[English]

[English]
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Environment
Water
Information Technology
ECP
Nanotechnology
Math and Physics
Petrochemicals
Advanced Materials
Biotechnology
Energy
Space and Aeronautics
Oil and Gas
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Economy and Planning
http://www.mep.gov.sa
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Ministry of Economy and Planning
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Contents
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Contents
Executive Summary
4
Introduction
8
Background
8
Program Scope
9
Alignment with National Science & Technology Policy
9
Strategic Context
10
Advanced Materials R&D Needs of the Kingdom
10
Stakeholders Roles
13
Kingdom’s Industry Status
13
Materials Research at Selected KSA Research Organizations
14
Review of International Advanced Materials Research Institutes
15
Advanced Materials R&D Indicators
18
SWOT Analysis
29
Higher Strategy
32
Vision
32
Mission
32
Values and Program Culture
33
Program Strategic Goals
33
Technology Areas
34
Selection Process
34
Selected Technology Areas
34
Program Structure
36
Program Implementation
40
Portfolio Management
40
Program Management
40
APPENDICES
44
Appendix A -- Plan Development Process and Participants
44
Appendix B -- Supporting Analyses and References
47
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Executive summary
The National Policy for Science
and Technology, approved by the
Council of Ministers in 1423 H
(2002 G), defined 11 programs
for localization and development
of strategic technologies that are
essential for the Kingdom’s future
development. This document is the
strategic priorities for one of these
programs, the Advanced Materials
Program.
Advanced materials are critical for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
There is a potential for the Kingdom to capture greater value-added from
petroleum through the development of petrochemical-based materials,
including polymers and composites. Further potential comes from natural
mineral resources if coupled with advanced technologies to produce new
advanced materials. There is a great need for improved materials for use
in water desalination and in the petroleum and petrochemical industries.
There are also needs for specialized medical materials, aerospace and
defense materials, and new construction materials.
This plan is based on input from the users and stakeholders for advanced
materials in the Kingdom, including government agencies, industry,
universities, and medical centers that use advanced materials or conduct
advanced materials R&D.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Executive summary
The planning process:
Identified the main stakeholders in the Kingdom for advanced materials.
Identified the key needs of the Kingdom in advanced materials.
Assessed the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the
program, including an analysis of KSA publications and patents in advanced
materials and an assessment of international research institutes.
Defined a mission and vision for the Kingdom’s advanced materials
program.
Defined the key technologies and other program areas needed to address
the Kingdom’s needs in advanced materials.
Seven key technology fields emerged from this process:
Membranes.
Composite and Hybrid Materials.
Polymers and polymer processing technologies.
Metals and alloys.
Ceramics.
Smart Materials.
Coating.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Executive summary
Examples of specific technologies to be pursued in these fields are shown in table ES1 below.
Table ES 1:
Key Advanced Materials Technologies for Saudi Arabia
Field
Technology
Membranes
Advanced function membranes: biofouling resistant, chlorine tolerant,
chemical and scale resistant, high reverse osmosis rejection and permeability
membranes, gas separation and sterilization membranes.
Development platforms: nano-, micro-, and ultra- filtration membranes,
electrolytic membranes.
Composite and hybrid materials
Advanced functions: composites for desalination and construction processes;
high pressure and temperature applications; fiber reinforced resins and
polymers; ceramic and radiation shielding composites; lightweight and
nanocomposites
Polymers and polymer processing
Industrial applications: pipeline and storage tanks, electronics, textiles,
environment, agriculture and water, oil and gas drilling, dentistry, drug
delivery.
Development platforms: resin systems and high temperature ablative resins,
nanostructure, water soluble and biodegradable polymers, flame retardants,
UV light stabilizers and nanoparticles for polymer reinforcement.
Metals and alloys
Advanced functions: duplex and ferritic steels for thermal plants, materials
for desalination plants, high temperature stress corrosion cracking, medical
applications, defense and aerospace applications, equipment for oil/gas
services.
Specialized alloys: corrosion and erosion resistant, high temperature and
strength.
Ceramics
Advanced functions: insulation, medical implants, building materials,
industrial furnaces.
Specialized ceramics: alum oxide, tungsten carbides, refractory oxide
dispersion strengthened alloys.
Smart materials
Advanced functions: Photo-, thermo-, piezo-, tribo- and electro-chromic
materials; smart glass, textiles and packaging; organic and inorganic LEDs
and photovoltaic materials; self-cleaning and multifunctional materials and
switchable systems
Coating
Advanced functions: corrosion resistant, UV light protection; self-cleaning
and self-healing; light, heat and pressure switchable coatings; metallic,
thermal barrier coating and electroplating.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Executive summary
The Advanced Materials Program will work to enhance the position of the
Kingdom in these technologies and to apply the technologies to meet the
needs of the Kingdom.
The Advanced Materials Program will be directed by a Program Manager, who
will be responsible for the overall execution of the plan. The main selection
criteria for the projects in the program are:
Potential impact of the project on the Kingdom’s needs for advanced
materials.
Potential contribution of the project to new knowledge.
Technical and managerial capabilities of the performer.
Portfolio balance among program goals, technology tracks, stakeholder
needs, and research performers.
The key performance indicators are:
Number and impact of successful applications of advanced materials to
stakeholder needs.
Expansion of number of research-active material scientists in Kingdom.
Number of papers published in journals listed in ISI and their impact.
Number of generated patents.
Number of products successfully entering the market.
Number of successfully incubated new companies.
Number of researchers trained and applications developed in Technology
Innovation Centers.
The Advanced Materials Advisory Committee, with stakeholder membership,
will oversee the implementation of the plan. It will review performance
metrics and provide advice on the portfolio of projects. The Committee will
provide advice to the Program Manager, and will also report to the National
S&T Plan Supervisory Committee, which will oversee all of the National S&T
Programs.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Introduction
Background
implementation plans for each of
products,
The National Policy for Science
these 11 technology programs.
“nanotechnology/materials” as one of
and Technology, approved by the
This document is the plan for one
its four priority areas for investment.
Council of Ministers in 1423 H
of these programs, the Advanced
(2002 G), defined 11 programs for
Materials Program.
the localization and development
Advanced materials are widely
of strategic technologies that are
recognized by many nations to be
essential for the Kingdom’s future
a critical technology. For example,
development. The King Abdulaziz
the U.S. National Science and
City for Science and Technology
Technology
(KACST) was given responsibility
that
for developing 5-year strategic and
the foundation of manufactured
Council
advanced
and
Japan
includes
recognized
materials
were
Advanced materials are critical for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
There is a potential for the Kingdom to capture greater value-added from
petroleum through the development of petrochemical-based materials,
including polymers and composites. There is a great need for improved
membranes and separations technologies for use in water desalination and
in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. Advanced materials are also
needed to withstand the various environmental conditions present in the
Kingdom. Corrosion resistant materials are needed for the petroleum and
water sectors, and temperature and abrasion resistant materials are needed
for many applications. There are also needs for specialized medical materials,
aerospace and defense materials, and construction materials.
This plan defines a vision for advanced materials research and technology
development for the Kingdom; identifies key needs; assesses strengths,
weakness, opportunities, and threats; and defines a set of programs to meet
these needs. It presents a plan for advanced materials based on input from the
users and stakeholders for advanced materials in the Kingdom. These include
companies, government agencies, and medical centers that use advanced
materials, as well as the universities and other research organizations that
conduct advanced materials R&D. The plan received input from stakeholders
at a one-day stakeholder workshop on June 17, 2007, and received extensive
input, review, and comment from a stakeholder advisory committee that met
repeatedly in the following months.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Introduction
Program Scope
system development as well as coordination and
The scope of this plan is advanced materials science and
integration of its components and beneficiaries.
technology programs for Saudi Arabia. The scope of the
2. Developing qualified human resources in science
program includes the Kingdom’s government, university,
and technology fields.
and industry research and technology development
3. Fostering and supporting scientific research to serve
efforts in advanced materials. This plan targets the first
national security and sustainable development.
