EuropE’s buildings undEr thE microscopE A country-by-country review of the energy

EuropE’s buildings undEr thE microscopE A country-by-country review of the energy
Europe’s buildings under
the microscope
A country-by-country review of the energy
performance of buildings
Project lead
Marina Economidou
Editing team
Bogdan Atanasiu
Chantal Despret
Marina Economidou
Joana Maio
Ingeborg Nolte
Oliver Rapf
Contributions
Jens Laustsen
Paul Ruyssevelt
Dan Staniaszek
David Strong
Silvia Zinetti
Graphic Design
Lies Verheyen - mazout.nu
Photos © Stock photography of European buildings.
Certain multi-family buildings: courtesy of CECODHAS.
Published in October 2011 by Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE)
Copyright 2011, Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE). Any reproduction in full or in part of this
publication must mention the full title and author and credit BPIE as the copyright owner. All rights reserved.
ISBN: 9789491143014
Foreword
Buildings are at the pivotal centre of our lives. The characteristics of a building, its design, its look and
feel, and its technical standards not only influence our productivity, our well-being, our moods and our
interactions with others, they also define how much energy is consumed in and by a building, and how
much heating, ventilation and cooling energy is needed to create a pleasant environment.
We know that buildings cause a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, mainly CO2, altering
our planet’s climate. By renovating buildings to high standards of efficiency we can demonstrate that
ambitious climate change mitigation actions and improvements in living quality can go hand in hand.
The European building stock with its unique mix of historical and modern architecture provides both
significant opportunities and challenges.
Effective policies and incentive schemes to reduce the climate change footprint of buildings require
a solid understanding about the current building stock. The Buildings Performance Institute Europe
intends to contribute to an improved understanding with this report – gathering facts and figures about
the European building stock and aggregating the findings to allow meaningful analysis.
BPIE recognizes that the availability of data is far from ideal, and that dynamic policy processes in the
EU Member States will outdate very quickly some of the information on policies and financial support
schemes. This is why we are committed to providing updates on certain issues at regular intervals, and I
hope that we can count on the collaboration of many experts in the field.
Today, the challenge of climate change does not get the same political and media attention as it did
some years ago. However, that does not mean that the problem has gone away, quite the opposite. But
to limit the discussion about energy efficient buildings only to climate change considerations would
ignore the many additional benefits which are created through the retrofitting of the European building
stock. The revitalisation of urban quarters, improved comfort levels and quality of living and working
spaces, helping people out of fuel poverty and creating long term employment are just some of the many
positive effects of a European renovation ‘wave’ which is modelled in the final part of this report.
In this respect, this report wants to encourage a wider debate on how stakeholders in the building
sector can collaborate to transform the European building stock into a highly efficient living and working
environment which enables society to become more sustainable, in all aspects of the word’s meaning.
BPIE proactively seeks dialogue with the many interested parties, and is looking forward to receiving your
reaction.
Oliver Rapf
Executive Director
Buildings Performance Institute Europe
4 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
ContentS
FOREWORD
Acknowledgements
Executive summary
Introduction
Methodology
Part 1 Europe’s buildings today
A. Building typology
Residential buildings
Non-residential buildings
B. Characteristics
Age
Size
Ownership and tenure
Location
C. Energy performance
Residential buildings
Non-residential buildings
PART 2 Policies and programmes for improving
energy efficiency in buildings
3
6
7
19
24
26
27
30
32
35
35
37
39
41
43
44
51
54
A. Barriers & challenges
Barriers
Challenges
55
55
61
B. Regulatory and legislative framework
EPBD: Main provisions, implementation and recast
Building codes
63
63
76
C. Financial programmes
Review of current financial programmes
Impact of selected financial programmes
90
90
94
D.Other Programmes
95
Part 3 Renovating with purpose – Finding a roadmap to 2050
98
B. Overview of the renovation model
100
106
C.Setting the scene
113
A. Economic indicators
Final remarks and policy recommendations
DEFINITIONS
123
129
Acknowledgements
This project was initiated by Tudor Constantinescu, first BPIE executive director and continued by Rod
Janssen in his function as Interim Executive Director of BPIE. Rod Janssen, board member of eceee, gave
important drive in a critical stage of the project. We would like to thank both of them for their inspiration
and guidance.
BPIE would like to express its gratitude towards the steering committee of the project for providing ongoing direction and support.
This report was developed by BPIE with the input of various people. We would like to thank the following
team of country experts for sharing their valuable knowledge with us and helping us develop an
understanding of the situation in their respective country:
AEA, Austrian Energy
Agency
IENE, Institute of Energy for
South East Europe FEWE, Polish Foundation
for Energy Efficiency
3E Consulting
CEU 3csep
ADENE, Portuguese Energy
Agency
BSERC, Black Sea Energy
Research Centre
SEAI, Sustainable Energy
Authority Ireland
IENE, Institute of Energy for
South East Europe Marco Caponigro, Individual
Expert and ENEA (ENEA
Energy Efficiency Unit)
TSUS, Building Testing and
Research Institute
PAIC, Centre of processes,
analysis and research
Building and Civil
Engineering Institute
Rimantas Sevastijančiukas,
Individual expert
ETRES Consulting
SEVEn
SBi, Danish Building
Research Institute
EKVU
VITAstal and Horia Petran,
URBAN-INCERC
BOVERKET, Lund University
MOTIVA
Hubert Despretz,
Expert at ADEME
Mario Fsadni, Individual
expert
Ministry of housing,
Spatial Planning &
Environment
Wuppertal Institute
EST, Energy Saving Trust
INFRAS
SINTEF
BPIE is thankful to the advisory committee of the project for being a sounding board and for providing challenging feedback in a constructive and enthusiastic manner. The advisory committee was represented by:
Randall Bowie, Rockwool
Céline Carré, Eurima
Susanne Dyrbøl, EuroACE
Pascal Eveillard, Eurima
Michaela Holl, DG Energy, EC
Adrian Joyce, EuroACE
6 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Jens Laustsen, Independent Consultant
Oliver Loebel, PU Europe
Yamina Saheb, International Energy Agency
Constant Van Aerschot, Lafarge/WBCSD
Rick Wilberforce, Glass for Europe
Executive Summary
From the emotional to the architectural value, buildings occupy a key place in our lives
and society as a whole. Yet, the energy performance of our buildings is generally so
poor that the levels of energy consumed in buildings place the sector among the most
significant CO2 emissions sources in Europe. While new buildings can be constructed
with high performance levels, it is the older buildings, representing the vast majority
of the building stock, which are predominantly of low energy performance and
subsequently in need of renovation work. With their potential to deliver high energy
and CO2 savings as well as many societal benefits, energy efficient buildings can have a
pivotal role in a sustainable future.
Achieving the energy savings in buildings is a complex process. Policy making in this field requires a
meaningful understanding of several characteristics of the building stock. Reducing the energy demand
requires the deployment of effective policies which in turn makes it necessary to understand what affects
people’s decision making processes, the key characteristics of the building stock, the impact of current
policies etc.
Amid the current political discussions at EU level, BPIE has undertaken an extensive survey across all
EU Member States, Switzerland and Norway reviewing the situation in terms of the building stock
characteristics and policies in place. This survey provides an EU-wide picture of the energy performance
of the building stock and how existing policies influence the situation. The data collected was also used
to develop scenarios that show pathways to making the building stock much more energy efficient, in
line with the EU 2050 roadmap.
Building floor space in Europe
Building gross floor space in the EU27,
Switzerland and Norway
bE
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 7
A vital picture of the European stock
It is estimated that there are 25 billion m2 of useful floor space in the EU27, Switzerland and Norway. The
gross floor space could be concentrated in a land area equivalent to that of Belgium (30,528 km2). Half of
the total estimated floor space is located in the North & West region of Europe while the remaining 36%
and 14% are contained in the South and Central & East regions, respectivelyi. Annual growth rates in the
residential sector are around 1% while most countries encountered a decrease in the rate of new build in
the recent years, reflecting the impact of the current financial crisis on the construction sector.
Regions considered in the study
North & West
AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, FI, FR, IE, LU, NL,
NO, SE, UK
Population: 281 million
Central & East
BG, CZ, EE, HU, LT, LV, PL, RO, SI, SK
Population: 102 million
South
CY, GR, ES, IT, MT, PT
Population: 129 million
Floor space distribution
Source: BPIE survey
Central &
East 14%
South
36%
North
&
West
50%
Non-residential buildings account for 25% of the total stock in Europe and comprise a more complex and
heterogeneous sector compared to the residential sector. The retail and wholesale buildings comprise
the largest portion of the non-residential stock while office buildings are the second biggest category
with a floor space corresponding to one quarter of the total non-residential floor space. Variations in
usage pattern (e.g. warehouse versus schools), energy intensity (e.g. surgery rooms in hospitals versus to
storage rooms in retail), and construction techniques (e.g. supermarket versus office buildings) are some
of the factors adding to the complexity of the sector.
European buildings at a glance
Source: BPIE survey
Non-residential building stock (m2)
Residential building stock (m2)
Non
Residential
25%
Wholesale & retail 28%
Single Family
Houses
64%
Residential
75%
Apartment
blocks
36%
Offices 23%
Educational 17%
Hotels & restaurants 11%
Hospitals 7%
Sport facilities 4%
Other 11%
The European countries have been divided based on climatic, building typology and market similarities into three regions
i
8 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Space standards (expressed through the floor area per capita) are the highest in countries in the North
& West while the countries of Central & Eastern Europe have the lowest residential space standards both
in single family houses and apartment blocks. Economic wealth, culture, climate, scale of commerce,
increased demand for single occupancy housing are some of the factors affecting the size of spaces we
live and work in. The general tendency however is to seek larger floor spaces over time. This along with
the increasing population projections has clear implications on future energy needs, emphasising the
subsequent urgency for improving the energy performance of our buildings.
Residential floor space standards in Europe
Source: BPIE survey
North &
West
Central &
41 m2
East
26 m2
South
50 m2
Central &
East
20 m2
South
31 m2
North &
West
36 m2
Apartment floor space per capita
Single family house floor space per capita
A substantial share of the stock in Europe is older than 50 years with many buildings in use today that
are hundreds of years old. More than 40% of our residential buildings have been constructed before the
1960s when energy building regulations were very limited. Countries with the largest components of
older buildings include the UK, Denmark, Sweden, France, Czech Republic and Bulgaria. A large boom
in construction in 1961-1990 is also evident through our analysis where the housing stock, with a few
exceptions, more than doubles in this period.
The performance of buildings depends on a number of factors such as the performance of the installed
heating system and building envelope, climatic conditions, behaviour characteristics (e.g. typical indoor
temperatures) and social conditions (e.g. fuel poverty). Data on typical heating consumption levels of the
existing stock by age shows that the largest energy saving potential is associated with the older building
stock where in some cases buildings from the 1960s are worse than buildings from earlier decades. The
lack of sufficient insulation of the building envelope in older buildings was also reflected through the
historic U-value data which comes with no surprise as insulation standards in those construction years
were limited.
Age categorisation of housing stock in Europe
Source: BPIE survey
North & West
South
14%
Central & East
17%
19%
37%
35%
42%
49%
39%
Pre 1960
48%
1961-1990
1991-2010
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 9
The building sector is one of the key consumers of energy in Europe where energy use in buildings has
seen overall a rising trend over the past 20 years. In 2009, European households were responsible for
68% of the total final energy use in buildingsii. Energy in households is mainly consumed by heating,
cooling, hot water, cooking and appliances where the dominant energy end- use (responsible for around
70%) in homes is space heating. Gas is the most common fuel used in buildings while oil use is highest in
North & West Europe. The highest use of coal in the residential sector is in Central & Eastern Europe where
also district heating has the highest share of all regions. Renewable energy sources (solar heat, biomass,
geothermal and wastes) have a share of 21%, 12% and 9% in total final consumption in Central & Eastern,
South and North & West regions, respectively.
Average final consumption levels for heating (kWh/(m2a)) of single family homes by construction year
Source: BPIE survey
Portugal
300
250
187
200
176
150
156 159
150
53
50
120
110
68
230
50
167
131
101
100
50
fo
re
1
19 950
50
19 -59
60
19 -69
70
19 -79
80
19 89
90
20 -99
00
20 -05
06
-1
0
0
Be
19
1
19 8
4
19 8
5
19 7
68
19
7
19 8
8
19 3
1987
9
20 5
2005
10
255
150
0
0
237
228
200
140 130
100
94 80
100
250
19 60
60
-8
19 0
81
19 90
91
20 -00
01
20 -04
05
-n
ow
200
225
200 200 195
45
246
46
250
19
300
250
Bulgaria
19
Germany
The average specific energy consumption in the non-residential sector is 280kWh/m2 (covering all
end-uses) which is at least 40% greater than the equivalent value for the residential sector. In the nonresidential sector, electricity use over the last 20 years has increased by a remarkable 74%.
