! and influence in the press, communication networks, labor movements, universities, and in
positions of trust in local and federal government have been
known to instigate mob violence to overthrow the existing
government.
The discrediting and dc..truction of regular police and
military forces whose rcsi>onsibility is the n]aintcmmcc of law
and order, is a prime objective. When police and military
forces are divided, destroyed, or rendered incapable of action
against the di rcctcd mob, the Communists cnn move rapidly
into power. After power has been seized, the new government acts rapidly to disband and destroy the professional
CO NIAIUNIST
TAC’rlCS
ANI)
S“t’1{/l’I’I:GY
37J
nlilitary and police forces. Records, files, and 01! other collccteci
evidence of Communist
activity
are destroyed.
Cuba under
Castro is a classic example of this tactic.
Recent U. S. Congrcssionol
hearings have furtilcr pointc(i
up this ncw tllrcat whicl~ n]u.st bc ]llct an~i drm]inotc(i i}-v tile
legitimate
forces of law anti order. On June I ~, 196 I the
U. S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee
heid a sccrct
hearing. Mr. Lyman B. Kirkpatrick,
a high officiai of the
Central Intelligence
Agency,
gave testimony.
Tile secrecy
classification has since been iifted and Mr. Kirkpatrick’s testimony is now a matter of public record. It is entitled “A Communist Plot Against the Free Worl~i Poiice.” This vaiuabie
and interesting tmtilnony cm now i~c sccurcd b-y scn~iiog
fifteen cents to tile Superintendent
of Documents, Government printing Office, Wasilington ZJ, D. C.
The police and military organizations of the free ~~wrki
are foremost guardians of our democratic institutions and
freedom. Tilerefore,
tilcy arc prinle targets of the Conlmurrists. The i)cttcr the poiicc force, the ]I]orc the Cmw
Illunisrs ticsirc to cicstro.v it. Al[ tylws of t~ctics arc usc~i to
(iiscrctiit tllc p(jlicc, wilo Ill:ly sutiticnly Iinli tiwllsclvcs tllc
target of vicious an(i organiz.cd opposition. A natural antipati]y
exists bctwccn i]olicc anti Col]lmunists, Tile poiicc arc ~l~va.vs
among the first to bccnme awnre that .tiw Comnlunist party
(regar(ilcss of its locai nnlllc ami affiliations) is not a “hoincgrolvn” political movclllcllt, l]ut ti~lt it is an instrui]}cnt finti
p2rt of fln intcnmtional conspiracy bent on destruction of
democratic institutions.
Not only must police bc proi>criy trained ao(i equipped,
but they also must have knowledge of the techniques and
tactics tlmt may be used against thel)l. Comnlunists \\iil cio
everything possible to slnnder, discredit, ~]r prevent the cicvclopmcnt of 2 strong police force. Ti~is \\”ill var~r frolll
attaci{s in tile press and outright subversion in the force itself to a publicity campaign aimed at the rc(iucrion of appropriations of funds for police pnyrolls and cquii>rncnt.
Police and military officials must ilavc n basic knm~ie~igc of
Communist tactics with relation to nlob tiisor(icrs so as to
be abic to foresee potcntinl danger spots, i)ettcr direct their
o~vn intelligence operations, and to train rheir oli’n uni[s
ndcqume]y in mob control nmi riot dut!”.
374
GENERAL
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
COMMUNIST
TACTICS
IN FORMATION
MOBS AND CREATION
OF DISORDERS
OF
These tactics and strategy are based on teachit-q.y given to
Soviet agents and selected
Communist
party
members
in
various countries.
SCI1OOISfor this purpose have been and are
now being conducted in the USSR, Czechoslovakia,
Cubn,
and other “iron curtain)’ countries. Some of these centers for
training the professional revolutionist in the science of creflting civil disturbances and civil w-ar have been in operation for
many years. This training activity hm recent]}’ been steppc(l
up to meet the demands of the current world s-itumion. Those
forces in the democracies
responsible for law and order
should understand what they are up against. l-he tnctics nm~’
be summarized as show-n below:
(r) Generally, there will be no overt action by known
Communists. All agitation will be done behind the scenes,
using uninformed and excitable teenagers, students, illiterates,
and others to form the body of the mob.
(2)
Unfavornblc local economic situations will be exploited.
As a rule the Communists wait for some situntion
or suitable local issue to arise so they can provoke mob excitement.
If no issue exists they create one, preferably one including
a martyr.
(3) In order to minimize police and other suppressive
action, the Communists will often ally themselves openly with
other grou])s \vitll politic21 power Ind thus SCCICto forlll x
united front. At the same til]lc they will continue mob agit:ltion and incitation
in z clandestine
manner. It should be remembered
that in most cmes the Communist
party will not
be flying its true name and colors. Its local party or organizational name will not be any indication of its true rnture and
affiliation. In fact, the organization will probably be under
some name with a claimed purpose which would indicate to
the more gullible the exact opposite of its true nature.
(4) AS a matter of policy, the Communists do not deplore
bloodshed and violence. The concept is that martyrs and
vioIence will excite the mob to even greater violence.
(5) A phtnned mob action will usually be thoroughly
worked out in advance. There will be preliminary rnms nleetings, printed Icaflcts distributed,
radio broadcasts,
provocative
cartoons md newsp:lpcr articles, and even assmsinotions. Locnl
COMMUNIST
TACTICS
police counter-riot
circumvent
them.
tactics
AND
STRATEGY
will be studied
and plans
375
made
to
(6) The immediate targets of mob action will be police
stations with their vital records, radio stations, newspapers,
utilities, and communications.
In foreign countries, Communist-dominated labor unions connected with these prime
targets will usuallv be focal points for great preliminary
agitation and activjty. Later these same union members will
be called to join the mob, even though the action may have
been initiated by a separate movement such as a student
group.
(7) If the Communist party is operating openly, it may
officially disclaim all responsibility for mob violence. At the
same time the party members will normally be the channel
through which agitators are furnished, and funds and propaganda material provided, along with whatever else may
be needed to incite a mob. In some cases, if the situation so
indicates, the local Communist party will be kept entirely
npart from my direct nctivity and msocintion with the mob
activity. ln this fashion tlw party serves 2s a decoy while the
principal operations will bc ccntcrcd around or through SOIIIC
other local or national political movement.
The Castro takeover in Cuba is a case in point.
(8) It is standard practice for Communist-trained
find led
mobs to be armed with non-military weapons such m stones,
clubs, and homemade bolnbs of gnsolinc or otl~cr flmm]]ablc
liquids. The arnmnent may bc supplcmcntccl by sporting
firearms and crude explosive devices. Looting of local colnmercial outlets to secure arms and explosives may be part of
the preliminary action phase. If any m-ms are actually supplied
to the rioters prior to the action, they will probably be of
commercial sporting types. They will probably not be makes
and types that can definitely be traced to Communist sources.
On some occasions arms supplied will be those of the army
or police who must confront the mob. Planned raids on military and police arsenals are made in advance for this purpose.
Arms may even be obtained by subversion within police ranks
through ample use of funds or other means. Effort is made
to obtain arms without prior police or public knowledge.
Communists Using Mob Violence as an Instrument of Cold War
Consider Themselves To Have the Following Advantages:
(I)
Police
or army units of my given country
arc likely
~;rf
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
to 12ccome demoralized ~vhen called upon to attack their own
people, especially young students, women, and veterans.
(Z) Rioters
can be secured
mn bc armed
\vithout outside
with
aid.
hoincmadc
weapons
that
(3) Cofnnlunists ~~ill use people and elenlents of the country
under attack for destruction
of the government.
There is no
need to use Soviet soldiers.
(~) ~~iob violence
has a tendency
to grow and gather
momentuftl
due to its very nzturc. If the mob is allowed to
grow and is not checked
at the outset, its strength
will incrcmc automatically
and it \\ill draw nmn-y types of nonafiliatcd clcnmnts to itself.
(5) If the government is we~k and hesitates to restrain
the demonstrators, the Communists will make increasing demands, When violence does occur, either provoked by the
initiative of the mob or by government forces, the government will be blamed. The issue can then bc used for national
and intcrnntiona] propngnnd:l.
(6) Communism
arc trained
to select nod usc the most
provocative
and incendiary
types of propaganda slogans.
Simple ones are easy to understand by the masses of the
people and they need not reveal any Communist connection.
(7) Democracies operate at a disadvantage, especially when
under attack, as they are dedicated to the principle of szfcgum-ding human life and liberty. This makes the democracy
vulnerable under mob attack, as it will use every means to
avoid bloodshed. In contrast, a Communist country does not
hesitate to use unlimited ruthlessness and mass killings, m
was done in Hungary.
Communist Mob Management Techniques. An example in Iraq
of effective mob rnanagcment by a very small number of
Communists, and a description of the control techniques they
used, in the words of Mr. Gene Methvin, of Washington,
D. C., follows.*
“The Communist Party of Iraq in the militant period of
1948-50 used wc]l-designed mob mtirmgcmcnt techniques. Although a tiny minority, the Communists, by carefully disguising the Communist direction of their demonstrations, were
CO A’l AI UN
IS”l
TACTICS
A?JI)
STRATEGY
377
The
able to give an imprcssi{jn of grczt size and support.
techniques
used were fairly rcprcscntative.
They consisted
of the following:
‘Lhternal co7)7711L771d.
This wm conqwscd of dcmonsttxtion
commanders
well-rcmovecl
from the activity, stationed whence
the entire ‘battlefield’ could be observed; if a moving demonstration, it would stay apart from the crowd.
“internal command. This was the Communist
cadre within
the crowd. They were responsible for ,di recting the demonstration, under the cxtcrn:d comrmmd’s orders. G rcm importmcc was nttachcd to protecting the lender of this unit.
“llnrmdoes. This group acted as t 100SC bodyguard surrounding the internal command, protecting the leader from
police, and screening his escape if necessary. A line of these
guards would flank processions and protect banner carriers
as well.
“Messc//gcrs. “I”llcy stayed close to lc:tdcrs, carrying orders
bctwccn intcrnnl and cxtcrn:ll coll)llmnds. Gcucrfilly,
they
WOUld
wheel
their Licyclcs along the sidewalks, keeping
abreast of, but removed from, the demonstration.
“Shock guards. These men were armed with stout staves
and accompanied the Communist faction, but marched along
the sidewallc where they were screened by spectators. They
would dash into the mainstream of mob action only as reinforcclllcnts
if the Col]llnunists were attacked by police.
Their sudden and violent descent on the batdc, was designed
to provide sufficient diversion to enable an orderly retreat of
the main body of Communist demonstrators who, upon signal
from the external command, would melt quickly into the
ranks of spectators, leaving the milling bystanders, unwitting
excitement seelcers, and fellow travelers to the police.
“Bmmer carriers. The slogms used by this group and the
‘cheering section’ were adapted to suit the prevailing mood.
At first they displayed banners with slogans expressing general “grievances, but as the demonstration gained momentum
and frenzy drove out reason so that real issues lost meaning,
the slogans were exchanged for direct Communist propaganda.
“In any Communist demonstration anywhere, key agitators
can often be found keeping close to certain conspicuous
bwmcrs, The c~rricr may bc a sincere non-Cmnmunist protcstor, entirely innocent of his true role as an important part
378
KILL
OR Gl?T
KILLED
of the intctmal command’s communications network. By assigning kc~ men to stay near specified banners, the command
kno~vs their location fit all times and can dispatch messengers
to thcm lvith illstructiom for stepping up the tclnpo, shifting slogans, or inciting violclwc.
“ ‘Cheering Scctionf.’ Specially Lsricfcd demonstrators were
carefully rehcil rscd on the slogans they wet-c to chant and the
order in 1~’hich the cries were to bc raised.
“LTsing these tactics, a group of zoo to 300 party members
could crcmc a dcmonstt-ntion in which as many m I0,000
~vould take part.
“Still another cflic-icnt mms action was orgznizcd in Buenos
Aires on 3 April 1959 to turn a demonstration
against electricity tvttes into a bloody riot. To inhibit countermeasures
by the police, or at least to embarrms them, women and children ~t’ere recruited to help set fire to automobiles. Supervising the vandalism \\ere the party’s top leaders. Sixteen cars
were overturned qnd I]urncd, and 30 persons wer~ wf)IIndcd
and 144 arrested-s{)tllc
of \vlN)lt] ndlliittc(l they p:lrticipatcd
under pfirty orders.”
Communist Mob Training Manual. The Communist training
manual on creation of mob violence and destruction of police
opposition sets forth four specific objectives, as listed below:
(I) h4ake investigations and report on the activities
police nnd security services.
of all
(2)
Mnke every effort to penetrate police and security
services, so that they can be better repressed and counterilcted.