5-year phase of the 20-year National Policy for Science
4. Supporting and developing the technical capabilities
and Technology.
of various national sectors to enable technology
localization and development, and production of high
The term “advanced” materials is used to emphasize that
added value, internationally competitive products.
the focus is on higher value-added materials, rather than
5. Continuously developing and coordinating the official
commodity materials. There is no clear division between
regulations related to science and technology.
advanced materials and ordinary materials based on the
6. Promoting effective international cooperation in
type of material. While some kinds of materials, such as
science and technology.
photonic materials, are generally considered advanced
7. Enhancing science and technology support activities,
materials, many other kinds of materials, such as metals
such as information and standardization services,
and ceramics may or may not be advanced materials,
patents, consulting and engineering firms, and scientific
depending on their level of technology.
societies.
For the
purpose of this program, materials that are the subject of
8. Developing and investing in a knowledge-based
significant research and technology development efforts
economy and community and their required information
are considered advanced materials.
technologies.
9. Exploiting science and technology for the preservation
Alignment with National Science & Technology
Policy
of natural resources and the environment.
The National Policy for Science and Technology defined
science and technology in realizing national security
four main goals for S&T programs:
and sustainable development.
10.Creating social awareness of the importance of
1. Preserving national security.
2. Serving sustained, balanced, and comprehensive
The National Policy for Science and Technology further
development.
defined ten “Strategic Underpinnings” that are compatible
3. Promoting the citizens’ standard of living and quality
with the above-mentioned goals and objectives. The
of life.
national policy goals and objectives, as well as the
4. Contributing to human civilization.
key needs of the Kingdom outlined in Subsection 2.1,
form the starting point and foundation for developing
It also defined General Objectives that can be summarized
the program’s strategy, goals, and projects, as will be
as follows:
outlined in this plan.
1. Adopting a comprehensive view of the national
science, technology, and innovation system that supports
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Strategic Context
Advanced Materials R&D
Needs of the Kingdom
The following strategic areas were
The Advanced Materials Program
identified as priorities for advanced
planning process put a strong
materials applications.
to have a competitive advantage.
emphasis on identifying the most
critical advanced materials research
and
innovation
needs
for
the
Kingdom. Emphasis was placed on
areas where there are special needs
in the Kingdom due to the Kingdom’s
unique environment, culture, and
existing industries, or where there
are opportunities for KSA industry
Water
Water is a critical need in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia has the world’s largest
sea water desalination industry. There are many needs for advanced materials
in water desalination, water treatment, water resources and conservation. The
Kingdom has competencies in water technologies, such as in the Saline Water
Conversion Corporation, which has a research institute, holds patents, and
operates pilot plants and test facilities. The Kingdom needs to build on these
capabilities to develop successful technology-based businesses.
Key advanced materials needs for water include:
Membranes: These include reverse osmosis, nano filtration, ultra filtration,
and micro filtration. These membranes are currently used but not produced in
the Kingdom.
Anti-scaling materials: Various anti-scaling materials are currently used
in thermal processes. Product performance is temperature-delimited and
breakthroughs are needed.
Corrosion-resistant materials: Materials are required for preventing
corrosion, especially in high-temperature environments. Advanced materials
are also required to strengthen corrosion-resistant pipelines.
Additives: Additives are used to reduce pollution. New additives with
better performance are required.
Water source identification: Advanced materials can play a critical role in
developing tracers.
10
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Strategic Context
Oil & Gas
Polymer processing technologies: such as those used
The Kingdom is the world’s leading producer of
petroleum. A wide variety of advanced materials are
needed in petroleum production. Key needs include:
Corrosion: Materials are needed that can survive the
sour (high sulfur content) service.
to produce molds, coatings, and paints.
Catalysts: including catalyst materials, regeneration,
and catalyst support.
Materials for environmental protection: including
biodegradable materials.
Sulfur utilization: The KSA oil and gas industry needs
better materials for use in converting or using sulfur.
Health, Biomedicine, and Pharmaceuticals
Composites: Composites are needed for construction,
The Kingdom has an active health research and services
oil pipelines, optical fibers, and water services (such as
sector and includes some generic pharmaceutical
pipelines, storage, processing, and disposal).
manufacturers. There are a number of advanced materials
Major
technical challenges relate to joining, manufacturing,
and installation. There are also issues with training and
standards that limit applications.
needs in this sector:
Radioactive materials are needed for a wide variety
of diagnostics, therapeutics, and sterilization purposes.
Non-destructive testing (NDT): NDT methods applied to
composites and advanced materials are a key focus area.
Welding Technologies: Although welding is viewed
as a mature technology, there are many materials-related
problems that need to be addressed.
Oil Recovery: There is a strong need for polymers
and other additives to enhance oil recovery.
Drilling processes: Advanced materials are needed
for non-vertical drilling.
There are also special packaging needs for radioactive
materials.
Genetic materials, including biomolecules with
specific genetic compositions for diagnostics.
Medical implants and prosthetics, which require
specialized materials and coating and machining
technologies.
Tissue engineering, requiring polymeric biodegradable
and non-biodegradable materials.
Coatings: Coating materials are required to reduce
corrosion failures, especially those related to high-
Selective drug delivery, requiring new bioactive
molecules.
temperatures. Materials are needed to reduce wear in
Membranes for dialysis.
gas turbines.
Specialized materials for biofacilities.
Anti-scaling materials: Anti-scaling materials are of
great demand in the petroleum sector.
Mining and Metals
Saudi Arabia is a significant producer of minerals and
Petrochemicals
metals. Some key needs are for:
The Kingdom has a major petrochemicals industry. Many
Mining and production processes.
of this industry’s materials needs are similar to those in the
New technologies and processes for characterization
oil and gas industry but there are additional needs for:
Advanced polymers: Some key areas include additives
such as flow enhancers, fillers, ultraviolet stabilizing
polymers, and fire-resisting polymers.
of alloys.
KSA-specific development of alloys for lamination
and high-temperature conditions.
Powder technologies.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
11
Strategic Context
Agriculture and Food
The KSA agriculture and food industry has some specialized material needs,
including:
Polymer-coated fertilizers for longer life.
Degradable pesticides.
Materials for food packaging.
Additives to prevent ultraviolet rays from penetrating food or beverages.
Defense
There are a variety of defense needs for advanced materials, including sulfur
resistant materials and titanium based materials for aircraft, radar materials,
light weight fiber reinforced (FR) composites for vehicles and gap crossings
(e.g., bridges), radiation shielding, and erosion resistant materials.
Other needs
There are a number of other advanced material needs for the KSA construction,
power, and electronics industries, including:
Smart glass and smart windows for the construction industry.
Silicon based materials including (poly/mono crystalline silicon),
silicon wafers, semiconductor processing materials, silicon nano-particles,
and silicon oxide nano-particles, for applications in electronics and other
industries, Silane; Silicones.
Heat transfer materials, to both aid and reduce heat flow, with applications
in many industries.
Photovoltaic and thermal technologies and materials for the solar
industry, including thin films, solar cell, and coatings such as electro-catalytic
coatings.
Coating materials, including pre-coating surface preparation, inorganic
(metal deposition, nano crystalline materials etc.), and organic (especially
high temperature offshore coating or fast-cure coating), and coatings materials
used in electro/ thermal/ photo chromic applications.
Advanced ceramics for several industries.
Composite materials, carbon-fiber composites and fiber glass composites
for civil and infrastructural needs.
These are all areas where the Advanced Materials Program can provide
benefits to the Kingdom through development, transfer and adaptation of
advanced materials.
12
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Strategic Context
Stakeholders Roles
The major program stakeholders include KACST, other government agencies, KSA universities, and industry. Their roles
are as shown in table 1.