Energy mix in residential buildings by region
Source: Eurostat
South
Biomass 27%
Central & East
Biomass 20%
Electricity 1%
Electricity 18%
District Heat 29%
North & West
LPG, DH other RES 6%
Biomass 21%
Electricity 13%
Coal 1%
Oil 32%
Oil 20%
Coal 41%
Gas 23%
Source: Eurostat
ii
10 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Oil 3%
Gas 7%
Gas 39%
Buildings vary remarkably in terms of size where large variations are expected in the non-residential
categories. From our data, we can see that policy measures applied only to non-residential buildings
over 1,000 m2 in floor area would miss a substantial portion of buildings in many countries, especially
in educational buildings, hospitals and offices. The structure of ownership and occupancy has also a
significant relevance on the ability to renovate. The largest share of the residential stock is held in private
ownership while 20% is allocated to ‘pure’ public ownership. Social housing is typically fully owned
by the public sector but there is an increasing trend towards non-public involvementiii as is the case in
Ireland, England, Austria, France and Denmark while in the Netherlands social housing is fully owned by
private sector. Moreover, at least 50% of residential buildings are occupied by the owner in all countries.
Countries with the biggest share of private tenants are Switzerland, Greece and Czech Republic and
countries with significant portions of public rented dwellings are Austria, the UK, Czech Republic, The
Netherlands and France. The ownership profile in the non-residential sector is more heterogeneous and
private ownership can span from as low as 20% to 90% from country to country.
Tenure of residential buildings in Europe
Source: BPIE survey
South
ES
Owner-occupied
MT
GR
Private rented
IT
Public rented
CY
Other
North & West
NO
BE
IE
UK
FR
AT
NL
Central & East
CH
RO
HU
SK
CZ
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
NOTES
Units are in number of dwellings except France which is in m2.
AT: Data up to 2001.
CH: ‘Other’ consists of members of a building cooperative and others.
CY: Data up to 2001. ‘Other’ consists of 13,9% of rented (mixed
ownership) and 17,9 of other arrangements.
CZ: Based on estimations.
HU: Data up to 2005. ‘Other’ includes public and private empty
dwellings and other
IT: Data up to 2001
NL: ‘Other’ consists of social housing associations owned by private
bodies for which conditions (e.g. rental prices) are heavily
regulated by the government.
MT: Other consists of dwellings held by emphyteusis (notarial contract)
and other used free of charge.
RO: Data up to 2002
SK: Based on 2001 data
ES: Social housing is mainly delivered through the private sector and is
controlled through subsidies, subsidized loans and grants for both
developers and buyers
UK: ‘Other’ consists of Registered Social Landlords (often referred to
as housing associations) which are government-funded not-forprofit organisations that provide affordable housing.
The involvement of non-public providers acts on a not-for-profit or limited-profit basis.
iii
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 11
The European policy scene
There are many reasons why investments in energy saving measures in buildings are often overlooked,
rejected or only partially realised. Experience over several decades has identified numerous barriers that
hinder energy saving investments. Financial, institutional and administrative, awareness/information and
split incentives are the main categories of barriers identified by the BPIE survey which have a particular
impact on existing buildings. Although financial barriers were one of the highest ranking barrier
category among the country responses, alternative investments are in many cases preferred to energy
saving measures due to the lack of awareness, interest or in fact, ‘attractiveness’ of energy efficiency as
an investment option. For the market to work well, correct and appropriate information is essential.
Ambitious renovations comprise a major decision and can only work if the right advice is available for
the consumer. In addition, energy efficiency service industries should be fully capable of delivering those
measures; and ultimately sufficient satisfaction levels should be guaranteed for the consumer. The split
incentive is probably the most long-lasting barrier, particularly due to the complex structure of occupancy
both in terms of the residential and non-residential sector.
At the European level, the main policy driver related to the energy use in buildings is the Energy
Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD, 2002/91/EC). Implemented in 2002, the Directive has been
recast in 2010 (EPBD recast, 2010/31/EU) with more ambitious provisions. Through the EPBD introduction,
requirements for certification, inspections, training or renovation are now imposed in Member States
prior to which there were very few.
While all countries now have functional energy performance certification (EPC) schemes in place, five
countries have not yet fully implemented the scheme for all requested types of buildings. Only eleven
countries currently have national EPC register databases while ten countries have databases at regional/
local level or development plans underway. Data on the number of issued EPCs show that the current
share of dwellings with an issued EPC in different countries can vary from under 1% to just above 24%.
Implementation timeline of EPC scheme (EPBD, 2002/91/EC)
30
Number of countries
25
20
15
Countries with running schemes for some types of
buildings (cumulative)
Countries with running schemes for all required types
of buildings (cumulative)
Countries with running schemes for some types of
buildings (implemented in that year)
Countries with running schemes for all required types
of buildings (implemented in that year)
10
5
0
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Year
12 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
The absence of previous requirements in most Member States meant that entirely new legislative vehicles
were required and consequently that the first EPBD was typically implemented in stages over a number of
years, from around 2006 to 2010. Despite the fact that significant developments happened over the last
years, current EU legislation only partially covers the field of buildings renovation. The EPBD stipulates the
implementation of energy saving measures only in case of deep renovation of the building without specifying
the depth of renovation measures. It is clear that more targeted measures are required for fostering the deep
renovation of the existing building stock.
A key driver for implementing energy efficiency measures are the building energy codes, through which
energy-related requirements are incorporated during the design or retrofit phase of a building. While several
Member States had some form of minimum requirements for thermal performance of building envelopes
in the 1970s, the EPBD was the first major attempt requiring all Member States to introduce a general
framework for setting building energy code requirements based on a “whole building” approach. Examining
the requirements set by each Member State, it is clear that large variations exist in terms of the approach each
country has taken in applying building energy codes. In some countries two approaches exist in parallel, one
based on the whole building approach and the other one on the performance of single elements. In others, the
single element requirements act as supplementary demands to the whole building approach. In some cases
the requirements for renovating buildings can be as ambitious as the new build requirements. Major changes
are expected through the application of the cost-optimality concept in energy performance requirements
as introduced by the recast EPBD which should also gradually converge to nearly zero energy standards, a
requirement for new buildings from 2020 onwards. An appropriate level of enforcement compliance with
building energy codes should also be of concern and a point of attention for policy makers as it is necessary to
ensure that enough rigour and attention to detail are undertaken when applying energy efficiency measures.
As Europe strives towards increasing building energy performance, the role of available financial programmes
and innovative mechanisms become increasingly important. About 333 financial schemes have been screened
through the BPIE survey. These cover a wide range of financial instruments from grants to VAT reduction and
apply to a range of building types. The measures surveyed are encouraging, but many of them are only modest
in their ambition. The major concern is that the use of financial instruments today only achieves the businessas-usual case in Europe with very few financial instruments providing enough funding for deep renovations,
and ultimately do not correspond to Europe’s 2050 aspirations.
Types of financial programmes and incentives on the energy performance of buildings
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 13
There are steps underway to improve the availability of new financing instruments. Innovative approaches
include Energy Supplier Obligations, energy service companies, the use of EU Structural Funds more effectively
and possible targets to renovate specific building sub-sectors (e.g. the proposal in the draft Energy Efficiency
Directive to Member States to renovate a certain percentage of public buildings annually) which will require
Member States to “unlock” funding for such renovations.
The ways forward
Building energy performance needs to be significantly improved in order to reduce overall energy
demand and, importantly, reduce carbon dioxide emissions in line with the cost-effective potential and
Europe’s GHG emissions objectives. The question for policymakers is how to proceed.
To help policy makers determine the appropriate way forward, a renovation model has been specifically
developed for this project. The scenarios illustrate the impact on energy use and CO2 emissions at different
rates (percentage of buildings renovated each year) and depths of renovation (extent of measures
applied and size of resulting energy and emissions reduction) from now up to 2050. The model has
assessed energy saved, CO2 saved, total investment required, energy cost savings, employment impact
and a range of cost-effectiveness indicators. These assessments allow policy makers the opportunity
to focus on what they consider the highest priorities. The model considers features such as the age of
buildings and quality of building energy performance. When considering the share of buildings that can
undergo low energy renovation, a practical limit is applied in the residential and non-residential building
sectors in the 2011 to 2050 timeframe. This practical limit is affected by a number of considerations such
as demolitions, heritage buildings, recent renovations and new buildings. The model applies different
discount rates, learning curves and future energy prices (based on Eurostat and Primes forecasts) in order
to derive how costs will evolve from now until 2050. Two decarbonisation pathways are considered, a
slow pathway based on what has been witnessed since 1990 and a fast pathway based on what is needed
to achieve the levels of carbon reduction assumed in the EU 2050 Roadmap.
The model was used to create scenarios with various speeds (slow, medium and fast) and depths of
renovation (minor, moderate, deep and nearly zero energy). All but one scenario assume that a building
will be renovated once between 2010 and 2050. The so-called two-stage scenario allows for a second
renovation during the 2010-2050 period. Individual scenarios combine different speeds and depths,
and are compared to a business-as-usual scenario, which assesses what would happen if there were no
changes from the approach taken today.
The results vary considerably as can be expected. Considering the results for 2020, the annual energy
savings range from 94 TWh in the business-as-usual case to 527 TWh for the most ambitious deep
scenario (and 283 TWh for both the medium and two-stage scenarios). In 2050, the corresponding annual
energy savings of the deep and two-stage scenarios are 2795 TWh and 2896 TWh respectively while only
365 TWh annual savings are achieved in the business-as-usual case.
The results look significantly different for CO2 savings where the deep and two-stage scenarios are much
closer in impact. Under the assumption of fast decarbonisation of electricity and fossil fuels, the 2050
savings of the deep and two-stage scenarios correspond to the 90% which are in line with the European
CO2 reduction targetsiv. These levels of savings can only be achieved given that both renovation and
power sector decarbonisation strategies are adopted. Yet, there is a significant difference in investment
costs (on a present value basis). For the deep scenario the investment is €937 billion, while a significantly
lower €584 billion for the two-stage scenarios is needed.
Source: European Commission (2011). A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050, COM(2011) 112 final.
iv
14 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
It is, however, not sufficient to only consider investment costs. These investments lead to a range of
savings for individuals and society which are summarised in the figure below.
The figure below compares the present value investment and energy cost savings – the difference
providing the net savings to consumers. While both the deep and the two-stage scenario achieve broadly
the same level of CO2 reduction, the deep scenario requires a significantly higher absolute investment
level. In return, it also generates higher energy cost savings; however, the net savings are smaller than in
the two-stage scenario. The high investment needs of the deep scenario are caused by a fast increase of
deep renovation measures in the first decade. The two-stage scenario requires a lower investment due
to a slower increase in the number of deep renovations while benefitting from a longer learning period
which leads to cost reductions.
Lifetime financial impact for consumers (present value)
Source: BPIE model
1 400
1 200
1 000
€ billion
800
600
400
200
0
Baseline Slow & shallow Fast & shallow
Investment
Energy cost savings
Central
Deep
Two-stage
Net saving
The table on the next page gives an overview of the key results of each scenario. Beyond energy, CO2 and
cost savings, significant positive employment effects can be achieved, directly depending on the level of
investment.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 15
Overall results to 2050
Source: BPIE model
Scenario
0
1A
1B
2
3
4
Baseline
Slow &
Shallow
Fast &
Shallow
Medium
Deep
Two-stage
TWh/a
365
1 373
1 286
1 975
2 795
2 896
2050 saving as %
of today
%
9%
34%
32%
48%
68%
71%
Investment costs
(present value)
€ billion
164
343
451
551
937
584
Savings (present
value)
€ billion
187
530
611
851
1 318
1 058
Net saving (cost)
to consumers
€ billion
23
187
160
300
381
474
Net saving (cost)
to society - without
externality
€ billion
1 116
4 512
4 081
6 451
8 939
9 908
Net saving (cost)
to society - including
externality
€ billion
1 226
4 884
4 461
7 015
9 767
10 680
IRR
10.1%
12.4%
11.5%
12.5%
11.8%
13.4%
MtCO2/a
742
821
814
868
932
939
%
71.7%
79.3%
78.6%
83.8%
89.9%
90.7%
€/tCO2
-20
-74
-68
-103
-136
-151
MtCO2/a
182
410
391
547
732
755
%
18%
40%
38%
53%
71%
73%
CO2 abatement cost
€/tCO2
-89
-196
-185
-221
-238
-255
Average annual net
jobs generated
Million
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.7
1.1
0.8
Description
Annual energy saving
in 2050
Internal Rate of
Return
Fast decarbonisation
Annual CO2 saving in
2050
2050 CO2 saved
(% of 2010)
CO2 abatement cost
Slow decarbonisation
Annual CO2 saving in
2050
2050 CO2 saved
(% of 2010)
16 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
In all the scenarios, the estimated CO2 emission reduction by 2050 is determined by the energy savings but
also by the decarbonisation of the energy supply sector. It is interesting to note that in the deep and twostage scenarios there is a 71-73% CO2 emission reduction even under the slow decarbonisation assumption,
a figure which is close to the CO2 emission reduction for the slow and shallow scenario under the fast
decarbonisation assumption. This highlights the role of renovation measures in the decarbonisation strategy.
