Cisco CISCO3825 Specification

Cisco CISCO3825 Specification
Cisco 3825 and Cisco 3845
Integrated Services Routers
with AIM-VPN/SSL-3
FIPS 140-2 Non Proprietary Security Policy
Level 2 Validation
Version 1.5
September 8, 2008
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
This document may be freely reproduced and distributed whole and intact including this Copyright Notice.
Table of Contents
1
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 3
1.1 PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................. 3
1.2 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 3
1.3 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................... 3
1.4 DOCUMENT ORGANIZATION ................................................................................................ 3
2 CISCO 3825 AND 3845 ROUTERS......................................................................................... 5
2.1 THE 3825 CRYPTOGRAPHIC MODULE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS ...................................... 5
2.2 THE CISCO 3845 CRYPTOGRAPHIC MODULE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS............................ 9
2.3 ROLES AND SERVICES ........................................................................................................... 13
2.3.1. User Services ................................................................................................ 13
2.3.2 Crypto Officer Services .................................................................................. 13
2.3.3 Unauthenticated Services............................................................................... 14
2.3.4 Strength of Authentication .............................................................................. 14
2.4 PHYSICAL SECURITY ............................................................................................................. 15
2.5 CRYPTOGRAPHIC KEY MANAGEMENT .................................................................................. 19
2.6 SELF-TESTS ....................................................................................................................... 28
2.6.1 Self-tests performed by the IOS image ....................................................... 28
2.6.2 Self-tests performed by Safenet .................................................................. 28
2.6.3 Self-tests performed by AIM ........................................................................ 29
3
SECURE OPERATION OF THE CISCO 3825 OR 3845 ROUTER ............................. 30
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
INITIAL SETUP ................................................................................................................... 30
SYSTEM INITIALIZATION AND CONFIGURATION ................................................................. 30
IPSEC REQUIREMENTS AND CRYPTOGRAPHIC ALGORITHMS ............................................. 31
SSLV3.1/TLS REQUIREMENTS AND CRYPTOGRAPHIC ALGORITHMS ................................ 31
PROTOCOLS ....................................................................................................................... 31
REMOTE ACCESS ............................................................................................................... 31
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1
Introduction
1.1 Purpose
This document is the non-proprietary Cryptographic Module Security Policy for the Cisco 3825
Integrated Services Router with AIM-VPN/SSL-3 and 3845 Integrated Services Routers Routers
with AIM-VPN/SSL-3 (Router Hardware Version: 3825 or 3845; Router Firmware Version: IOS
12.4 (15) T3; AIM-VPN/SSL-3 Hardware Version 1.0, Board Revision 01). This security policy
describes how the Cisco 3825 and 3845 Integrated Services Routers meet the security
requirements of FIPS 140-2, and how to operate the router with on-board crypto enabled in a
secure FIPS 140-2 mode. This policy was prepared as part of the Level 2 FIPS 140-2 validation
of the Cisco 3825 or 3845 Integrated Services Router.
FIPS 140-2 (Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 140-2 — Security
Requirements for Cryptographic Modules) details the U.S. Government requirements for
cryptographic modules. More information about the FIPS 140-2 standard and validation program
is available on the NIST website at http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/STM/index.html.
1.2 References
This document deals only with operations and capabilities of the 3825 and 3845 routers with
AIM modules in the technical terms of a FIPS 140-2 cryptographic module security policy. More
information is available on the routers from the following sources:
The Cisco Systems website contains information on the full line of Cisco Systems
routers. Please refer to the following website:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/index.html
For answers to technical or sales related questions please refer to the contacts listed on
the Cisco Systems website at www.cisco.com.
The NIST Validated Modules website
(http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/STM/cmvp/validation.html) contains contact information
for answers to technical or sales-related questions for the module.
1.3 Terminology
In this document, the Cisco 3825 or 3845 routers are referred to as the router, the module, or the
system.
1.4 Document Organization
The Security Policy document is part of the FIPS 140-2 Submission Package. In addition to this
document, the Submission Package contains:
Vendor Evidence document
Finite State Machine
Other supporting documentation as additional references
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This document provides an overview of the routers and explains their secure configuration and
operation. This introduction section is followed by Section 2, which details the general features
and functionality of the router. Section 3 specifically addresses the required configuration for the
FIPS-mode of operation.
With the exception of this Non-Proprietary Security Policy, the FIPS 140-2 Validation
Submission Documentation is Cisco-proprietary and is releasable only under appropriate nondisclosure agreements. For access to these documents, please contact Cisco Systems.
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2 Cisco 3825 and 3845 Routers
Branch office networking requirements are dramatically evolving, driven by web and ecommerce applications to enhance productivity and merging the voice and data infrastructure to
reduce costs. The Cisco 3825 and 3845 routers provide a scalable, secure, manageable remote
access server that meets FIPS 140-2 Level 2 requirements. This section describes the general
features and functionality provided by the routers. The following subsections describe the
physical characteristics of the routers.
2.1 The 3825 Cryptographic Module Physical Characteristics
Figure 1 – The 3825 router case
The 3825 Router is a multiple-chip standalone cryptographic module. The router has a
processing speed of 500MHz. Depending on configuration, either the installed AIM-VPN/SSL-3
module, the onboard Safenet chip or the IOS software is used for cryptographic operations.
The cryptographic boundary of the module is the device’s case. All of the functionality
discussed in this document is provided by components within this cryptographic boundary.