Table 1: Advanced Materials Stakeholder Roles
Stakeholders
Roles
Coordinate and manage Kingdom wide advanced material initiatives
Manage and participate in national and international projects
KACST
Provide materials research user facilities
Provide consultation and advice to government on issues related to
advanced materials and relevant technology transfer
Create new basic and applied scientific knowledge
Universities
Train students in material science, engineering and relevant technical
fields
Participate in national and international collaborative projects
Independent or Specialized
Government Research Centers
Create new applied scientific knowledge and operational prototypes
Government Agencies
Provide oversight of operations and implementation of relevant projects
Develop and commercialize products and processes resulting from the
program
Private Sector
Participate in national and international collaborative projects
Participate in Technology Innovation Centers
Kingdom’s Industry Status
The Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC)
The status of the Kingdom’s industry related to advanced
has an R&D center that conducts research on corrosion,
materials affects the Kingdom’s strategy to succeed in
scaling, and other materials problems.
the technologies. The Kingdom has several industries
Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC)
that are either users of advanced materials, producers of
is a major producer of basic materials, especially
materials, or performers of materials R&D.
petrochemicals but also minerals. It recently acquired GE
The major industrial entities are:
Plastics, and so is a major producer of plastics, although
Saudi Aramco and its suppliers are significant users
of advanced materials, and Aramco’s R&D center has
materials scientists working on problems of interest to
the industry.
not in Saudi Arabia. SABIC conducts a significant amount
of R&D, but predominately outside of the Kingdom.
The King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research
Centre, although not typically thought of as industry,
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
13
Strategic Context
conducts research and produces specialized medical
in advanced materials. These characteristics create the
materials, such as radioactive materials.
potential for establishing a successful domestic advanced
Other industries that could potentially play a significant
materials industry.
role in advanced materials in the Kingdom are aerospace/
defense, electronics, solar energy, and construction. At
present, these are either relatively small, not involved in
Materials Research at Selected KSA Research
Organizations
the materials sector of their industry, or, as in the case of
construction, are not significantly involved in technology
To better understand the current research capabilities
development.
of KSA research institutions in materials, the Advanced
Materials Advisory Committee collected information
While the Kingdom is not a major producer of advanced
from several universities and KACST regarding their areas
materials, there is a strong domestic demand for advanced
of technical focus and number of researchers. These are
materials in several industries, very strong production
shown in table 2.
of basic materials, and some industrial R&D capacity
Table 2: Materials research at selected KSA institutions
Organization
Materials field
Staff size
1. High temperature thermal barrier coatings
2. Atmospheric corrosion of Al alloys
3. Materials related problems in local industry
4. Corrosion inhibition of construction materials
5. Sea water corrosion of Al alloys
King Fahd University of
Petroleum and Minerals
6. Development of corrosion and wear resistant coatings
7. Development of catalyst materials
8. Polymeric materials
9. Development of carbon nanotubes
10. Development of nanocomposite coatings
11. Concrete corrosion
14
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
10 PhDs
20 MSc.
Strategic Context
Organization
Materials field
Staff size
1. Smart functional materials
2. Polymer science and technology
3. Coating science and technology
King Abdulaziz University
4. Semiconductor materials and devices
5. Catalysis
6. Multi-scale computation, simulation and design of materials
30 PhD
10 MSc.
10-15 graduate
students
7. Applications of lasers in advanced materials
King Saud University
1. Characterization of materials and their performance and
improvement in their properties.
10 faculty;
2. Materials corrosion and protection
4-8 graduate
students
3. Polymer characteristics, improvement and processing
1. Metals and alloys.
2. Coating
3. Semiconductors and solar cells
4. Membranes
KACST
5. Polymers and polymer technology
10 PhD
5 MSc.
6. Ceramics
7. Corrosion
8. Catalyst
9. Petrochemical
Review of International Advanced Materials
Research Institutes
The Advanced Materials Program also reviewed the
activities of several research institutions around the world
that have a significant focus on advanced materials.
These were selected to provide examples of government
research institutes that are similar in scope and purpose
to that of KACST’s. The five institutions reviewed are
shown in table 3.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
15
Strategic Context
Table 3: Select Advance Materials Institutions
Selected Advanced Materials Institutions
Institute
Country
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Manufacturing &
Materials Technology (CMMT) Division
National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS)
Australia
Japan
Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and
Research (A*STAR)
Singapore
Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory (MSEL), National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST), U.S. Department of Commerce
United States
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), U.S. Department of Energy
United States
The five research institutes conduct R&D in similar areas of advanced materials, but they each have a slightly different
focus, depending on the national needs of their country. The research focus and priorities of the five organizations are
summarized in table 4.
Table 4: Materials Research Focus
Organization
Materials Research Focus
Ceramics (e.g., coatings, membranes, electronic ceramics)
Chemicals (e.g., biocompatible, biofunctional, membranes, nanoscale, highly porous
materials with nanoscale pores)
Materials characterization and performance
Metals (light metals and also development of new alloys)
CSIRO CMMT
(Australia)
Advanced and composite materials (e.g., wood and polymer composites, nanocomposites,
nanomaterials, geopolymers)
Plastics and polymers
Renewable and biodegradable materials
Textiles
Wood
16
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Strategic Context
Organization
Materials Research Focus
Key nanotechnologies (e.g., nano system functionality, advanced nano characterization,
among others)
Nanoscale materials
NIMS (Japan)
Nanotech-driven materials research for information technology
Nanotech-driven materials research for biotechnology
Materials research for the environment and energy
Materials research for reliability and safety
Micro- and nano-systems
A*STAR IMRE
(Singapore)
Molecular and performance materials
Opto- and electronic systems
Materials science and characterization
Materials measurement and standards infrastructure
Advanced manufacturing processes
Biomaterials
NIST MSEL (USA)
Materials for electronics
Nanometrology
Carbon nanotubes
Safety and reliability
Catalysis and nano-building blocks
Functional nanomaterials
ORNL Center for
Nanophase Materials
Sciences (USA)
Macromolecular complex systems
Nanofabrication
Nanomaterials theory
Nanoscale structure and dynamics: neutrons, electrons, X-rays
Nanophysics: magnetism, transport, and scanning probes
The institutes have several other common characteristics.
linkages with other organizations, public, academic and
All of the organizations emphasize a commitment to
private. For example, CSIRO has a light metals Flagship
technology transfer to industry, and most have integrated
research initiative, involving an extensive partnership
this priority into their organizational structures. All of
with many industry players, to develop ultra-light, ultra-
the research institutes in this report have collaborative
strong recyclable metals.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
17
Strategic Context
Most of the research institutes have a staff size of
Several commonly used indicators include the numbers
between 200 to 500 materials researchers of varying
of publications and patents, the forward citations
credentials. To develop human capital, the institutes
of publications and patents (the frequency at which
have strong partnerships with universities to mentor
publications and patents are cited by other publications
and train postgraduate research students, as well as
and patents), and the co-authoring relationships of
guest researcher programs. NIMS, for example, has an
publications. These provide indicators of research and
International Center for Young Scientists, which gives
inventive output, impact, and collaboration.
young researchers from various countries and diverse
research field opportunities to conduct research.
For this analysis, the field of “advanced materials” and
its subfields were defined in close consultation with
Most of the institutes have facilities that they promote
KACST researchers and other KSA stakeholders. KACST
for external use. Users can often book the equipment
researchers identified seven subfields relevant to KSA
online. Of note are ORNL’s Spallation Neutron Source
strategic priorities and provided detailed lists of keyword
and High Flux Isotope Reactor, NIST’s Center for Neutron
terms that were used to develop search queries for
Research (NCNR), and NIST’s Center for Theoretical and
publication and patent databases.2 Advanced materials
Computational Materials Science.
R&D is a multidisciplinary field that spans many research
areas, including applied physics, physical chemistry,
All five research institutes receive direction for their
condensed matter physics, chemical engineering, and
strategic plans from their respective overarching national
nanoscience. The seven KSA advanced materials subfields
strategic plans and/or agencies. The research institutes
are: membranes, composite and hybrid materials,
may also receive external guidance from industry and
polymers and polymer processing technologies, metals
academia, as in the case of CSIRO, NIMS, and NIST.
and alloys, ceramics, smart materials, and coatings.
