The Definitive Guide to Citrix MetaFrame XP

The Definitive Guide to Citrix MetaFrame XP
Citrix MetaFrame XP
Christa Anderson
Chapter 1
Chapter 1: Introducing Citrix® MetaFrame XP™ Application Server Software........................... 1
MetaFrame Feature and Pricing Information .................................................................................. 1
What’s New In FR1?....................................................................................................................... 4
Getting Oriented in MetaFrame XP ................................................................................................ 6
ICA Client Configuration Settings...................................................................................... 6
ICA Client Creator .................................................................................................. 7
ICA Client Update Configuration ........................................................................... 8
Shadow Taskbar ...................................................................................................... 8
Citrix Connection Information ................................................................................ 9
SpeedScreen Latency Reduction Manager............................................................ 11
ICA Client Distribution Wizard ............................................................................ 12
Citrix SSL Relay Configuration Tool ................................................................... 12
Navigating the Citrix Management Console..................................................................... 12
Applications .......................................................................................................... 14
Citrix Administrators............................................................................................. 15
Licenses................................................................................................................. 16
Load Evaluators..................................................................................................... 16
Printer Management .............................................................................................. 19
Servers................................................................................................................... 20
MetaFrame XP Command-Line Utilities ......................................................................... 21
Summary ....................................................................................................................................... 22
Chapter 1
Chapter 1: Introducing Citrix® MetaFrame XP™ Application
Server Software
MetaFrame XP™ is the latest version of Citrix Systems, Inc.’s value-added software for
Windows® terminal services. Citrix originally introduced MetaFrame® to work with
Microsoft’s Windows NT® Server 4.0, Terminal Server Edition (WTS). If you wanted to get
much good out of the first edition of Windows terminal services, MetaFrame was a nearnecessity. Windows terminal services has improved dramatically with Windows 2000 (Win2K)
Server and .NET Server, particularly when it comes to client-side capabilities, so MetaFrame is
no longer absolutely required for making Windows terminal services work. However, as you’ll
see in this book, MetaFrame offers far more server-side management tools than Windows
terminal services offers even in its most recent incarnation. In addition, MetaFrame provides
some client-side capabilities that Windows terminal services still doesn’t have.
MetaFrame Feature and Pricing Information
MetaFrame 1.8 software is a basic package with add-ons: you buy MetaFrame 1.8, then you add
the Load Balancing Services, Resource Management Service (RMS), and Installation
Management Service (IMS) add-ons, all as separate products. MetaFrame XP is packaged
differently; rather than being sold as a single product with add-ons, Citrix offers three different
versions of MetaFrame XP: XPs, XPa, and XPe.
MetaFrame XPs, the base product, supports application publishing, a new printer driver and
print–bandwidth–management capabilities; read access to Active Directory™ (AD), centralized
license management, publishing applications from Web pages with NFuse™ 1.5, advanced
session shadowing, and client time zones so that users’ clocks depend on their location not the
location of the terminal server.
In addition to all the previously mentioned features, MetaFrame XPa includes Load Management
(formerly Load Balancing). And MetaFrame XPe, the enterprise edition of MetaFrame XP,
supports all the previously named features as well as System Monitoring and Analysis,
Application Packaging and Delivery, and interaction with network-management tools such as
Tivoli and HP OpenView (and, with Feature Release 1—FR1—for MetaFrame XP, Computer
Associates’ Unicenter TNG).
All versions of MetaFrame XP support high color (new with MetaFrame 1.8 FR1), sound, a
shared clipboard between local and remote sessions, and automatic printer mapping. Table 1.1
lists the client-side and server-side capabilities of MetaFrame and the versions of MetaFrame in
which they’re available.
Chapter 1
MetaFrame Version
Automatic Client Printer Mapping
Automatically makes a printer
connected to the client computer
available to the terminal server
session without having to share
that printer with the network.
MetaFrame 1.x, MetaFrame XP
Centralized License
Allows you to share licenses
among all the MetaFrame
servers in a farm, instead of
installing each server’s license
pack separately.
MetaFrame XP
Client-side Sound
Supports client-side sound.
MetaFrame 1.x, MetaFrame XP
Clipboard Shared Between Local
and Remote Sessions
Allows users to cut and paste
data (but not files) between
locally running applications and
applications displayed in a
terminal session.
MetaFrame 1.x, MetaFrame XP
High-Color Support
Supports client-side color depth
greater than 256 colors.
MetaFrame 1.8 with FR1,
MetaFrame XP
Application Packaging and
Allows you to package
applications for automatically
installing on other MetaFrame
MetaFrame 1.8 with the IMS addon, MetaFrame XPe
Load Management
Permits the administrator to
create rules determining which
terminal server a user will
connect to, thus spreading the
load of supporting users without
overloading a single server.