(3) Infiltrate
police organizations
m find out how much
they know of Communist
activities, to steal documents,
and
to destroy records and files that may be of value to the organizations concerned.
(4) Undermine police authority and prestige, weaIcen police efficiency, crente the impression that the police are basically a repressive force, that the officers are incompetent
and
in pay of a foreign power, and that the police are not true
representatives
of the people.
The Communist handbook contains some very simple
sketches and elementary drawings illustrating how the mob,
under leadership of its trained ngitators, can be maneuvered
CO AI AI UNIST
,,
.
.
.
/7
;
n..-
TACTICS
S“SRATEGY
AND
379
to crush police opposition
znd otherwise
bypass the police
in order to carry out its purpose. A fcw selected illustrations
of Communist mob opcrmtions frol~l this handbooic arc sholvn.
i
“ “’’i’”r
Fig. 1. Shows rhc nmb advancing
It is faced
with only
its objective.
pcrlicemcn, who will attcrs]pt to block
toward
a few
off the
l’~th
Fig.
z. Sho\vs
bow
the police lMVC deployed
into two lines m oppose the mob, and have
ndvnnccd to nvxt it before it enters the intcrscctiol). At contnct, sclcctcd mob members
in front engage police units in combat, permitting the rest of the mob to surge out
mound the flanks into the intersection
and
contiouc toward the objcctivc.
.,,.
.
Fm
~
‘,
‘,
,,,’
. ,.
‘,’.’.”;
T:
7
,,
Fig.
~.
Shows
that
the
police
meeting
the
formed into the classic phakrox or
wedge formation for mutual protecciotl. Again
the formation IMS advanced to meet the mob
bcftsrc it breoks into the intersection.
mob
have
n
Fig. 4. Shows the police phalanx beiog engaged by selected hard core mob members
and the beginning of an envelopment action.
This action will result in the police unit being
surrounded
while
the
mob
moves on to
its target.
380
Iclr.1,
on
G1l’t’ Klr.[.Rl>
Fig. j.
shows a mob
moving forward which has
not yet met any police resiscmcc. During tilis Iwri(ni
scouts arc sent out aII(l il)tclligcnce
.
. ..... --=-q,
(p==y,
—..
I -+
orgmizcd
so
tl)c
mob
Ieufcrs
wi][
Icnofv
where and what kind of
police resistance can be expected. Here the mob has
not made any provision for
protection
or
counter
police action, so is vulnerable to police action. scc
fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Demonstmtcs
how
the
police
would
take
counter
action
against
a
poorly planned and unprepared
mob
action.
This
shows poiicc units blncking
the ndvnncc and hnvinq rcscrvc
units
in adjnming
streets that can move in any
direction
to penetrate
the
mob and force its dispersal.
Fig. 7. 1)cllmnstrntcs hnw
tbe mob should adwmcc into action
against planned
police
resistance.
“Action
units,” spccia]ly armed and
trained,
front,
flanks, and E%
the mob
against the police.
Fig. 8. Another
tactic~l
formation of mob approach,
advancing
along
parallel
lines in segments, each being preceded by an “action
unit.” This formation gives
great flexibility for ent-elopmcnt tnctics and forces the
police
to extend
over
a
wide area,
(;r)NIA[[Jsls”r
“1’ A(:”I”
I[;
s
AAtI)
I(,\.[.
I;(;
-----
--——
--
——-—
E
19
–+
{.,.--l
Fig. 10. This is antrthcr
tcchoiquc to meet the s2me
police formation
as in fig.
9. In this crsc the single
mot) column
brcalcs ioto
three segments, (NIC nloving
t{) tllc ri$llt, t[]~ ntl]~r t,>
tllc Icfr, in (Jr(lcr to flfl[]k
IItc I>f]licc lil}cs.
VJ
l:ig.
I I.
111 case
r(m(ll] lock, tlw
IJI:
381
y
Fig. 9. This is the n}ili.
tary type cnvclr~pmcnt tccll niquc.
TIIC central
mob
~(111111111
IIlccts nll,l sllrrf}tll,,l~
tlw I)l)licc ul]irs frt)tll tl]c
fr(mr md nt tlw sn[]w tinw
tllc t\\,n Cnluulrls (),1 tl,~
pornllcl
streets
tl:,n]< [1,~
ptdicc
lines guarding
the
ccntcr.
I
1
s.r
U(
-., ..
.w!
: .--,
s
of
police
IINJ) column
s]~llts into four fJrCIU}>st[lat
Cnat)lcs a c[)ordinztc~ at[acl{
on the police clcnlcnts from
211 sides.
Fig. [z. A plan to protect a public square where
n meeting or dcnlonstration
is being organized. “Action
units” arc stationed at all
points of cntrnncc
tn the
action
arcs. These
action
units will tiivcrt the police,
delay police eotrnnce
intn
the sqonrc, and proccct and
permit dlc cr,,,v,l
tn I)uil{l
up to where it can hc incltcd to 11101) acti{}ll.
382
KILL
OK
GET
WHAT TO EXPECT
KILLED
FROM THE MOB
This is a very flexible subject, as the scope of mob action
is limited only by its motivating
factors; the arms, supplies
and other materials
available; the number
and type of the
individual mob elements; and whether or not trained agitators
are present to direct the action.
The location of the action also plays an important
part, as
the activities of the mob itself and its capabilities for violence
will be limited by the space availabIe for movement
and
maneuver.
The size of the city square, direction
and width
of the streets entering into it, and the location and type of
buildings will also affect the course of action, in the same
manner as does terrain on the battlefield.
Temperature
and
other climatic factors have influence. For instance, cold, rainy
weather has a slowing down effect on mob activities, movement, and organization.
The tactics employed against the police will also indicnte,
to the trained observer, the nature of the mob leadership and
degree of professional organization present. Evidence of mlvance preparation would be previously prepared handbills znd
posters, possession of weapons of types and quantities not normally available to mob members, ancl simultaneous yet coordinated incit~tion by agitators strategically locotcd throughout the mol).
Abuse. Police elements can be subjected to both verbal
and written abuse. Taunts, ridicule, jeers, and obscene remarks and shouts are to be expected. Derogatory pamphlets
or handbills may be distributed to the crowd and to bystanders before and during the action. Propaganda may be sent to
the police units themselves or distributed in a clandestine manner before and during the disturbance. Posters may be carried
depicting police brutality, or demanding vengeance for past
acts. Sound trucks or agitators using hand-powered transistortype megaphones may be used to direct the mob and to heap
abuse on the police units in an attempt to demoralize them.
Slogans and derogatory material may be painted on the sidewalks, buildings, vehicles, and other likely places.
Noise. A large mob action is always noisy. The shouts,
cries, and chants of the mob members are usually supplemented by the use of fireworks, noise makers, sirens, and
whistles. Very effective use has been made of chants or the
shouting of slogans in a definite rhythm pattern, sometimes
aided by whistles and drums. This type of crowd incitement
GO
AI
AI
UNIST
TACTICS
AND
STRATEGY
383
is very effective when well organized
and directed.
Rioters
sing songs of an inflammatory
nature, and chant slogans. They
readily respond to man’s instinctive attraction
to jungle drums
and primitive
rhythm
as exemplified
in a war dance. These
tactics have the effect of increasing the aggressiveness
of the
mob, especially when there are large numbers involved. Police may become demoralized if they have not been trained
in what to expect.
Thrown
Objects.
Every
conceivable
object
has been
thrown
units in mob actions. Listed are a few of the more
common: Garbage, animal and human droppings, rotten fruits
and vegetables, eggs, bricks, rocks, paving stones, bottles, cans
filIed with dirt, plastic bags and balloons filled with liquid
ammonia or chlorox, bags of pepper, containers full of stain
(also dye and acids), birdsflot, tacks, firecrackers,
jagged
pieces of scrap metal, improvised fire and explosive bombs,
powdered glass, chunks of window glass, chimney soot, coal
and coal dust, plates, triple-pronged fish hooks, tin-can lids,
links of chain, short lengths of barbed wire, or any other
similar object.
Primitive
type catapult
dcviccs, slings, sling shots, and
similar devices using old inner tubes have been used to hurl
objects from within the mob fit police who Ire out of nmgc
of hand-thrown objects. Thrown olsjccts can not only lx
expected from the mob in inunedinte contact but also froln
members on roofs, imicle windows, nnd on buildings adjacent
to the action.
at
police
Hand Weapons. Mob members may be armed with hand
weapons secured from local sources such as looted hardware
stores. The following have been encountered in action: wooden clubs, pieces of pipe, pointed sticks or improvised spears,
short lengths of concrete reinforcing steel, wooden clubs with
lengths of chain or barbed wire tied to the end, baseball bats,
golf clubs, hockey sticks, hoe handles, hammers, machetes,
hand sickles, shovels with edges sharpened, pitchforks, axes,
all types of knives, handguns, mattocks, ice picks, bows and
arrows, and air pistols and rifles.
If the mob is a spontaneous one, hand weapons will norh nature. The
mally be fewer in number and less datlgerous
longer the mob has to organize and prepare, the more armament must be expected. police officials, by using their intelligence services and observation facilities, must always consider
the degree of mob armament when pkmning a suppressing
action,
38<.
KILI.
OR
GET
KILLED
Shoulder Weapons. Arnixtureof
sporting-type
firesrms may
be encountered,
if the opportunity
has been present to secure
them
by looting or to assemble them in the prior planning
phase. Nornmlly,
a well-disciplined
mob ICCIby trained agitators will not desire to employ too mtny firearms. Sniping
tactics will be employed rather thins mms use of these wcnpons. Heavy use of fireamm will result in counter firepower
from the police, who may be replaced by heavier-armed military units if the situation deteriorates. The mob, of course,
would prefer to combat the lighter armed and less deadly civil
police units.
Isokrted sniping cxn nommlly be cxi)cctcd in n Inrgc nctilm.
For this purpose .22 caliber arnls are very effective, as tile
report is not loud and the location of the sniper is more dif?icult to determine. Expert riflemen with scope-sighted rifles
can also be expected in a mob in a well-organized and serious
operation. These men usually have instructions to “pick off”
the key police officials directing the counter mob action. This
is onc reason thnt n ilolice unit, trained for riot nction, ]llust
ilavc its own cw.mtcr snipers avni12hlc.
Use of Fire and Explosives. ilIoLss under professional direction often blow up or set fire to buildings and vehicles in
order to create more confusion, increase the excitement of
their own mob elements, and to try to create a diversion by
drlwing the attention of the police from the main scene of
action.
If the mob is nloving forward, it may contain within itself
special groups or individuals who are equipped to start fires
as the action progresses. Other special groups may be designated to go in advance of the fire-setters and rip open doors,
windo~vs, and gates with heavy crow bars, so that access
can be secured to the interior of buildings. These same tactics
of breaking open doors also make it easier for the inevitable
looters to operate that follow in the wake of the mob.
Normally fire hydrants will be destroyed in conjunction
with a deliberate torch action. Areas between the police and
the mob may bc flooded with gasoline and set off to prevent
police contact. Fksming torches mny be utilized at night for
mob illumination purposes and also to further arouse primitive emotions. Gasoline-soaked waste is often used along with
other gasoline-saturated, flammable objects such as cushions
and pillows hus-lcd fit police clcmcnts from roof tops nnd
vrindows. Fronts of buildings can be (ircncilcd with gmolinc
and set fire.
“rAC”r
(; OAIXIUNIST
ICS
ANO
S“rl\:\”l’I;.
385
(;Y
The “molotov”
cocktail is a fnvorice mob weapon. This is
usually a glms bottle filled with gmoline and corlced. Around
the neck of the bottle will be tied a piece of gasoline-soaked
rfig.
lllc
I-ag
is
set
on
fire
and
the
t)ottlc
tllrotin
at
S{IIIIC
tgninst whicl) it will shatter on impnct. IIy using 2
slmtgun with a blank shell, a crude but effcctivc If)ng-range
launcher for the “molotov” cocktail cm be devised. 111place
of a cork, a long, round stick is used as the botdc stopper.
object
The butt of the gun is placed on the ground and the stick
placed in the muzzle of the gun against the blank shell. The
bomb is ignited and the trigger of the gun pulled. The gas
charge of tllc blank sllcll ogninst tllc cnd of the stick \\’ill
drive the fire bomb a considerable tliscmcc. A little cxpcrimenmtion as to the proper angle of the piece will develop
a fairly efficient, long-range launcher.
Gasoline stations and gxs and gasoline-stor~ge tanks are all
prime targets for mob action and sabotoge, prior to or in
conjunction with mob fiction. Fire not only has a tncticd usc
by the mob but it nlso is very cffcctivc in inciting prinlitive
emotions among d~c mob mcl~~bcrs thereby incrcasil]g the
violence potential.