The scope of this study was restricted to only recent
Advanced Materials R&D Indicators
publication (2006-2007) and patent (2002-2006) activity
Overview
in the seven KACST defined fields.
This section provides indicators of advanced materials
R&D based on publication and patent data. Publication
and patents are widely used as indicators of science and
technology, although publication and patent counts alone
do not fully represent the quality or scope of research.1
1 Seminal research in the use of publications as a measure of scientific productivity includes A.J. Lotka, “The frequency distribution of scientific productivity,” Journal
of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol 16 (1926); D. Price, Little Science, Big Science, (New York: Columbia university Press, 1963); J.R. Cole and S Cole, Social
Stratification in Science, (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1973); J. Gaston, The reward system in British and American science, (New York: John Wiley (1978);
and M.F. Fox, “Publication productivity among scientists: a critical review,” Social Studies of Science, vol 13, 1983.
2 ISI Web of Science and Delphion were queried for scientific publication and U.S. patent application data, respectively. The ISI Web of Science is a database of peerreviewed articles in major scientific journals from around the world. Delphion is a searchable database of global patent activity, including the U.S. Patent and Trademark
Office (USPTO). The USPTO is one of the world’s major granters of patents and it has been argued that the U.S. market is so large that most important inventions from
around the world are patented there.
18
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Strategic Context
Global Advanced Materials Publication Activity
producer of related articles, generating 4782 articles
Between 2006 and 2007, there were 25397 articles
over this time period. The United States was second,
published worldwide related to KSA research priorities
producing 4757 articles followed by Japan and Germany
in advanced materials. Figure 1 shows the number of
with 2365 and 1690 articles respectively. Saudi Arabia
publications produced by countries over this time period.
was the 46th largest producer of publications, producing
3
4
The People’s Republic of China was the world’s largest
67 articles in ISI-indexed journals.
Figure 1: Advanced Materials Publications
South Korea
1534
UK
1257
People R. China
4782
Australia
Turkey
Japan
2365
France
1244
Germany
1,690
India
1274
USA
4757
Spain
822
Russia
Poland
Italy
891
Taiwan
829
Canada
770
Saudi
Arabia
3 Throughout this report, “advanced materials” refers only to the subset of advanced materials defined by the KSA advanced materials program.
4 A publication is assigned to a country if any of the publication’s author’s affiliations are located in that country. Because publications often have multiple authors, a
single publication may be assigned to multiple countries. Aggregate figures, such as total global publication output, count each publication only once, but adding up
sub-totals may yield a result larger than the reported total due to multiple counting.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
19
Strategic Context
As shown in table 5, composite and hybrid material R&D
processing technologies (5283), metals and alloys (3540),
accounts for the majority of advanced materials related
smart materials (3296), membranes (2878), ceramics
publications (7886) followed by polymers and polymer
(2382) and coatings (1423).
Table 5: Advanced Materials Sub-topics (2006-2007)
Sub-Topic
Publications
Composite and Hybrid Materials
7886
Polymers and Polymer Processing Technologies
5283
Metals and Alloys
3540
Smart Materials
3296
Membrane
2878
Ceramics
2382
Coatings
1423
Publication Impact
Average publication impact is calculated as the number
of citations of articles from a particular country divided
by the total number of articles published by authors from
that country. For instance, a country that published 50
articles that were cited 100 times would have an average
publication impact of two. Between 2006 and 2007, the
United States had the highest average publication impact
of all countries at 1.81 followed by Singapore (1.53) and
the United Kingdom (1.43). The average publication
impact for Saudi Arabia was 0.42 with 28 citations of
67 articles. The table 6 presents publication and citation
counts for benchmark countries.5
5 Benchmark countries include global leaders in terms of total advanced materials output in addition to a list of specific countries provided by KACST.
20
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Strategic Context
Table 6: Benchmark Country Publication Impact (2006-2007)
Country
Publications
Total Citations
Average Publication Impact
USA
4757
8607
1.81
Singapore
329
504
1.53
UK
1257
1795
1.43
Israel
177
247
1.40
Oman
8
11
1.38
Germany
1690
2307
1.37
France
1244
1697
1.36
South Korea
1534
1894
1.23
Peoples R China
4782
5001
1.05
Japan
2365
2316
0.98
73
69
0.95
1274
1136
0.89
Kuwait
19
10
0.53
Malaysia
99
42
0.42
Saudi Arabia
67
28
0.42
UAE
22
5
0.23
South Africa
India
Advanced Materials Research Organizations
Advanced materials R&D publications are produced
at thousands of research institutions in 120 countries.
As shown in table 7, the three institutions producing
the largest number of publications related to advanced
materials R&D are the Chinese Academy of Sciences
(806), the Indian Institute of Technology (336), and Tsing
Hua University (333). The Chinese Academy of Sciences
is the largest producer of publications in all advanced
materials sub-topic areas except ceramics. The Russian
Academy of Sciences is the largest producer of ceramics
related publications.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
21
22
60
13
13
14
41
56
59
69
1.47
1.99
295
253
220
214
194
191
188
Russian
Acad Sci
Harbin Inst
Technol
Seoul Natl
Univ
Univ Texas
Tohoku
Univ
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Natl Univ
Singapore
1.82
0.99
0.46
0.59
1.26
39
44
103
68
74
93
56
14
13
47
72
50
11
95
68
27
39
46
91
20
17
10
33
62
69
34
152
Univ Sci
& Technol
China
1.33
46
146
333
113
122
Tsing Hua
University
0.78
235
336
1.61
Indian Inst
Technol
Smart
Materials
806
Metals and
Alloys
Chinese
Acad Sci
Polymers
and Polymer
Processing
Technologies
Total
Composite
and Hybrid
Materials
Institution
Average
Impact
Table 7: Global Advanced Materials R&D Organizations (2006-2007)
56
13
29
29
11
28
19
42
19
85
Membrane
10
4
11
10
11
9
8
9
12
11
14
25
56
Coatings
16
13
52
29
30
33
48
Ceramics
Strategic Context
Strategic Context
International Collaboration and Publication Impact
country’s level of international collaboration (horizontal
In this study, international collaboration is calculated
axis) against the average impact of its publications
as the average number of countries represented per
(vertical axis).
publication, based on authors’ addresses. Figure 2 plots a
Figure 2: Advanced Materials Collaboration and Publication Impact (2006-2007)
2.5
Peoples R. China
2
USA
USA
Japan
Average Impact
Germany
Singapore
1.5
South Korea
UK
India
Israel
Oman
France
South Korea
Peoples R. China
UK
Germany
France
Singapore
Japan
1
Israel
South Africa
India
Malaysia
South Africa
Saudi Arabia
Kuwait
0.5
Malaysia
United Arab Emirates
Saudi Arabia
Kuwait
United Arab Emirates
Oman
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Average Level of International Collaboration
KSA Collaboration Activity
(8 publications), Lebanon (5), and the United States (5).
In the advanced materials field, as shown in table 8,
KSA-affiliated authors also collaborated with authors
authors affiliated with KSA institutions collaborated on
from: Ireland, Italy, Turkey, the United Kingdom, Yemen,
a significant number of articles with authors from: Egypt
and Qatar.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
23
Strategic Context
Table 8: KSA Publication Collaborators (2007)
Country
Number of Publications
Egypt
8
Lebanon
5
USA
5
Ireland
4
Italy
4
Turkey
4
United Kingdom
3
Yemen
2
Qatar
1
Advanced Materials Journals
publication activity related to KSA advanced materials
Table 9: presents journals with a significant level of
sub-fields from (2005 - 2007).