MetaFrame 1.x (with the Load
Balancing add-on), MetaFrame
XPa and XPe
NFuse 1.5
Lets you publish applications
from a Web page using the
application’s icon.
MetaFrame 1.8 with the NFuse
add-on, all MetaFrame XP
products are NFuse ready and
come with NFuse support.
Printer-Bandwidth Management
Permits the administrator to set a
maximum threshold for the
amount of bandwidth a print job
may use.
MetaFrame XP
Printer-Driver Management
Lets you install tested printer
drivers onto one MetaFrame
server, then replicate those
drivers to other MetaFrame
servers in the network.
MetaFrame XP
Published Applications
Allows you to create connections
to individual applications using
the application’s icon and even
putting this icon on the user’s
desktop or Start menu (for Win32
MetaFrame 1.8, MetaFrame XP
System Monitoring and Analysis
Support for auditing, system
monitoring, billing
MetaFrame 1.8 with RMS addon, MetaFrame XPe
Chapter 1
Session Shadowing
Allows an administrator or
Helpdesk person to connect to a
user’s terminal session (with that
user’s permission) from another
ICA session. The person
shadowing can either give
themselves observation-only
capabilities or can actually
interact with the shadowed
MetaFrame 1.x, MetaFrame XP
Network Management
Makes a MetaFrame server
cooperate with external resourcemanagement tools for network
and system monitoring.
MetaFrame XPe
Table 1.1: MetaFrame capabilities.
For the sake of simplicity, I’ve listed MetaFrame’s core capabilities, not the subtle differences
between the versions. However, features change from version to version. For example, MetaFrame
XP’s load-balancing capabilities are much more powerful and easily tuned than the load-balancing
capabilities available with the Load-Balancing add-on for previous versions of MetaFrame.
All versions of MetaFrame XP work with either WTS or Win2K Terminal Services and aren’t
service-pack dependent. However, Citrix recommends that you plan to use Win2K Terminal
Services or .NET Server with MetaFrame XP—the company is developing a version of
MetaFrame for current versions of NT (not the no-longer-produced WTS). And, although
MetaFrame XP isn’t exactly dependent on any Windows-specific features, it can use some of
them (e.g., all versions of MetaFrame XP can read the contents of AD to get user-profile
settings). Thus, the complete functionality of a MetaFrame server will vary depending on the
underlying platform.
Just as the package structure changed with MetaFrame XP, so did the pricing structure.
MetaFrame XP is licensed on a per-connection basis, just as previous versions of MetaFrame
were, but you can now load the server software on as many servers as you need. To start using
MetaFrame XP, you need a MetaFrame Starter System consisting of the server media and 20
user licenses. The retail price for the Starter System depends on whether you get Subscription
Advantage (SA), which gives you free Feature Releases and product upgrades. Table 1.2 outlines
the pricing scheme for MetaFrame XP.
Retail Price with SA
Retail Price without SA
MetaFrame XPs
MetaFrame XPa
MetaFrame XPe
Table 1.2: The price for the base MetaFrame package depends on the package you’re buying and whether
you’re getting it with SA.
Chapter 1
The Starter Systems come with 20 user licenses. If you need more licenses, you can purchase
them separately in groups of 5, 10, 20, or 50 and add them to the central server. The price for the
packs depends on how many licenses are in it, but the pricing structure works more or less like
this: the retail price for MetaFrame XPs connection license is $290 with SA and $250 without;
for MetaFrame XPa it’s $345 with SA and $300 without, and for MetaFrame XPe it’s $400 with
SA and $350 without. Complete pricing information and tools for helping you find a Citrix
reseller are on the Citrix Web site (
If you already use MetaFrame 1.8 and you bought SA, migration to the closest-available MetaFrame
XP package is free. The match isn’t perfect (for example, someone could have bought RMS but not
load balancing—unlikely, but possible), but Citrix tells me that it’ll do it’s best to make people happy
when it comes to upgrades.
What’s New In FR1?
In October 2001, Citrix released FR1 for MetaFrame XP. When you add this optional (but
useful) upgrade, you’ll add a number of new features to MetaFrame, listed in Table 1.3.
Auto Client Reconnect
Automatically attempts to
reconnect users accidentally
disconnected from their session
(perhaps because of a line
Enable for users on slow or
unreliable connections so that if
they’re disconnected from the
MetaFrame server, it will attempt
to reconnect them without their
CA Unicenter TNG® Plug-In
(XPe only)
Plug-in for using TNG for system
Gather information about your
network with additional tools.
Citrix Universal Print Driver
A new print driver that isn’t
Allows you to support numerous
client-side printers without having
to install drivers for each printer.