Utilizing commercial sources for explosives, secured either
in advance or during looting, a trained mob will use the destruction of key buildings as a diversion action to draw the
police, Booby traps and bombs placed in heavily-populated
buildings will be part of the action. Explosives can be more
easily concealed, and timing devices readily improvised. Consequently, this tactic must always be expected against planned
targets such as utilities and communications prior to the actual
disturbance. Planned explosions blamed on other parties are
always a good way to fabricate martyrs.
Attacks On Small Groups and Vehicles. Many times a mob
is incited to violence by a directed action against some srndl,
specific group of individuals or their property. In this manner
hatred can be aroused that may result in beatings, nnd killing
or burning. Racial minorities fire often the ohicct of such ~n
attack. This type of tactic can be used as a diversion or as fi
violence
that can later bc dir-cctcci
tmgct to set off explosive
at the
principal
Vehicles
or
trucks
such
that
target.
as trolleys,
are
buses,
unfortunate
and
enough
privately-ownccl
to
bc
parked
cars
in
the
Trolleys and buses
arc derailed or turned over and set on fire. Fleming ncws-
nction
area
are
always
potentinl
targets.
386
papers
gasoline
KILL
are forced
first
and
OR
GET
into
gas tanks,
then
set on fire.
KILLED
or cars
can
be drenched
with
Buses and other vehicles can be commandeered
by the
rioters. They cm be set on fire, or driven under their own
power, in tllc direction of tllc police liues, the driver jumping
out before contnct. The smnc tactics with or without drivers
can be used to break blockades or damage buildings. At times
these vehicles are loaded with explosives.
Tires of parked cars may be slashed and upholstery ripped
open and windows broken. Many times large tacks to damage
tires are scattered in the streets along routes police vehicles
will use to approxch the mob.
On occasion trucks, buses, and similm vehicles have bcco
stalled, or accidents crcnted that will MOCICoff streets and
prevent police elements from entering areas or leaving their
headquarters.
Loo~ing. It is a standard tactic to organize or to encourage
looting. In this manner, the uneducated, non-dedicated mob
elements will be ottrnctcd, Pron]iscs of cmily acquired wealth,
either in the form of material goods or money, is always a
sure way to attract mob members.
Liquor stores, hardware stores, banks, gun stores, jewelry
stores, and food stores are all prime targets. In conjunction
with the general looting by the uninitiated, the professionals
will concentrate on police stations, newspaper offices, telephone, radio and television and telegraph stations, government buildings, and banks.
Communications and Utilities. These are prime targets of any
large, well-organized mob action. This does not mean that
the mob itself will first attaclc thcm. Many times planned sabot~ge will take place in conjunction with or prior to a mob
action.
Cutting off electric power and telephone facilities is one
of the first moves to be expected in support of any organized
mob action.
Demonstrations. A demonstration is described as an assemblage of persons exhibiting sympathy against authority or
with some political, economic, or social condition or movement.
Public demonstrations frequently are the planned forerunners to mob violence. Due to skillful Iexdership and knowledge of mob psychology, a seemingly hmmless or peaceful
demonstration can in minutes be turned into a howling de-
COklhl
UNIST
TACTICS
structivc
[1101J. [Jolice
instances
and
find
are
themselves
AND
often
ST RA’rl:.
taken
unprepared
b}.
387
GY
surprise
in
such
to meet the sudden
change in the situ2tion.
Sol]letilllcs :1 series of dclllonstrations will bc czlled by the
orgilnizers I)cforc tllc scc[lc is set for flctunl Conccrtcd lnob
action, or cnougll strcllgtl~ of nunlbcrs and confidence is dcvclopcd to toucl~ tilings off.
The parading of the bodies of so-called martyrs in their
cofins in the streets as victims of claimed government or
police brutality and the parades of groups of women dressed
in black as pretended widows of the dead, and of so-called
martyrs, are ex~mples of this type of demonstmtion activity.
A crowd of persons may gather as a result of some event
tiM mouscs interest and curiosity. ‘Ike crowd cm be turned
into a mob if it can be held together long enough and the
thinking of the individuals ignited by agitators into mob
action. On the other hand, the planned demonstration is &
ready far advanced along the path to mob violence as the
participants are already drawn to the scene by the united
tllinlcing and interest.
Much attention must be given by police elements to the
planned delnonst~~tion. Continuous surveillance must be n~aint:lined and good intelligence accumulated before, during, and
after demonstrations.
The Planned or Fabricated Incident. When elements bent on
civil disturbances
lack an excuse for one, they will nlanufacture m incident
around which to develop and prepare the
]nob action. This will vary from planned assassinations to the
blowing up of monuments
and buildings. The metins is not
important
if the results arc obtained.
The pl:lnncd assassination
of the popular figure, Dr. Jorge
Gaitcm,
in Bogota, Colombia in April 1948, was used to set
off destructive
mob violence; it cost millions of dollars in
damage. The popular
Latin slang expression,
“bogotazo”
is
now commonly
used to describe a destructive,
planned, mob
action.
Miscellaneous Mob Tactics. It is now common practice to
make full use of unarmed women and children in mob actions.
They are usually placed in front of the mob in direct contact
with the police elements. Wounded and incapacitated war
veterans arc similxrly used. Agitation continues behind the
protective screen of women and children and at the indicated
time, they are pushed against the police lines by those in the
center and rear.
388
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
hlony tilllcs the rioters in frrmt of the police will also be
waving the natiomrl flag and singing national anthenls.
Such tactics make it very difficult for policc to break up
the mob by usc of physical force; tear gas munitions are
usually the best solution.
In June 1960 when President Eisenhower was visiting Okinawa, Comrnunist-inspired riots and demonstrations took place.
U.S. Marines were ordered to fix bayonets and clear away the
crowd. Young Okinawan college girls are reported to have
unbuttoned their blouses, bared their breasts, and dmcd the
l~arirles to advance against their naked bosoins.
Rioters often trike advantage of a hillside or an incline by
rolling vehic]cs, old auto tires and wheels, or barrels at the
police line.
Domestic animals can be driven in front of the mob against
police, On some occasions delayed-action
explosive charges
have even been tied to animals which were driven toward
the police lines.
When rnountcd police are used against a trained mob, its
rncmbers may try to hnnlstring tllc borscs tIy cutting their
leg tendons.
Combustion or burning-type gas grenades and 37mm projectiles are, due to their use over many years, well known to
the cxpcrienccd agitator. Specific persons will be designated
to pick thcm up and throw thcm back. Instructions are also
given to the 11101}mclnbers to kick these munitions asictc and
to avoid tllc wllitc snwkc cloud crcatcd during the burning
process that liberates the gas, and discloses the area covered.
Thus being forewarned, they can avoid any visible gas concentration that does not completely saturate the entire scene
and to continue aggressive action against the police. In many
recent actions, selected mob members have entered action
wearing cotton work gloves that enable them to pick up and
throw back combustion-type
tear gas grenades and projectiles
without burning their hands on the hot body of the grenade.
The fact that this type of grenade heats up is only a partial
deterrent to throwback.
cha~!!e?’
THE
16
PROFESSIONAL
RIOT
CONTROL UNIT
LTHOUGI-I
this text continues to be of great value to
the combat soldier and t[~e law-enforcement
officer in
any type of individual hand-to-hand combat, armed or unarmed, it has recently been greatly enlarged so as to be of
specific assistance also in the training of police and military
units in riot duty. The incidence of riots is increasing throughout the world in this epoch of social unrest and upheavn].
American Ifiw cnforccnlcnt agcncics hnvc not yet had to face
the type of major, dircctcd, lnob violence that is now frcqucndy occurring in sonle other nations. Let us hope that
our own domestic tranquility continues, and as a measure of
insuring that this hope may become reality, let us train and
equip our defense forces, botl~ military and police, so that
tl~cy \vill not bc caught unprcpfirccl if suddenly CI1lCCIupon
to quell mob violcllcc.
A
Sonic of the nlatcrial in tl]is cl]aptcr will not seem to apply
directly to our current
domestic situation,
but rather to be
“slanted” toward problems of mob control arising more frequently outside our borders. The material is included as useful
background information to help each individual law enforcement agency develop its own training and techniques in mob
control to meet any eventuality in its local situation.
THE PROFESSIONAL
UNIT
In many countries throughout the world the army is actually the national police force and is maintained principally
to keep domestic order. This is especially true in LatinAtnerican nations, in the hliddle East, and the Orient.
In such a situation a combination of the best techniques
of the military and of civil police can best bc employed by
the army-police
force to dominate a riot situntion. The cost
389
390
KTT.
L
OR
GET
KILLED
of maintenance
of a permanent
standby riot control
unit to
keep conditions
stable need not be prohibitive.
Due to the
potential
or actual incidence
of disturbances,
such a force
may even be considered
necessary
to keep the government
in power. lVhether
civilian or military
as to uniform
and
nomenclature,
the basic purpose of such a unit is to control
and dominate any mass manifestations that would menace local
and national authority.
The maintenance of such a professional unit to handle mob
violence would seem to be an urgent need in countries which
may have to ffice planned, professionally-led,
Communistinspired mobs. IN d]e past, the failure of the civil police, where
they existed, resulted in calling on the regular troops. Usually
the mere presence of regular troops was sufficient to control
the situation. But the professional leadership of some of today’s mobs is less impressed by a show of force. When the
presence of troops fails to halt an aggressive mob, and gas
attack proves inadequate, the final alternative is to order the
troops to fire. Commanding officers cannot expect their mcn
to stand up in a passive manner to the tactics, abuse, and
threats of a professional mob, even when orders have been
given not to fire. This is particularly true in countries where
educated
and
the troops themselves are illiterate or poorly
lacking
in discipline.
The
fire
dominate
situation.
to
their
firepower
unit
and
the
to protect
uniform.
No
troops
may
They
themsclvc.s
finfll
alternative
believe
are
that
quite
they
likely
and the dignity
remains
but
must
to
of
the
use
their
use
regular troops are used against
civilians of their own nation and locality, the situation plays
into the hands of the communists,
who will be quick to
criticize as more martyrs are created.
of
force.
Yet,
especially
~vhen
Another aspect of mob control in countries that are not
highly developed, and where there is little public discipline,
is that most local and civil police forces and their members
do not want any part of a violent counter-mob action. When
faced with a “home-grown”
mob, they have numerous personal, political, and other reasons for being reluctant to aggressively suppress it. They all realize that they have to live
there after the incident is over. The fact that students, women,
children, and war veterans are used in the fornmtion of the
mob also makes the position of law enforcement
personnel
all the more untenable, as the individual policeman may he
forced to usc strong nwnsurcs or cxtrcl]lc fflrcc against neighbors, fiicnds, and cvcil rclntivcs,
PRO
FE SS1 ONAL
RIOT
CONTROL
UNIT
39 I
These handicaps n]ay be largely avoided by organizing and
training an adeqmttely-equipped special riot police force to
control threatened mob action. The purpose of this group
is to avoid, when possible, the heavy casualties that may occur
when military infantry tnctics and armament are used, but at
the same time to be able to use whatever force is necessary
to control the situation.
What is needed is a para-military police organization that
contains within itself all the armament, training, and discipline
necessary to dominate the mob by application of only the
“necessary force.” This idea is not entirely new but it has
been little used to date. The unit must include only specially
selected officers :Ind men, and its training must bc thorough.
All members must understand
that the mission is to dominate
..&
1
. ., \... .,
-
LEFT: The formidable appearance of an entire unit of riot police
wearing masks is very effective in discouraging mob elements. The
“Man from Mars” aspect with its psychological
may discourage the uneducated,
less aggressive
need of force.
impact on the mob
type rioter without
CENTER:
Poli,cernan . equipped with gas mask of the latest type,
which protecci hmn against the effects of tear and nauseating gases
and at the same time gives him maximum visibility and carrying conlfort. The mask is carried in a locally-made special pouch. All masks
should be cle:uly labeled so that each man wears his own, which he
has previously tested and adjusted to his own head and face.
RIGHT:
A. riot policeman equipped with baton and carrying tear
gas grenades in special holsters. Wit[, the baton he has a potent and
offcrrsive wc;tpon. Knowledge
in its use also creates great self-confidence. He can be equipped with gas and snrokc grenades. If desired
hc may carry a
istol. The baton-grenade
members of tbc S( uad
(grenmliers)
arc arso rcsponsilslc for the protection
of the mcm L crs
who carry the g2s-Iaunching guns.
392
a
KII.