Table 9: Advanced Materials Journals
Composites
Journal
24
Publications
JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE
233
COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
204
COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
151
COMPOSITES PART A-APPLIED SCIENCE AND MANUFACTURING
125
JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
122
JOURNAL OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS
112
MATERIALS LETTERS
111
JOURNAL OF COMPOSITES FOR CONSTRUCTION
109
JOURNAL OF REINFORCED PLASTICS AND COMPOSITES
101
MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES
MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING
99
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Strategic Context
Ceramics
Coatings
Journal
Publications
SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY
150
JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE
30
APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE
28
LANGMUIR
26
NANOTECHNOLOGY
26
THIN SOLID FILMS
23
ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA
21
MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES
MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING
18
APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS
17
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
17
JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY
101
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY
68
SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY
47
RARE METAL MATERIALS AND ENGINEERING
46
MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES
MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING
41
JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
37
APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS
31
CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL
29
JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 1-REGULAR PAPERS BRIEF
COMMUNICATIONS & REVIEW PAPERS
28
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
28
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
25
Strategic Context
Polymer
Membrane
Metals and Alloys
Journal
26
Publications
SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY
252
MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES
MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING
212
CORROSION SCIENCE
150
RARE METAL MATERIALS AND ENGINEERING
108
TRANSACTIONS OF NONFERROUS METALS SOCIETY OF CHINA
104
ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA
83
MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS
75
JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS
75
SCRIPTA MATERIALIA
62
APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE
61
JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE
380
DESALINATION
157
SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
60
INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH
44
JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES
41
LANGMUIR
40
NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION
35
JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE
33
NANOTECHNOLOGY
30
PERITONEAL DIALYSIS INTERNATIONAL
30
JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE
304
ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA
113
POLYMER
111
SYNTHETIC METALS
92
POLYMER DEGRADATION AND STABILITY
90
MACROMOLECULES
88
JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE PART A-POLYMER CHEMISTRY
78
BIOMATERIALS
73
EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL
71
JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES
67
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Strategic Context
Smart Materials
Journal
Publications
APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS
301
THIN SOLID FILMS
122
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
93
SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS
90
JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 1-REGULAR PAPERS BRIEF
COMMUNICATIONS & REVIEW PAPERS
89
JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY
73
ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS
64
JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE PART A-POLYMER CHEMISTRY
56
MOLECULAR CRYSTALS AND LIQUID CRYSTALS
53
CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS
51
Advanced Materials Patent Activity
Between 2002 and 2006, there were 8973 advanced
materials-related patent applications filed with the United
States Patent Office (USPTO). As shown in table 10, the
majority of these (4988) listed at least one inventor from
the United States. Other countries with a significant
number of inventors include: Japan (1551 applications),
Germany (721 applications), and South Korea (386
applications). There was one advanced materialsrelated patent application that listed an inventor from
Saudi Arabia over this time period. “Highly luminescnt
color-selective nanocrystalline materials”6 involved the
collaboration of inventors from Saudi Arabia, Spain, and
the United States.
6 Bawendi, Moungi, Jensen, Klaus F., Dabbousi, Bashir O., Rodriguez-Viejo, Javier, Mikulec, Frederic Victor. U.S. Patent Application # 20040033359, 2004.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
27
Strategic Context
Table 10: Advanced Materials Patents (2002-2006)
Country
Composite
Membranes and Hybrid
Materials
Polymers
& Polymer
Processing
Technologies
Metals
and
Alloys
Ceramics
Smart
Materials
Coatings
Total
United States
179
321
2844
123
232
439
964
4988
Japan
83
110
774
119
196
75
222
1551
Germany
28
71
321
19
62
64
171
721
South Korea
17
4
278
9
15
46
26
386
Taiwan
8
8
99
11
17
132
47
316
United Kingdom
13
19
191
5
11
25
34
295
France
11
22
154
17
5
14
39
257
Canada
19
11
115
11
6
25
32
214
Netherlands
5
0
100
2
3
9
7
123
Italy
12
8
47
7
17
3
16
108
Saudi Arabia
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
While the majority of advanced materials related patent
Eastman Kodak Co. is listed as the patent assignee on 93
applications are defined as individually owned patent
advanced materials applications followed by Samsung
applications (5,986 applications) by the United States
Electronics Co., Ltd. (85 applications), Polymer Group,
Patent Office, some institutions are designated as the
Inc. (55 applications), and 3M Innovative Properties
patent assignee on a number of applications. These
Company (54 applications). The single patent with an
institutions, which have a record as inventors, could be
inventor from Saudi Arabia lists Massachusetts Institute
targets for future collaboration.
of Technology as the patent assignee.
As shown in table 11,
Table 11: Leading Advanced Materials Assignees (2002-2006)
USTPO Assignee
No. of Patents Apps.
Individually Owned Patents
28
5986
Eastman Kodak Co.
93
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
85
Polymer Group, Inc.
55
3M Innovative Properties Company
54
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Strategic Context
SWOT Analysis
This section represents a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and
threats) analysis of the Saudi Arabia Advanced Materials Program relative to
achieving its vision. In a SWOT analysis, terms are defined as follows:
Strengths: attributes of an organization that are helpful to achieving the
objective.
Weaknesses: attributes of an organization that are harmful to achieving
the objective.
Opportunities: external conditions that are helpful to achieving the
objective.
Threats: external conditions that are harmful to achieving the objective.
Strengths and weaknesses are internal to the organization, while opportunities
and threats are external to the organization. For the purpose of this analysis,
the “organization” is the Saudi Advanced Materials Program, including
KACST, universities, other government agencies, and companies. The SWOT
analysis is summarized in table 12.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
29
Strategic Context
Table 12: Advanced Materials SWOT Analysis
Helpful
Internal
Strengths:
Major petroleum and petrochemical
and minerals producers that provide
feedstock for advanced materials and
have advanced materials needs.
Ample financial resources.
Domestic customers for advanced
materials in water, health, defense,
transportation and construction.
Some research capability in
universities, industry, and KACST.
Harmful
Weaknesses:
Weak overall position in materials research and
technology.
Weak human resources base -- no material science
departments in universities.
Poor mobility and adaptability of human resources
(once a physicist, students remain tied to physics).
Inflexibility in human resource regulations
(e.g. difficult to hire and retain good people in
government.
Logistics in obtaining research supplies.
Insufficient international linkages.
Weak industry-government- university linkages.
Weak culture and history of R&D and successful
innovation.
Weak implementation of planning.
Weak manufacturing sector (outside of petroleum
and petrochemicals) to make use of advanced
materials.
External
Opportunities:
Potential to produce high-value added
materials based on KSA raw materials.
Growing domestic and international
markets for water and solar
technologies.
Threats:
International competition -- other countries are
moving faster (see Appendix 2).
Constraints on needed reforms.
Instability in financial support and policies.
Saudization of education and research.
National strategy of investing in science
and technology.
Potential to collaborate domestically
and internationally.
Education of future scientists.
30
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Strategic Context
The overall strengths of the Kingdom in advanced materials are its large
natural resource-based firms, its financial resources, and its domestic market
for advanced materials. The Kingdom has several weaknesses with respect to
advanced materials. Research institutes, including universities, government,
and industry, do not rank among the top worldwide institutions. Human
resources for advanced materials research are generally weak. There are no
materials science departments or curricula in universities. There is poor
mobility and adaptability of human resources -– it is difficult for physicists or
chemists to move into materials science.
Human resource regulations are
inflexible, making it difficult to hire and retain good people in government.
Saudi researchers have insufficient collaboration with others in the Kingdom,
their counterparts in industry, or in other countries. There is little track record of
successful innovation or of successful implementation of planning initiatives.
Another weakness is that it is difficult to obtain research supplies. Finally,
outside of the petroleum and petrochemical industries, the manufacturing
sectors that provide the demand for advanced materials are relatively weak.
There are opportunities to take advantage of the Saudi national strategy to
invest more heavily in science and technology, combined with the potential
to leverage the Kingdom’s strength in natural resources to compete in higher
value added products. The main threat is that international competitors are
not standing still, and, indeed, seem to be moving faster than Saudi Arabia.