Citrix Web Console
MetaFrame XP management
from a Web interface instead of
the Citrix Management Console.
Provides one more way to
manage MetaFrame XP servers.
Connection Control (XPa and
XPe only)
Limits the number of concurrent
connections for a given user or
Use to make applications
available to users without letting
those applications or users crowd
out other people needing to use
the MetaFrame server.
Content Publishing
Permits you to push actual
content to the user desktop, not
just application links. Works like
publishing an application.
Add video, memos, etc to the
user desktop, updating from a
central location.
CPU Prioritization for
Applications (XPa and XPe only)
Give high-priority applications
more CPU time.
Ensures that the most important
applications aren’t robbed of the
CPU cycles they need by lesser
Enhanced Application Packaging
and Delivery (XPe only)
Group servers by operating
systems (OS) or server function
and distribute applications
Apply service packs and
applications to servers according
to their function, using precreated groups.
Chapter 1
Enhanced Citrix Management
Licensing and Server sections of
the Citrix Management Console
now have more sections.
(Additionally, some dialog boxes
have more or different sections to
accommodate new features
added with FR1.)
Works just like the previous Citrix
Management Console, but with
the addition of new tools and
capabilities. Online Help colorcodes features included only in
FR1, so you won’t be confused
about available options if not all
servers have FR1 applied.
ICA® Session Monitoring (XPe
Monitors ICA network traffic.
Gather network usage data to
make sure that you’ve got
enough bandwidth for all the
tasks MetaFrame users are
trying to perform.
Improved Printing Performance
ICA performance has been
streamlined to reduce print time
by as much as 50 percent over
slow links.
Reduces printing time for
connections over the WAN.
Novell® NDS® Support
Allows you to publish
applications and content to
Novell Network Directory
Services (NDS) users and
groups, as you currently can with
Use MetaFrame servers with
Novell networks instead of just
Windows networks.
Program Neighborhood® Agent
Enables you to push applications
to the desktop of computers that
don’t have a user-configurable
ICA client.
Allows you to prevent users from
reconfiguring the ICA client.
SSL Encryption
Passes ICA traffic through a
firewall using secure HTTP.
Make MetaFrame servers
available through the Internet
without compromising server
Support for NFuse 1.6
Next generation of MetaFrame’s
Program Neighborhood in a
NFuse makes it possible to
display applications from many
MetaFrame servers (Windows
and Unix) in a single browser
window, surrounded by usercustomized text.
ThinWire Performance
Reduces per-connection
bandwidth requirements for
connections using 24-bit color
over slow connections.
Allows users connecting to the
MetaFrame server over a dial-up
connection to more easily use
color-rich displays.
Table 1.3: New features included in FR1.
This book will not automatically assume that everyone reading it has installed FR1. Rather, I’ll
discuss the capabilities of MetaFrame XP on its own, but then point out places in which FR1 has
made a difference in the way the MetaFrame server works. Not all the servers in a farm must
have FR1 installed, although it may make server management easier.
You will need to license FR1. We discussed SA earlier in this chapter. Those who have SA have
already paid for FR1; those who haven’t bought SA will need to purchase FR1 separately. FR1
licenses will appear in the Licensing tool (discussed later in this chapter) both on the Summary
tab of any MetaFrame server with FR1 installed and on the License Numbers tab.
Chapter 1
Getting Oriented in MetaFrame XP
This book is task-oriented: rather than run through a list of available tools, then discuss how to
use them, I’ll introduce management tasks that you’ll need to fulfill and explain how to
accomplish them using the tools available to you. To make that work, however, you’ll need to
know where the tools controlling the settings are located. Therefore, in this section I’ll introduce
the available tools and explain how to get to them. This discussion isn’t a complete how-to, just a
road map.
There are two main groupings of MetaFrame settings. ICA client configuration settings are found
in the Citrix, MetaFrame XP program group and the ICA Administrator Toolbar; and serverrelated settings are available from the Citrix Management Console.
ICA® Client Configuration Settings
MetaFrame has had a Citrix program group containing links to its management tools since
version 1.0. These tools were also available from a taskbar normally located along the right-hand
side of the screen, containing icons for some management tasks. (You can also drag this toolbar
to another border of the screen or drag it to the middle to make it a freestanding toolbar.) You
could get to the icons quickly from this toolbar, but doing so requires that you be pretty familiar
with the tool icons, as the icons themselves are no more intuitive than Windows icons generally
are. Figure 1.1 shows the ICA Administrator Toolbar as a freestanding desktop object and
identifies each icon.
Figure 1.1: The ICA Administrator toolbar contains links to ICA-related tools and a shortcut to the Citrix
Management Console.
In the following sections, we’ll look at what each of these tools does.
