The GENMOD Procedure SAS/STAT User’s Guide (Book Excerpt)

The GENMOD Procedure SAS/STAT User’s Guide (Book Excerpt)
®
SAS/STAT 9.2 User’s Guide
The GENMOD Procedure
(Book Excerpt)
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Chapter 37
The GENMOD Procedure
Contents
Overview: GENMOD Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is a Generalized Linear Model? . . . . . .
Examples of Generalized Linear Models . . . .
The GENMOD Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting Started: GENMOD Procedure . . . . . . . . .
Poisson Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bayesian Analysis of a Linear Regression Model
Generalized Estimating Equations . . . . . . . .
Syntax: GENMOD Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROC GENMOD Statement . . . . . . . . . . .
ASSESS Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BAYES Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BY Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLASS Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTRAST Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DEVIANCE Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ESTIMATE Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FREQ Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FWDLINK Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INVLINK Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LSMEANS Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MODEL Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OUTPUT Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programming Statements . . . . . . . . . . . .
REPEATED Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VARIANCE Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WEIGHT Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ZEROMODEL Statement . . . . . . . . . . . .
Details: GENMOD Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generalized Linear Models Theory . . . . . . .
Specification of Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parameterization Used in PROC GENMOD . . .
CLASS Variable Parameterization . . . . . . . .
Type 1 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1892
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1892 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Type 3 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Confidence Intervals for Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lagrange Multiplier Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Predicted Values of the Mean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multinomial Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zero-Inflated Poisson Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generalized Estimating Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assessment of Models Based on Aggregates of Residuals . . . . . . . . . .
Case Deletion Diagnostic Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bayesian Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Missing Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displayed Output for Classical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displayed Output for Bayesian Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ODS Table Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ODS Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples: GENMOD Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 37.1: Logistic Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 37.2: Normal Regression, Log Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 37.3: Gamma Distribution Applied to Life Data . . . . . . . . . .
Example 37.4: Ordinal Model for Multinomial Data . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 37.5: GEE for Binary Data with Logit Link Function . . . . . . .
Example 37.6: Log Odds Ratios and the ALR Algorithm . . . . . . . . . .
Example 37.7: Log-Linear Model for Count Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 37.8: Model Assessment of Multiple Regression Using Aggregates
of Residuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 37.9: Assessment of a Marginal Model for Dependent Data . . . .
Example 37.10: Bayesian Analysis of a Poisson Regression Model . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Overview: GENMOD Procedure
The GENMOD procedure fits generalized linear models, as defined by Nelder and Wedderburn
(1972). The class of generalized linear models is an extension of traditional linear models that
allows the mean of a population to depend on a linear predictor through a nonlinear link function
and allows the response probability distribution to be any member of an exponential family of
distributions. Many widely used statistical models are generalized linear models. These include
classical linear models with normal errors, logistic and probit models for binary data, and log-linear
models for multinomial data. Many other useful statistical models can be formulated as generalized
linear models by the selection of an appropriate link function and response probability distribution.
Overview: GENMOD Procedure F 1893
See McCullagh and Nelder (1989) for a discussion of statistical modeling using generalized linear
models. The books by Aitkin et al. (1989) and Dobson (1990) are also excellent references with
many examples of applications of generalized linear models. Firth (1991) provides an overview of
generalized linear models.
The analysis of correlated data arising from repeated measurements when the measurements are
assumed to be multivariate normal has been studied extensively. However, the normality assumption might not always be reasonable; for example, different methodology must be used in the data
analysis when the responses are discrete and correlated. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs)
provide a practical method with reasonable statistical efficiency to analyze such data.
Liang and Zeger (1986) introduced GEEs as a method of dealing with correlated data when, except
for the correlation among responses, the data can be modeled as a generalized linear model. For
example, correlated binary and count data in many cases can be modeled in this way.
The GENMOD procedure can fit models to correlated responses by the GEE method. You can use
PROC GENMOD to fit models with most of the correlation structures from Liang and Zeger (1986)
by using GEEs. See Hardin and Hilbe (2003), Diggle, Liang, and Zeger (1994), and Lipsitz et al.
(1994) for more details on GEEs.
Bayesian analysis of generalized linear models can be requested by using the BAYES statement in
the GENMOD procedure. In Bayesian analysis, the model parameters are treated as random variables, and inference about parameters is based on the posterior distribution of the parameters, given
the data. The posterior distribution is obtained using Bayes’ theorem as the likelihood function of
the data weighted with a prior distribution. The prior distribution enables you to incorporate knowledge or experience of the likely range of values of the parameters of interest into the analysis. If
you have no prior knowledge of the parameter values, you can use a noninformative prior distribution, and the results of the Bayesian analysis will be very similar to a classical analysis based on
maximum likelihood. A closed form of the posterior distribution is often not feasible, and a Markov
chain Monte Carlo method by Gibbs sampling is used to simulate samples from the posterior distribution. See Chapter 7, “Introduction to Bayesian Analysis Procedures,” for an introduction to
the basic concepts of Bayesian statistics. Also see the section “Bayesian Analysis: Advantages
and Disadvantages” on page 149 for a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of Bayesian
analysis. See Ibrahim, Chen, and Sinha (2001) for a detailed description of Bayesian analysis.
In a Bayesian analysis, a Gibbs chain of samples from the posterior distribution is generated for the
model parameters. Summary statistics (mean, standard deviation, quartiles, HPD and credible intervals, correlation matrix) and convergence diagnostics (autocorrelations; Gelman-Rubin, Geweke,
Raftery-Lewis, and Heidelberger and Welch tests; the effective sample size; and Monte Carlo standard errors) are computed for each parameter, as well as the correlation matrix and the covariance
matrix of the posterior sample. Trace plots, posterior density plots, and autocorrelation function
plots that are created using ODS Graphics are also provided for each parameter.
The GENMOD procedure now uses ODS Graphics to create graphs as part of its output. For general
information about ODS Graphics, see Chapter 21, “Statistical Graphics Using ODS.”
1894 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
What Is a Generalized Linear Model?
A traditional linear model is of the form
yi D x0i ˇ C "i
where yi is the response variable for the i th observation. The quantity xi is a column vector of
covariates, or explanatory variables, for observation i that is known from the experimental setting
and is considered to be fixed, or nonrandom. The vector of unknown coefficients ˇ is estimated by
a least squares fit to the data y. The "i are assumed to be independent, normal random variables
with zero mean and constant variance. The expected value of yi , denoted by i , is
i D x0i ˇ
While traditional linear models are used extensively in statistical data analysis, there are types of
problems such as the following for which they are not appropriate.
It might not be reasonable to assume that data are normally distributed. For example, the
normal distribution (which is continuous) might not be adequate for modeling counts or measured proportions that are considered to be discrete.
If the mean of the data is naturally restricted to a range of values, the traditional linear model
might not be appropriate, since the linear predictor x0i ˇ can take on any value. For example,
the mean of a measured proportion is between 0 and 1, but the linear predictor of the mean in
a traditional linear model is not restricted to this range.
It might not be realistic to assume that the variance of the data is constant for all observations.
For example, it is not unusual to observe data where the variance increases with the mean of
the data.
A generalized linear model extends the traditional linear model and is therefore applicable to a wider
range of data analysis problems. A generalized linear model consists of the following components:
The linear component is defined just as it is for traditional linear models:
i D x0i ˇ
A monotonic differentiable link function g describes how the expected value of yi is related
to the linear predictor i :
g.i / D x0i ˇ
The response variables yi are independent for i = 1, 2,. . . and have a probability distribution
from an exponential family. This implies that the variance of the response depends on the
mean through a variance function V :
var.yi / D
V .i /
wi
where is a constant and wi is a known weight for each observation. The dispersion parameter is either known (for example, for the binomial or Poisson distribution, D 1) or must
be estimated.
Examples of Generalized Linear Models F 1895
See the section “Response Probability Distributions” on page 1962 for the form of a probability
distribution from the exponential family of distributions.
As in the case of traditional linear models, fitted generalized linear models can be summarized
through statistics such as parameter estimates, their standard errors, and goodness-of-fit statistics.
You can also make statistical inference about the parameters by using confidence intervals and
hypothesis tests. However, specific inference procedures are usually based on asymptotic considerations, since exact distribution theory is not available or is not practical for all generalized linear
models.
Examples of Generalized Linear Models
You construct a generalized linear model by deciding on response and explanatory variables for
your data and choosing an appropriate link function and response probability distribution. Some
examples of generalized linear models follow. Explanatory variables can be any combination of
continuous variables, classification variables, and interactions.
Traditional Linear Model
response variable: a continuous variable
distribution: normal
link function: identity g./ D Logistic Regression
response variable: a proportion
distribution: binomial
link function: logit g./ D log
1
Poisson Regression in Log-Linear Model
response variable: a count
distribution: Poisson
link function: log g./ D log./
Gamma Model with Log Link
response variable: a positive, continuous variable
1896 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
distribution: gamma
link function: log g./ D log./
The GENMOD Procedure
The GENMOD procedure fits a generalized linear model to the data by maximum likelihood estimation of the parameter vector ˇ. There is, in general, no closed form solution for the maximum
likelihood estimates of the parameters. The GENMOD procedure estimates the parameters of the
model numerically through an iterative fitting process. The dispersion parameter is also estimated by maximum likelihood or, optionally, by the residual deviance or by Pearson’s chi-square
divided by the degrees of freedom. Covariances, standard errors, and p-values are computed for the
estimated parameters based on the asymptotic normality of maximum likelihood estimators.
A number of popular link functions and probability distributions are available in the GENMOD
procedure. The built-in link functions are as follows:
identity: g./ D logit: g./ D log.=.1
//
probit: g./ D ˆ 1 ./, where ˆ is the standard normal cumulative distribution function
if ¤ 0
power: g./ D
log./ if D 0
log: g./ D log./
complementary log-log: g./ D log. log.1
//
The available distributions and associated variance functions are as follows:
normal: V ./ D 1
binomial (proportion): V ./ D .1
Poisson: V ./ D gamma: V ./ D 2
inverse Gaussian: V ./ D 3
negative binomial: V ./ D C k2
geometric: V ./ D C 2
multinomial
zero-inflated Poisson
/
The GENMOD Procedure F 1897
The negative binomial is a distribution with an additional parameter k in the variance function.
PROC GENMOD estimates k by maximum likelihood, or you can optionally set it to a constant
value. See McCullagh and Nelder (1989), Hilbe (1994), or Lawless (1987) for discussions of the
negative binomial distribution.
The multinomial distribution is sometimes used to model a response that can take values from a
number of categories. The binomial is a special case of the multinomial with two categories. See
the section “Multinomial Models” on page 1982 and McCullagh and Nelder (1989, Chapter 5) for
a description of the multinomial distribution.
The zero-inflated Poisson is included in PROC GENMOD even though it is not a generalized linear
model. It is a useful extension of generalized linear models. See the section “Zero-Inflated Poisson
Models” on page 1983 for information about the zero-inflated Poisson.
In addition, you can easily define your own link functions or distributions through DATA step
programming statements used within the procedure.
An important aspect of generalized linear modeling is the selection of explanatory variables in the
model. Changes in goodness-of-fit statistics are often used to evaluate the contribution of subsets
of explanatory variables to a particular model. The deviance, defined to be twice the difference
between the maximum attainable log likelihood and the log likelihood of the model under consideration, is often used as a measure of goodness of fit. The maximum attainable log likelihood is
achieved with a model that has a parameter for every observation. See the section “Goodness of
Fit” on page 1968 for formulas for the deviance.
One strategy for variable selection is to fit a sequence of models, beginning with a simple model with
only an intercept term, and then to include one additional explanatory variable in each successive
model. You can measure the importance of the additional explanatory variable by the difference in
deviances or fitted log likelihoods between successive models. Asymptotic tests computed by the
GENMOD procedure enable you to assess the statistical significance of the additional term.
The GENMOD procedure enables you to fit a sequence of models, up through a maximum number
of terms specified in a MODEL statement. A table summarizes twice the difference in log likelihoods between each successive pair of models. This is called a Type 1 analysis in the GENMOD
procedure, because it is analogous to Type I (sequential) sums of squares in the GLM procedure.
As with the PROC GLM Type I sums of squares, the results from this process depend on the order
in which the model terms are fit.
The GENMOD procedure also generates a Type 3 analysis analogous to Type III sums of squares
in the GLM procedure. A Type 3 analysis does not depend on the order in which the terms for
the model are specified. A GENMOD procedure Type 3 analysis consists of specifying a model
and computing likelihood ratio statistics for Type III contrasts for each term in the model. The
contrasts are defined in the same way as they are in the GLM procedure. The GENMOD procedure
optionally computes Wald statistics for Type III contrasts. This is computationally less expensive
than likelihood ratio statistics, but it is thought to be less accurate because the specified significance
level of hypothesis tests based on the Wald statistic might not be as close to the actual significance
level as it is for likelihood ratio tests.
A Type 3 analysis generalizes the use of Type III estimable functions in linear models. Briefly, a
Type III estimable function (contrast) for an effect is a linear function of the model parameters that
involves the parameters of the effect and any interactions with that effect. A test of the hypothesis
1898 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
that the Type III contrast for a main effect is equal to 0 is intended to test the significance of the
main effect in the presence of interactions. See Chapter 39, “The GLM Procedure,” and Chapter 15,
“The Four Types of Estimable Functions,” for more information about Type III estimable functions.
Also refer to Littell, Freund, and Spector (1991).
Additional features of the GENMOD procedure include the following:
likelihood ratio statistics for user-defined contrasts—that is, linear functions of the parameters
and p-values based on their asymptotic chi-square distributions
estimated values, standard errors, and confidence limits for user-defined contrasts and least
squares means
ability to create a SAS data set corresponding to most tables displayed by the procedure (see
Table 37.4 and Table 37.5)
confidence intervals for model parameters based on either the profile likelihood function or
asymptotic normality
syntax similar to that of PROC GLM for the specification of the response and model effects,
including interaction terms and automatic coding of classification variables
ability to fit GEE models for clustered response data
ability to perform Bayesian analysis by Gibbs sampling
Getting Started: GENMOD Procedure
Poisson Regression
You can use the GENMOD procedure to fit a variety of statistical models. A typical use of PROC
GENMOD is to perform Poisson regression.
You can use the Poisson distribution to model the distribution of cell counts in a multiway contingency table. Aitkin et al. (1989) have used this method to model insurance claims data. Suppose
the following hypothetical insurance claims data are classified by two factors: age group (with two
levels) and car type (with three levels).
Poisson Regression F 1899
data insure;
input n c car$ age;
ln = log(n);
datalines;
500
42 small 1
1200 37 medium 1
100
1 large 1
400 101 small 2
500
73 medium 2
300
14 large 2
;
run;
In the preceding data set, the variable n represents the number of insurance policyholders and the
variable c represents the number of insurance claims. The variable car is the type of car involved
(classified into three groups) and the variable age is the age group of a policyholder (classified into
two groups).
You can use PROC GENMOD to perform a Poisson regression analysis of these data with a log link
function. This type of model is sometimes called a log-linear model.
Assume that the number of claims c has a Poisson probability distribution and that its mean, i , is
related to the factors car and age for observation i by
log.i / D log.ni / C x0i ˇ
D log.ni / C ˇ0 C
cari .1/ˇ1 C cari .2/ˇ2 C cari .3/ˇ3 C
agei .1/ˇ4 C agei .2/ˇ5
The indicator variables cari .j / and agei .j / are associated with the j th level of the variables car
and age for observation i
1 if car D j
cari .j / D
0 if car ¤ j
The ˇs are unknown parameters to be estimated by the procedure. The logarithm of the variable n is
used as an offset—that is, a regression variable with a constant coefficient of 1 for each observation.
A log-linear relationship between the mean and the factors car and age is specified by the log link
function. The log link function ensures that the mean number of insurance claims for each car and
age group predicted from the fitted model is positive.
1900 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
The following statements invoke the GENMOD procedure to perform this analysis:
proc genmod data=insure;
class car age;
model c = car age / dist
= poisson
link
= log
offset = ln;
run;
The variables car and age are specified as CLASS variables so that PROC GENMOD automatically
generates the indicator variables associated with car and age.
The MODEL statement specifies c as the response variable and car and age as explanatory variables.
An intercept term is included by default. Thus, the model matrix X (the matrix that has as its i th row
the transpose of the covariate vector for the ith observation) consists of a column of 1s representing
the intercept term and columns of 0s and 1s derived from indicator variables representing the levels
of the car and age variables.
That is, the model matrix is
2
1 1 0 0
6 1 0 1 0
6
6 1 0 0 1
XD6
6 1 1 0 0
6
4 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
where the first column corresponds to the intercept, the next three columns correspond to the variable car, and the last two columns correspond to the variable age.
The response distribution is specified as Poisson, and the link function is chosen to be log. That is,
the Poisson mean parameter is related to the linear predictor by
log./ D x0i ˇ
The logarithm of n is specified as an offset variable, as is common in this type of analysis. In this
case, the offset variable serves to normalize the fitted cell means to a per-policyholder basis, since
the total number of claims, not individual policyholder claims, is observed.
PROC GENMOD produces the following default output from the preceding statements.
Figure 37.1 Model Information
The GENMOD Procedure
Model Information
Data Set
Distribution
Link Function
Dependent Variable
Offset Variable
WORK.INSURE
Poisson
Log
c
ln
Poisson Regression F 1901
The “Model Information” table displayed in Figure 37.1 provides information about the specified
model and the input data set.
Figure 37.2 Class Level Information
Class Level Information
Class
Levels
car
age
Values
3
2
large medium small
1 2
Figure 37.2 displays the “Class Level Information” table, which identifies the levels of the classification variables that are used in the model. Note that car is a character variable, and the values are
sorted in alphabetical order. This is the default sort order, but you can select different sort orders
with the ORDER= option in the PROC GENMOD statement.
Figure 37.3 Goodness of Fit
Criteria For Assessing Goodness Of Fit
Criterion
Deviance
Scaled Deviance
Pearson Chi-Square
Scaled Pearson X2
Log Likelihood
Full Log Likelihood
AIC (smaller is better)
AICC (smaller is better)
BIC (smaller is better)
DF
Value
Value/DF
2
2
2
2
2.8207
2.8207
2.8416
2.8416
837.4533
-16.4638
40.9276
80.9276
40.0946
1.4103
1.4103
1.4208
1.4208
The “Criteria For Assessing Goodness Of Fit” table displayed in Figure 37.3 contains statistics that
summarize the fit of the specified model. These statistics are helpful in judging the adequacy of
a model and in comparing it with other models under consideration. If you compare the deviance
of 2.8207 with its asymptotic chi-square with 2 degrees of freedom distribution, you find that the
p-value is 0.24. This indicates that the specified model fits the data reasonably well.
1902 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Figure 37.4 Analysis of Parameter Estimates
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
Parameter
Intercept
car
car
car
age
age
Scale
large
medium
small
1
2
DF
Estimate
Standard
Error
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
-1.3168
-1.7643
-0.6928
0.0000
-1.3199
0.0000
1.0000
0.0903
0.2724
0.1282
0.0000
0.1359
0.0000
0.0000
Wald 95% Confidence
Limits
-1.4937
-2.2981
-0.9441
0.0000
-1.5863
0.0000
1.0000
-1.1398
-1.2304
-0.4414
0.0000
-1.0536
0.0000
1.0000
Wald
Chi-Square
212.73
41.96
29.18
.
94.34
.
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood
Parameter Estimates
Parameter
Intercept
car
car
car
age
age
Scale
Pr > ChiSq
large
medium
small
1
2
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
.
<.0001
.
NOTE: The scale parameter was held fixed.
Figure 37.4 displays the “Analysis Of Parameter Estimates” table, which summarizes the results
of the iterative parameter estimation process. For each parameter in the model, PROC GENMOD
displays columns with the parameter name, the degrees of freedom associated with the parameter,
the estimated parameter value, the standard error of the parameter estimate, the confidence intervals,
and the Wald chi-square statistic and associated p-value for testing the significance of the parameter
to the model. If a column of the model matrix corresponding to a parameter is found to be linearly
dependent, or aliased, with columns corresponding to parameters preceding it in the model, PROC
GENMOD assigns it zero degrees of freedom and displays a value of zero for both the parameter
estimate and its standard error.
This table includes a row for a scale parameter, even though there is no free scale parameter in the
Poisson distribution. See the section “Response Probability Distributions” on page 1962 for the
form of the Poisson probability distribution. PROC GENMOD allows the specification of a scale
parameter to fit overdispersed Poisson and binomial distributions. In such cases, the SCALE row
indicates the value of the overdispersion scale parameter used in adjusting output statistics. See
the section “Overdispersion” on page 1971 for more about overdispersion and the meaning of the
SCALE parameter output by the GENMOD procedure. PROC GENMOD displays a note indicating
that the scale parameter is fixed—that is, not estimated by the iterative fitting process.
It is usually of interest to assess the importance of the main effects in the model. Type 1 and Type 3
analyses generate statistical tests for the significance of these effects. You can request these analyses
with the TYPE1 and TYPE3 options in the MODEL statement, as follows:
Poisson Regression F 1903
proc genmod data=insure;
class car age;
model c = car age / dist
= poisson
link
= log
offset = ln
type1
type3;
run;
The results of these analyses are summarized in the figures that follow.
Figure 37.5 Type 1 Analysis
The GENMOD Procedure
LR Statistics For Type 1 Analysis
Source
Deviance
DF
ChiSquare
Pr > ChiSq
Intercept
car
age
175.1536
107.4620
2.8207
2
1
67.69
104.64
<.0001
<.0001
In the table for Type 1 analysis displayed in Figure 37.5, each entry in the deviance column represents the deviance for the model containing the effect for that row and all effects preceding it in
the table. For example, the deviance corresponding to car in the table is the deviance of the model
containing an intercept and car. As more terms are included in the model, the deviance decreases.
Entries in the chi-square column are likelihood ratio statistics for testing the significance of the
effect added to the model containing all the preceding effects. The chi-square value of 67.69 for
car represents twice the difference in log likelihoods between fitting a model with only an intercept
term and a model with an intercept and car. Since the scale parameter is set to 1 in this analysis, this
is equal to the difference in deviances. Since two additional parameters are involved, this statistic
can be compared with a chi-square distribution with two degrees of freedom. The resulting p-value
(labeled Pr>Chi) of less than 0.0001 indicates that this variable is highly significant. Similarly, the
chi-square value of 104.64 for age represents the difference in log likelihoods between the model
with the intercept and car and the model with the intercept, car, and age. This effect is also highly
significant, as indicated by the small p-value.
Figure 37.6 Type 3 Analysis
LR Statistics For Type 3 Analysis
Source
car
age
DF
ChiSquare
Pr > ChiSq
2
1
72.82
104.64
<.0001
<.0001
1904 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
The Type 3 analysis results in the same conclusions as the Type 1 analysis. The Type 3 chi-square
value for the car variable, for example, is twice the difference between the log likelihood for the
model with the variables Intercept, car, and age included and the log likelihood for the model with
the car variable excluded. The hypothesis tested in this case is the significance of the variable car
given that the variable age is in the model. In other words, it tests the additional contribution of car
in the model.
The values of the Type 3 likelihood ratio statistics for the car and age variables indicate that both of
these factors are highly significant in determining the claims performance of the insurance policyholders.
Bayesian Analysis of a Linear Regression Model
Neter et al. (1996) describe a study of 54 patients undergoing a certain kind of liver operation in
a surgical unit. The data set Surg contains survival time and certain covariates for each patient.
Observations for the first 20 patients in the data set Surg are shown in Figure 37.7.
Figure 37.7 Surgical Unit Data
Obs
x1
x2
x3
x4
y
logy
Logx1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
6.7
5.1
7.4
6.5
7.8
5.8
5.7
3.7
6.0
3.7
6.3
6.7
5.8
5.8
7.7
7.4
6.0
3.7
7.3
5.6
62
59
57
73
65
38
46
68
67
76
84
51
96
83
62
74
85
51
68
57
81
66
83
41
115
72
63
81
93
94
83
43
114
88
67
68
28
41
74
87
2.59
1.70
2.16
2.01
4.30
1.42
1.91
2.57
2.50
2.40
4.13
1.86
3.95
3.95
3.40
2.40
2.98
1.55
3.56
3.02
200
101
204
101
509
80
80
127
202
203
329
65
830
330
168
217
87
34
215
172
2.3010
2.0043
2.3096
2.0043
2.7067
1.9031
1.9031
2.1038
2.3054
2.3075
2.5172
1.8129
2.9191
2.5185
2.2253
2.3365
1.9395
1.5315
2.3324
2.2355
1.90211
1.62924
2.00148
1.87180
2.05412
1.75786
1.74047
1.30833
1.79176
1.30833
1.84055
1.90211
1.75786
1.75786
2.04122
2.00148
1.79176
1.30833
1.98787
1.72277
Consider the model
Y D ˇ0 C ˇ1 LogX1 C ˇ2 X2 C ˇ3 X3 C ˇ4 X4 C where Y is the survival time, LogX1 is log(blood-clotting score), X2 is a prognostic index, X3 is an
enzyme function test score, X4 is a liver function test score, and is an N.0; 2 / error term.
Bayesian Analysis of a Linear Regression Model F 1905
A question of scientific interest is whether blood clotting score has a positive effect on survival time.
Using PROC GENMOD, you can obtain a maximum likelihood estimate of the coefficient and construct a null point hypothesis to test whether ˇ1 is equal to 0. However, if you are interested in
finding the probability that the coefficient is positive, Bayesian analysis offers a convenient alternative. You can use Bayesian analysis to directly estimate the conditional probability, Pr.ˇ1 > 0jY/,
using the posterior distribution samples, which are produced as part of the output by PROC GENMOD.
The example that follows shows how to use PROC GENMOD to carry out a Bayesian analysis of the
linear model with a normal error term. The SEED= option is specified to maintain reproducibility;
no other options are specified in the BAYES statement. By default, a uniform prior distribution
is assumed on the regression coefficients. The uniform prior is a flat prior on the real line with
a distribution that reflects ignorance of the location of the parameter, placing equal likelihood on
all possible values the regression coefficient can take. Using the uniform prior in the following
example, you would expect the Bayesian estimates to resemble the classical results of maximizing
the likelihood. If you can elicit an informative prior distribution for the regression coefficients, you
should use the COEFFPRIOR= option to specify it. A default noninformative gamma prior is used
for the scale parameter .
You should make sure that the posterior distribution samples have achieved convergence before
using them for Bayesian inference. PROC GENMOD produces three convergence diagnostics by
default. If ODS Graphics is enabled as specified in the following SAS statements, diagnostic plots
are also displayed. See the section “Assessing Markov Chain Convergence” on page 156 for more
information about convergence diagnostics and their interpretation.
Summary statistics of the posterior distribution samples are produced by default. However, these
statistics might not be sufficient for carrying out your Bayesian inference, and further processing
of the posterior samples might be necessary. The following SAS statements request the Bayesian
analysis, and the OUTPOST= option saves the samples in the SAS data set PostSurg for further
processing:
ods graphics on;
proc genmod data=Surg;
model y = Logx1 X2 X3 X4 / dist=normal;
bayes seed=1 OutPost=PostSurg;
run;
ods graphics off;
The results of this analysis are shown in the following figures.
The “Model Information” table in Figure 37.8 summarizes information about the model you fit and
the size of the simulation.
1906 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Figure 37.8 Model Information
The GENMOD Procedure
Bayesian Analysis
Model Information
Data Set
Burn-In Size
MC Sample Size
Thinning
Distribution
Link Function
Dependent Variable
WORK.SURG
2000
10000
1
Normal
Identity
y
Survival Time
The “Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates” table in Figure 37.9 summarizes maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters.
Figure 37.9 Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
Parameter
DF
Estimate
Standard
Error
Intercept
Logx1
x2
x3
x4
Scale
1
1
1
1
1
1
-730.559
171.8758
4.3019
4.0309
18.1377
59.8591
85.4333
38.2250
0.5566
0.4996
12.0721
5.7599
Wald 95% Confidence
Limits
-898.005
96.9561
3.2109
3.0517
-5.5232
49.5705
-563.112
246.7954
5.3929
5.0100
41.7986
72.2832
NOTE: The scale parameter was estimated by maximum likelihood.
Since no prior distributions for the regression coefficients were specified, the default noninformative uniform distributions shown in the “Uniform Prior for Regression Coefficients” table in
Figure 37.10 are used. Noninformative priors are appropriate if you have no prior knowledge of the
likely range of values of the parameters, and if you want to make probability statements about the
parameters or functions of the parameters. See, for example, Ibrahim, Chen, and Sinha (2001) for
more information about choosing prior distributions.
Bayesian Analysis of a Linear Regression Model F 1907
Figure 37.10 Regression Coefficient Priors
The GENMOD Procedure
Bayesian Analysis
Uniform Prior for Regression Coefficients
Parameter
Prior
Intercept
Logx1
x2
x3
x4
Constant
Constant
Constant
Constant
Constant
The default noninformative gamma prior distribution for the normal scale parameter is shown in the
“Independent Prior Distributions for Model Parameters” table in Figure 37.11.
Figure 37.11 Scale Parameter Prior
Independent Prior Distributions for Model Parameters
Parameter
Prior
Distribution
Hyperparameters
Inverse
Shape
Scale
Scale
Gamma
0.001
0.001
By default, the maximum likelihood estimates of the regression parameters are used as the starting
values for the simulation when noninformative prior distributions are used. These are listed in the
“Initial Values and Seeds” table in Figure 37.12.
Figure 37.12 MCMC Initial Values and Seeds
Initial Values of the Chain
Chain
Seed
Intercept
Logx1
x2
x3
x4
1
1
-730.559
171.8758
4.301896
4.030878
18.1377
Initial Values of the Chain
Scale
59.26675
Summary statistics for the posterior sample are displayed in the “Fit Statistics,” “Descriptive Statistics for the Posterior Sample,” “Interval Statistics for the Posterior Sample,” and “Posterior Correlation Matrix” tables in Figure 37.13, Figure 37.14, Figure 37.15, and Figure 37.16, respectively.
1908 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Figure 37.13 Fit Statistics
Fit Statistics
DIC (smaller is better)
pD (effective number of parameters)
607.406
5.912
Figure 37.14 Descriptive Statistics
The GENMOD Procedure
Bayesian Analysis
Posterior Summaries
Parameter
N
Mean
Standard
Deviation
25%
Intercept
Logx1
x2
x3
x4
Scale
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
-732.7
172.2
4.3188
4.0477
17.8269
63.6906
90.0925
40.1142
0.5924
0.5297
12.7611
6.6360
-792.7
145.5
3.9209
3.6923
9.3056
59.0550
Percentiles
50%
-732.2
171.7
4.3166
4.0390
18.0202
63.1311
75%
-672.2
198.6
4.7103
4.3966
26.3786
67.7364
Figure 37.15 Interval Statistics
Posterior Intervals
Parameter
Alpha
Equal-Tail Interval
Intercept
Logx1
x2
x3
x4
Scale
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
-914.1
95.0527
3.1553
3.0250
-7.4580
52.3244
HPD Interval
-558.4
253.0
5.4898
5.1098
42.6537
78.2094
-912.3
93.5157
3.1631
3.0256
-7.3998
51.2927
-557.7
250.5
5.4928
5.1099
42.6693
76.7926
Figure 37.16 Posterior Sample Correlation Matrix
Posterior Correlation Matrix
Parameter
Intercept
Logx1
x2
x3
x4
Scale
Intercept
Logx1
x2
x3
x4
Scale
1.000
-0.852
-0.575
-0.707
0.575
0.009
-0.852
1.000
0.274
0.482
-0.637
-0.010
-0.575
0.274
1.000
0.295
-0.473
0.004
-0.707
0.482
0.295
1.000
-0.613
-0.000
0.575
-0.637
-0.473
-0.613
1.000
-0.009
0.009
-0.010
0.004
-0.000
-0.009
1.000
Bayesian Analysis of a Linear Regression Model F 1909
Since noninformative prior distributions were used, the posterior sample means, standard deviations, and interval statistics shown in Figure 37.13 and Figure 37.14 are consistent with the maximum likelihood estimates shown in Figure 37.9.
By default, PROC GENMOD computes three convergence diagnostics: the lag1, lag5, lag10, and
lag50 autocorrelations (Figure 37.17); Geweke diagnostic statistics (Figure 37.18); and effective
sample sizes (Figure 37.19). There is no indication that the Markov chain has not converged. See
the section “Assessing Markov Chain Convergence” on page 156 for more information about convergence diagnostics and their interpretation.
Figure 37.17 Posterior Sample Autocorrelations
The GENMOD Procedure
Bayesian Analysis
Posterior Autocorrelations
Parameter
Lag 1
Lag 5
Lag 10
Lag 50
Intercept
Logx1
x2
x3
x4
Scale
0.4525
0.4226
0.2328
0.4020
0.5906
0.0941
0.0478
0.0426
0.0307
0.0501
0.0767
0.0116
0.0104
0.0078
0.0123
0.0009
0.0124
-0.0113
-0.0083
-0.0052
-0.0057
-0.0034
0.0026
0.0050
Figure 37.18 Geweke Diagnostic Statistics
Geweke Diagnostics
Parameter
z
Pr > |z|
Intercept
Logx1
x2
x3
x4
Scale
-1.0049
1.2048
0.4330
0.8662
-0.9039
-1.0094
0.3149
0.2283
0.6650
0.3864
0.3661
0.3128
1910 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Figure 37.19 Effective Sample Sizes
Effective Sample Sizes
Parameter
ESS
Correlation
Time
Efficiency
Intercept
Logx1
x2
x3
x4
Scale
3083.6
3185.9
5051.4
3281.7
2534.6
8107.8
3.2430
3.1389
1.9797
3.0472
3.9454
1.2334
0.3084
0.3186
0.5051
0.3282
0.2535
0.8108
Trace, autocorrelation, and density plots for the seven model parameters, shown in Figure 37.20
through Figure 37.25, are useful in diagnosing whether the Markov chain of posterior samples has
converged. These plots show no evidence that the chain has not converged. See the section “Visual
Analysis via Trace Plots” on page 156 for help with interpreting these diagnostic plots.
Figure 37.20 Diagnostic Plots for Intercept
Bayesian Analysis of a Linear Regression Model F 1911
Figure 37.21 Diagnostic Plots for logX1
1912 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Figure 37.22 Diagnostic Plots for X2
Bayesian Analysis of a Linear Regression Model F 1913
Figure 37.23 Diagnostic Plots for X3
1914 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Figure 37.24 Diagnostic Plots for X4
Bayesian Analysis of a Linear Regression Model F 1915
Figure 37.25 Diagnostic Plots for X5
Suppose, for illustration, a question of scientific interest is whether blood clotting score has a positive effect on survival time. Since the model parameters are regarded as random quantities in a
Bayesian analysis, you can answer this question by estimating the conditional probability of ˇ1 being positive, given the data, Pr.ˇ1 > 0jY/, from the posterior distribution samples. The following
SAS statements compute the estimate of the probability of ˇ1 being positive:
data Prob;
set PostSurg;
Indicator = (logX1 > 0);
label Indicator= ’log(Blood Clotting Score) > 0’;
run;
proc Means data = Prob(keep=Indicator) n mean;
run;
As shown in Figure 37.26, there is a 1.00 probability of a positive relationship between the logarithm
of a blood clotting score and survival time, adjusted for the other covariates.
1916 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Figure 37.26 Probability That ˇ1 > 0
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : Indicator log(Blood Clotting Score) > 0
N
Mean
--------------------10000
1.0000000
---------------------
Generalized Estimating Equations
This section illustrates the use of the REPEATED statement to fit a GEE model, using repeated
measures data from the “Six Cities” study of the health effects of air pollution (Ware et al. 1984).
The data analyzed are the 16 selected cases in Lipsitz et al. (1994). The binary response is the
wheezing status of 16 children at ages 9, 10, 11, and 12 years. The mean response is modeled as
a logistic regression model by using the explanatory variables city of residence, age, and maternal
smoking status at the particular age. The binary responses for individual children are assumed to be
equally correlated, implying an exchangeable correlation structure.
The data set and SAS statements that fit the model by the GEE method are as follows:
data six;
input case city$ @@;
do i=1 to 4;
input age smoke wheeze @@;
output;
end;
datalines;
1 portage
9 0 1 10 0 1 11 0 1
2 kingston 9 1 1 10 2 1 11 2 0
3 kingston 9 0 1 10 0 0 11 1 0
4 portage
9 0 0 10 0 1 11 0 1
5 kingston 9 0 0 10 1 0 11 1 0
6 portage
9 0 0 10 1 0 11 1 0
7 kingston 9 1 0 10 1 0 11 0 0
8 portage
9 1 0 10 1 0 11 1 0
9 portage
9 2 1 10 2 0 11 1 0
10 kingston 9 0 0 10 0 0 11 0 0
11 kingston 9 1 1 10 0 0 11 0 1
12 portage
9 1 0 10 0 0 11 0 0
13 kingston 9 1 0 10 0 1 11 1 1
14 portage
9 1 0 10 2 0 11 1 0
15 kingston 9 1 0 10 1 0 11 1 0
16 portage
9 1 1 10 1 1 11 2 0
;
run;
12 0 0
12 2 0
12 1 0
12 1 0
12 1 0
12 1 0
12 0 0
12 2 0
12 1 0
12 1 0
12 0 1
12 0 0
12 1 1
12 2 1
12 2 1
12 1 0
Generalized Estimating Equations F 1917
proc genmod data=six ;
class case city ;
model wheeze = city age smoke / dist=bin;
repeated subject=case / type=exch covb corrw;
run;
The CLASS statement and the MODEL statement specify the model for the mean of the wheeze
variable response as a logistic regression with city, age, and smoke as independent variables, just as
for an ordinary logistic regression.
The REPEATED statement invokes the GEE method, specifies the correlation structure, and controls the displayed output from the GEE model. The option SUBJECT=CASE specifies that individual subjects be identified in the input data set by the variable case. The SUBJECT= variable
case must be listed in the CLASS statement. Measurements on individual subjects at ages 9, 10,
11, and 12 are in the proper order in the data set, so the WITHINSUBJECT= option is not required.
The TYPE=EXCH option specifies an exchangeable working correlation structure, the COVB option specifies that the parameter estimate covariance matrix be displayed, and the CORRW option
specifies that the final working correlation be displayed.
Initial parameter estimates for iterative fitting of the GEE model are computed as in an ordinary
generalized linear model, as described previously. Results of the initial model fit displayed as part
of the generated output are not shown here. Statistics for the initial model fit such as parameter
estimates, standard errors, deviances, and Pearson chi-squares do not apply to the GEE model and
are valid only for the initial model fit. The following figures display information that applies to the
GEE model fit.
Figure 37.27 displays general information about the GEE model fit.
Figure 37.27 GEE Model Information
The GENMOD Procedure
GEE Model Information
Correlation Structure
Subject Effect
Number of Clusters
Correlation Matrix Dimension
Maximum Cluster Size
Minimum Cluster Size
Exchangeable
case (16 levels)
16
4
4
4
Figure 37.28 displays the parameter estimate covariance matrices specified by the COVB option.
Both model-based and empirical covariances are produced.
1918 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Figure 37.28 GEE Parameter Estimate Covariance Matrices
Covariance Matrix (Model-Based)
Prm1
Prm2
Prm4
Prm5
Prm1
Prm2
Prm4
Prm5
5.74947
-0.22257
-0.53472
0.01655
-0.22257
0.45478
-0.002410
0.01876
-0.53472
-0.002410
0.05300
-0.01658
0.01655
0.01876
-0.01658
0.19104
Covariance Matrix (Empirical)
Prm1
Prm2
Prm4
Prm5
Prm1
Prm2
Prm4
Prm5
9.33994
-0.85104
-0.83253
-0.16534
-0.85104
0.47368
0.05736
0.04023
-0.83253
0.05736
0.07778
-0.002364
-0.16534
0.04023
-0.002364
0.13051
The exchangeable working correlation matrix specified by the CORRW option is displayed in
Figure 37.29.