The initiatives in this plan have been designed to take advantage of the
KSA strengths and to address the weaknesses, while keeping aware of the
opportunities and threats. To take advantage of the KSA strengths, programs
have been designed to focus on areas of special KSA needs and markets, and
to build on existing capabilities. To counteract the weaknesses, programs
have been designed to expand government-university-industry collaboration,
to focus on innovation, and to train students and researchers in materials
science.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
31
Higher Strategy
The Program higher strategy is
represented by its Vision, Mission,
Values and Strategic Goals. These
are derived with consideration of the
goals and objectives of the National
Policy for Science and Technology
and Key Needs of the Kingdom.
Vision
The vision for advanced materials science and technology in the Kingdom is:
The Kingdom will leverage its unique strengths and needs to become a
world leader in specific advanced materials technologies and an exporter of
high value-added advanced materials. The Kingdom shall have an effective
innovation system that has strong linkages between research and education
and between industries, universities, and government.
A key aspect of this vision is that it is focused on innovation in areas of particular
importance to the Kingdom. The near-term vision for the Kingdom is not to
be strong in all areas of materials or to be a world leader in fundamental
research, but rather to focus on the areas where the Kingdom has potential
competitive advantages and can apply technology to the Kingdom’s economic
and social needs.
Mission
The mission of the Advanced Material Program is to support an effective
innovation system for advanced materials in the Kingdom through:
research, development, technology transfer, and localization in areas of
national need;
collaborations among national and international research institutions;
actions to develop human resources for advanced materials; and
the planning, developing, and operating of major materials research facilities.
32
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Higher Strategy
Values and Program Culture
To achieve excellence, the program will develop an internal culture through
both the sponsorship of its leadership and commitment of its operational
teams, based on the following values:
Excellence of work.
Professional integrity and ethical behavior.
Openness and transparency.
Commitment to achieving objectives.
Support of creativity and innovation.
Teamwork and collaboration.
Program Strategic Goals
The Program Strategic Goals are to:
Improve the contribution of advanced materials to the critical national
needs and the competitiveness of KSA industry.
Enable a domestic technology-based advanced materials industries in key
areas (such as membranes and catalysis).
Raise KSA’s international position of advanced material.
Improve the Kingdom’s human resources and institutions for advanced
materials R&D.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
33
Technology Areas
Selection Process
of existing R&D capabilities, the
The Advance Materials program
Kingdom’s current position in the
selected technologies based on input
technology, and the market impact
from the program’s stakeholders
of the technology.
through the stakeholder’s workshop
and
the
committee.
program’s
advisory
The main criteria
were the needs of industry or
other stakeholders.
The advisory
committee also considered the
potential for the Kingdom to develop
a strong position in the technology,
based on the presence or absence
Selected Technology Areas
The following are key advanced materials technologies for the Kingdom
grouped into major categories, although there is some overlap among the
categories.7
Membranes
Advanced function membranes for use especially in water treatment as well
as other industrial applications. Relevant technologies include developing
non-biofouling materials, chemical and scale resistant membranes, high
reverse osmosis rejection and permeability membranes, and gas separation
and sterilization membranes.
Filtration membranes.
Nano-, micro-, and ultra-filtration membranes
are vital for the water sectors and also have applications in the petroleum,
petrochemical, and biomedical sectors in the Kingdom.
Composite and Hybrid Materials
Corrosion-resistant materials, especially for high temperature and high
sulfur environments, are critical to the petroleum, petrochemical, and water
sectors. Sulfur resistant materials are also important for aircraft.
7 There is no single clear taxonomy of materials technologies, since materials are commonly grouped by both
functional purpose (e.g. corrosion resistance, catalysis), application field (e.g. biomedical materials, electronic
materials), or by type of material (e.g. ceramics, metals).
34
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Technology Areas
Composites are needed for construction, pipelines,
optical fibers, and water services (such as pipeline,
storage, processing, disposal etc.).
Ceramics
Development of specialized ceramics such as
Major technical
aluminum oxide, tungsten carbides, and refractory oxide
challenges relate to design, joining, manufacturing
dispersion strengthened alloys for use in insulation,
processes, and installation. There are also issues with
medical implants, and new building materials.
training and standards that limit applications.
Non-destructive
testing
(NDT)
technologies,
Smart Materials
especially applied to composites and other advanced
Advanced functional materials include photo-,
materials are important in the petroleum, petrochemical
thermo-, piezo-, tribo-, and electro-chromatic materials,
and water sectors.
and smart glass for use in construction. Other smart
Welding Technologies are important for petroleum
and water sectors.
materials
include
multifunctional
materials
and
switchable systems for use in textiles, food packaging,
and solar applications.
Polymers and Polymer Processing
Silicon
Advanced polymer technologies have broad industrial
crystalline
based
silicon),
materials
silicon
including
wafers,
(poly/mono
semiconductor
uses including oil and natural gas drilling, pipeline and
processing materials, silicon nano-particles, and silicon
storage tanks, electronics, textiles, agriculture, water,
oxide nano-particles, for applications in electronics and
dentistry, and drug delivery.
other industries, Silane; Silicones.
Heat transfer materials, to both aid and reduce heat
New classes of polymers and polymer processes
flow, with applications in many industries
including resin systems and high temperature ablative
resins,
and
nanostructured
biodegradable
polymers,
polymers,
water
flame
soluble
retardants,
Coating
Corrosion
resistant,
self-cleaning,
and
healing
UV light stabilizers, and nanoparticles for polymer
coatings; light, heat, and pressure switchable coatings
reinforcement.
for various industrial applications.
Development of UV light resistant coatings and
Metals and Alloys
metallic and thermal barrier coatings also for use in
Advanced functions include duplex and ferritic steels
for thermal plants, materials for desalination plants,
textiles, food packaging, and oil and gas drilling and
transport.
materials to reduce high temperature stress corrosion
cracking, and materials for specialized uses in medical
applications.
Specialized alloys include corrosion and erosion
resistant and high temperature and strength alloys for
use in water treatment, construction, and oil and gas
industries, defense and aerospace applications.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
35
Technology Areas
Program Structure
Innovation Centers (TIC), and other existing research
Overview
centers. The activities of other existing research centers,
Figure 3 provides a schematic diagram of the proposed
while coordinated as part of the overall program, are not
Advanced Materials Program. It consists of three main
presented in detail in this plan.
subprograms:
KACST,
university-based
Technology
Figure 3: Structure of Advanced Materials Program
National Center for Advanced Materials
KACST (National Lab) host the center, which serves
as a facility. The Center’s technical board including
the other centers.
Technology Innovation Centers
University-industry centers that are funded primarily
by government but receive industrial support and
have an industrial advisory committee. Centers
will develop knowledge and technology in areas of
industrial importance and will train students in areas
of importance to industry.
Other Existing Research Centers
(e.g. SWCC, Aramco, SABIC)
Advanced materials research activities in these
centers is focused on operational solutions
and some basic research activity conducted in
coordination with the national center and centers of
excellence.
Role of KACST in Advanced Materials
defense, etc.) and by technology area (membranes,
KACST will be responsible for (1) advanced materials
polymers, composites, etc.)
planning and policy leadership; (2) conducting applied
Develop technology roadmaps in key areas of
research and development on problems of national
advanced materials that define the technical advances
importance, and (3) providing high quality research
needed in specific time frames, and define the roles of
facilities and technical support to university and industry
university, industry, and government.
researchers.
Prioritize and organize advanced materials R&D
programs.