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The tools found in the ICA Administrator Toolbar are also available from the Citrix program group.
Although the program group appears to contain a couple of tools not available from the ICA
Administrator Toolbar, this appearance isn’t exactly true. The ICA Client Printer Configuration tool can
be run only from within an ICA session. And two tools seemingly available from the Citrix MetaFrame
XP program group will only work with MetaFrame XP if you’ve installed the software in compatibility
mode to cooperate with MetaFrame 1.8 servers. The Citrix Server Administration tool found in the
Citrix program group is intended for managing MetaFrame 1.x servers, not MetaFrame XP servers—
the tool will run if you click it, but it’s not MetaFrame XP-aware and won’t have the tools you need to
manage MetaFrame XP servers in it. And although there’s an icon for the Published Application
Manager (PAM), this icon doesn’t connect to a working utility—you can’t use the PAM tool from
MetaFrame XP to manage either XP or 1.x MetaFrame servers. Generally speaking, anything you
can do from the Citrix program group, you can do from the ICA Administrator Toolbar.
ICA Client Creator
The ICA Client Creator, which Figure 1.2 shows, is a not-very-useful tool that you can use to
create installation disks for the ICA client. The client doesn’t fit on a single floppy disk, so using
the installation disks requires keeping track of three floppies. I’d use it if the only possible way
to get the client installation files to a prospective terminal server user were to send that user the
floppy disks.
Figure 1.2: All ICA client update settings are controlled from each client’s properties sheet.
If not the ICA Client Creator, then what? After you install MetaFrame XP onto a Win2K server,
the ICA client installation files are located in %systemroot%\system32\clients\ICA folder. Create
a one-time batch file to install them, use NFuse so that you can automatically install an ICA
client onto the client machine trying to connect to the terminal server, or even email the contents
of the ICA client files folder to users, but don’t bother using this tool for ICA client distribution.
Chapter 1
If a client machine has an ICA client already installed on it and the client machine connects to a
MetaFrame server with a more recent version of the ICA client files available, then that user will
be prompted to automatically install the update. You can configure the update settings with the
ICA Client Update Configuration tool.
ICA Client Update Configuration
When you first open this tool, it appears to present you with nothing more than a list of all the
ICA clients for the supported platforms. To a degree, this information is what the tool provides.
However, the tool’s a bit more than that. As I pointed out in the previous section, ICA clients can
be automatically updated on the client side if a client connects to a MetaFrame server with a
more recent version of the ICA client. The settings available for each of these clients determine
whether those automatic updates will take place and the conditions under which they will take
place. If you right-click on a client and choose Properties from the pop-up menu, you’ll see a
dialog box like the one in Figure 1.2.
As Figure 1.2 shows, the properties sheet contains four tabs. The Description tab shown gives
you basic information about the client file: its version, its description, and whether clients can
update to this version (an option you might want to disable if you’re working with a beta version
of a new client, for example).
The Update Options tab, which determines the client update settings, is the most complicated.
From this tab, you can decide whether users should be notified before their ICA clients are
updated (the options are Ask User, Notify User, or Transparent to just perform the update
without letting the user know). It also contains the version-checking settings so that you specify
whether the client should update only ICA clients older than this one (the default) or update any
ICA client to meet this version. From this tab, you can specify whether users whose clients are
being updated will be disconnected then reconnected when their ICA client files are updated
(No, by default) and whether to update ICA client files in the background while the user is
connected (Yes, by default). The amount of difference between client versions will determine
your settings. If the previous client files obviously lacked capabilities present in the version
being downloaded, such as support for full color, then you’d probably want users to be
disconnected then reconnect with the new client. Finally, from this tab you can create a message
to display to inform users whose ICA clients have been automatically updated.
The remaining tabs are simpler. From the Event Logging tab, you can check a box specifying
whether a log should record the event when updated clients are downloaded (No, by default) and
whether errors should be logged (Yes, by default). Finally, the Client Files tab is just a list of the
files used to support the ICA client.
Shadow Taskbar
Clicking the Shadow Taskbar opens a logon box that prompts you for the logon credentials of the
account you’ve used to log on. After you’ve provided them, a bar appears across the top of the
screen with a Shadow button on the left-hand side. To shadow a session, click that button to open
a dialog box like the one in Figure 1.3.
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Figure 1.3: You can shadow any currently logged on user.
To shadow a user session, select it from the list of users and click Add to put it in the Shadowed
Users column. You can select as many current ICA sessions as you like, but this selection will
work only for current ICA sessions. If no one is logged onto the MetaFrame server with ICA
(RDP doesn’t count), no users will appear in the list. And although this dialog box appears to let
you choose to shadow published applications or servers (since they are listed here), you can’t—
Add applies only to users.