The interface for the router is located on the rear and front panels as shown in Figure 2 and
Figure 3, respectively.
Figure 2 – 3825 Rear Panel Physical Interfaces
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Figure 3 – 3825 Front Panel Physical Interfaces
The Cisco 3825 router features a console port, auxiliary port, dual Universal Serial Bus (USB)
ports, four high-speed WAN interface card (HWIC) slots, two10/100/1000 Gigabit Ethernet
RJ45 ports, two Enhanced Network Module (ENM) slots, small form factor pluggable (SFP),
redundant power supply (RPS) inlet, power inlet, and Compact Flash (CF) drive. The 3825
router has slots for AIM-VPN/SSL-3 cards1, and two Ethernet connections. Figure 2 shows the
rear panel and Figure 3 shows the front panel. The front panel consists of 12 LEDs: CF LED,
SYS LED, ACT LED, SYS PWR LED, RPS LED, AUX PWR LED, AIM0 LED, AIM1 LED,
PVDM0 LED, PVDM1 LED, PVDM2 LED, and PVDM3 LED.
The back panel contains LEDs to indicate the status of the GE ports.
The front panel contains the following:
• LEDs
• Power switch
• Power input
• CF drive
• USB ports
The rear panel contains the following:
• HWIC/WIC/VIC slots 0 and 1
• Console port
• Auxiliary port
• GE ports
• ENM Ports
• SFP Port
The following tables provide more detailed information conveyed by the LEDs on the front and
rear panel of the router:
1
The security policy covers the configuration in which one AIM card is used.
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Name
State
Description
System
Solid Green
Blinking Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Off
Normal System Operation.
Booting or in ROM monitor (ROMMON) mode.
Powered, but malfunctionaing.
Router is not receiving power.
Power supply present and enabled.
Power supply present and off or with failure.
Power supply not present.
Indicates IP phone power supply present.
Indicates IP phone power supply present.
IP phone power supply not present.
System running on RPS PSU.
System running on primary PSU.
Green
Off
Solid Green
Blinking Green
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Solid or blinking indicates packet activity.
No interrupts or packet transfer occurring.
Compact Flash present and enabled.
Compact Flash accessed.
Compact Flash not present.
PVDM3 installed and initialized.
PVDM3 installed and initialized error.
PVDM3 not installed.
PVDM2 installed and initialized.
PVDM2 installed and initialized error.
PVDM2 not installed.
PVDM1 installed and initialized.
PVDM1 installed and initialized error.
PVDM1 not installed.
PVDM0 installed and initialized.
PVDM0 installed and initialized error.
PVDM0 not installed.
AIM1 present and enabled.
AIM1 present with failure.
AIM1 not installed.
AIM0 present and enabled.
AIM0 present with failure.
AIM0 not installed.
System Power
Auxiliary Power
Redundant
Power Supply
Activity
Compact Flash
PVDM3
PVDM2
PVDM1
PVDM0
AIM1
AIM0
Table 1 – Cisco 3825 Front Panel Indicators
Name
State
Speed
Green (Blinking)
Description
Blinking frequency indicates port speed.
Link
Solid Green
Off
Ethernet link is established
No link established
Table 2 – Cisco 3825 Rear Panel Indicators
The following table describes the meaning of Ethernet LEDs on the rear panel:
Name
State
Duplex
Solid Green
Off
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Description
Full-Duplex
Half-Duplex
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Speed
Link
Solid Green
Off
Solid Green
Off
100 Mbps
10 Mbps
Ethernet link is established
No link established
Table 3 – Cisco 3825 Ethernet Indicators
The physical interfaces are separated into the logical interfaces from FIPS 140-2 as described in
the following table:
Router Physical Interface
10/100/1000 Ethernet LAN Ports
HWIC Ports
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
ENM Slots
SFP
USB Ports
10/100/1000 Ethernet LAN Ports
HWIC Ports
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
ENM Slots
SFP
USB Ports
10/100/1000 Ethernet LAN Ports
HWIC Ports
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
ENM Slots
SFP
10/100/1000 Ethernet LAN LEDs
SFP LED
AIM LEDs
PVDM LEDs
Power LED
System Activity LED
System LED
Compact Flash LED
Auxiliary Power LED
RPS LED
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
USB Ports
Power Plug
Redundant Power Supply Plug
FIPS 140-2 Logical Interface
Data Input Interface
Data Output Interface
Control Input Interface
Status Output Interface
Power Interface
Table 4 – Cisco 3825 FIPS 140-2 Logical Interfaces
The CF card that stored the IOS image is considered an internal memory module, because the
IOS image stored in the card may not be modified or upgraded. The card itself must never be
removed from the drive. Tamper evident seal will be placed over the card in the drive.
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2.2 The Cisco 3845 Cryptographic Module Physical Characteristics
Figure 4 – The 3845 router case
The 3845 router with on-board crypto enabled is a multiple-chip standalone cryptographic
module. The router has a processing speed of 650MHz. Depending on configuration, either the
installed AIM-VPN/SSL-3 module, the onboard Safenet chip or the IOS software is used for
cryptographic operations.
The cryptographic boundary of the module is the device’s case. All of the functionality
discussed in this document is provided by components within this cryptographic boundary.
The interfaces for the router are located on the front and rear panel as shown in Figure 4 and
Figure 5, respectively.