The decarbonisation of the energy supply sector is significantly eased by decreasing the energy demand of
buildings and is importantly more sustainable. Moreover, the costs for decarbonising the energy generation
system will be significantly less if the consumption patterns of the building sector will dramatically reduce.
Each of the scenarios 1-4 represent a significant ramping up in renovation activity compared to the current
situation (i.e. the baseline scenario 0). When looked at purely in terms of the investment required, these
range from around double the baseline level for scenario 1a, through to over 5 times the baseline level for
the deep scenario 3. These are significant increases, but certainly achievable if governments across the EU
were to agree and implement respective policies and market stimulation mechanisms. The current practice is
clearly not sufficient to trigger a renovation wave across Europe which would deliver the societal, economic
and environmental benefits possible. At a time of rising unemployment and increased energy dependency,
the employment and energy saving benefits to consumers from an accelerated renovation programme would
provide a welcome boost to many countries continuing to suffer economic difficulties following the credit
crunch.
The modelling exercise gives a clear indication that an ambitious renovation strategy for Europe’s buildings is
feasible. Taking into consideration the three most relevant factors, i.e. achievement of CO2 reduction targets,
investment considerations and positive employment effects, it seems that the results of the two-stage scenario
provide the best balance of these factors, comparing all scenarios. The two-stage scenario therefore illustrates
a pathway which should influence policy choices to stimulate the renovation of the European building stock.
For policy makers the challenge only begins at this point. The question now is how to break the policy inertia
and set the necessary policies in motion to achieve this. The complex nature of the buildings sector with its
many actors in the value chain requires effective policy actions at both EU level and Member State level.
At EU level, the recast of the EPBD will have to be implemented in a way which secures large energy savings
and it will have to be monitored for revision at the earliest possible date. Other Directives, from Ecodesign to
the Energy Efficiency Directive proposed in June 2011, will have to be aligned to maximise ambition. At the
same time, Member States need to make significant efforts to transpose EU regulation and to implement it in
a way that stimulates deep renovation of the building stock.
Beyond policy regulation, financing frameworks need to be effective and adequate. Innovative approaches are
needed since the initial up-front investment costs for ambitious renovations can be a real barrier. Supporting
measures at all levels of the building value chain, from a well-trained workforce (from designers to tradesmen),
to a continuing and growing range of energy-efficient products and to effective awareness and information
programmes are essential. These strategies are inter-connected and need to be carefully designed to stimulate
the necessary growth of the European deep renovation market. The following recommendations provide a
strategic framework and starting point for decision makers at both the EU and national level.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 17
Main policy recommendations
• Data collection: harmonise national data collection systems relating to the energy performance of
buildings and ensure sufficient data availability. A reliable and continuous data collection process is a
necessary prerequisite for reliable policy making.
• Renovation roadmap: strengthen the existing legislation at EU level through binding measures
and establish a roadmap for the renovation of the building stock with interim and long term binding
targets as well as monitoring and reporting plans. At Member State level, it is necessary to detail deep
renovation plans comprising regulatory, financial, information and training measures, with renovation
targets based on the national financial and technical potential and tailor-made roadmaps with different
phases moving from voluntary to binding measures.
• Financing: establish an EU Deep Renovation Fund (possibly via the European Investment Bank and
designed for different building types) which can complement the national financing schemes and
share the risks, offering more financial flexibility and additional confidence to the private investors.
EU expenditure for the renovation of the building stock (i.e. by Structural and Regional Development
Funds) should introduce the minimum requirement for implementing measures at cost-optimal levels.
The development of innovative financial instruments at Member State level can trigger increased
private investment by providing guidelines for financing, promoting best practice and stimulating
Member State cooperation;
• Member State policies: eliminate market barriers and administrative bottlenecks for the renovation
of the building stock and to develop long-term comprehensive regulatory, financial, educational and
promotional packages addressing all the macro-economic benefits.
• Monitoring/compliance/enforcement: establish proper monitoring systems of compliance,
enforcement and quality control processes through a qualified workforce for all policy packages
fostering deep renovation.
• Energy Performance Certificates: strengthen the implementation of the buildings energy certification
and audit schemes which can increase the value of efficient buildings and can stimulate the real-estate
market towards green investments.
• Public sector: ensure that the public sector takes a leading role in the renovation revolution as
envisaged by the draft Energy Efficiency Directive, which should kick start the market for renovation
and help bring costs down for private households and businesses.
• ESCOs and savings guarantee: remove market barriers for the ESCOs and facilitate a faster and better
development of deep renovation programmes through regulatory frameworks, encouraging the set
up and development of a well-functioning energy services market which is not limited to commercial
buildings. An innovative guarantee system should be developed for the performance of efficiency
measures in order to provide confidence for the quality level of renovation measures to consumers and
investors.
• Training and education: increase the skills in the construction industry by ensuring appropriate
framework conditions for the Internal Market of construction products and services, improving
resource efficiency and environmental performances of construction enterprises, and promoting skills,
innovation and technological development.
18 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Introduction
A vital picture of the European building stock
“If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it”
Sir William Thomson, Lord Kelvin
Buildings are at the centre of our social and economic activity. Not only do we spend
most of our lives in buildings, we also spend most of our money on buildings. The built
environment is not only the largest industrial sector in economic terms, it is also the
largest in terms of resource flow1. Buildings are intrinsically linked to Europe’s societies,
Europe’s economies, and their future evolution.
Energy security and climate change are driving a future that must show a dramatic improvement in the
energy performance in Europe’s buildings. The 27 Member States have set an energy savings target of
20% by 2020, mainly through energy efficiency measures. The European Union has also committed to
80-95 % GHG reduction by 2050 as part of its roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy
in 20502. Buildings currently represent almost 40% of total final energy consumption and, therefore, can
make a crucial contribution to these targets.
In the Energy Efficiency Plan 20113, the European Commission states that the greatest energy saving
potential lies in buildings. The minimum energy savings in buildings can generate a reduction of 60-80
Mtoe/a4 in final energy consumption by 2020, and make a considerable contribution to the reduction
of GHG emissions. This will be achievable only if buildings are transformed through a comprehensive,
rigorous and sustainable approach.
The European policy framework for buildings has been evolving since the early 1990s. A wide array of
measures has been adopted across individual Member States to actively promote the better energy
performance of buildings. After 2002, the issue gained strong momentum when the Directive on Energy
Performance of Buildings (EPBD) [Directive 2002/91/EC] was adopted. The EPBD was recast in 2010 to
make the goals more ambitious and to reinforce the implementation.5
As the Commission stated in its Communication proposing the 2010 revision: “The sector has significant
untapped potential for cost effective energy savings.”6. Realising this potential will depend crucially on
the commitment of Member States, and the involvement of stakeholders from government, industry and
civil society.
The European Union stretches over many different climate zones, landscapes and cultures. Some 501
million inhabitants spread over 27 countries7 reside in a wide array of building types with an equally wide
Source: Hawken, P. (2005). Foreword. In Mendler, S. F., Odell, W., & Lazarus, M. A., (2005). The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design (2nd ed.)
The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union (2010, May 19). Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and the Council
on the energy performance of buildings (recast). Official Journal of the European Union. Note: the Directive entered into force in July 2010 but the
repeal of the current Directive will only take place on the 1st February 2012.
3
European Comission (2011). Energy Efficiency Plan 2011, COM(2011) 109 final.
4
Source: European Commision (2008). Accompanying document to the Proposal for a recast of the energy performance of buildings directive (2002/91/
EC) - Summary of the impact assessment, SEC(2008) 2865.
5
The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union (2010, May 19). Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and the Council
on the energy performance of buildings (recast). Official Journal of the European Union.
6
European Commision (2008). Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings (recast),
COM(2008) 780 final.
7
The data collection and analysis also include Norway and Switzerland, two countries that work closely with the EU and implement much of its
legislation.
1
2
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 19
range of thermal qualities, in a constantly expanding building stock. From styles of living – single-family
dwellings or multi-family dwellings, for example – to policies for the construction of buildings, there are
significant differences between countries.
National approaches to monitoring the building stock have also evolved separately. Information is not
only needed to track the progress of policy implementation, better information and data are required to
help develop a European pathway and roadmaps to more energy efficient buildings. In order to define
the energy and CO2 reduction potential, we need to study and evaluate the technical and economic
opportunities, feasibilities and limits.
Indeed, it is a major obstacle to strong policy making at EU level that there is a lack of data on the building
sector for Europe as a whole.
There has been significant Europe-wide legislation on buildings and there are several forthcoming
initiatives underway to improve the energy performance of new and existing buildings. Yet, much of
this is done with only a minimum of fact-based knowledge, analysis and evidence. As strategies for the
energy performance of buildings evolve and become more complex, policy makers need more concrete
and precise facts to be able to make cross-country comparisons and to put in place the monitoring
systems that permit measurement of the progress of the various policy instruments.
Buildings in a European context
Buildings consume about 40% of total final energy requirements in Europe. In the context of all the
end-use sectors, buildings represent the largest sector, followed by transport with 33%.
Figure 1. Final energy consumption by sector in the EU, 2009
Source: DG ENER
Agriculture 2%
Industry
24%
Transport
33%
Services
13%
Households
27%
To create a sound basis for political debate and policy making at EU and Member State level, the Buildings
Performance Institute Europe (BPIE) has embarked upon a major undertaking: to develop a vital picture
of the European building stock, one that is as detailed and correct as possible. BPIE is convinced that
effective policy making starts with an accurate picture of the challenge. This report is a first attempt at
such a comprehensive approach.
20 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
The Challenge
Many experts agree that the most cost-effective way of meeting climate change targets is through improved
energy efficiency. At this point, there is growing acceptance of this principle, but there is still an imbalance
between the resources devoted to energy supply options and energy demand-reduction options. The scenarios
usually developed are designed to highlight the potential for improved energy efficiency in buildings making
a cost-effective contribution to achieving climate targets.
Typically, energy efficiency initiatives are crowded out by other more immediate priorities, in part because
improving energy efficiency is a long-term policy commitment. In the buildings sector, policies are effective
not over two or three years, but two or three decades. That is not easy to sustain. Today’s headlines include
financial crises in several EU Member States, wars in several countries and budget debates at national and
European levels. While they all seem like competing priorities, in fact, improved energy efficiency could make
a positive contribution to solutions in many policy areas while actually increasing rather than decreasing
available resources.
Why improve energy efficiency in buildings?
The high level of energy consumption and GHG emissions in buildings in Europe makes this is an
obvious sector to target in order to determine the potential and improve energy performance. While
there has already been significant effort to improve energy performance in buildings, considerable
potential still remains, as was noted by the European Commission’s Communication on the proposal
for the recast of the EPBD.
The justification for focusing on the energy efficiency in buildings can be summarised in the following
arguments that relate to both the individual’s point of view and the perspective of society as a whole:
• Security of energy supply; [Societal]
• Lower GHG emissions, which means a major contribution to climate change strategies; [Societal]
• Reduced energy costs for consumers, which can be important in avoiding “fuel poverty” (where
energy costs represent a disproportionate and unsustainable share of disposable income); [Private]
• Cheaper than investing in increased energy capacity; [Societal]
• Improved comfort; [Private]
• Contribution to the rehabilitation of certain building types in the new Member States of Central
and Eastern Europe; [Both]
• A major contribution to the objective of sustainable development, which is a formal commitment
of European countries; [Societal] and
• Improving energy efficiency in buildings is important to the buildings energy service industries
that are important employers in Europe. [Both]
Any assessment of the costs and benefits of building energy performance must account for the full
range of benefits at both individual and societal level – which is often difficult to estimate.
One major challenge is changing the mind-set concerning buildings. If the building sector is to
significantly contribute to the 80-95% GHG reduction target for 2050, each building, on average, will
have to demonstrate very low carbon emission levels and consume very low energy in the context of a
decarbonised power sector. For most of Europe’s buildings, that probably means improving the current
average energy consumption by a factor four or five and the installation of renewables. For some it could
even mean a factor 10 improvement. This may be hard to imagine but is definitely doable.*
*
The IEA analytical work related to policy recommendations show this could be both possible and economically rational. This has been presented,
for instance at Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 6 (2009) in the paper
“Global policy for dramatic reduction of energy consumption in buildings – Factor 3 is both possible and economic rational”, by Jens Laustsen,
International Energy Agency IEA.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 21
Supporters of energy efficiency need better arguments which will encourage both the private and public
sectors to take more interest in improving energy efficiency and to explain how this paradigm shift can
occur. The main objectives of this study are to give policy-makers the facts and offer the arguments to
make the case persuasively, and to provide useful data input to researchers who should base any political
discussion upon science-based insights.
Structure
This report has three parts.
Part 1 surveys 27 Member States, together with Norway and Switzerland, examining the floor space area
of residential and non-residential buildings, building typologies, characteristics and energy performance
of current stock. The information is drawn from the statistical offices of national administrations and will
be presented in a form that permits European comparisons and analysis. There are inevitably gaps, as
certain administrations have not made a priority of this kind of data collection (c.f. Methodology chapter).