L
mob ~vith a mininlum
ready
(or
and
less)
able
drastic
to
OR
of
change
tactics
GET
KII,
L!2D
casualties
yet
quickly
and
efficiently
on the
temper
depending
at the smne time
to
and
be
more
action
mob. It is really an “in-between” force that because
of its flexibility, can adapt to any given mob action.
of
the
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION
The org:mizntion
of the unit is Imcd m d~c squxl m the
s]l]allcst operating
tactical element. Individual soldiers or
police are not trained or encouraged to operxtc individually
in mob control.
All tactics are such that the same formations, movements,
and actions against the mob can be used by a squad, a platoon,
a company, or a battalion.
The squad and larger units carry the weapons and firepower designated, which are to be. used only on order of the
leadqr. Thus the commander may prescribe that some soldiers
be amled with a caliber .45 automatic pistol, some with gas
If riot
grenades or gas guns, others with a caliber .30 carbine.
sticks are also to be used, the carbine may be slung across
the back. The sqund leader may be armed with a submachine
gun, riot gun, or sniper’s rifle.
Alembers of the squad are divided into two groups, a front
rank and a rear rank. The front rank is to be rendy for contact with mob elements and will usually carry tear gas
grenades and the baton, or riot stick. These men are used
to attnck the mob with the sticks, to launch or throw gas
grenades, and also to protect the rear rank, consisting of
three squad members carrying special gas guns.
In the platoon formation there are usually two squads in
line armed with riot sticks and grenades. The gas guns are in
the rear. The reserve squad is armed with carbines and other
special weapons, according to the situation.
All action in which launching of gases is ordered, either
by grenade or gun, is done on command. There is no indiscriminate use of the gas munitions. Use of the baton and
changes in tactical formations are only on command of the
commander of the unit, who stays behind the line of contact with the mob in order better to observe and control the
action. The commander maintains his reserve under his immed]ate control. He is the only one that can authorize the
use of fireamls. In this manner the responsibility can be placed
directly on the officer, in case fireamls are used with consequent casualties.
PRfs
Ft?SSIONA1.
RIOT
CONTROL
UNIT
393
.......
.,’
COLT
AI< MAL1lX
AI{-15
Cal. ,123 Rifle
This is a new combat rifle that is recommended
by the factory
for both police and military use. It weighs Icss than seven pounds
with a loaded zo-rouncl magazine. It is recommended
for use at ranges
up to 500 yards. The high velocity of the small diameter bullet gives
it extraordinary
penetration. Firing can be either semi- or full automatic. Grenades can bc launched from the rifle and a scope cm be
mounted
on the carrying handle for sniping. The rifle has penetrating
power against metal objects such as car bodies and engine blocks,
that is superior to any other arm in its class. Those departments that
have use for its special characteristics
will find it a welcome addition
to the arsenal.
FORMATIONS
Forllmtions in mob control fire generally based on stand2rd
infantry fornmtions. Police mld troops with knowledge and
training in normal drill formations will have no difficulty in
adnpting to the smzll vnrimions needed for more ef?iclent
mob
and riot controi.
There
are four basic formations tlmt me used for riot conarc the coltmm, the skirnlish line, the wedge, and
the diagomd formations.
trol. These
The column formation
generally
is used for approach
to
the riot area. When coming into the view of the rioters for
the first time and in approaching
them, this formation
should
always be moving in doukle ti7nc. This fast tempo of march
is very impressive, psychologically,
to the mob members. in
fact, all changes of fornmtion in front of the mob are best
performed in the faster tempo. This is not only for the visual
effect but also for tactical reasons when formations must be
changed rapidly in close contact. All practice should be conducted likewise at double time.
the
The line of skirvlishers is for use when confronting
mob, to advance against it, for a display of force, or to block
off an area. This is the usual fornmtion when the unit is in
]ine confronting the mob but not in action or contact. From
this formation
gas can be launched and the wedge or other
formation
can be assumed rapidly.
KILL
394
OR
Gl?”r
KILLED
.
,..=.
--.. .. . . .. . .
.,,
,,, ..-’
SQUAD
.
“LINE
OF
.-
:.-
SKIRMISHERS
This formation is used when confronting
the mob, or advancing
against it. It is also used in a display of force. In this illustration,
grenadiers with batons are in the front rank. Three squad members
with 37mm gas guns are in the second file. The squad leader is in
the rear and is armed with a subtnachine gun. The men with the 37mm
gas guns
can be placed in the front rank during a display of force, or
can advance and fire short-rmge
shells into the mob from positions
between tbc grcnndiers. They also can fire long-range shells into the
mob from the position shown. Men in tl]c front rank, when not in
mob contact, cm rsn command klwcl while Iong-rsngc
shells arc being fired. In this formation,
the 37mm gum are protcctc{i
by the
grenadiers. They can also be considered
as a reserve to fill in the
line, if necessary.
‘Khc wedge [orr!r,ltio?z is used in clcnring streets find splitting
the snob. It is an offensive for]] lation. In case of chnnge of
direction or of withdrawal, the fos-nmtion mn be converted
into a triangle or diamond by using the reserve to fill in the
base.
The dhrgomrl (“right echelon” or “left echelon”) formation is assumed from the line of skirmishers or from the
wedge. Its principal use is in movement against the mob
when it is desired for the entire unit or elements of it to
drive the mob members in a given direction, such as down
a parmculm street.
All of these formations can be used by squad, platoon,
company, or battalion. They are basic. Descriptions in detail w-ith the commands on ho~v they can be formed are
xvailable in any st:mdmxl U.S. infantry manual on formations,
rccw]]lncnded
w a reference
including FM Iy- I j previously
text.
Rules for Use of Formations. ( i ) The formation
must be
find tllc line hchd in the face
such that it can bc mnintnincd
prinof direct mob action and physicol
contoct.
“l”IIc guiding
ciple is tht]t movcl]lcnt in tiw dC[i(Jll,
whcrhcr
it hc
offensive,
SQUAD
IN lVEI>Gli
FORAIA”I-lON
Grcnndicrs fonll the “V,” 1{.irll :] s(ltl;ld Icntlcr nrnwd \vith nn nutn\\, itll
3701111g:ls
I]lltic wcalmn III rc;lr of the I>t)mt nmn. “1’llrcu mcn
guns mc in column in nxr
of the squzd lmdcr, ncting under his
{Irdcrs as a rcscrvc.
SQUAD
IN
DIAGONAL
FORMATION
TIIC diagond CM] bc formed frunt either left or right. It is useful
when it is desired to move the mob members in my given direction,
such as into a side street. The dingonal formation must be practiced
so tlmr it cm bc mstlnlcd r~pidly in the midst of any action and from
any other basic fornmtion. In this cmc the mm on either cnd can art
as a pivot in case a wheclirrg action is ordered,
396
K1l.1.
PLATOON
OR
GI”l
IN WEDGE
1< 11.1.1:0
FORMATION
This is an offensive formation used for splitting up mob elements,
and advancing
and clearing streets. In the illustration two squacis
carrying
imtons, grcnndcs, and ~7mm gas guns mske up the frunt
ur “V” of the formminn. Squad lenders are ischind armc(l with sulJn)acllinc guns. Dirccrly to the rcnr uf the point is the ofliccr ill CnJIImand, with a radio man on his left. The third squad is in rcscrvc
in the rear of the (dliccr.
It is acnlcd
37111[11gls guns, and special rifles for
with
nutomatic
wcrip{ms,
extra
sniping, etc. It fils(j can carry
extra nmnitiuns and special equipment. ‘Ilc
thirci stitrmi is trscd tu
rcinforcc ti~c line, protect .tl~c rear ami flanks, fnr cnuntcr snii>ing, Inti
any other special usc brougilt about by the circumstances.
it operates
ondcr tile direct commznd
of tile oficcr.
It can bc in column or
dispersed as si~own. This basic formation
can be used in units {Jf
company and battaiion size witil equal effectiveness. The line of si<irmisilers, diagonxi, or any type wheeling movement
can be assumed
from ti~is formation, on command.
defensive, or static, is always to be zmdertakcu m o unit. l%is
is true whether
the unit is a squad, platoon,
company,
or
battalion. Individual
members of the police units must never
be permitted to operate separately,
both for reasons of safet!md efficiency. The strength of the police unit is the strength
of its combat formations, much more than the individu~t
prolvcss of the men.
(2)
hcb
form:ltion
should have 2 reserve, which will
serve under the oflicer in command as he dictates, to meet the
demands of the situtition. Alenlbers of this reserve can be
used as messengers, to reinforce the line, replace wounded,
perfoml special firing missions, handle prisoners, or perform
other essential tasks. It is never aclviszhlc m commit all the
unit rcscrvc to the action, if this can possibly bc avoided,
]}R()~~$sr()NAI,
Rln’1’
(; OA’”l’RO
1.”
(JN1.],
397
(3) The oficer commanding
the unit during action nlust
al~vays be in the rem of the line of contact. This is necessary
so that the leader can be in a position to observe the action,
send messages, give orders, and othetxvisc control the action.
The lender’s exact position behind his unit during the Iction
is not Iixcd; it is the position frol]l which he can best pcrforl]l
I]is ]nission of control.
(4) ‘rl~e choice of fornl~tion QIICI tactics used must dwiIp
be such dxtt no members of the mob can get in its rear. If a
situntitm develops that l]l~l<es this a strong probability,
the
formation should withdraw.
(5) I! is never mlvisnblc to conlmit a small fonlmtion tOO
deeply Into a nlob or crolvd; rsthcr~visc the unit may IOSC
maneuvet-ability and control and its avenue of retreat cut off.
(6)
very
from
range
If the unit formation is small and the crowd or mob
large, contact’ should be avoided and the mob handled
a distance, taking advantage of the use of smoke, longgas guns, and other tactical meims.
(7) If a rctrcot bcc(mlcs necessary hccflmc of nn unforcsccn clmngc in tllc situ:ltion,
this retreat slwu[d Ol\vii-vs bc
mmlc in fo/7/Jiltiol/, slolvly so m n(9t to give any indicntit)ll
of pnnic, xnd with tllc ~17cc of tllc mcn towm-~f the 71Z01J.An!’
situation
thnt will indicntc panic on tlw part of the police
units will only encourzgc the mob and make it more aggressive. Even the members of the mob w’ili initially respect the
uniform worn by tl~e unit, and the unit formation ond discipline must be maintained to keep this respect.
(8) Changes in fornlations
and movements
are alwzys nlzde
quickly.
Surprise is to be nchicvcd wherever
possible, ‘llc
oticnsive is always to bc lmtintaincd once an nction has begun.
(9) Should any nloh member lay hands on a nlctllbcr of
the unit and try to capture him or withdraw
him from the
formation,
other members
must instnndy
converge
on the
adversary and overwhe]m
him with blows from the baton or
other weapon.
the uniforms of
( 10) In addition to clisciplinccl fonnfitions,
I]lcn and officers lnust hc neat in appcara[wc.
This helps develop the ill)prcssion
that the mob is not dealing with individuals but \vitl~ :1 unit. Any offense against an individual
policelncn nlust he considercc! as an offense agoinst the entire
unit.
Basic Principles in Dealing with a Mob. In initiating
operations agninst a civil disturbance ~~here the potential of mob
398
KII.
I. OR
GET
KI1.l.
F.D
violence exists, the poiicc commander should employ the
following measures and, if possible, in the following sequence:
( 1) i14d{c n show of strength to dcmonstmtc to the mob
by means of military appcmzmce of his unit, changes in fcsrmation, and display of nrmmnent, that the unit is there for a
serious purpose and is able to use all necessary force to disperse the mob. (This is done without any threats and is in
fzct by implication.)
A DISPLAY
OF I:O1{CE
In this simulmcd mob SCCNCthe riot unit is shown facing the nd
but not in contlcL with it. ‘l-his is the period when display of m]llament, fixing of i.myoncrs, mounting of gas nmks, chrulgcs in f{lrmations, and drill movements arc cmployetf. This will many times bc
very effective in dispersing the crowd or mob in its early formative
stage. This phase is followed
up by a warning to the crowd to disperse peacefully.
(z) hlake z proclamation to the crowd to disperse, giving a
time limit. Sound trucks, hand megaphones, or other available means to deliver the demand to disperse in a peaceful
manner, are to be employed. In some cases leaders of the
agitation can be called to the presence of the commanding
officer for this purpose. This will depend on the motivation
and the attitude of the crowd and how close it is to the
mob stage.