Figure 37.29 GEE Working Correlation Matrix
Working Correlation Matrix
Row1
Row2
Row3
Row4
Col1
Col2
Col3
Col4
1.0000
0.1648
0.1648
0.1648
0.1648
1.0000
0.1648
0.1648
0.1648
0.1648
1.0000
0.1648
0.1648
0.1648
0.1648
1.0000
The parameter estimates table, displayed in Figure 37.30, contains parameter estimates, standard
errors, confidence intervals, Z scores, and p-values for the parameter estimates. Empirical standard
error estimates are used in this table. A table that displays model-based standard errors can be
created by using the REPEATED statement option MODELSE.
Figure 37.30 GEE Parameter Estimates Table
Analysis Of GEE Parameter Estimates
Empirical Standard Error Estimates
Parameter
Intercept
city
kingston
city
portage
age
smoke
Estimate
Standard
Error
-1.2751
-0.1223
0.0000
0.2036
0.0935
3.0561
0.6882
0.0000
0.2789
0.3613
95% Confidence
Limits
-7.2650
-1.4713
0.0000
-0.3431
-0.6145
4.7148
1.2266
0.0000
0.7502
0.8016
Z Pr > |Z|
-0.42
-0.18
.
0.73
0.26
0.6765
0.8589
.
0.4655
0.7957
Syntax: GENMOD Procedure F 1919
Syntax: GENMOD Procedure
You can specify the following statements in the GENMOD procedure. Items within the <> are
optional.
PROC GENMOD < options > ;
ASSESS | ASSESSMENT keyword / < options > ;
BAYES < options > ;
BY variables ;
CLASS variables ;
CONTRAST ’label’ effect values < . . . effect values > / < options > ;
DEVIANCE variable = expression ;
ESTIMATE ’label’ effect values < . . . effect values > / < options > ;
FREQ | FREQUENCY variable ;
FWDLINK variable = expression ;
INVLINK variable = expression ;
LSMEANS effects / < options > ;
MODEL response = < effects > / < options > ;
OUTPUT < OUT=SAS-data-set >< keyword=name. . . keyword=name > ;
programming statements ;
REPEATED SUBJECT=subject-effect / < options > ;
WEIGHT | SCWGT variable ;
VARIANCE variable = expression ;
ZEROMODEL < effects > / < options > ;
The PROC GENMOD statement invokes the procedure. All statements other than the MODEL
statement are optional. The CLASS statement, if present, must precede the MODEL statement, and
the CONTRAST statement must come after the MODEL statement.
PROC GENMOD Statement
PROC GENMOD < options > ;
The PROC GENMOD statement invokes the procedure. You can specify the following options.
DATA=SAS-data-set
specifies the SAS data set containing the data to be analyzed. If you omit the DATA= option,
the procedure uses the most recently created SAS data set.
DESCENDING
DESCEND
DESC
specifies that the levels of the response variable for the ordinal multinomial model and the
binomial model with single variable response syntax be sorted in the reverse of the default
order. For example, if RORDER=FORMATTED (the default), the DESCENDING option
1920 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
causes the levels to be sorted from highest to lowest instead of from lowest to highest. If
RORDER=FREQ, the DESCENDING option causes the levels to be sorted from lowest frequency count to highest instead of from highest to lowest.
NAMELEN=n
specifies the length of effect names in tables and output data sets to be n characters long,
where n is a value between 20 and 200 characters. The default length is 20 characters.
ORDER=keyword
specifies the sorting order for the levels of the classification variables (specified in the CLASS
statement). This order determines which parameters in the model correspond to each level in
the data, so the ORDER= option can be useful when you use the CONTRAST or ESTIMATE
statement. Note that the ORDER= option applies to the levels for all classification variables.
The exception is the default ORDER=FORMATTED for numeric variables for which you
have supplied no explicit format. In this case, the levels are ordered by their internal value.
Note that this represents a change from previous releases for how class levels are ordered.
Before SAS 8, numeric class levels with no explicit format were ordered by their BEST12.
formatted values, and to revert to the previous order you can specify this format explicitly for
the affected classification variables. The change was implemented because the former default
behavior for ORDER=FORMATTED often resulted in levels not being ordered numerically
and usually required the user to intervene with an explicit format or ORDER=INTERNAL
option to get the more natural order. The following table displays the valid keywords and
describes how PROC GENMOD interprets them.
ORDER=keyword
Levels Sorted by
DATA
FORMATTED
order of appearance in the input data set
external formatted value, except for numeric
variables with no explicit format, which are
sorted by their unformatted (internal) value
descending frequency count; levels with the
most observations come first in the order
unformatted value
FREQ
INTERNAL
By default, ORDER=FORMATTED. For ORDER=FORMATTED and ORDER=INTERNAL,
the sort order is machine dependent.
For more information about sorting order, refer to the chapter on the SORT procedure in the
Base SAS Procedures Guide.
PLOTS < (global-plot-option) >= plot-request < (options) >
PLOTS < (global-plot-options) > < = (plot-request < (options) > < ... plot-request < (options) > >) >
specifies plots to be created using ODS Graphics. Many of the observational statistics in the
output data set can be plotted using this option. You are not required to create an output data
set in order to produce a plot. When you specify only one plot request, you can omit the
parentheses around the plot request. Here are some examples:
PLOTS=ALL
PLOTS=PREDICTED
PLOTS=(PREDICTED RESCHI)
PLOTS(UNPACK)=DFBETA
PROC GENMOD Statement F 1921
You must enable ODS Graphics before requesting plots, for example, like this:
ods graphics on;
proc genmod plots=all;
model y = x;
run;
ods graphics off;
Any specified global plot options apply to all plots that are specified with plot requests. The
following global plot options are available.
CLUSTERLABEL
displays formatted levels of the SUBJECT= effect instead of plot symbols. This option
applies only to diagnostic statistics for models fit by GEEs that are plotted against
cluster number, and provides a way to identify cluster level names with corresponding
ordered cluster numbers.
UNPACK
displays multiple plots individually. The default is to display related multiple plots in a
panel.
See the section “OUTPUT Statement” on page 1952 for definitions of the statistics specified
with the plot requests. The plot requests include the following:
ALL
produces all available plots.
COOKSD
DOBS
plots the Cook’s distance statistic as a function of observation number.
DFBETA
plots the ˇ deletion statistic as a function of observation number for each regression
parameter in the model.
DFBETAS
plots the standardized ˇ deletion statistic as a function of observation number for each
regression parameter in the model.
LEVERAGE
plots the leverage as a function of observation number.
PREDICTED< (option) >
plots predicted values with confidence limits as a function of observation number. The
PREDICTED plot request has the following option:
CLM
includes confidence limits in the predicted value plot.
RESCHI< (options) >
plots Pearson residuals. The RESCHI plot request has the following options:
1922 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
INDEX
plots as a function of observation number.
XBETA
plots as a function of linear predictor.
If you do not specify an option, Pearson residuals are plotted as a function of observation number.
RESDEV< (options) >
plots deviance residuals. The RESDEV plot request has the following options:
INDEX
plots as a function of observation number.
XBETA
plots as a function of linear predictor.
If you do not specify an option, deviance residuals are plotted as a function of observation number.
RESLIK< (options) >
plots likelihood residuals. The RESLIK plot request has the following options:
INDEX
plots as a function of observation number.
XBETA
plots as a function of linear predictor.
If you do not specify an option, likelihood residuals are plotted as a function of observation number.
RESRAW< (options) >
plots raw residuals. The RESRAW plot request has the following options:
INDEX
plots as a function of observation number.
XBETA
plots as a function of linear predictor.
If you do not specify an option, raw residuals are plotted as a function of observation
number.
STDRESCHI< (options) >
plots standardized Pearson residuals. The STDRESCHI plot request has the following
options:
INDEX
plots as a function of observation number.
PROC GENMOD Statement F 1923
XBETA
plots as a function of linear predictor.
If you do not specify an option, standardized Pearson residuals are plotted as a function
of observation number.
STDRESDEV< (options) >
plots standardized deviance residuals. The STDRESDEV plot request has the following
options:
INDEX
plots as a function of observation number.
XBETA
plots as a function of linear predictor.
If you do not specify an option, standardized deviance residuals are plotted as a function
of observation number.
If you fit a model by using generalized estimating equations (GEEs), the following additional
plot requests are available:
CLEVERAGE
plots the cluster leverage as a function of ordered cluster.
CLUSTERCOOKSD
DCLS
plots the cluster Cook’s distance statistic as a function of ordered cluster.
CLUSTERDFIT
MCLS
plots the studentized cluster Cook’s distance statistic as a function of ordered cluster.
DFBETAC
plots the cluster deletion statistic as a function of ordered cluster for each regression
parameter in the model.
DFBETACS
plots the standardized cluster deletion statistic as a function of ordered cluster for each
regression parameter in the model.
RORDER=keyword
specifies the sorting order for the levels of the response variable. This order determines which intercept parameter in the model corresponds to each level in the data. If
RORDER=FORMATTED for numeric variables for which you have supplied no explicit format, the levels are ordered by their internal values. Note that this represents a change from
previous releases for how class levels are ordered. Before SAS 8, numeric class levels with no
explicit format were ordered by their BEST12. formatted values, and to revert to the previous
order you can specify this format explicitly for the response variable. The change was implemented because the former default behavior for RORDER=FORMATTED often resulted
1924 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
in levels not being ordered numerically and usually required the user to intervene with an
explicit format or RORDER=INTERNAL to get the more natural ordering. The following
table displays the valid keywords and describes how PROC GENMOD interprets them.
RORDER=keyword
Levels Sorted by
DATA
FORMATTED
order of appearance in the input data set
external formatted value, except for numeric
variables with no explicit format, which are
sorted by their unformatted (internal) value
descending frequency count; levels with the
most observations come first in the order
unformatted value
FREQ
INTERNAL
By default, RORDER=FORMATTED. For RORDER=FORMATTED and RORDER=INTERNAL,
the sort order is machine dependent. The DESCENDING option in the PROC GENMOD
statement causes the response variable to be sorted in the reverse of the order displayed in the
previous table. For more information about sorting order, refer to the chapter on the SORT
procedure in the Base SAS Procedures Guide.
The NOPRINT option, which suppresses displayed output in other SAS procedures, is not
available in the PROC GENMOD statement. However, you can use the Output Delivery
System (ODS) to suppress all displayed output, store all output on disk for further analysis,
or create SAS data sets from selected output. You can suppress all displayed output with
the statement ODS SELECT NONE; and turn displayed output back on with the statement ODS
SELECT ALL;. See Table 37.4 and Table 37.5 for the names of output tables available from
PROC GENMOD. For more information about ODS, see Chapter 20, “Using the Output
Delivery System.”
ASSESS Statement
ASSESS VAR=(effect) | LINK < / options > ;
ASSESSMENT VAR=(effect) | LINK < / options > ;
The ASSESS statement computes and plots, using ODS Graphics, model-checking statistics based
on aggregates of residuals. See the section “Assessment of Models Based on Aggregates of Residuals” on page 1993 for details about the model assessment methods available in GENMOD.
The types of aggregates available are cumulative residuals, moving sums of residuals, and loess
smoothed residuals. If you do not specify which aggregate to use, the assessments are based on
cumulative sums. PROC GENMOD uses ODS Graphics for graphical displays. For specific information about the graphics available in PROC GENMOD, see the section “ODS Graphics” on
page 2020.
You must specify either LINK or VAR= in order to create an analysis.
ASSESS Statement F 1925
LINK requests the assessment of the link function by performing the analysis with respect to the
linear predictor.
VAR=(effect) specifies that the functional form of a covariate be checked by performing the analysis
with respect to the variable identified by the effect. The effect must be specified in the MODEL
statement and must contain only continuous variables (variables not listed in a CLASS statement).
You can specify the following options after the slash (/).
CRPANEL
requests that a plot with four panels showing just a few of the paths from the default aggregate
plot to make it easier to compare simulated and observed paths. The plot in each panel
contains aggregates of the observed residuals and two simulated curves (fewer if NPATHS=
is less than 8).
LOESS< (number ) >
LOWESS< (number ) >
requests model assessment based on loess smoothed residuals with optional number the fraction of data used; number must be between zero and one. If number is not specified, the
default value one-third is used.
NPATHS=number
NPATH=number
PATHS=number
PATH=number
specifies the number of simulated paths to plot in the default aggregate residuals plot. The
default value of number is twenty.
RESAMPLE< =number >
RESAMPLES< =number >
specifies that a p-value be computed based on 1,000 simulated paths, or number paths, if
number is specified.
SEED=number
specifies a seed for the normal random number generator used in creating simulated realizations of aggregates of residuals for plots and estimating p-values. Specifying a seed enables
you to produce identical graphs and p-values from one run of the procedure to the next run.
If a seed is not specified, or if number is negative or zero, a random number seed is derived
from the time of day.
WINDOW< (number ) >
requests assessment based on a moving sum window of width number. If number is not
specified, a value of one-half of the range of the x-coordinate is used.
1926 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
BAYES Statement
BAYES < options > ;
The BAYES statement requests a Bayesian analysis of the regression model by using Gibbs sampling. The Bayesian posterior samples (also known as the chain) for the regression parameters are
not tabulated. The Bayesian posterior samples (also known as the chain) for the regression parameters can be output to a SAS data set. Table 37.1 summarizes the options available in the BAYES
statement.
Table 37.1
BAYES Statement Options
Option
Monte Carlo Options
INITIAL=
INITIALMLE
METROPOLIS=
NBI=
NMC=
SEED=
THINNING=
Description
specifies initial values of the chain
specifies that maximum likelihood estimates be used as
initial values of the chain
specifies the use of a Metropolis step
specifies the number of burn-in iterations
specifies the number of iterations after burn-in
specifies the random number generator seed
controls the thinning of the Markov chain
Model and Prior Options
COEFFPRIOR=
specifies the prior of the regression coefficients
DISPERSIONPRIOR= specifies the prior of the dispersion parameter
PRECISIONPRIOR=
specifies the prior of the precision parameter
SCALEPRIOR=
specifies the prior of the scale parameter
Summary Statistics and Convergence Diagnostics
DIAGNOSTICS=
displays convergence diagnostics
PLOTS=
displays diagnostic plots
STATISTICS=
displays summary statistics of the posterior samples
Posterior Samples
OUTPOST=
names a SAS data set for the posterior samples
The following list describes these options and their suboptions.
COEFFPRIOR=JEFFREYS< (option) > | NORMAL< (options) > | UNIFORM
COEFF=JEFFREYS< (options) > | NORMAL< (options) > | UNIFORM
CPRIOR=JEFFREYS< (options) > | NORMAL< (options) > | UNIFORM
specifies the prior distribution for the regression coefficients. The default is COEFFPRIOR=UNIFORM, which specifies the noninformative and improper prior of a constant.
Jeffreys’ prior is specified by COEFFPRIOR=JEFFREYS, which can be followed by the
1
following option in parentheses. Jeffreys’ prior is proportional to jI.ˇ/j 2 , where I.ˇ/ is the
BAYES Statement F 1927
Fisher information matrix. See the section “Jeffreys’ Prior” on page 2003 and Ibrahim and
Laud (1991) for more details.
CONDITIONAL
specifies that the Jeffreys’ prior, conditional on the current Markov chain value of the
1
generalized linear model precision parameter , is proportional to jI.ˇ/j 2 .
The normal prior is specified by COEFFPRIOR=NORMAL, which can be followed by one
of the following options enclosed in parentheses. However, if you do not specify an option,
the normal prior N.0; 106 I/, where I is the identity matrix, is used. See the section “Normal
Prior” on page 2003 for more details.
CONDITIONAL
specifies that the normal prior, conditional on the current Markov chain value of the
generalized linear model precision parameter , is N.; 1 †/, where and † are
the mean and covariance of the normal prior specified by other normal options.
INPUT=SAS-data-set
specifies a SAS data set containing the mean and covariance information of the normal
prior. The data set must have a _TYPE_ variable to represent the type of each observation and a variable for each regression coefficient. If the data set also contains a
_NAME_ variable, the values of this variable are used to identify the covariances for
the _TYPE_=’COV’ observations; otherwise, the _TYPE_=’COV’ observations are assumed to be in the same order as the explanatory variables in the MODEL statement.
PROC GENMOD reads the mean vector from the observation with _TYPE_=’MEAN’
and reads the covariance matrix from observations with _TYPE_=’COV’. For an independent normal prior, the variances can be specified with _TYPE_=’VAR’; alternatively,
the precisions (inverse of the variances) can be specified with _TYPE_=’PRECISION’.
RELVAR< =c >
specifies the normal prior N.0; cJ/, where J is a diagonal matrix with diagonal elements
equal to the variances of the corresponding ML estimator. By default, c D 106 .
VAR< =c >
specifies the normal prior N.0; cI/, where I is the identity matrix.
DIAGNOSTICS=ALL | NONE | (keyword-list)
DIAG=ALL | NONE | (keyword-list)
controls the number of diagnostics produced. You can request all the following diagnostics
by specifying DIAGNOSTICS=ALL. If you do not want any of these diagnostics, specify
DIAGNOSTICS=NONE. If you want some but not all of the diagnostics, or if you want to
change certain settings of these diagnostics, specify a subset of the following keywords. The
default is DIAGNOSTICS=(AUTOCORR ESS GEWEKE).
AUTOCORR < (LAGS= numeric-list) >
computes the autocorrelations of lags given by LAGS= list for each parameter. Elements in the list are truncated to integers and repeated values are removed. If the
LAGS= option is not specified, autocorrelations of lags 1, 5, 10, and 50 are computed
for each variable. See the section “Autocorrelations” on page 169 for details.
1928 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
ESS
computes Carlin’s estimate of the effective sample size, the correlation time, and the
efficiency of the chain for each parameter. See the section “Effective Sample Size” on
page 169 for details.
GELMAN < (gelman-options) >
computes the Gelman and Rubin convergence diagnostics. You can specify one or more
of the following gelman-options:
NCHAIN | N=number
specifies the number of parallel chains used to compute the diagnostic, and must
be 2 or larger. The default is NCHAIN=3. If an INITIAL= data set is used,
NCHAIN defaults to the number of rows in the INITIAL= data set. If any number
other than this is specified with the NCHAIN= option, the NCHAIN= value is
ignored.
ALPHA=value
specifies the significance level for the upper bound. The default is ALPHA=0.05,
resulting in a 97.5% bound.
See the section “Gelman and Rubin Diagnostics” on page 161 for details.
GEWEKE < (geweke-options) >
computes the Geweke spectral density diagnostics, which are essentially a two-sample
t test between the first f1 portion and the last f2 portion of the chain. The default is
f1 D 0:1 and f2 D 0:5, but you can choose other fractions by using the following
geweke-options:
FRAC1=value
specifies the fraction f1 for the first window.
FRAC2=value
specifies the fraction f2 for the second window.
See the section “Geweke Diagnostics” on page 163 for details.
HEIDELBERGER < (heidel-options) >
computes the Heidelberger and Welch diagnostic for each variable, which consists of a
stationarity test of the null hypothesis that the sample values form a stationary process.
If the stationarity test is not rejected, a halfwidth test is then carried out. Optionally,
you can specify one or more of the following heidel-options:
SALPHA=value
specifies the ˛ level .0 < ˛ < 1/ for the stationarity test.
HALPHA=value
specifies the ˛ level .0 < ˛ < 1/ for the halfwidth test.
EPS=value
specifies a positive number such that if the halfwidth is less than times the
sample mean of the retained iterates, the halfwidth test is passed.
BAYES Statement F 1929
See the section “Heidelberger and Welch Diagnostics” on page 165 for details.
MCERROR
MCSE
computes an estimate of the Monte Carlo standard error for each parameter. See the
section “Standard Error of the Mean Estimate” on page 170 for details.
RAFTERY< (raftery-options) >
computes the Raftery and Lewis diagnostics that evaluate the accuracy of the estimated
quantile (OQ for a given Q 2 .0; 1/) of a chain. OQ can achieve any degree of accuracy
when the chain is allowed to run for a long time. A stopping criterion is when the
estimated probability POQ D Pr. OQ / reaches within ˙R of the value Q with
probability S ; that is, Pr.Q R POQ Q C R/ D S . The following raftery-options
enable you to specify Q; R; S , and a precision level for the test:
QUANTILE | Q=value
specifies the order (a value between 0 and 1) of the quantile of interest. The
default is 0.025.
ACCURACY | R=value
specifies a small positive number as the margin of error for measuring the accuracy of estimation of the quantile. The default is 0.005.
PROBABILITY | S=value
specifies the probability of attaining the accuracy of the estimation of the quantile. The default is 0.95.
EPSILON | EPS=value
specifies the tolerance level (a small positive number) for the stationary test. The
default is 0.001.
See the section “Raftery and Lewis Diagnostics” on page 166 for details.
DISPERSIONPRIOR=GAMMA< (options) > | IGAMMA< (options) > | IMPROPER
DPRIOR=GAMMA< (options) > | IGAMMA< (options) > | IMPROPER
specifies that Gibbs sampling be performed on the generalized linear model dispersion parameter and the prior distribution for the dispersion parameter, if there is a dispersion parameter
in the model. For models that do not have a dispersion parameter (the Poisson and binomial),
this option is ignored. Note that you can specify Gibbs sampling on either the dispersion
1
parameter , the scale parameter D 2 , or the precision parameter D 1 , with the
DPRIOR=, SPRIOR=, and PPRIOR= options, respectively. These three parameters are transformations of one another, and you should specify Gibbs sampling for only one of them.
a 1
bt
is specified by DISPERSIONA gamma prior G.a; b/ with density f .t/ D b.bt /€.a/e
PRIOR=GAMMA, which can be followed by one of the following gamma-options enclosed
in parentheses. The hyperparameters a and b are the shape and inverse-scale parameters
of the gamma distribution, respectively. See the section “Gamma Prior” on page 2002 for
details. The default is G.10 4 ; 10 4 /.
1930 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
RELSHAPE< =c >
O c/ distribution, where O is the MLE of the dispersion paspecifies independent G.c ;
rameter. With this choice of hyperparameters, the mean of the prior distribution is O
O
and the variance is c . By default, c =10
4.
SHAPE=a
and
ISCALE=b
specify the G.a; b/ prior.
SHAPE=c
specifies the G.c; c/ prior.
ISCALE=c
specifies the G.c; c/ prior.
a
b
An inverse gamma prior IG.a; b/ with density f .t/ D €.a/
t .aC1/ e b=t is specified by
DISPERSIONPRIOR=IGAMMA, which can be followed by one of the following inverse
gamma-options enclosed in parentheses. The hyperparameters a and b are the shape and
scale parameters of the inverse gamma distribution, respectively. See the section “Inverse
Gamma Prior” on page 2002 for details. The default is IG.2:001; 0:001/.
RELSHAPE< =c >
O
specifies independent IG. cCO ; c/ distribution, where O is the MLE of the dispersion
O
parameter. With this choice of hyperparameters, the mean of the prior distribution is .
4
By default, c =10 .
SHAPE=a
and
SCALE=b
specify the IG.a; b/ prior.
SHAPE=c
specifies the IG.c; c/ prior.
SCALE=c
specifies the IG.c; c/ prior.
An improper prior with density f .t/ proportional to t
PRIOR=IMPROPER.
1
is specified with DISPERSION-
INITIAL=SAS-data-set
specifies the SAS data set that contains the initial values of the Markov chains. The INITIAL=
data set must contain all the variables of the model. You can specify multiple rows as the
initial values of the parallel chains for the Gelman-Rubin statistics, but posterior summaries,
diagnostics, and plots are computed only for the first chain. If the data set also contains the
variable _SEED_, the value of the _SEED_ variable is used as the seed of the random number
generator for the corresponding chain.
BAYES Statement F 1931
INITIALMLE
specifies that maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters be used as initial values
of the Markov chain. If this option is not specified, estimates of the mode of the posterior
distribution obtained by optimization are used as initial values.
METROPOLIS=YES
METROPOLIS=NO
specifies the use of a Metropolis step to generate Gibbs samples for posterior distributions
that are not log concave. The default value is METROPOLIS=YES.
NBI=number
specifies the number of burn-in iterations before the chains are saved. The default is 2000.
NMC=number
specifies the number of iterations after the burn-in. The default is 10000.
OUTPOST=SAS-data-set
OUT=SAS-data-set
names the SAS data set that contains the posterior samples. See the section “OUTPOST=
Output Data Set” on page 2005 for more information. Alternatively, you can create the output
data set by specifying an ODS OUTPUT statement as follows:
ODS output posteriorsample = SAS-data-set ;
PRECISIONPRIOR=GAMMA< (options) > | IMPROPER
PPRIOR=GAMMA< (options) > | IMPROPER
specifies that Gibbs sampling be performed on the generalized linear model precision parameter and the prior distribution for the precision parameter, if there is a precision parameter in
the model. For models that do not have a precision parameter (the Poisson and binomial), this
option is ignored. Note that you can specify Gibbs sampling on either the dispersion parame1
ter , the scale parameter D 2 , or the precision parameter D 1 , with the DPRIOR=,
SPRIOR=, and PPRIOR= options, respectively. These three parameters are transformations
of one another, and you should specify Gibbs sampling for only one of them.
a 1
bt
A gamma prior G.a; b/ with density f .t/ D b.bt /€.a/e
is specified by PRECISIONPRIOR=GAMMA, which can be followed by one of the following gamma-options enclosed
in parentheses. The hyperparameters a and b are the shape and inverse-scale parameters
of the gamma distribution, respectively. See the section “Gamma Prior” on page 2002 for
details. The default is G.10 4 ; 10 4 /.
RELSHAPE< =c >
specifies independent G.c O ; c/ distribution, where O is the MLE of the dispersion parameter. With this choice of hyperparameters, the mean of the prior distribution is O
and the variance is cO . By default, c D 10 4 .
SHAPE=a
and
ISCALE=b
specify the G.a; b/ prior.
1932 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
SHAPE=c
specifies the G.c; c/ prior.
ISCALE=c
specifies the G.c; c/ prior.
An improper prior with density f .t/ proportional to t
PRIOR=IMPROPER.
1
is specified with PRECISION-
SCALEPRIOR=GAMMA< (options) > | IMPROPER
SPRIOR=GAMMA< (options) > | IMPROPER
specifies that Gibbs sampling be performed on the generalized linear model scale parameter
and the prior distribution for the scale parameter, if there is a scale parameter in the model. For
models that do not have a scale parameter (the Poisson and binomial), this option is ignored.
Note that you can specify Gibbs sampling on either the dispersion parameter , the scale
1
parameter D 2 , or the precision parameter D 1 , with the DPRIOR=, SPRIOR=, and
PPRIOR= options, respectively. These three parameters are transformations of one another,
and you should specify Gibbs sampling for only one of them.
a 1
bt
b.bt /
e
A gamma prior G.a; b/ with density f .t/ D
is specified by
€.a/
SCALEPRIOR=GAMMA, which can be followed by one of the following gamma-options
enclosed in parentheses. The hyperparameters a and b are the shape and inverse-scale parameters of the gamma distribution, respectively. See the section “Gamma Prior” on page 2002
for details. The default is G.10 4 ; 10 4 /.
RELSHAPE< =c >
specifies independent G.c ;
O c/ distribution, where O is the MLE of the dispersion parameter. With this choice of hyperparameters, the mean of the prior distribution is O
and the variance is cO . By default, c D 10 4 .
SHAPE=a
and
ISCALE=b
specify the G.a; b/ prior.
SHAPE=c
specifies the G.c; c/ prior.
ISCALE=c
specifies the G.c; c/ prior.
An improper prior with density f .t/ proportional to t
1
is specified with SCALEPRIOR=IMPROPER.
PLOTS< (global-plot-options) >= plot-request
PLOTS< (global-plot-options) >= (plot-request < . . . plot-request>)
controls the display of diagnostic plots. Three types of plots can be requested: trace plots,
autocorrelation function plots, and kernel density plots. By default, the plots are displayed
in panels unless the global plot option UNPACK is specified. Also, when you are specifying
more than one type of plots, the plots are displayed by parameters unless the global plot
BAYES Statement F 1933
option GROUPBY is specified. When you specify only one plot request, you can omit the
parentheses around the plot request. For example:
plots=none
plots(unpack)=trace
plots=(trace autocorr)
You must enable ODS Graphics before requesting plots. For example, the following SAS
statements enable ODS Graphics:
ods graphics on;
proc genmod;
model y=x;
bayes plots=trace;
run;
end;
ods graphics off;
The global plot options are as follows:
FRINGE
creates a fringe plot on the X axis of the density plot.
GROUPBY=PARAMETER
GROUPBY=TYPE
specifies how the plots are grouped when there is more than one type of plot.
GROUPBY=TYPE
specifies that the plots be grouped by type.
GROUPBY=PARAMETER
specifies that the plots be grouped by parameter.
GROUPBY=PARAMETER is the default.
LAGS=n
specifies that autocorrelations be plotted up to lag n. If this option is not specified,
autocorrelations are plotted up to lag 50.
SMOOTH
displays a fitted penalized B-spline curve for each trace plot.
UNPACKPANEL
UNPACK
specifies that all paneled plots be unpacked, meaning that each plot in a panel is displayed separately.
The plot requests include the following:
ALL
specifies all types of plots. PLOTS=ALL is equivalent to specifying PLOTS=(TRACE
AUTOCORR DENSITY).
1934 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
AUTOCORR
displays the autocorrelation function plots for the parameters.
DENSITY
displays the kernel density plots for the parameters.
NONE
suppresses all diagnostic plots.
TRACE
displays the trace plots for the parameters. See the section “Visual Analysis via Trace
Plots” on page 156 for details.
SEED=number
specifies an integer seed in the range 1 to 231 1 for the random number generator in the
simulation. Specifying a seed enables you to reproduce identical Markov chains for the same
specification. If the SEED= option is not specified, or if you specify a nonpositive seed, a
random seed is derived from the time of day.
STATISTICS < (global-options) > = ALL | NONE | keyword | (keyword-list)
STATS < (global-options) > = ALL | NONE | keyword | (keyword-list)
controls the number of posterior statistics produced. Specifying STATISTICS=ALL is equivalent to specifying STATISTICS= (SUMMARY INTERVAL COV CORR). If you do not
want any posterior statistics, you specify STATISTICS=NONE. The default is STATISTICS=(SUMMARY INTERVAL). See the section “Summary Statistics” on page 170 for
details. The global-options include the following:
ALPHA=numeric-list
controls the probabilities of the credible intervals. The ALPHA= values must be between 0 and 1. Each ALPHA= value produces a pair of 100(1–ALPHA)% equal-tail
and HPD intervals for each parameters. The default is the value of the ALPHA= option in the MODEL statement, or 0.05 if that option is not specified (yielding the 95%
credible intervals for each parameter).
PERCENT=numeric-list
requests the percentile points of the posterior samples. The PERCENT= values must be
between 0 and 100. The default is PERCENT=25, 50, 75, which yield the 25th, 50th,
and 75th percentile points, respectively, for each parameter.
The list of keywords includes the following:
CORR
produces the posterior correlation matrix.
COV
produces the posterior covariance matrix.
SUMMARY
produces the means, standard deviations, and percentile points for the posterior samples. The default is to produce the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile points, but you can
use the global PERCENT= option to request specific percentile points.
BY Statement F 1935
INTERVAL
produces equal-tail credible intervals and HPD intervals. The defult is to produce the
95% equal-tail credible intervals and 95% HPD intervals, but you can use the global
ALPHA= option to request intervals of any probabilities.
THINNING=number
THIN=number
controls the thinning of the Markov chain. Only one in every k samples is used when
THINNING=k, and if NBI=n0 and NMC=n, the number of samples kept is
n0 C n
n0
k
k
where [a] represents the integer part of the number a. The default is THINNING=1.
BY Statement
BY variables ;
You can specify a BY statement with PROC GENMOD to obtain separate analyses on observations
in groups defined by the BY variables. When a BY statement appears, the procedure expects the
input data set to be sorted in order of the BY variables.
Since sorting the data changes the order in which PROC GENMOD reads the data, this can affect
the sorting order for the levels of classification variables if you have specified ORDER=DATA in
the PROC GENMOD statement. This in turn affects specifications in the CONTRAST statement.
If your input data set is not sorted in ascending order, use one of the following alternatives:
Sort the data by using the SORT procedure with a similar BY statement.
Specify the BY statement option NOTSORTED or DESCENDING in the BY statement for
the GENMOD procedure. The NOTSORTED option does not mean that the data are unsorted
but rather that the data are arranged in groups (according to values of the BY variables) and
that these groups are not necessarily in alphabetical or increasing numeric order.
Create an index on the BY variables by using the DATASETS procedure.
For more information about the BY statement, see SAS Language Reference: Concepts. For more
information about the DATASETS procedure, see the Base SAS Procedures Guide.
CLASS Statement
The CLASS statement names the classification variables to be used in the analysis. The CLASS
statement must precede the MODEL statement. You can specify various v-options for each variable
1936 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
by enclosing them in parentheses after the variable name. You can also specify global v-options
for the CLASS statement by placing them after a slash (/). Global v-options are applied to all the
variables specified in the CLASS statement. If you specify more than one CLASS statement, the
global v-options specified in any one CLASS statement apply to all CLASS statements. However,
individual CLASS variable v-options override the global v-options.
DESCENDING
DESC
reverses the sorting order of the classification variable.
MISSING
allows missing value (’.’ for a numeric variable and blank for a character variable) as a valid
value for the CLASS variable.
ORDER=DATA
ORDER=FORMATTED
ORDER=FREQ
ORDER=INTERNAL
specifies the sorting order for the levels of classification variables. This order determines
which parameters in the model correspond to each level in the data, so the ORDER=
option can be useful when you use the CONTRAST or ESTIMATE statement. If ORDER=FORMATTED for numeric variables for which you have supplied no explicit format,
the levels are ordered by their internal values. Note that this represents a change from previous releases for how class levels are ordered. Before SAS 8, numeric class levels with no
explicit format were ordered by their BEST12. formatted values, and to revert to the previous
ordering you can specify this format explicitly for the affected classification variables. The
change was implemented because the former default behavior for ORDER=FORMATTED
often resulted in levels not being ordered numerically and usually required the user to intervene with an explicit format or ORDER=INTERNAL to get the more natural order. The
following table shows how PROC GENMOD interprets values of the ORDER= option.
Value of ORDER=
Levels Sorted by
DATA
FORMATTED
order of appearance in the input data set
external formatted value, except for numeric
variables with no explicit format, which are
sorted by their unformatted (internal) value
descending frequency count; levels with the
most observations come first in the order
unformatted value
FREQ
INTERNAL
By default, ORDER=FORMATTED. For FORMATTED and INTERNAL, the sort order is
machine dependent.
For more information about sorting order, see the chapter on the SORT procedure in the
Base SAS Procedures Guide and the discussion of BY-group processing in SAS Language
Reference: Concepts.
CLASS Statement F 1937
PARAM=keyword
specifies the parameterization method for the classification variable or variables. Design matrix columns are created from CLASS variables according to the following coding schemes.
The default is PARAM=GLM. If PARAM=ORTHPOLY or PARAM=POLY, and the CLASS
levels are numeric, then the ORDER= option in the CLASS statement is ignored, and the
internal, unformatted values are used. See the section “CLASS Variable Parameterization”
on page 1973 for further details. You can use the following keywords:
EFFECT
specifies effect coding.
GLM
specifies less-than-full-rank, reference-cell coding; this option can be used
only as a global option.
ORDINAL
THERMOMETER specifies the cumulative parameterization for an ordinal CLASS variable.
POLYNOMIAL
POLY
specifies polynomial coding.
REFERENCE
REF
specifies reference-cell coding.
ORTHEFFECT
orthogonalizes PARAM=EFFECT.
ORTHORDINAL
ORTHOTHERM orthogonalizes PARAM=ORDINAL.
ORTHPOLY
orthogonalizes PARAM=POLYNOMIAL.
ORTHREF
orthogonalizes PARAM=REFERENCE.
The EFFECT, POLYNOMIAL, REFERENCE, and ORDINAL suboptions and their orthogonal parameterizations are full rank. The REF= option in the CLASS statement determines the
reference level for the EFFECT and REFERENCE suboptions and their orthogonal parameterizations.
REF=’level’ | keyword
specifies the reference level for PARAM=EFFECT, PARAM=REFERENCE, and their orthogonalizations. For an individual (but not a global) variable REF= option, you can specify
the level of the variable to use as the reference level. For a global or individual variable REF=
option, you can use one of the following keywords. The default is REF=LAST.
FIRST
designates the first ordered level as reference.
LAST
designates the last ordered level as reference.
TRUNCATE< =n >
specifies the length n of CLASS variable values to use in determining CLASS variable levels.
If you specify TRUNCATE without the length n, the first 16 characters of the formatted
values are used. When formatted values are longer than 16 characters, you can use this option
to revert to the levels as determined in releases before SAS 9. The default is to use the full
formatted length of the CLASS variable. The TRUNCATE option is available only as a global
option.
1938 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
CONTRAST Statement
CONTRAST ’label’ contrast-specification / < options > ;
The CONTRAST statement provides a means of obtaining a test of a specified hypothesis concerning the model parameters. This is accomplished by specifying a matrix L for testing the hypothesis
L0 ˇ D 0. You must be familiar with the details of the model parameterization that PROC GENMOD uses. For more information, see the section “Parameterization Used in PROC GENMOD” on
page 1973 and the section “CLASS Variable Parameterization” on page 1973. Computed statistics
are based on the asymptotic chi-square distribution of the likelihood ratio statistic, or the generalized score statistic for GEE models, with degrees of freedom determined by the number of linearly
independent rows in the L0 matrix. You can request Wald chi-square statistics with the Wald option
in the CONTRAST statement.
There is no limit to the number of CONTRAST statements that you can specify, but they must
appear after the MODEL statement and after the ZEROMODEL statement for zero-inflated Poisson
models. Statistics for multiple CONTRAST statements are displayed in a single table.
The elements of the CONTRAST statement are as follows:
label
identifies the contrast on the output. A label is required for every contrast specified.
Labels can be up to 20 characters and must be enclosed in single quotes.
contrast-specification identifies the effects and their coefficients from which the L matrix is
formed. The contrast-specification can be specified in two different ways. The first
method applies to all models except the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) distribution, and the
syntax is:
effect values < ,. . . effect values >
The second method of specifying a contrast applies only to ZIP models, and the syntax
is:
effect values < ,. . . effect values > @zero effect values < ,. . . effect values >
Specification of sets of effect values before the @zero separator results in a row of the L0
matrix with coefficients for effects in the regression part of the model set to values and
with the coefficients for the zero-inflation part of the model set to zero. Specification of
sets of effect values after the @zero separator results in a row of the L matrix with the
coefficients for the regression part of the model set to zero and with the coefficients of
effects in the zero-inflation part of the model set to values.
For example, the statements
CLASS A;
MODEL y=A;
CONTRAST ’Label1’ A 1 -1;
specify an L0 matrix with one row with coefficients 1 for the first level of A and –1 for
the second level of A.
The statements
CLASS A B;
MODEL y=A / Dist=ZIP;
ZEROMODEL B;
CONTRAST ’Label2’ A 1 -1 @ZERO B 1 -1;
CONTRAST Statement F 1939
specify an L0 matrix with two rows: the first row has coefficients 1 for the first level of A,
–1 for the second level of A, and zeros for all levels of B; the second row has coefficients
0 for all levels of A, 1 for the first level of B, and –1 for the second level of B.
effect
identifies an effect that appears in the MODEL statement. The value INTERCEPT or
intercept can be used as an effect when an intercept is included in the model. You do not
need to include all effects that are included in the MODEL statement.
values
are constants that are elements of the L vector associated with the effect.
The rows of L0 are specified in order and are separated by commas.