Figure 5 – Cisco 3845 Front Panel Physical Interfaces
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Figure 6 – Cisco 3845 Rear Panel Physical Interfaces
The Cisco 3845 router features a console port, auxiliary port, dual Universal Serial Bus (USB)
ports, four high-speed WAN interface card (HWIC) slots, two10/100/1000 Gigabit Ethernet
RJ45 ports, four Enhanced Network Module (ENM) slots, small form factor pluggable (SFP),
power inlets, and Compact Flash (CF) drive. The 3845 router has slots for AIM-VPN/SSL-3
cards2, and two Ethernet connections. The Figure 4 shows the front panel and Figure 5 shows the
rear panel. The front panel consists of 7 LEDs: CF LED, PVDM0 LED, PVDM1 LED, PVDM2
LED, PVDM3 LED, AIM0 LED, and AIM1 LED. The back panel consists of 6 LEDs: SYS
LED, ACT LED, SYS PWR1 LED, AUX PWR1 LED, SYS PWR2 LED, and AUX PWR2
LED.
The front panel contains the following:
• LEDs
• Power switch
• Power input
The rear panel contains the following:
• CF drive
• USB ports
• Console and Auxiliary ports
• HWIC ports
• LEDs
• HWIC ports
• GE ports
• SFP port
• ENM slots
2
The security policy covers the configuration in which one AIM card is used.
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The following tables provide more detailed information conveyed by the LEDs on the front and
rear panel of the router:
Name
State
Description
System
Solid Green
Blinking Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Off
Solid Green
Blinking Green
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Green
Amber
Off
Normal System Operation.
Booting or in ROM monitor (ROMMON) mode.
Powered, but malfunctionaing.
Router is not receiving power.
Power1 supply present and enabled.
Power1 supply present and off or with failure.
Power1 supply not present.
Indicates IP phone power1 supply present.
Indicates IP phone power1 supply present.
IP phone power1 supply not present.
Power2 supply present and enabled.
Power2 supply present and off or with failure.
Power2 supply not present.
Indicates IP phone power2 supply present.
Indicates IP phone power2 supply present.
IP phone power2 supply not present.
Solid or blinking indicates packet activity.
No interrupts or packet transfer occurring.
Compact Flash present and enabled.
Compact Flash accessed.
Compact Flash not present.
PVDM3 installed and initialized.
PVDM3 installed and initialized error.
PVDM3 not installed.
PVDM2 installed and initialized.
PVDM2 installed and initialized error.
PVDM2 not installed.
PVDM1 installed and initialized.
PVDM1 installed and initialized error.
PVDM1 not installed.
PVDM0 installed and initialized.
PVDM0 installed and initialized error.
PVDM0 not installed.
AIM1 present and enabled.
AIM1 present with failure.
AIM1 not installed.
AIM0 present and enabled.
AIM0 present with failure.
AIM0 not installed.
System Power1
Auxiliary
Power1
System Power2
Auxiliary
Power2
Activity
Compact Flash
PVDM3
PVDM2
PVDM1
PVDM0
AIM1
AIM0
Table 5 – Cisco 3845 Front Panel Indicators
The following table describes the meaning of Ethernet LEDs on the front panel:
Name
State
Speed
One Blinking Green
Two Blinking Green
Three Blinking Green
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Description
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
1000Mbps
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Link
SFP
Solid Green
Off
Solid Green
Off
Ethernet link is established
No link established
SFP fiber link is established
No link established
Table 6 – Cisco 3845 Ethernet Indicators
The physical interfaces are separated into the logical interfaces from FIPS 140-2 as described in
the following table:
Router Physical Interface
10/100/1000 Ethernet LAN Ports
HWIC Ports
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
ENM Slots
SFP
USB Ports
10/100/1000 Ethernet LAN Ports
HWIC Ports
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
ENM Slots
SFP
USB Ports
10/100/1000 Ethernet LAN Ports
HWIC Ports
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
ENM Slots
SFP
10/100/1000 Ethernet LAN LEDs
SFP LED
AIM LEDs
PVDM LEDs
System Power LEDs
System Activity LED
System LED
Compact Flash LED
Auxiliary Power LEDs
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
USB Ports
Power Plug
FIPS 140-2 Logical Interface
Data Input Interface
Data Output Interface
Control Input Interface
Status Output Interface
Power Interface
Table 7 – Cisco 3845 FIPS 140-2 Logical Interfaces
The CF card that stored the IOS image is considered an internal memory module. The reason is
the IOS image stored in the card cannot be modified or upgraded. The card itself must never be
removed from the drive. Tamper evident seal will be placed over the card in the drive.
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2.3 Roles and Services
Authentication in Cisco 3825 and 3845 is role-based. There are two main roles in the router that
operators can assume: the Crypto Officer role and the User role. The administrator of the router
assumes the Crypto Officer role in order to configure and maintain the router using Crypto
Officer services, while the Users exercise only the basic User services. The module supports
RADIUS and TACACS+ for authentication. A complete description of all the management and
configuration capabilities of the router can be found in the Performing Basic System
Management manual and in the online help for the router.
2.3.1. User Services
Users enter the system by accessing the console port with a terminal program or IPSec protected
telnet or SSH session to a LAN port. The IOS prompts the User for username and password. If
the password is correct, the User is allowed entry to the IOS executive program.
The services available to the User role consist of the following:
Status Functions
View state of interfaces and protocols, version of IOS currently
running.
Network Functions
Connect to other network devices through outgoing telnet, PPP, etc.
and initiate diagnostic network services (i.e., ping, mtrace).
Adjust the terminal session (e.g., lock the terminal, adjust flow
control).