Part 2 provides detailed information and analysis relating to current barriers, the EPBD implementation,
the European building codes and major programmes that are designed to improve energy performance
in buildings.
In Part 3 the available data were used to develop and assess the energy performance scenarios for
the buildings sector in Europe with the aim of illustrating potential energy savings and CO2 reduction
pathways, reflecting the EU’s 20% energy saving target for 2020, as well as the EU’s long term 80-95%
GHG emission reduction target for 2050.
The scenarios describe the impact of building retrofit strategies to achieve the 2020 and 2050 targets.
The scenarios are built on different renovation rates and depths and illustrate the impact of different
ambition levels regarding the European environment and economy.
22 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 23
Methodology
BPIE has recently screened all EU27 countries together with Switzerland and Norway
with the aim of collecting existing data related to buildings and building policies. The
exercise has been undertaken using a team of experts in each Member State plus Norway
and Switzerland. The data collected were mainly extracted from official statistics and
studies at Member State level supported by expert estimations wherever official data
were unavailable. The information was gathered in the form of a questionnaire whose
structure comprised five principal levels:
Background
Legal
Financial
Technical
Monitor
The data have been used to give a fresh and up-to-date picture of where we stand in terms of the energy
performance of our buildings and form the basis upon which our scenarios are built. Through the survey
carried out by BPIE, information on the typology, characteristics (such as age, size, and ownership profile)
and energy performance of the building stock have been collected for the EU27 countries together with
Norway and Switzerland. The dataset represents one of the most comprehensive assembled in Europe
to date and ranges from residential to non-residential buildings where the following categories were
considered:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Single family houses
Apartment blocks
Offices
Educational buildings
Hospitals
Hotels and restaurants
Sports facilities
Wholesale and retail trade services buildings
Other types of energy-consuming buildings
Data have been gathered on the floor area of the building stock where 25 countries reported residential
and 19 reported non-residential floor area data in full. A further four countries reported partial data for
the floor area of non-residential buildings. The reported totals represented 92% of the total floor area in
the countries looked at and the final 8% have been estimated. For the latter, estimates have been made
by taking the prevailing average across the dataset for floor area per person for the missing building
category and multiplying this by the population of the country in question.
Care has been taken in the compilation of the data required to make additional estimations. For example,
floor area data were reported at times in net floor area and other times in gross, net, useful or heated.
Conversion factors were applied to aggregate all data in useful floor areas considering typical wall
thickness levels as well as percentage floor space of buildings, which are non-heated and non-habitable
24 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
areas. These factors were defined for different types of buildings. Comparisons were further complicated
by inconsistent definitions of many building typologies where assumptions had to be made in order to
broadly divide the reported data in the above function types. In some cases, appropriate division was not
possible. For example, some countries reported industrial buildings in “other types of energy consuming
buildings” while others did not. In those cases, it was not possible to extract or estimate the portion of
industrial buildings in order to provide consistent information for this function type across all countries.
Data have also been gathered in terms of the age, size, ownership (private/public), tenure (owner
occupied, private or social tenant) location (rural/urban) and typical energy performance levels of the
building stock. Good responses have generally been obtained by several countries in residential stock
while gaps in responses were more prominent in the characteristics of the non-residential stock.
The challenges for the future
As this is probably the first attempt to draw together a comprehensive and detailed picture of the
residential and non-residential building stock throughout Europe, a number of issues have been
identified, among which the two key issues are:
Common definition of floor area:
Countries often have different approaches to the measurement of floor area which can include
external gross, internal gross, net, heated and treated parts of a building. The same term may not
have the same meaning or definition in different countries. Moreover, assuming that two countries
adopt the same definition, the different approaches for taking measurements (e.g. measuring the
attic space) imply that comparing the resulting floor areas is difficult. For these reasons, it would be
helpful to have agreement on a common measurement principle which should probably correspond
to the concept of ‘treated’ floor area, referring to the portion of the building treated with some form
of heating and/or cooling (but excluding areas such as plant rooms, car parks and other non-treated
spaces). Some have proposed that building volume is a better metric when dealing with treated
space because it is the volume of air that is heated or cooled. A small number of countries collect
data on building volume and in any case it can be even more difficult to define, especially in the nonresidential sector with suspended ceilings and raised floors complicating the measurement.
Common building categories:
Data were collected for this report using the above set of categories (a-i) for residential and nonresidential buildings. Most countries were able to present data in the required format but several
were only able to provide data broken down into nationally defined sets of categories. Agreement
around a common set of building categories with a clear set of definitions of what should be included
and excluded would make for more reliable and comparable data in the future, especially for nonresidential types.
Addressing the above issues would require in many cases changes to the databases that countries are
using and hence the underlying legislation. Although this would require considerable effort, monitoring
and evaluating current policies related to buildings signify the urgent need for more data on the building
stock. If the above issues are addressed in an appropriate way without overcomplicating the additional
work, the case would be further reinforced for buildings being a driving sector for achieving the overall
climate targets set for the EU. Without a solid foundation of data, it is difficult to monitor the impact and
ultimately design effective policies.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 25
Part 1
Europe’s buildings today
“For strong policy making at EU and Member State level
it is key to establish an efficient monitoring system of the
European building stock assuring good data availability
and data quality.”
26 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
A. Building Typology
From large commercial offices to terraced single family houses, buildings in Europe vary remarkably in terms
of their function type. They can be broadly divided into residential and non-residential sectors where each
sector alone consists of multiple types.
For the countries covered by this study8, it is estimated that there are 25 billion m2 of useful floor space, a
figure that, it has been reported, is increasing at a rate of around 1% per year. To illustrate what this figure
means in comparative terms, all EU buildings in terms of their gross floor space can be currently concentrated
in a land area equivalent to that of Belgium (30 528 km2). In comparison to China and the US, Europe has the
highest ‘building density’ (building floor space over land area) followed by China and then US. Floor space
trends can be linked to a number of factors such as wealth conditions, culture and land availability. These
factors can explain the significant differences between Europe, US and China where floor space per capita
are around 48, 81 and 26 m2, respectively. Within Europe, differences also exist from country to country.
The general tendency is to seek larger floor spaces over time, especially under favourable economic
conditions. With increasing trends in floor space, the energy demand associated with our buildings is also
increasing, which in turn highlights the need for improving the energy efficiency of our current stock,
especially that of older stock.
Improving the energy efficiency of our buildings not only reduces energy consumption and subsequently
energy bills but also improves the aesthetics of a building, increases the value of the asset and provides
healthier conditions for the occupants.
Figure 1A1 – Building gross floor space in the EU27, Switzerland and Norway
Sources: Population figures: World Bank, Eurostat. Floor spaces: EU27 - BPIE survey 2011, US - Annual Energy Outlook 2011 with projections to 2035 (US
Energy Information Administration), China - Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Facts & Trends (WBCSD)
Building gross floor space in the EU27,
Switzerland and Norway
bE
Population (2010)
Land area (km2)
Building Floor Space
EU27
501 million
4 324 782
24 billion m2
US
309 million
9 826 675
25 billion m2
1 338 million
9 598 080
35 billion m2
China
8
Focus countries are: EU27, Norway and Switzerland. Based on estimations through the BPIE survey for which 92% of floor area was reported.
The EU27 useful floor area is 24 billion m2.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 27
For the analytical purposes of this study, European countries have been divided up based upon climatic,
building typology and market similarities into three regions:
• North & West
• South
• Central & East
Each region consists of the countries shown in the Table and map of Figure 1A2. It should be noted that
half of the total estimated floor space is located in the North & West region while the remaining 36% and
14% are contained in the South and Central & East regions, respectively.
Figure 1A2 – Countries and regions considered herein with equivalent population and floor space
figures
Source: BPIE survey
Floor space distribution
Central &
East 14%
North
& West
50%
South
36%
North & West
AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, FI, FR, IE, LU, NL, NO, SE, UK
Population: 281 million
Central & East
BG, CZ, EE, HU, LT, LV, PL, RO, SI, SK
Population: 102 million
South
CY, GR, ES, IT, MT, PT
Population: 129 million
28 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
The floor space breakdown per country is shown in Figure 1A3. The five largest countries (in terms of
population: France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK) account for approximately 65% of the total floor
space. This comes as no surprise since the corresponding share of population in these countries is equal
to 61% of the total. As explained above, the relationship between population and building floor area is in
fact a complex one which is influenced by a range of factors including economic wealth, culture, climate,
scale of commerce, increased demand for single occupancy housing and many others.
Using the collected data, the floor space standards have been analysed by estimating the floor space
per capita for each country. From this analysis, it appears that countries in the North & West region have
higher total floor area per person than in the South and Central & East regions. Upon closer examination,
the countries of Central & Eastern Europe tend to have lower space standards in terms of dwellings with
a floor space of around 25 m2/person in comparison to the Northern and Southern European countries,
which have space standards typically of around 40 m2/person. On the other hand, non-residential floor
space per capita is nearly double in the North compared to other regions, which may suggest a link
between non-residential floor space and economic wealth. The different approaches taken for defining
and measuring floor area within this sector also have an impact on these numbers.
Figure 1A3 – Floor space distribution per country
Residential
Non Residential
Source: BPIE survey
5
4.5
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
MT
0
DE
FR
UK
IT
ES
PL
NL
SE
CH
RO
BE
PT
HU
GR
AT
CZ
DK
NO
FI
BG
SK
IE
LT
SI
LV
CY
EE
LU
Billion m2
4
Figure 1A4 - Floor space per capita in the three regions in m2
Source: BPIE survey
East
East
Central
& North
North
& Central
South
South
42
39
25
15
8
Residential
Non
Residential
Residential
Non
Residential
9
Residential
Non
Residential
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 29
Residential Buildings
The residential stock is the biggest segment with an EU floor space of 75% of the building stock (Figure
1A5). Within the residential sector, different types of single family houses (e.g. detached, semi-detached
and terraced houses) and apartment blocks are found. Apartment blocks may accommodate several
households typically ranging from 2-15 units or in some cases holding more than 20-30 units (e.g. social
housing units or high rise residential buildings).
An analysis of this data indicates that, across the focus countries in this study, 64% of the residential
building floor area is associated with single family houses and 36% with apartments.
Figure 1A5 – Residential floor space for the countries covered in the study
Source: BPIE survey
Non
Residential
25%
Single family
houses
64%
Residential
75%
Apartment
blocks
36%
The split between the two main types of residential properties varies significantly from country to country
as shown in Figure 1A6.
Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and Switzerland could be said to
hold more even portfolios with similar floor areas for single family houses and apartments.
Greece, Ireland, Norway and the UK have the smallest proportion of floor area of apartments in the
residential building stock, whilst Estonia, Latvia and Spain have the highest.
In terms of floor space per capita, the Central & East countries are among the countries with the lowest
residential space in terms of both single family houses and apartment blocks.
North & West countries have the highest residential floor areas per capita compared to other regions.
Countries in the South have the highest single family house floor space per capita which perhaps indicates
the frequency of holiday houses in those countries.
It is interesting to note that in all regions, the floor space standards in apartments are lower than in single
family houses, a trend which perhaps reinforces the link between floor space and wealth conditions.
30 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Figure 1A6 – Single family and apartment buildings in Europe
Source: BPIE survey / values for Luxembourg, Portugal, Cyprus and Belgium were estimated
IE
UK
GR
NO
NL
MT
SI
DK
IT
SK
FR
FI
HU
LU
PT
CY
BE
RO
DE
AT
PL
SE
BG
CZ
CH
LT
ES
EE
LV
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
Single family houses
North &
West
Central &
41 m2
East
26 m2
South
50 m2
Central &
East
20 m2
South
31 m2
90%
100%
Apartments
North &
West
36 m2
Single family house floor space per capita
Apartment floor space per capita
An apartment block in Europe
A typical single family house in Europe
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 31
Figure 1A7 – Range of new build rates in the residential sector (2005-2010) where SF and MF
denote single family and multi-family houses, respectively.
Source: BPIE survey
2.5%
2.0%
1.5%
1.0%
0.5%
0.0%
LT
LVSF
NLMF
SI
FR
LVMF
PL
UK
SEMF
RO
BG
SESF
BE
In terms of growth, annual rates in the residential sector are around 1% as depicted in Figure 1A7 which
shows the range of new build rates in the residential countries for a range of countries over the period
between 2005 and 2010.
Except The Netherlands (in the case of multi-family houses), all other countries experienced a decrease in
the rate of new build in recent years, reflecting the impact of the current financial crisis in the construction
sector. Notably, this impact seems to be more pronounced in countries in Central & Eastern Europe as is
the case in Latvia, Romania and Poland.
Non-residential buildings
The diversity in terms of typology within the non-residential sector is vast. Compared to the residential sector,
this sector is more complex and heterogeneous. It includes types such as offices, shops, hospitals, hotels,
restaurants, supermarkets, schools, universities and sports centres while in some cases multiple functions exist
in the same building. Moreover, differences from country to country are more pronounced, which in turn,
makes the cross-country comparison of the definitions of various building categories more challenging.