If you use the default less-than-full-rank PROC GLM CLASS variable parameterization, each row
of the L0 matrix is checked for estimability. If PROC GENMOD finds a contrast to be nonestimable,
it displays missing values in corresponding rows in the results. See Searle (1971) for a discussion
of estimable functions. If the elements of L0 are not specified for an effect that contains a specified
effect, then the elements of the specified effect are distributed over the levels of the higher-order
effect just as the GLM procedure does for its CONTRAST and ESTIMATE statements. For example, suppose that the model contains effects A and B and their interaction A*B. If you specify
a CONTRAST statement involving A alone, the L0 matrix contains nonzero terms for both A and
A*B, since A*B contains A.
When you use any of the full-rank PARAM= CLASS variable options, all parameters are directly
estimable, and rows of L0 are not checked for estimability.
If an effect is not specified in the CONTRAST statement, all of its coefficients in the L0 matrix are
set to 0. If too many values are specified for an effect, the extra ones are ignored. If too few values
are specified, the remaining ones are set to 0.
PROC GENMOD handles missing level combinations of classification variables in the same manner
as the GLM and MIXED procedures. Parameters corresponding to missing level combinations are
not included in the model. This convention can affect the way in which you specify the L matrix in
your CONTRAST statement.
If you specify the WALD option, the test of hypothesis is based on a Wald chi-square statistic. If
you omit the WALD option, the test statistic computed depends on whether an ordinary generalized
linear model or a GEE-type model is specified.
For an ordinary generalized linear model, the CONTRAST statement computes the likelihood ratio
statistic. This is defined to be twice the difference between the log likelihood of the model unconstrained by the contrast and the log likelihood with the model fitted under the constraint that the
linear function of the parameters defined by the contrast is equal to 0. A p-value is computed based
on the asymptotic chi-square distribution of the chi-square statistic.
If you specify a GEE model with the REPEATED statement, the test is based on a score statistic.
The GEE model is fit under the constraint that the linear function of the parameters defined by the
contrast is equal to 0. The score chi-square statistic is computed based on the generalized score
function. See the section “Generalized Score Statistics” on page 1993 for more information.
The degrees of freedom is the number of linearly independent constraints implied by the CONTRAST statement—that is, the rank of L.
1940 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
You can specify the following options after a slash (/).
E
requests that the L matrix be displayed.
SINGULAR=number
EPSILON=number
tunes the estimability checking. If v is a vector, define ABS(v) to be the absolute value of
the element of v with the largest absolute value. Let K0 be any row in the contrast matrix
L. Define C to be equal to ABS.K0 / if ABS.K0 / is greater than 0; otherwise, C equals
1. If ABS.K0 K0 T/ is greater than Cnumber, then K is declared nonestimable. T is
the Hermite form matrix .X0 X/ .X0 X/, and .X0 X/ represents a generalized inverse of the
matrix X0 X. The value for number must be between 0 and 1; the default value is 1E 4. The
SINGULAR= option in the MODEL statement affects the computation of the generalized
inverse of the matrix X0 X. It might also be necessary to adjust this value for some data.
WALD
requests that a Wald chi-square statistic be computed for the contrast rather than the default
likelihood ratio or score statistic. The Wald statistic for testing L0 ˇ D 0 is defined by
O 0 .L0 †L/ .L0 ˇ/
O
S D .L0 ˇ/
where ˇO is the maximum likelihood estimate and † is its estimated covariance matrix. The
asymptotic distribution of S is 2r , where r is the rank of L. Computed p-values are based on
this distribution.
If you specify a GEE model with the REPEATED statement, † is the empirical covariance
matrix estimate.
DEVIANCE Statement
DEVIANCE variable = expression ;
You can specify a probability distribution other than those available in PROC GENMOD by using the DEVIANCE and VARIANCE statements. You do not need to specify the DEVIANCE or
VARIANCE statement if you use the DIST= MODEL statement option to specify a probability
distribution. The variable identifies the deviance contribution from a single observation to the procedure, and it must be a valid SAS variable name that does not appear in the input data set. The
expression can be any arithmetic expression supported by the DATA step language, and it is used
to define the functional dependence of the deviance on the mean and the response. You use the
automatic variables _MEAN_ and _RESP_ to represent the mean and response in the expression.
Alternatively, the deviance function can be defined using programming statements (see the section
“Programming Statements” on page 1955) and assigned to a variable, which is then listed as the
expression. This form is convenient for using complex statements such as IF-THEN/ELSE clauses.
The DEVIANCE statement is ignored unless the VARIANCE statement is also specified.
ESTIMATE Statement F 1941
ESTIMATE Statement
ESTIMATE ’label’ effect values < ,. . . effect values > < /options > ;
The ESTIMATE statement is similar to a CONTRAST statement, except only one-row L0 matrices
are permitted.
In the case of zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models, the statement syntax is:
ESTIMATE ’label’ effect values < ,. . . effect values > @zero effect values < ,. . . effect values >
< /options > ;
where sets of effects values before the @zero separator correspond to the regression part of the
model, and effects values after the @zero separator correspond to the zero-inflation part of the
model. In the case of ZIP models, a one-row L0 matrix is created for the regression part of the
model, another one-row L0 matrix is created for the zero-inflation part of the model, and separate
estimate estimates for the two L matrices are computed and displayed.
If you use the default less-than-full-rank GLM CLASS variable parameterization, each row is
checked for estimability. If PROC GENMOD finds a contrast to be nonestimable, it displays missing values in corresponding rows in the results. See Searle (1971) for a discussion of estimable
functions.
The actual estimate, L0 , its approximate standard error, and its confidence limits are displayed. A
Wald chi-square test that L0 ˇ = 0 is also displayed.
O
O
The approximate standard error of the estimate is computed as the square root of L0 †L,
where †
is the estimated covariance matrix of the parameter estimates. If you specify a GEE model in the
O is the empirical covariance matrix estimate.
REPEATED statement, †
If you specify the EXP option, then exp.L0 ˇ/, its standard error, and its confidence limits are also
displayed.
The construction of the L vector and the checking for estimability for an ESTIMATE statement
follow the same rules as listed under the CONTRAST statement.
You can specify the following options in the ESTIMATE statement after a slash (/).
ALPHA=number
requests that a confidence interval be constructed with confidence level 1
value of number must be between 0 and 1; the default value is 0.05.
number. The
E
requests that the L matrix coefficients be displayed.
EXP
requests that exp.L0 ˇ/, its standard error, and its confidence limits be computed. If you
specify the EXP option, standard errors and confidence intervals are computed using the delta
method.
1942 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
SINGULAR=number
EPSILON=number
tunes the estimability checking as described for the CONTRAST statement.
FREQ Statement
FREQ variable ;
FREQUENCY variable ;
The variable in the FREQ statement identifies a variable in the input data set containing the frequency of occurrence of each observation. PROC GENMOD treats each observation as if it appears
n times, where n is the value of the FREQ variable for the observation. If it is not an integer, the
frequency value is truncated to an integer. If it is less than 1 or missing, the observation is not used.
In the case of models fit with generalized estimating equations (GEEs), the frequencies apply to the
subject/cluster and therefore must be the same for all observations within each subject.
FWDLINK Statement
FWDLINK variable = expression ;
You can define a link function other than a built-in link function by using the FWDLINK statement.
If you use the MODEL statement option LINK= to specify a link function, you do not need to use
the FWDLINK statement. The variable identifies the link function to the procedure. The expression
can be any arithmetic expression supported by the DATA step language, and it is used to define the
functional dependence on the mean.
Alternatively, the link function can be defined by using programming statements (see the section
“Programming Statements” on page 1955) and assigned to a variable, which is then listed as the
expression. The second form is convenient for using complex statements such as IF-THEN/ELSE
clauses. The GENMOD procedure automatically computes derivatives of the link function required
for iterative fitting. You must specify the inverse of the link function in the INVLINK statement
when you specify the FWDLINK statement to define the link function. You use the automatic
variable _MEAN_ to represent the mean in the preceding expression.
INVLINK Statement
INVLINK variable = expression ;
If you define a link function in the FWDLINK statement, then you must define the inverse link
function by using the INVLINK statement. If you use the MODEL statement option LINK= to
specify a link function, you do not need to use the INVLINK statement. The variable identifies the
LSMEANS Statement F 1943
inverse link function to the procedure. The expression can be any arithmetic expression supported
by the DATA step language, and it is used to define the functional dependence on the linear predictor.
Alternatively, the inverse link function can be defined using programming statements (see the section “Programming Statements” on page 1955) and assigned to a variable, which is then listed as the
expression. The second form is convenient for using complex statements such as IF-THEN/ELSE
clauses. The automatic variable _XBETA_ represents the linear predictor in the preceding expression.
LSMEANS Statement
LSMEANS effects < / options > ;
The LSMEANS statement computes least squares means (LS-means) corresponding to the specified
effects for the linear predictor part of the model. The L matrix constructed to compute them is
precisely the same as the one formed in PROC GLM.
The LSMEANS statement is not available for multinomial distribution models for ordinal response
data.
O where L is the coefficient matrix associated with the least
Each LS-mean is computed as L0 ˇ,
O
squares mean and ˇ is the estimate of the parameter vector. The approximate standard errors for
O where †
O is the estimated covariance matrix
the LS-mean is computed as the square root of L0 †L,
O is the
of the parameter estimates. If you specify a GEE model in the REPEATED statement, †
empirical covariance matrix estimate.
LS-means can be computed for any effect in the MODEL statement that involves CLASS variables.
You can specify multiple effects in one LSMEANS statement or multiple LSMEANS statements,
and all LSMEANS statements must appear after the MODEL statement.
As in the ESTIMATE statement, the L matrix is tested for estimability, and if this test fails, PROC
GENMOD displays “Non-est” for the LS-means entries.
Assuming the LS-mean is estimable, PROC GENMOD constructs a Wald chi-square test to test the
null hypothesis that the associated population quantity equals zero.
You can specify the following options in the LSMEANS statement after a slash (/).
ALPHA=number
requests that a confidence interval be constructed for each of the LS-means with confidence
level .1 number/ 100%. The value of number must be between 0 and 1; the default
value is 0.05, corresponding to a 95% confidence interval.
CL
requests that confidence limits be constructed for each of the LS-means. The confidence level
is 0.95 by default; this can be changed with the ALPHA= option.
CORR
displays the estimated correlation matrix of the LS-means as part of the “Least Squares
Means” table.
1944 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
COV
displays the estimated covariance matrix of the LS-means as part of the “Least Squares
Means” table.
DIFF
requests that differences of the LS-means be displayed. All possible differences of LS-means,
standard errors, and a Wald chi-square test are computed. Confidence limits are computed if
the CL option is also specified.
E
requests that the L matrix coefficients for all LSMEANS effects be displayed.
SINGULAR=number
EPSILON=number
tunes the estimability checking as described for the CONTRAST statement.
MODEL Statement
MODEL response = < effects > < /options > ;
MODEL events/trials = < effects > < /options > ;
The MODEL statement specifies the response, or dependent variable, and the effects, or explanatory
variables. If you omit the explanatory variables, the procedure fits an intercept-only model. An
intercept term is included in the model by default. The intercept can be removed with the NOINT
option.
You can specify the response in the form of a single variable or in the form of a ratio of two variables
denoted events/trials. The first form is applicable to all responses. The second form is applicable
only to summarized binomial response data. When each observation in the input data set contains
the number of events (for example, successes) and the number of trials from a set of binomial trials,
use the events/trials syntax.
In the events/trials model syntax, you specify two variables that contain the event and trial counts.
These two variables are separated by a slash (/). The values of both events and (trials events) must
be nonnegative, and the value of the trials variable must be greater than 0 for an observation to be
valid. The variable events or trials can take noninteger values.
When each observation in the input data set contains a single trial from a binomial or multinomial
experiment, use the first form of the preceding MODEL statements. The response variable can be
numeric or character. The ordering of response levels is critical in these models. You can use the
RORDER= option in the PROC GENMOD statement to specify the response level ordering.
Responses for the Poisson distribution must be all nonnegative, but they can be noninteger values.
The effects in the MODEL statement consist of an explanatory variable or combination of variables.
Explanatory variables can be continuous or classification variables. Classification variables can be
character or numeric. Explanatory variables representing nominal, or classification, data must be
declared in a CLASS statement. Interactions between variables can also be included as effects.
MODEL Statement F 1945
Columns of the design matrix are automatically generated for classification variables and interactions. The syntax for specification of effects is the same as for the GLM procedure. See the section
“Specification of Effects” on page 1972 for more information. Also refer to Chapter 39, “The GLM
Procedure.”
You can specify the following options in the MODEL statement after a slash (/).
AGGREGATE= (variable-list)
AGGREGATE= variable
AGGREGATE
specifies the subpopulations on which the Pearson chi-square and the deviance are calculated.
This option applies only to the multinomial distribution or the binomial distribution with
binary (single trial syntax) response. It is ignored if specified for other cases. Observations
with common values in the given list of variables are regarded as coming from the same
subpopulation. This affects the computation of the deviance and Pearson chi-square statistics.
Variables in the list can be any variables in the input data set. Specifying the AGGREGATE
option is equivalent to specifying the AGGREGATE= option with a variable list that includes
all explanatory variables in the MODEL statement. Pearson chi-square and deviance statistics
are not computed for multinomial models unless this option is specified.
ALPHA=number
ALPH=number
A=number
sets the confidence coefficient for parameter confidence intervals to 1 number. The value of
number must be between 0 and 1. The default value of number is 0.05.
CICONV=number
sets the convergence criterion for profile likelihood confidence intervals. See the section
“Confidence Intervals for Parameters” on page 1978 for the definition of convergence. The
value of number must be between 0 and 1. By default, CICONV=1E 4.
CL
requests that confidence limits for predicted values be displayed (see the OBSTATS option).
CODING=EFFECT
CODING=FULLRANK
specifies that effect coding be used for all classification variables in the model. This is the
same as specifying PARAM=EFFECT as a CLASS statement option.
CONVERGE=number
sets the convergence criterion. The value of number must be between 0 and 1. The iterations
are considered to have converged when the maximum change in the parameter estimates
between iteration steps is less than the value specified. The change is a relative change if
the parameter is greater than 0.01 in absolute value; otherwise, it is an absolute change. By
default, CONVERGE=1E 4. This convergence criterion is used in parameter estimation for
a single model fit, Type 1 statistics, and likelihood ratio statistics for Type 3 analyses and
CONTRAST statements.
1946 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
CONVH=number
sets the relative Hessian convergence criterion. The value of number must be between 0 and
1. After convergence is determined with the change in parameter criterion specified with
0
1
the CONVERGE= option, the quantity tc D g Hjf j g is computed and compared to number,
where g is the gradient vector, H is the Hessian matrix for the model parameters, and f is
the log-likelihood function. If tc is greater than number, a warning that the relative Hessian
convergence criterion has been exceeded is printed. This criterion detects the occasional case
where the change in parameter convergence criterion is satisfied, but a maximum in the loglikelihood function has not been attained. By default, CONVH=1E 4.
CORRB
requests that the parameter estimate correlation matrix be displayed.
COVB
requests that the parameter estimate covariance matrix be displayed.
DIAGNOSTICS
INFLUENCE
requests that case deletion diagnostic statistics be displayed (see the OBSTATS option).
DIST=keyword
D=keyword
ERROR=keyword
ERR=keyword
specifies the built-in probability distribution to use in the model. If you specify the DIST=
option and you omit a user-defined link function, a default link function is chosen as displayed
in the following table. If you specify no distribution and no link function, then the GENMOD
procedure defaults to the normal distribution with the identity link function.
DIST=
BINOMIAL | BIN | B
GAMMA | GAM | G
GEOMETRIC | GEOM
IGAUSSIAN | IG
MULTINOMIAL | MULT
NEGBIN | NB
NORMAL | NOR | N
POISSON | POI | P
ZIP
Distribution
binomial
gamma
geometric
inverse Gaussian
multinomial
negative binomial
normal
Poisson
Default Link Function
logit
inverse ( power( 1) )
log
inverse squared ( power( 2) )
cumulative logit
log
identity
log
EXPECTED
requests that the expected Fisher information matrix be used to compute parameter estimate
covariances and the associated statistics. The default action is to use the observed Fisher
information matrix. This option does not affect the model fitting, only the way in which the
covariance matrix is computed (see the SCORING= option.)
ID=variable
causes the values of variable in the input data set to be displayed in the OBSTATS table. If
MODEL Statement F 1947
an explicit format for variable has been defined, the formatted values are displayed. If the
OBSTATS option is not specified, this option has no effect.
INITIAL=numbers
sets initial values for parameter estimates in the model. The default initial parameter values
are weighted least squares estimates based on using the response data as the initial mean
estimate. This option can be useful in case of convergence difficulty. The intercept parameter
is initialized with the INTERCEPT= option and is not included here. The values are assigned
to the variables in the MODEL statement in the same order in which they appear in the
MODEL statement. The order of levels for CLASS variables is determined by the ORDER=
option. Note that some levels of classification variables can be aliased; that is, they correspond
to linearly dependent parameters that are not estimated by the procedure. Initial values must
be assigned to all levels of classification variables, regardless of whether they are aliased or
not. The procedure ignores initial values corresponding to parameters not being estimated.
If you specify a BY statement, all classification variables must take on the same number
of levels in each BY group. Otherwise, classification variables in some of the BY groups
are assigned incorrect initial values. Types of INITIAL= specifications are illustrated in the
following table.
Type of List
list separated by blanks
list separated by commas
x to y
x to y by z
combination of list types
Specification
INITIAL D 3 4 5
INITIAL D 3, 4, 5
INITIAL D 3 to 5
INITIAL D 3 to 5 by 1
INITIAL D 1, 3 to 5, 9
INTERCEPT=number
INTERCEPT=number-list
initializes the intercept term to number for parameter estimation. If you specify both the
INTERCEPT= and the NOINT options, the intercept term is not estimated, but an intercept
term of number is included in the model. If you specify a multinomial model for ordinal data,
you can specify a number-list for the multiple intercepts in the model.
ITPRINT
displays the iteration history for all iterative processes: parameter estimation, fitting constrained models for contrasts and Type 3 analyses, and profile likelihood confidence intervals.
The last evaluation of the gradient and the negative of the Hessian (second derivative) matrix
are also displayed for parameter estimation. If you perform a Bayesian analysis by specifying the BAYES statement, the iteration history for computing the mode of the posterior
distribution is also displayed.
This option might result in a large amount of displayed output, especially if some of the
optional iterative processes are selected.
LINK=keyword
specifies the link function to use in the model. The keywords and their associated built-in link
functions are as follows.
1948 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
LINK=
CUMCLL
CCLL
CUMLOGIT
CLOGIT
CUMPROBIT
CPROBIT
CLOGLOG
CLL
IDENTITY
ID
LOG
LOGIT
PROBIT
POWER(number) | POW(number)
Link Function
cumulative complementary log-log
cumulative logit
cumulative probit
complementary log-log
identity
log
logit
probit
power with = number
If no LINK= option is supplied and there is a user-defined link function, the user-defined link
function is used. If you specify neither the LINK= option nor a user-defined link function,
then the default canonical link function is used if you specify the DIST= option. Otherwise,
if you omit the DIST= option, the identity link function is used.
The cumulative link functions are appropriate only for the multinomial distribution.
LRCI
requests that two-sided confidence intervals for all model parameters be computed based on
the profile likelihood function. This is sometimes called the partially maximized likelihood
function. See the section “Confidence Intervals for Parameters” on page 1978 for more information about the profile likelihood function. This computation is iterative and can consume
a relatively large amount of CPU time. The confidence coefficient can be selected with the
ALPHA=number option. The resulting confidence coefficient is 1 number. The default confidence coefficient is 0.95.
MAXITER=number
MAXIT=number
sets the maximum allowable number of iterations for all iterative computation processes in
PROC GENMOD. By default, MAXITER=50.
NOINT
requests that no intercept term be included in the model. An intercept is included unless this
option is specified.
NOSCALE
holds the scale parameter fixed. Otherwise, for the normal, inverse Gaussian, and gamma distributions, the scale parameter is estimated by maximum likelihood. If you omit the SCALE=
option, the scale parameter is fixed at the value 1.
OBSTATS
specifies that an additional table of statistics be displayed. Formulas for the statistics are
given in the section “Predicted Values of the Mean” on page 1980, the section “Residuals”
MODEL Statement F 1949
on page 1981, and the section “Case Deletion Diagnostic Statistics” on page 1997. Residuals
and fit diagnostics are not computed for multinomial models.
For each observation, the following items are displayed:
the value of the response variable (variables if the data are binomial), frequency, and
weight variables
the values of the regression variables
predicted mean, O D g 1 ./, where D x0i ˇO is the linear predictor and g is the link
O
function. If there is an offset, it is included in x0i ˇ.
O
O If there is an offset, it is included in x0 ˇ.
estimate of the linear predictor x0i ˇ.
i
standard error of the linear predictor x0i ˇO
the value of the Hessian weight at the final iteration
lower confidence limit of the predicted value of the mean. The confidence coefficient is
specified with the ALPHA= option. See the section “Confidence Intervals on Predicted
Values” on page 1980 for the computational method.
upper confidence limit of the predicted value of the mean
raw residual, defined as Y
Pearson, or chi residual, defined as the square root of the contribution for the observation
to the Pearson chi-square—that is,
Y p
V ./=w
where Y is the response, is the predicted mean, w is the value of the prior weight
variable specified in a WEIGHT statement, and V() is the variance function evaluated
at .
the standardized Pearson residual
deviance residual, defined as the square root of the deviance contribution for the observation, with sign equal to the sign of the raw residual
the standardized deviance residual
the likelihood residual
a Cook distance type statistic for assessing the influence of individual observations on
overall model fit
observation leverage
O where
DFBETA, defined as an approximation to ˇO ˇOŒi  for each parameter estimate ˇ,
ˇOŒi is the parameter estimate with the i th observation deleted
standardized DFBETA, defined as DFBETA, normalized by its standard deviation
zero inflation probability for zero inflated models
the mean of a zero inflated response
The following additional cluster deletion diagnostic statistics are created and displayed for
each cluster if a REPEATED statement is specified:
1950 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
a Cook distance type statistic for assessing the influence of entire clusters on overall
model fit
a studentized Cook distance for assessing influence of clusters
cluster leverage
cluster DFBETA for assessing the influence of entire clusters on individual parameter
estimates
cluster DFBETA normalized by its standard deviation
If you specify the multinomial distribution, only regression variable values, response values, predicted values, confidence limits for the predicted values, and the linear predictor are
displayed in the table. Residuals and other diagnostic statistics are not available for the multinomial distribution.
The RESIDUALS, DIAGNOSTICS | INFLUENCE, PREDICTED, XVARS, and CL options
cause only subgroups of the observation statistics to be displayed. You can specify more than
one of these options to include different subgroups of statistics.
The ID=variable option causes the values of variable in the input data set to be displayed
in the table. If an explicit format for variable has been defined, the formatted values are
displayed.
If a REPEATED statement is present, a table is displayed for the GEE model specified in the
REPEATED statement. Regression variables, response values, predicted values, confidence
limits for the predicted values, linear predictor, raw residuals, Pearson residuals for each
observation in the input data set are available. Case deletion diagnostic statistics are available
for each observation and for each cluster.
OFFSET=variable
specifies a variable in the input data set to be used as an offset variable. This variable cannot be
a CLASS variable, and it cannot be the response variable or one of the explanatory variables.
PREDICTED
PRED
P
requests that predicted values, the linear predictor, its standard error, and the Hessian weight
be displayed (see the OBSTATS option).
RESIDUALS
R
requests that residuals and standardized residuals be displayed. Residuals and other diagnostic statistics are not available for the multinomial distribution (see the OBSTATS option).
SCALE=number
SCALE=PEARSON
SCALE=P
PSCALE
SCALE=DEVIANCE
SCALE=D
MODEL Statement F 1951
DSCALE
sets the value used for the scale parameter where the NOSCALE option is used. For the
binomial and Poisson distributions, which have no free scale parameter, this can be used to
specify an overdispersed model. In this case, the parameter covariance matrix and the likelihood function are adjusted by the scale parameter. See the section “Dispersion Parameter”
on page 1970 and the section “Overdispersion” on page 1971 for more information. If the
NOSCALE option is not specified, then number is used as an initial estimate of the scale
parameter.
Specifying SCALE=PEARSON or SCALE=P is the same as specifying the PSCALE option.
This fixes the scale parameter at the value 1 in the estimation procedure. After the parameter
estimates are determined, the exponential family dispersion parameter is assumed to be given
by Pearson’s chi-square statistic divided by the degrees of freedom, and all statistics such as
standard errors and likelihood ratio statistics are adjusted appropriately.
Specifying SCALE=DEVIANCE or SCALE=D is the same as specifying the DSCALE option. This fixes the scale parameter at a value of 1 in the estimation procedure.
After the parameter estimates are determined, the exponential family dispersion parameter is
assumed to be given by the deviance divided by the degrees of freedom. All statistics such as
standard errors and likelihood ratio statistics are adjusted appropriately.
SCORING=number
requests that on iterations up to number, the Hessian matrix be computed using the Fisher
scoring method. For further iterations, the full Hessian matrix is computed. The default value
is 1. A value of 0 causes all iterations to use the full Hessian matrix, and a value greater than
or equal to the value of the MAXITER option causes all iterations to use Fisher scoring. The
value of the SCORING= option must be 0 or a positive integer.
SINGULAR=number
sets the tolerance for testing singularity of the information matrix and the crossproducts matrix. Roughly, the test requires that a pivot be at least this number times the original diagonal
value. By default, number is 107 times the machine epsilon. The default number is approximately 10 9 on most machines. This value also controls the check on estimability for
ESTIMATE and CONTRAST statements.
TYPE1
requests that a Type 1, or sequential, analysis be performed. This consists of sequentially
fitting models, beginning with the null (intercept term only) model and continuing up to
the model specified in the MODEL statement. The likelihood ratio statistic between each
successive pair of models is computed and displayed in a table.
A Type 1 analysis is not available for GEE models, since there is no associated likelihood.
TYPE3
requests that statistics for Type 3 contrasts be computed for each effect specified in the
MODEL statement. The default analysis is to compute likelihood ratio statistics for the contrasts or score statistics for GEEs. Wald statistics are computed if the WALD option is also
specified.
1952 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
WALD
requests Wald statistics for Type 3 contrasts. You must also specify the TYPE3 option in
order to compute Type 3 Wald statistics.
WALDCI
requests that two-sided Wald confidence intervals for all model parameters be computed based
on the asymptotic normality of the parameter estimators. This computation is not as timeconsuming as the LRCI method, since it does not involve an iterative procedure. However, it
is thought to be less accurate, especially for small sample sizes. The confidence coefficient
can be selected with the ALPHA= option in the same way as for the LRCI option.
XVARS
requests that the regression variables be included in the OBSTATS table.
OUTPUT Statement
OUTPUT < OUT=SAS-data-set > < keyword=name . . . keyword=name > ;
The OUTPUT statement creates a new SAS data set that contains all the variables in the input data
set and, optionally, the estimated linear predictors (XBETA) and their standard error estimates, the
weights for the Hessian matrix, predicted values of the mean, confidence limits for predicted values,
residuals, and case deletion diagnostics. Residuals and diagnostic statistics are not computed for
multinomial models.
You can also request these statistics with the OBSTATS, PREDICTED, RESIDUALS, DIAGNOSTICS | INFLUENCE, CL, or XVARS option in the MODEL statement. You can then create a SAS
data set containing them with ODS OUTPUT commands. You might prefer to specify the OUTPUT
statement for requesting these statistics since the following are true:
The OUTPUT statement produces no tabular output.
The OUTPUT statement creates a SAS data set more efficiently than ODS. This can be an
advantage for large data sets.
You can specify the individual statistics to be included in the SAS data set.
If you use the multinomial distribution with one of the cumulative link functions for ordinal data, the
data set also contains variables named _ORDER_ and _LEVEL_ that indicate the levels of the ordinal
response variable and the values of the variable in the input data set corresponding to the sorted
levels. These variables indicate that the predicted value for a given observation is the probability
that the response variable is as large as the value of the Value variable. Residuals and other diagnostic
statistics are not available for the multinomial distribution.
The estimated linear predictor, its standard error estimate, and the predicted values and their confidence intervals are computed for all observations in which the explanatory variables are all nonmissing, even if the response is missing. By adding observations with missing response values
to the input data set, you can compute these statistics for new observations or for settings of the
explanatory variables not present in the data without affecting the model fit.
OUTPUT Statement F 1953
The following list explains specifications in the OUTPUT statement.
OUT=SAS-data-set
specifies the output data set. If you omit the OUT=option, the output data set is created and
given a default name that uses the DATAn convention.
keyword=name
specifies the statistics to be included in the output data set and names the new variables that
contain the statistics. Specify a keyword for each desired statistic (see the following list of
keywords), an equal sign, and the name of the new variable or variables to contain the statistic.
You can list only one variable after the equal sign for all the statistics, except for the case
deletion diagnostics for individual parameter estimates, DFBETA, DFBETAS, DFBETAC,
and DFBETACS. You can list variables enclosed in parentheses to correspond to the variables
in the model, or you can specify the keyword _all_, without parentheses, to include deletion
diagnostics for all of the parameters in the model.
Although you can use the OUTPUT statement without any keyword=name specifications,
the output data set then contains only the original variables and, possibly, the variables Level
and Value (if you use the multinomial model with ordinal data). Note that the residuals and
deletion diagnostics are not available for the multinomial model with ordinal data. Some of
the case deletion diagnostic statistics apply only to models for correlated data specified with a
REPEATED statement. If you request these statistics for ordinary generalized linear models,
the values of the corresponding variables are set to missing in the output data set. Formulas
for the statistics are given in the section “Predicted Values of the Mean” on page 1980, the
section “Residuals” on page 1981, and the section “Case Deletion Diagnostic Statistics” on
page 1997. The keywords allowed and the statistics they represent are as follows:
DFBETA | DBETA represents the effect of deleting an observation on parameter estimates.
If you specify the keyword _all_ after the equal sign, variables named DFBETA_ParameterName will be included in the output data set to contain the
values of the diagnostic statistic to measure the influence of deleting a single observation on the individual parameter estimates. ParameterName is
the name of the regression model parameter formed from the input variable
names concatenated with the appropriate levels, if classification variables
are involved.
DFBETAS | DBETAS represents the effect of deleting an observation on standardized parameter estimates. If you specify the keyword _all_ after the equal sign,
variables named DFBETAS_ParameterName will be included in the output data set to contain the values of the diagnostic statistic to measure the
influence of deleting a single observation on the individual parameter estimates. ParameterName is the name of the regression model parameter
formed from the input variable names concatenated with the appropriate
levels, if classification variables are involved.
DOBS | COOKD | COOKSD represents the Cook distance type statistic to measure the influence of deleting a single observation on the overall model fit.
HESSWGT
represents the diagonal element of the weight matrix used in computing
the Hessian matrix.
1954 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
H | LEVERAGE represents the leverage of a single observation.
LOWER | L
represents the lower confidence limit for the predicted value of the mean,
or the lower confidence limit for the probability that the response is less
than or equal to the value of Level or Value. The confidence coefficient is
determined by the ALPHA=number option in the MODEL statement as
.1 number/ 100%. The default confidence coefficient is 95%.
PREDICTED | PRED | PROB | P represents the predicted value of the mean of the response
or the predicted probability that the response variable is less than or equal
to the value of Level or Value if the multinomial model for ordinal data is
used (in other words, Pr.Y Value/, where Y is the response variable).
PZERO
represents the zero-inflation probability for zero-inflated models.
RESCHI
represents the Pearson (chi) residual for identifying observations that are
poorly accounted for by the model.
RESDEV
represents the deviance residual for identifying poorly fitted observations.
RESLIK
represents the likelihood residual for identifying poorly fitted observations.
RESRAW
represents the raw residual for identifying poorly fitted observations.
STDRESCHI
represents the standardized Pearson (chi) residual for identifying observations that are poorly accounted for by the model.
STDRESDEV
represents the standardized deviance residual for identifying poorly fitted
observations.
STDXBETA
represents the standard error estimate of XBETA (see the XBETA keyword).
UPPER | U
represents the upper confidence limit for the predicted value of the mean,
or the upper confidence limit for the probability that the response is less
than or equal to the value of Level or Value. The confidence coefficient is
determined by the ALPHA=number option in the MODEL statement as
.1 number/ 100%. The default confidence coefficient is 95%.
XBETA
represents the estimate of the linear predictor x0i ˇ for observation i, or
˛j C x0i ˇ, where j is the corresponding ordered value of the response
variable for the multinomial model with ordinal data. If there is an offset,
it is included in x0i ˇ.
The keywords in the following list apply only to models specified with a REPEATED statement, fit by generalized estimating equations (GEEs).
CH | CLUSTERH | CLEVERAGE
CLUSTER
represents the leverage of a cluster.
represents the numerical cluster index, in order of sorted clusters.
DCLS | CLUSTERCOOKD | CLUSTERCOOKSD represents the Cook distance type
statistic to measure the influence of deleting an entire cluster on the
overall model fit.
Programming Statements F 1955
DFBETAC | DBETAC represents the effect of deleting an entire cluster on parameter estimates. If you specify the keyword _all_ after the equal sign, variables
named DFBETAC_ParameterName will be included in the output data set
to contain the values of the diagnostic statistic to measure the influence
of deleting the cluster on the individual parameter estimates. ParameterName is the name of the regression model parameter formed from the input
variable names concatenated with the appropriate levels, if classification
variables are involved.
DFBETACS | DBETACS represents the effect of deleting an entire cluster on normalized
parameter estimates. If you specify the keyword _all_ after the equal sign,
variables named DFBETACS_ParameterName will be included in the output data set to contain the values of the diagnostic statistic to measure
the influence of deleting the cluster on the individual parameter estimates,
normalized by their standard errors. ParameterName is the name of the regression model parameter formed from the input variable names concatenated with the appropriate levels, if classification variables are involved.
MCLS | CLUSTERDFIT represents the studentized Cook distance type statistic to measure
the influence of deleting an entire cluster on the overall model fit.
Programming Statements
Although the most commonly used link and probability distributions are available as built-in functions, the GENMOD procedure enables you to define your own link functions and response probability distributions by using the FWDLINK, INVLINK, VARIANCE, and DEVIANCE statements.
The variables assigned in these statements can have values computed in programming statements.
These programming statements can occur anywhere between the PROC GENMOD statement and
the RUN statement. Variable names used in programming statements must be unique. Variables
from the input data set can be referenced in programming statements. The mean, linear predictor,
and response are represented by the automatic variables _MEAN_, _XBETA_, and _RESP_, respectively, which can be referenced in your programming statements. Programming statements are used
to define the functional dependencies of the link function, the inverse link function, the variance
function, and the deviance function on the mean, linear predictor, and response variable.
The following statements illustrate the use of programming statements. Even though you usually
request the Poisson distribution by specifying DIST=POISSON as a MODEL statement option,
you can define the variance and deviance functions for the Poisson distribution by using the VARIANCE and DEVIANCE statements. For example, the following statements perform the same analysis as the Poisson regression example in the section “Getting Started: GENMOD Procedure” on
page 1898.
1956 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
The statements must be in logical order for computation, just as in a DATA step.
proc genmod ;
class car age;
a = _MEAN_;
y = _RESP_;
d = 2 * ( y * log( y / a ) - ( y - a ) );
variance var = a;
deviance dev = d;
model c = car age / link = log offset = ln;
run;
The variables var and dev are dummy variables used internally by the procedure to identify the
variance and deviance functions. Any valid SAS variable names can be used.
Similarly, the log link function and its inverse could be defined with the FWDLINK and INVLINK
statements, as follows:
fwdlink link = log(_MEAN_);
invlink ilink = exp(_XBETA_);
These statements are for illustration, and they work well for most Poisson regression problems. If,
however, in the iterative fitting process, the mean parameter becomes too close to 0, or a 0 response
value occurs, an error condition occurs when the procedure attempts to evaluate the log function.
You can circumvent this kind of problem by using IF-THEN/ELSE clauses or other conditional
statements to check for possible error conditions and appropriately define the functions for these
cases.
Data set variables can be referenced in user definitions of the link function and response distributions
by using programming statements and the FWDLINK, INVLINK, DEVIANCE, and VARIANCE
statements.
See the DEVIANCE, VARIANCE, FWDLINK, and INVLINK statements for more information.
REPEATED Statement
REPEATED SUBJECT= subject-effect < / options > ;
The REPEATED statement specifies the covariance structure of multivariate responses for GEE
model fitting in the GENMOD procedure. In addition, the REPEATED statement controls the
iterative fitting algorithm used in GEEs and specifies optional output. Other GENMOD procedure
statements, such as the MODEL and CLASS statements, are used in the same way as they are for
ordinary generalized linear models to specify the regression model for the mean of the responses.
SUBJECT=subject-effect
identifies subjects in the input data set. The subject-effect can be a single variable, an interaction effect, a nested effect, or a combination. Each distinct value, or level, of the effect
identifies a different subject, or cluster. Responses from different subjects are assumed to
be statistically independent, and responses within subjects are assumed to be correlated. A
REPEATED Statement F 1957
subject-effect must be specified, and variables used in defining the subject-effect must be
listed in the CLASS statement. The input data set does not need to be sorted by subject (see
the SORTED option).
The options control how the model is fit and what output is produced. You can specify the
following options after a slash (/).
ALPHAINIT=numbers
specifies initial values for log odds ratio regression parameters if the LOGOR= option is
specified for binary data. If this option is not specified, an initial value of 0.01 is used for all
the parameters.
CONVERGE=number
specifies the convergence criterion for GEE parameter estimation. If the maximum absolute
difference between regression parameter estimates is less than the value of number on two
successive iterations, convergence is declared. If the absolute value of a regression parameter estimate is greater than 0.08, then the absolute difference normalized by the regression
parameter value is used instead of the absolute difference. The default value of number is
0.0001.
CORRW
displays the estimated working correlation matrix. If you specify an exchangeable working
correlation structure with the CORR=EXCH option, the CORRW option is not needed to view
the estimated correlation, since a table is printed by default that contains the single estimated
correlation.
CORRB
displays the estimated regression parameter correlation matrix. Both model-based and empirical correlations are displayed.
COVB
displays the estimated regression parameter covariance matrix. Both model-based and empirical covariances are displayed.
ECORRB
displays the estimated regression parameter empirical correlation matrix.
ECOVB
displays the estimated regression parameter empirical covariance matrix.
INTERCEPT=number
specifies either an initial or a fixed value of the intercept regression parameter in the GEE
model. If you specify the NOINT option in the MODEL statement, then the intercept is fixed
at the value of number.
INITIAL=numbers
specifies initial values of the regression parameters estimation, other than the intercept parameter, for GEE estimation. If this option is not specified, the estimated regression parameters
assuming independence for all responses are used for the initial values.
1958 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
LOGOR=log-odds-ratio-structure-keyword
specifies the regression structure of the log odds ratio used to model the association of the
responses from subjects for binary data. The response syntax must be of the single variable
type, the distribution must be binomial, and the data must be binary. Table 37.2 displays the
log odds ratio structure keywords and the corresponding log odds ratio regression structures.
See the section “Alternating Logistic Regressions” on page 1988 for definitions of the log
odds ratio types and examples of specifying log odds ratio models. You should specify either
the LOGOR= or the TYPE= option, but not both.
Table 37.2
Log Odds Ratio Regression Structures
Keyword
Log Odds Ratio Regression Structure
EXCH
FULLCLUST
LOGORVAR(variable)
NESTK
NEST1
ZFULL
ZREP
exchangeable
fully parameterized clusters
indicator variable for specifying block effects
k-nested
1-nested
fully specified z-matrix specified in ZDATA= data set
single cluster specification for replicated z-matrix specified
in ZDATA= data set
single cluster specification for replicated z-matrix
ZREP(matrix)
MAXITER=number
MAXIT=number
specifies the maximum number of iterations allowed in the iterative GEE estimation process.
The default number is 50.
MCORRB
displays the estimated regression parameter model-based correlation matrix.
MCOVB
displays the estimated regression parameter model-based covariance matrix.