If you right-click Shadow at the top of your screen, the context menu will reveal some options.
You can cascade all the shadowed sessions, disconnect from all of them at once, and create a log
of your shadowing activities. The Properties option in the context menu displays the current port
number used by ICA—port 1494, by default.
Citrix Connection Information
Containing all ICA and RDP connection settings, the Citrix Connection Information tool is very
similar to the Terminal Services Administration tool found in the Administrative Tools program
group—the Citrix Connection Information tool is just arranged differently. Click this icon, and
you’ll see a dialog box displaying the available display protocols, the network protocols that
support these display protocols, and the display protocols type. To edit all settings used for a
particular connection, double-click the connection’s icon or right-click it and choose Properties
from the pop-up list.
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Don’t expect to find only a single connection in this list. This tool will list RDP settings, too, and there
will be one instance of the ICA icon for each network protocol for which you’ve installed ICA support.
For example, if you installed support for using ICA only over TCP/IP, then you’ll see only an icon
labeled “ica-tcp”. If you installed support for ICA over NetBEUI or IPX/SPX, then those ICA
connections will be listed separately. If you’re using ICA with more than one network protocol, make
sure that you’re editing the settings for the right instance of ICA.
The main properties sheet for the connection lists its name, any description that you’ve chosen to
give it, the LAN adapter permitted to use this connection, and the maximum number of
connections allowed for the MetaFrame server using this connection.
Other settings are available if you click the buttons on the main screen. ICA Settings opens a
dialog box controlling the sound quality for all users of the selected setting—the default is
Medium. Client Settings controls the mapping of client-side resources to the terminal session:
printers, client hard disks, clipboard mapping, sound mapping, and general port mapping. You
can also clear a check box to override user-specific settings—otherwise, any similar settings on a
per-user basis will take precedence over the Advanced Connection settings. Click Advanced on
the main page, and you’ll open a dialog box similar to the Figure 1.4.
Figure 1.4: Advanced connection settings for ICA connections.
Chapter 1
Most of the settings in this dialog box are pretty self-explanatory after you know where to find
them, but let’s take a quick tour. The Logon settings determine whether the connection is
enabled or disabled—if you disable ICA-TCP, then users cannot log onto an ICA session if
they’re using TCP/IP as their network protocol. The timeout settings determine how long an
active, disconnected, or idle connection has before the MetaFrame server terminates the
connection. The Security setting determines the encryption level used. The current ICA client
uses the RC5 encryption algorithm from RSA Data Security, supporting 40-bit, 56-bit, 128-bit,
and 128-bit logon-only security. The more encrypted the session, the more secure it is, but
greater encryption will impact performance, which is why using 128-bit security for dial-up
connections isn’t a good idea.
Disregard the online Help for Security, which will tell you that the Required Encryption setting
determines whether encryption is required for the connection and has either a Yes or No answer. This
functionality is an error.
Don’t edit the AutoLogon settings unless you want everyone who uses the selected connection to
log on using the same user account—these settings provide name, password, and domain
information for automatic logon. The Initial Program settings allow you to specify an application
to begin on startup. This application won’t be a published application; it will just be an
application running from the desktop. However, it will be the only application running on that
desktop, and if the user closes the application, the session will end. User Profile Overrides allows
you to prevent any user-chosen wallpaper from being used (which can help save on bandwidth).
Finally, at the bottom of this dialog box, you can specify what should be done when a connection
is broken: should the connection be disconnected or terminated, whether disconnected ICA
sessions should be allowed to reconnect from any machine or just from the one that initiated the
connection, whether shadowing is permitted, and whether the person whose session is being
monitored must explicitly permit that shadowing or whether they even have to be notified.
SpeedScreen Latency Reduction Manager
SpeedScreen Latency Reduction (SLR) describes two separate technologies: local text echo and
mouse click feedback. Local text echo accelerates the display of the input text on the client
device, which gives the user the feeling that there is no latency on the network. By default, this
feature of SLR is disabled for all applications and can be enabled for all or for individual
applications as needed. Mouse click feedback provides visual feedback for mouse clicks. When
the user clicks the mouse, the ICA Client immediately changes the mouse pointer to a pointer
that indicates that the user’s input is being processed in the background. When the mouse click
has been processed at the server, the client reverts the cursor to its previous form, indicating to
the user that the mouse click has been processed. This feature of SLR is enabled by default for
all applications and can be enabled for all or for individual applications as needed.
You’ll use the SLR Manager to turn on local text echo. Click this tool’s icon, and you’ll open a
list of all servers in the current farm. To enable SLR, click New and walk through the wizard to
choose an application. When you’ve finished, the application will appear in the list of
applications configured for SLR, as Figure 1.5 shows.