Display directory of files kept in flash memory.
Negotiation and encrypted data transport via SSL/TLS.
Negotiation and encrypted data transport via EASY VPN.
Terminal Functions
Directory Services
SSL-TLS/VPN
EASY VPN
2.3.2 Crypto Officer Services
During initial configuration of the router, the Crypto Officer password (the “enable” password) is
defined. A Crypto Officer can assign permission to access the Crypto Officer role to additional
accounts, thereby creating additional Crypto Officers.
The Crypto Officer role is responsible for the configuration and maintenance of the router.
The Crypto Officer services consist of the following:
Configure the router
Define network interfaces and settings, create command aliases, set
the protocols the router will support, enable interfaces and network
services, set system date and time, and load authentication
information.
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Define Rules and Filters Create packet Filters that are applied to User data streams on each
interface. Each Filter consists of a set of Rules, which define a set
of packets to permit or deny based on characteristics such as
protocol ID, addresses, ports, TCP connection establishment, or
packet direction.
View the router configuration, routing tables, active sessions, use
View Status Functions
gets to view SNMP MIB statistics, health, temperature, memory
status, voltage, packet statistics, review accounting logs, and view
physical interface status.
Log off users, shutdown or reload the router, erase the flash
Manage the router
memory, manually back up router configurations, view complete
configurations, manager user rights, and restore router
configurations.
Set up the configuration tables for IP tunneling. Set preshared keys
Set Encryption/Bypass
and algorithms to be used for each IP range or allow plaintext
packets to be set from specified IP address.
Bypass Mode
The routers implement an alternating bypass capability, in which some connections may be
cryptographically authenticated and encrypted while others may not. Two independent internal
actions are required in order to transition into each bypass state: First, the bypass state must be
configured by the Crypto Officer using “match address <ACL-name>" sub-command under
crypto map which defines what traffic is encrypted. Second, the module must receive a packet
that is destined for an IP that is not configured to receive encrypted data. The configuration table
uses an error detection code to detect integrity failures, and if an integrity error is detected, the
module will enter an error state in which no packets are routed. Therefore, a single error in the
configuration table cannot cause plaintext to be transmitted to an IP address for which it should
be encrypted.
2.3.3 Unauthenticated Services
The services available to unauthenticated users are:
• Viewing the status output from the module’s LEDs
• Powering the module on and off using the power switch
• Sending packets in bypass
2.3.4 Strength of Authentication
The security policy stipulates that all user passwords must be 8 alphanumeric characters, so the
password space is 2.8 trillion possible passwords. The possibility of randomly guessing a
password is thus far less than one in one million. To exceed a one in 100,000 probability of a
successful random password guess in one minute, an attacker would have to be capable of 28
million password attempts per minute, which far exceeds the operational capabilities of the
module to support.
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When using RSA based authentication, RSA key pair has modulus size of 1024 bit to 2048 bit,
thus providing between 80 bits and 112 bits of strength. Assuming the low end of that range, an
attacker would have a 1 in 280 chance of randomly obtaining the key, which is much stronger
than the one in a million chance required by FIPS 140-2. To exceed a one in 100,000 probability
of a successful random key guess in one minute, an attacker would have to be capable of
approximately 1.8x1021 attempts per minute, which far exceeds the operational capabilities of
the modules to support.
When using preshared key based authentication, the security policy stipulates that all preshared
keys must be 8 alphanumeric characters, so the key space is 2.8 trillion possible combinations.
The possibility of randomly guessing this is thus far less than one in one million. To exceed a
one in 100,000 probability of a successful random guess in one minute, an attacker would have
to be capable of 28 million attempts per minute, which far exceeds the operational capabilities of
the module to support.
2.4 Physical Security
The router is entirely encased by a metal, opaque case. The rear of the unit contains auxiliary
port, console port, Gigabit Ethernet ports, HWIC ports, and ENM slots. The front of the unit
contains USB connectors, CF drive, power inlets, power switch, and LEDs. The top, side, and
front portion of the chassis can be removed to allow access to the motherboard, memory, AIM
slots, and expansion slots.
The Cisco 3825 and Cisco 3845 routers require that a special opacity shield be installed over the
side air vents in order to operate in FIPS-approved mode. The shield decreases the surface area
of the vent holes, reducing visibility within the cryptographic boundary to FIPS-approved
specifications.
Install the opacity plates as specified in the pictures below:
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Figure 7 – 3825 – Opacity Shield Placement
Figure 8 – 3845 – Opacity Shield Placement
Once the router has been configured in to meet FIPS 140-2 Level 2 requirements, the router
cannot be accessed without signs of tampering. To seal the system, apply serialized tamperevidence labels as follows:
For Cisco 3825:
1. Clean the cover of any grease, dirt, or oil before applying the tamper evidence
labels. Alcohol-based cleaning pads are recommended for this purpose. The
temperature of the router should be above 10°C.
2. Tamper evidence label A shall be placed so that one half of the label covers the
top of the front panel and the other half covers the enclosure.
3. Tamper evidence label B shall be placed so that one half of the label covers the
bottom of the front panel and the CF card and the other half covers the enclosure.
4. Tamper evidence labels C and D should be placed so that the one half of the label
covers the enclosure and the other half covers the left and right upper ENM slots.
5. Tamper evidence label E should be placed so that the one half of the label covers
the lower right ENM slot and the other half covers the enclosure.
6. Tamper evidence label F should be placed so that the one half of the label covers
the left upper and lower HWIC slots and the other half covers the enclosure.