1. Planning and Policy Leadership.
The planning and policy leadership function will be
facilities (see below).
especially important in the early years of the advanced
Support an advisory board, made up of key
materials program. It will have several objectives. In this
stakeholders, that will oversee the development of the
function, the national center will:
plan, budget and resource allocations, and execution of
Provide direct and ongoing ways for material users
36
Develop a national plan for materials research
the plan. to provide input to R&D priorities such as through
Develop an advanced materials human resource plan
workshops organized by sector (oil and gas, medical,
that will estimate the need for researchers and technicians
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Technology Areas
and the skills needed, and determine how to meet these
humanitarian impact on the Kingdom. For each project,
needs through education, training, and international
there will be a clear path or paths through which the
hiring.
project is likely to provide evident, desirable, and timely
Promote
a
material
science
curriculum
in
universities.
benefits to the Kingdom. This may be through solving
important problems in existing industries, enabling a
Support an advanced materials professional society
technological advancement in an emerging or needed
to exchange knowledge and build trust among members
industry, or meeting an unmet need that will result in a
of the KSA advanced materials research community.
new KSA industry of significant size (either homegrown
Advocate changes in national policies that affect
or through foreign investment). Programs will involve
many areas of technology, including:
both KACST R&D and extramural funding of existing
- Legal framework to support technology partnerships
research centers
- Procedures for sharing of research equipment
- Incentives and accountability for researchers to
3. Research Facilities and Related Human Resources
improve research productivity
The objective in this area is to provide KSA researchers
-
with access to state-of-the-art research equipment. An
Policies on employment of non-Saudis and women
researchers
important role for national laboratories is to provide for
- Improved primary and secondary school education in
advanced research facilities that can be shared by many
math and science
users. Examples around the world include light sources
(synchrotrons or accelerators), advanced microscopes,
2. Applied Research and Development
magnet laboratories, ion beam facilities, neutron sources,
Most specific areas of applied research and development
high temperature facilities, clean rooms, pilot processing
conducted by KACST, in collaboration with universities
plants, and many other types of facilities. Such facilities
and other research institutes, will be determined as
are expensive and may be technically challenging to build
an outcome of the detailed planning and technology
and operate; many have had significant cost and time
platforms described above.
overruns. Careful planning is important.
R&D conducted at the
national center will typically differ from university work
as follows:
KACST work in this area will begin with the development
more applied and time-urgent.
of both a near- and a long-term plan to acquire, or acquire
larger scale.
access to, the modern analytical equipment needed to
require specialized (e.g, nuclear materials) facilities
conduct the research needed to meet current and emerging
KACST will conduct a combination of independent
national R&D needs in materials.8 The plan will begin
and client (either government agency or industry)
by developing an inventory of current experimental
funded work. Independent projects will be prioritized
and test facilities in the Kingdom and an inventory of
according to their potentially beneficial economic or
the types of equipment needed in the priority research
8
Examples of such plans include European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (2006). European Roadmap for Research Infrastructures Report 2006, and U.S.
Department of Energy (2003). Facilities for the Future of Science:A Twenty-Year Outlook.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
37
Technology Areas
fields. The plan will identify which needs can be met
molecular imaging and treatment by using the proton/
adequately through arrangements with existing regional
carbon method. This will contribute to new methods of
and international centers. The plan will then prioritize
diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease.
and design to acquire the new facilities needed for
the Kingdom. The plan will also consider the training
University TICs in Advanced Materials
needed for KSA scientists and technicians to build and
The University TICs in Advanced Materials Program will
operate the facilities. This planning will be conducted
include financial support for several university-industry
jointly with groups in related areas that share needs for
research centers in advanced materials, coordinated
research equipment, including physics, nanotechnology,
with KACST activities, in such key areas as:
petroleum and petrochemicals, and water, because of
their mutual need for similar instrumentation.
Engineering materials – corrosion, biomedical,
composites, ceramics.
Membranes - water, medical, petrochemical.
Based on this plan, KACST will establish a “National
Materials processing – catalysts, etc.
User Facility” containing a comprehensive and integrated
Coatings & smart materials.
array of up-to-date scientific equipment, supported by a
The goals of these centers are to:
well-trained technical staff. The facilities and technical
staff will support university and industrial researchers as
Develop a critical mass of expertise at universities in
areas of research that are important to industry.
well as KACST researchers. KACST will develop policies
Expand human resources for advanced materials by
and procedures for prioritizing the use of these facilities
training students in technical fields of direct relevance to
by various parties. KACST will also develop policies to
industry.
facilitate the flow of research supplies including solvents,
resins, chemicals, etc. needed in materials research.
Build trust and collaboration among industry and
academia.
Change the culture of universities to emphasize
A major national technology project to be managed by
systems level work and work on important problems.
KACST, in conjunction with SWCC and universities, is
Each academic center will primarily be funded by
R&D in membrane technology. This project will transfer
government but will be expected to obtain partial funding
membrane manufacturing techniques and develop new
from industry, which will serve to ensure that the center’s
technologies with the goal of supporting membrane
studies are focused on real industrial needs. Each center
manufacturing and innovation in the Kingdom. This
will also have an industrial advisory board. Each center
project will also support the water scarcity plan that
will involve both undergraduate and graduate students
relies on desalination as a strategic option.
in research, preparing them for employment in areas
of industrial need. The output will be new knowledge
Another proposed national project is the development of
and technology, but equally important, students who are
advanced materials in the field of medical applications,
trained in conducting research on projects with direct
to be conducted primarily at the King Faisal Specialist
relevance to industry and other users.
Hospital and Research Centre. This would strengthen
the research activities and tools for the applications of
38
KACST will run a competition for the multi-year support
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Technology Areas
of such centers, and an external review committee will
evaluate their performance over time, recommending
continuation or termination, as appropriate. The
Aramco Research and Development Center, which
includes a materials science division
Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Corporation (SABIC)
universities will be free to define the technical focus of
In addition, several KACST institutes or technology
their centers, but the involvement of industrial advisors
programs have activities related to advanced materials.
and the requirement of significant industrial cost-sharing
These include:
should help ensure that relevant and useful results are
Petrochemicals.
produced.
Water.
The Centers will be intimately involved in
the KACST planning process described above. From this
Aerospace.
process, the Centers will receive guidance about user
Nanotechnology.
needs. The Centers will also be an important source of
Math and Physics.
technical input to the processes.
Atomic Energy.
Energy.
Current Research Centers
All of these research centers currently receive their main
The third element of the Advanced Materials Program is
funding from a variety of sources, and will continue
made up of the existing research centers that have some
receive the major funding from outside of the Advanced
advanced materials activities. There are several existing
Materials Program.
university materials centers, including:
involved in the Advanced Materials Program in several
The King Saud University (KSU) Center of Excellence
on engineering materials.
But all of these centers will be
ways. They may receive funding from the Materials
Program to support the centers’ participation in national
The KSU SABIC Polymer Research Center.
advanced materials projects. They will also participate
Various centers at King Fahd University of Petroleum
in the planning activities, and members of these centers
and Minerals (KFUPM) and the KFUPM Research
will participate in the Advanced Materials Advisory
Institute, which is a contract research institute affiliated
Committee. The centers will share information to ensure
with the university.
that they collaborate in areas where it is beneficial and
Although not yet established, the King Abdullah
appropriate for them to do so.
University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is also
expected to have significant materials research activities,
starting in 2009.
In addition to the university centers, there are several
industrial and medical research centers that conduct
materials related research, including:
King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre
(KFSHRC).
Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) Saline
Water Desalination Research Institute.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
39
Program Implementation
Portfolio Management
The Advance Materials Program
will include a variety of projects
with different goals and objectives.
The program will be managed to
achieve a balance across multiple
objectives.
Some factors to be
considered in program balance
include:
The balance between projects to achieve an immediate objective versus
building long-term capacity (especially human resources) for the program.
The balance between meeting the needs of existing companies versus
establishing new technology-based industries in the Kingdom.
The balance between low risk incremental projects and high risk/high
return projects.
The balance among different national needs and major stakeholders
(water, petroleum, petrochemical, medical, etc.).
The program manager and advisory committee will review the program to
ensure that it maintains an appropriate balance among these factors.
Program Management
Organizational Structure and Performance Indicators
The Advance Materials Program will be directed by a Program Manager,
who will be a KACST employee, and responsible for the overall execution
of the plan. The Advanced Materials Advisory Committee will oversee the
implementation of the plan. It will provide advice to the Program Manager,
and will also report to the National S&T Plan Supervisory Committee, which
will oversee all of the Strategic Technology Programs. The Advance Materials
Advisory Committee will meet approximately four times a year and review
progress in the program and approve updates to the plan as necessary. Key
40
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Program Implementation
performance indicators will be established for each subprogram. General
long-term performance indicators include:
Growth or establishment of technology-based businesses due to the
Advanced Materials program.