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Figure 1.5: You must explicitly enable SLR for individual applications.
ICA Client Distribution Wizard
The ICA Client Distribution wizard is pretty much what it sounds like: a tool for updating the
current database of ICA client files so that you can make sure that you’ve got the right ones
available. Run through the wizard to make sure that the latest version of the ICA clients are
loaded into the system, using the CD-ROM that came with MetaFrame XP.
Citrix SSL Relay Configuration Tool
Applications published with MetaFrame to a Web browser support the Secure Sockets Layer
(SSL). Use this tool to configure the current SSL settings, such as the supported encryption
That’s it for the ICA Administrator Toolbar. Now, let’s take a look at the second set of
MetaFrame management tools contained in the Citrix Management Console.
Navigating the Citrix Management Console
One of the major improvements in MetaFrame XP is its consolidation of many management
tools into the Citrix Management Console. Rather than having one tool for licensing, one tool for
server administration, and so forth, you can manage everything—servers, users, applications, and
printers—from a single Java-based console.
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Why Java instead of a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in? Interoperability. Citrix also
makes a MetaFrame for Unix product. Although, at this time, MetaFrame XP for Unix isn’t out yet,
when it is released, the use of a Java-based management console will mean that you’ll be able to
manage Unix and Windows MetaFrame servers from the same interface.
Not only does the Citrix Management Console provide a unified interface for all servermanagement tools, but you can also use it from a Windows computer that isn’t a terminal
server—even from a workstation. If you browse the setup CD-ROM, you’ll see that you can
either choose to install MetaFrame XP or you can install the console. If you install the console
onto a computer, you can manage terminal servers from that computer without using an ICA
license or terminal services client access license (TSCAL), even if you’re running the console
from a Windows OS that doesn’t come with a TSCAL. (As you’d expect, this management is
limited to the MetaFrame side of terminal services—there’s no backdoor into RDP management.
Nor will you have access to any tools not in the Citrix Management Console, such as ICA Client
Configuration.) Although the Citrix documentation states that the console will work on NT and
Win2K machines but doesn’t mention Windows 9x, I’ve successfully installed and used the
console from a Win98 computer. About the only drawback to the console is that, like many Java
applications, it’s a bit slow. But it’s not so slow as to be unusable.
The ability to manage a MetaFrame server remotely without logging onto the terminal server is a
greater advantage than it may originally appear. Every time you connect to a Windows terminal
server, you assign a Windows TSCAL to the computer you connected from unless that client
computer is running an OS that gives it a free built-in TSCAL (Win2K Professional for Win2K Terminal
Services, Windows XP Professional for .NET Server). TSCALs are independent of display
protocols—using ICA instead of RDP to connect to the server doesn’t prevent you from using a
TSCAL. Since TSCALs are more –or less permanently assigned to the computer to which they’re
originally given, remote administration of a terminal server can potentially seriously impact the
number of available TSCALs. Since the Citrix Management Console connects to the terminal server
outside of a terminal session, it avoids this problem.
To connect to a server, from the Start menu, select Programs, Citrix, Citrix Management
Console. When you start the console, name a server in the farm you want to connect to, provide
the name of a person authorized to log on to the terminal server, and supply the domain and
password for that person. You’ll log on to the farm you want to manage; all resources in the farm
will be available, not just those in the server you connected to. When you’ve successfully logged
on, you’ll see a screen like the one in Figure 1.6.
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Figure 1.6: Although the Citrix Management Console uses the familiar Windows Explorer-like interface, it’s a
Java product for cross-platform support.
In the course of this book, I’ll be referring to the Citrix Management Console a lot. For now,
let’s walk through its various sections and take a look at what you can do with it, before we get
into more details about the whys and hows in later chapters.
The Applications section of the console is equivalent to the PAM in previous versions of
MetaFrame—you’ll use the Applications section to make applications available as individual
connections. If you right-click the Applications icon, you’ll open a context menu from which you
can start the Application Publishing Wizard. Using this tool, you’ll choose individual
applications (or desktops) to publish, name them, pick a Program Neighborhood folder to put
them into, optionally (for Win32 clients) add them to the user desktop or Start menu, choose the
available color depth (from 16 colors to True Color), set audio and encryption settings for these
applications, choose the servers in the farm from which these applications will run, and choose
the users allowed to connect to them. When you’ve finished, the published application will be
visible in the console as Figure 1.7 shows.
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Figure 1.7: All published applications are listed in the Citrix Management Console.
After an application is published, this console is the place you’ll go to do any application
management that becomes necessary: copying the application, making an .ica or .html file out of
it (for publishing in a Web browser), deleting it, renaming it, or creating load-balancing rules for
it as we’ll discuss in the “Load Evaluators” section.