MODELSE
displays an analysis of parameter estimates table that uses model-based standard errors for
inference. By default, an “Analysis of Parameter Estimates” table based on empirical standard
errors is displayed.
PRINTMLE
displays an analysis of maximum likelihood parameter estimates table. The maximum likelihood estimates are not displayed unless this option is specified.
RUPDATE=number
specifies the number of iterations between updates of the working correlation matrix. For
example, RUPDATE=5 specifies that the working correlation is updated once for every five
regression parameter updates. The default value of number is 1; that is, the working correlation is updated every time the regression parameters are updated.
REPEATED Statement F 1959
SORTED
specifies that the input data are grouped by subject and sorted within subject. If this option is
not specified, then the procedure internally sorts by subject-effect and within subject-effect, if
a within subject-effect is specified.
SUBCLUSTER=variable
SUBCLUST=variable
specifies a variable defining subclusters for the 1-nested or k-nested log odds ratio association
modeling structures. This variable must be listed in the CLASS statement.
TYPE=correlation-structure keyword
CORR=correlation-structure keyword
specifies the structure of the working correlation matrix used to model the correlation of
the responses from subjects. Table 37.3 displays the correlation structure keywords and the
corresponding correlation structures. The default working correlation type is the independent
(CORR=IND). See the section “Details: GENMOD Procedure” on page 1962 for definitions
of the correlation matrix types. You should specify LOGOR= or TYPE= but not both.
Table 37.3
Correlation Structure Types
Keyword
Correlation Matrix Type
AR
AR(1)
EXCH
CS
IND
MDEP(number)
UNSTR
UN
USER
FIXED (matrix)
autoregressive(1)
exchangeable
independent
m-dependent with m=number
unstructured
fixed, user-specified correlation matrix
For example, you can specify a fixed 4 4 correlation matrix with the following option:
TYPE=USER( 1.0
0.9
0.8
0.6
0.9
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.9
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.0 )
V6CORR
specifies that the SAS ‘Version 6’ method of computing the normalized Pearson chi-square be
used for working correlation estimation and for model-based covariance matrix scale factor.
WITHINSUBJECT | WITHIN=within subject-effect
defines an effect specifying the order of measurements within subjects. Each distinct level of
the within subject-effect defines a different response from the same subject. If the data are in
proper order within each subject, you do not need to specify this option.
1960 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
If some measurements do not appear in the data for some subjects, this option properly orders
the existing measurements and treats the omitted measurements as missing values. If the
WITHINSUBJECT= option is not used in this situation, measurements might be improperly
ordered and missing values assumed for the last measurements in a cluster.
Variables used in defining the within subject-effect must be listed in the CLASS statement.
YPAIR=variable-list
specifies the variables in the ZDATA= data set corresponding to pairs of responses for log
odds ratio association modeling.
ZDATA=SAS-data-set
specifies a SAS data set containing either the full z-matrix for log odds ratio association
modeling or the z-matrix for a single complete cluster to be replicated for all clusters.
ZROW=variable-list
specifies the variables in the ZDATA= data set corresponding to rows of the z-matrix for log
odds ratio association modeling.
VARIANCE Statement
VARIANCE variable = expression ;
You can specify a probability distribution other than the built-in distributions by using the VARIANCE and DEVIANCE statements. The variable name variable identifies the variance function to
the procedure. The expression is used to define the functional dependence on the mean, and it can
be any arithmetic expression supported by the DATA step language. You use the automatic variable
_MEAN_ to represent the mean in the expression.
Alternatively, you can define the variance function with programming statements, as detailed in
the section “Programming Statements” on page 1955. This form is convenient for using complex
statements such as IF-THEN/ELSE clauses. Derivatives of the variance function for use during
optimization are computed automatically. The DEVIANCE statement must also appear when the
VARIANCE statement is used to define the variance function.
WEIGHT Statement
WEIGHT | SCWGT variable ;
The WEIGHT statement identifies a variable in the input data set to be used as the exponential
family dispersion parameter weight for each observation. The exponential family dispersion parameter is divided by the WEIGHT variable value for each observation. This is true regardless of
whether the parameter is estimated by the procedure or specified in the MODEL statement with
the SCALE= option. It is also true for distributions such as the Poisson and binomial that are not
ZEROMODEL Statement F 1961
usually defined to have a dispersion parameter. For these distributions, a WEIGHT variable weights
the overdispersion parameter, which has the default value of 1.
The WEIGHT variable does not have to be an integer; if it is less than or equal to 0 or if it is missing,
the corresponding observation is not used.
ZEROMODEL Statement
ZEROMODEL effects < /options > ;
The effects in the ZEROMODEL statement consist of explanatory variables or combinations of
variables for the zero-inflation probability regression model in a zero-inflated model. The same
effects can be used in both the ZEROMODEL statement and the MODEL statement, or effects
can be used in one statement or the other separately. Explanatory variables can be continuous or
classification variables. Classification variables can be character or numeric. Explanatory variables
representing nominal, or classification, data must be declared in a CLASS statement. Interactions
between variables can also be included as effects. Columns of the design matrix are automatically
generated for classification variables and interactions. The syntax for specification of effects is the
same as for the GLM procedure. See the section “Specification of Effects” on page 1972 for more
information. Also refer to Chapter 39, “The GLM Procedure.”
You can specify the following option in the ZEROMODEL statement after a slash (/).
LINK=keyword
specifies the link function to use in the model. The keywords and their associated link functions are as follows.
LINK=
CLOGLOG
CLL
LOGIT
PROBIT
Link Function
complementary log-log
logit
probit
If no LINK= option is supplied, the LOGIT link is used. User-defined link functions are not allowed.
1962 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Details: GENMOD Procedure
Generalized Linear Models Theory
This is a brief introduction to the theory of generalized linear models.
Response Probability Distributions
In generalized linear models, the response is assumed to possess a probability distribution of the exponential form. That is, the probability density of the response Y for continuous response variables,
or the probability function for discrete responses, can be expressed as
y b. /
f .y/ D exp
C c.y; /
a./
for some functions a, b, and c that determine the specific distribution. For fixed , this is a oneparameter exponential family of distributions. The functions a and c are such that a./ D =w and
c D c.y; =w/, where w is a known weight for each observation. A variable representing w in the
input data set can be specified in the WEIGHT statement. If no WEIGHT statement is specified,
wi D 1 for all observations.
Standard theory for this type of distribution gives expressions for the mean and variance of Y :
E.Y / D b 0 . /
b 00 . /
Var.Y / D
w
where the primes denote derivatives with respect to . If represents the mean of Y; then the
variance expressed as a function of the mean is
Var.Y / D
V ./
w
where V is the variance function.
Probability distributions of the response Y in generalized linear models are usually parameterized in
terms of the mean and dispersion parameter instead of the natural parameter . The probability
distributions that are available in the GENMOD procedure are shown in the following list. The zeroinflated Poisson distribution is not a generalized linear model. However, the zero-inflated Poisson is
included in PROC GENMOD since it is a useful extension of generalized linear models. See Long
(1997) for a discussion of the zero-inflated Poisson. The PROC GENMOD scale parameter and the
variance of Y are also shown.
Generalized Linear Models Theory F 1963
Normal:
f .y/ D
p
1
2
exp
1 y 2
2
for
1<y<1
D 2
scale D Var.Y / D 2
Inverse Gaussian:
f .y/ D
"
1
exp
p
2y 3 1
2y
y
2 #
for 0 < y < 1
D 2
scale D Var.Y / D 2 3
Gamma:
f .y/ D
1
€./y
D y
exp
y
for 0 < y < 1
1
scale D 2
Var.Y / D
Geometric: This is a special case of the negative binomial with k D 1.
./y
for y D 0; 1; 2; : : :
.1 C /yC1
D 1
f .y/ D
Var.Y / D .1 C /
Negative binomial:
€.y C 1=k/
.k/y
for y D 0; 1; 2; : : :
€.y C 1/€.1=k/ .1 C k/yC1=k
dispersion D k
f .y/ D
Var.Y / D C k2
1964 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Poisson:
y e
yŠ
D 1
f .y/ D
for y D 0; 1; 2; : : :
Var.Y / D Binomial:
f .y/ D
n
r
D 1
.1
Var.Y / D
r .1
/n
r
for y D
r
; r D 0; 1; 2; : : : ; n
n
/
n
Multinomial:
mŠ
y
y
y
p 1 p 2 pk k
y1 Šy2 Š yk Š 1 2
D 1
f .y1 ; y2 ; ; yk / D
Zero-inflated Poisson:
(
f .y/ D
! C .1 !/e for y D 0
ye .1 !/ yŠ
for y D 1; 2; : : :
D 1
D E.Y / D .1
!/
!
Var.Y / D C
2
1 !
The negative binomial distribution contains a parameter k, called the negative binomial dispersion
parameter. This is not the same as the generalized linear model dispersion , but it is an additional
distribution parameter that must be estimated or set to a fixed value.
For the binomial distribution, the response is the binomial proportion Y D events=trials. The
variance function is V ./ D .1 /, and the binomial trials parameter n is regarded as a weight
w.
If a weight variable is present, is replaced with =w, where w is the weight variable.
PROC GENMOD works with a scale parameter that is related to the exponential family dispersion
parameter instead of working with itself. The scale parameters are related to the dispersion parameter as shown previously with the probability distribution definitions. Thus, the scale parameter
output in the “Analysis of Parameter Estimates” table is related to the exponential family dispersion parameter. If you specify a constant scale parameter with the SCALE= option in the MODEL
statement, it is also related to the exponential family dispersion parameter in the same way.
Generalized Linear Models Theory F 1965
Link Function
The mean i of the response in the ith observation is related to a linear predictor through a monotonic differentiable link function g.
g.i / D x0i ˇ
Here, xi is a fixed known vector of explanatory variables, and ˇ is a vector of unknown parameters.
Log-Likelihood Functions
Log-likelihood functions for the distributions that are available in the procedure are parameterized
in terms of the means i and the dispersion parameter . The term yi represents the response for
the i th observation, and wi represents the known dispersion weight. The log-likelihood functions
are of the form
X
L.y; ; / D
log .f .yi ; i ; //
i
where the sum is over the observations. The forms of the individual contributions
li D log .f .yi ; i ; //
are shown in the following list; the parameterizations are expressed in terms of the mean and dispersion parameters.
For the discrete distributions (binomial, multinomial, negative binomial, and Poisson), the functions
computed as the sum of the li terms are not proper log-likelihood functions, since terms involving
binomial coefficients or factorials of the observed counts are dropped from the computation of the
log likelihood, and a dispersion parameter is included in the computation. Deletion of factorial
terms and inclusion of a dispersion parameter do not affect parameter estimates or their estimated
covariances for these distributions, and this is the function used in maximum likelihood estimation.
The value of used in computing the reported log-likelihood function is either the final estimated
value, or the fixed value, if the dispersion parameter is fixed. Even though it is not a proper loglikelihood function in all cases, the function computed as the sum of the li terms is reported in the
output as the log likelihood. The proper log-likelihood function is also computed as the sum of the
l li terms in the following list, and it is reported as the full log likelihood in the output.
Normal:
l li D l i D
1 wi .yi i /2
C log
C log.2/
2
wi
Inverse Gaussian:
l li D l i D
1
2
"
yi3
wi .yi i /2
C
log
yi 2 wi
!
#
C log.2/
Gamma:
wi
wi yi
l li D l i D
log
i
wi yi
i
log.yi /
wi
log €
1966 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Negative binomial:
k
li D yi log
wi
k
l li D yi log
wi
k
€.yi C wi =k/
.yi C wi =k/ log 1 C
C log
wi
€.wi =k/
k
€.yi C wi =k/
.yi C wi =k/ log 1 C
C log
wi
€.yi C 1/€.wi =k/
Poisson:
wi
Œyi log.i /
i 
l li D wi Œyi log.i /
i
log.yi Š/
wi
Œri log.pi / C .ni
ri / log.1
li D
Binomial:
li D
l li D wi Œlog
ni
ri
pi /
C ri log.pi / C .ni
ri / log.1
pi /
Multinomial (k categories):
li D
k
wi X
yij log.ij /
j D1
l li D wi Œlog.mi Š/ C
k
X
.yij log.ij /
log.yij Š//
j D1
Zero-inflated Poisson:
wi logŒ!i C .1 !i / exp. i /
li D l li D
wi Œlog.1 !i / C yi log.i / i
yi D 0
log.yi Š/ yi > 0
Maximum Likelihood Fitting
The GENMOD procedure uses a ridge-stabilized Newton-Raphson algorithm to maximize the loglikelihood function L.y; ; / with respect to the regression parameters. By default, the procedure also produces maximum likelihood estimates of the scale parameter as defined in the section
“Response Probability Distributions” on page 1962 for the normal, inverse Gaussian, negative binomial, and gamma distributions.
Generalized Linear Models Theory F 1967
On the rth iteration, the algorithm updates the parameter vector ˇr with
ˇrC1 D ˇr
H
1
s
where H is the Hessian (second derivative) matrix, and s is the gradient (first derivative) vector of
the log-likelihood function, both evaluated at the current value of the parameter vector. That is,
@L
s D Œsj  D
@ˇj
and
@2 L
H D Œhij  D
@ˇi @ˇj
In some cases, the scale parameter is estimated by maximum likelihood. In these cases, elements
corresponding to the scale parameter are computed and included in s and H.
If i D x0i ˇ is the linear predictor for observation i and g is the link function, then i D g.i /, so
that i D g 1 .x0i ˇ/ is an estimate of the mean of the i th observation, obtained from an estimate of
the parameter vector ˇ.
The gradient vector and Hessian matrix for the regression parameters are given by
s D
X wi .yi
i
H D
i /xi
0
V .i /g .i /
X0 Wo X
where X is the design matrix, xi is the transpose of the i th row of X, and V is the variance function.
The matrix Wo is diagonal with its i th diagonal element
woi D wei C wi .yi
i /
V .i /g 00 .i / C V 0 .i /g 0 .i /
.V .i //2 .g 0 .i //3 where
wei D
wi
V .i /.g 0 .i //2
The primes denote derivatives of g and V with respect to . The negative of H is called the observed
information matrix. The expected value of Wo is a diagonal matrix We with diagonal values wei .
If you replace Wo with We , then the negative of H is called the expected information matrix. We
is the weight matrix for the Fisher scoring method of fitting. Either Wo or We can be used in
the update equation. The GENMOD procedure uses Fisher scoring for iterations up to the number
specified by the SCORING option in the MODEL statement, and it uses the observed information
matrix on additional iterations.
1968 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Covariance and Correlation Matrix
The estimated covariance matrix of the parameter estimator is given by
†D
H
1
where H is the Hessian matrix evaluated using the parameter estimates on the last iteration. Note
that the dispersion parameter, whether estimated or specified, is incorporated into H. Rows and
columns corresponding to aliased parameters are not included in †.
The correlation matrix is the normalized covariance matrix. That is, if ij is an element of †, then
p
the corresponding element of the correlation matrix is ij =i j , where i D i i .
Goodness of Fit
Two statistics that are helpful in assessing the goodness of fit of a given generalized linear model are
the scaled deviance and Pearson’s chi-square statistic. For a fixed value of the dispersion parameter
, the scaled deviance is defined to be twice the difference between the maximum achievable log
likelihood and the log likelihood at the maximum likelihood estimates of the regression parameters.
Note that these statistics are not valid for GEE models.
If l.y; / is the log-likelihood function expressed as a function of the predicted mean values and
the vector y of response values, then the scaled deviance is defined by
D .y; / D 2.l.y; y/
l.y; //
For specific distributions, this can be expressed as
D .y; / D
D.y; /
where D is the deviance. The following table displays the deviance for each of the probability
distributions available in PROC GENMOD. The deviance cannot be directly calculated for the zeroinflated Poisson model. Twice the negative of the log likelihood is reported instead of the proper
deviance for the zero-inflated Poisson.
Distribution
normal
inverse Gaussian
Deviance
P
i /2
i wi .yi
h
i
P
yi
2 i wi yi log .y
/
i
i
i
h
P
yi
1
2 i wi mi yi log C
.1
y
/
log
i
1
i
h
i
P
yi
yi i
log 2 i wi
C
i
i
P wi .yi i /2
multinomial
P P
negative binomial
i
P h
yCwi =k
2 i y log.y=/ .y C wi =k/ log Cw
i =k
P
wi logŒ!i C .1 !i / exp. i /
yi D 0
2 i
wi Œlog.1 !i / C yi log.i / i log.yi Š/ yi > 0
Poisson
binomial
gamma
zero-inflated Poisson
i
i
yi
i
i
2i yi
j
wi yij log
yij
pij mi
Generalized Linear Models Theory F 1969
In the binomial case, yi D ri =mi , where ri is a binomial count and mi is the binomial number of
trials parameter.
In the multinomial case, yij refers to the observed number of occurrences of the j th category for
the i th subpopulation defined by the AGGREGATE= variable, mi is the total number in the i th
subpopulation, and pij is the category probability.
Pearson’s chi-square statistic is defined as
X2 D
i /2
V .i /
X wi .yi
i
and the scaled Pearson’s chi-square is X 2 =.
The scaled version of both of these statistics, under certain regularity conditions, has a limiting
chi-square distribution, with degrees of freedom equal to the number of observations minus the
number of parameters estimated. The scaled version can be used as an approximate guide to the
goodness of fit of a given model. Use caution before applying these statistics to ensure that all
the conditions for the asymptotic distributions hold. McCullagh and Nelder (1989) advise that
differences in deviances for nested models can be better approximated by chi-square distributions
than the deviances can themselves.
In cases where the dispersion parameter is not known, an estimate can be used to obtain an approximation to the scaled deviance and Pearson’s chi-square statistic. One strategy is to fit a model that
contains a sufficient number of parameters so that all systematic variation is removed, estimate from this model, and then use this estimate in computing the scaled deviance of submodels. The
deviance or Pearson’s chi-square divided by its degrees of freedom is sometimes used as an estimate
of the dispersion parameter . For example, since the limiting chi-square distribution of the scaled
deviance D D D= has n p degrees of freedom, where n is the number of observations and p
is the number of parameters, equating D to its mean and solving for yields O D D=.n p/.
Similarly, an estimate of based on Pearson’s chi-square X 2 is O D X 2 =.n p/. Alternatively, a
maximum likelihood estimate of can be computed by the procedure, if desired. See the discussion in the section “Type 1 Analysis” on page 1976 for more about the estimation of the dispersion
parameter.
Other Fit Statistics
The Akaike information criterion (AIC) is a measure of goodness of model fit that balances model
fit against model simplicity. AIC has the form
AIC D
2LL C 2p
where p is the number of parameters estimated in the model, and LL is the log likelihood evaluated
at the value of the estimated parameters. An alternative form is the corrected AIC given by
AICC D
2LL C 2p
n
n
p
1
where n is the total number of observations used.
1970 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) is a similar measure. BIC is defined by
BIC D
2LL C p log.n/
See Akaike (1981, 1979) for details of AIC and BIC. See Simonoff (2003) for a discussion of using
AIC, AICC, and BIC with generalized linear models. These criteria are useful in selecting among
regression models, with smaller values representing better model fit. PROC GENMOD uses the
full log likelihoods defined in the section “Log-Likelihood Functions” on page 1965, with all terms
included, for computing all of the criteria.
Dispersion Parameter
There are several options available in PROC GENMOD for handling the exponential distribution
dispersion parameter. The NOSCALE and SCALE options in the MODEL statement affect the
way in which the dispersion parameter is treated. If you specify the SCALE=DEVIANCE option,
the dispersion parameter is estimated by the deviance divided by its degrees of freedom. If you
specify the SCALE=PEARSON option, the dispersion parameter is estimated by Pearson’s chisquare statistic divided by its degrees of freedom.
Otherwise, values of the SCALE and NOSCALE options and the resultant actions are displayed in
the following table.
NOSCALE
present
present
not present
not present
SCALE=value
present
not present
not present
present
present (negative binomial)
not present
Action
scale fixed at value
scale fixed at 1
scale estimated by ML
scale estimated by ML,
starting point at value
k fixed at 0
The meaning of the scale parameter displayed in the “Analysis Of Parameter Estimates” table is different for the gamma distribution than for the other distributions. The relation of the scale parameter
as used by PROC GENMOD to the exponential family dispersion parameter is displayed in the
following table. For the binomial and Poisson distributions, is the overdispersion parameter, as
defined in the “Overdispersion” section, which follows.
Distribution
normal
inverse Gaussian
gamma
binomial
Poisson
Scale
p
p
1=
p
p
In the case of the negative binomial distribution, PROC GENMOD reports the “dispersion” parameter estimated by maximum likelihood. This is the negative binomial parameter k defined in the
section “Response Probability Distributions” on page 1962.
Generalized Linear Models Theory F 1971
Overdispersion
Overdispersion is a phenomenon that sometimes occurs in data that are modeled with the binomial
or Poisson distributions. If the estimate of dispersion after fitting, as measured by the deviance
or Pearson’s chi-square, divided by the degrees of freedom, is not near 1, then the data might
be overdispersed if the dispersion estimate is greater than 1 or underdispersed if the dispersion
estimate is less than 1. A simple way to model this situation is to allow the variance functions of
these distributions to have a multiplicative overdispersion factor :
binomial: V ./ D .1
/
Poisson: V ./ D An alternative method to allow for overdispersion in the Poisson distribution is to fit a negative
binomial distribution, where V ./ D C k2 , instead of the Poisson. The parameter k can be
estimated by maximum likelihood, thus allowing for overdispersion of a specific form. This is
different from the multiplicative overdispersion factor , which can accommodate many forms of
overdispersion.
The models are fit in the usual way, and the parameter estimates are not affected by the value of
. The covariance matrix, however, is multiplied by , and the scaled deviance and log likelihoods
used in likelihood ratio tests are divided by . The profile likelihood function used in computing
confidence intervals is also divided by . If you specify a WEIGHT statement, is divided by the
value of the WEIGHT variable for each observation. This has the effect of multiplying the contributions of the log-likelihood function, the gradient, and the Hessian by the value of the WEIGHT
variable for each observation.
p
The SCALE= option in the MODEL statement enables you to specify a value of D for the
binomial and Poisson distributions. If you specify the SCALE=DEVIANCE option in the MODEL
statement, the procedure uses the deviance divided by degrees of freedom as an estimate of , and
all statistics are adjusted appropriately. You can use Pearson’s chi-square instead of the deviance by
specifying the SCALE=PEARSON option.
The function obtained by dividing a log-likelihood function for the binomial or Poisson distribution by a dispersion parameter is not a legitimate log-likelihood function. It is an example
of a quasi-likelihood function. Most of the asymptotic theory for log likelihoods also applies to
quasi-likelihoods, which justifies computing standard errors and likelihood ratio statistics by using
quasi-likelihoods instead of proper log likelihoods. See McCullagh and Nelder (1989, Chapter 9),
McCullagh (1983), and Hardin and Hilbe (2003) for details on quasi-likelihood functions.
Although the estimate of the dispersion parameter is often used to indicate overdispersion or underdispersion, this estimate might also indicate other problems such as an incorrectly specified model
or outliers in the data. You should carefully assess whether this type of model is appropriate for
your data.
1972 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Specification of Effects
Each term in a model is called an effect. Effects are specified in the MODEL statement. You
specify effects with a special notation that uses variable names and operators. There are two types
of variables, classification (or CLASS) variables and continuous variables. There are two primary
types of operators, crossing and nesting. A third type, the bar operator, is used to simplify effect
specification. Crossing is the type of operator most commonly used in generalized linear models.
Variables that identify classification levels are called CLASS variables in SAS and are identified
in a CLASS statement. These might also be called categorical, qualitative, discrete, or nominal
variables. CLASS variables can be either character or numeric. The values of CLASS variables are
called levels. For example, the CLASS variable Sex could have the levels ‘male’ and ‘female’.
In a model, an explanatory variable that is not declared in a CLASS statement is assumed to be continuous. Continuous variables must be numeric. For example, the heights and weights of subjects
in an experiment are continuous variables.
The types of effects most useful in generalized linear models are shown in the following list. Assume that A, B, and C are classification variables and that X1 and X2 are continuous variables.
Regressor effects are specified by writing continuous variables by themselves: X1, X2.
Polynomial effects are specified by joining two or more continuous variables with asterisks:
X1*X2.
Main effects are specified by writing classification variables by themselves: A, B, C.
Crossed effects (interactions) are specified by joining two or more classification variables
with asterisks: A*B, B*C, A*B*C.
Nested effects are specified by following a main effect or crossed effect with a classification
variable or list of classification variables enclosed in parentheses: B(A), C(B A), A*B(C). In
the preceding example, B(A) is “B nested within A.”
Combinations of continuous and classification variables can be specified in the same way by
using the crossing and nesting operators.
The bar operator consists of two effects joined with a vertical bar (|). It is shorthand notation for
including the left-hand side, the right-hand side, and the cross between them as effects in the model.
For example, A | B is equivalent to A B A*B. The effects in the bar operator can be classification
variables, continuous variables, or combinations of effects defined using operators. Multiple bars
are permitted. For example, A | B | C means A B C A*B A*C B*C A*B*C.
You can specify the maximum number of variables in any effect that results from bar evaluation
by specifying the maximum number, preceded by an @ sign. For example, A | B | [email protected] results in
effects that involve two or fewer variables: A B C A*B A*C B*C.
Parameterization Used in PROC GENMOD F 1973
Parameterization Used in PROC GENMOD
Design Matrix
The linear predictor part of a generalized linear model is
D Xˇ
where ˇ is an unknown parameter vector and X is a known design matrix. By default, all models
automatically contain an intercept term; that is, the first column of X contains all 1s. Additional
columns of X are generated for classification variables, regression variables, and any interaction
terms included in the model. It is important to understand the ordering of classification variable
parameters when you use the ESTIMATE or CONTRAST statement. The ordering of these parameters is displayed in the “CLASS Level Information” table and in tables displaying the parameter
estimates of the fitted model.
When you specify an overparameterized model with the PARAM=GLM option in the CLASS statement, some columns of X can be linearly dependent on other columns. For example, when you specify a model consisting of an intercept term and a classification variable, the column corresponding
to any one of the levels of the classification variable is linearly dependent on the other columns of
X. The columns of X0 X are checked in the order in which the model is specified for dependence on
preceding columns. If a dependency is found, the parameter corresponding to the dependent column
is set to 0 along with its standard error to indicate that it is not estimated. The order in which the
levels of a classification variable are checked for dependencies can be set by the ORDER= option in
the PROC GENMOD statement or by the ORDER= option in the CLASS statement. For full-rank
parameterizations, the columns of the X matrix are designed to be linearly independent.
You can exclude the intercept term from the model by specifying the NOINT option in the MODEL
statement.
Missing Level Combinations
All levels of interaction terms involving classification variables might not be represented in the data.
In that case, PROC GENMOD does not include parameters in the model for the missing levels.
CLASS Variable Parameterization
Consider a model with one CLASS variable A with four levels, 1, 2, 5, and 7. Details of the possible
choices for the PARAM= option follow.
EFFECT
Three columns are created to indicate group membership of the nonreference
levels. For the reference level, all three dummy variables have a value of 1.
For instance, if the reference level is 7 (REF=7), the design matrix columns for
A are as follows:
1974 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Effect Coding
Design Matrix
A A1 A2 A5
1
1
0
0
2
0
1
0
5
0
0
1
7
1
1
1
Parameter estimates of CLASS main effects that use the effect coding scheme
estimate the difference in the effect of each nonreference level compared to the
average effect over all four levels.
GLM
As in PROC GLM, four columns are created to indicate group membership. The
design matrix columns for A are as follows:
A
1
2
5
7
GLM Coding
Design Matrix
A1 A2 A5 A7
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
Parameter estimates of CLASS main effects that use the GLM coding scheme
estimate the difference in the effects of each level compared to the last level.
ORDINAL
THERMOMETER Three columns are created to indicate group membership of the higher levels
of the effect. For the first level of the effect (which for A is 1), all three dummy
variables have a value of 0. The design matrix columns for A are as follows:
Ordinal Coding
Design Matrix
A A2 A5 A7
1
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
5
1
1
0
7
1
1
1
The first level of the effect is a control or baseline level. Parameter estimates of
CLASS main effects that use the ORDINAL coding scheme estimate the effect
on the response as the ordinal factor is set to each succeeding level. When the
parameters for an ordinal main effect have the same sign, the response effect is
monotonic across the levels.
POLYNOMIAL
POLY
Three columns are created. The first represents the linear term (x), the second
represents the quadratic term (x 2 ), and the third represents the cubic term (x 3 ),
where x is the level value. If the CLASS levels are not numeric, they are translated into 1, 2, 3, : : : according to their sorting order. The design matrix columns
for A are as follows:
CLASS Variable Parameterization F 1975
A
1
2
5
7
Polynomial Coding
Design Matrix
APOLY1 APOLY2 APOLY3
1
1
1
2
4
8
5
25
125
7
49
343
REFERENCE
REF
Three columns are created to indicate group membership of the nonreference
levels. For the reference level, all three dummy variables have a value of 0. For
instance, if the reference level is 7 (REF=7), the design matrix columns for A are
as follows:
Reference Coding
Design Matrix
A A1 A2 A5
1 1
0
0
2 0
1
0
5 0
0
1
7 0
0
0
Parameter estimates of CLASS main effects that use the reference coding scheme
estimate the difference in the effect of each nonreference level compared to the
effect of the reference level.
ORTHEFFECT
The columns are obtained by applying the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization to
the columns for PARAM=EFFECT. The design matrix columns for A are as
follows:
A
1
2
5
7
Orthogonal Effect Coding
Design Matrix
AOEFF1 AOEFF2 AOEFF3
1:41421
0:81650
0:57735
0:00000
1:63299
0:57735
0:00000
0:00000
1:73205
1:41421
0:81649
0:57735
ORTHORDINAL
ORTHOTHERM The columns are obtained by applying the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization to
the columns for PARAM=ORDINAL. The design matrix columns for A are as
follows:
A
1
2
5
7
Orthogonal Ordinal Coding
Design Matrix
AOORD1 AOORD2 AOORD3
1:73205
0:00000
0:00000
0:57735
1:63299
0:00000
0:57735
0:81650
1:41421
0:57735
0:81650
1:41421
1976 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
ORTHPOLY
The columns are obtained by applying the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization to
the columns for PARAM=POLY. The design matrix columns for A are as follows:
Orthogonal Polynomial Coding
Design Matrix
AOPOLY1 AOPOLY2 AOPOLY5
1:153
0:907
0:921
0:734
0:540
1:473
0:524
1:370
0:921
1:363
1:004
0:368
A
1
2
5
7
ORTHREF
The columns are obtained by applying the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization to
the columns for PARAM=REFERENCE. The design matrix columns for A are
as follows:
A
1
2
5
7
Orthogonal Reference Coding
Design Matrix
AOREF1 AOREF2 AOREF3
1:73205
0:00000
0:00000
0:57735
1:63299
0:00000
0:57735
0:81650
1:41421
0:57735
0:81650
1:41421
Type 1 Analysis
A Type 1 analysis consists of fitting a sequence of models, beginning with a simple model with only
an intercept term, and continuing through a model of specified complexity, fitting one additional effect on each step. Likelihood ratio statistics—that is, twice the difference of the log likelihoods—are
computed between successive models. This type of analysis is sometimes called an analysis of deviance since, if the dispersion parameter is held fixed for all models, it is equivalent to computing
differences of scaled deviances. The asymptotic distribution of the likelihood ratio statistics, under
the hypothesis that the additional parameters included in the model are equal to 0, is a chi-square
with degrees of freedom equal to the difference in the number of parameters estimated in the successive models. Thus, these statistics can be used in a test of hypothesis of the significance of each
additional term fit.
This type of analysis is not available for GEE models, since the deviance is not computed for this
type of model.
If the dispersion parameter is known, it can be included in the models; if it is unknown, there
are two strategies allowed by PROC GENMOD. The dispersion parameter can be estimated from a
maximal model by the deviance or Pearson’s chi-square divided by degrees of freedom, as discussed
in the section “Goodness of Fit” on page 1968, and this value can be used in all models. An
alternative is to consider the dispersion to be an additional unknown parameter for each model and
estimate it by maximum likelihood on each step. By default, PROC GENMOD estimates scale by
maximum likelihood at each step.
A table of likelihood ratio statistics is produced, along with associated p-values based on the asymptotic chi-square distributions.
Type 3 Analysis F 1977
If you specify either the SCALE=DEVIANCE or the SCALE=PEARSON option in the MODEL
statement, the dispersion parameter is estimated using the deviance or Pearson’s chi-square statistic,
and F statistics are computed in addition to the chi-square statistics for assessing the significance
of each additional term in the Type 1 analysis. See the section “F Statistics” on page 1979 for a
definition of F statistics.
This Type 1 analysis has the general property that the results depend on the order in which the terms
of the model are fitted. The terms are fitted in the order in which they are specified in the MODEL
statement.
Type 3 Analysis
A Type 3 analysis is similar to the Type III sums of squares used in PROC GLM, except that
likelihood ratios are used instead of sums of squares. First, a Type III estimable function is defined
for an effect of interest in exactly the same way as in PROC GLM. Then maximum likelihood
estimates are computed under the constraint that the Type III function of the parameters is equal to
0, by using constrained optimization. Let the resulting constrained parameter estimates be ˇQ and
Q Then the likelihood ratio statistic
the log likelihood be l.ˇ/.
O
S D 2.l.ˇ/
Q
l.ˇ//
where ˇO is the unconstrained estimate, has an asymptotic chi-square distribution under the hypothesis that the Type III contrast is equal to 0, with degrees of freedom equal to the number of parameters
associated with the effect.
When a Type 3 analysis is requested, PROC GENMOD produces a table that contains the likelihood
ratio statistics, degrees of freedom, and p-values based on the limiting chi-square distributions for
each effect in the model. If you specify either the DSCALE or PSCALE option in the MODEL
statement, F statistics are also computed for each effect.
Options for handling the dispersion parameter are the same as for a Type 1 analysis. The dispersion
parameter can be specified to be a known value, estimated from the deviance or Pearson’s chisquare divided by degrees of freedom, or estimated by maximum likelihood individually for the
unconstrained and constrained models. By default, PROC GENMOD estimates scale by maximum
likelihood for each model fit.
The results of this type of analysis do not depend on the order in which the terms are specified in
the MODEL statement.
A Type 3 analysis can consume considerable computation time since a constrained model is fitted
for each effect. Wald statistics for Type 3 contrasts are computed if you specify the WALD option.
Wald statistics for contrasts use less computation time than likelihood ratio statistics but might be
less accurate indicators of the significance of the effect of interest. The Wald statistic for testing
L0 ˇ D 0, where L is the contrast matrix, is defined by
O 0 .L0 †L/
O
O
S D .L0 ˇ/
.L0 ˇ/
where ˇ is the maximum likelihood estimate and † is its estimated covariance matrix. The asymptotic distribution of S is chi-square with r degrees of freedom, where r is the rank of L.
1978 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
See Chapter 39, “The GLM Procedure,”and Chapter 15, “The Four Types of Estimable Functions,”
for more information about Type III estimable functions. Also refer to Littell, Freund, and Spector
(1991).
Generalized score tests for Type III contrasts are computed for GEE models if you specify the
TYPE3 option in the MODEL statement when a REPEATED statement is also used. See the section
“Generalized Score Statistics” on page 1993 for more information about generalized score statistics.
Wald tests are also available with the Wald option in the CONTRAST statement. In this case, the
robust covariance matrix estimate is used for † in the Wald statistic.
Confidence Intervals for Parameters
Likelihood Ratio-Based Confidence Intervals
PROC GENMOD produces likelihood ratio-based confidence intervals, also known as profile likelihood confidence intervals, for parameter estimates for generalized linear models. These are not
computed for GEE models, since there is no likelihood for this type of model. Suppose that the parameter vector is ˇ D Œˇ0 ; ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇp 0 and that you want a confidence interval for ˇj . The profile
likelihood function for ˇj is defined as
l .ˇj / D max l.ˇ/
Q̌
where ˇQ is the vector ˇ with the j th element fixed at ˇj and l is the log-likelihood function. If
O is the log likelihood evaluated at the maximum likelihood estimate ˇ,
O then 2.l l .ˇj //
l D l.ˇ/
has a limiting chi-square distribution with one degree of freedom if ˇj is the true parameter value.
A .1 ˛/100% confidence interval for ˇj is
˚
ˇj W l .ˇj / l0 D l 0:521 ˛;1
where 21 ˛;1 is the 100.1 ˛/th percentile of the chi-square distribution with one degree of freedom. The endpoints of the confidence interval can be found by solving numerically for values of
ˇj that satisfy equality in the preceding relation. PROC GENMOD solves this by starting at the
maximum likelihood estimate of ˇ. The log-likelihood function is approximated with a quadratic
surface, for which an exact solution is possible. The process is iterated until convergence to an
endpoint is attained. The process is repeated for the other endpoint.
Convergence is controlled by the CICONV= option in the MODEL statement. Suppose is the
number specified in the CICONV= option. The default value of is 10 4 . Let the parameter
of interest be ˇj , and define r D uj , the unit vector with a 1 in position j and 0s elsewhere.
Convergence is declared on the current iteration if the following two conditions are satisfied:
jl .ˇj /
0
.s C r/ H
1
l0 j .s C r/ where l .ˇj /, s, and H are the log likelihood, the gradient, and the Hessian evaluated at the current
parameter vector and is a constant computed by the procedure. The first condition for convergence means that the log-likelihood function must be within of the correct value, and the second
condition means that the gradient vector must be proportional to the restriction vector r.
F Statistics F 1979
When you specify the LRCI option in the MODEL statement, PROC GENMOD computes profile
likelihood confidence intervals for all parameters in the model, including the scale parameter, if
there is one. The interval endpoints are displayed in a table as well as the values of the remaining
parameters at the solution.
Wald Confidence Intervals
You can request that PROC GENMOD produce Wald confidence intervals for the parameters. The
(1 ˛)100% Wald confidence interval for a parameter ˇ is defined as
ˇO ˙ z1
O
˛=2 where zp is the 100pth percentile of the standard normal distribution, ˇO is the parameter estimate,
and O is the estimate of its standard error.
F Statistics
Suppose that D0 is the deviance resulting from fitting a generalized linear model and that D1 is
the deviance from fitting a submodel. Then, under appropriate regularity conditions, the asymptotic
distribution of .D1 D0 /= is chi-square with r degrees of freedom, where r is the difference in the
number of parameters between the two models and is the dispersion parameter. If is unknown,
and O is an estimate of based on the deviance or Pearson’s chi-square divided by degrees of
O
freedom, then, under regularity conditions, .n p/=
has an asymptotic chi-square distribution
with n p degrees of freedom. Here, n is the number of observations and p is the number of
parameters in the model that is used to estimate . Thus, the asymptotic distribution of
F D
D1
D0
r O
is the F distribution with r and n p degrees of freedom, assuming that .D1
O are approximately independent.
.n p/=
D0 /= and
This F statistic is computed for the Type 1 analysis, Type 3 analysis, and hypothesis tests specified
in CONTRAST statements when the dispersion parameter is estimated by either the deviance or
Pearson’s chi-square divided by degrees of freedom, as specified by the DSCALE or PSCALE
option in the MODEL statement. In the case of a Type 1 analysis, model 0 is the higher-order
model obtained by including one additional effect in model 1. For a Type 3 analysis and hypothesis
tests, model 0 is the full specified model and model 1 is the submodel obtained from constraining
the Type III contrast or the user-specified contrast to be 0.
Lagrange Multiplier Statistics
When you select the NOINT or NOSCALE option, restrictions are placed on the intercept or scale
parameters. Lagrange multiplier, or score, statistics are computed in these cases. These statistics
1980 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
assess the validity of the restrictions, and they are computed as
2 D
s2
V
where s is the component of the score vector evaluated at the restricted maximum corresponding to
the restricted parameter and V D I11 I12 I221 I21 . The matrix I is the information matrix, 1 refers
to the restricted parameter, and 2 refers to the rest of the parameters.