(3) If, after waiting a reasonable time, the mob does not
voluntarily disperse, resort to an offensive riot-control fom~ation and move against the crowd or mob using batons to disperse it. This procedure will depend on the attitude of the
mob members and many times is best employed at the stage
before the crowd members have arrived at unified purpose
or objective.
l’ROI:ESS1
ONAL
RIOT
CONTROL
UNIT
399
W.4RNING THE MOB TO DISPERSE
This is the second phase after a displ~y of force and if possible,
is Inacfc prior to any contacr. In tllc illustrntiwl, the riot (Init leader
is Ivarllillg tllc crt)wd to disl]crsc SI1(I is giving it n tilllc Iilllit lxforc
I,r{wccdillg with “ncccswry
furcc” ngnillst it. “1’l)c hnlltl-carricxl, trfitlsiscor-type
nlcgapllonc
is illcfis]wnsahlc for rllis purpose, “1’hc officur
advnnccs until IIe is ncm- tllc nwb in order to give it the order to clispcrsc. Note that he is accomp~nicd
by members of the unit wbo net
as fkrnk guards. Wbcn hc and Ilis mcn return to the unit they normally
walk backward,
always facing the mob. Psychologically
as well as
practically it is never advisable to turn the baclc to a mob, especially
when there is a potential for violence.
(4) LaY down a concentration
of tear gm. This
to be
followed by nauseating
gas, if indicated.
Smoke also can be
used at any time in combination with the gases. The gas
barrage is normally followed up by an aggressive attack on
the mob elements, or the attack can be made at the same
time the heavy concentration
of gas is delivered. Normally
the attack is made after a short interval has passed, to see
to disperse
the gathering.
if the gas alone was sufficient
Usually
gas should
unit wearing
be followed
(5) AS a last resort,
done by first ordering
to fire. These
they are not
of the entire
the continued
The above
up by
usc of
lmtons
with
the
gas masks.
order firearms to be used. This is best
a limited
number
of expert
marksmen
marksmen should be from the reserve unit. If
sufficient to break up the mob, full firepower
unit must be used. Full firepower
would mean
use of all chemical agents as well m fircqrms.
sequence of action may not IJc prncticahle if
~w
Kll,
l,
01[
(; K’1”
KII,
LJ:O
the mob action is already under way when the unit arrives;
in such case steps 1, z, and 3 may have to be omitted.
The decision m to use of sickening gas in place of or with
tear gas is entirely up to the judgment of the officer in command, breed on his analysis of the temper of the mob.
Logically it would be the last step before use of firearms.
It is assumed in this discussion thzt the riot control unit
has strength and armament to domitmte the situation. If it
does not but attempts
and fails to do so, a more chaotic
situation results. Mobs must be dealt with from strength and
give
the
rioters the upperany possible situation that might
hand, even temporarily, should be avoided.
If strength is not available the mob cannot be dominated;
it can only be attacked from a distance with the hope that
long-range use of gas munitions will disperse or delay it
until sufficient forces are accumulated.
All operations in mob control and dispersion should invnriahly be preceded b-y stud.v or prior intelligence from all
sources, including consultations with local law enforcement
officers or units already on the scene. A’11 standard military
procedures to arrive at an intelligent estimate of the situation before contact should be employed. Arrangements for
liaison with other units, ccmmlunic:ltions,
nledical service,
reinforcements,
etc., should be completed before physical
contact with the mob is nlade or the unit is committed to the
attack.
itiOB CONTROL
TACTICS
AND
SUGGESTIONS
The follo~ving precepts and ideas must be adapted by the
individual riot force to meet its own situation. All will not
of
the
mob;
location;
apply.
Type, size, find nmtivation
qwmtity of gm munitions available; nu[nhcr of n]en in the
riot control unit; reserves and weapons available; and other
pertinent factors will all affect planning and tactics. Each
situation will be different. The following ideas and comments
are ofFered, accordingly.
(I) Never try to bluff a mob. Don’t threaten to do things
that you cannot do or enforce. Should your bluff be “called,”
the mob thereafter becomes more lawless and dangerous. A
threat is always antagonizing and may be accepted as a dare.
Be able to back up what you say or don’t say it.
f 2)
Do
not
attempt
to do more than you can reasombly
expect to accomplish with the forces you have available. If
the mob is too large, split it up, usc gas munitions in quantity,
and create delay while awaiting reinforcements.
(3) In extreme emergency situations m&e an advmlce decision to use firearms as a last resort. Let the mob know it
and put no restrictions on your men and their use of firearms
at the proper time and signal, once the action has begun. Do
not resort to firearms under panic conditions just because you
happen to run out of gas munitions or don’t hnve gwi in
sufficient quantity for the job. It is much better to plan m
from
the outset
and tell the moh so,
use live ammunition
rather than commit yourself to a policy of graduol attrition
of your men and gas equipment ending up using bullets as a
desperation measure.
(4) If your forces are badly outnumbered
and faced with
a potentially dangerous, but still inactive, mob, stall for time
untii reinforcements
cfin bc secured. Don’t put too Ill UCh
reliance on the old axion) “one riot, onc ranger” v’hen dc:ding with a large potentially violent crowd which badly outnumbers your forces, fire power, and chemical agent czplhilities. If violence breaks out you should have planned in
xdwtnce your position, and stnnd in an area ~vherc YOLI can
Inake the best use of ynur limited forces, taking a~wntage
of terrain, narrow streets, and buildings.
control
(5) Keep your nlen under tight discipline and
~vhen facing a mob. Do not let members of the mob aggravate
your men into premature action by “name cnlling.” Begin
any offensive action on your o~vn orders. Do not let
mob members set things off by “baiting” individual members
of your forces. The reasons and need for this should be
clearly covcrcd during tile tmining progrnn] and rcitcratcd, if
possible, just before any mob contact or action.
(6) Training
in the use of riot sticks is always desirable.
Many times a crowd can be kept from becoming
an unruly
mob by their use or threat. Back up your stick men by gas
nnd grenade throwing units in the event the use of the riot
clubs nlone cnn not handle the situation. Develop, during
training, a signal for orderly withdrawal of your stick men at
the tinle grenades and other munitions are projected
over their
heads into the crowd. Do not have your stick men withdraw
by turning and running. This gives the mob the idea that the
forces of law and order are in a state of panic, which in-
TWO
lXIRhlATIONS
USING
TIHE BATON
tile b~ton to extend the line to block ofi given
arcm.
Each man extends his baton and it is grasped by the tip by the
adjacent squad mcrnber with his free hand. .I’his is a good formation
to use when there is no physical
contact taking pktcc with the mob
and the situation is passive.
Above:
Using
Below: An interlocked arm fornlation that presents an unbreakable
front to the mob. This formation can be used tn blnc]c off a narrow
that is
street or doorway. It cm bc rsmiotaincd against a passive mob
merely pushing ag2inst the line.
In both of these formations
note that the squad leader is in tllc
rem with his automatic weapon. l-he 37mm gas guns me also in reserve to bc USC(3in any sudden chat)gc of the simatioll. Snort ur lollgrange shells can be fired into the mob either from the line or from
the rear.
creases mob
aggressiveness.
The stick men in their withdrawal, after gas munitions have been launched, should do
it in ~ormztio7z, walking backwards, always facing the hostile
elements, If your stick men in the front rank are without
masks, have a reserve group of stick men (if possible) with
masks, to step into the line when the gas munitions are
launched.
(7) When in close contact with apparently unarmed mobs,
you must anticipate that bricks, stones, clubs, or other missiles
will be thrown or used against your men. Protective helmets
hc]mcts
are a Inust. The light, tough, fiber glass pwtectivc
PROFESSIONAL
RIOT
CO NT
ROI,
UNIT
403
used by miners
ancl structural steel workers
nre ideal. They
cml usually be secured at low cost and many times can be
the difference between aggressive action and retreat. The fear
of injury to the hesd} eyes, and face from thrown missiles
or blows is fi!ways present. When these helmets are worn this
danger is grent!y nlinimized with a resulting incrcmed self-confidence. Protective I]elmets can also be painted in distinctive colors to enable better identification and control of your
own forces during periods of poor visibility, such as use of
smoke, gas and nighr action.
(8) Make provision for first aid and medical treatment for
your o~vn nlen prior to any mob contact or action. It is very
inlportmt that your men L17ZOW that they will be tnken care
of if and when they become casualties. Arrangements should
be made for special ambulances, to be held in reserve. Do not
permit those persons or medical units assigned to this task to
be diverted by intending injured rioters. Have separate units
for this purpose, if desired.
(9) YoU should ahvays, where prior planning and manpower permit, keep 2 rcscrvc of rrlco, gas, nnd equipment to
commit to the fiction in all cmcrgcncy. This reserve should
be used to replace injured men and reinforce weak arens.
Whco dlc nlob is brcnking up, it cfin then Lrc committed to
special tasks, such m to pick uJ> mob lc~ders.
[ Io) Comm nnding officials should always be at a vantage
ponit where they cm-r see the entiye action. Binoculars used
from buildings or roof tops, etc. are very useful. Two-way
radio contact with subordimttcs on the scene is always essential in a large action. This contact must also be maintained
with the reserve unit, medical aid groups, etc. Do not make
the mistd{e, if you are the leader, of “i]lunging into the fray,”
with your men. You then lose control of the action as you
cannot scc what is going on. Cover this point and the rcasons for it thoroughly in training.
(, I) Tactical
squad or company formations for use in
riot control such as the flying wedge or other offensive
and protective formations should be practiced in training.
Sigmds for offensive ~ction, retreat, mtd forrmtion changes,
should be developed. I-?and sigrmls, whistle blmts, commands
from tnegaphones, and flares are all available for this purpose.
Colored flares are particularly useful at night and in a daytime action when the noise and smoke of a large action make
other means impractical. The commanding officer should also
always arrange to have assigned and accompany him, indi-
KJLL
404
01{
GET
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viduals for use as messengers. He can utilize members of the
reserve if the manpower situation is critical. Remember, that
in a serious situation, headquarters ofice personnel can be used
in noncombatant jobs such as first aid and as messengers so
as to release the regular forces.
(t 2) Special tactics and formations should be developed in
training to enable physical penetration of the mob body by
the reserve unit or other groups in order to seize Ieaders or
agitators or rescue injured or outnumbered personnel. A riotstick wielding wedge formation is usually advocated with the
reserve and leader inside.
P..
,
;6
?.
?~’+
—-.,;.
.7.
.“
,’
.=,
‘,
id
#:
“.’---=-?s ,,
-—.
“..
~
.1
,,,
,.
~.
1.. ”
~>-. .
.,
!ShfiE
::
.,
,. ..
“‘k,.
.,”::..
&A..”-
.
THE
> .’”
“
IVEDGE
.
OFFIWS1\~E
..’
*,.
.
FORMATIOAT
In this simul~ted mob action, the upper illustration shows the unit
beginning to advance after it has just assumccl the wedge formation
from the previous Iinc of skirmishers. At this point gas would norn,ally
gas guns, or gas
have been Iaunchcd inm the mob from the long-range
grenades thrown taking advantage of favtsralslc winds. Jhlasks would
be donned and rhe bacons would be used to further disperse the mob.
In the lrm-er illustration it will bc noted how the wedge formation
has closed or tightened up as it gets closer to the mob. Note how the
reserve has bunched up so that it is close to the unit Icader and immediately available in support of rhe line.
PROFESSIONAL
RIOT
(; ON TRO1,
405
UNIT
( J 3) Grenades can be used very effectively to break up
a loosely dispersed crowd before it becomes a mob by penetrating it with a siren-blowing vehicle from which the grenades can be thrown by hand and dispersed over a wide area.
( 14) Hand-thrown
grenades can be and have been used
effectively through skylights, down chimneys, through door
transoms and from roofs or rooms in buildings overlooking
the rioters, especially when police are without masks.
( 15) If the area in which the mob is going to concentrate
is known in advance, grenades can many times be placed in
concealed places in advance, to be activated from a distance
by trip wires when the time is ripe.
( x6) When necessary to enter and disperse rioters in Igrge
rooms, halls, etc., police should enter the door and their
formation should then move aIong the walls, ejecting a smnll
part of the crowd at a time.
(x 7) The use of fire department members and their high
pressure water hoses should always be considered in handling
a large mob action. Especially if the forces avuilable are
limited and gas munitions are short. In some cases selfcontained
hose,
at strategic
colored
or
later after
( 18)
tank-truck
spots.
Rioters
tinted
water
the mob
During
the
units
are very
useful
can also be sprayed
to
enable
identification
when
with
piaced
a specinlly
and
capture
is dispersed.
past
few
years
the
helicopter,
with
its
has become a very valuable piece of
military and police equipment. If available, helicopters should
be utilized to hover above the center of large mobs both to
drop tear gas grenades, to more effectively
make use of
the powerful hand electric type megaphones for mob control,
and for observation purposes.
( 19) Generally, troops or police on riot duty should never
have specific instructions as to the limit of force that they
may use. The commander of the military-police
unit should
be instructed to use the necessary amozmt of force to subdue
the mob and control the situation.
(20) The mob control unit should contain within itself the
entire range of amls necessary to control the situation. This
will vary from batons, to gas munitions, to automatic-type
firearms. When he must, the commander’ should use thcm all
if the situation requires such action.