Citrix Administrators
The Citrix Administrators tool in the console is for adding user accounts to the list of those
authorized to use the Citrix Management Console. Only those explicitly permitted to use the
console may do so—no matter what groups you’re in, this permission isn’t an automatic right.
Even the Administrator account will be shut out if it’s not added.
In the course of installing the console, you’ll be prompted for the name of someone authorized to
log on to the console—by default, the person logged on to install MetaFrame. Don’t forget who
this person is because every time you use the console—even from the console of the terminal
server itself—you’ll need to manually log on with the account name of a person authorized to
manage the server farm. (Having to log on to the console each time you want to use it is a pain.
However, requiring logons means that you can install the console on a client machine that is
open to people allowed to use that machine but who aren’t allowed to manage MetaFrame
servers.) Assuming that you want more than one person to be able to manage MetaFrame XP
servers, the Citrix Administrators tool is the tool you’ll use to make that possible.
Chapter 1
We discussed the costs of licensing MetaFrame XP earlier in this chapter. You’ll use the
Licenses tool to add those licenses and to activate licenses after you’ve added them so that they
can be used. There are three sections to the Licenses tool. The Connection tab lists all license
sets issued on a per-connection basis, the Product tab lists all license sets issued on a per-product
basis, and the License Numbers tab, which Figure 1.8 shows, lists all installed licenses,
regardless of type.
Figure 1.8: Added license packs will be listed on the Product or Connection tab of the Licensing tool in the
Load Evaluators
MetaFrame 1.8 supports load balancing with the Load Balancing add-on. MetaFrame XP’s loadbalancing tool is a lot more capable.
While load balancing in MetaFrame was more flexible than that available with NT and Win2K
terminal services alone, MetaFrame XP has more load-balancing options—and better laid out—
than did previous versions of the software. The slider bars are gone and we’re now typing in
percentages or absolute numbers. MetaFrame XP thinks in terms of load evaluators, or
collections of load-balancing rules. Rather than just keeping track of CPU load, memory load,
and the number of users currently logged on, MetaFrame XP supports rules intended to tackle
other bottlenecks on the server, as you can see in Figure 1.9.
Chapter 1
Figure 1.9: MetaFrame XP load evaluators.
Table 1.4 lists the available load-balancing rules and briefly explains what they do. I’ll discuss
load balancing in more detail in Chapter 5.
Load Evaluator
Application User Load
This rule limits the number of instances of a
particular application that can run on the server in
question. Use this rule to limit usage of resourceintensive applications.
Context Switches
Win2K can run in either of two modes: user mode
and kernel mode. All processes are protected from
each other in user mode; in kernel mode, all
processes use the same memory space. Every
time Win2K changes processing from one mode to
another is called a context switch. You can limit the
number of connections to a terminal server
according to the number of context switches it’s
doing each second.
Chapter 1
CPU load
When this rule is applied, MetaFrame XP will
refuse more logons when the CPU is busy more
than 90 percent of the time and report the server as
free when it’s busy less than 10 percent of the time.
Disk Data I/O
Measures how often the disk reads or writes data.
Disk Operations
Measures how many reads and writes a disk is
doing per second. As with Disk Data I/O, this rule
applies to all the disks on a terminal server—it’s not
specific to individual disks.
IP Range
Permits or disallows connections to servers or
applications from the range of addresses you
License Threshold
Keeps track of the number of licenses (pooled or
assigned) that are being used on a particular
server. Assigned licenses are specific to a server;
pooled licenses are shared among all the servers in
a farm.
Memory Usage
Reports the percentage of memory that’s in use on
a server.
Page Fault
Keeps track of the rate at which the server
performs page faults (accesses data that’s been
swapped from memory to hard disk).
Page Swap
Monitors the rate at which the server swaps data
from memory to hard disk.
Allows you to choose times of day or days of the
week when a server or application isn’t available.
This rule isn’t meant to be used in isolation and
won’t kick off users who are using the application
when it’s gone into the “blackout” time.
Server User Load
Keeps track of the number of connections and
refuses new connections if the current limit is at the
upper threshold.
Table 1.4: MetaFrame XP’s available load-balancing rules.
MetaFrame XP comes with two sets of load evaluators: Default and Advanced. If you install
MetaFrame XP in native mode (so that it can communicate only with other MetaFrame XP
servers), it will use the Advanced evaluator, which measures server stress according to the
number of page swaps the server is doing per second and its memory and CPU utilization load. If
you’ve got the server set up to work with MetaFrame 1.8 servers (I’ll provide more information
about this setup shortly), it will use the Default load evaluator, which just measures the current
connections to the MetaFrame server. You can build your own load evaluator by selecting
Actions, New when you’re in the Load Evaluator section of the console or by clicking the menu
button with the green cross on it. Alternatively, you can copy an existing load evaluator and edit
the copy—you can’t edit the built-in evaluators. You can only apply one load evaluator to a
server at a time.