In our survey, we have considered the following broad categories: educational buildings, offices, hospitals,
hotels and restaurants, sports facilities, wholesale and retail trade services buildings and other types of energyconsuming buildings. In each of these categories, a broad division between various subcategories has been
considered based on the list of Figure 1A8.
Figure 1A8 reveals the split between these categories at the European level. The retail and wholesale buildings
comprise the largest portion of the non-residential stock. These buildings are somewhat different from
others as heating and cooling conditions may differ substantially from other categories due to large areas of
wholesale buildings often being used only for storage purposes.
In addition to this, differences are also pronounced within this sector where there is no homogeneity in terms
of size, usage pattern (use hours) and construction style. This requires special attention when looking at the
retail and wholesale sub-sectors.
Office buildings are the second biggest category with a floor space corresponding to ¼ of the total nonresidential floor space. Offices have similar heating and cooling conditions to residential buildings although
they are of shorter use. Similar usage pattern as offices are found with educational buildings which count for
less than 20% of the entire non-residential floor space.
Hospitals (7% of total non-residential floor space) have continuous usage patterns, where energy demand can
vary substantially depending on the services provided (from consultation rooms to surgery rooms).
32 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Figure 1A8 - The non-residential sector in Europe
Source: BPIE survey
Wholesale & retail
28%
Offices
23%
Detached shops, shopping centres, department
stores, large and small retail, food and non food shops,
bakeries, car sales and maintenance, hair dresser,
laundry, service stations (in gas stations), fair and
congress buildings and other wholesale and retail.
Offices in private companies and offices in all state,
municipal and other administrative buildings, postoffices.
Educational
17%
Primary and secondary schools, high schools and
universities, research laboratories, professional training
activities and others.
Hotels &
restaurants
11%
Hotels, restaurants, pubs and cafés, canteens or
cafeterias in businesses, catering and others.
Hospitals
7%
Sport facilities
4%
Other
11%
Public and private hospitals, medical care, homes for
handicapped, day nursery and others.
Sport halls, swimming pools, gyms etc.
Warehousing, transportation and garage buildings,
agricultural (farms, greenhouses) buildings, garden
buildings.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 33
The division between the non-residential building categories varies significantly from country to country
as seen in Figure 1A9. Offices and wholesale & retail trade buildings make up the largest component in
most countries. Many countries have reported a large component in the category of ‘other’ buildings and
this probably indicates that further effort is required in the future to separate this floor area into one or
more of the other categories wherever possible.
Figure 1A9 - Breakdown of non-residential floor space in selected countries
Source: BPIE survey
1.40
1.20
Billion m2
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
DE FR UK ES NL CH IT SE PL DK FI NO HU CZ RO BG SK LT SI LV EE
Other types
Wholesale & retail
Sport facilities
Hotels & restaurants
Hospitals
Educational
Offices
34 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
While the dataset of residential buildings is fairly comprehensive, the non-residential stock is far less
covered, as the sector is associated with higher uncertainty levels due to the difficulties in tracking the
existing stock of all different non-residential types and developing an appropriate statistical database.
Public buildings are in the limelight at the moment due to the policies requiring the public sector to lead
by example where all new constructions in the sector are required to be of nearly zero energy standards
by end of 20189 while a sectoral renovation rate of at least 3% is recommended10.
The exercise carried out by BPIE has reinforced the need for collecting better data and urge a call for the
establishment of guidelines and requirements under which Member States should gather more extensive
and consistent data on the typology of their non-residential stock. B. Characteristics
In addition to typology, buildings vary greatly in terms of age, size and location. The data collected through our
survey has allowed us to draw up a picture of these characteristics. These are discussed in more detail below.
Age
Buildings across Europe are associated with different time periods dating even before the 1900s. Historical
buildings certainly have a significant heritage value while construction techniques and building regulations
such as building codes imposed at the design phase have a great influence on the energy performance of a
building built in a specific period.
In the residential sector, the age of a building is likely to be strongly linked to the level of energy use for the
majority of buildings that have not undergone renovation to improve energy performance.
The BPIE survey has classified buildings in different age bands (specific chronological periods) for each country.
In order to allow some comparison between the age profiles of the residential building stock of different
countries, the floor area data for each country has been consolidated into three representative age bands11:
Old: typically representing buildings up to 1960
Modern: typically representing buildings from 1961 to 1990
Recent: typically representing buildings from 1991 to 2010
Figure 1B1 shows the share of residential floor space by age band. The specific energy use within these age
bands is likely to differ between countries in different regions of Europe due to a number of political, economic
and social factors. The average composition for each region has been estimated by summing the floor area
by age band for all countries in the respective region where detailed data have been made available. The
variations in the age profile between the three regions appear to be small where older buildings (before 1960)
have the biggest share in the North & West region. In particular, the countries with the largest components
of older buildings are the UK, Denmark, Sweden, France, Czech Republic and Bulgaria. It is also evident that
all countries experienced a large boom in construction in the ‘modern’ period (1961-1990) and with a few
exceptions, the housing stock more than doubled in this period.
Significant country-by-country variations are also evident. The countries with the most recently
constructed buildings (1990-2010) appear to be Ireland, Spain, Poland and Finland, while countries with
the highest rate of construction in the ‘modern’ period (1961-1990) seem to be Estonia, Hungary, Latvia
and Finland.
Source: The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union (2010, May 19). Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and the
Council on the energy performance of buildings (recast). Official Journal of the European Union.
10
Source: European Comission (2011). Energy Efficiency Plan 2011, COM(2011) 109 final.
11
A more detailed age breakdown was available in individual countries. When sorted at the regional level, it was possible to deduce the breakdown
in the three age groups identified herein.
9
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 35
Figure 1B1 - Age profile of residential floor space
South
Source: BPIE survey
GR
Average per region
MT
South
ES
14%
IT
37%
FI
IE
49%
North & West
AT
North & West
NL
DE
19%
FR
42%
SE
DK
39%
UK
Central & East
EE
LT
17%
LV
35%
Central & East
HU
RO
48%
SK
Pre 1960
SI
1961-1990
PL
1991-2010
BG
CZ
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
NOTES
BG: EE: GR: IT: LT: Based on estimations
Data from 1951 onwards.
Data only till 2000.
Values exclude heritage buildings before the 1950.
Data from 1941 onwards.
36 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
MT:
PL: ES: SE: Based on a sample survey with data until 2002.
Based on estimations
Based on primary residences (i.e. excluding secondary houses)
Data only from 1921 till 2005
Size
Information on the size of non-residential buildings is helpful in understanding the impact of policy
measures that are targeted at non-residential buildings with different floor area thresholds.
Through the BPIE survey, data was available from 13 countries (AT, BG, CY, CZ, EE, IE, IT, LT, NL, SE, SI, SK,
UK). The following five key building categories have been considered:
Offices
Educational buildings
Hospitals
Hotels and restaurants
Retail buildings
The analysis of the size of non-residential buildings is presented in Table 1B1, either as a percentage of the
floor area or as a percentage of the number of buildings in that size band.
Table 1B1 – Share of non-residential buildings size (%)
Source: BPIE survey
All types of consuming non-residential buildings
number
< 200 m2
200 - 1 000 m2
> 1 000 m2
EE
10
50
40
SI
89.8
8.8
1.4
LT
42
55
3
CY
AT
79
11
21
52
37
NOTES
The figures in the above tables are in % and add up to 100%.
AT: Values based on registered certificates, accounting for 1 007 data sets of non-residential buildings, most of which are office buildings.
CY: Values refer to non-residential building permits issued from 2003-2009 (and % refers to <900 m2 and > 900 m2 of surface area)
SI: The data refer to all real estate units in non-residential use
EE, LT: Values based on estimations by national experts
From this table, it can be deduced that policy measures applied only to non-residential buildings over 1 000 m2
in floor area would miss a substantial portion of buildings in many countries, especially in educational
buildings, hospitals and offices. Policy measures however applied to buildings over 200 m2 (for instance
in offices) would hit the majority of buildings in most countries. The largest non-residential buildings are
typically hospitals, followed by educational buildings and sports facilities while in wholesale, retail, hotels
and restaurants the distribution is more even across the different size bands.
Table 1B1 is continued on next page
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 37
Table 1B1 – Share of non-residential buildings in each country (figures are shown in %)
Source: BPIE survey
Break down by function type
Offices
Area
Wholesale & retail
< 200 m
200 - 1 000 m
> 1 000 m
BG
60
30
10
UK
26
27
47
NL
12
24
64
2
2
Area
2
< 200 m2
200 - 1 000 m2
> 1 000 m2
BG
35
55
10
UK
42
22
36
SK
1
12
86
< 200 m2
200 - 1 000 m2
> 1 000 m2
x
IT
5
28
67
SK
1
12
88
< 200 m2
200 - 1 000 m2
> 1 000 m2
Number
x
Number
IE
95
CZ
25
60
15
SE
3.7
37.4
68.9
< 200 m2
200 - 1 000 m2
> 1 000 m2
5
CZ
30
55
15
IT
33
50
17
LT
0
79
21
SE
4.7
25.9
69.4
Educational buildings
Area
Hospitals
BG
0
40
60
NL
5
4
91
SK
0
6
93
UK
1
5
94
< 200 m2
200 - 1 000 m2
> 1 000 m2
x
Area
< 200 m2
200 - 1 000 m2
> 1 000 m2
BG
0
30
70
SK
0
4
96
UK
0
1
99
< 200 m2
200 - 1 000 m2
> 1 000 m2
Number
IE
x
Number
LT
0
78
22
CZ
0
70
30
SE
4.4
28
67.5
IE
0
0
100
Sport facilities
Area
84.5
15.5
CZ
0
55
45
SE
5.3
37.3
57.4
< 200 m2
200 - 1 000 m2
> 1 000 m2
BG
10
50
40
UK
27
23
52
SK
0
4
95
< 200 m2
200 - 1 000 m2
> 1 000 m2
Hotels & Restaurants
Area
x
> 1 000 m2
Number
< 200 m2
200 - 1 000 m2
UK
0
12
88
CZ
5
65
30
SK
0
10
90
SE
11.2
45
43.9
NOTES
AT: Values based on registered certificates, accounting for 1 007 data
sets of non-residential buildings, most of which are office buildings.
CY: Values refer to non-residential building permits issued from 20032009 (and % refers to <900 m2 and > 900 m2 of surface area)
CZ: Estimations based on past official data, extrapolated to present
time.
IE: Office values concern buildings under the responsibility of the
Office of Public Works. Educational values concern only public
primary and secondary schools. Hospital values include publicly
owned acute and non-acute hospitals and private nursing homes
SI: The data refer to all real estate units in non-residential use
38 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
SE: Values presented are based only on certified non-residential
buildings.
UK: All presented values refer only to England and Wales and the
categories <200 m2 correspond to <250 m2 and the categories 2001 000 m2 corresponds to 250-1 000 m2.
Office values concerns only commercial offices, hospital values
exclude health centres and surgeries, and sports facilities include
only LA sports centres
BG, EE, LT, NL: Values based on estimations by national experts
Ownership and tenure
The ownership of buildings have a bearing on the rate at which renovations are undertaken and the depth of the
energy savings measures that may be included in renovation projects. Arguably, the public sector should be taking
the lead in ‘deep renovations’ and its large portfolio of buildings provides many opportunities for economies of
scale. Private owners may be reluctant to act early and may require encouragement, incentives and regulations to
stimulate reasonable rates and depths of renovation.
Data was sought on the division of ownership in residential and non-residential buildings between the
public and the private sector of the EU27 together with Switzerland and Norway. Analysis of the data
provided on the split between public and private ownership of residential buildings revealed that across
the 23 countries from which data was available the largest share is held in private ownership while 20%
is allocated to ‘pure’ public ownership.
Figure 1B2 shows the country-by-country variations where only Austria reports more than 20% of
residential dwellings held in public ownership. It should be noted that in many countries, social housing
is fully owned by public bodies but there is an increasing trend toward private involvement. This trend is
for instance found in Ireland, England, Austria, France, Denmark and The Netherlands where, in the case
of The Netherlands, the social housing is fully owned by private bodies (housing association)12.
Figure 1B2 – Ownership of residential buildings in Europe by number of dwellings
(except France which is in m2).
Source: BPIE survey
Private
South
ES
Public
GR
Other
CY
IT
NOTES
MT
NO
North & West
DK
BE
IE
FR
UK
AT
NL
CH
RO
Central & East
BG
EE
HU
SI
PL
SK
LV
CZ
0%
12
20%
40%
60%
80%
AT: Data until 2001. Mixed ownership is
represented by non-profit building
associations, other companies (e.g.
AG, Bank, GmbH) and other owners
(e.g. associations).
CH: ‘Other’ consists of members of a
building cooperative and others
CY: Data for public and private sector
dwellings constructed between 19982008.
CZ: Based on estimations.
GR: Social housing units are owned by
private bodies
IT: Data until 2001
MT: Other consists of dwellings held by
emphyteusis (notarial contract) and
other used free of charge
NL: ‘Other’ consists of social housing
associations owned by private bodies
for which conditions (e.g. rental
prices) are heavily regulated by the
government.