(z I ) It is use]ess to carry firearms without ammunition or
under instructions not to use them. If the mob ever finds this
out, there will be imnwdiate disruption of the morale of the
obvious
advantages,
KILL
406
riot
unit
and
loss
of
01{
control
GE’I
of
KIL
tile
LEO
situation.
In a police action against the mob, it is best for the
commander to have the firepower of the unit (small arms
such 2s rifles, cnrhincs, suh-mchinc
guns, etc. ) in the rcscrvc
This
gives
him better
contr(}l
and
part of the forlnfltion.
etmbles him to nmkc more efficient use of these arms when
nccessmy. When the men in the front nfytinst the mob, who
may be armed only with barons and grenades, know they
are backed up by firem-rns, they will perform with more
aggressiveness and confidence.
(z 3) The least violent and courageous members of the mob
will be found in the rem-, where there will also be spectators.
It is often z good tactic to launch a surprise attack by gm
against these rear elements. Normallyj such attacks will cause
panic and these rear elements will disperse more easily. Fear
is highly contagious. If a part of the mob talces flight, the
remainder will tend to be thrown into panic and confusion.
The sight of members fleeing can also demoralize the more
determined mob members.
(24)
Fscnpc
routes
must :Ilways hc availmblc when using
gas to disperse cro~vds or mobs. It is obvious that the mob
members, in order to get away, must have free avenues of
cscnpc agninst gm concentrations.
(z\) When it is apparent that mob members in front in
contzct with the police cannot retreat, because of pressure
from the rear mob elements, the pressure on the front is retained whiIe the rear and center of the mob is attacked with
gas.
(26) Chemical smoke projected by use of grenades or
candles has great tactical value. Smoke can be used to block
off or deny mob assembly areas, to disperse crowds by
splitting them up into sections, to provide cover for closer
approach to the mob or persons barricaded in buildings, and
to conceal tactical movements. It can be used inside buildings
to force their evacuation. In combination
with tear gas,
smoke is even more effective in creating a panic condition.
(27) Extreme discipline must be rnaintnined before and
during the action to gain and keep respect of the mob members and spectators. A well-disciplined,
silent, well-armed
unit with every member intent on the mission of controlling
the mob, creates the impression of a powerful, competent
machine.
(28) Blank cartridges should never be used against a mob
and should never be issued for riot duty. Their only possible
(22 )
PROFESSIONAL
RIOT
cONTROL
UXIT
407
use is in training. Volleys of “live” ammunition normally
should not be fired over heads of rioters.
(29) When confronting
n mob for the first tinlc, steps
should bc taken so that the mob members can see and how
that firearms are available for use. A show of strength by
formation and exhibition of weapons
before an action is
always advisable. If there is nothing to use to give the impression of complete dominance
of the situation by numbers,
weapons, or formation,
all close contact with the mob must
be avoided.
(30) When firearms are used against the mob, they are
best aimed low so as to hold down the mortality
rntc and
also avoid hitting innocent
persons who may be in the rear
of the mob as spectators.
(3 I ) It is the responsibility of the leader to see that the
unit has protection
from snipers, or persons firing from
windows, roofs, or trees. He should protect his men from
this kind of attack. If the situation is such thfit he cannot, by
his own mcms or with help from other units, cover the
dfingeroos orem through which he may bc moving, hc must
change plans and routes of approach.
(32) First-lid training and cqui~ment must be made nvailable to the members of the mob-control
unit. In an action,
cuts and bruises and lacerations are to be expected. Mob mcnlbcrs will hurl rocks, bottles, and other types of missiles at
police. The unit should contain,
within itself, first-aid kits
for prompt treatment
of wounds. It will also be advisable to
carry, in addition
to the normal medical first-aid. supplies;
some sort of eye-wash preparation.
If the police operate without eye protection,
they must expect to suffer this sort of
injury.
(33 ) GZS is used in conjuncaon
with the prevailing wind.
If the wind is against the mob, a cloud can be ejected that
will carry the gas into it from the front. If the wind is against
the police elements, the gas must be projected
by gas guns
or other means to the rear of the mob so that it will be
carried into the mob. Generally,
gas grenades and projectiles
that are not dependent
on wind and of the type that can not
be thrown back, are best.
(34) The burning type of gas grenade (that releases gas
by the combustion principle)
should not be used where
combustibles are stored or where there is any other type of
fire hazard. The intense heat created by the burning process
that liberates the gas, can start serious fires. When vehicles
408
KILL
OR
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KILLED
are turned over by mobs, spilled gasoline from tanks can be
ignited by burning-type grenades or projectiles.”
Gas grenades of the combustion type should not be
directly
into the mob. Due to the fact that they need
to burn for from twenty-five to thirty-five seconds in order
to expel their gas, there is plenty of time for the mob men]bers to throw them back at the police, kick them aside, or
avoid the gas concentration by skirting the edges of the light
cloud of smoke that is expelled with the tear gas during the
burning process of gas liberation.
(35)
thrown
(36) When only grenades are available and it is necessary
to cover the entire mob with a gas concentration,
have persons in civilian clothes enter the mob and assume previously
determined locations in it. At a given time hzve these individuals drop tear-gas grenades among the crowd and begin
to run towards previously selected exits. These men can
shout and incite panic by yelling “Gas, let’s get out of here,”
etc. W!~en mob members see people running and in panic,
the panic spreads. This maneuver is very effective, especially
when the gas grenades are of the invisible type so that the
.y’f;~
‘
PLASTIC GOGGLES
Provision must be made for protecting the eyes of police members in
close contact with the mob members. On riot duty, police may have
almost anything thrown at them by the mob such as stones, sand, dust,
pa p c r bags, plastlc bags with liquid ammonia, rotten
offal, ~ e pperin
vegeta [es, pieces of iron, and every other imaginable object. The
plastic goggles shown are the commercially
avadable type that are
normally used in factories and machine shops to protect the worker’s
eyes. They are inexpensive and non-breakable.
Each riot policeman
should carry in his pocket an eye-protective
device for use when
necessary.
Pltol;F.SSll)S.
\L
1{[0”1’
cox”rl\O
I.”
Usll
+)9
Ildr cannot discover w- avoid the suurce of gas emission.
(37) Nlany times a crmvd or potential mob will disperse
on first ccxmct ~vith gas. If the umt is in sufficient strength,
patrols should be sent out to prevent the crowd from forming again. These same patrols can pick up agitators and hmdCol’c 11101)lllcnltscrs,
( 38) A llmb dircctcd
by profcssimml
agitators
may secm
to disperse at first and then try to reform. The more aggressive members of the professional agitators may try to create
a diversion by setting fire to buildings or vehicles in the
vicinity of the combat area. It is important that the commander of the police unit does not ~llow his men or unit to
be “suckered” into brcnking up his forllmtion by SUCI1mob
action.
(39) An effort should always be made to previously
identify the leaders of the mob or the professional agitators.
If they can be taken from the mob by use of formations and
tactics at the very early beginning, this is the best procedure,
provided the unit is not endangered or does not have to
penetrate too deeply into the mob. An organized mob will
The IRON CLAW
is a very useful device for mob control. 1[ is
especially valuable when it is necessary to extract a leader or agitator
from the mob and take him into custody
rapidly and without a
struggle.
410
KILL
OR
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KILLED
probably have a number of agitators simultaneously operating at different locations in the mob body. Apprehension of
agitators and leaders before the mob has even formed is a
basic tactic.
(40) Pictures of a given mob action, either still or motion
pictures, are often very useful. The pictures can be used later
to identify agitators, to study tactics, and sometimes can be
useful in public relations. The fact that mob members know
pictures are being taken will also dampen the enthusiasm of
those who want to retain their anonymity.
(4 I ) Every disorderly
assemblage should first be dealt with
as a crowd until the point is reached when orders to disperse
are disobeyed
and actual physical resistance,
such as” throwing missiles, is encountered.
At this time offensive
action
should be taken. Do not react passively to any attack and
subject your troops to physical injury while deciding what
tactic to employ. Have your plans made out in advance and
if possible explain them to all the men so they can anticipate
offensive
action
the time, manner, and circumstances when
will take place.
(42 ) Always use the element of surprise when possible. If
sufficient elements are available and the location of action is
favorable, hit the mob simultaneously
from the rear and
flanks. If the mob has been confronted in its front by police
elements for some tilne during a static period, send units to
hit it from unexpected quarters in conjunction with a frontal
assault. Thk applies to the launching of gas munitions as well
as offensive movement of baton-wielding
formations.
(43 ) In a situation where riot troops arrive when the mob
is already in action against an objective that cannot be reached
in order to give it protection, use gas and smoke in quantity
from flanks and rear. Utilize roof tops as a means of approach
and to launch gas. Try by physical means to split the mob
from the rear and create panic in rear mob elements. Normally, the least violent mob members will be on the flanks and
rear. Peel them away in order to get at the hard core of the
mob.
(4.4) If it can be anticipated where a mob action will take
place, close all possible businesses in the area and order people
to stay inside the buildings. Be sure that liquor stores, bars,
gun stores, and hardware stores are closed.
(45) DO not split your unit into a number of small detachments and try to quell minor diversionary disorders at
PROFESSIONAL
RIOT
COlf
TROL
UNIT
41 r
scattered points. Concentrate
on the main body of the mob,
nllintflining sufficient strength to Imndle it.
(46) Don’t send small bodies of troops into areas where
they can be surrounded. You will then be forced to rescue
them and thus fail to concentrate on the main mob element.
Protect your flanks and rear. Do not permit the mob to
envelop your unit. Maneuverability
must be maintained.
(47) if you can hit the crowd before the agitators have
changed It into a mob, do so. Itis basic for any well-trained
riot unit to pick up leaders and agitntors if known, in advance
of any action. This cannot always be done hut good intelligence as to identification
of lenders and agitators and of
the purpose of the mob always “pays off.”
(48) Men instinctively
protect their groin, stomach, and
eyes. The baton or shoulder weapon in the hands of a trained
man will enable him to enter physical contact without much
fear of endangering vulnerable body areas. With respect
adjustable-type
safety goggles arc recto the eyes, pkutic,
olnmenclcd for issue.
(49) Gas [email protected](s of the modern type do not fog up and
pemtit good side vision. Be sure your men have confidence
in them and me not reluctant to wear them. Your men should
be subjected to tear gas in training with and without masks.
Train the unit to don masks while in formation, and work
out a system where units in rmerve can don nmsks and rcplacc those in tllc line. Men should be accustomed to wearing masks over prolonged periods of time while performing
all combat functions such as use of riot sticks and firing
weapons.
(so) The psychological
effect of the police advancing
against the mob while wearing masks is very great, particularly
if rioting groups are made up of illiterate elements. Many
times a surprise initial appearance of the unit wearing masks
is enough to discourage the rioters. Normally masks are not
available to rioters and this is a great police advantage. Rioters
may try to improvise masks but they really cannot secure
much protection. Tear gas enters the nostrils, mouth, and
eyes, and affects the nasal passages; all cannot be protected at
the same time by an improvised means.
(5 I ) It is advisabIe that each squad or similar unit of the
not group have its own motor vehicle so that it is independent
of other transportation. This gets the unit into action faster,
is better for discipline., and increases maneuverability.
(52 ) Provision
should always be made for a specific vehicle
412
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
for carrying additional special equipment for use under the
commanding officer’s orders. Such items include flares, axes,
cables, rope, reserve gas supplies, fire extinguishers, chains,
searchlights, crowbars, wire cutters, tow cables, hacksaws,
extra tires, and extra gas supplies and arms. It is many times
advisable to keep one vehicle always loaded with special
equipment and ready for action.
(53 ) Gloves are a must on riot control where physical contact is always possible. They give protection against flying
missiles and clubs. In addition they can add to smartness in
the appearance of the unit. The combination of white gloves,
white helmet, white riot sticks, white shoe laces, etc., is very
effective from the standpoint of unit discipline, morale, and
in impressing the mob.
(54) Th~ problem of the sniper who is operating in conjunction with the mob against police elements can be a very
serious one. A skilled rifleman operating from a concealed
position of advantage can “pin down” police clenlents and lci]!
or wound officials and troops. This can be expected in anir
large, serious, well-organized
riot operation. It is absolutel~’
imperative that special riot groups have expert riflemen, preferably scope-equipped, assigned to counter this action. Usually these riflelnen would be members of the reserve unit and
operate directly under orders of the officer in command.
shotguns, if available, are verY use(55 ) Riot fype I z-gauge
ful weapons m riot control. Their wide pattern at close ranges
and the psychological
effect of the large bore pointed toward
the mob make them ideal close contact weapons. The standard
00 buckshot load will create casualties and is ideal for night
work. Shells loaded with tear gas can also be used in these
weapons. @ some occasions very fine shot (#8, 9) has been
used at long ranges to effectually stop violent mob members.