7. Tamper evidence label G should be placed so that the one half of the label covers
the right upper and lower HWIC slots and the other half covers the enclosure.
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8. Tamper evidence labels H and I should be placed on the top and bottom of the
opacity shield such that the one half of each label covers opacity shield and the
other half covers the enclosure.
9. The labels completely cure within five minutes.
Figures 9, 10 and 11 show the tamper evidence label placements for the 3825. Note that
each diagram only shows certain label placement locations.
Figure 9 – 3825 Tamper Evident Label Placement (Front View)
Figure 10 – 3825 Tamper Evident Label Placement (Back View)
Figure 11 - 3825 Tamper Evident Label Placement (Side View)
For Cisco 3845:
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1. Clean the cover of any grease, dirt, or oil before applying the tamper evidence
labels. Alcohol-based cleaning pads are recommended for this purpose. The
temperature of the router should be above 10°C.
2. Tamper evidence labels A and B should be placed so that one half of the label
covers the front panel and the other half covers the enclosure.
3. Tamper evidence label C should be placed so that one half of the label covers the
left upper and lower ENM modules and the other half covers the enclosure.
4. Tamper evidence labels D and E should be placed so that one half of each label
covers the side of right ENM modules and the other half covers the enclosure.
5. Tamper evidence labels F, G, H and I should be placed so that one half of each
label covers the top side of HWIC modules and the other half covers the
enclosure.
6. Tamper evidence label J should be placed over the CF slot.
7. Tamper evidence labels K, L, M and N should be placed on each of the opacity
shields so that one half of each label covers the opacity shield and the other half
covers the enclosure.
8. The labels completely cure within five minutes.
Figures 12, 13 and 14 show the tamper evidence label placements for the 3845.
Figure 12 – Cisco 3845 Tamper Evident Label Placement (Front View)
Figure 13 – Cisco 3845 Tamper Evident Label Placement (Back View)
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Figure 14 - Cisco 3845 Tamper Evident Label Placement (Side Views)
The tamper evidence seals are produced from a special thin gauge vinyl with self-adhesive
backing. Any attempt to open the router will damage the tamper evidence seals or the material of
the module cover. Since the tamper evidence seals have non-repeated serial numbers, they can be
inspected for damage and compared against the applied serial numbers to verify that the module
has not been tampered. Tamper evidence seals can also be inspected for signs of tampering,
which include the following: curled corners, bubbling, crinkling, rips, tears, and slices. The word
“OPEN” may appear if the label was peeled back.
2.5 Cryptographic Key Management
The router securely administers both cryptographic keys and other critical security parameters
such as passwords. The tamper evidence seals provide physical protection for all keys. All keys
are also protected by the password-protection on the Crypto Officer role login, and can be
zeroized by the Crypto Officer. All zeroization consists of overwriting the memory that stored
the key. Keys are exchanged and entered electronically or via Internet Key Exchange (IKE) or
SSL/TLS handshake protocols.
The routers support the following FIPS-2 approved algorithm implementations:
Algorithm
Algorithm Certificate Number
Software (IOS) Implementations
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AES
Triple-DES
SHA-1, SHA-256, SHA-512
HMAC-SHA-1
X9.31 PRNG
RSA
795
683
794
436
456
379
Onboard Safenet Implementations
AES
Triple-DES
SHA-1
HMAC-SHA-1
96
210
317
50
AIM Module Implementations
AES
Triple-DES
SHA-1
HMAC-SHA-1
X9.31 PRNG
RSA
173
275
258
39
83
382
The router is in the approved mode of operation only when FIPS 140-2 approved algorithms are
used (except DH and RSA key transport which are allowed in the approved mode for key
establishment despite being non-approved).
Note: The module supports DH key sizes of 1024 and 1536 bits and RSA key sizes of 1024,
1536 and 2048 bits. Therefore, the Diffie Hellmann Key agreement, key establishment
methodology provides between 80-bits and 96-bits of encryption strength per NIST 800-57. RSA
Key wrapping, key establishment methodology provides between 80-bits and 112-bits of
encryption strength per NIST 800-57.
The following are not FIPS 140-2 approved Algorithms: DES, RC4, MD5, HMAC-MD5, RSA
key wrapping and DH; however again DH and RSA are allowed for use in key establishment.
The module contains a HiFn 7855 cryptographic accelerator chip, integrated in the AIM card.
Unless the AIM card is disabled by the Crypto Officer with the “no crypto engine aim”
command, the HiFn 7855 provides AES (128-bit, 192-bit, and 256-bit), and Triple-DES (168-bit)
encryption/decryption; MD5 and SHA-1 hashing; and hardware support for DH, X9.31 PRNG,
RSA encryption/decryption, and RSA signature/verification.
The module supports two types of key management schemes:
1. Pre-shared key exchange via electronic key entry. Triple-DES/AES key and HMACSHA-1 key are exchanged and entered electronically.
2. Internet Key Exchange method with support for pre-shared keys exchanged and entered
electronically.
• The pre-shared keys are used with Diffie-Hellman key agreement technique to
derive Triple-DES or AES keys.
• The pre-shared key is also used to derive HMAC-SHA-1 key.
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
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3. RSA digital signatures based authentication is used for IKE, with Diffie-Hellman Key
agreement technique to derive AES or Triple-DES keys.
4. RSA encrypted nonces based authentication is used for IKE, with Diffie-Hellman Key
agreement technique to derive AES or Triple-DES keys.