Under regularity conditions, this statistic has an asymptotic chi-square distribution with one degree
of freedom, and p-values are computed based on this limiting distribution.
If you set k D 0 in a negative binomial model, s is the score statistic of Cameron and Trivedi (1998)
for testing for overdispersion in a Poisson model against alternatives of the form V ./ D C k2 .
See Rao (1973, p. 417) for more details.
Predicted Values of the Mean
Predicted Values
A predicted value, or fitted value, of the mean i corresponding to the vector of covariates xi is
given by
Oi D g
1
O
.x0i ˇ/
where g is the link function, regardless of whether xi corresponds to an observation or not. That is,
the response variable can be missing and the predicted value is still computed for valid xi . In the
case where xi does not correspond to a valid observation, xi is not checked for estimability. You
should check the estimability of xi in this case in order to ensure the uniqueness of the predicted
value of the mean. If there is an offset, it is included in the predicted value computation.
Confidence Intervals on Predicted Values
Approximate confidence intervals for predicted values of the mean can be computed as follows.
The variance of the linear predictor i D x0i ˇO is estimated by
x2 D x0i †xi
O The robust estimate of the covariance is used for † in
where † is the estimated covariance of ˇ.
the case of models fit with GEEs.
Approximate 100.1 ˛/% confidence intervals are computed as
g 1 x0i ˇO ˙ z1 ˛=2 x
where zp is the 100pth percentile of the standard normal distribution and g is the link function. If
either endpoint in the argument is outside the valid range of arguments for the inverse link function,
the corresponding confidence interval endpoint is set to missing.
Residuals F 1981
Residuals
The GENMOD procedure computes three kinds of residuals. Residuals are available for all generalized linear models except multinomial models for ordinal response data, for which residuals are
not available. Raw residuals and Pearson residuals are available for models fit with generalized
estimating equations (GEEs).
The raw residual is defined as
ri D yi
i
where yi is the i th response and i is the corresponding predicted mean. You can request raw
residuals in an output data set with the keyword RESRAW in the OUTPUT statement.
The Pearson residual is the square root of the i th contribution to the Pearson’s chi-square:
r
wi
rP i D .yi i /
V .i /
You can request Pearson residuals in an output data set with the keyword RESCHI in the OUTPUT
statement.
Finally, the deviance residual is defined as the square root of the contribution of the i th observation
to the deviance, with the sign of the raw residual:
p
rDi D di .sign.yi i //
You can request deviance residuals in an output data set with the keyword RESDEV in the OUTPUT
statement.
The adjusted Pearson, deviance, and likelihood residuals are defined by Agresti (2002), Williams
(1987), and Davison and Snell (1991). These residuals are useful for outlier detection and for
assessing the influence of single observations on the fitted model.
For the generalized linear model, the variance of the i th individual observation is given by
vi D
V .i /
wi
where is the dispersion parameter, wi is a user-specified prior weight (if not specified, wi D 1),
i is the mean, and V .i / is the variance function. Let
wei D vi 1 .g 0 .i //
2
for the i th observation, where g 0 .i / is the derivative of the link function, evaluated at i . Let We
be the diagonal matrix with wei denoting the i th diagonal element. The weight matrix We is used
in computing the expected information matrix.
Define hi as the i th diagonal element of the matrix
1
We2 X.X0 We X/
1
1
X0 We2
1982 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
The Pearson residuals, standardized to have unit asymptotic variance, are given by
yi i
rP i D p
vi .1 hi /
You can request standardized Pearson residuals in an output data set with the keyword STDRESCHI
in the OUTPUT statement. The deviance residuals, standardized to have unit asymptotic variance,
are given by
p
sign.yi i / di
rDi D
p
.1 hi /
where di is the contribution to the total deviance from observation i , and sign.yi i / is 1 if
yi i is positive and 1 if yi i is negative. You can request standardized deviance residuals
in an output data set with the keyword STDRESDEV in the OUTPUT statement. The likelihood
residuals are defined by
q
2
rGi D sign.yi i / .1 hi /rDi
C hi rP2 i
You can request likelihood residuals in an output data set with the keyword RESLIK in the OUTPUT
statement.
Multinomial Models
This type of model applies to cases where an observation can fall into one of k categories. Binary
data occur in the special case where k D 2. If there are mi observations in a subpopulation i ,
then the probability distribution of the number falling into the k categories yi D .yi1 ; yi 2 ; yi k /
can be modeled by the multinomial
P distribution, defined in the section “Response Probability Distributions” on page 1962, with j yij D mi . The multinomial model is an ordinal model if the
categories have a natural order.
Residuals are not available in the OBSTATS table or the output data set for multinomial models.
By default, and consistently with binomial models, the GENMOD procedure orders the response
categories for ordinal multinomial models from lowest to highest and models the probabilities of
the lower response levels. You can change the way PROC GENMOD orders the response levels
with the RORDER= option in the PROC GENMOD statement. The order that PROC GENMOD
uses is shown in the “Response Profiles” output table described in the section “Response Profile”
on page 2006.
The GENMOD procedure supports only the ordinal multinomial model. If .pi1 ; pi 2 ; pi k / are
the category probabilities, the cumulative category
Pr probabilities are modeled with the same link
functions used for binomial data. Let Pi r D j D1 pij , r D 1; 2; ; k 1, be the cumulative
category probabilities (note that Pi k D 1). The ordinal model is
g.Pir / D r C x0 ˇ for r D 1; 2; k
1
where 1 ; 2 ; k 1 are intercept terms that depend only on the categories and xi is a vector
of covariates that does not include an intercept term. The logit, probit, and complementary loglog link functions g are available. These are obtained by specifying the MODEL statement options
Zero-Inflated Poisson Models F 1983
DIST=MULTINOMIAL and LINK=CUMLOGIT (cumulative logit), LINK=CUMPROBIT (cumulative probit), or LINK=CUMCLL (cumulative complementary log-log). Alternatively,
Pir D F.r C x0 ˇ/ for r D 1; 2; k
where F D g
distribution.
1
1
is a cumulative distribution function for the logistic, normal, or extreme-value
PROC GENMOD estimates the intercept parameters 1 ; 2 ; k
by maximum likelihood.
1
and regression parameters ˇ
The subpopulations i are defined by constant values of the AGGREGATE= variable. This has no
effect on the parameter estimates, but it does affect the deviance and Pearson chi-square statistics; it also affects parameter estimate standard errors if you specify the SCALE=DEVIANCE or
SCALE=PEARSON option.
Zero-Inflated Poisson Models
Count data that have an incidence of zero counts greater than expected for the Poisson distribution
can be modeled with the zero-inflated Poisson distribution. See Long (1997) and Cameron and
Trivedi (1998) for more information about zero-inflated Poisson models. The population is considered to consist of two types of individuals. The first type gives Poisson distributed counts, which
might contain zeros. The second type always gives a zero count. Let be the Poisson mean and
! be the probability of an individual being of the second type. The parameter ! is called here the
zero-inflation probability, and is the probability of zero counts in excess of the frequency predicted
by the Poisson distribution. You can request that the zero inflation probability be displayed in an
output data set with the PZERO keyword. The probability distribution of a zero-inflated random
variable Y is given by
(
! C .1 !/e for y D 0
Pr.Y D y/ D
ye for y D 1; 2; : : :
.1 !/ yŠ
You can model the parameters ! and in GENMOD with the regression models:
h.!i / D z0i g.i / D x0i ˇ
where h is one of the binary link functions: logit, probit, or complementary log-log. The link
function h is the logit link by default, or the link function option specified in the ZEROMODEL
statement. The link function for the Poisson part of the model, g, is the log link function by default, or the link function specified in the MODEL statement. The covariates zi for observation i
are determined by the model specified in the ZEROMODEL statement, and the covariates xi are
determined by the model specified in the MODEL statement. The regression parameters and ˇ
are estimated by maximum likelihood.
1984 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
The mean and variance of Y are given by
E.Y / D D .1 !/
!
Var.Y / D C
2
1 !
You can request that the mean of Y be displayed for each observation in an output data set with the
PRED keyword.
Generalized Estimating Equations
Let yij , j D 1; : : : ; ni , i D 1; : : : ; K, represent the j th measurement on the i th subject. There are
P
ni measurements on subject i and K
i D1 ni total measurements.
Correlated data are modeled using the same link function and linear predictor setup (systematic
component) as the independence case. The random component is described by the same variance
functions as in the independence case, but the covariance structure of the correlated measurements
must also be modeled. Let the vector of measurements on the i th subject be Yi D Œyi1 ; : : : ; yi ni 0
with corresponding vector of means i D Œi1 ; : : : ; i ni 0 , and let Vi be the covariance matrix of
Yi . Let the vector of independent, or explanatory, variables for the j th measurement on the i th
subject be
xij D Œxij1 ; : : : ; xijp 0
The generalized estimating equation of Liang and Zeger (1986) for estimating the p 1 vector of
regression parameters ˇ is an extension of the independence estimating equation to correlated data
and is given by
S.ˇ/ D
K
X
D0i Vi 1 .Yi
i .ˇ// D 0
i D1
where
Di D
@i
@ˇ
Since
g.ij / D xij 0 ˇ
where g is the link function, the p ni matrix of partial derivatives of the mean with respect to the
regression parameters for the i th subject is given by
2 x
xi ni 1 3
i11
:
:
:
6 g 0 .i1 /
g 0 .i ni / 7
6
7
@0i
:
::
0
7
::
Di D
D6
:
6
7
@ˇ
4 xi1p
xi ni p 5
:::
g 0 .i1 /
g 0 .i ni /
Generalized Estimating Equations F 1985
Working Correlation Matrix
Let Ri .˛/ be an ni ni “working” correlation matrix that is fully specified by the vector of parameters ˛. The covariance matrix of Yi is modeled as
1
1
1
1
Vi D Ai2 Wi 2 R.˛/Wi 2 Ai2
where Ai is an ni ni diagonal matrix with v.ij / as the j th diagonal element and Wi is an ni ni
diagonal matrix with wij as the j th diagonal, where wij is a weight specified with the WEIGHT
statement. If there is no WEIGHT statement, wij D 1 for all i and j . If Ri .˛/ is the true correlation
matrix of Yi , then Vi is the true covariance matrix of Yi .
The working correlation matrix is usually unknown and must be estimated. It is estimated in the
iterative fitting process by using the current value of the parameter vector ˇ to compute appropriate
functions of the Pearson residual
yij ij
eij D p
v.ij /=wij
If you specify the working correlation as R0 D I, which is the identity matrix, the GEE reduces to
the independence estimating equation.
Following are the structures of the working correlation supported by the GENMOD procedure and
the estimators used to estimate the working correlations.
1986 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Working Correlation Structure
Fixed
Corr.Yij ; Yik / D rj k
where rj k is the j kth element of a constant,
user-specified correlation matrix R0 .
Estimator
The working correlation is not estimated in this case.
Independent
Corr.Yij ; Yik / D
1 j Dk
0 j ¤k
The working correlation is not estimated in this case.
m-dependent
8
< 1
˛t
Corr.Yij ; Yi;j Ct / D
:
0
t D0
t D 1; 2; : : : ; m
t >m
˛O t
1
.Kt p/
Kt D
PK P
PK
i D1
D
j ni t
i D1 .ni
eij ei;j Ct
t/
Exchangeable
Corr.Yij ; Yik / D
1 j Dk
˛ j ¤k
˛O D
1
.N p/
N D 0:5
PK P
i D1
PK
i D1 ni .ni
j <k eij eik
1/
Unstructured
Corr.Yij ; Yik / D
1
j Dk
˛j k j ¤ k
Autoregressive
AR(1)
Corr.Yij ; Yi;j Ct / D ˛ t
for t D 0; 1; 2; : : : ; ni j
˛O j k D
˛O
1
.K p/
1
.K1 p/
K1 D
PK
i D1 eij eik
PK P
PK
i D1
i D1 .ni
D
j ni 1 eij ei;j C1
1/
Dispersion Parameter
The dispersion parameter is estimated by
O D
ni
K X
X
1
N
p
where N D
parameters.
PK
2
eij
i D1 j D1
i D1 ni
is the total number of measurements and p is the number of regression
The square root of O is reported by PROC GENMOD as the scale parameter in the “Analysis of
GEE Parameter Estimates Model-Based Standard Error Estimates” output table. If a fixed scale
parameter is specified with the NOSCALE option in the MODEL statement, then the fixed value is
used in estimating the model-based covariance matrix and standard errors.
Generalized Estimating Equations F 1987
Fitting Algorithm
The following is an algorithm for fitting the specified model by using GEEs. Note that this is not
in general a likelihood-based method of estimation, so that inferences based on likelihoods are not
possible for GEE methods.
1. Compute an initial estimate of ˇ with an ordinary generalized linear model assuming independence.
2. Compute the working correlations R based on the standardized residuals, the current ˇ, and
the assumed structure of R.
3. Compute an estimate of the covariance:
1
1
1
1
2
2
O
Vi D Ai2 Wi 2 R.˛/W
i Ai
4. Update ˇ:
ˇrC1 D ˇr C
"K
X @i 0
i D1
@ˇ
Vi
1 @i
@ˇ
#
1" K
X
i D1
@i 0 1
V .Yi
@ˇ i
#
i /
5. Repeat steps 2-4 until convergence.
Missing Data
See Diggle, Liang, and Zeger (1994, Chapter 11) for a discussion of missing values in longitudinal data. Suppose that you intend to take measurements Yi1 ; : : : ; Yi n for the i th unit. Missing
values for which Yij are missing whenever Yi k is missing for all j k are called dropouts. Otherwise, missing values that occur intermixed with nonmissing values are intermittent missing values.
The GENMOD procedure can estimate the working correlation from data containing both types of
missing values by using the all available pairs method, in which all nonmissing pairs of data are
used in the moment estimators of the working correlation parameters defined previously. The resulting covariances and standard errors are valid under the missing completely at random (MCAR)
assumption.
For example, for the unstructured working correlation model,
˛O j k D
1
.K 0
X
p/
eij eik
where the sum is over the units that have nonmissing measurements at times j and k, and K 0 is the
number of units with nonmissing measurements at j and k. Estimates of the parameters for other
working correlation types are computed in a similar manner, using available nonmissing pairs in the
appropriate moment estimators.
The contribution of the i th unit to the parameter update equation is computed by omitting the
0
elements of .Yi i /, the columns of D0i D @
, and the rows and columns of Vi corresponding
@ˇ
to missing measurements.
1988 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Parameter Estimate Covariances
O is given by
The model-based estimator of Cov.ˇ/
O D I0 1
†m .ˇ/
where
I0 D
K
X
@i 0
i D1
@ˇ
Vi
1 @i
@ˇ
This is the GEE equivalent of the inverse of the Fisher information matrix that is often used in
generalized linear models as an estimator of the covariance estimate of the maximum likelihood
estimator of ˇ. It is a consistent estimator of the covariance matrix of ˇO if the mean model and the
working correlation matrix are correctly specified.
The estimator
†e D I0 1 I1 I0 1
O where
is called the empirical, or robust, estimator of the covariance matrix of ˇ,
I1 D
K
X
@i 0
i D1
@ˇ
Vi 1 Cov.Yi /Vi
1 @i
@ˇ
O even if the working
It has the property of being a consistent estimator of the covariance matrix of ˇ,
correlation matrix is misspecified—that is, if Cov.Yi / ¤ Vi . See Zeger, Liang, and Albert (1988)),
Royall (1986), and White (1982) for further information about the robust variance estimate. In
computing †e , ˇ and are replaced by estimates, and Cov.Yi / is replaced by the estimate
.Yi
O
i .ˇ//.Y
i
O 0
i .ˇ//
Multinomial GEEs
Lipsitz, Kim, and Zhao (1994) and Miller, Davis, and Landis (1993) describe how to extend GEEs to
multinomial data. Currently, only the independent working correlation is available for multinomial
models in PROC GENMOD.
Alternating Logistic Regressions
If the responses are binary (that is, they take only two values), then there is an alternative method
to account for the association among the measurements. The alternating logistic regressions (ALR)
algorithm of Carey, Zeger, and Diggle (1993) models the association between pairs of responses
with log odds ratios, instead of with correlations, as ordinary GEEs do.
For binary data, the correlation between the jth and kth response is, by definition,
Pr.Yij D 1; Yi k D 1/ ij i k
Corr.Yij ; Yik / D p
ij .1 ij /i k .1 i k /
Generalized Estimating Equations F 1989
The joint probability in the numerator satisfies the following bounds, by elementary properties of
probability, since ij D Pr.Yij D 1/:
max.0; ij C ik
1/ Pr.Yij D 1; Yi k D 1/ min.ij ; i k /
The correlation, therefore, is constrained to be within limits that depend in a complicated way on
the means of the data.
The odds ratio, defined as
OR.Yij ; Yik / D
Pr.Yij D 1; Yik D 1/ Pr.Yij D 0; Yi k D 0/
Pr.Yij D 1; Yik D 0/ Pr.Yij D 0; Yi k D 1/
is not constrained by the means and is preferred, in some cases, to correlations for binary data.
The ALR algorithm seeks to model the logarithm of the odds ratio, ij k D log.OR.Yij ; Yi k //, as
ij k D z0ij k ˛
where ˛ is a q 1 vector of regression parameters and zij k is a fixed, specified vector of coefficients.
The parameter ij k can take any value in . 1; 1/ with ij k D 0 corresponding to no association.
The log odds ratio, when modeled in this way with a regression model, can take different values in
subgroups defined by zij k . For example, zij k can define subgroups within clusters, or it can define
“block effects” between clusters.
You specify a GEE model for binary data that uses log odds ratios by specifying a model for the
mean, as in ordinary GEEs, and a model for the log odds ratios. You can use any of the link functions
appropriate for binary data in the model for the mean, such as logistic, probit, or complementary
log-log. The ALR algorithm alternates between a GEE step to update the model for the mean and a
logistic regression step to update the log odds ratio model. Upon convergence, the ALR algorithm
provides estimates of the regression parameters for the mean, ˇ, the regression parameters for the
log odds ratios, ˛, their standard errors, and their covariances.
Specifying Log Odds Ratio Models
Specifying a regression model for the log odds ratio requires you to specify rows of the z-matrix
zij k for each cluster i and each unique within-cluster pair .j; k/. The GENMOD procedure provides
several methods of specifying zij k . These are controlled by the LOGOR=keyword and associated
options in the REPEATED statement. The supported keywords and the resulting log odds ratio
models are described as follows.
EXCH
specifies exchangeable log odds ratios. In this model, the log odds ratio
is a constant for all clusters i and pairs .j; k/. The parameter ˛ is the
common log odds ratio.
zij k D 1 for all i; j; k
FULLCLUST
specifies fully parameterized clusters. Each cluster is parameterized in
the same way, and there is a parameter for each unique pair within clusters. If a complete cluster is of size n, then there are n.n2 1/ parameters
1990 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
in the vector ˛. For example, if a full cluster is of size 4, then there are
43
2 D 6 parameters, and the z-matrix is of the form
3
2
1 0 0 0 0 0
6 0 1 0 0 0 0 7
7
6
6 0 0 1 0 0 0 7
7
ZD6
6 0 0 0 1 0 0 7
7
6
4 0 0 0 0 1 0 5
0 0 0 0 0 1
The elements of ˛ correspond to log odds ratios for cluster pairs in the
following order:
Pair
(1,2)
(1,3)
(1,4)
(2.3)
(2,4)
(3,4)
Parameter
Alpha1
Alpha2
Alpha3
Alpha4
Alpha5
Alpha6
LOGORVAR(variable)
specifies log odds ratios by cluster. The argument variable is a variable
name that defines the “block effects” between clusters. The log odds
ratios are constant within clusters, but they take a different value for
each different value of the variable. For example, if Center is a variable
in the input data set taking a different value for k treatment centers,
then specifying LOGOR=LOGORVAR(Center) requests a model with
different log odds ratios for each of the k centers, constant within center.
NESTK
specifies k-nested log odds ratios. You must also specify the SUBCLUST=variable option to define subclusters within clusters. Within
each cluster, PROC GENMOD computes a log odds ratio parameter for
pairs having the same value of variable for both members of the pair and
one log odds ratio parameter for each unique combination of different
values of variable.
NEST1
specifies 1-nested log odds ratios. You must also specify the SUBCLUST=variable option to define subclusters within clusters. There are
two log odds ratio parameters for this model. Pairs having the same
value of variable correspond to one parameter; pairs having different
values of variable correspond to the other parameter. For example, if
clusters are hospitals and subclusters are wards within hospitals, then
patients within the same ward have one log odds ratio parameter, and
patients from different wards have the other parameter.
ZFULL
specifies the full z-matrix. You must also specify a SAS data set containing the z-matrix with the ZDATA=data-set-name option. Each observation in the data set corresponds to one row of the z-matrix. You
must specify the ZDATA data set as if all clusters are complete—that
is, as if all clusters are the same size and there are no missing observations. The ZDATA data set has KŒnmax .nmax 1/=2 observations, where K is the number of clusters and nmax is the maximum
Generalized Estimating Equations F 1991
cluster size. If the members of cluster i are ordered as 1; 2; ; n,
then the rows of the z-matrix must be specified for pairs in the order
.1; 2/; .1; 3/; ; .1; n/; .2; 3/; ; .2; n/; ; .n 1; n/. The variables
specified in the REPEATED statement for the SUBJECT effect must
also be present in the ZDATA= data set to identify clusters. You must
specify variables in the data set that define the columns of the z-matrix
by the ZROW=variable-list option. If there are q columns (q variables
in variable-list), then there are q log odds ratio parameters. You can
optionally specify variables indicating the cluster pairs corresponding to
each row of the z-matrix with the YPAIR=(variable1, variable2) option.
If you specify this option, the data from the ZDATA data set are sorted
within each cluster by variable1 and variable2. See Example 37.6 for
an example of specifying a full z-matrix.
ZREP
specifies a replicated z-matrix. You specify z-matrix data exactly as you
do for the ZFULL case, except that you specify only one complete cluster. The z-matrix for the one cluster is replicated for each cluster. The
number of observations in the ZDATA data set is nmax .n2max 1/ , where
nmax is the size of a complete cluster (a cluster with no missing observations).
ZREP(matrix)
specifies direct input of the replicated z-matrix.
You specify the z-matrix for one cluster with the syntax LOGOR=ZREP
( .y1 y2 /z1 z2 zq ; ), where y1 and y2 are numbers representing a pair of observations and the values z1 ; z2 ; ; zq make up the
corresponding row of the z-matrix. The number of rows specified is
nmax .nmax 1/
, where nmax is the size of a complete cluster (a cluster
2
with no missing observations). For example,
LOGOR =
ZREP((1
(1
(1
(2
(2
(3
2)
3)
4)
3)
4)
4)
1
1
1
1
1
1
0,
0,
0,
1,
1,
1)
specifies the 43
2 D 6 rows of the z-matrix for a cluster of size 4 with
q D 2 log odds ratio parameters. The log odds ratio for the pairs (1 2),
(1 3), (1 4) is ˛1 , and the log odds ratio for the pairs (2 3), (2 4), (3 4) is
˛1 C ˛2 .
Quasi-likelihood Information Criterion
The quasi-likelihood information criterion (QIC) was developed by Pan (2001) as a modification of
the Akaike information criterion (AIC) to apply to models fit by GEEs.
Define the quasi-likelihood under the independence working correlation assumption, evaluated with
the parameter estimates under the working correlation of interest as
O
Q.ˇ.R/;
/ D
ni
K X
X
i D1 j D1
O
Q.ˇ.R/;
I .Yij ; Xij //
1992 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
where the quasi-likelihood contribution of the j th observation in the i th cluster is defined in the
O
section “Quasi-likelihood Functions” on page 1992 and ˇ.R/
are the parameter estimates obtained
from GEEs with the working correlation of interest R.
QIC is defined as
QIC.R/ D
O
O I VOR /
2Q.ˇ.R/;
/ C 2trace.
O I is the inverse of the model-based covariance
where VOR is the robust covariance estimate and 
O
estimate under the independent working correlation assumption, evaluated at ˇ.R/,
the parameter
estimates obtained from GEEs with the working correlation of interest R.
PROC GENMOD also computes an approximation to QIC.R/ defined by Pan (2001) as
QICu .R/ D
O
2Q.ˇ.R/;
/ C 2p
where p is the number of regression parameters.
Pan (2001) notes that QIC is appropriate for selecting regression models and working correlations,
whereas QICu is appropriate only for selecting regression models.
Quasi-likelihood Functions
See McCullagh and Nelder (1989) and Hardin and Hilbe (2003) for discussions of quasi-likelihood
functions. The contribution of observation j in cluster i to the quasi-likelihood function evaluated
Q
at the regression parameters ˇ is given by Q.ˇ; I .Yij ; Xij // D ij , where Qij is defined in the
following list. These are used in the computation of the quasi-likelihood information criteria (QIC)
for goodness of fit of models fit with GEEs. The wij are prior weights, if any, specified with the
WEIGHT or FREQ statements. Note that the definition of the quasi-likelihood for the negative
binomial differs from that given in McCullagh and Nelder (1989). The definition used here allows
the negative binomial quasi-likelihood to approach the Poisson as k ! 0.
Normal:
Qij D
1
wij .yij
2
ij /2
Inverse Gaussian:
Qij D
wij .ij :5yij /
2ij
Gamma:
Qij D
wij
yij
C log.ij /
ij
Negative binomial:
1
Qij D wij Œlog €.yij C /
k
kij
1
1
1
log €. / C yij log
C log

k
1 C kij
k
1 C kij
Assessment of Models Based on Aggregates of Residuals F 1993
Poisson:
Qij D wij .yij log.ij /
ij /
Binomial:
Qij D wij Œrij log.pij / C .nij
rij / log.1
pij /
Multinomial (s categories):
Qij D wij
s
X
yij k log.ij k /
kD1
Generalized Score Statistics
Boos (1992) and Rotnitzky and Jewell (1990) describe score tests applicable to testing L0 ˇ D 0 in
GEEs, where L0 is a user-specified r p contrast matrix or a contrast for a Type 3 test of hypothesis.
Let ˇQ be the regression parameters resulting from solving the GEE under the restricted model L0 ˇ D
Q be the generalized estimating equation values at ˇ.
Q
0, and let S.ˇ/
The generalized score statistic is
Q 0 †m L.L0 †e L/
T D S.ˇ/
1 0
Q
L †m S.ˇ/
where †m is the model-based covariance estimate and †e is the empirical covariance estimate. The
p-values for T are computed based on the chi-square distribution with r degrees of freedom.
Assessment of Models Based on Aggregates of Residuals
Lin, Wei, and Ying (2002) present graphical and numerical methods for model assessment based on
the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (such as covariates or linear predictors)
or some related aggregates of residuals. The distributions of these stochastic processes under the
assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes
whose realizations can be generated by simulation. Each observed residual pattern can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the null distribution.
Such comparisons enable you to assess objectively whether the observed residual pattern reflects
anything beyond random fluctuation. These procedures are useful in determining appropriate functional forms of covariates and link function. You use the ASSESS|ASSESSMENT statement to
perform this kind of model-checking with cumulative sums of residuals, moving sums of residuals, or LOESS smoothed residuals. See Example 37.8 and Example 37.9 for examples of model
assessment.
Let the model for the mean be
g.i / D x0i ˇ
1994 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
where i is the mean of the response yi and xi is the vector of covariates for the i th observation.
Denote the raw residual resulting from fitting the model as
ei D yi
O i
and let xij be the value of the j th covariate in the model for observation i . Then to check the
functional form of the j th covariate, consider the cumulative sum of residuals with respect to xij ,
n
1 X
Wj .x/ D p
I.xij x/ei
n
i D1
where I./ is the indicator function. For any x, Wj .x/ is the sum of the residuals with values of xj
less than or equal to x.
Denote the score, or gradient vector, by
U.ˇ/ D
n
X
h.x0 ˇ/xi .yi
.x0 ˇ//
i D1
where .r/ D g
h.r/ D
1 .r/,
and
1
g0..r//V ..r//
Let J be the Fisher information matrix
J.ˇ/ D
@U.ˇ/
@ˇ 0
Define
n
1 X
O
WO j .x/ D p
ŒI.xij x/ C 0 .xI ˇ/J
n
1
O i h.x0 ˇ/e
O i Zi
.ˇ/x
i D1
where
.xI ˇ/ D
n
X
i D1
I.xij x/
@.x0i ˇ/
@ˇ
and Zi are independent N.0; 1/ random variables. Then the conditional distribution of WO j .x/,
given .yi ; xi /; i D 1; : : : ; n, under the null hypothesis H0 that the model for the mean is correct, is
the same asymptotically as n ! 1 as the unconditional distribution of Wj .x/ (Lin, Wei, and Ying
2002).
You can approximate realizations from the null hypothesis distribution of Wj .x/ by repeatedly
generating normal samples Zi ; i D 1; : : : ; n, while holding .yi ; xi /; i D 1; : : : ; n, at their observed
values and computing WO j .x/ for each sample.
You can assess the functional form of covariate j by plotting a few realizations of WO j .x/ on the
same plot as the observed Wj .x/ and visually comparing to see how typical the observed Wj .x/ is
of the null distribution samples.
Assessment of Models Based on Aggregates of Residuals F 1995
You can supplement the graphical inspection method with a Kolmogorov-type supremum test. Let
sj be the observed value of Sj D supx jWj .x/j. The p-value PrŒSj sj  is approximated by
PrŒSOj sj , where SOj D supx jWO j .x/j. PrŒSOj sj  is estimated by generating realizations of
WO j .:/ (1,000 is the default number of realizations).
You can check the link function instead of the j th covariate by using values of the linear predictor
x0i ˇO in place of values of the j th covariate xij . The graphical and numerical methods described
previously are then sensitive to inadequacies in the link function.
An alternative aggregate of residuals is the moving sum statistic
n
1 X
Wj .x; b/ D p
I.x
n
b xij x/ei
i D1
If you specify the keyword WINDOW(b), then the moving sum statistic with window size b is used
instead of the cumulative sum of residuals, with I.x b xij x/ replacing I.xij x/ in the
earlier equation.
If you specify the keyword LOESS(f ), loess smoothed residuals are used in the preceding formulas,
where f is the fraction of the data to be used at a given point. If f is not specified, f D 31 is used.
For data .Yi ; Xi /; i D 1; : : : ; n, define r as the nearest integer to nf and h as the rth smallest among
jXi xj; i D 1; : : : ; n. Let
Ki .x/ D K.
Xi
x
h
/
where
K.t / D
70
.1
81
jtj3 /3 I. 1 t 1/
Define
wi .x/ D Ki .x/ŒS2 .x/
.Xi
x/S1 .x/
where
S1 .x/ D
n
X
Ki .x/.Xi
x/
Ki .x/.Xi
x/2
i D1
S2 .x/ D
n
X
i D1
Then the loess estimate of Y at x is defined by
YO .x/ D
n
X
i D1
wi .x/
Pn
Yi
i D1 wi .x/
1996 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Loess smoothed residuals for checking the functional form of the j th covariate are defined by replacing Yi with ei and Xi with xij . To implement the graphical and numerical assessment methods,
I.xij x/ is replaced with Pnwi .x/
in the formulas for Wj .x/ and WO j .x/.
w .x/
iD1
i
You can perform the model checking described earlier for marginal models for dependent responses
fit by generalized estimating equations (GEEs). Let yi k denote the kth measurement on the i th
cluster, i D 1; : : : ; K, k D 1; : : : ; ni , and let xi k denote the corresponding vector of covariates.
The marginal mean of the response i k D E.yi k / is assumed to depend on the covariate vector by
g.ik / D x0ik ˇ
where g is the link function.
Define the vector of residuals for the i th cluster as
ei D .ei1 ; : : : ; ei ni /0 D .yi1
O i1 ; : : : ; yi ni
O i ni /0
You use the following extension of Wj .x/ defined earlier to check the functional form of the j th
covariate:
K ni
1 XX
I.xikj x/ei k
Wj .x/ D p
K i D1 kD1
where xikj is the j th component of xi k .
The null distribution of Wj .x/ can be approximated by the conditional distribution of
(n
)
K
i
X
X
1
O 0V
O 1
O 0 1D
WO j .x/ D p
I.xi kj x/ei k C 0 .x; ˇ/I
i i ei Zi
K i D1 kD1
O i and V
O i are defined as in the section “Generalized Estimating Equations” on page 1984
where D
with the unknown parameters replaced by their estimated values,
.x; ˇ/ D
ni
K X
X
i D1 kD1
I0 D
K
X
I.xikj x/
@i k
@ˇ
O 0V
O 1O
D
i i Di
i D1
and Zi ; i D 1; : : : ; K, are independent N.0; 1/ random variables. You replace xikj with the linear
predictor x0ik ˇO in the preceding formulas to check the link function.
Case Deletion Diagnostic Statistics F 1997
Case Deletion Diagnostic Statistics
For ordinary generalized linear models, regression diagnostic statistics developed by Williams
(1987) can be requested in an output data set or in the OBSTATS table by specifying the DIAGNOSTICS | INFLUENCE option in the MODEL statement. These diagnostics measure the influence of an individual observation on model fit, and generalize the one-step diagnostics developed
by Pregibon (1981) for the logistic regression model for binary data.
Preisser and Qaqish (1996) further generalize regression diagnostics to apply to models for correlated data fit by generalized estimating equations (GEEs), where the influence of entire clusters of
correlated observations is measured. These diagnostic statistics can be requested in an output data
set or in the OBSTATS table if a model for correlated data is specified with a REPEATED statement.
The next two sections use the following notation:
ˇO
is the maximum likelihood estimate of the regression parameters ˇ, or, in the case of correlated data, the solution of the GEEs.
ˇOŒi
is the corresponding estimate evaluated with the i th observation deleted, or, in the case of
correlated data, with the i th cluster deleted.
p
is the dimension of the regression parameter vector ˇ.
rpi
is the standardized Pearson residual pvyi.1ih / , where vi is the variance of the i th response
i
i
and hi is the leverage defined in the section “H | LEVERAGE” on page 1998.
vi
is the variance of response i , var.Yi / D V .i /, where V ./ is the variance function and is the dispersion parameter.
wi
is the prior weight of the i th observation specified with the WEIGHT statement. If there is
no WEIGHT statement, wi D 1 for all i .
All unknown quantities are replaced by their estimated values in the following two sections.
Diagnostics for Ordinary Generalized Linear Models
The following statistics are available for generalized linear models.
DFBETA
The DFBETA statistic for measuring the influence of the i th observation is defined as the one-step
approximation to the difference in the MLE of the regression parameter vector and the MLE of the
regression parameter vector without the i th observation. This one-step approximation assumes a
Fisher scoring step, and is given by
ˇO
ˇOŒi DFBETAi D .X 0 W X /
1
1
Xi0 Wi 2 .1
hi /
1
2
rpi
where hi is the leverage defined in the section “H | LEVERAGE” on page 1998.
1998 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
DFBETAS
The standardized DFBETA statistic for assessing the influence of the i th observation on the j th regression parameter is defined as the DFBETA statistic for the j th parameter divided by its estimated
standard deviation, where the standard deviation is estimated from all the data.
DFBETASij D DFBETAij =.ˇ
O j/
DOBS | COOKD | COOKSD
In normal linear regression, the influence of observation i can be measured by Cook’s distance
(Cook and Weisberg 1982). A measure of influence of observation i for generalized linear models
that is equivalent to Cook’s distance for normal linear regression is given by
DOBSi D p
1
hi .1
hi /
1 2
rpi
where hi is the leverage defined in the section “H | LEVERAGE” on page 1998. This measure is
O
the one-step approximation to 2p 1 ŒL.ˇ/
L.ˇOŒi /, where L.ˇ/ is the log likelihood evaluated at
ˇ.
H | LEVERAGE
wi
The Fisher scores, or expected, weight for observation i is wei D V . /.g
0 . //2 . Let W be the
i
i
diagonal matrix with wei as the i th diagonal. The leverage hi of the i th observation is defined as
the i th diagonal element of the hat matrix
1
H D W 2 .X 0 W X /
1
W
1
2
Diagnostics for Models Fit by Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs)
The diagnostic statistics in this section were developed by Preisser and Qaqish (1996). See the
section “Generalized Estimating Equations” on page 1984 for further information and notation for
generalized estimating equations (GEEs). The following additional notation is used in this section.
0 0
Partition the design matrix X and response vector Y by cluster; that is, let X D .X10 ; : : : ; XK
/ , and
0
0 0
Y D .Y1 ; : : : ; YK / corresponding to the K clusters.
P
Let ni be the number of responses for cluster i, and denote by N D K
i D1 ni the total number of
observations. Denote by Ai the ni ni diagonal matrix with V .ij / as the j th diagonal element. If
there is a WEIGHT statement, the diagonal element of Ai is V .ij /=wij , where wij is the specified
weight of the j th observation in the i th cluster. Let B the N N diagonal matrix with g 0 .ij / as
diagonal elements, i D 1; : : : ; K, j D 1; : : : ; ni . Let Bi the ni ni diagonal matrix corresponding
to cluster i with g 0 .ij / as the j th diagonal element.
Let W be the N N block diagonal weight matrix whose i th block, corresponding to the i th cluster,
is the ni ni matrix
1
1
O i 2 Bi
Wei D Bi 1 Ai 2 Ri 1 .˛/A
1
Case Deletion Diagnostic Statistics F 1999
where Ri is the working correlation matrix for cluster i .
Let
Qi D Xi .X 0 W X /
1
Xi0
where Xi is the ni p design matrix corresponding to cluster i .
Define the adjusted residual vector as
E D B.Y
and Ei D Bi .Yi
O
/
O i /, the estimated residual for the ith cluster.
Let the subscript Œi  denote estimates evaluated without the i th cluster, Œit estimates evaluated using
all the data except the t th observation of the ith cluster, and let iŒt denote matrices corresponding
to the i th cluster without the t th observation.
The following statistics are available for generalized estimating equation models.
CH | CLUSTERH | CLEVERAGE
The leverage of cluster i is contained in the matrix Hi D Qi Wei , and is summarized by the trace
of Hi ,
chi D t r.Hi /
The leverage hi of the tth observation in the i th cluster is the tth diagonal element of Hi .
DFBETAC
The effect of deleting cluster i on the estimated parameter vector is given by the following one-step
approximation for ˇO ˇOŒi :
DBETACi D .X 0 W X /
1
Xi0 .Wei 1
Qi /
1
Ei
DFBETACS
The cluster deletion statistic DFBETAC can be standardized using the variances of ˇO based on the
complete data. The standardized one-step approximation for the change in ˇOj due to deletion of
cluster i is
DBETACSij D
DBETACij
0W X /
O
Œ.X
DFBETAO
Partition the matrices Wei and Vi as
Wei D
Weit
WeiŒtt
WeitŒt
WeiŒt
1
1 2
jj
2000 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
1
Vi D Wei D
Vit
ViŒtt
and let Eit D Bit .Yit
Vit Œt 
ViŒt 
O it / and Ei Œt  D Bi Œt  .Yi Œt 
O i Œt  /.
The effect of deleting the tth observation from the i th cluster is given by the following one-step
approximation to ˇO ˇOŒit :
1
DBETAOit D .X 0 W X/
XQ i0t
EQ it
Weit1
QQ i t
where XQ it D Xit VitŒt ViŒt1 XiŒt  , QQ it D XQ it .X 0 W X/
Note that Weit , QQ it , and EQ it are scalars.
1 XQ 0 ,
it
and EQ i t D Eit
Vi t Œt  Vi Œt1 Ei Œt  .
DFBETAOS
The observation deletion statistic DFBETAO can be standardized using the variances of ˇO based on
the complete data. The standardized one-step approximation for the change in ˇOj due to deletion
of observation t in cluster i is
DBETAOSitj D
DBETAOi tj
1
0 W X/
O
Œ.X
1 2
jj
DCLS | CLUSTERCOOKD | CLUSTERCOOKSD
A measure of the standardized influence of the subset m of observations on the overall fit is .ˇO
O For deletion of cluster i , this is approximated by
ˇOŒm /0 .X 0 W X /.ˇO ˇOŒm /=p .