The fine bird shot at a distance does little harm, except in
case of the eyes, but will penetrate the skin and cause a
wound that will need medical attention. on one occasion, to
the author’s knot~rledge, rock salt has been used against rioters
in specially loaded shells with good results.
(56) Shields made of bullet-proof steel or fiber glass have
a definite place in the “special equipment,” of any professional
riot group. They are very necessary to counter sniper action.
See chapter g, “Raids and Room Combat.”
(57) When rioters are barricaded in a building, it is best
to clear it from the top down. Wcape routes such as ground
floor and basement exits and roofs of adj~ccnt buildings must
PRO
FE SS1 ONAL
RIOr
CO XTROL
L’XIT
413
be watched. Heavy concentrations
of tear gas and smoke
are very useful in this situation.
(58)” Vehicles used to carry riot squad members and equipment to the scene of action must be parked in places away
from the action. Normally,
a driver and assistant should stay
with the vehicle to protect it; they should be amled accordingly. These same vehicles can also be equipped with radios
to maintain communication.
(s9) The use of mines, booby-trap devices, and explosive
charges to prevent police from performing their function in
mob control, can be expected, especially in a large, wellplanned and directed action. A general knowledge of such
tactics is advisable. If possible, designated elements in the riot
control unit should receive some training in this field. These
same men can also be trained in using explosives to clear
mob-installed blockades. The increasing use by Communists
of guerrilla warfare, and their training in the use and improvisation of such explosive devices, make this an importnnt considctntion. Good prior intelligence \vill generally L!ctcrmine if usc of explosives will bc a mob tactic.
(60) The use of ~ tear gas concentration, chemical smoke,
or a combination of both, is highly recommended to block a
street or deny an area that is the target of a moving nwb
or on the route to the target.
(6 I )The
usc of chen~ical n)unitions
against
the
mob
nc:Ir
hospitals
and
schools always presents a problem. Although
tear gas is not harmful,
bad publicity
and panic conditions
can result. Except
iii extreme cases, an -attempt
should be
made to meet the mob in another location or else arrange fo~
evacuation
of persons in temporary
danger.
(62) In training a special unit for mob control, the practice
“alert” should frequently
be ordered. This is especially important when elements of the riot squad are not lmnintained
together as a unit.
(63 ) T!te transistor-type,
hand-carried megaphone as \\ell
as the small walkie-talkie tw-o-wav radio. are now verv important p:lrts of mob control equipment. those using stakda rd
flashlight
batteries arc recommended.
(64) Vehicles londed with riot troops me used in controlling
large mob operations. Room for maneuverability is obviously
a must. Formations such as the wedge, using vehicles m its
elements, are possible. Again, U, S. Army ilIanual 19-15 covers
this type
of operation.
(65)
The ‘ffictorics
Il]:lnufocturing
the
37111111
Iong-r:lngc
414
KILL
OR
GET
KILLED
riot projectiles recommend that these projectiles be fired from
the riot gun in such a manner that the projectiles fall behind,
into, or in front of the mob. They normally are fired with
the gun held at a 30 to 40 degree angle and the projectile
falls into the target area accordingly, there being no velocity
beyond that of gravity at the time of impact. Actual combat experience against mobs has resulted in recommendations
that some types of projectiles be fired directly at the mob or
by bouncing the shell along the ground in the direction of the
mob so as to lower the velocity. When these projectiles are
fired either directly into the mob or via the bouncing method,
the chances of a camtalty are present even though the velocity
of the projectiles themselves is only a few hundred feet per
second. This technique is and can be used, if recognition is
given to the fact that minor casualties may be inilicted, It
can be particularly useful when: (a) the mob is beyond
grenade-throwing
range and there are adverse wind conditions; (b) no other means of projecting gas is available; and
(c) physical contact with the mob needs to bc avoided.
(66) Small pocket-size
colored
smoke grenades
designed
for signaling and spotting air drops are now in use by U. S.
Army
airborne
troops. They can be obtained on special
order from commercial sources and have a possible use in
large mob actions. Police members disguised as rioters could
be used to set them off in mob areas where hard core agitation is greatest, in order to bring down gas concentrations, or
to indicate locations of key leaders and agitators for possible
apprehension tactics. They can also be used to signal to other
units the beginning of various actions or phases against the
mob.
Visual signals by use of flare pistols are also very useful in
coordinating action against large mobs. These flares are commercially available from police and marine equipment supply
houses.
Railway-type
flares in yellow and red of the type called
“fusees” have a practical application also. These flares contain
self-igniters and have a spike in one end that can be driven
into a wooden wall. Red is best for signaling a danger area
or location of a road block. Yellow flares will provide emergency night illumination of operational areas. These flares
are inexpensive and will burn for approximately
thirty
minutes in aIl kinds of adverse weather including rain, wind,
and snow.
(67)
Simple booby traps utilizing tear gas grenades can be
PRO
VF. SST
ON
AI,
R1OT
CO NT
ROI.
UNIT
Qlj
rigged indoors or inside buildings where rioters may want to
enter or assemble. Any type of trip dcvicc that enables the
safety ring to bc withdmwn by a movclllcnt suctl as opening n
Instantnncous
bkwt-type
grcnndcs
arc
door, cm be tlcviscd.
best for
this purpose.
(68) Emergency
electric lighting facilities arc a must for
night action. In the past, car and truck spotlights
have been
used but again valuable vehicles lose maneuverability
and are
exposed to mob action and sniper fire. Portable
long-range
spotlights
powered
with dry cell or rechargeable
batteries
are now available. Individual
nmb members arc more aggressive in night action under the protective cover of darkness.
It is to be expected that power lines and municipal lighting
facilities will be cut off by any well-planned mob action and
provision must be on hand to light up the scene.
(69) Experience
during the past decade has proven that
a small organized czdre of trained agitators can maneuver and
direct the action of a mob nunlhcring
thousands. When the
IIlob action n~ccts with lwlicc or IIlilitar,y resistance tlmt c2nnot bc ovcrconlc, tl~csc profcssion:lt ngitxtors lMVC tllc nlob
body 2nd flee to safety or otllcr prcdctermincd rallying points.
For this and other obvious rcmons, it is vital to identify
these individuals, who ninny times h~ve not been operating
openly prior to the action. Naturally, commanders of mob
actions both within and without
the mob body should be
subject to apprehension orders of the highest priority before, (luring, and after any riot incident. Police agents dressed
in appropriate clothing etc. should bc placed in the mob
body for this purpose or for purposes of collecting evidence
and identification.
Transistor type miniature tape recorders and transceiver
two-way radio sets that can be readily concealed on the person are extremely useful in this type of operation.
Powerful binoculars with built-in cameras that can take
photos of subjects thousands of feet away and various other
camera-telescope
combinations
are now being used in the
surveillance field. Their application in riot control situations
should not be overlooked. Likewise, miniature cameras such
as the Minox have a definite use.
(70) A number of interesting
new developments
are now
undergoing
testing that should be of considerable
use to law
enforcement
agencies and the military in the control of civil
disturbances.
Some may soon be commercially
available, such
as the following:
416
KIL1.
OR ~~T
KILL~~
(a) A device used by sportsmen
for throwing
empty beer
cam into the air for target practice. The power of z blank
cartridge is used to launch the can into the air. An ~doptation
is now under study to enable this same inexpensive device
to be utilized to throw tear gas grenades over long distances.
(b) As a result of the recent interest in conlbatting guerrilla warfare, an invisible spray is being developed that stains
clothing and the skin. [t cannot be washed off. Later exanlination of mob suspects through a special lens would result in
infallible identification of participants.
(c) An electric riot stick that is battet-y-polvered and imparts a strong shock of static electricity.
The stick is of
normal size. A spark from the tip will penetrate clothing of
the recipient and does not have to contact the skin area to
shock the person. The practical and psychological
effects
of this weapon can be imagined. The static electric shock is
harmless but very effective.
INDEX
c
A
Ach;{es
tendon,
as vulnerable
Adam’s apple, attrrck to the,
Aimed shooting,
104, 105
Arm Jerk, 56
Arm lock:
Come-along.
62, 63
Defense,
knife, 90
In dlaarmlng,
212
ArIU relemve, 57
Army, U. S.. mob control
Assassin’s trick, 81, 82
Carriy;/~lrOsltiOn
spot,
305
role.
369
B
as vulnerable
spot,
9
Chin:
Balance:
In throws. 30
Mental, Ii, 12
Physical, 11, 12, 13, 14
Walking,
13
Bnrrlcade.
shootlnfz around
a. 139
Bnrrow.v brothers ;aid. 244-24i
Basic In formntlons,
riot control, 303
As vulnerable
spot, 9
Attack under, with batm, 306
Blow to the, 12
Jab, 22, 23
Jab and trip, 40, 41
Chokes, 34-39
Civil dlaturbnnces,
control,
363
(See elm Riot controlb
Clam shell holster:
Descrlptlon
of, 169
Proteotlon
afforded by, 173
Safety factors In, 173
Close-combat
.vhootlng, 104
Cloee-in
searching
of pr!sone~, 224
Baton:
Attnck With, 300-309
Blows with the, 300
Defen&s, ushr~, 315
Electric, 416
Grip of the long. 298
Grip of the short, 296-299
Mob control, 303, 401, 402
On-guard
position with, 304
Bear hug, rear, breaking,
52
Belt, in lleu of handcuffs,
243
Biceps blow, 27
Biting, 11
[email protected] :
B1OW with, 317
npes
of, 317-319
Use of, 317-3243
Block knife defense, 92
Bobbing
targets, 275-288
Body are=,
vulnerable:
To knife attack, 77
To unarmed
attack, 7
Body holds, breaking,
52
Bones. ser’rsitlve. 10
Brass” knuckles, ” 318
Breast gripping or biting
clothing:
Come-along,
65
In restraining
prisoners,
224, 225
Club, use of hand gun as a, 146
Coat, in restralrring prisoner. 224
ColInr bone blow:
Umwmed, 26
With baton, 301
Cdt3~5rearms,
130, 151, 164, 165, 170,
CuRrmn
&.mbat
search, 227, 228
Ilghtweights,
149
Come-alongs:
the,
Unarmed, 58
With baton, 310, 312
11
Bullet:
Penetration and Cafmbllitiesof,263
Bt~~PI# Power of various calibers
Bulle~-proof
revolver),
Causes, CIVU disturbances.
363
Chain, used wfth harrdcuf?s, 240
Chair, defense knife attack, 86
Chemicals,
323-362
Duet pro~ ector, 355
Effect of, 327-329
Gas billies, 351
Gas guns, 343
Gas maaks. 332, 338, 339
Grenades, 334, 337, 340
Invisible
tear gas, 326
Mobs, 363, 364
Nauseating
gas, 329
Treatment
for, 3343
Parachute
flares, 350
Proj ectllse, 346
Riot sticks, 298, 303
Screening
smoke, 331
Sources, 324. 333
Tear gas, 335-326
Use of. 323
Visible tear gas, 325
Attack:
In automobile,
disarming
In, 217
Methods of, 49
Rear, brenking, 52
Tactics,
In mid, 247, 253, 255, 265
Types of, 49
Attacker
out of reach,
dlsarmlng
when, 218
Automatic
(See Pistol J
Back,
(pistol,
Combat:
vest, 269-272
417
Course training, 277-286, 291-297
Range8. 273, 275, 279
Simulating,
in training, 278
Tralnhrg,
prlnclples,
104
418
KILL
Combat
shooting:
As contrasted
with
OR
GET
shoot-
Concealment:
In the field, 292-296
Of knife, 82
Control, mobs, 365, 389
C07~rol. riots, professional
---
Falls, 15
FBI pistol
course.
276
Feet:
As weapons,
15
Movement
nf. in
Communist
Management techniques,
mobs, 376
Manual, mob training, 378-381
h~ob tactics, 378-381
Mobs, why In Cold War. 375
Tactics, mob violence, 371, 374
units,
Convulsive
grip, 108
Cord strangle,
322
Distol
Fiel%craf t, elementary:
Importance
of knowing,
TYPlcal
problem in, 291
Finger strangle, 36
shootin!z,-.
291
Firing positions:
Alternate
position,
119. 184
Clf;;
colmbat,
shoulder
weapons.