RO: Based on 2006 estimations
SK: Based on 2001 data
ES: Social housing is mainly delivered
through the private sector and
is controlled through subsidies,
subsidized loans and grants for both
developers and buyers
UK:‘Other’ consists of Registered
Social Landlords (often referred to
as housing associations) that are
government-funded
not-for-profit
100%
organisations that provide affordable
housing.
Source: Whitehead, C., & Scanlon, K., (2007). Social Housing in Europe. LSE London, London School of Economics and Political Science.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 39
Figure 1B3 – Tenure of residential buildings by number of dwellings in Europe
(except for France which is in m2)
Source: BPIE survey
South
ES
Owner-occupied
MT
GR
Private rented
IT
Public rented
CY
Other
NO
North & West
BE
IE
UK
FR
AT
NL
Central & East
CH
RO
HU
SK
CZ
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
NOTES
AT: Data up to 2001.
CH: ‘Other’ consists of members of a building cooperative and others
CY: Data up to 2001. ‘Other’ consists of 13,9% of rented (mixed
ownership) and 17,9 of other arrangements
CZ: Based on estimations.
HU: Data up to 2005. ‘Other’ includes public and private empty
dwellings and other
IT: Data up to 2001
MT: Other consists of dwellings held by emphyteusis (notarial contract)
and other used free of charge
NL: ‘Other’ consists of social housing associations owned by private
bodies for which conditions (e.g. rental prices) are heavily
regulated by the government.
RO: Data up to 2002
SK: Based on 2001 data
ES: Social housing is mainly delivered through the private sector and is
controlled through subsidies, subsidized loans and grants for both
developers and buyers
UK: ‘Other’ consists of Registered Social Landlords (often referred to
as housing associations) which are government-funded not-forprofit organisations that provide affordable housing.
Another key factor which undoubtedly influences the willingness and ability to take action on renovation
measures to improve energy performance in the residential building stock is the question of tenure. Data
was available from 17 countries on the division between owner occupied properties and those rented
from private landlords, public landlords or a mixture of the two.
Figure 1B3 shows that at least 50% of residential buildings are occupied by the owner in all countries.
Among the countries with the biggest share of private tenants were Greece and Czech Republic while
countries with significant portions of public rented dwellings (in most cases these are occupied by social
tenants) are Austria, the UK, Czech Republic, The Netherlands and France. It should be noted that the
division between private landlords and public landlords was not always clear and several countries
reported the rented portion of the stock as having ‘mixed landlords’.
40 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Data availability on the ownership of non-residential buildings was more limited and only in detail from
15 countries. These are presented in Figure 1B4, which shows the average ownership of non-residential
buildings across these countries. It is clear that the ownership profile in the non-residential sector is
more heterogeneous than that in the residential buildings, where private ownership can span from as
low as 10% to nearly 90% depending on the country. The extent of public ownership of non-residential
buildings suggests that this would be a good target for public policy to begin large-scale renovation to
deliver significant reductions in energy use but the impact would be higher in some countries.
Figure 1B4 – Ownership of non-residential buildings by number of buildings except
FR, SK, SI which are in m2 and FI which is in m3
Source: BPIE survey
North & West
S
GR
Private
DK
Public
FR
Mixed
AT
NO
FI
LV
LT
Central & East
SI
RO
SK
CZ
HU
BG
EE
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
NOTES
BG: CZ: EE: Based on audited and/or certified buildings of floor area above
1 000m2 (by the Energy Efficiency Agency experts)
Based on estimations.
Buildings included: culture, sports, education, healthcare building.
Buildings excluded: Offices (which are estimated to be 50% private
and 50%public).
GR: Note that a share of private buildings is used by the public sector
which is either purchased or rented under special conditions.
Location
The location of buildings is of interest as typically the willingness and ability to take up renovation
measures to improve energy performance can be affected by a number of factors including the location of
a building. In the urban environment, economies of scale will come into play with large-scale renovation
programmes able to act on streets, districts and localities. In rural environments, projects may be more
widespread and hence benefit from economies of scale to a lesser extent while labour rates are often
lower in these areas.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 41
Data on the location of residential buildings was made available from 18 countries. Figure 1B5 shows that
countries having the majority of residential buildings in rural locations include Lithuania, The Netherlands,
Sweden, Romania and Slovenia while countries having the highest level of urban residences include
the UK, Norway, Spain, France and Czech Republic. These findings should be considered in conjunction
with the relevant occupancy patterns for rural and urban areas as rural areas are typically less populated
meaning that the permanent occupancy rate in these areas is lower. At the EU level, 49% of population
lives in densely populated areas (at least 500 inhabitants/km2), 26% in intermediate (100-499 inhabitants/
km2) and the rest in thinly populated areas (less than 100 inhabitants/km2)13 where the countries with the
largest shares of thinly populated areas are Sweden, Romania and Lithuania.
Figure 1B5 – Location of residential buildings (urban vs rural) by number of dwellings
South
Source: BPIE survey
ES
Urban
GR
Rural
CY
North & West
UK
NO
FR
IE
BE
SE
NL
Central & East
CZ
HU
PL
EE
BG
RO
SI
LT
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
NOTES
CY: Data concerns only built dwellings between 1980 and 2009
FR: Urban units are in territories of a minimum of 2000 inhabitants
where the distance between buildings does not exceed 200 m.
LV: Data regards all buildings (residential and non-residential)
NO: Urban units are in territories of a minimum 200 persons (60 - 70
dwellings), where the distance between buildings normally does
not exceed 50 metres.
Source: Eurostat
13
42 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
NL: Urban units are located in territories with uninterrupted built-up
area typified by the number of residents (more than 100 000), the
number of jobs (more than 50 000) and the number of potential
customers (more than 150 000)
SE: Data provided covers only existing buildings in 1990.
C. Energy Performance
It is widely recognised that the building sector is one of the key consumers of energy in Europe.
Understanding energy consumption in buildings requires an insight into the energy levels consumed
over the years and the mix of fuels used. Figure 1C1 shows the historical final energy consumption in
buildings in EU27, Norway and Switzerland since the 1990s. The consumption is made up of two main
trends: a 50% increase in electricity and gas use and a decrease in use of oil and solid fuels by 27% and
75%, respectively.
Overall, the energy use in buildings is a rising trend with an increase from around 400 Mtoe to 450 Mtoe
over the last 20 years. This is likely to continue if insufficient action is taken to improve the performance
of buildings.
Figure 1C1– Historical final energy consumption in the building sector since 1990s for the EU27,
Switzerland and Norway
Source: Eurostat database
Mtoe
500
400
300
200
100
0
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Solid fuels
Oil
Gas
Electricity
RES
Derived heat
In terms of CO2 emissions, buildings are responsible for around 36% in Europe14. The average specific CO2
emission15 in Europe is 54 kgCO2/m2 where the national values of kgCO2 per floor space vary in the range
from 5-120 kgCO2/m2 as shown in Figure 1C2. The building performance is a key component in this. In
addition, CO2 emissions are linked to the particular energy mix used in buildings in a given country. For
example, the extent to which renewable energy is employed in the buildings, the use of district heating
and co-generation, the sources of electricity production in each country affect the CO2 emissions related
to buildings. Variations in the energy supply mix highly influence the CO2 performance of buildings
where, for instance, Norway and France are among the lowest in Europe as shown in Figure 1C2 due to
their dependence on hydroelectricity and nuclear energy, respectively.
Source: European Comission - Energy. Retrieved June, 2011 from ec.europa.eu/energy/efficiency/buildings/buildings_en.htm
The CO2 emissions have been calculated using CO2 emission factors for different energy products published by the Carbon Trust UK and CO2
emission factors for electricity production published by the International Energy Agency.
14
15
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 43
Figure 1C2 – CO2 emission per useful floor area
Source: BPIE survey, Eurostat database
NO
SE
CH
FR
ES
PT
AT
IT
BG
FI
RO
NL
DK
SI
SK
UK
DE
MT
BE
HU
LV
LT
GR
CY
PL
LU
CZ
IE
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
kgCO2/m2
Residential buildings
Residential buildings comprise the biggest segment of the EU’s building stock and are responsible for the
majority of the sector’s energy consumption.
In 2009, European households were responsible for 68% of the total final energy use in buildings16. Energy
in households is mainly consumed by heating, cooling, hot water, cooking and appliances where the
dominant energy end-use in homes is space heating. The final consumption of these end-uses is shown
in Figure 1C3 divided between all fuels and electricity. The strong correlation between heating degreedays and fuel consumption emphasises the link between climatic conditions and use for heating as the
year-to-year fluctuations in heating consumption largely depend on the climate of a particular year. The
significant increase in use of appliances in households is also evident through the steady increase in
electricity consumption (38% over the last 20 years), as shown in Figure 1C3.
Source: Eurostat
16
44 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Figure 1C3 – Historical final energy use in the residential sector in EU27, Norway and Switzerland
Heating degree days
09
08
20
07
20
06
20
05
20
04
20
20
20
20
20
20
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
03
1 000
02
0
01
1 500
00
50
99
2 000
98
100
97
2 500
96
150
95
3 000
94
200
93
3 500
92
250
91
4 000
90
300
19
Mtoe
Source: Eurostat database
All fuels
Actual Heating Degree Days
Electricity
Figure 1C4 shows the energy product per region in 2009 and by end-use in the three regions. Gas is
the most common fuel in all regions which stands at 41%, 39% and 26% in North & West, South and
Central & East regions, respectively. The highest use of coal in the residential sector is found in Central &
Eastern Europe where the largest share is used in Poland. Oil use is highest in North & West Europe where
Germany and France are the biggest consumers (inevitably due to the size of these countries). District
heating is most common in Central & Eastern Europe and least in Southern countries while renewable
energy sources (solar heat, biomass, geothermal, wastes) have a share of 21%, 12% and 9% in the total
final consumption of Central & Eastern, South and North & West regions, respectively.
Space heating is the most energy intense end-use in EU homes and accounts for around 70% of our total
final energy use. The percentage use for heating in Spain, Poland and France (a representative country
per region), is indicated in Figure 1C6. This share is typically less in warmer climates (e.g. Spanish homes
consumed 55% of the total final energy consumption in 2009 – see Figure 1C6) and also fluctuates from
year to year as indicated by Figure 1C6. These examples shown in Figure 1C6 signify the vast differences
from country to country in terms of the corresponding energy mix.
The energy mix for heating consumption is an indicator for the overall performance of a building and the
breakdown of the heating energy for the examples given in Figure 1C6 reflect this (e.g. Poland depends
on 41% coal use for covering the residential building stock’s heating needs, a fact which is also reflected
by the high kgCO2/m2 value corresponding to Poland in Figure 1C3).
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 45
Figure 1C4 – Final energy mix in residential buildings (thousand toe) by region
Source: Eurostat database
Central & East
45 000
RES 21%
40 000
35 000
30 000
200 000
District
Heating 13%
150 000
Electricty
16%
100 000
25 000
20 000
15 000
Gas
26%
10 000
0
RES 9%
District Heating 5%
Electricty
26%
Gas
41%
RES 12%
40 000
Electricty
29%
Gas
39%
20 000
10 000
Oil 19%
0
50 000
30 000
50 000
Oil 3%
Solid fuels
14%
5 000
South
North & West
Solid fuels 1%
Oil 19%
0
Figure 1C5 – Share of heating consumption in terms of final energy use in residential
buildings with corresponding energy mix
Source: BPIE Survey
The performance of households depends on a number of factors such as the performance of the installed
ES (South)
PL (Central & East)
FR (North & West)
Energy mix for heating consumption
Energy mix for heating consumption
Energy mix for heating consumption
Biomass 27%
Biomass 20%
Electricity 1%
Electricity 18%
Oil 32%
Gas 23%
Heating
55%
46 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
District Heat 29%
LPG, DH other RES 6%
Biomass 21%
Electricity 13%
Coal 1%
Oil 20%
Coal 41%
Gas 39%
Oil 3%
Gas 7%
Heating
66%
Heating
67%
heating system and building envelope, climatic conditions, behavioural characteristics (e.g. typical
indoor temperatures) and social conditions (e.g. fuel poverty meaning that not all buildings are used at
maximum capacity). Despite different improvements in, for instance, heating systems, there is still a large
saving potential associated with residential buildings that has not been exploited. These technologies
are easily implemented in new buildings, but the challenge is mostly linked to our existing stock which
forms the vast majority of our buildings.