DCLSi D Ei0 .Wei 1
Qi /
1
/Qi .Wei 1
Qi /
1
/Ei =p O
DOBS | COOKD | COOKSD
The measure of overall fit in the section “DCLS | CLUSTERCOOKD | CLUSTERCOOKSD” on
page 2000 for the deletion of the tth observation in the i th cluster is approximated by
DOBSit D
EQ it2 QQ it
1
O
p .W
eit
QQ i t /2
where EQ it , QQ it , and Weit are defined in the section “DFBETAO” on page 1999. In the case of
the independence working correlation, this is equal to the measure for ordinary generalized linear
models defined in the section “DOBS | COOKD | COOKSD” on page 1998.
MCLS | CLUSTERDFIT
A studentized distance measure of the type defined in the section “DCLS | CLUSTERCOOKD | CLUSTERCOOKSD” on page 2000 of the influence of the i th cluster is given by
M CLSi D Ei0 .Wei 1
Qi /
1
Hi Ei =p O
Bayesian Analysis F 2001
Bayesian Analysis
Gibbs Sampling
This section provides details for Bayesian analysis by Gibbs sampling in generalized linear models.
See the section “Gibbs Sampler” on page 154 for a general discussion of Gibbs sampling. See
Gilks, Richardson, and Spiegelhalter (1996) for a discussion of applications of Gibbs sampling to a
number of different models, including generalized linear models. In generalized linear models, the
response has a probability distribution from a family of distributions of the exponential form. That
is, the probability density of the response Y for continuous response variables, or the probability
function for discrete responses, can be expressed as
y b. /
f .y/ D exp
C c.y; /
a./
for some functions a, b, and c that determine the specific distribution. The canonical parameters
depend only on the means of the response i , which are related to the regression parameters ˇ
through the link function g.i / D x 0 ˇ. The additional parameter is the dispersion parameter.
1
The GENMOD procedure estimates the regression parameters and the scale parameter D 2
by maximum likelihood. However, the GENMOD procedure can also provide Bayesian estimates
of the regression parameters and either the scale , the dispersion , or the precision D 1
by Gibbs sampling. Except where noted, the following discussion applies to either , , or , although is used to illustrate the formulas. Note that the Poisson and binomial distributions do
not have a dispersion parameter, and the dispersion is considered to be fixed at D 1. The ASSESS, CONTRAST, ESTIMATE, OUTPUT, and REPEATED statements, if specified, are ignored.
Also ignored are the PLOTS= option in the PROC GENMOD statement and the following options
in the MODEL statement: ALPHA=, CORRB, COVB, TYPE1, TYPE3, SCALE=DEVIANCE
(DSCALE), SCALE=PEARSON (PSCALE), OBSTATS, RESIDUALS, XVARS, PREDICTED,
DIAGNOSTICS, and SCALE= for Poisson and binomial distributions. The multinomial and zeroinflated Poisson distributions are not available for Bayesian analysis.
Let D .1 ; : : : ; k /0 be the parameter vector. For generalized linear models, the i s are the
regression coefficients ˇi s and the dispersion parameter . Let L.Dj/ be the likelihood function,
where D is the observed data. Let ./ be the prior distribution. The full conditional distribution
of Œi jj ; i ¤ j  is proportional to the joint distribution; that is,
.i jj ; i ¤ j; D/ / L.Dj/p./
For instance, the one-dimensional conditional distribution of 1 given j D j ; 2 j k, is
computed as
.1 jj D j ; 2 j k; D/ D L.Dj. D .1 ; 2 ; : : : ; k /0 /p. D .1 ; 2 ; : : : ; k /0 /
.0/
.0/
Suppose you have a set of arbitrary starting values f1 ; : : : ; k g. Using the ARMS (adaptive
rejection Metropolis sampling) algorithm of Gilks and Wild (1992) and Gilks, Best, and Tan (1995),
you can do the following:
.1/
.0/
.0/
draw 1 from Œ1 j2 ; : : : ; k 
2002 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
.1/
.1/
.1/
.1/
.0/
.0/
draw 2 from Œ2 j1 ; 3 ; : : : ; k 
:::
.1/

1
draw k from Œk j1 ; : : : ; k
.1/
.1/
This completes one iteration of the Gibbs sampler. After one iteration, you have f1 ; : : : ; k g.
.n/
.n/
After n iterations, you have f1 ; : : : ; k g. PROC GENMOD implements the ARMS algorithm
provided by Gilks (2003) to draw a sample from a full conditional distribution. See the section
“Assessing Markov Chain Convergence” on page 156 for information about assessing the convergence of the chain of posterior samples.
You can output these posterior samples into a SAS data set through ODS. The following SAS
statement outputs the posterior samples into the SAS data set Post:
OUTPOST=Post
The data set also includes the variable LogPost, representing the log of the posterior log likelihood.
Priors for Model Parameters
The model parameters are the regression coefficients and the dispersion parameter (or the precision
or scale), if the model has one. The priors for the dispersion parameter and the priors for the regression coefficients are assumed to be independent, while you can have a joint multivariate normal
prior for the regression coefficients.
Dispersion, Precision, or Scale Parameter
The gamma distribution G.a; b/ has a PDF
Gamma Prior
f .u/ D
b.bu/a 1 e
€.a/
bu
;
u>0
where a is the shape parameter and b is the inverse-scale parameter. The mean is
is ba2 .
Improper Prior
p.u/ / u
1
;
ba
u
€.a/
u>0
The inverse gamma distribution IG.a; b/ has a PDF
.aC1/
e
b=u
;
u>0
where a is the shape parameter and b is the scale parameter. The mean is
variance is
and the variance
The joint prior density is given by
Inverse Gamma Prior
f .u/ D
a
b
b2
.a 1/2 .a 2/
if a > 2.
b
a 1
if a > 1, and the
Bayesian Analysis F 2003
Regression Coefficients
Let ˇ be the regression coefficients.
Jeffreys’ Prior
The joint prior density is given by
1
p.ˇ/ / jI.ˇ/j 2
where I.ˇ/ is the Fisher information matrix for the model. If the underlying model has a scale
parameter (for example, a normal linear regression model), then the Fisher information matrix is
computed with the scale parameter set to a fixed value of one.
If you specify the CONDITIONAL option, then Jeffreys’ prior, conditional on the current Markov
chain value of the generalized linear model precision parameter , is given by
1
jI.ˇ/j 2
where is the model precision parameter.
See Ibrahim and Laud (1991) for a full discussion, with examples, of Jeffreys’ prior for generalized
linear models.
Normal Prior Assume ˇ has a multivariate normal prior with mean vector ˇ0 and covariance
matrix †0 . The joint prior density is given by
p.ˇ/ / e
1
2 .ˇ
ˇ0 /0 †0 1 .ˇ ˇ0 /
If you specify the CONDITIONAL option, then, conditional on the current Markov chain value of
the generalized linear model precision parameter , the joint prior density is given by
p.ˇ/ / e
Uniform Prior
1
2 .ˇ
ˇ0 /0 †0 1 .ˇ ˇ0 /
The joint prior density is given by
p.ˇ/ / 1
Deviance Information Criterion
Let i be the model parameters at iteration i of the Gibbs sampler and let LL(i ) be the corresponding model log likelihood. PROC GENMOD computes the following fit statistics defined by
Spiegelhalter et al. (2002):
Effective number of parameters:
pD D LL. /
LL.N /
Deviance information criterion (DIC):
DIC D LL. / C pD
2004 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
where
n
LL. / D
1X
LL.i /
n
i D1
n
1X
i
N D
n
i D1
PROC GENMOD uses the full log likelihoods defined in the section “Log-Likelihood Functions”
on page 1965, with all terms included, for computing the DIC.
Posterior Distribution
Denote the observed data by D.
The posterior distribution is
.ˇjD/ / LP .Djˇ/p.ˇ/
where LP .Djˇ/ is the likelihood function with regression coefficients ˇ as parameters.
Starting Values of the Markov Chains
When the BAYES statement is specified, PROC GENMOD generates one Markov chain containing
the approximate posterior samples of the model parameters. Additional chains are produced when
the Gelman-Rubin diagnostics are requested. Starting values (or initial values) can be specified
in the INITIAL= data set in the BAYES statement. If INITIAL= option is not specified, PROC
GENMOD picks its own initial values for the chains.
Denote Œx as the integral value of x. Denote sO .X/ as the estimated standard error of the estimator
X.
Regression Coefficients
For the first chain that the summary statistics and regression diagnostics are based on, the default
initial values are estimates of the mode of the posterior distribution. If the INITIALMLE option is
specified, the initial values are the maximum likelihood estimates; that is,
.0/
ˇi
D ˇOi
Initial values for the rth chain (r 2) are given by
r
.0/
O
ˇi D ˇi ˙ 2 C
sO .ˇOi /
2
with the plus sign for odd r and minus sign for even r.
Missing Values F 2005
Dispersion, Scale, or Precision Parameter Let be the generalized linear model parameter you choose to sample, either the dispersion, scale,
or precision parameter. Note that the Poisson and binomial distributions do not have this additional
parameter.
For the first chain that the summary statistics and regression diagnostics are based on, the default
initial values are estimates of the mode of the posterior distribution. If the INITIALMLE option is
specified, the initial values are the maximum likelihood estimates; that is,
.0/ D O
The initial values of the rth chain (r 2) are given by
O
.0/ D e
O
˙ Œ 2r C2 sO ./
with the plus sign for odd r and minus sign for even r.
OUTPOST= Output Data Set
The OUTPOST= data set contains the generated posterior samples. There are 2+n variables, where
n is the number of model parameters. The variable Iteration represents the iteration number and the
variable LogPost contains the log posterior likelihood values. The other n variables represent the
draws of the Markov chain for the model parameters.
Missing Values
For generalized linear models, PROC GENMOD ignores any observation with a missing value for
any variable involved in the model. You can score an observation in an output data set by setting
only the response value to missing. For models fit with generalized estimating equations (GEEs),
observations with missing values within a cluster are not used, and all available pairs are used in
estimating the working correlation matrix. Clusters with fewer observations than the full cluster
size are treated as having missing observations occurring at the end of the cluster. You can specify
the order of missing observations with the WITHINSUBJECT= option. See the section “Missing
Data” on page 1987 for more information about missing values in GEEs.
Displayed Output for Classical Analysis
The following output is produced by the GENMOD procedure. Note that some of the tables are
optional and appear only in conjunction with the REPEATED statement and its options or with
options in the MODEL statement. For details, see the section “ODS Table Names” on page 2017.
2006 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Model Information
The “Model Information” table displays the two-level data set name, the response distribution, the
link function, the response variable name, the offset variable name, the frequency variable name, the
scale weight variable name, the number of observations used, the number of events if events/trials
format is used for response, the number of trials if events/trials format is used for response, the
sum of frequency weights, the number of missing values in data set, and the number of invalid
observations (for example, negative or 0 response values with gamma distribution or number of
observations with events greater than trials with binomial distribution).
Class Level Information
If you use classification variables in the model, PROC GENMOD displays the levels of classification
variables specified in the CLASS statement and in the MODEL statement. The levels are displayed
in the same sorted order used to generate columns in the design matrix.
Response Profile
If you specify an ordinal model for the multinomial distribution, a table titled “Response Profile” is
displayed containing the ordered values of the response variable and the number of occurrences of
the values used in the model.
Iteration History for Parameter Estimates
If you specify the ITPRINT model option, PROC GENMOD displays a table containing the following for each iteration in the Newton-Raphson procedure for model fitting: the iteration number, the
ridge value, the log likelihood, and values of all parameters in the model.
Criteria for Assessing Goodness of Fit
In the “Criteria for Assessing Goodness of Fit” table, PROC GENMOD displays the degrees of
freedom for deviance and Pearson’s chi-square, equal to the number of observations minus the
number of regression parameters estimated, the deviance, the deviance divided by degrees of freedom, the scaled deviance, the scaled deviance divided by degrees of freedom, Pearson’s chi-square,
Pearson’s chi-square divided by degrees of freedom, the scaled Pearson’s chi-square, the scaled
Pearson’s chi-square divided by degrees of freedom, the log likelihood (excludes factorial terms)
the full log likelihood, the Akaike information criterion, the corrected Akaike information criterion,
and the Bayesian information criterion. The information in this table is valid only for maximum
likelihood model fitting, and the table is not printed if the REPEATED statement is specified.
Displayed Output for Classical Analysis F 2007
Last Evaluation of the Gradient
If you specify the model option ITPRINT, the GENMOD procedure displays the last evaluation of
the gradient vector.
Last Evaluation of the Hessian
If you specify the model option ITPRINT, the GENMOD procedure displays the last evaluation of
the Hessian matrix.
Analysis of (Initial) Parameter Estimates
The “Analysis of (Initial) Parameter Estimates” table contains the results from fitting a generalized
linear model to the data. If you specify the REPEATED statement, these GLM parameter estimates
are used as initial values for the GEE solution, and are displayed only if the PRINTMLE option in
the REPEATED statement is specified. For each parameter in the model, PROC GENMOD displays
the parameter name, as follows:
the variable name for continuous regression variables
the variable name and level for classification variables and interactions involving classification variables
SCALE for the scale variable related to the dispersion parameter
In addition, PROC GENMOD displays the degrees of freedom for the parameter, the estimate value,
the standard error, the Wald chi-square value, the p-value based on the chi-square distribution, and
the confidence limits (Wald or profile likelihood) for parameters.
Lagrange Multiplier Statistics
If you specify that either the model intercept or the scale parameter is fixed, for those distributions
that have a distribution scale parameter, the GENMOD procedure displays a table of Lagrange
multiplier, or score, statistics for testing the validity of the constrained parameter that contains the
test statistic, and the p-value.
Estimated Covariance Matrix
If you specify the model option COVB, the GENMOD procedure displays the estimated covariance
matrix, defined as the inverse of the information matrix at the final iteration. This is based on
the expected information matrix if the EXPECTED option is specified in the MODEL statement.
Otherwise, it is based on the Hessian matrix used at the final iteration. This is, by default, the
observed Hessian unless altered by the SCORING option in the MODEL statement.
2008 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Estimated Correlation Matrix
If you specify the CORRB model option, PROC GENMOD displays the estimated correlation matrix. This is based on the expected information matrix if the EXPECTED option is specified in the
MODEL statement. Otherwise, it is based on the Hessian matrix used at the final iteration. This is,
by default, the observed Hessian unless altered by the SCORING option in the MODEL statement.
Iteration History for LR Confidence Intervals
If you specify the ITPRINT and LRCI model options, PROC GENMOD displays an iteration history
table for profile likelihood-based confidence intervals. For each parameter in the model, PROC
GENMOD displays the parameter identification number, the iteration number, the log-likelihood
value, parameter values.
Likelihood Ratio-Based Confidence Intervals for Parameters
If you specify the LRCI and the ITPRINT options in the MODEL statement, a table is displayed that
summarizes profile likelihood-based confidence intervals for all parameters. For each parameter in
the model, the table displays the confidence coefficient, the parameter identification number, lower
and upper endpoints of confidence intervals for the parameter, and values of all other parameters at
the solution.
LR Statistics for Type 1 Analysis
If you specify the TYPE1 model option, a table is displayed that contains the name of the effect,
the deviance for the model including the effect and all previous effects, the degrees of freedom for
the effect, the likelihood ratio statistic for testing the significance of the effect, and the p-value
computed from the chi-square distribution with the effect’s degrees of freedom.
If you specify either the SCALE=DEVIANCE or SCALE=PEARSON option in the MODEL statement, columns are displayed that contain the name of the effect, the deviance for the model including the effect and all previous effects, the numerator degrees of freedom, the denominator degrees
of freedom, the chi-square statistic for testing the significance of the effect, the p-value computed
from the chi-square distribution with numerator degrees of freedom, the F statistic for testing the
significance of the effect, and the p-value based on the F distribution.
Iteration History for Type 3 Contrasts
If you specify the model options ITPRINT and TYPE3, an iteration history table is displayed for
fitting the model with Type 3 contrast constraints for each effect that contains the effect name, the
iteration number, the ridge value, the log likelihood, and values of all parameters.
Displayed Output for Classical Analysis F 2009
LR Statistics for Type 3 Analysis
If you specify the TYPE3 model option, a table is displayed that contains, for each effect in the
model, the name of the effect, the likelihood ratio statistic for testing the significance of the effect,
the degrees of freedom for the effect, and the p-value computed from the chi-square distribution.
If you specify either the SCALE=DEVIANCE or SCALE=PEARSON option in the MODEL statement, columns are displayed that contain the name of the effect, the likelihood ratio statistic for
testing the significance of the effect, the F statistic for testing the significance of the effect, the
numerator degrees of freedom, the denominator degrees of freedom, the p-value based on the F
distribution, and the p-value computed from the chi-square distribution with the numerator’s degrees of freedom.
Wald Statistics for Type 3 Analysis
If you specify the TYPE3 and WALD model options, a table is displayed that contains the name of
the effect, the degrees of freedom of the effect, the Wald statistic for testing the significance of the
effect, and the p-value computed from the chi-square distribution.
Parameter Information
If you specify the ITPRINT, COVB, CORRB, WALDCI, or LRCI option in the MODEL statement,
or if you specify a CONTRAST statement, a table is displayed that identifies parameters with numbers, rather than names, for use in tables and matrices where a compact identifier for parameters is
helpful. For each parameter, the table contains an index number that identifies the parameter, and
the parameter name, including level information for effects containing classification variables.
Observation Statistics
If you specify the OBSTATS option in the MODEL statement, PROC GENMOD displays a table
containing miscellaneous statistics. Residuals and case deletion diagnostic statistics are not available for the multinomial distribution. Case deletion diagnostics are not available for zero-inflated
models.
For each observation in the input data set, the following are displayed:
the value of the response variable
the predicted value of the mean
the value of the linear predictor The value of an OFFSET variable is added to the linear
predictor.
the estimated standard error of the linear predictor
2010 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
the value of the negative of the weight in the Hessian matrix at the final iteration. This is
the expected weight if the EXPECTED option is specified in the MODEL statement. Otherwise, it is the weight used in the final iteration. That is, it is the observed weight unless the
SCORING= option has been specified.
approximate lower and upper endpoints for a confidence interval for the predicted value of
the mean
raw residual
Pearson residual
deviance residual
standardized Pearson residual
standardized deviance residual
likelihood residual
leverage
Cook’s distance statistic
DFBETA statistic, for each parameter
standardized DFBETA statistic, for each parameter
zero-inflation probability for zero-inflated models
response mean for zero-inflated models
ESTIMATE Statement Results
If you specify a REPEATED statement, the ESTIMATE statement results apply to the specified
GEE model. Otherwise, they apply to the specified generalized linear model.
For each ESTIMATE statement, the table contains the contrast label, the estimated value of the
contrast, the standard error of the estimate, the significance level ˛, .1 ˛/ 100% confidence
intervals for contrast, the Wald chi-square statistic for the contrast, and the p-value computed from
the chi-square distribution.
If you specify the EXP option, an additional row is displayed with statistics for the exponentiated
value of the contrast.
CONTRAST Coefficients
If you specify the CONTRAST or ESTIMATE statement and you specify the E option, a table titled
“Coefficients For Contrast label” is displayed, where label is the label specified in the CONTRAST
statement. The table contains the contrast label, and the rows of the contrast matrix.
Displayed Output for Classical Analysis F 2011
Iteration History for Contrasts
If you specify the ITPRINT option, an iteration history table is displayed for fitting the model with
contrast constraints for each effect. The table contains the contrast label, the iteration number, the
ridge value, the log likelihood, and values of all parameters.
CONTRAST Statement Results
If you specify a REPEATED statement, the CONTRAST statement results apply to the specified
GEE model. Otherwise, they apply to the specified generalized linear model.
A table is displayed that contains the contrast label, the degrees of freedom for the contrast, and the
likelihood ratio, score, or Wald statistic for testing the significance of the contrast. Score statistics
are used in GEE models, likelihood ratio statistics are used in generalized linear models, and Wald
statistics are used in both. Also displayed are the p-value computed from the chi-square distribution,
and the type of statistic computed for this contrast: Wald, LR, or score.
If you specify either the SCALE=DEVIANCE or SCALE=PEARSON option for generalized linear models, columns are displayed that contain the contrast label, the likelihood ratio statistic for
testing the significance of the contrast, the F statistic for testing the significance of the contrast, the
numerator degrees of freedom, the denominator degrees of freedom, the p-value based on the F
distribution, and the p-value computed from the chi-square distribution with numerator degrees of
freedom.
LSMEANS Coefficients
If you specify the LSMEANS statement and you specify the E option, the “Coefficients for effect
Least Squares Means” table is displayed, where effect is the effect specified in the LSMEANS
statement. The table contains the effect names and the rows of least squares means coefficients.
Least Squares Means
If you specify the LSMEANS statement, the “Least Squares Means” table is displayed. The table contains for each effect the following: the effect name, and for each level of each effect the
following:
the least squares mean estimate
standard error
chi-square value
p-value computed from the chi-square distribution
If you specify the DIFF option, a table titled “Differences of Least Squares Means” is displayed
containing corresponding statistics for the differences between the least squares means for the levels
of each effect.
2012 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
GEE Model Information
If you specify the REPEATED statement, the “GEE Model Information” table displays the correlation structure of the working correlation matrix or the log odds ratio structure, the within-subject
effect, the subject effect, the number of clusters, the correlation matrix dimension, and the minimum
and maximum cluster size.
Log Odds Ratio Parameter Information
If you specify the REPEATED statement and specify a log odds ratio model for binary data with
the LOGOR= option, then the “Log Odds Ratio Parameter Information” table is displayed showing
the correspondence between data pairs and log odds ratio model parameters.
Iteration History for GEE Parameter Estimates
If you specify the REPEATED statement and the MODEL statement option ITPRINT, the “Iteration History For GEE Parameter Estimates” table is displayed. The table contains the parameter
identification number, the iteration number, and values of all parameters.
Last Evaluation of the Generalized Gradient and Hessian
If you specify the REPEATED statement and select ITPRINT as a model option, PROC GENMOD
displays the “Last Evaluation Of The Generalized Gradient And Hessian” table.
GEE Parameter Estimate Covariance Matrices
If you specify the REPEATED statement and the COVB option, PROC GENMOD displays the
“Covariance Matrix (Model-Based)” and “Covariance Matrix (Empirical)” tables.
GEE Parameter Estimate Correlation Matrices
If you specify the REPEATED statement and the CORRB option, PROC GENMOD displays the
“Correlation Matrix (Model-Based)” and “Correlation Matrix (Empirical)” tables.
GEE Working Correlation Matrix
If you specify the REPEATED statement and the CORRW option, PROC GENMOD displays the
“Working Correlation Matrix” table.
Displayed Output for Classical Analysis F 2013
GEE Fit Criteria
If you specify the REPEATED statement, PROC GENMOD displays the quasi-likelihood information criteria for model fit QIC and QICu in the “GEE Fit Criteria” table.
Analysis of GEE Parameter Estimates
If you specify the REPEATED statement, PROC GENMOD uses empirical standard error estimates
to compute and display the “Analysis Of GEE Parameter Estimates Empirical Standard Error Estimates” table that contains the parameter names as follows:
the variable name for continuous regression variables
the variable name and level for classification variables and interactions involving classification variables
“Scale” for the scale variable related to the dispersion parameter
In addition, the parameter estimate, the empirical standard error, a 95% confidence interval, and the
Z score and p-value are displayed for each parameter.
If you specify the MODELSE option in the REPEATED statement, the “Analysis Of GEE Parameter
Estimates Model-Based Standard Error Estimates” table based on model-based standard errors is
also produced.
GEE Observation Statistics
If you specify the OBSTATS option in the REPEATED statement, PROC GENMOD displays a
table containing miscellaneous statistics. For each observation in the input data set, the following
are displayed:
the value of the response variable and all other variables in the model, denoted by the variable
names
the predicted value of the mean
the value of the linear predictor
the standard error of the linear predictor
confidence limits for the predicted values
raw residual
Pearson residual
cluster number
leverage
2014 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
cluster leverage
cluster Cook’s distance statistic
studentized cluster Cook’s distance statistic
individual observation Cook’s distance statistic
cluster DFBETA statistic for each parameter
cluster standardized DFBETA statistic for each parameter
individual observation DFBETA statistic for each parameter
individual observation standardized DFBETA statistic for each parameter
Displayed Output for Bayesian Analysis
If a Bayesian analysis is requested with a BAYES statement, the displayed output includes the
following.
Model Information
The “Model Information” table displays the two-level data set name, the number of burn-in iterations, the number of iterations after the burn-in, the number of thinning iterations, the response
distribution, the link function, the response variable name, the offset variable name, the frequency
variable name, the scale weight variable name, the number of observations used, the number of
events if events/trials format is used for response, the number of trials if events/trials format is used
for response, the sum of frequency weights, the number of missing values in data set, and the number of invalid observations (for example, negative or 0 response values with gamma distribution or
number of observations with events greater than trials with binomial distribution).
Class Level Information
The “Class Level Information” table displays the levels of classification variables if you specify a
CLASS statement.
Maximum Likelihood Estimates
The “Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates” table displays the maximum likelihood estimate of each parameter, the estimated standard error of the parameter estimator, and
confidence limits for each parameter.
Displayed Output for Bayesian Analysis F 2015
Coefficient Prior
The “Coefficient Prior” table displays the prior distribution of the regression coefficients.
Independent Prior Distributions for Model Parameters
The “Independent Prior Distributions for Model Parameters” table displays the prior distributions of
additional model parameters (scale, exponential scale, Weibull scale, Weibull shape, gamma shape).
Initial Values and Seeds
The “Initial Values and Seeds” table displays the initial values and random number generator seeds
for the Gibbs chains.
Fit Statistics
The “Fit Statistics” table displays the deviance information criterion (DIC) and the effective number
of parameters.
Descriptive Statistics of the Posterior Samples
The “Descriptive Statistics of the Posterior Sample” table contains the size of the sample, the mean,
the standard deviation, and the quartiles for each model parameter.
Interval Estimates for Posterior Sample
The “Interval Estimates for Posterior Sample” table contains the HPD intervals and the credible
intervals for each model parameter.
Correlation Matrix of the Posterior Samples
The “Correlation Matrix of the Posterior Samples” table is produced if you include the CORR
suboption in the SUMMARY= option in the BAYES statement. This table displays the sample
correlation of the posterior samples.
Covariance Matrix of the Posterior Samples
The “Covariance Matrix of the Posterior Samples” table is produced if you include the COV suboption in the SUMMARY= option in the BAYES statement. This table displays the sample covariance
of the posterior samples.
2016 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Autocorrelations of the Posterior Samples
The “Autocorrelations of the Posterior Samples” table displays the lag1, lag5, lag10, and lag50
autocorrelations for each parameter.
Gelman and Rubin Diagnostics
The “Gelman and Rubin Diagnostics” table is produced if you include the GELMAN suboption
in the DIAGNOSTIC= option in the BAYES statement. This table displays the estimate of the
potential scale reduction factor and its 97.5% upper confidence limit for each parameter.
Geweke Diagnostics
The “Geweke Diagnostics” table displays the Geweke statistic and its p-value for each parameter.
Raftery and Lewis Diagnostics
The “Raftery Diagnostics” tables is produced if you include the RAFTERY suboption in the DIAGNOSTIC= option in the BAYES statement. This table displays the Raftery and Lewis diagnostics
for each variable.
Heidelberger and Welch Diagnostics
The “Heidelberger and Welch Diagnostics” table is displayed if you include the HEIDELBERGER
suboption in the DIAGNOSTIC= option in the BAYES statement. This table shows the results of a
stationary test and a halfwidth test for each parameter.
Effective Sample Size
The “Effective Sample Size” table displays, for each parameter, the effective sample size, the correlation time, and the efficiency.
Monte Carlo Standard Errors
The “Monte Carlo Standard Errors” table displays, for each parameter, the Monte Carlo standard
error, the posterior sample standard deviation, and the ratio of the two.
ODS Table Names F 2017
ODS Table Names
PROC GENMOD assigns a name to each table that it creates. You can use these names to reference
the table when using the Output Delivery System (ODS) to select tables and create output data
sets. These names are listed separately in Table 37.4 for a maximum likelihood analysis and in
Table 37.5 for a Bayesian analysis. For more information about ODS, see Chapter 20, “Using the
Output Delivery System.”
Table 37.4
ODS Tables Produced in PROC GENMOD for a Classical Analysis
ODS Table Name
Description
Statement
Option
AssessmentSummary
ClassLevels
Model assessment summary
Classification variable levels
Tests of contrasts
Contrast coefficients
Convergence status
Parameter estimate correlation matrix
Parameter estimate covariance matrix
Estimates of contrasts
Contrast coefficients
GEE parameter estimates
with empirical standard errors
GEE QIC fit criteria
GEE log odds ratio model
information
GEE model information
GEE parameter estimates
with model-based standard
errors
GEE model-based correlation matrix
GEE model-based covariance matrix
GEE empirical correlation
matrix
GEE empirical covariance
matrix
GEE working correlation
matrix
Iteration history for contrasts
ASSESS
CLASS
default
default
CONTRAST
CONTRAST
MODEL
MODEL
default
E
default
CORRB
MODEL
COVB
ESTIMATE
ESTIMATE
REPEATED
default
E
default
REPEATED
REPEATED
default
LOGOR=
REPEATED
REPEATED
default
MODELSE
REPEATED
MCORRB
REPEATED
MCOVB
REPEATED
ECORRB
REPEATED
ECOVB
REPEATED
CORRW
MODEL CONTRAST
ITPRINT
Contrasts
ContrastCoef
ConvergenceStatus
CorrB
CovB
Estimates
EstimateCoef
GEEEmpPEst
GEEFitCriteria
GEELogORInfo
GEEModInfo
GEEModPEst
GEENCorr
GEENCov
GEERCorr
GEERCov
GEEWCorr
IterContrasts
2018 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Table 37.4
continued
ODS Table Name
Description
Statement
Option
IterLRCI
Iteration history for likelihood ratio confidence intervals
Iteration history for parameter estimates
Iteration history for GEE
parameter estimates
Iteration history for Type 3
statistics
Likelihood ratio confidence
intervals
Coefficients
for
least
squares means
Least squares means differences
Least squares means
Lagrange statistics
Last evaluation of the generalized gradient and Hessian
Last evaluation of the gradient and Hessian
Linearly dependent rows of
contrasts
Model information
Goodness-of-fit statistics
Number of observations
summary
Nonestimable rows of contrasts
Observation-wise statistics
MODEL
LRCI ITPRINT
MODEL
ITPRINT
MODEL
REPEATED
MODEL
ITPRINT
MODEL
LRCI ITPRINT
LSMEANS
E
LSMEANS
DIFF
LSMEANS
MODEL
MODEL
REPEATED
MODEL
default
NOINT | NOSCALE
ITPRINT
CONTRAST
default
MODEL
MODEL
default
default
default
CONTRAST
default
MODEL
Parameter estimates
Parameter indices
Frequency counts for multinomial and binary models
Type1
Type 1 tests
Type3
Type 3 tests
ZeroParameterEstimates Parameter estimates for
zero-inflated model
MODEL
MODEL
MODEL
OBSTATS | CL |
PREDICTED |
RESIDUALS | XVARS
default
default
DIST=MULTINOMIAL |
DIST=BINOMIAL
TYPE1
TYPE3
default
IterParms
IterParmsGEE
IterType3
LRCI
LSMeanCoef
LSMeanDiffs
LSMeans
LagrangeStatistics
LastGEEGrad
LastGradHess
LinDep
ModelInfo
Modelfit
NObs
NonEst
ObStats
ParameterEstimates
ParmInfo
ResponseProfiles
MODEL
MODEL
ZEROMODEL
TYPE3 ITPRINT
ITPRINT
ODS Table Names F 2019
Table 37.5
ODS Tables Produced in PROC GENMOD for a Bayesian Analysis
ODS Table Name
Description
Statement
Option
AutoCorr
Autocorrelations of the posterior samples
Classification variable levels
Prior distribution of the regression coefficients
Convergence status of maximum likelihood estimation
Correlation matrix of the
posterior samples
Effective sample size
Fit statistics
Gelman and Rubin convergence diagnostics
Geweke convergence diagnostics
Heidelberger and Welch
convergence diagnostics
Initial values of the Markov
chains
Iteration history for parameter estimates
Last evaluation of the gradient and Hessian for maximum likelihood estimation
Model information
Number of observations
Maximum likelihood estimates of model parameters
Parameter indices
Prior distribution for scale
and shape
HPD and equal-tail intervals
of the posterior samples
Posterior samples (for ODS
output data set only)
Summary statistics of the
posterior samples
Raftery and Lewis convergence diagnostics
BAYES
default
CLASS
default
BAYES
default
MODEL
default
BAYES
SUMMARY=CORR
BAYES
BAYES
BAYES
default
default
DIAG=GELMAN
BAYES
default
BAYES
DIAG=HEIDELBERGER
BAYES
default
MODEL
ITPRINT
MODEL
ITPRINT
PROC
MODEL
default
default
default
MODEL
BAYES
default
default
BAYES
default
ClassLevels
CoeffPrior
ConvergenceStatus
Corr
ESS
FitStatistics
Gelman
Geweke
Heidelberger
InitialValues
IterParms
LastGradHess
ModelInfo
NObs
ParameterEstimates
ParmInfo
ParmPrior
PostIntervals
PosteriorSample
PostSummaries
Raftery
BAYES
BAYES
default
BAYES
DIAG=RAFTERY
2020 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
ODS Graphics
To request graphics with PROC GENMOD, you must first enable ODS Graphics by specifying
the ods graphics on statement. See Chapter 21, “Statistical Graphics Using ODS,” for more
information. Some graphs are produced by default; other graphs are produced by using statements
and options. You can reference every graph produced through ODS Graphics with a name. The
names of the graphs that PROC GENMOD generates are listed in Table 37.6, along with the required
statements and options.
ODS Graph Names
PROC GENMOD assigns a name to each graph it creates using ODS. You can use these names to
reference the graphs when using ODS. The names are listed in Table 37.6.
To request these graphs, you must specify the ods graphics on statement in addition to the options indicated in Table 37.6.
Table 37.6
ODS Graphics Produced by PROC GENMOD
ODS Graph Name
Description
Statement Option
ADPanel
Autocorrelation function
and density panel
Autocorrelation function
panel
Autocorrelation function
plot
Cluster Cook’s D by
cluster number
Cluster DFFIT by cluster number
Cluster leverage by cluster number
Cook’s distance
Panel of aggregates of
residuals
Model assessment based
on aggregates of residuals
Deviance residuals by
linear predictor
Deviance values
Cluster DFBeta by cluster number
DFBeta
BAYES
PLOTS=(AUTOCORR DENSITY)
BAYES
PLOTS= AUTOCORR
BAYES
PLOTS(UNPACK)=AUTOCORR
PROC
PLOTS=
PROC
PLOTS=
PROC
PLOTS=
PROC
ASSESS
PLOTS=
CRPANEL
ASSESS
default
PROC
PLOTS=
PROC
PROC
PLOTS=
PLOTS=
PROC
PLOTS=
AutocorrPanel
AutocorrPlot
ClusterCooksDPlot
ClusterDFFITPlot
ClusterLeveragePlot
CooksDPlot
CumResidPanel
CumulativeResiduals
DevianceResidByXBeta
DevianceResidualPlot
DFBETAByCluster
DFBETAPlot
ODS Graphics F 2021
Table 37.6
continued
ODS Table Name
Description
Statement Option
DiagnosticPlot
Panel of residuals, influence, and diagnostic
statistics
PLOTS=
LeveragePlot
LikeResidByXBeta
Leverage
Likelihood residuals by
linear predictor
Likelihood residuals
Pearson residuals by linear predictor
Pearson residuals
Predicted values
Raw residuals by linear
predictor
Raw residuals
Standardized deviance
residuals
by
linear
predictor
Standardized deviance
residuals
Standardized cluster DFBeta by cluster number
Standardized DFBeta
Standardized
Pearson
residuals
by
linear
predictor
Standardized
Pearson
residuals
Trace and autocorrelation function panel
Trace, autocorrelation,
and density function
panel
Trace and density panel
Trace panel
Trace plot
Zero-inflation probabilities
PROC
MODEL
REPEATED
PROC
PROC
PROC
PROC
PLOTS=
PLOTS=
PROC
PROC
PROC
PLOTS=
PLOTS=
PLOTS=
PROC
PROC
PLOTS=
PLOTS=
PROC
PLOTS=
PROC
PLOTS=
PROC
PROC
PLOTS=
PLOTS=
PROC
PLOTS=
BAYES
PLOTS=(TRACE AUTOCORR)
BAYES
default
BAYES
BAYES
BAYES
PROC
PLOTS=(TRACE DENSITY)
PLOTS=TRACE
PLOTS(UNPACK)=TRACE
PLOTS=
LikeResidualPlot
PearsonResidByXBeta
PearsonResidualPlot
PredictedByObservation
RawResidByXBeta
RawResidualPlot
StdDevianceResidByXBeta
StdDevianceResidualPlot
StdDFBETAByCluster
StdDFBETAPlot
StdPearsonResidByXBeta
StdPearsonResidualPlot
TAPanel
TADPanel
TDPanel
TracePanel
TracePlot
ZeroInflationProbPlot
PLOTS=
PLOTS=
2022 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Examples: GENMOD Procedure
The following examples illustrate some of the capabilities of the GENMOD procedure. These are
not intended to represent definitive analyses of the data sets presented here. You should refer to the
texts cited in the references for guidance on complete analysis of data by using generalized linear
models.
Example 37.1: Logistic Regression
In an experiment comparing the effects of five different drugs, each drug is tested on a number
of different subjects. The outcome of each experiment is the presence or absence of a positive
response in a subject. The following artificial data represent the number of responses r in the n
subjects for the five different drugs, labeled A through E. The response is measured for different
levels of a continuous covariate x for each drug. The drug type and the continuous covariate x
are explanatory variables in this experiment. The number of responses r is modeled as a binomial
random variable for each combination of the explanatory variable values, with the binomial number
of trials parameter equal to the number of subjects n and the binomial probability equal to the
probability of a response.
The following DATA step creates the data set:
data drug;
input drug$ x r
datalines;
A .1
1 10
A
B .2
3 13
B
C .04 0 10
C
D .34 5 10
D
E .2 12 20
E
;
run;
n @@;
.23 2
.3
4
.15 0
.6
5
.34 15
12
15
11
9
20
A
B
C
D
E
.67 1
.45 5
.56 1
.7
8
.56 13
9
16
12
10
15
B
C
.78
.7
E
.8
5
2
13
12
17
20
A logistic regression for these data is a generalized linear model with response equal to the binomial
proportion r/n. The probability distribution is binomial, and the link function is logit. For these data,
drug and x are explanatory variables. The probit and the complementary log-log link functions are
also appropriate for binomial data.
PROC GENMOD performs a logistic regression on the data in the following SAS statements:
proc genmod data=drug;
class drug;
model r/n = x drug / dist = bin
link = logit
lrci;
run;
Example 37.1: Logistic Regression F 2023
Since these data are binomial, you use the events/trials syntax to specify the response in the MODEL
statement. Profile likelihood confidence intervals for the regression parameters are computed using
the LRCI option.
General model and data information is produced in Output 37.1.1.
Output 37.1.1 Model Information
The GENMOD Procedure
Model Information
Data Set
Distribution
Link Function
Response Variable (Events)
Response Variable (Trials)
WORK.DRUG
Binomial
Logit
r
n
The five levels of the CLASS variable DRUG are displayed in Output 37.1.2.