5. RSA key transport is used to derive the Triple-DES or AES keys during SSLv3.1/TLS
handshake.
The module supports commercially available Diffie-Hellman and RSA key transport for key
establishment.
All pre-shared keys are associated with the CO role that created the keys, and the CO role is
protected by a password. Therefore, the CO password is associated with all the pre-shared keys.
The Crypto Officer needs to be authenticated to store keys. All Diffie-Hellman (DH) keys agreed
upon for individual tunnels are directly associated with that specific tunnel only via the IKE
protocol. RSA Public keys are entered into the modules using digital certificates which contain
relevant data such as the name of the public key's owner, which associates the key with the
correct entity. All other keys are associated with the user/role that entered them.
Key Zeroization:
Each key can be zeroized by sending the “no” command prior to the key function commands.
This will zeroize each key from the DRAM, the running configuration.
“Clear Crypto IPSec SA” will zeroize the IPSec Triple-DES/AES session key (which is derived
using the Diffie-Hellman key agreement technique) from the DRAM. This session key is only
available in the DRAM; therefore this command will completely zeroize this key. The following
command will zeroize the pre-shared keys from the DRAM:
•
•
•
•
•
no set session-key inbound ah spi hex-key-data
no set session-key outbound ah spi hex-key-data
no set session-key inbound esp spi cipher hex-key-data [authenticator hex-key-data]
no set session-key outbound esp spi cipher hex-key-data [authenticator hex-key-data]
no crypto isakmp key
The DRAM running configuration must be copied to the start-up configuration in NVRAM in
order to completely zeroize the keys.
The RSA keys are zeroized by issuing the CLI command “crypto key zeroize rsa".
All SSL/TLS session keys are zeroized automatically at the end of the SSL/TLS session.
The module supports the following keys and critical security parameters (CSPs).
Key/CSP
Name
Algorithm
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Description
21
Storage
Location
Zeroization Method
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PRNG Seed
X9.31
PRNG Seed
Key
X9.31
Diffie
Hellman
private
exponent
Diffie
Hellman
public key
DH
DRAM
Automatically every 400
bytes, or turn off the
router.
DRAM
Turn off the router.
The private exponent used in
Diffie-Hellman (DH) exchange as
part of IKE. Zeroized after DH
shared secret has been generated.
The public key used in DiffieHellman (DH) exchange as part of
IKE. Zeroized after the DH shared
secret has been generated.
Value derived from the shared
secret within IKE exchange.
Zeroized when IKE session is
terminated.
The IKE key derivation key for non
ISAKMP security associations.
DRAM
Automatically after
shared secret generated.
DRAM
Automatically after
shared secret generated.
skeyid
Keyed SHA-1
DRAM
Automatically after IKE
session terminated.
skeyid_d
Keyed SHA-1
DRAM
Automatically after IKE
session terminated.
skeyid_a
HMAC-SHA-1
The ISAKMP security association
authentication key.
DRAM
Automatically after IKE
session terminated.
skeyid_e
TRIPLEDES/AES
The ISAKMP security association
encryption key.
DRAM
Automatically after IKE
session terminated.
IKE session
encrypt key
TRIPLEDES/AES
The IKE session encrypt key.
DRAM
Automatically after IKE
session terminated.
IKE session
authentication
key
ISAKMP
preshared
HMAC-SHA-1
The IKE session authentication
key.
DRAM
Automatically after IKE
session terminated.
Shared secret
NVRAM
“# no crypto isakmp
key”
IKE hash key
HMAC-SHA-1
DRAM
IKE RSA
Authentication
private Key
RSA
The key used to generate IKE
skeyid during preshared-key
authentication. “no crypto isakmp
key” command zeroizes it. This key
can have two forms based on
whether the key is related to the
hostname or the IP address.
This key generates the IKE shared
secret keys. This key is zeroized
after generating those keys.
RSA private key for IKE
authentication. Generated or
entered like any RSA key, set as
IKE RSA Authentication Key with
the “crypto keyring” or “ca trustpoint” command.
Automatically after
generating IKE shared
secret keys.
“# crypto key zeroize
rsa"
DH
This is the seed for X9.31 PRNG.
This CSP is stored in DRAM and
updated periodically after the
generation of 400 bytes – after this
it is reseeded with router-derived
entropy; hence, it is zeroized
periodically. Also, the operator can
turn off the router to zeroize this
CSP.
This is the ssed key for X9.31
PRNG.
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
22
NVRAM
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IKE RSA
Authentication
Public Key
RSA
RSA public key for IKE
authentication. Generated or
entered like any RSA key, set as
IKE RSA Authentication Key with
the “crypto keyring” or “ca trustpoint” command.
RSA private key for IKE encrypted
nonces. Generated like any RSA,
with the “usage-keys” parameter
included.
RSA public key for IKE encrypted
nonces. Generated like any RSA,
with the “usage-keys” parameter
included.
The IPSec encryption key. Zeroized
when IPSec session is terminated.
NVRAM
“# crypto key zeroize
rsa"
IKE RSA
Encrypted
Nonce Private
Key
IKE RSA
Encrypted
Nonce Public
Key
IPSec
encryption
key
IPSec
authentication
key
Configuration
encryption
key
RSA
NVRAM
“# crypto key zeroize
rsa"
NVRAM
“# crypto key zeroize
rsa"
DRAM
“# Clear Crypto IPSec SA”
HMAC-SHA-1
The IPSec authentication key. The
zeroization is the same as above.