Of fdet and body, 185
With pistol, 106, 110-125
F] ying msre, 31, 32
Foot, kicking with the, 15-21
Forearm:
Block, 94
Come-along,
64
Lock, 64
Forwsrd crouch, pistol, 106
Free hand, use of, pistol. 147
Frfakirrg for weapons,
222-228
142-144
Cross- arm:
Choke, 34, 35
Cr%’%;%n%::
131)
F
target
At%%rc/e”in. 141
Trstnlng
in, 123, 133, 136
Training
suggestions
for, 136
Combat sling carry, 187, 186
r%ver:
In the field, 294
When firing pistol,
KILL
Frontal :
Attack with knife,
Hold, breaking,
52
Strangle, 39
gun, 174
Crouch:
In knife attack, 72. 73
In pistol shooting,
106
Crowd escape, 56
78
Frontal disarming:
Hand gun. 201-ZJ3
Shoulder weapon, 206-206
D
Deadly weapons, 226, 227
Deception,
es a field technique,
Defense, in a mom, 266
Defensive
8hooting,
fallacy of,
Derringers,
163
G
295
103
Dlsnrmlng:
Against shoulder weapons, 206, 216
BIMic principles
of, 193
Importance
of, 190
Methods
of, 200-220
Position
for, 195
Techniques,
200-220
Tralnlng
procedures
In, 195
Disorders,
Communist
tactics, 374
Disturbances.
causes of. 263
Domestic
disturbances. ” controI,
363
(See al an Riot Control)
Doors, shooting
through. 268
Draw, auick [See Quick draw}
Dummy” targeie, 14i
Dust pro Jector, 355
E
E.sr concussion
blow, 46, 47
Edge of hand blow, 23, 24
Effect of chemicals,
227, 329
Elbow :
As a weapon, 28, 29
Breaking the, 46
Eye:
As vulnerable
Gouge, 51
spot,
8
Garrotte, 321
Gaes billies, 351
Ges guns, 343
Gouge. finger or eye, 8
~renadee,
324
Groin:
Blow to the, 7
Release blow to, 52
H
Hand:
Blows with the, 22-27
Edge of the, 23
Ina t~mback
attack, dlearmlng
Po;iti{u
of, M wenpnrm,
in
23, 24
Handcuffs:
Adjustable,
230
Fastened
to belt, 226
Position of hands in, 231
Rules for using, 222
Smith & Wesscm, 232
Swivel type, ?SZ4
To secure prlaoner to peat, 231
Types of, 220
Use of, 229-241
Used behind bsck, 226
Used behind leg, 235
Used on three men, 237
Usemgtix~ure
prisoner to cOup-
419
INDKX
Used to secure
obiects,
237
prisoner
to solld
Hand gun:
As close quarter weapons, 99
Combat use of, 97
History of use of, 97
Ty1~2s of, for concealed
positions,
Hands-cm-head,
for prisoner,
223
Head, m weapon, 29
Head bold come-rdong,
65
HiP shonting.
pistol, 121, 122
HIP throw, 30, 31
Hog
tie, of prisoner, 241
Holsters:
PosItlon of wearing, 176
Types of, 167, 169, 172
House of Horrors, 2E0, 286
I
Influences,
mobs,
364
Instinctive
pointing:
With hand gun, 124
With shoulder weapon,
181
Interlocklng
handcuff,
234
Iron claw, 318, 409
J
Japanese
strangle,
36, 37
Jaw :
A5 vulnerable
6pot, 10
Attack under, with baton,
JIu Jltsu. 1, 2. 6
Jolnt8, as vulnerable
spots,
Judo :
Choke, 34
Discus.vlon
of,
305
10
Leg :
Blow to the, with
Hook, 33
K
Kidney:
As vulnerable
spot, 9
Blow to the, 25
Kn.3e8, as Weapom, 29
308
LIP :
Come-along,
66
‘rearing m. 11
Looking gunman in the eye, 197
M
Maximum
force, 14
McDaniel,
180
Midsection
of bndy, attack to, with
baton, 305
Miscellaneous
weapons
and
techniques, 298-322.
Mob.% 360, 363, 365
(see also Riot Control)
Control, principles,
365
Control,
role,
Army
and
Nat’1
Guard, 369
Control, professional
“nIts, 389
Formation,
Communist,
374
Heavily armed, organized,
365
How formed.
364
Influences
affecting,
364
Management,
Communist
techniques, 376
Principles
for dealing with, 397
Taotics and suggestions,
400
Training,
Communists,
378-381
Types, 365
VlOlence, Communist
tactics, 371
Violence,
Communist
uses, 375
What tn exDect. 362
Abuse,
Attack,
382
small
38S
Communications
386
groups,
vehicles,
and
Utilities,
386
Hnnd Wcnpons,
383
Lnotlng, 366
Mlscell&neous
mob tactics, 367
Noise, 382
Planned or fabricated
incidents,
387
Shoulder wenpons, 384
Thrown
objects,
363
Use, fire, explosives,
384
Momentum,
14
Mouth hold. as n releme. 56
Mov;nmKe~66 anticipating
in disarm-
137
Knife:
Attack, 72-76
Concealment,
83
FarrY and arm lock, 90
ThrOWl~,
76
Wrist block, 96
-
Movin~ forward,
Myres Detective
Knife defense:
Kinds of, 85
Precautions
in, 63
Knife, the flghtlng:
Diagram of, 69
Grip on, 70-13
TYpc9 of, 66-7o
Nati&yl
Knuckles :
Brm,
318
Hand, 26
baton,
lXIYIOnStrntiDnS,
2-4
Knee kick:
In knife defense, 87
Without
arms, 18
Knee rest position,
pistol,
L
disarming when, 218
Special Holster, 172
N
Guard,
role,
mob
control,
Natuml weapons. 15
Nauseating
g~, 229
Neck:
As pressure point, 66
As vulnerable
6pot, 8
Blow to the, 9, 24, 26
Newspapers
(magazines)
tive shield, 257
as protec-
410
KILL
As vulnerable
spot, 10
Blow to b=e o:, 25
B1OW to bridge of. 21
Grasping
11. 13
Nostril hold. ss a release,
r)R
~E”r
56
0
Obj~~~ves,
-..
Obj:~~
Communist
lesson
training
KILLED
Tacti=
of an external attack, 255
Techniques
of, 246-272
The actual raid, 250
Training
for, 244. 272
Raise DLstal oor+itlon. 110
Resdin-g.
ref~rences,”
on the hand
gun, 177
Reari~o- ~l~ltion
( pistol,
revolver),
tactics,
371,
courie,
177,
Rear disarming:
Hand gun, 204
Shoulder
wenprm,
209
..”
Rear:
Straight choke, 39
Rest, pistol shooting
from,
Restraint
holds, 5S
Observation,
of the enemy. 296
Orlensive ground fighting,
47
Outside choke, 35
Own weapon,
using. 121
Revolver:
As compared
with pistol. 147
Combat
lightweights,
149
C3ripping the, 106-115. 128
P
Parachute
flares. 350
Parry knife defense, 88-92
Pat search for weapoms, 226
Pen;~4atlng
power of sidearms,
263,
Pistol :
As compared
with revolver,
147
Gripping
the. 10S-115
In a raid, 259
Securing,
from opponent,
201-206
Pointing
body, pistol. 118
Police shield, 2S9
Police training. problems,
274
Pollee training, with hand gun, 101
Fosltion.
chunging.
pistol, 116, 117
Positions,
revolver shooting,
100
Prisoner:
Handling
and controlling
a, 221243
Holding at gun point,. 222
Rules for handllng
a, 222
Professional
unit, riot control,
389
Projectiles,
gtx3, 343
Prone shooting,
pistol, 138, 142
Pulling
ear, 11
pushing
counter,
45, 46
Q
Quick draw:
Executing
the, 166
Holsters in, 167
Training ln, 174
U~;lg clam shell holster
in,
169-
kl
Rabbit
punch,
137-144
24
Bald :
Approach,
In a, 252
Barrows brothers raid, 244-246
Brleflng the raiding” party, 250
Command
and personnel of a. : !46
E%timatlng the situstion,
X7
Malntalnlng
control, 251
Means of control, 252
Members of the party, 249
Party surrounding
the area, 251
Planning
the, 246
Police weapons,
in a. 259
Surprise raid tactics, 253
Rlfie:
Effectiveness
of, 262
In n raid, 262
Riot control,
36’7
Batons, 401, 402, 416
Command
position,
403
Cammunicrutions,
413
Electric riot stick, 416
Fire department
role, 405
First aid provisions,
403, 407
Flares, 414
Formations,
rules, 394
Gss, smoke, 391, 392, 394, 396, 399401. 406-40s. 413
Greniufes, 405
Helicopters,
405
Identiflcntion
mrav. 416
Lights, 415
Messures
against
snipers, 412
blines, booby traps, etc., 413-415
Organization,
principles
of, 392
Photographs,
410
Professional
unit, 389, 393, 394
Rear attack and escar)e routes. 406
Reserve force, 403
Riot sticks, 303, 401, 402, 416
Vehicles, 413
Room combat:
Entering a room, 266
Principles
of, 265-268
Tactics of, 265, 266
TYuical examule of. 267
Rope_r Pistol S~ock, 130
Ruger revolver, 167
Rushing attack, 50
s
Safety, habit of, 125
Safety speed holster, 169
Sawed-off
shotgun:
In a raid, 259
RAnge knd effectiveness
Screening
smoke, 331
Search for weapons:
Column search, 2211
Frisking, 226
Put search. 226
W;;Bn carrying u shoulder
of, 260
weapon,
INDEX
When more than one prisoner, 227
S-?curln6 prisoners.. bY other means
than hrUIdCWf8, 239-243
Sentry, kllllng sm enemy, 79. 80
Shin:
B1OW to the, with baton, 301
Kick to the, 19
Shoe laces, in lieu of handcuffs,
239
Short hair come-along,
66
the
all-around
developing
Shot,
combat,
100
Shotguns.
259, 260
Shoulder
throw, 31
Shoulder weapon:
Combat firing with, 179
Search while carrying a, 228
Shoving weapon ct tnrgct. 109
Sidearms, ‘penctrntlng
power of, 264
attack,
~j
Dosltlon of, 18’7. 188
Smlih ‘& WsasOn flrerirms, 149, 150,
157, 159-162, 166, 171
SnayWshooting,
shoulder
weapons,
blow
to the, with
firing,
29
Temple:
As vulnerable
spot, 10, 20
Blow to, with baton, 300
Testicles:
As vulnerable
spot,
Blow to the, 47
Throws, 29-34
7
Toe:
Bones, M vulnerable
spot,
Kick, 16
Toledo combat
course, 277
Trnlnlng
nlds, pistol, 127
19
198-
Trousers, In restraining
prisoner, 224
Two-handed
grip, pistol, 137, 145
Sling.
.%Iar plexus,
ton, 301
Tem gas, 324-329
Teeth, as weapons,
Trahrlng methods:
Hand gun, 123
Shoulder weapons,
185
Trrtlnlng techniques,
273
Trigger ‘%ctlon
demonstration,
Silhouette
flrlng:
Advanced
trfdnlng
In, 133
Common
errors in, 133
Shot dispersion
in. 134, 135
Wtting position,
pistol, 139
Slttlng neck break, 41
Targets for. 278
Tralnlng
In, 131
Tmlnhw
suggestions
in 136
Slrwh
Target shoothrg:
Aimed shot shooting,
101
C~~a6ted
with
combat.
Two or more opponents:
Combnt with, 56
Searching
for weapons,
227
TYP~6 of rbttack, with knife, 67, 72-
ba-
Stick:
Defense, knife attack, 86
Strangle, 277
Stomach, as vulnerable
spot, 9
Strangulations,
34-40, 321, 323
Striking attack, 49
U
Unarmed combat:
Defensive,
49
History of, 1-5
Offensive, 6-48
Unskilled
attack,
Submachlnegun:
Capabilities
of a, 261
In a raid, 261
p061t10n Of, 162, 183
Swivel type handcuffs,
224
73
w
Wail search, of prlaoner, 223
Walls, shooting
through, 266
Wax bullets, 141
Wea&gn concealed,
dlsarmlng when,
T
Tall bone blow, 26
Taking over a shoulder weapon,
216
Tape, In lleu of handcuffs,
242
Target rsnges:
Constructing,
279
Results of training
on, 279
With bullet proof alleys, 274
WMh dirt bank, 275
Tsrgets:
Bobbing,
247-268
Communist
mob
SOhouette,
278
violence,
375
Wealpnon;l;;;ocket
214-
Weapon8,
Wlndplpe
attack,
dlsarmlng
deadly, 226, 227
blow 9
Wrists:
Block, with baton, 302
Blow to, unarmed, 27
Blow to, with baton, 302
Come-along.
59-61
Grip, breaking
a, 54, 55
Plnloning
with baton thong. 303
Release, 54
Throw. 42
Wrist posltlon,
pistol, 111, 113, 120
*U.S.GoVERNMSNT
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