Output 37.1.2 CLASS Variable Levels
Class Level Information
Class
drug
Levels
5
Values
A B C D E
In the “Criteria For Assessing Goodness Of Fit” table displayed in Output 37.1.3, the value of
the deviance divided by its degrees of freedom is less than 1. A p-value is not computed for the
deviance; however, a deviance that is approximately equal to its degrees of freedom is a possible
indication of a good model fit. Asymptotic distribution theory applies to binomial data as the number of binomial trials parameter n becomes large for each combination of explanatory variables.
McCullagh and Nelder (1989) caution against the use of the deviance alone to assess model fit.
The model fit for each observation should be assessed by examination of residuals. The OBSTATS
option in the MODEL statement produces a table of residuals and other useful statistics for each
observation.
2024 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.1.3 Goodness-of-Fit Criteria
Criteria For Assessing Goodness Of Fit
Criterion
DF
Value
Value/DF
Deviance
Scaled Deviance
Pearson Chi-Square
Scaled Pearson X2
Log Likelihood
Full Log Likelihood
AIC (smaller is better)
AICC (smaller is better)
BIC (smaller is better)
12
12
12
12
5.2751
5.2751
4.5133
4.5133
-114.7732
-23.7343
59.4686
67.1050
64.8109
0.4396
0.4396
0.3761
0.3761
In the “Analysis Of Parameter Estimates” table displayed in Output 37.1.4, chi-square values for
the explanatory variables indicate that the parameter values other than the intercept term are all
significant. The scale parameter is set to 1 for the binomial distribution. When you perform an
overdispersion analysis, the value of the overdispersion parameter is indicated here. See the section
“Overdispersion” on page 1971 for a discussion of overdispersion.
Output 37.1.4 Parameter Estimates
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
Parameter
DF
Estimate
Standard
Error
Intercept
x
drug
drug
drug
drug
drug
Scale
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0.2792
1.9794
-2.8955
-2.0162
-3.7952
-0.8548
0.0000
1.0000
0.4196
0.7660
0.6092
0.4052
0.6655
0.4838
0.0000
0.0000
A
B
C
D
E
Likelihood Ratio
95% Confidence
Limits
-0.5336
0.5038
-4.2280
-2.8375
-5.3111
-1.8072
0.0000
1.0000
1.1190
3.5206
-1.7909
-1.2435
-2.6261
0.1028
0.0000
1.0000
Wald
Chi-Square
Pr > ChiSq
0.44
6.68
22.59
24.76
32.53
3.12
.
0.5057
0.0098
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
0.0773
.
NOTE: The scale parameter was held fixed.
The preceding table contains the profile likelihood confidence intervals for the explanatory variable
parameters requested with the LRCI option. Wald confidence intervals are displayed by default.
Profile likelihood confidence intervals are considered to be more accurate than Wald intervals (see
Aitkin et al. (1989)), especially with small sample sizes. You can specify the confidence coefficient
with the ALPHA= option in the MODEL statement. The default value of 0.05, corresponding to
95% confidence limits, is used here. See the section “Confidence Intervals for Parameters” on
page 1978 for a discussion of profile likelihood confidence intervals.
Example 37.2: Normal Regression, Log Link F 2025
Example 37.2: Normal Regression, Log Link
Consider the following data, where x is an explanatory variable and y is the response variable. It
appears that y varies nonlinearly with x and that the variance is approximately constant. A normal
distribution with a log link function is chosen to model these data; that is, log.i / D x0i ˇ so that
i D exp.x0i ˇ/.
data nor;
input x y;
datalines;
0 5
0 7
0 9
1 7
1 10
1 8
2 11
2 9
3 16
3 13
3 14
4 25
4 24
5 34
5 32
5 30
;
run;
The following SAS statements produce the analysis with the normal distribution and log link:
proc genmod data=nor;
model y = x / dist
link
output out
=
pred
=
resraw
=
reschi
=
resdev
=
stdreschi =
stdresdev =
reslik
=
run;
= normal
= log;
Residuals
Pred
Resraw
Reschi
Resdev
Stdreschi
Stdresdev
Reslik;
The OUTPUT statement is specified to produce a data set that contains predicted values and residuals for each observation. This data set can be useful for further analysis, such as residual plotting.
The results from these statements are displayed in Output 37.2.1.
2026 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.2.1 Log-Linked Normal Regression
The GENMOD Procedure
Model Information
Data Set
Distribution
Link Function
Dependent Variable
WORK.NOR
Normal
Log
y
Criteria For Assessing Goodness Of Fit
Criterion
DF
Value
Value/DF
Deviance
Scaled Deviance
Pearson Chi-Square
Scaled Pearson X2
Log Likelihood
Full Log Likelihood
AIC (smaller is better)
AICC (smaller is better)
BIC (smaller is better)
14
14
14
14
52.3000
16.0000
52.3000
16.0000
-32.1783
-32.1783
70.3566
72.3566
72.6743
3.7357
1.1429
3.7357
1.1429
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
Parameter
DF
Estimate
Standard
Error
Intercept
x
Scale
1
1
1
1.7214
0.3496
1.8080
0.0894
0.0206
0.3196
Wald 95%
Confidence Limits
1.5461
0.3091
1.2786
1.8966
0.3901
2.5566
Wald
Chi-Square
Pr > ChiSq
370.76
286.64
<.0001
<.0001
NOTE: The scale parameter was estimated by maximum likelihood.
The PROC GENMOD scale parameter, in the case of the normal distribution, is the standard deviation. By default, the scale parameter is estimated by maximum likelihood. You can specify a fixed
standard deviation by using the NOSCALE and SCALE= options in the MODEL statement.
proc print data=Residuals ;
run;
Example 37.3: Gamma Distribution Applied to Life Data F 2027
Output 37.2.2 Data Set of Predicted Values and Residuals
Obs x
y
Pred
Reschi
Resraw
Resdev
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
5
7
9
7
10
8
11
9
16
13
14
25
24
34
32
30
5.5921
5.5921
5.5921
7.9324
7.9324
7.9324
11.2522
11.2522
15.9612
15.9612
15.9612
22.6410
22.6410
32.1163
32.1163
32.1163
-0.59212
1.40788
3.40788
-0.93243
2.06757
0.06757
-0.25217
-2.25217
0.03878
-2.96122
-1.96122
2.35897
1.35897
1.88366
-0.11634
-2.11634
-0.59212
1.40788
3.40788
-0.93243
2.06757
0.06757
-0.25217
-2.25217
0.03878
-2.96122
-1.96122
2.35897
1.35897
1.88366
-0.11634
-2.11634
-0.59212
1.40788
3.40788
-0.93243
2.06757
0.06757
-0.25217
-2.25217
0.03878
-2.96122
-1.96122
2.35897
1.35897
1.88366
-0.11634
-2.11634
0
0
0
1
1
1
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
5
Stdreschi Stdresdev
-0.34036
0.80928
1.95892
-0.54093
1.19947
0.03920
-0.14686
-1.31166
0.02249
-1.71738
-1.13743
1.37252
0.79069
1.22914
-0.07592
-1.38098
-0.34036
0.80928
1.95892
-0.54093
1.19947
0.03920
-0.14686
-1.31166
0.02249
-1.71738
-1.13743
1.37252
0.79069
1.22914
-0.07592
-1.38098
Reslik
-0.34036
0.80928
1.95892
-0.54093
1.19947
0.03920
-0.14686
-1.31166
0.02249
-1.71738
-1.13743
1.37252
0.79069
1.22914
-0.07592
-1.38098
The data set of predicted values and residuals (Output 37.2.2) is created by the OUTPUT statement.
You can use the PLOTS= option in the PROC GENMOD statement to create plots of predicted
values and residuals. Note that raw, Pearson, and deviance residuals are equal in this example. This
is a characteristic of the normal distribution and is not true in general for other distributions.
Example 37.3: Gamma Distribution Applied to Life Data
Life data are sometimes modeled with the gamma distribution. Although PROC GENMOD does
not analyze censored data or provide other useful lifetime distributions such as the Weibull or lognormal, it can be used for modeling complete (uncensored) data with the gamma distribution, and
it can provide a statistical test for the exponential distribution against other gamma distribution alternatives. See Lawless (2003) or Nelson (1982) for applications of the gamma distribution to life
data.
The following data represent failure times of machine parts, some of which are manufactured by
manufacturer A and some by manufacturer B.
data A;
input [email protected]@
mfg = ’A’;
datalines;
620 470 260 89
103 100 39
460
218 393 106 158
403 103 69
158
399 1274 32
12
548 381 203 871
317 85
1410 250
;
388
284
152
818
134
193
41
242
1285
477
947
660
531
1101
2028 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
32
1792
1585
537
164
1279
151
763
;
run;
421
47
253
101
16
356
24
555
32
95
6
385
1267
751
689
14
343
76
860
176
352
500
1119
45
data B;
input [email protected]@
mfg = ’B’;
datalines;
1747 945 12
1453
20
41
35
69
1090 1868 294 96
142 892 1307 310
403 860 23
406
561 348 130 13
317 304 79
1793
9
256 201 733
122 27
273 1231
667 761 1096 43
405 998 1409 61
113 25
940 28
646 575 219 303
195 1061 174 377
246 323 198 234
55
729 813 1216
6
1566 459 946
35
181 147 116
380 609 546
;
run;
376
515
89
11
160
803
1733
776
1512
72
1055
565
195
560
2194
1
;
14
195
618
230
1054
230
536
510
182
44
278
848
304
388
39
1618
764
141
150
89
44
30
1935
250
12
660
289
87
407
41
38
10
308
539
794
19
data lifdat;
set A B;
run;
The following SAS statements use PROC GENMOD to compute Type 3 statistics to test for differences between the two manufacturers in machine part life. Type 3 statistics are identical to Type 1
statistics in this case, since there is only one effect in the model. The log link function is selected to
ensure that the mean is positive.
proc genmod data = lifdat;
class mfg;
model lifetime = mfg / dist=gamma
link=log
type3;
run;
Example 37.3: Gamma Distribution Applied to Life Data F 2029
The output from these statements is displayed in Output 37.3.1.
Output 37.3.1 Gamma Model of Life Data
The GENMOD Procedure
Model Information
Data Set
Distribution
Link Function
Dependent Variable
WORK.LIFDAT
Gamma
Log
lifetime
Class Level Information
Class
Levels
mfg
Values
2
A B
Criteria For Assessing Goodness Of Fit
Criterion
Deviance
Scaled Deviance
Pearson Chi-Square
Scaled Pearson X2
Log Likelihood
Full Log Likelihood
AIC (smaller is better)
AICC (smaller is better)
BIC (smaller is better)
DF
Value
Value/DF
199
199
199
199
287.0591
237.5335
211.6870
175.1652
-1432.4177
-1432.4177
2870.8353
2870.9572
2880.7453
1.4425
1.1936
1.0638
0.8802
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
Parameter
Intercept
mfg
mfg
Scale
A
B
DF
Estimate
Standard
Error
1
1
0
1
6.1302
0.0199
0.0000
0.8275
0.1043
0.1559
0.0000
0.0714
Wald 95%
Confidence Limits
5.9257
-0.2857
0.0000
0.6987
6.3347
0.3255
0.0000
0.9800
Wald
Chi-Square
Pr > ChiSq
3451.61
0.02
.
<.0001
0.8985
.
NOTE: The scale parameter was estimated by maximum likelihood.
LR Statistics For Type 3 Analysis
Source
mfg
DF
ChiSquare
Pr > ChiSq
1
0.02
0.8985
The p-value of 0.8985 for the chi-square statistic in the Type 3 table indicates that there is no
significant difference in the part life between the two manufacturers.
2030 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Using the following statements, you can refit the model without using the manufacturer as an effect.
The LRCI option in the MODEL statement is specified to compute profile likelihood confidence
intervals for the mean life and scale parameters.
proc genmod data = lifdat;
model lifetime = / dist=gamma
link=log
lrci;
run;
Output 37.3.2 displays the results of fitting the model with the mfg effect omitted.
Output 37.3.2 Refitting of the Gamma Model: Omitting the mfg Effect
The GENMOD Procedure
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
Parameter
DF
Estimate
Standard
Error
Intercept
Scale
1
1
6.1391
0.8274
0.0775
0.0714
Likelihood Ratio
95% Confidence
Limits
5.9904
0.6959
6.2956
0.9762
Wald
Chi-Square
Pr > ChiSq
6268.10
<.0001
NOTE: The scale parameter was estimated by maximum likelihood.
The intercept is the estimated log mean of the fitted gamma distribution, so that the mean life of the
parts is
D exp.INTERCEPT/ D exp.6:1391/ D 463:64
The SCALE parameter used in PROC GENMOD is the inverse of the gamma dispersion parameter,
and it is sometimes called the gamma index parameter. See the section “Response Probability
Distributions” on page 1962 for the definition of the gamma probability density function. A value
of 1 for the index parameter corresponds to the exponential distribution . The estimated value of the
scale parameter is 0.8274. The 95% profile likelihood confidence interval for the scale parameter
is (0.6959, 0.9762), which does not contain 1. The hypothesis of an exponential distribution for the
data is, therefore, rejected at the 0.05 level. A confidence interval for the mean life is
.exp.5:99/; exp.6:30// D .399:57; 542:18/
Example 37.4: Ordinal Model for Multinomial Data
This example illustrates how you can use the GENMOD procedure to fit a model to data measured
on an ordinal scale. The following statements create a SAS data set called Icecream. The data set
contains the results of a hypothetical taste test of three brands of ice cream. The three brands are
rated for taste on a five-point scale from very good (vg) to very bad (vb). An analysis is performed
Example 37.4: Ordinal Model for Multinomial Data F 2031
to assess the differences in the ratings of the three brands. The variable taste contains the ratings,
and the variable brand contains the brands tested. The variable count contains the number of testers
rating each brand in each category.
The following statements create the Icecream data set:
data Icecream;
input count brand$ taste$;
datalines;
70 ice1 vg
71 ice1 g
151 ice1 m
30 ice1 b
46 ice1 vb
20 ice2 vg
36 ice2 g
130 ice2 m
74 ice2 b
70 ice2 vb
50 ice3 vg
55 ice3 g
140 ice3 m
52 ice3 b
50 ice3 vb
;
run;
The following statements fit a cumulative logit model to the ordinal data with the variable taste as
the response and the variable brand as a covariate. The variable count is used as a FREQ variable.
proc genmod data=Icecream rorder=data;
freq count;
class brand;
model taste = brand / dist=multinomial
link=cumlogit
aggregate=brand
type1;
estimate ’LogOR12’ brand 1 -1 / exp;
estimate ’LogOR13’ brand 1 0 -1 / exp;
estimate ’LogOR23’ brand 0 1 -1 / exp;
run;
The AGGREGATE=BRAND option in the MODEL statement specifies the variable brand
as defining multinomial populations for computing deviances and Pearson chi-squares. The
RORDER=DATA option specifies that the taste variable levels be ordered by their order of appearance in the input data set—that is, from very good (vg) to very bad (vb). By default, the
response is sorted in increasing ASCII order. Always check the “Response Profiles” table to verify
that response levels are appropriately ordered. The TYPE1 option requests a Type 1 test for the
significance of the covariate brand.
If j .x/ D Pr.taste j / is the cumulative probability of the j th or lower taste category, then the
odds ratio comparing x1 to x2 is as follows:
2032 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
j .x1 /=.1
j .x2 /=.1
j .x1 //
D expŒ.x1
j .x2 //
x2 /0 ˇ
See McCullagh and Nelder (1989, Chapter 5) for details on the cumulative logit model. The ESTIMATE statements compute log odds ratios comparing each of brands. The EXP option in the
ESTIMATE statements exponentiates the log odds ratios to form odds ratio estimates. Standard
errors and confidence intervals are also computed.
Output 37.4.1 displays general information about the model and data, the levels of the CLASS
variable brand, and the total number of occurrences of the ordered levels of the response variable
taste.
Output 37.4.1 Ordinal Model Information
The GENMOD Procedure
Model Information
Data Set
Distribution
Link Function
Dependent Variable
Frequency Weight Variable
WORK.ICECREAM
Multinomial
Cumulative Logit
taste
count
Class Level Information
Class
Levels
brand
3
Values
ice1 ice2 ice3
Response Profile
Ordered
Value
1
2
3
4
5
taste
vg
g
m
b
vb
Total
Frequency
140
162
421
156
166
Output 37.4.2 displays estimates of the intercept terms and covariates and associated statistics. The
intercept terms correspond to the four cumulative logits defined on the taste categories in the order
1
shown in Output 37.4.1. That is, Intercept1 is the intercept for the first cumulative logit, log. 1 pp
/,
1
p Cp
1
2
Intercept2 is the intercept for the second cumulative logit, log. 1 .p
/, and so forth.
1 Cp2 /
Example 37.4: Ordinal Model for Multinomial Data F 2033
Output 37.4.2 Parameter Estimates
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
Parameter
Intercept1
Intercept2
Intercept3
Intercept4
brand
brand
brand
Scale
DF
Estimate
Standard
Error
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
-1.8578
-0.8646
0.9231
1.8078
0.3847
-0.6457
0.0000
1.0000
0.1219
0.1056
0.1060
0.1191
0.1370
0.1397
0.0000
0.0000
ice1
ice2
ice3
Wald 95% Confidence
Limits
-2.0967
-1.0716
0.7154
1.5743
0.1162
-0.9196
0.0000
1.0000
Wald
Chi-Square
-1.6189
-0.6576
1.1308
2.0413
0.6532
-0.3719
0.0000
1.0000
232.35
67.02
75.87
230.32
7.89
21.36
.
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood
Parameter Estimates
Parameter
Intercept1
Intercept2
Intercept3
Intercept4
brand
brand
brand
Scale
Pr > ChiSq
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
0.0050
<.0001
.
ice1
ice2
ice3
NOTE: The scale parameter was held fixed.
The Type 1 test displayed in Output 37.4.3 indicates that Brand is highly significant; that is, there are
significant differences among the brands. The log odds ratios and odds ratios in the “ESTIMATE
Statement Results” table indicate the relative differences among the brands. For example, the odds
ratio of 2.8 in the “Exp(LogOR12)” row indicates that the odds of brand 1 being in lower taste
categories is 2.8 times the odds of brand 2 being in lower taste categories. Since, in this ordering,
the lower categories represent the more favorable taste results, this indicates that brand 1 scored
significantly better than brand 2. This is also apparent from the data in this example.
Output 37.4.3 Type 1 Tests and Odds Ratios
LR Statistics For Type 1 Analysis
Source
Intercepts
brand
Deviance
DF
ChiSquare
Pr > ChiSq
65.9576
9.8654
2
56.09
<.0001
2034 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.4.3 continued
Contrast Estimate Results
Mean
Estimate
Label
LogOR12
Exp(LogOR12)
LogOR13
Exp(LogOR13)
LogOR23
Exp(LogOR23)
Mean
Confidence Limits
0.7370
0.6805
0.7867
0.5950
0.5290
0.6577
0.3439
0.2850
0.4081
L’Beta
Estimate
Standard
Error
Alpha
1.0305
2.8024
0.3847
1.4692
-0.6457
0.5243
0.1401
0.3926
0.1370
0.2013
0.1397
0.0733
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
Contrast Estimate Results
Label
LogOR12
Exp(LogOR12)
LogOR13
Exp(LogOR13)
LogOR23
Exp(LogOR23)
L’Beta
Confidence Limits
0.7559
2.1295
0.1162
1.1233
-0.9196
0.3987
1.3050
3.6878
0.6532
1.9217
-0.3719
0.6894
ChiSquare
Pr > ChiSq
54.11
<.0001
7.89
0.0050
21.36
<.0001
Example 37.5: GEE for Binary Data with Logit Link Function
Output 37.5.1 displays a partial listing of a SAS data set of clinical trial data comparing two treatments for a respiratory disorder. See “Gee Model for Binary Data” in the SAS/STAT Sample Program Library for the complete data set. These data are from Stokes, Davis, and Koch (2000).
Patients in each of two centers are randomly assigned to groups receiving the active treatment or
a placebo. During treatment, respiratory status, represented by the variable outcome (coded here
as 0=poor, 1=good), is determined for each of four visits. The variables center, treatment, sex, and
baseline (baseline respiratory status) are classification variables with two levels. The variable age
(age at time of entry into the study) is a continuous variable.
Explanatory variables in the model are Intercept (xij1 ), treatment (xij 2 ), center (xij 3 ), sex (xij 4 ), age
(xij 5 ), and baseline (xij 6 ), so that x 0 D Œxij1 ; xij 2 ; : : : ; xij 6  is the vector of explanatory variables.
Indicator variables for the classification explanatory variables can be automatically generated by
listing them in the CLASS statement in PROC GENMOD. To be consistent with the analysis in
Stokes, Davis, and Koch (2000), the four classification explanatory variables are coded as follows
via options in the CLASS statement:
xij 2 D
0 placebo
1 active
xij 3 D
0 center 1
1 center 2
Example 37.5: GEE for Binary Data with Logit Link Function F 2035
xij 4 D
0 male
1 female
xij 6 D
00
11
Suppose yij represents the respiratory status of patient i at the j th visit, j D 1; : : : ; 4, and ij D
E.yij / represents the mean of the respiratory status. Since the response data are binary, you can use
the variance function for the binomial distribution v.ij / D ij .1 ij / and the logit link function
g.ij / D log.ij =.1 ij //. The model for the mean is g.ij / D xij 0 ˇ, where ˇ is a vector of
regression parameters to be estimated.
Output 37.5.1 Respiratory Disorder Data
O
b
s
c
e
n
t
e
r
i
d
t
r
e
a
t
m
e
n
t
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
A
A
A
A
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
s
e
x
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
F
F
F
F
a
g
e
b
a
s
e
l
i
n
e
v
i
s
i
t
1
v
i
s
i
t
2
v
i
s
i
t
3
v
i
s
i
t
4
v
i
s
i
t
o
u
t
c
o
m
e
46
46
46
46
28
28
28
28
23
23
23
23
44
44
44
44
13
13
13
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
The GEE solution is requested with the REPEATED statement in the GENMOD procedure. The
option SUBJECT=ID(CENTER) specifies that the observations in a single cluster be uniquely identified by center and id within center. The option TYPE=UNSTR specifies the unstructured working
correlation structure. The MODEL statement specifies the regression model for the mean with the
binomial distribution variance function. The following SAS statements perform the GEE model fit:
2036 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
proc genmod data=resp descend;
class id treatment(ref="P") center(ref="1") sex(ref="M")
baseline(ref="0") / param=ref;
model outcome=treatment center sex age baseline / dist=bin;
repeated subject=id(center) / corr=unstr corrw;
run;
These statements first fit the generalized linear (GLM) model specified in the MODEL statement.
The parameter estimates from the generalized linear model fit are not shown in the output, but they
are used as initial values for the GEE solution. The DESCEND option in the PROC GENMOD
statement specifies that the probability that outcome D 1 be modeled. If the DESCEND option had
not been specified, the probability that outcome D 0 would be modeled by default.
Information about the GEE model is displayed in Output 37.5.2. The results of GEE model fitting
are displayed in Output 37.5.3. Model goodness-of-fit criteria are displayed in Output 37.5.4. If you
specify no other options, the standard errors, confidence intervals, Z scores, and p-values are based
on empirical standard error estimates. You can specify the MODELSE option in the REPEATED
statement to create a table based on model-based standard error estimates.
Output 37.5.2 Model Fitting Information
The GENMOD Procedure
GEE Model Information
Correlation Structure
Subject Effect
Number of Clusters
Correlation Matrix Dimension
Maximum Cluster Size
Minimum Cluster Size
Unstructured
id(center) (111 levels)
111
4
4
4
Output 37.5.3 Results of Model Fitting
Working Correlation Matrix
Row1
Row2
Row3
Row4
Col1
Col2
Col3
Col4
1.0000
0.3351
0.2140
0.2953
0.3351
1.0000
0.4429
0.3581
0.2140
0.4429
1.0000
0.3964
0.2953
0.3581
0.3964
1.0000
Example 37.6: Log Odds Ratios and the ALR Algorithm F 2037
Output 37.5.3 continued
Analysis Of GEE Parameter Estimates
Empirical Standard Error Estimates
Parameter
Intercept
treatment
center
sex
age
baseline
A
2
F
1
Estimate
Standard
Error
-0.8882
1.2442
0.6558
0.1128
-0.0175
1.8981
0.4568
0.3455
0.3512
0.4408
0.0129
0.3441
95% Confidence
Limits
-1.7835
0.5669
-0.0326
-0.7512
-0.0427
1.2237
0.0071
1.9214
1.3442
0.9768
0.0077
2.5725
Z Pr > |Z|
-1.94
3.60
1.87
0.26
-1.36
5.52
0.0519
0.0003
0.0619
0.7981
0.1728
<.0001
Output 37.5.4 Model Fit Criteria
GEE Fit Criteria
QIC
QICu
512.3416
499.6081
The nonsignificance of age and sex make them candidates for omission from the model.
Example 37.6: Log Odds Ratios and the ALR Algorithm
Since the respiratory data in Example 37.5 are binary, you can use the ALR algorithm to model the
log odds ratios instead of using working correlations to model associations. In this example, a “fully
parameterized cluster” model for the log odds ratio is fit. That is, there is a log odds ratio parameter
for each unique pair of responses within clusters, and all clusters are parameterized identically. The
following statements fit the same regression model for the mean as in Example 37.5 but use a regression model for the log odds ratios instead of a working correlation. The LOGOR=FULLCLUST
option specifies a fully parameterized log odds ratio model.
proc genmod data=resp descend;
class id treatment(ref="P") center(ref="1") sex(ref="M")
baseline(ref="0") / param=ref;
model outcome=treatment center sex age baseline / dist=bin;
repeated subject=id(center) / logor=fullclust;
run;
The results of fitting the model are displayed in Output 37.6.1 along with a table that shows the correspondence between the log odds ratio parameters and the within-cluster pairs. Model goodnessof-fit criteria are shown in Output 37.6.2. The QIC for the ALR model shown in Output 37.6.2 is
511.86, whereas the QIC for the unstructured working correlation model shown in Output 37.5.4 is
512.34, indicating that the ALR model is a slightly better fit.
2038 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.6.1 Results of Model Fitting
The GENMOD Procedure
Log Odds Ratio
Parameter Information
Parameter
Group
Alpha1
Alpha2
Alpha3
Alpha4
Alpha5
Alpha6
(1,
(1,
(1,
(2,
(2,
(3,
2)
3)
4)
3)
4)
4)
Analysis Of GEE Parameter Estimates
Empirical Standard Error Estimates
Parameter
Intercept
treatment
center
sex
age
baseline
Alpha1
Alpha2
Alpha3
Alpha4
Alpha5
Alpha6
A
2
F
1
Estimate
Standard
Error
-0.9266
1.2611
0.6287
0.1024
-0.0162
1.8980
1.6109
1.0771
1.5875
2.1224
1.8818
2.1046
0.4513
0.3406
0.3486
0.4362
0.0125
0.3404
0.4892
0.4834
0.4735
0.5022
0.4686
0.4949
95% Confidence
Limits
-1.8111
0.5934
-0.0545
-0.7526
-0.0407
1.2308
0.6522
0.1297
0.6594
1.1381
0.9634
1.1347
-0.0421
1.9287
1.3119
0.9575
0.0084
2.5652
2.5696
2.0246
2.5155
3.1068
2.8001
3.0745
Output 37.6.2 Model Fit Criteria
GEE Fit Criteria
QIC
QICu
511.8589
499.6516
Z Pr > |Z|
-2.05
3.70
1.80
0.23
-1.29
5.58
3.29
2.23
3.35
4.23
4.02
4.25
0.0400
0.0002
0.0713
0.8144
0.1977
<.0001
0.0010
0.0259
0.0008
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
Example 37.6: Log Odds Ratios and the ALR Algorithm F 2039
You can fit the same model by fully specifying the z-matrix. The following statements create a data
set containing the full z-matrix:
data zin;
keep id center z1-z6 y1 y2;
array zin(6) z1-z6;
set resp ;
by center id;
if first.id
then do;
t = 0;
do m = 1 to 4;
do n = m+1 to 4;
do j = 1 to 6;
zin(j) = 0;
end;
y1 = m;
y2 = n;
t + 1;
zin(t) = 1;
output;
end;
end;
end;
run;
proc print data=zin (obs=12);
Output 37.6.3 displays the full z-matrix for the first two clusters. The z-matrix is identical for all
clusters in this example.
Output 37.6.3 Full z-Matrix Data Set
Obs
z1
z2
z3
z4
z5
z6
center
id
y1
y2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
3
1
1
1
2
2
3
2
3
4
3
4
4
2
3
4
3
4
4
2040 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
The following statements fit the model for fully parameterized clusters by fully specifying the zmatrix. The results are identical to those shown previously.
proc genmod data=resp descend;
class id treatment(ref="P") center(ref="1") sex(ref="M")
baseline(ref="0") / param=ref;
model outcome=treatment center sex age baseline / dist=bin;
repeated subject=id(center) / logor=zfull
zdata=zin
zrow =(z1-z6)
ypair=(y1 y2) ;
run;
Example 37.7: Log-Linear Model for Count Data
In this example the data, from Thall and Vail (1990), concern the treatment of people suffering
from epileptic seizure episodes. These data are also analyzed in Diggle, Liang, and Zeger (1994).
The data consist of the number of epileptic seizures in an eight-week baseline period, before any
treatment, and in each of four two-week treatment periods, in which patients received either a
placebo or the drug Progabide in addition to other therapy. A portion of the data is displayed in
Table 37.7. See “Gee Model for Count Data, Exchangeable Correlation” in the SAS/STAT Sample
Program Library for the complete data set.
Table 37.7
Epileptic Seizure Data
Patient ID
Treatment
Baseline
Visit1
Visit2
Visit3
Visit4
104
106
107
.
.
.
101
102
103
.
.
.
Placebo
Placebo
Placebo
11
11
6
5
3
2
3
5
4
3
3
0
3
3
5
Progabide
Progabide
Progabide
76
38
19
11
8
0
14
7
4
9
9
3
8
4
0
Model the data as a log-linear model with V ./ D (the Poisson variance function) and
log.E.Yij // D ˇ0 C xi1 ˇ1 C xi 2 ˇ2 C xi1 xi 2 ˇ3 C log.tij /
where
Yij D number of epileptic seizures in interval j
Example 37.7: Log-Linear Model for Count Data F 2041
tij D length of interval j
1 W weeks 8 16 (treatment)
xi1 D
0 W weeks 0 8 (baseline)
1 W progabide group
xi2 D
0 W placebo group
The correlations between the counts are modeled as rij D ˛, i ¤ j (exchangeable correlations).
For comparison, the correlations are also modeled as independent (identity correlation matrix).
In this model, the regression parameters have the interpretation in terms of the log seizure rate
displayed in Table 37.8.
Table 37.8
Interpretation of Regression Parameters
Treatment
Visit
Placebo
Baseline
1–4
Baseline
1–4
Progabide
log.E.Yij /=tij /
ˇ0
ˇ0 C ˇ1
ˇ0 C ˇ2
ˇ0 C ˇ1 C ˇ2 C ˇ3
The difference between the log seizure rates in the pretreatment (baseline) period and the treatment
periods is ˇ1 for the placebo group and ˇ1 C ˇ3 for the Progabide group. A value of ˇ3 < 0
indicates a reduction in the seizure rate.
Output 37.7.1 lists the first 14 observations of the data, which are arranged as one visit per observation:
Output 37.7.1 Partial Listing of the Seizure Data
Obs
id
y
visit
trt
bline
age
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
104
104
104
104
106
106
106
106
107
107
107
107
114
114
5
3
3
3
3
5
3
3
2
4
0
5
4
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
6
6
6
6
8
8
31
31
31
31
30
30
30
30
25
25
25
25
36
36
Some further data manipulations create an observation for the baseline measures, a log time interval
variable for use as an offset, and an indicator variable for whether the observation is for a baseline
measurement or a visit measurement. Patient 207 is deleted as an outlier, as in the Diggle, Liang,
and Zeger (1994) analysis. The following statements prepare the data for analysis with PROC
GENMOD:
2042 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
data new;
set thall;
output;
if visit=1 then do;
y=bline;
visit=0;
output;
end;
run;
data new;
set new;
if id ne 207;
if visit=0 then do;
x1=0;
ltime=log(8);
end;
else do;
x1=1;
ltime=log(2);
end;
run;
For comparison with the GEE results, an ordinary Poisson regression is first fit. The results are
shown in Output 37.7.2.
Output 37.7.2 Maximum Likelihood Estimates
The GENMOD Procedure
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
Parameter
DF
Estimate
Standard
Error
Intercept
x1
trt
x1*trt
Scale
1
1
1
1
0
1.3476
0.1108
-0.1080
-0.3016
1.0000
0.0341
0.0469
0.0486
0.0697
0.0000
Wald 95%
Confidence Limits
1.2809
0.0189
-0.2034
-0.4383
1.0000
1.4144
0.2027
-0.0127
-0.1649
1.0000
Wald
Chi-Square
Pr > ChiSq
1565.44
5.58
4.93
18.70
<.0001
0.0181
0.0264
<.0001
NOTE: The scale parameter was held fixed.
The GEE solution is requested with the REPEATED statement in the GENMOD procedure. The
SUBJECT=ID option indicates that the variable id describes the observations for a single cluster,
and the CORRW option displays the working correlation matrix. The TYPE= option specifies the
correlation structure; the value EXCH indicates the exchangeable structure.
Example 37.7: Log-Linear Model for Count Data F 2043
The following statements perform the analysis:
proc genmod data=new;
class id;
model y=x1 | trt / d=poisson offset=ltime;
repeated subject=id / corrw covb type=exch;
run;
These statements first fit a generalized linear model (GLM) to these data by maximum likelihood.
The estimates are not shown in the output, but are used as initial values for the GEE solution.
Information about the GEE model is displayed in Output 37.7.3. The results of fitting the model
are displayed in Output 37.7.4. Compare these with the model of independence displayed in
Output 37.7.2. The parameter estimates are nearly identical, but the standard errors for the independence case are underestimated. The coefficient of the interaction term, ˇ3 , is highly significant
under the independence model and marginally significant with the exchangeable correlations model.
Output 37.7.3 GEE Model Information
The GENMOD Procedure
GEE Model Information
Correlation Structure
Subject Effect
Number of Clusters
Correlation Matrix Dimension
Maximum Cluster Size
Minimum Cluster Size
Exchangeable
id (58 levels)
58
5
5
5
Output 37.7.4 GEE Parameter Estimates
Analysis Of GEE Parameter Estimates
Empirical Standard Error Estimates
Parameter Estimate
Intercept
x1
trt
x1*trt
1.3476
0.1108
-0.1080
-0.3016
Standard
Error
0.1574
0.1161
0.1937
0.1712
95% Confidence
Limits
1.0392
-0.1168
-0.4876
-0.6371
1.6560
0.3383
0.2716
0.0339
Z Pr > |Z|
8.56
0.95
-0.56
-1.76
<.0001
0.3399
0.5770
0.0781
Table 37.9 displays the regression coefficients, standard errors, and normalized coefficients that
result from fitting the model with independent and exchangeable working correlation matrices.
2044 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Table 37.9
Results of Model Fitting
Variable
Correlation Structure
Intercept
Exchangeable
Independent
Exchangeable
Independent
Exchangeable
Independent
Exchangeable
Independent
Visit .x1 /
Treat .x2 /
x1 x2
Coef.
Std. Error
Coef./S.E.
1.35
1.35
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.30
0.30
0.16
0.03
0.12
0.05
0.19
0.05
0.17
0.07
8.56
39.52
0.95
2.36
0.56
2.22
1.76
4.32
The fitted exchangeable correlation matrix is specified with the CORRW option and is displayed in
Output 37.7.5.
Output 37.7.5 Working Correlation Matrix
Working Correlation Matrix
Row1
Row2
Row3
Row4
Row5
Col1
Col2
Col3
Col4
Col5
1.0000
0.5941
0.5941
0.5941
0.5941
0.5941
1.0000
0.5941
0.5941
0.5941
0.5941
0.5941
1.0000
0.5941
0.5941
0.5941
0.5941
0.5941
1.0000
0.5941
0.5941
0.5941
0.5941
0.5941
1.0000
If you specify the COVB option, you produce both the model-based (naive) and the empirical (robust) covariance matrices. Output 37.7.6 contains these estimates.
Output 37.7.6 Covariance Matrices
Covariance Matrix (Model-Based)
Prm1
Prm2
Prm3
Prm4
Prm1
Prm2
Prm3
Prm4
0.01223
0.001520
-0.01223
-0.001520
0.001520
0.01519
-0.001520
-0.01519
-0.01223
-0.001520
0.02495
0.005427
-0.001520
-0.01519
0.005427
0.03748
Covariance Matrix (Empirical)
Prm1
Prm2
Prm3
Prm4
Prm1
Prm2
Prm3
Prm4
0.02476
-0.001152
-0.02476
0.001152
-0.001152
0.01348
0.001152
-0.01348
-0.02476
0.001152
0.03751
-0.002999
0.001152
-0.01348
-0.002999
0.02931
Example 37.8: Model Assessment of Multiple Regression Using Aggregates of Residuals F 2045
The two covariance estimates are similar, indicating an adequate correlation model.
Example 37.8: Model Assessment of Multiple Regression Using
Aggregates of Residuals
This example illustrates the use of cumulative residuals to assess the adequacy of a normal linear
regression model. Neter et al. (1996, Section 8.2) describe a study of 54 patients undergoing a
certain kind of liver operation in a surgical unit. The data consist of the survival time and certain
covariates. After a model selection procedure, they arrived at the following model:
Y D ˇ0 C ˇ1 X1 C ˇ2 X2 C ˇ3 X3 C where Y is the logarithm (base 10) of the survival time; X1 , X2 , X3 are blood-clotting score,
prognostic index, and enzyme function, respectively; and is a normal error term. A listing of
the SAS data set containing the data is shown in Output 37.8.1. The variables Y, X1, X2, and X3
correspond to Y , X1 , X2 , and X3 , and LogX1 is log(X1 ). The PROC GENMOD fit of the model is
shown in Output 37.8.2. The analysis first focuses on the adequacy of the functional form of X1 ,
blood-clotting score.
2046 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.8.1 Surgical Unit Example Data
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Y
X1
X2
X3
LogX1
2.3010
2.0043
2.3096
2.0043
2.7067
1.9031
1.9031
2.1038
2.3054
2.3075
2.5172
1.8129
2.9191
2.5185
2.2253
2.3365
1.9395
1.5315
2.3324
2.2355
2.0374
2.1335
1.8451
2.3424
2.4409
2.1584
2.2577
2.7589
1.8573
2.2504
1.8513
1.7634
2.0645
2.4698
2.0607
2.2648
2.0719
2.0792
2.1790
2.1703
1.9777
1.8751
2.6840
2.1847
2.2810
2.0899
2.4928
2.5999
2.1987
2.4914
2.0934
2.0969
2.2967
2.4955
6.7
5.1
7.4
6.5
7.8
5.8
5.7
3.7
6.0
3.7
6.3
6.7
5.8
5.8
7.7
7.4
6.0
3.7
7.3
5.6
5.2
3.4
6.7
5.8
6.3
5.8
5.2
11.2
5.2
5.8
3.2
8.7
5.0
5.8
5.4
5.3
2.6
4.3
4.8
5.4
5.2
3.6
8.8
6.5
3.4
6.5
4.5
4.8
5.1
3.9
6.6
6.4
6.4
8.8
62
59
57
73
65
38
46
68
67
76
84
51
96
83
62
74
85
51
68
57
52
83
26
67
59
61
52
76
54
76
64
45
59
72
58
51
74
8
61
52
49
28
86
56
77
40
73
86
67
82
77
85
59
78
81
66
83
41
115
72
63
81
93
94
83
43
114
88
67
68
28
41
74
87
76
53
68
86
100
73
86
90
56
59
65
23
73
93
70
99
86
119
76
88
72
99
88
77
93
84
106
101
77
103
46
40
85
72
0.82607
0.70757
0.86923
0.81291
0.89209
0.76343
0.75587
0.56820
0.77815
0.56820
0.79934
0.82607
0.76343
0.76343
0.88649
0.86923
0.77815
0.56820
0.86332
0.74819
0.71600
0.53148
0.82607
0.76343
0.79934
0.76343
0.71600
1.04922
0.71600
0.76343
0.50515
0.93952
0.69897
0.76343
0.73239
0.72428
0.41497
0.63347
0.68124
0.73239
0.71600
0.55630
0.94448
0.81291
0.53148
0.81291
0.65321
0.68124
0.70757
0.59106
0.81954
0.80618
0.80618
0.94448
Example 37.8: Model Assessment of Multiple Regression Using Aggregates of Residuals F 2047
In order to assess the adequacy of the fitted multiple regression model, the ASSESS statement in
the following SAS statements is used to create the plots of cumulative residuals against X1 shown
in Output 37.8.3 and Output 37.8.4 and the summary table in Output 37.8.5:
ods graphics on;
proc genmod data=Surg;
model Y = X1 X2 X3 / scale=Pearson;
assess var=(X1) / resample=10000
seed=603708000
crpanel ;
run;
ods graphics off;
Output 37.8.2 Regression Model for Linear X1
The GENMOD Procedure
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
Parameter
DF
Estimate
Standard
Error
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
Scale
1
1
1
1
0
0.4836
0.0692
0.0093
0.0095
0.0469
0.0426
0.0041
0.0004
0.0003
0.0000
Wald 95%
Confidence Limits
0.4001
0.0612
0.0085
0.0089
0.0469
0.5672
0.0772
0.0100
0.0101
0.0469
Wald
Chi-Square
Pr > ChiSq
128.71
288.17
590.45
966.07
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
NOTE: The scale parameter was estimated by the square root of Pearson’s
Chi-Square/DOF.