Amount of revenue or jobs created.
Successful importation and adaptation of technology resulting in new
businesses or applications.
Number of licenses and amount of licensing revenue to universities and
research institutes.
Number of advanced materials-related patents.
Private sector funding of university and KACST Advanced Materials research
(indicates the value private sector places on university or KACST R&D).
Number and level of presentations in international conferences.
Changes in policies (described previously) to improve advanced materials
R&D in the Kingdom.
Number and impact of publications.
Extent of domestic and international R&D collaborations.
Numbers of materials science advanced degrees awarded.
In the near term, the program will be evaluated on the progress in implementing
this plan, including the establishment of the national facilities at KACST
and the university-industry centers, the implementation of applied research
programs, the development of technology roadmaps and the facilities plan,
and the development of policies to improve advanced materials R&D.
The advisory committee will also sponsor and oversee studies of emerging
areas of advanced materials to serve as the basis for developing new program
areas. This plan is intended to be a dynamic document that will be updated
at least annually and more frequently if required. In addition to the advisory
committee input, it is expected that workshops with the research community,
users, and other stakeholders will also contribute to both a continual evolution
of the plan as well as a stronger advanced materials R&D network in the
Kingdom.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
41
Program Implementation
Key Management Issues
Two key management issues are quality management and
human resources. With respect to quality management,
the Advanced Materials Program will follow international
best practices for science and technology programs.
Elements of this plan include:
Advisory committee review of the overall program
design and budget.
Allow salary flexibility to be able to pay competitive,
market-based salaries to attract key people.
Change policies to allow more international hiring, to
bring specialized expertise to the Kingdom.
Train researchers to become R&D managers and
leaders.
This plan is designed to help increase the number
of materials researchers over the long term through
Competitive, peer-reviewed selection processes for
university-based research centers and projects.
Annual reviews of technology development projects
to ensure that milestones are being met.
Periodic (every 5 years) evaluation of the Advanced
Materials Program conducted by a review committee
its emphasis on university-industry centers and the
development
of
material
curriculum
for
universities. These university-industry centers will be
designed to train new students with the research and
innovation skills needed by research organizations and
industry.
supported by an experienced evaluator.
Procedures will be developed for disclosing and
managing potential conflicts of interest among reviewers.
In many cases, some international experts will be used
on review panels to reduce possible conflicts of interest
and to provide an independent external assessment.
With respect to human resources, the availability of
skilled people, including both researchers and technical
managers and leaders, is likely to be a limiting factor in
the growth and success of the KSA Advanced Materials
program. The program will require substantial number of
materials professionals, including additional researchers,
technical managers, and technical leaders at KACST,
universities, and companies. In the short-run, a critical
need is to recruit people with appropriate skills to KACST
for Advanced Materials to manage the various tracks
of this plan. Without the ability to recruit people with
adequate knowledge of advanced materials and program
management skills, the plan will not meet its goals.
In the near term, other strategies to expand the human
resources for the materials program are:
42
science
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Appendices
Appendix A - Plan
Development Process and
Participants
success. Following the workshop,
The development of this plan was
input and review drafts of the plan.
overseen by the Advanced Materials
List below are the members of the
Advisory Committee. A one-day
advisory committee, as well as the
stakeholder workshop was held on
participants in the workshop.
the advisory committee met on a
weekly or biweekly basis to provide
June 17, 2007 to receive input from
a wide range of stakeholders. The
workshop focused on the needs of
the Kingdom in Advanced Materials,
outlined programs to meet the
needs, and identify barriers to
Advanced Materials Advisory Committee
Khalid A. Aleissa
Director of Institute of Atomic Energy Research
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Abdullah I. Almarshad
Prof. of Materials Eng &Corrosion Head, Corrosion Research Group
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Ahmed Alyamani
Deputy Director of Nanotechnology Center
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Gasem M. Fallatah
Non-Metallic Materials Specialist
Saudi Aramco
Abdullah M. Asiri
Prof. of Organic Chemistry
King Abdulaziz University
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
43
Appendices
Ibrahim AlJammaz
Senior Scientist, Deputy Chairman Cyclotron Radiopharmaceuticals
King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre
luai Al-Hadhrami
Center Director for Engineering Research
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
Maher A. Alodan
Vice President for Research
Alfaisal University
Rafea F. AL-Shehri
Operation Research, R&D Department
Ministry of Defense and Aviation
Abdulrahman M. Abanmy
Reverse Osmosis Desalination Specialist
Saline Water Conversion Corporation
Tariq Shukri
Deputy Director of Institute of Atomic Energy Research
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Mohammed S. AlSuhybani
Scientific researcher
Atomic Energy Research Institute
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
44
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Appendices
Participants in Advanced Materials Stakeholder Workshop
Table: A-1 Participants in Advanced Materials Stakeholder Workshop
Participant
Organization
Abdulaziz A. Alsugair
KACST
Abdullah A. AlMahadef
Ministry of Water and Electricity
Abdullah I. Almarshad
KACST
Abdullah M. Asiri
KAAU
AbdullrahmenA. Almuhanna
KACST
Abdulrahman M. Abanmy
SWCC
Ahmed A. Basfar
KACST
Ahmed AlSaya
KACST
Ahmed M. Hala
KACST
Asmail N. Andijani
SWCC
Gasem M. Fallatah
Saudi Aramco
Hamed F. Alharbi
KSU
Hamed N. Alwashmi
SWCC
HunJai Bae
KACST
Ibrahaim AlJammaz
KFSHRC
K.M. Idriss Ali
KACST
Khaled A. Aladeli
KACST
Khalid A. Aleissa
KACST
Magdi M. AlRayes
KSU
Maher A. Alodan
Alfaisal University
Maher Essahab
KSU
Mazen A. Babbad
KACST
Mohammed A. AlDosari
KACST
Mohammed A. Bahattab
KACST
Mohammed Husain
KACST
Mohammed Momen
Momen Consult Office
Mohammed S. AlSuhybani
KACST
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
45
Appendices
Participant
Organization
Mohmoud S. Soliman
KSU
Nabil H. AlHarthi
KSU
Olgun Buven
Hacetlepa Univesitu, Ankare, Turkey
Osamah Draihem
KSU
Rabeh Elleithy
KSU
Rafa F. AlShahri
Ministry of Defense and Aviation
Sakhawat Hussain
KACST
Sultan A. AlMutari
Saudi Aramco
Suliman Alkhweiter
KACST
Syed Sabir
KACST
Tariq M. Shaukri
KACST
Zain H. Yammani
KFUPM
*KACST= King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology *KFUPM=King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals *SWCC=Saline Water Conversion Corporation *KFSHRC=King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre
*KSU= King Saud University
*KAAU=King Abdulaziz University
46
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
Appendices
Appendix B - Supporting Analyses and References
Following are some of the references reviewed in the
process of developing this roadmap:
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
(2002).
Enabling the Future:
A Perspective on UK
Materials Research. An international review of materials
science & technology research in UK universities.
European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures
(2006). European Roadmap for Research Infrastructures
Report 2006
SRI International. (2007) Strategic Review: Advanced
Materials. Unpublished report, August 2007.
SRI International. (2007) Analysis of Status and Trends
of Saudi Arabian Advanced Materials Publications and
Patents. Unpublished report. August 2007.
U.S. Department of Energy (2003).
Facilities for the
Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook.
Strategic Priorities for Advanced Materials Technology Program
47
www.kacst.edu.sa
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Doc. No. 22P0001-PLN-0001-ER01
DAKKIN 01 478 8584
Tel 488 3555 - 488 3444
Fax 488 3756
P.O. Box 6086 Riyadh 11442
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
www.kacst.edu.sa
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