DRAM
“# Clear Crypto IPSec SA”
AES
The key used to encrypt values of
the configuration file. This key is
zeroized when the “no key configkey” is issued. Note that this
command does not decrypt the
configuration file, so zeroize with
care.
This key is used by the router to
authenticate itself to the peer. The
router itself gets the password (that
is used as this key) from the AAA
server and sends it onto the peer.
The password retrieved from the
AAA server is zeroized upon
completion of the authentication
attempt.
The authentication key used in
PPP. This key is in the DRAM and
not zeroized at runtime. One can
turn off the router to zeroize this
key because it is stored in DRAM.
This key is used by the router to
authenticate itself to the peer. The
key is identical to Router
authentication key 1 except that it
is retrieved from the local database
(on the router itself). Issuing the
“no username password” zeroizes
the password (that is used as this
key) from the local database.
This is the SSH session key. It is
zeroized when the SSH session is
terminated.
NVRAM
“# no key config-key”
Router
authentication
key 1
Shared secret
DRAM
Automatically upon
completion of
authentication attempt.
PPP
authentication
key
RFC 1334
DRAM
Turn off the router.
Router
authentication
key 2
Shared Secret
NVRAM
“# no username
password”
SSH session
key
Various
symmetric
DRAM
Automatically when
SSH session terminated
RSA
DES/TRIPLEDES/AES
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
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User password
Shared Secret
Enable
password
Shared Secret
Enable secret
Shared Secret
RADIUS
secret
Shared Secret
secret_1_0_0
TACACS+
secret
Shared Secret
TLS server
private key
TLS server
public key
TLS premaster secret
RSA
TLS
Encryption
Key
TLS Integrity
Key
AES/TRIPLEDES
RSA
Shared Secret
HMAC-SHA-1
The password of the User role. This
password is zeroized by
overwriting it with a new password.
The plaintext password of the CO
role. This password is zeroized by
overwriting it with a new password.
The ciphertext password of the CO
role. However, the algorithm used
to encrypt this password is not
FIPS approved. Therefore, this
password is considered plaintext
for FIPS purposes. This password
is zeroized by overwriting it with a
new password.
The RADIUS shared secret. This
shared secret is zeroized by
executing the “no radius-server
key” command.
The fixed key used in Cisco vendor
ID generation. This key is
embedded in the module binary
image and can be deleted by
erasing the Flash.
The TACACS+ shared secret. This
shared secret is zeroized by
executing the “no tacacs-server
key” command.
1024/1536/2048 bit RSA private
key used for SSLV3.1/TLS.
1024/1536/2048 bit RSA public
key used for SSLV3.1/TLS.
Shared Secret created using
asymmetric cryptography from
which new TLS session keys can
be created
Key used to encrypt TLS session
data
HMAC-SHA-1 used for TLS data
integrity protection
NVRAM
Overwrite with new
password
NVRAM
Overwrite with new
password
NVRAM
Overwrite with new
password
NVRAM
“# no radius-server key”
NVRAM
Deleted by erasing the
Flash.
NVRAM
“# no tacacs-server key”
NVRAM
“# crypto key zeroize
rsa"
“# crypto key zeroize
rsa"
Automatically when
TLS session is
terminated
NVRAM
DRAM
DRAM
DRAM
Automatically when
TLS session is
terminated
Automatically when
TLS session is
terminated
Table 8 - Cryptographic Keys and CSPs
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
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Security Relevant Data Item
PRNG Seed
d
r
PRNG Seed Key
d
r
Diffie Hellman private
exponent
r
Diffie Hellman public
key
r
skeyid
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
skeyid_d
r
skeyid_a
r
skeyid_e
r
IKE session encrypt
key
r
IKE session
authentication key
r
ISAKMP preshared
r
IKE hash key
r
IKE RSA
Authentication private
Key
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
r
25
r
w
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r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
Change WAN Interface Cards
Set Encryption/Bypass
Manage the Router
Status Functions
Define Rules and Filters
Configure the Router
Crypto Officer Role
EASY VPN
SSL-TLS/VPN
Directory Services
Terminal Functions
Network Functions
Status Functions
User Role
(r = read,
w = write,
d = delete)
Roles/Service
SRDI/Role/Service
Access Policy
IKE RSA
Authentication Public
Key
IKE RSA Encrypted
Nonce Private Key
IKE RSA Encrypted
Nonce Public Key
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
r
r
IPSec encryption key
r
IPSec authentication
key
r
Configuration
encryption key
Router authentication
key 1
PPP authentication key
Router authentication
key 2
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
r
w
r
w
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
r
w
d
r
d
r
w
d
r
SSH session key
r
w
d
r
User password
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
Enable password
Enable secret
RADIUS secret
secret_1_0_0
r
w
d
TACACS+ secret
TLS server private key
r
TLS server public key
r
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
r
w
r
w
d
r
w
d
26
r
w
r
w
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r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
TLS pre-master secret
r
TLS Encryption Key
r
TLS Integrity Key
r
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
Table 9 – Role and Service Access to CSP
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r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
2.6 Self-Tests
In order to prevent any secure data from being released, it is important to test the cryptographic
components of a security module to insure all components are functioning correctly. The router
includes an array of self-tests that are run during startup and periodically during operations. All
self-tests are implemented by the software. An example of self-tests run at power-up is a
cryptographic known answer test (KAT) on each of the FIPS-approved cryptographic algorithms
and on the Diffie-Hellman algorithm. Examples of tests run periodically or conditionally include:
a bypass mode test performed conditionally prior to executing IPSec, and a continuous random
number generator test. If any of the self-tests fail, the router transitions into an error state. In the
error state, all secure data transmission is halted and the router outputs status information
indicating the failure.