Chapter 1
Printer Management
Let’s not mince words: printing is a royal pain in a terminal server environment if you’re trying
to support client-side printers. To briefly recap, printing in a terminal server environment works
like this: the print job is generated on the terminal server, which creates a spool file that gets
redirected to the client-side printer. For this redirection to work, the printer drivers must exist on
both the client to which the printer is attached and the terminal server. Citrix hasn’t resolved all
the problems associated with printing, but with MetaFrame XP, the company has tackled two of
the problems: printer driver management and bandwidth throttling. We’ll discuss printing in
Chapter 7, but here’s a quick look at the tools that you can use to manage it.
To help you keep a handle on printer drivers, MetaFrame XP supports driver replication across
the servers in a farm, allowing you to install all the drivers you’re going to need on one terminal
server, then replicating them so that they’re available no matter which server someone happens
to be connected to. You’ll do this from the Drivers section of Printer Management in the console,
which Figure 1.10 shows.
Figure 1.10: You can replicate drivers from one server to all servers in the farm.
Bandwidth management is helpful because a print job can bring terminal sessions to a standstill
if traffic is heavy enough. Terminal sessions don’t use up much bandwidth, but print jobs do, and
on slow links, a print job that takes forever also keeps people from using their terminal sessions
while the print job is making its tortuous way to the client’s printer. By default, MetaFrame XP
doesn’t limit the amount of bandwidth that a print job may consume, but if you go to the Printer
Management part of the console, select the Bandwidth tab, and double-click each server for
which you want to limit bandwidth, you can set a bandwidth limit in the dialog box that Figure
1.11 shows.
Chapter 1
Figure 1.11: You can limit the amount of bandwidth available to print jobs.
Finally, the Servers section of the Citrix Management Console gives you control over individual
servers in the farm. This part of the tool is most like the Citrix Server Administration tool found
in previous versions of MetaFrame. As you can see in Figure 1.12, this section is where you go
to view current information for current user connections, load-balancing rules, available printers
and installed printer drivers, current processes, and installed licenses (although these are no
longer managed on a per-server basis).
Figure 1.12: If you used the Citrix Server Administration tool in MetaFrame 1.8, the Servers tool in the
console will look familiar.
Chapter 1
If you’re using XPe, this section of the console will show additional tabs for the features found in that
version of XP. This screenshot is from a server running XPa—you can tell by the existence of the
Load Manager Monitor.
MetaFrame XP Command-Line Utilities
So far in this chapter, we’ve focused on MetaFrame’s graphical tools, but you can do quite a lot
from the command line as well. I’ll talk about these tools in context throughout the book, but just
for reference, Table 1.5 lists the tools that come with MetaFrame XP.
Specifies server alternate IP address, as when
providing a single IP address for an entire server
Runs an application and a batch file so that you
can automatically copy files to new directories or
clean up files created while the application was
Extracts and formats security information from the
server’s event logs. To use this command, you
must first enable security logging.
change client
Displays, updates, or changes ICA Client device
mapping for client-side drives, printers, and ports.
Moves a MetaFrame XP server from its current
farm to a different (IMA-based) farm or an entirely
new farm.
Adds, removes, or lets you view Citrix licenses for
the selected farm.
Sets the number of ICA Client printer pipes, which
represent the number of print jobs that can be sent
to the printer at one time (the default is 10). Use to
provide wider access to a printer or (more likely) to
limit that access over low-bandwidth connections.
Changes the XML service port number (80, by
default). The original setting is configured during
MetaFrame installation.
Configures the IMA data store or creates a backup
copy of an Access-based data store.
Configures the TCP/IP port number used for ICA
sessions (1494, by default) or restores it to its
default setting.
query (server, process, sessions,
users, etc.)
Lets you view information about server farms,
processes, servers, ICA sessions, and users.
Tunes ICA display settings for the current server
(not for an entire farm; to do that, you’ll need to
use the Citrix Management Console).
Table 1.5: Some management functions are available only through the command-line tools.
Chapter 1
In this chapter, I’ve introduced the three kinds of MetaFrame XP, its pricing structure, and
shown you the tools that you’ll use to manage MetaFrame servers and ICA client sessions.
Although you don’t yet know how to use these tools, at this point, you should have a pretty good
idea of what the various tools are for and the kinds of things you can do with them. Then, when
they’re introduced, they won’t be completely new to you. In Chapter 2, we’ll talk about some of
the concepts new to MetaFrame XP and how it organizes MetaFrame terminal servers.
Chapter 1
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