Figure 1C6 – Average heating consumption levels in terms of final energy use (kwh/(m2a) of single
family homes by construction year
Source: BPIE survey
North & West
United Kingdom
585
300
430.3
304.7
246
225
187
200
350.2
176
156 159
150
268.2
200
100
250
94 80
100
102.8
Pr
e1
Pr Pre
9
e1
19 20
M
2
9
0
id
19 20
Te
60 En det
r
a
’s
se d te che race
m
r
i-d rac d ho
et e (w us
a
e
19 che ith
19
80
d
bu 70
’s
d
)
Po eta nga
ch
lo
st
w
e
20
02 d h
o
M
us
id
e
Te
rra
ce
0
53
50
0
19
1
19 8
4
19 8
5
19 7
6
19 8
7
19 8
8
19 3
1987
9
20 5
2005
10
400
250
Sweden
300
250
200
150
196
189
158
147
150
138
124
100
50
0
92
1
19 -40
41
+
19 60
61
19 70
71
19 80
81
19 90
91
20 00
01
-0
5
500
>1
600
300
Germany
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 47
Central & East
Latvia
Bulgaria
300
300
255
250
230
200
131
101
150
140
130
90
03
2
20
93
-0
-9
19
Be
fo
re
1
9
94
19 60
60
-8
19 0
81
19 90
91
20 -00
01
20 -04
05
-n
ow
46
19
80
0
-7
0
0
50
2
100
50
45
150
19
100
19
150
150
0
150
61
167
-6
200
19
228
41
250
19
237
Slovenia
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
179
146
108
68
20
09
-1
0
8
03
-0
2
20
19
81
-0
0
-8
71
19
-1
97
1
34
South
Portugal
Italy
250
180
140
150
99
1
1
-9
19
82
-8
1
0
19
72
fo
re
1
19 950
50
19 -59
60
19 -69
70
19 -79
80
19 89
90
20 -99
00
20 -05
06
-1
0
Be
50
71
68
0
48 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
95
100
1-
50
110
19
6
120
0
100
140 130
180
-6
150
220
200
19
46
200
200 200 195
>1
250
Within the existing European stock, a large share (more than 40%17) is built before 1960s where there were
only few or no requirements for energy efficiency and only a small part of these have undergone major
energy retrofits, meaning that, these have low insulation levels and their systems are old and inefficient.
The oldest part of the building stock contributes greatly to the high energy consumption in the building
sector. Older buildings tend to consume more due to their low performance levels.
This is clearly demonstrated in Figure 1C6, which shows data on typical heating consumption levels of the
existing stock by age for several countries collected through the BPIE survey. Cross-country comparisons of the
performance are difficult to make due to the multiple factors affecting heating consumption as explained above.
It is however clear that the largest energy saving potential is associated with the older building stock.
This is a trend observed in all countries where in some cases buildings from the 1960s are worse than
buildings constructed in the years before that (c.f. Bulgaria and Germany). It is interesting to note the
large consumption levels for heating in the UK, indicating the very poor performance of UK buildings.
Moreover, although heating needs in Southern countries such as Portugal and Italy are lower due to milder
winters, the energy use in these countries is relatively high, which can be an indication of lack of sufficient thermal
envelope insulation in their building stocks. For those countries, cooling becomes an important contributor to
the overall consumption, where homes are, in many cases, equipped with air-conditioning systems.
Figure 1C7 – U values (W/(m²K) for external walls in different countries for different construction periods.
Sources: BPIE survey
Sweden
Finland
The Netherlands
0.6
0.5
3
0.5
0.4
2.5
2
0.3
1.5
0.2
0
0
>2
00
0
19
81
-9
0
-8
19
61
0
-6
41
19
0
-1
06
5
-0
02
20
20
1
-0
94
19
8
-7
64
20
09
-1
0
8
-0
05
20
99
19
19
87
-0
-9
4
8
6
-8
19
80
9
-7
-7
77
64
19
19
0
-1
5
-0
06
20
9
20
-9
90
19
00
9
9
-8
19
80
-7
70
19
19
60
-6
9
9
-5
9
94
50
>1
6
0
0
-9
0.5
0.5
79
1
1
19
1.5
1.5
-4
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
2
2
19
Czech Republic
19
3
2.5
19
-2
Bulgaria
21
0
90
>1
-0
9
20
6
20
07
03
20
19
85
-0
-0
4
7
-8
-7
78
76
19
19
0
-0
5
01
-0
91
19
20
0
-9
-8
71
19
19
81
-7
0
19
61
0
-6
41
19
-4
92
21
>1
19
Poland
10
0
2
0
0
0
0
0.5
0
0.1
0
1
0.1
3
0.2
01
0.3
19
0.4
Sufficient thermal insulation of the building envelope is in fact essential for shielding the interior of the
building from the exterior environment and minimising thermal transfer (heat losses or gains) through
the envelope during the winter and summer periods. Figure 1C7 compares typical U values of exterior
walls in a number of countries for different construction periods and compares these with the respective
requirements for today’s new build. The lack of proper insulation in older buildings is clear in all countries
due to the lack of insulation standards in those construction years.
This is a figure deduced from our analysis – see section 1B for further details.
17
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 49
The effect of the EPBD implementation can also be demonstrated especially in countries with no previous
embedded regulations for insulation such as Portugal where a 50% reduction in the U values has been
applied over the past five years. This is in contrast to Northern and Western countries where long traditions of
thermal insulation requirements existed prior to the EPBD with stringent requirements being implemented
around the 1970s after the oil crisis (c.f. sharp decrease in 1960-1970s in The Netherlands). In Sweden,
national requirements concerning energy performance of buildings were in place as early as 1948.
Figure 1C8 - Air tightness levels (n50 measured in h-1) of single family houses built over last century
Sources: DK- SBi, CZ –SEVEn, DE- IWU, BG-BSERC
Denmark
Czech Republic
8
0.7
5
4
Germany
1
-1
2
02
-0
20
90
60
19
19
-9
0
0
-6
5
45
19
-4
0
00
90
19
<1
>
18 185
51 0
-1
9
19 30
31
19 50
51
19 -60
61
19 72
73
19 78
78
19 98
99
20 06
07
-1
1
0.6
Bulgaria
0.9
0.8
0.8
8
6
5
0.27
50 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
11
05
-
20
04
01
-
20
0
20
19
91
-2
00
-9
0
19
81
0
19
6
08
0
66
94
5
19
4
>1
19
1
8
19
48
19
57
19
68
19
78
19
83
19
87
19
95
20
05
20
10
0.44
In addition to the lack of sufficient thermal insulation, gaps at connection points between
different elements of a building envelope (e.g. window frame and surrounding wall) can lead to
considerable energy wastage. This highlights the importance of appropriate air tightness levels in
a building. A building with high air tightness levels (that is, high air leakage levels and high n50 values18)
typically suffers from high energy consumption levels while a building with very high air tightness levels
can cause unhealthy conditions for its occupants, especially if there is inadequate ventilation. The latter
is typically linked to poor indoor air quality and the so-called sick building syndrome. Establishing the
appropriate level of air tightness in buildings is, therefore, a key aspect from the viewpoints of energy
usage and comfortable occupant conditions. Poor detailing in past construction techniques means that
older buildings encounter high leakage levels.
This is illustrated by Figure 1C8 which shows typical values of air tightness levels (measured at 50 Pa in h-1) of
single family houses for a number of countries across Europe. It is evident that in countries with long traditions
in energy regulations (such as Germany and Denmark), the older stock demonstrates far lower air leakage
levels compared to the old stock in Central & Eastern regions (such as Czech Republic, Latvia and Bulgaria).
However, even with today’s levels of air tightness levels, studies have shown that envelope leakage can
increase the heating needs by 5 to 20 kWh/m²/a in a moderate climate (2 500 to 3 000 degree-days)19.
Non-residential buildings
Understanding energy use in the non-residential sector is complex as end-uses such as lighting,
ventilation, heating, cooling, refrigeration, IT equipment and appliances vary greatly from one building
category to another within this sector.
Over the last 20 years in Europe electricity consumption in European non-residential buildings has
increased by a remarkable 74%, as depicted in Figure 1C9. This is compatible with technological advances
over the decades where an increasing penetration of IT equipment, air conditioning systems etc. means
that electricity demand within this sector is on a continuously increasing trajectory.
(c.f. absolute difference in electricity use between 1990-2009).
Figure 1C9 – Historical final energy use in the non-residential sector in the EU27, Norway and
Switzerland
Source: Eurostat database
90
80
60
50
40
30
20
10
All fuels
09
20
07
08
20
06
20
20
04
05
20
20
02
03
20
01
20
20
99
00
20
19
97
98
19
19
95
96
19
19
93
94
19
19
91
92
19
19
90
0
19
Mtoe
70
Electricity
n50 represents the total air change rate in a building caused by pressure difference of 50 Pa.
Source: ASIEPI - Assessment and Improvement of the EPBD Impact. Retrieved June, 2011 from www.asiepi.eu
18
19
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 51
Figure 1C10 – Energy mix in the non-residential sector in the EU 27 together with Switzerland and
Norway and corresponding difference compared to 1990 profile
(DH denotes district heating and CHP denotes Combined Heat and Power)
Source: Eurostat database
Solid fuels 1%
RES 1%
Difference compared to 1990
DH&
CHP
6%
Oil
15%
2009
146Mtoe
Electricity
48%
DH&CHP
RES
Electricity
Gas
29%
Gas
Oil
Solid fuels
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
Mtoe
Based on our data, it is estimated that the average specific energy consumption in the non-residential sector
is 280kWh/m2 (covering all end-uses). This is at least 40% larger than the equivalent value for the residential
sector. Within the non-residential sector, variations are expected from country to country and also from one
building type to another.
These variations are clearly illustrated in Figure 1C11, where the specific energy use in offices, educational
buildings, hospitals, hotel & restaurants and sports facilities are presented for a number of countries. While
hospitals are, on average, at the top of the scale with continuous occupancy and high-energy intensity
levels, their overall non-residential consumption is small. This is also the case with hotels & restaurants,
which are equally energy intensive. While these two categories represent the highest energy intensive
type in specific terms, offices, wholesale & retail trade buildings, on the other hand, represent more than
50% of energy use. Education and sports facilities account for a further 18% of the energy use while other
buildings account for some 6%.
Figure 1C11–Final energy use in non-residential building types for different countries across Europe
Source: BPIE survey
Share of total energy use per building type
6%
10%
6%
26%
12%
12%
28%
52 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
offices
wholesale and retail trade
educational
hotels and restaurants
hospitals
sport facilities
other types of energy-consuming buildings
Specific energy use (kWh/m2a) in non-residential buildings
SI
UK
CZ
FR
FI
BG
500
400
300
200
100
ce
s
in
ld
ui
Ed
u
ca
tio
na
lb
Offi
gs
ls
ita
sp
Ho
ra
nt
s
au
st
Re
Ho
te
l
&
le
sa
W
ho
le
Sp
or
an
tf
d
ac
Re
ilit
ta
ie
il
s
0
Construction techniques of non-residential buildings are in large similar to those in residential buildings
as the majority of data collected have illustrated similar performance characteristics (e.g. U values, air
tightness levels) between the two types built during the same period.
While the energy performance discussion for the residential buildings above applies also to the nonresidential sector (hence similar renovation measures should be considered), the installation of smart
energy management systems in non-residential buildings becomes more important due to their
high share of electricity use. For example, the deployment of efficient lighting control systems has
substantial potential in the non-residential sector as electricity consumption for office lighting, which
has been estimated to be 164 TWh in 2007 in the EU2720, is among the highest end-use in this sector. The
replacement of incandescent lamps with CFLs in office and street lighting as a stand-alone measure has
been reported to have an annual savings potential of 38 TWh by 2020, which in turn illustrates the high
savings potential in lighting end-use.
Bertoldi, P., & Atanasiu, B. (2008). Characterization of residential lighting consumption in the enlarged European Union and policies to save energy.
International Journal of Green Energy, 5(1-2), 15-34.
20
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 53
Part 2
Policies and programmes
for improving energy
efficiency in buildings
“EU legislation has set out an ambitious legal framework
for greening European buildings.
The challenge will be for Member States to make this
happen with the necessary drive, through efficient building
policies, codes and attractive programmes addressing the
many barriers existing today.”
54 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
A. Barriers & Challenges
Improving the energy performance of buildings is determined by the decisions of a large number of
people. There are literally millions of building owners and also very large numbers of decision makers
– managers, developers – who decide what happens in all buildings, but particularly in multi-family,
commercial and public buildings. What is important for policy making is to better understand the factors
that affect those decisions in order to design and implement policies that will more effectively promote
energy efficiency investments and actions. The BPIE survey included the collection of information on
specific barriers within the individual countries, reflecting the priorities and differing circumstances
affecting implementation and improvements
Barriers
Experience over several decades has identified numerous barriers that hinder the uptake of renovation
measures. In simple economic terms, the fact that there is a large untapped cost-effective potential
for improving the energy performance of buildings is evidence that consumers and investors, as well
as society in general, are not keen on investing in energy saving. Market dynamics, however, do not
always follow a straight path and there are a multitude of reasons why consumers or building owners
make specific decisions. There is a need for a better understanding of why consumers act the way they
do, often defying the logic of conventional economic theory. This human dimension combined with a
variety of other factors that affect decisions need to be understood and addressed if an ambitious retrofit
strategy is to be successful. It is a complex set of issues that impact all actors in the buildings chain.
The primary focus in this section are barriers affecting the renovation of existing stock, given that these
represent the vast majority of buildings and the biggest potential in energy savings.