See Lin, Wei, and Ying (2002) for details about model assessment that uses cumulative residual
plots. The RESAMPLE= keyword specifies that a p-value be computed based on a sample of
10,000 simulated residual paths. A random number seed is specified by the SEED= keyword for
reproducibility. If you do not specify the seed, one is derived from the time of day. The keyword CRPANEL specifies that the panel of four cumulative residual plots shown in Output 37.8.4
be created, each with two simulated paths. The single residual plot with 20 simulated paths in
Output 37.8.3 is created by default.
These graphical displays are requested by specifying the ODS GRAPHICS statement and the ASSESS statement. For general information about ODS Graphics, see Chapter 21, “Statistical Graphics Using ODS.” For specific information about the graphics available in the GENMOD procedure,
see the section “ODS Graphics” on page 2020.
2048 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.8.3 Cumulative Residual Plot for Linear X1 Fit
Example 37.8: Model Assessment of Multiple Regression Using Aggregates of Residuals F 2049
Output 37.8.4 Cumulative Residual Panel Plot for Linear X1 Fit
Output 37.8.5 Summary of Model Assessment
Assessment Summary
Assessment
Variable
X1
Maximum
Absolute
Value
Replications
Seed
Pr >
MaxAbsVal
0.0380
10000
603708000
0.1084
The p-value of 0.1084 reported on Output 37.8.3 and Output 37.8.5 suggests that a more adequate
model might be possible. The observed cumulative residuals in Output 37.8.3 and Output 37.8.4,
represented by the heavy lines, seem atypical of the simulated curves, represented by the light lines,
reinforcing the conclusion that a more appropriate functional form for X1 is possible.
The cumulative residual plots in Output 37.8.6 provide guidance in determining a more appropriate
functional form. The four curves were created from simple forms of model misspecification by
using simulated data. The mean models of the data and the fitted model are shown in Table 37.10.
2050 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.8.6 Typical Cumulative Residual Patterns
Table 37.10
Model Misspecifications
Plot
Data E(Y )
Fitted Model E(Y )
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
log(X)
X C X2
X C X2 C X3
I.X > 5/
X
X
X C X2
X
The observed cumulative residual pattern in Output 37.8.3 and Output 37.8.4 most resembles the behavior of the curve in plot (a) of Output 37.8.6, indicating that log(X1 ) might be a more appropriate
term in the model than X1 .
Example 37.8: Model Assessment of Multiple Regression Using Aggregates of Residuals F 2051
The following SAS statements fit a model with LogX1 in place of X1 and request a model assessment:
proc genmod data=Surg;
ods graphics on;
model Y = LogX1 X2 X3 / scale=Pearson;
assess var=(LogX1) / resample=10000
seed=603708000;
run;
ods graphics off;
The revised model fit is shown in Output 37.8.7, the p-value from the simulation is 0.4777, and the
cumulative residuals plotted in Output 37.8.8 show no systematic trend. The log transformation for
X1 is more appropriate. Under the revised model, the p-values for testing the functional forms of
X2 and X3 are 0.20 and 0.63, respectively; and the p-value for testing the linearity of the model is
0.65. Thus, the revised model seems reasonable.
Output 37.8.7 Multiple Regression Model with Log(X1)
The GENMOD Procedure
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
Parameter
DF
Estimate
Standard
Error
Intercept
LogX1
X2
X3
Scale
1
1
1
1
0
0.1844
0.9121
0.0095
0.0096
0.0434
0.0504
0.0491
0.0004
0.0003
0.0000
Wald 95%
Confidence Limits
0.0857
0.8158
0.0088
0.0090
0.0434
0.2832
1.0083
0.0102
0.0101
0.0434
Wald
Chi-Square
Pr > ChiSq
13.41
345.05
728.62
1139.73
0.0003
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
NOTE: The scale parameter was estimated by the square root of Pearson’s
Chi-Square/DOF.
2052 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.8.8 Cumulative Residual Plot with Log(X1)
Example 37.9: Assessment of a Marginal Model for Dependent Data
This example illustrates the use of cumulative residuals to assess the adequacy of a marginal model
for dependent data fit by generalized estimating equations (GEEs). The assessment methods are
applied to CD4 count data from an AIDS clinical trial reported by Fischl, Richman, and Hansen
(1990) and reanalyzed by Lin, Wei, and Ying (2002). The study randomly assigned 360 HIV patients to the drug AZT and 351 patients to placebo. CD4 counts were measured repeatedly over the
course of the study. The data used here are the 4328 measurements taken in the first 40 weeks of
the study.
The analysis focuses on the time trend of the response. The first model considered is
E.yik / D ˇ0 C ˇ1 Tik C ˇ2 Ti2k C ˇ3 Ri Ti k C ˇ4 Ri Ti2k
where Tik is the time (in weeks) of the kth measurement on the i th patient, yi k is the CD4 count
at Tik for the i th patient, and Ri is the indicator of AZT for the i th patient. Normal errors and an
independent working correlation are assumed.
Example 37.9: Assessment of a Marginal Model for Dependent Data F 2053
The following statements create the SAS data set cd4:
data cd4;
input Id Y Time Time2 TrtTime TrtTime2;
Time3 = Time2 * Time;
TrtTime3 = TrtTime2 * Time;
datalines;
1
264.00024
-0.28571
0.08163
1
175.00070
4.14286
17.16327
1
306.00150
8.14286
66.30612
1
331.99835
12.14286
147.44898
1
309.99929
16.14286
260.59184
1
185.00077
28.71429
824.51020
1
175.00070
40.14286
1611.44898
-0.28571
4.14286
8.14286
12.14286
16.14286
28.71429
40.14286
0.08163
17.16327
66.30612
147.44898
260.59184
824.51020
1611.44898
... more lines ...
711
711
;
run;
488.00224
240.00026
12.14286
18.14286
147.44898
329.16327
12.14286
18.14286
147.44898
329.16327
The following SAS statements fit the preceding model, create the cumulative residual plot in
Output 37.9.1, and compute a p-value for the model.
These graphical displays are requested by specifying the ODS GRAPHICS statement and the ASSESS statement. For general information about ODS Graphics, see Chapter 21, “Statistical Graphics Using ODS.” For specific information about the graphics available in the GENMOD procedure,
see the section “ODS Graphics” on page 2020.
Here, the SAS data set variables Time, Time2, TrtTime, and TrtTime2 correspond to Ti k , Ti2k , Ri Ti k ,
2
and Ri Tik
, respectively. The variable Id identifies individual patients.
ods graphics on;
proc genmod data=cd4;
class Id;
model Y = Time Time2 TrtTime TrtTime2;
repeated sub=Id;
assess var=(Time) / resample
seed=603708000;
run;
ods graphics off;
2054 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.9.1 Cumulative Residual Plot for Quadratic Time Fit
The cumulative residual plot in Output 37.9.1 displays cumulative residuals versus time for the
model and 20 simulated realizations. The associated p-value, also shown in Output 37.9.1, is 0.18.
These results indicate that a more satisfactory model might be possible. The observed cumulative
residual pattern most resembles plot (c) in Output 37.8.6, suggesting cubic time trends.
The following SAS statements fit the model, create the plot in Output 37.9.2, and compute a p-value
for a model with the additional terms Ti3k and Ri Ti3k :
ods graphics on;
proc genmod data=cd4;
class Id;
model Y = Time Time2 Time3 TrtTime TrtTime2 TrtTime3;
repeated sub=Id;
assess var=(Time) / resample
seed=603708000;
run;
ods graphics off;
Example 37.9: Assessment of a Marginal Model for Dependent Data F 2055
Output 37.9.2 Cumulative Residual Plot for Cubic Time Fit
The observed cumulative residual pattern appears more typical of the simulated realizations, and
the p-value is 0.45, indicating that the model with cubic time trends is more appropriate.
2056 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Example 37.10: Bayesian Analysis of a Poisson Regression Model
This example illustrates a Bayesian analysis of a log-linear Poisson regression model. Consider
the following data on patients from clinical trials. The data set is a subset of the data described in
Ibrahim, Chen, and Lipsitz (1999).
data Liver;
input X1-X6 Y;
datalines;
19.1358
50.0110
23.5970
18.4959
20.0474
56.7699
28.0277
59.7836
28.6851
74.1589
18.8092
31.0630
28.7201
52.9178
21.3669
61.6603
23.7332
42.2904
51.000
3.429
3.429
4.000
5.714
2.286
37.286
54.143
0.571
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
9
6
6
1
61
6
6
21
2.571
4.429
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
6
... more lines ...
19.1327
17.3010
;
run;
65.3425
51.4493
The primary interest is in prediction of the number of cancerous liver nodes when a patient enters
the trials, by using six other baseline characteristics. The number of nodes is modeled by a Poisson
regression model with the six baseline characteristics as covariates. The response and regression
variables are as follows:
Y
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
Number of Cancerous Liver Nodes
Body Mass Index
Age, in Years
Time Since Diagnosis of Disease, in Weeks
Two Biochemical Markers (each classified as normal=1 or abnormal=0)
Anti Hepatitis B Antigen
Associated Jaundice (yes=1, no=0)
Two analyses are performed using PROC GENMOD. The first analysis uses noninformative normal
prior distributions, and the second analysis uses an informative normal prior for one of the regression
parameters.
In the following BAYES statement, COEFFPRIOR=NORMAL specifies a noninformative independent normal prior distribution with zero mean and variance 106 for each parameter.
Example 37.10: Bayesian Analysis of a Poisson Regression Model F 2057
The initial analysis is performed using PROC GENMOD to obtain Bayesian estimates of the regression coefficients by using the following SAS statements:
ods graphics ON;
proc genmod data=Liver;
model Y = X1-X6 / dist=Poisson link=log;
bayes seed=1 coeffprior=normal;
run;
Maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters are computed by default. These are shown
in the “Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates” table in Output 37.10.1.
Output 37.10.1 Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
The GENMOD Procedure
Bayesian Analysis
Analysis Of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimates
Parameter
DF
Estimate
Standard
Error
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
Scale
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
2.4508
-0.0044
-0.0135
-0.0029
-0.2715
0.3215
0.2077
1.0000
0.2284
0.0080
0.0024
0.0022
0.0795
0.0832
0.0827
0.0000
Wald 95% Confidence
Limits
2.0032
-0.0201
-0.0181
-0.0072
-0.4272
0.1585
0.0456
1.0000
2.8984
0.0114
-0.0088
0.0014
-0.1157
0.4845
0.3698
1.0000
NOTE: The scale parameter was held fixed.
Noninformative independent normal prior distributions with zero means and variances of 106 were
used in the initial analysis. These are shown in Output 37.10.2.
Output 37.10.2 Regression Coefficient Priors
The GENMOD Procedure
Bayesian Analysis
Independent Normal Prior for Regression Coefficients
Parameter
Mean
Precision
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1E-6
1E-6
1E-6
1E-6
1E-6
1E-6
1E-6
2058 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Initial values for the Markov chain are listed in the “Initial Values and Seeds” table in
Output 37.10.3. The random number seed is also listed so that you can reproduce the analysis.
Since no seed was specified, the seed shown was derived from the time of day.
Output 37.10.3 MCMC Initial Values and Seeds
Initial Values of the Chain
Chain
Seed
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
1
1
2.450813
-0.00435
-0.01347
-0.00291
-0.27149
Initial Values of the Chain
X5
X6
0.321507
0.207713
Summary statistics for the posterior sample are displayed in the “Fit Statistics,” “Descriptive Statistics for the Posterior Sample,” “Interval Statistics for the Posterior Sample,” and “Posterior Correlation Matrix” tables in Output 37.10.4, Output 37.10.5, Output 37.10.6, and Output 37.10.7,
respectively. Since noninformative prior distributions for the regression coefficients were used, the
mean and standard deviations of the posterior distributions for the model parameters are close to the
maximum likelihood estimates and standard errors.
Output 37.10.4 Fit Statistics
Fit Statistics
DIC (smaller is better)
pD (effective number of parameters)
829.729
6.966
Output 37.10.5 Descriptive Statistics
The GENMOD Procedure
Bayesian Analysis
Posterior Summaries
Parameter
N
Mean
Standard
Deviation
25%
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
2.4520
-0.00473
-0.0134
-0.00309
-0.2705
0.3193
0.2095
0.2268
0.00801
0.00236
0.00220
0.0792
0.0834
0.0834
2.2997
-0.0100
-0.0150
-0.00455
-0.3241
0.2629
0.1538
Percentiles
50%
2.4521
-0.00465
-0.0134
-0.00305
-0.2697
0.3180
0.2086
75%
2.6053
0.000759
-0.0118
-0.00158
-0.2172
0.3762
0.2653
Example 37.10: Bayesian Analysis of a Poisson Regression Model F 2059
Output 37.10.6 Interval Statistics
Posterior Intervals
Parameter
Alpha
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
Equal-Tail Interval
2.0169
-0.0210
-0.0181
-0.00757
-0.4250
0.1552
0.0477
HPD Interval
2.9056
0.0106
-0.00878
0.00109
-0.1132
0.4821
0.3749
2.0069
-0.0212
-0.0181
-0.00764
-0.4232
0.1647
0.0490
2.8923
0.0103
-0.00885
0.000989
-0.1119
0.4905
0.3758
Output 37.10.7 Posterior Sample Correlation Matrix
Posterior Correlation Matrix
Parameter
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
1.000
-0.705
-0.430
-0.046
-0.225
-0.180
-0.415
-0.705
1.000
-0.211
-0.013
-0.068
0.067
0.128
-0.430
-0.211
1.000
-0.006
0.070
0.057
0.118
-0.046
-0.013
-0.006
1.000
0.016
-0.055
-0.089
-0.225
-0.068
0.070
0.016
1.000
-0.011
0.089
-0.180
0.067
0.057
-0.055
-0.011
1.000
-0.042
-0.415
0.128
0.118
-0.089
0.089
-0.042
1.000
Posterior sample autocorrelations for each model parameter are shown in Output 37.10.8. The
autocorrelation after 10 lags is negligible for all parameters, indicating good mixing in the Markov
chain.
Output 37.10.8 Posterior Sample Autocorrelations
The GENMOD Procedure
Bayesian Analysis
Posterior Autocorrelations
Parameter
Lag 1
Lag 5
Lag 10
Lag 50
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
0.0551
0.0894
0.1197
0.0324
0.0309
0.0402
0.0696
-0.0134
-0.0054
-0.0170
-0.0036
0.0056
0.0015
-0.0047
-0.0101
-0.0080
0.0061
-0.0033
0.0053
-0.0111
-0.0024
0.0012
0.0019
0.0006
-0.0160
0.0115
0.0123
0.0006
2060 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
The p-values for the Geweke test statistics shown in Output 37.10.9 all indicate convergence of the
MCMC. See the section “Assessing Markov Chain Convergence” on page 156 for more information
about convergence diagnostics and their interpretation.
Output 37.10.9 Geweke Diagnostic Statistics
Geweke Diagnostics
Parameter
z
Pr > |z|
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
0.9855
-1.0835
-0.3847
0.6715
0.1328
1.0698
-0.1647
0.3244
0.2786
0.7005
0.5019
0.8943
0.2847
0.8692
The effective sample sizes for each parameter are shown in Output 37.10.10.
Output 37.10.10 Effective Sample Sizes
Effective Sample Sizes
Parameter
ESS
Correlation
Time
Efficiency
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
9245.8
8179.5
8067.8
9390.6
9157.6
9665.2
8778.7
1.0816
1.2226
1.2395
1.0649
1.0920
1.0346
1.1391
0.9246
0.8179
0.8068
0.9391
0.9158
0.9665
0.8779
Trace, autocorrelation, and density plots for the seven model parameters are shown in
Output 37.10.11 through Output 37.10.17. All indicate satisfactory convergence of the Markov
chain.
Example 37.10: Bayesian Analysis of a Poisson Regression Model F 2061
Output 37.10.11 Diagnostic Plots for Intercept
2062 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.10.12 Diagnostic Plots for X1
Example 37.10: Bayesian Analysis of a Poisson Regression Model F 2063
Output 37.10.13 Diagnostic Plots for X2
2064 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.10.14 Diagnostic Plots for X3
Example 37.10: Bayesian Analysis of a Poisson Regression Model F 2065
Output 37.10.15 Diagnostic Plots for X4
2066 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.10.16 Diagnostic Plots for X5
Example 37.10: Bayesian Analysis of a Poisson Regression Model F 2067
Output 37.10.17 Diagnostic Plots for X6
In order to illustrate the use of an informative prior distribution, suppose that researchers expect that
a unit increase in body mass index (X1) will be associated with an increase in the mean number of
nodes of between 10% and 20%, and they want to incorporate this prior knowledge in the Bayesian
analysis. For log-linear models, the mean and linear predictor are related by log.i / D xi0 ˇ. If
X11 and X12 are two values of body mass index, 1 and 2 are the two mean values, and all other
covariates remain equal for the two values of X1, then
1
D exp.ˇ.X11
2
X12 //
so that for a unit change in X1,
1
D exp.ˇ/
2
1
If 1:1 2 1:2, then 1:1 exp.ˇ/ 1:2, or 0:095 ˇ 0:182. This gives you guidance in
specifying a prior distribution for the ˇ for body mass index. Taking the mean of the prior normal
2068 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
distribution to be the midrange of the values of ˇ, and taking ˙2 to be the extremes of the range,
an N.0:1385; 0:0005/ is the resulting prior distribution. The second analysis uses this informative
normal prior distribution for the coefficient of X1 and uses independent noninformative normal
priors with zero means and variances equal to 106 for the remaining model regression parameters.
In the following BAYES statement, COEFFPRIOR=NORMAL(INPUT=NormalPrior) specifies the
normal prior distribution for the regression coefficients with means and variances contained in the
data set NormalPrior.
An analysis is performed using PROC GENMOD to obtain Bayesian estimates of the regression
coefficients by using the following SAS statements:
data NormalPrior;
input _type_ $ Intercept X1-X6;
datalines;
Var 1e6
0.0005
1e6
1e6
Mean 0.0
0.1385
0.0
0.0
;
run;
1e6
0.0
1e6
0.0
1e6
0.0
proc genmod data=Liver;
model Y = X1-X6 / dist=Poisson link=log;
bayes seed=1 plots=none coeffprior=normal(input=NormalPrior) ;
run;
ods graphics off;
The prior distributions for the regression parameters are shown in Output 37.10.18.
Output 37.10.18 Regression Coefficient Priors
The GENMOD Procedure
Bayesian Analysis
Independent Normal Prior for Regression Coefficients
Parameter
Mean
Precision
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
0
0.1385
0
0
0
0
0
1E-6
2000
1E-6
1E-6
1E-6
1E-6
1E-6
Initial values for the MCMC are shown in Output 37.10.19. The initial values of the covariates are
joint estimates of their posterior modes. The prior distribution for X1 is informative, so the initial
value of X1 is further from the MLE than the rest of the covariates. Initial values for the rest of the
covariates are close to their MLEs, since noninformative prior distributions were specified for them.
Example 37.10: Bayesian Analysis of a Poisson Regression Model F 2069
Output 37.10.19 MCMC Initial Values and Seeds
Initial Values of the Chain
Chain
Seed
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
1
1
2.14282
0.010595
-0.01434
-0.00301
-0.28062
Initial Values of the Chain
X5
X6
0.334983
0.231213
Goodness-of-fit, summary, and interval statistics are shown in Output 37.10.20. Except for X1, the
statistics shown in Output 37.10.20 are very similar to the previous statistics for noninformative
priors shown in Output 37.10.4 through Output 37.10.7. The point estimate for X1 is now positive.
This is expected because the prior distribution on ˇ1 is quite informative. The distribution reflects
the belief that the coefficient is positive. The N.0:1385; 0:0005/ distribution places the majority
of its probability density on positive values. As a result, the posterior density of ˇ1 places more
likelihood on positive values than in the noninformative case.
Output 37.10.20 Fit Statistics
Fit Statistics
DIC (smaller is better)
pD (effective number of parameters)
833.134
6.861
The GENMOD Procedure
Bayesian Analysis
Posterior Summaries
Parameter
N
Mean
Standard
Deviation
25%
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
2.1393
0.0104
-0.0143
-0.00318
-0.2801
0.3336
0.2333
0.2160
0.00685
0.00236
0.00218
0.0798
0.0834
0.0822
1.9929
0.00583
-0.0159
-0.00463
-0.3342
0.2772
0.1791
Percentiles
50%
2.1417
0.0106
-0.0143
-0.00313
-0.2807
0.3337
0.2327
75%
2.2845
0.0151
-0.0127
-0.00170
-0.2258
0.3902
0.2892
2070 F Chapter 37: The GENMOD Procedure
Output 37.10.20 continued
Posterior Intervals
Parameter
Alpha
Intercept
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
Equal-Tail Interval
1.7161
-0.00323
-0.0189
-0.00754
-0.4348
0.1705
0.0696
2.5599
0.0236
-0.00960
0.00101
-0.1223
0.4970
0.3968
HPD Interval
1.7075
-0.00264
-0.0189
-0.00754
-0.4311
0.1661
0.0655
2.5507
0.0241
-0.00972
0.000963
-0.1196
0.4915
0.3904
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Subject Index
adjusted residuals
GENMOD procedure, 1982
aggregates of residuals, 2045, 2052
Akaike information criterion
(GENMOD), 1969
aliasing
GENMOD procedure, 1902
ALR algorithm
GENMOD procedure, 2037
Alternating Logistic Regressions (ALR)
GENMOD procedure, 2037
bar (|) operator
GENMOD procedure, 1972
Bayesian analysis linear regression
GENMOD procedure, 1904
Bayesian information criterion
(GENMOD), 1969
binomial distribution
GENMOD procedure, 1964
case deletion diagnostics
GENMOD procedure, 1996
CATMOD procedure
log-linear models, 1899
classification variables
GENMOD procedure, 1972
sort order of levels (GENMOD), 1920
confidence intervals
confidence coefficient (GENMOD), 1945
fitted values of the mean (GENMOD), 1949,
1980
profile likelihood (GENMOD), 1948, 1978
Wald (GENMOD), 1952, 1979
continuous variables
GENMOD procedure, 1972
contrasts
GENMOD procedure, 1941
convergence criterion
GENMOD procedure, 1945, 1957
correlated data
GEE (GENMOD), 1893, 1984
correlation
matrix (GENMOD), 1946, 1968
covariance matrix
GENMOD procedure, 1946, 1968
crossed effects
GENMOD procedure, 1972
cumulative residuals, 2045, 2052
design matrix
GENMOD procedure, 1973
deviance
definition (GENMOD), 1897
GENMOD procedure, 1945
scaled (GENMOD), 1968
deviance information criterion, 2003
deviance residuals
GENMOD procedure, 1981, 1982
diagnostics
GENMOD procedure, 1946, 1996
DIC, 2003
dispersion parameter
estimation (GENMOD), 1896, 1969, 1976,
1977
GENMOD procedure, 1970
weights (GENMOD), 1960
effect
specification (GENMOD), 1972
effective number of parameters, 2003
estimability checking
GENMOD procedure, 1940
estimation
dispersion parameter (GENMOD), 1896
maximum likelihood (GENMOD), 1966
regression parameters (GENMOD), 1896
events/trials format for response
GENMOD procedure, 1944, 1964
exponential distribution
GENMOD procedure, 2030
F statistics
GENMOD procedure, 1979
Fisher scoring method
GENMOD procedure, 1967
Fisher’s scoring method
GENMOD procedure, 1951
gamma distribution
GENMOD procedure, 1963
GEE, see Generalized Estimating Equations
Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE), 1916,
1956, 1984, 2034, 2040
generalized linear model
GENMOD procedure, 1894, 1895
theory (GENMOD), 1962
GENMOD procedure
adjusted residuals, 1982
AIC, 1969
Akaike information criterion, 1969
aliasing, 1902
Bayesian analysis linear regression, 1904
Bayesian information criterion, 1969
BIC, 1969
binomial distribution, 1964
built-in link function, 1896
built-in probability distribution, 1896
case deletion diagnostics, 1996
classification variables, 1972
confidence intervals, 1945
confidence limits, 1943
continuous variables, 1972
contrasts, 1941
convergence criterion, 1945, 1957
correlated data, 1893, 1984
correlation matrix, 1946, 1968
correlations, least-squares means, 1943
covariance matrix, 1946, 1968
covariances, least-squares means, 1944
crossed effects, 1972
design matrix, 1973
deviance, 1945
deviance definition, 1897
deviance residuals, 1982
diagnostics, 1946, 1996
dispersion parameter, 1970
dispersion parameter estimation, 1896,
1976, 1977
dispersion parameter weights, 1960
effect specification, 1972
estimability, 1943
estimability checking, 1940
events/trials format for response, 1944, 1964
expected information matrix, 1967
exponential distribution, 2030
F statistics, 1979
Fisher scoring method, 1967
Fisher’s scoring method, 1951
gamma distribution, 1963
GEE, 1893, 1916, 1956, 1984, 2034, 2037,
2040
Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE),
1893
generalized linear model, 1894, 1895
geometric distribution, 1963
goodness of fit, 1968
gradient, 1967
Hessian matrix, 1967
information matrix, 1951
initial values, 1947, 1957
intercept, 1897, 1900, 1948
inverse Gaussian distribution, 1963
L matrices, 1943
Lagrange multiplier statistics, 1979
life data, 2027
likelihood residuals, 1982
linear model, 1894
linear predictor, 1892, 1894, 1900, 1973,
2009
link function, 1892, 1894, 1965
log-likelihood functions, 1965
log-linear models, 1899
logistic regression, 2022
main effects, 1972
maximum likelihood estimation, 1966
_MEAN_ automatic variable, 1955
Model checking, 2045
model checking, 2052
multinomial distribution, 1964
multinomial models, 1982
negative binomial distribution, 1963
nested effects, 1972
Newton-Raphson algorithm, 1966
normal distribution, 1963
observed information matrix, 1967
offset, 1950, 2009
offset variable, 1899
ordinal data, 2030
output data sets, 2005
output ODS Graphics table names, 2020
output table names, 2017
overdispersion, 1971
Pearson residuals, 1982
Pearson’s chi-square, 1945, 1968, 1969
Poisson distribution, 1964
Poisson regression, 1898
polynomial effects, 1972
profile likelihood confidence intervals, 1948,
1978
programming statements, 1955
QIC, 1991
quasi-likelihood, 1971
quasi-likelihood functions, 1992
quasi-likelihood information criterion, 1991
raw residuals, 1981
regression parameters estimation, 1896
regressor effects, 1972
repeated measures, 1893, 1984
residuals, 1950, 1981, 1982
_RESP_ automatic variable, 1955
scale parameter, 1964
scaled deviance, 1968
score statistics, 1979
singular contrast matrix, 1940
subpopulation, 1945
suppressing output, 1924
Type 1 analysis, 1897, 1976
Type 3 analysis, 1897, 1977
user-defined link function, 1942
variance function, 1896
Wald confidence intervals, 1952, 1979
working correlation matrix, 1957–1959,
1985
_XBETA_ automatic variable, 1955
zero-inflated Poisson distribution, 1964
zero-inflated Poisson models, 1983
geometric distribution
GENMOD procedure, 1963
goodness of fit
GENMOD procedure, 1968
gradient
GENMOD procedure, 1967
Hessian matrix
GENMOD procedure, 1967
information matrix
expected (GENMOD), 1967
observed (GENMOD), 1967
initial values
GENMOD procedure, 1947, 1957
intercept
GENMOD procedure, 1897, 1900, 1948
inverse Gaussian distribution
GENMOD procedure, 1963
L matrices
GENMOD procedure, 1943
Lagrange multiplier
statistics (GENMOD), 1979
life data
GENMOD procedure, 2027
likelihood residuals
GENMOD procedure, 1982
linear model
GENMOD procedure, 1894, 1895
linear predictor
GENMOD procedure, 1892, 1894, 1900,
1973, 2009
link function
built-in (GENMOD), 1896, 1947
GENMOD procedure, 1892, 1894, 1965
user-defined (GENMOD), 1942
log-likelihood
functions (GENMOD), 1965
log-linear models
CATMOD procedure, 1899
GENMOD procedure, 1899
logistic regression
GENMOD procedure, 1895, 2022
main effects
GENMOD procedure, 1972
maximum likelihood
estimation (GENMOD), 1966
model assessment, 2045, 2052
model checking, 2045, 2052
multinomial
distribution (GENMOD), 1964
models (GENMOD), 1982
negative binomial distribution
GENMOD procedure, 1963
nested effects
GENMOD procedure, 1972
Newton-Raphson algorithm
GENMOD procedure, 1966
normal distribution
GENMOD procedure, 1963
offset
GENMOD procedure, 1950, 2009
offset variable
GENMOD procedure, 1899
ordinal model
GENMOD procedure, 2030
output data sets
GENMOD procedure, 2005
output ODS Graphics table names
GENMOD procedure, 2020
output table names
GENMOD procedure, 2017
overdispersion
GENMOD procedure, 1971
parameter estimates
GENMOD procedure, 2014
Pearson residuals
GENMOD procedure, 1981, 1982
Pearson’s chi-square
GENMOD procedure, 1945, 1968, 1969
Poisson distribution
GENMOD procedure, 1964
Poisson regression
GENMOD procedure, 1895, 1898
polynomial effects
GENMOD procedure, 1972
probability distribution
built-in (GENMOD), 1896, 1946
exponential family (GENMOD), 1962
user-defined (GENMOD), 1940
profile likelihood confidence intervals
GENMOD procedure, 1978
programming statements
GENMOD procedure, 1955
quasi-likelihood
functions (GENMOD), 1992
GENMOD procedure, 1971
quasi-likelihood information criterion
(GENMOD), 1991
raw residuals
GENMOD procedure, 1981
regressor effects
GENMOD procedure, 1972
repeated measures
GEE (GENMOD), 1893, 1984
residuals
GENMOD procedure, 1950, 1981, 1982
response variable
sort order of levels (GENMOD), 1923
scale parameter
GENMOD procedure, 1964
score statistics
GENMOD procedure, 1979
singularity criterion
contrast matrix (GENMOD), 1940
information matrix (GENMOD), 1951
standard error
GENMOD procedure, 2014
subpopulation
GENMOD procedure, 1945
suppressing output
GENMOD procedure, 1924
Type 1 analysis
GENMOD procedure, 1897, 1976
Type 3 analysis
GENMOD procedure, 1897, 1977
variance function
GENMOD procedure, 1896
working correlation matrix
GENMOD procedure, 1957–1959, 1985
zero-inflated Poisson
distribution (GENMOD), 1964
models (GENMOD), 1983
Syntax Index
AGGREGATE= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1945
ALPHA= option
ESTIMATE statement (GENMOD), 1941
LSMEANS statement (GENMOD), 1943
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1945
ALPHAINIT= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1957
ASSESS statement
GENMOD procedure, 1924
BAYES statement
GENMOD procedure, 1926
BY statement
GENMOD procedure, 1935
CICONV= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1945
CL option
LSMEANS statement (GENMOD), 1943
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1945
CLASS statement
GENMOD procedure, 1935
CODING= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1945
CONTRAST statement
GENMOD procedure, 1938
CONVERGE= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1945
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1957
CONVH= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1946
CORR option
LSMEANS statement (GENMOD), 1943
CORR= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1959
CORRB option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1946
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1957
CORRW option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1957
COV option
LSMEANS statement (GENMOD), 1944
COVB option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1946
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1957
DATA= option
PROC GENMOD statement, 1919
DESCENDING option
CLASS statement (GENMOD), 1936
DEVIANCE statement, GENMOD procedure,
1940, 1956
DIAGNOSTICS option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1946
DIFF option
LSMEANS statement (GENMOD), 1944
DIST= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1946
DSCALE
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1951
E option
CONTRAST statement (GENMOD), 1940
ESTIMATE statement (GENMOD), 1941
LSMEANS statement (GENMOD), 1944
ECORRB option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1957
ECOVB option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1957
ERR= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1946
ESTIMATE statement
GENMOD procedure, 1941
EXP option
ESTIMATE statement (GENMOD), 1941
EXPECTED option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1946
FREQ statement
GENMOD procedure, 1942
FWDLINK statement, GENMOD procedure,
1942, 1956
GENMOD procedure
syntax, 1919
GENMOD procedure, ASSESS statement, 1924
GENMOD PROCEDURE, BAYES statement,
1926
GENMOD procedure, BAYES statement
STATISTICS= option, 1934
THINNING= option, 1935
GENMOD procedure, BY statement, 1935
GENMOD procedure, CLASS statement, 1935
DESCENDING option, 1936
MISSING option, 1936
ORDER= option, 1936
PARAM= option, 1937
REF= option, 1937
TRUNCATE option, 1937
GENMOD procedure, CONTRAST statement,
1938
E option, 1940
SINGULAR= option, 1940
WALD option, 1940
GENMOD procedure, DEVIANCE statement,
1940, 1956
GENMOD procedure, ESTIMATE statement
ALPHA= option, 1941
E option, 1941
EXP option, 1941
SINGULAR= option, 1942
GENMOD procedure, FREQ statement, 1941,
1942
GENMOD procedure, FWDLINK statement,
1942, 1956
GENMOD procedure, INVLINK statement,
1942, 1956
GENMOD procedure, LSMEANS statement,
1943
ALPHA= option, 1943
CL option, 1943
CORR option, 1943
COV option, 1944
DIFF option, 1944
E option, 1944
SINGULAR= option, 1944
GENMOD procedure, MODEL statement, 1944
AGGREGATE= option, 1945
ALPHA= option, 1945
CICONV= option, 1945
CL option, 1945
CODING= option, 1945
CONVERGE= option, 1945
CONVH= option, 1946
CORRB option, 1946
COVB option, 1946
DIAGNOSTICS option, 1946
DIST= option, 1946
ERR= option, 1946
EXPECTED option, 1946
INFLUENCE option, 1946
INITIAL= option, 1947
INTERCEPT= option, 1947
ITPRINT option, 1947
LINK= option, 1947
LRCI option, 1948
MAXIT= option, 1948
NOINT option, 1948
NOSCALE option, 1948
OBSTATS option, 1948
OFFSET= option, 1950
PRED option, 1950
PREDICTED option, 1950
RESIDUALS option, 1950
SCALE= option, 1951
SCORING= option, 1951
SINGULAR= option, 1951
TYPE1 option, 1951
TYPE3 option, 1951
WALD option, 1952
WALDCI option, 1952
XVARS option, 1952
GENMOD procedure, OUTPUT statement, 1952
keyword= option, 1953
OUT= option, 1953
GENMOD procedure, PROC GENMOD
statement, 1919
DATA= option, 1919
NAMELEN= option, 1920
ORDER= option, 1920
PLOTS= option, 1920
RORDER= option, 1923
GENMOD procedure, REPEATED statement,
1916, 1956
ALPHAINIT= option, 1957
CONVERGE= option, 1957
CORR= option, 1959
CORRB option, 1957
CORRW option, 1957
COVB option, 1957
ECORRB option, 1957
ECOVB option, 1957
INITIAL= option, 1957
INTERCEPT= option, 1957
LOGOR= option, 1958
MAXITER= option, 1958
MCORRB option, 1958
MCOVB option, 1958
MODELSE option, 1958
RUPDATE= option, 1958
SORTED option, 1959
SUBCLUSTER= option, 1959
SUBJECT= option, 1956
TYPE= option, 1959
V6CORR option, 1959
WITHIN= option, 1959
WITHINSUBJECT= option, 1959
YPAIR= option, 1960
ZDATA= option, 1960
ZROW= option, 1960
GENMOD procedure, SCWGT statement, 1960
GENMOD procedure, VARIANCE statement,
1960
GENMOD procedure, WEIGHT statement, 1960
GENMOD procedure, ZEROMODEL statement,
1961
LINK= option, 1961
INFLUENCE option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1946
INITIAL= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1947
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1957
INTERCEPT= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1947
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1957
INVLINK statement, GENMOD procedure,
1942, 1956
ITPRINT option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1947
keyword= option
OUTPUT statement (GENMOD), 1953
LINK= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1947
ZEROMODEL statement (GENMOD),
1961
LOGOR= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1958
LRCI option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1948
MAXIT= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1948
MAXITER= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1958
MCORRB option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1958
MCOVB option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1958
MISSING option
CLASS statement (GENMOD), 1936
MODEL statement
GENMOD procedure, 1944
MODELSE option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1958
NAMELEN= option
PROC GENMOD statement, 1920
NOINT option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1948
NOSCALE option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1948
OBSTATS option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1948
OFFSET= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1950
ORDER= option
CLASS statement (GENMOD), 1936
PROC GENMOD statement, 1920
OUT= option
OUTPUT statement (GENMOD), 1953
OUTPUT statement
GENMOD procedure, 1952
PARAM= option
CLASS statement (GENMOD), 1937
PLOTS= option
PROC GENMOD statement, 1920
PRED option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1950
PREDICTED option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1950
PROC GENMOD statement, see GENMOD
procedure
PSCALE
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1951
REF= option
CLASS statement (GENMOD), 1937
REPEATED statement
GENMOD procedure, 1916, 1956
RESIDUALS option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1950
RORDER= option
PROC GENMOD statement, 1923
RUPDATE= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1958
SCALE= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1951
SCORING= option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1951
SCWGT statement
GENMOD procedure, 1960
SINGULAR= option
CONTRAST statement (GENMOD), 1940
ESTIMATE statement (GENMOD), 1942
LSMEANS statement (GENMOD), 1944
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1951
SORTED option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1959
STATISTICS= option
BAYES statement(GENMOD), 1934
SUBCLUSTER= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1959
SUBJECT= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1956
THINNING= option
BAYES statement(GENMOD), 1935
TRUNCATE option
CLASS statement (GENMOD), 1937
TYPE1 option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1951
TYPE3 option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1951
TYPE= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1959
V6CORR option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1959
VARIANCE statement, GENMOD procedure,
1960
WALD option
CONTRAST statement (GENMOD), 1940
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1952
WALDCI option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1952
WEIGHT statement
GENMOD procedure, 1960
WITHIN= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1959
WITHINSUBJECT= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1959
XVARS option
MODEL statement (GENMOD), 1952
YPAIR= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1960
ZDATA= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1960
ZEROMODEL statement
GENMOD procedure, 1961
ZROW= option
REPEATED statement (GENMOD), 1960
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