Examples of the errors that cause the system to transition to an error state:
•
•
•
•
•
IOS image integrity checksum failed
Microprocessor overheats and burns out
Known answer test failed
NVRAM module malfunction.
Temperature high warning
2.6.1
•
Self-tests performed by the IOS image
IOS Self Tests
o POST tests
AES Known Answer Test
RSA Signature Known Answer Test (both signature/verification)
Software/firmware test
Power up bypass test
RNG Known Answer Test
Diffie Hellman test
HMAC-SHA-1 Known Answer Test
SHA-1/256/512 Known Answer Test
Triple-DES Known Answer Test
o Conditional tests
Pairwise consistency test for RSA signature keys
Conditional bypass test
Continuous random number generation test for approved and nonapproved RNGs
2.6.2
•
Self-tests performed by Safenet
Safenet Self Tests
o POST tests
AES Known Answer Test
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
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2.6.3
•
Triple-DES Known Answer Test
HMAC-SHA-1 Known Answer Test
SHA-1 Known Answer Test
Self-tests performed by AIM
AIM Self Tests
o POST tests
AES Known Answer Test
Triple-DES Known Answer Test
SHA-1 Known Answer Test
HMAC-SHA-1 Known Answer Test
RNG Known Answer Test
Firmware integrity test
Diffie Hellman Test
RSA signature gen/ver known answer test
o Conditional Tests
Pairwise consistency test for RSA signature keys
Continuous RNG test for the hardware RNG
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
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3
Secure Operation of the Cisco 3825 or 3845 router
The Cisco 3825 and 3845 routers meet all the Level 2 requirements for FIPS 140-2. Follow the
instructions provided below to place the module in FIPS-approved mode. Operating this router
without maintaining the following settings will remove the module from the FIPS approved
mode of operation.
3.1
Initial Setup
1. The Crypto Officer must apply tamper evidence labels as described in Section 2.4 of this
document.
2. The Crypto Officer must disable IOS Password Recovery by executing the following
commands:
configure terminal
no service password-recovery
end
show version
NOTE: Once Password Recovery is disabled, administrative access to the module
without the password will not be possible.
3.2
System Initialization and Configuration
1. The Crypto Officer must perform the initial configuration. IOS version IOS 12.4 (15) T3,
Advanced Security build (advsecurity) is the only allowable image; no other image
should be loaded.
2. The value of the boot field must be 0x0102. This setting disables break from the console
to the ROM monitor and automatically boots the IOS image. From the “configure
terminal” command line, the Crypto Officer enters the following syntax:
config-register 0x0102
3. The Crypto Officer must create the “enable” password for the Crypto Officer role. The
password must be at least 8 characters to include at least one number and one letter and is
entered when the Crypto Officer first engages the “enable” command. The Crypto Officer
enters the following syntax at the “#” prompt:
enable secret [PASSWORD]
4. The Crypto Officer must always assign passwords (of at least 8 characters) to users.
Identification and authentication on the console port is required for Users. From the
“configure terminal” command line, the Crypto Officer enters the following syntax:
line con 0
password [PASSWORD]
login local
5. RADIUS and TACACS+ shared secret key sizes must be at least 8 characters long, and
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must include at least one number and one letter.
3.3
IPSec Requirements and Cryptographic Algorithms
1. The only type of key management that is allowed in FIPS mode is Internet Key Exchange
(IKE).
2. Although the IOS implementation of IKE allows a number of algorithms, only the
following algorithms are allowed in a FIPS 140-2 configuration:
ah-sha-hmac
esp-sha-hmac
esp-Triple-DES
esp-aes
3. The following algorithms are not FIPS approved and should not be used during FIPSapproved mode:
DES
MD-5 for signing
MD-5 HMAC
3.4
SSLv3.1/TLS Requirements and Cryptographic Algorithms
When negotiating SSLv3.1/TLS cipher suites, only FIPS approved algorithms must be
specified.
All other versions of SSL except version 3.1 must not be used in FIPS mode of operation.
The following algorithms are not FIPS approved and should not be used in the FIPSapproved mode:
MD5
RC4
RC2
DES
3.5
Protocols
1. SNMP v3 over a secure IPSec tunnel may be employed for authenticated, secure SNMP
gets and sets. Since SNMP v2C uses community strings for authentication, only gets are
allowed under SNMP v2C.
3.6
Remote Access
1. Telnet access to the module is only allowed via a secure IPSec tunnel between the remote
system and the module. The Crypto officer must configure the module so that any remote
connections via telnet are secured through IPSec, using FIPS-approved algorithms. Note
that all users must still authenticate after remote access is granted.
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2. SSH access to the module is only allowed if SSH is configured to use a FIPS-approved
algorithm. The Crypto officer must configure the module so that SSH uses only FIPSapproved algorithms. Note that all users must still authenticate after remote access is
granted.
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CISCO EDITOR’S NOTE: You may now include all standard Cisco information included
in all documentation produced by Cisco. Be sure that the following line is in the legal
statements at the end of the document:
By printing or making a copy of this document, the user agrees to use this information for
product evaluation purposes only. Sale of this information in whole or in part is not
authorized by Cisco Systems.
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