Figure 2A1 – Classification of barriers as identified by the BPIE survey
Access to finance
Financial
Payback expectations /
investment horizons
Competing purchase decisions
Barriers
Price signals
Regulatory & planning issues
Institutional and
administrative
Institutional
Structural
Multi-stakeholder issues
Awareness, advice
and skills
Awareness of potential/benefits
Separation of expenditure
and benefit
Skills & knowledge related to building
professionals
Information barrier
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 55
In this study, individual experts and several organisations throughout Europe reported barriers of
particular relevance to their countries as part of the in-depth BPIE survey undertaken. This information
gathering has been supplemented by literature developed over the past decades. Despite some excellent
initiatives to improve the energy performance of Europe’s building stock, it is clear that a multiplicity of
barriers is severely limiting the achievement of the full potential.
A combination of barriers is responsible for this underperformance. There are many ways to classify
barriers and over the years they have been described in many different ways. The BPIE survey identified
the following four main categories of barriers that have a particular impact on existing buildings:21
I.Financial
II. Institutional and administrative
III. Awareness, advice and skills
IV. Separation of expenditure and benefit.
I. Financial Barriers
Financial barriers were one of the highest ranking barrier category in the majority of countries, with 21 giving
it a high priority (amongst the top three). Undoubtedly, any investment in renovation requires money.
This priority for financing barriers is consistent with the findings of a report and roundtable discussion that
BPIE realised in 2010.22 As shown in Part 3 of this study, ambitious renovations take considerable capital
and this has implications for policy making. Understanding the underlying issues related to financing is
fundamental for developing good policy solutions.
Lack of funds or access to finance
Lack of funds and/or inability to secure finance on acceptable terms is generally one of the most cited
barriers to investing in energy efficiency measures. This applies at the level of the individual householder,
businesses (large or small), social housing providers and the public sector, particularly in the aftermath of
the credit crunch. In many cases it is more due to the lack of awareness or lack of interest rather than the
lack of funds. Whilst the demand for a new kitchen or appliances from the consumer’s perspective is high,
there is no similar demand for energy efficiency. Even though they will in most cases be cost-effective over
the long run (with a positive NPV), the initial investment costs can be high and this is seen as an obstacle to
consumer investment decisions. The most ambitious retrofits will undoubtedly require considerable upfront
funding. This upfront funding will have a positive impact on the asset value, especially for older buildings
where energy efficiency retrofits not only improve significantly their energy consumption but also their
aesthetics. Investing in energy efficiency now also offers some protection against increasing energy prices
in the future. Some of the ‘access to financing’ issues have also been identified as administrative issues, as
described below.
The current financial crisis is hitting all European countries, some more than others, while the lending
markets have also been badly affected. Consumers and financial institutions are less willing to take risks.
Compared to many alternative forms of investment, however, investing in energy efficiency measures has
proven to be a prudent route.
Payback expectations/Investment horizons
Even though many energy savings measures are financially rational in that they have a positive Net Present
Value (NPV) or a high Internal Rate of Return (IRR), the time taken for the initial outlay to be recouped is
a major barrier. For most households, energy bills for the home account for 3-4% of disposable income,
hence they are not a major concern. Householders will be mindful that they may move home in the next few
There were also several specific barriers not falling into the main categories that were identified as well. Sometimes specific barriers also fit into
more than one category.
22
Further information on www.bpie.eu/financing_energy_efficiency.html
21
56 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
years, while many businesses will not consider non-core investments that do not pay for themselves within
3-5 years. Alternative financing mechanisms which try to ensure that the benefit from energy efficiency
improvements are paid by those that benefit from them (e.g. recovering initial capital over 25 years through
the energy bill) may have a role to play here. As noted by the answers received from Poland in the BPIE
survey, there is insufficient common awareness about profitability of renovation in terms of life cycle costs.
Competing purchase decisions
Business will prioritise what are perceived as core investments in staff and equipment over energy costs,
which (with the exception of energy intensive businesses) typically make up only a small fraction of business
costs. For householders, investments in energy saving measures will struggle to compete with the latest
electronic gadgets or a new kitchen or bathroom, which are not particularly cost-effective investments but
yield a much higher perceived ‘social benefit’. Some see this obstacle as an issue related to awareness;
others deal with it separately as a financial issue. Moreover, many energy efficiency measures are not visible
(unlike, say, photovoltaic systems) which makes them less ‘attractive’ as an investment option. The lack of
attractiveness is sometimes reinforced by more generous subsidies which are more readily available for PVs
compared to energy efficiency measures. Undoubtedly, consumers have a lot of choice and the case for
reducing costs or improving other benefits (such as comfort) has to be seen in that context.
Price signals
Many of the financial barriers identified concern consumer price signals. If the financial incentive
associated with investing in energy savings measures was sufficiently large, households, businesses and
the public sector would have a higher propensity to undertake such investments. Put simply, energy
costs often represent a small share of household expenditure resulting in lack of motivation for the vast
majority of consumers to take meaningful action to reduce consumption levels.23 Furthermore, energypricing structures do not reflect the full environmental costs of producing energy, in particular the costs
associated with climate change, and hence there is a sub-optimal level of investment which was raised by
the responses for Switzerland and the UK. One of the concerns reported for Hungary was the high degree
of uncertainty about future prices, which seriously hampered consumer decisions.
II. Institutional and administrative barriers
There is a wide range of barriers related to institutional and administrative issues that can have an effect
on the rate and ambition of renovation. This category was considered the third most important barrier
category in the survey, although second in terms of the highest priority.
Regulatory & planning regimes
A variety of regulatory and planning obstacles have been identified. These range from various degrees
and speeds at which EU Directives, including the EPBD, have been implemented by autonomous regions
within a Member State, through to energy market barriers, such as the approvals process for building
integrated renewable technologies. Evidence from Italy indicates that fragmentation, delay and gaps in
the regulatory action of public planning have not allowed the public sector to be the driver for improved
energy efficiency in buildings that it should be.24
Institutional
There is a bias among institutional investors more familiar with (and hence more comfortable with)
supply- side investments and large-scale financing, rather than generally smaller (and “more risky”)
projects on the demand side. This was singled out by Hungary.
This is definitely not the case for those in fuel poverty, where energy costs represent at least 10% of their household expenditures.
BPIE database
23
24
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 57
With respect to the demand side, Latvia highlighted the complex estate administration of privatised
apartment buildings. It noted that there was an unequal ability of owners to pay for renovations and
some groups (e.g. pensioners) showed no interest in investment. Latvia also noted that the European
standards for building energy efficiency have been adopted more slowly than planned and that those
standards were not adapted to national needs. Because of the delays, no common software for building
energy efficiency calculations for designers and engineers was available. Slovenia pointed out that
scattered ownership in apartment buildings (with privatisation only taking place in the 1990s) raised
many organisational barriers where there must be a 75% consensus in multi-owned buildings for
undertaking technical improvements. This leads to complex protocols and the lack of consensus. There
can also be institutional barriers in the public sector using energy service companies. This was raised by
Slovenia but is a problem in several other countries.
Structural
Evidence from Belgium illustrates a dilemma that is probably found in several other Member States. The
main barrier identified by our analysis of the Belgian responses is the age of the building stock because
of a low demolition rate. As the average age of Belgium’s building stock is forecast to increase further
than that of European counterparts in the next 25 years, the relative energy efficiency of the building
stock is also likely to decrease. The analysis goes on to state that the high upfront cost and the annual cap
on most incentives have the consequence that the refurbishments are spread over a long time period,
which is a barrier to improving energy efficiency. Because of the age of buildings, the landlord-tenant
dilemma makes it difficult to ameliorate the existing building stock. Many of the new Member States
from Eastern Europe have a legacy of poor quality “panel” buildings from the 1960s and 1970s that need
serious upgrading.
Multi-stakeholder issues
Various barriers exist where there are multiple owners and/or occupiers of buildings. Ownership and
responsibility can be opaque, while it can be very difficult to agree on energy saving investments in
multi-family residential buildings if many different property owners have to either approve a decision or
make a financial contribution.
III. Awareness, advice and skills barriers
There are many barriers relating to awareness, information and technical expertise. This was the second
most identified barrier category, with 15 of 26 countries giving this a high priority (amongst the top three).
Undoubtedly, for the market to work well, correct and appropriate information is essential. Ambitious
renovations comprise a major decision which can only work if the right energy advice to take action is
available and that the energy efficiency service industries are capable of delivering those measures and
ultimately that sufficient satisfaction levels can be guaranteed for the consumer. Current ESCO companies
are not designed to deliver deep renovations where the complex process, small project size and multistakeholder involvement discourage ESCOs from having a real interest in deep renovation projects.
Without the right combination of necessary conditions, the consumer may only choose to undertake
renovation measures when it is absolutely necessary, as is the case for the replacement of equipment
when it breaks down. There were many observations in the survey about consumers not taking action
and not being interested. Not being interested is a complex issue and generally takes more investigation
to fully understand the consumer’s motivation (or lack of motivation).
58 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Lack of advice/information
Even with all the years of experience and the campaigns undertaken by government, industry and civil
society, awareness of cost-effective energy saving opportunities is still low. The issue is exacerbated in this
period of rapidly advancing technological development, where it can be difficult even for professionals to
keep abreast of prevailing best practice. Dissemination techniques need to keep pace with the evolution
of consumer needs and media. The market place is complex, and energy efficiency investments have
to compete effectively. Due to miscommunication issues, in some cases consumers are not aware of or
do not fully comprehend the effectiveness of specific technologies. This may lead to scepticism over
implementing a technology especially if two or more professionals give supposedly conflicting advice
as to the best way to renovate. This can be overcome, as noted by the Slovenian response, through
demonstrations and information campaigns. Denmark raises an important point that all too often the
focus is on individual products and not on entire end-to-end, holistic solutions.
Awareness of energy savings potential
While there is a general appreciation that energy saving is a “good thing”, there remains a lack of
understanding of the energy, cost and carbon savings from different measures. Householders may, for
example feel they are helping the planet by installing CFLs, without realising that far greater savings
could be achieved from fabric insulation or boiler upgrades. The notion (at the household level) that
fitting CFLs helps save the planet may also have been perpetuated by energy supply companies which
have in the past provided free or low cost CFLs – perhaps focusing less on prioritising the more effective
but also more costly measures like fitting thermal insulation.
Skills & knowledge related to building professionals
Skill shortages exist in both the contractor market responsible for effective installation of energy saving
measures, as well as in professional services, with few architects and designers familiar with how to
specify a low energy renovation. Evidence from Norway indicates that, while there is a lack of knowledge
and competence, there is also lack of focus on energy efficiency among building professionals.25 Estonia,
France and Ireland, amongst others, noted that the limited know-how of contractors regarding energy
efficiency led to unsatisfactory retrofits.
BPIE database
25
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 59
IV. Separation of expenditure and benefit
This is probably the most complex and long-standing barrier relating to existing buildings, particularly in
countries where there is a high share of rental accommodation in the residential sector, but also because
of the structure of occupancy in the non-residential sector. This barrier has been known under various
names throughout the years. Most recently it is known as the ‘split incentives barrier’ or the ‘landlord/
tenant barrier’, the ‘investor/user barrier’ and the ‘principal/agent barrier’, to name the main ones.
This barrier was identified as the fourth most important barrier in the BPIE survey, although there were no
first place positions amongst the countries. This barrier is sometimes considered a financial barrier and,
understandably, there are financial implications. It is also sometimes considered to be an institutional
barrier. This is presented separately herein due to its importance in retrofit strategies.
The problem originates from the fact that one person or organisation owns a building and someone else
uses it. For the owner, any investment has to bring a benefit which is not necessarily through energy
savings, unless it is a situation where the landlord pays the energy bills (this may sometimes be the case).
Since the tenant does not own the facility, any investment in lowering energy bills has to be seen as
financially advantageous for both actors. This often leads to a stalemate with nothing happening.
There are many examples where the party investing in a building may not be the party reaping the
financial returns (in full or in part). Examples include:
• Landlords investing in a property where tenants pay the energy bill;
• Landlords’ inability (through legislative restrictions or other reasons) to raise rents after a building
renovation; and
• Developers constructing a new building or renovating an existing one, where market prices do not
reflect the energy performance of the building.
As evidence from Germany26 has shown, this is one of the most relevant barriers needing increased
attention, particularly since many leases include heating charges and so the actual consumer has a lack of
understanding of actual energy consumption. A comprehensive analysis on split incentives undertaken
by the International Energy Agency in 2007 showed that this barrier accounts for about 30% of sectorial
energy use, which is highly significant. It stated, however, that no single policy instrument can address
it. The IEA stated27:
“Neither regulatory mechanisms, (e.g. minimum energy performance standards, or regulated contract
design), nor information-based instruments (i.e. awareness campaigns) alone will resolve them. Instead,
governments should help design well-targeted policy packages to address PA problems in their specific
national contexts, and within the particular constraints of a given sector. These packages should include
measures to: a) address contract design to ensure end-users face energy prices, b) regulate the level of
energy efficiency in appliances and buildings, c) improve access to information about energy efficiency
performance.”
This is an important point to remember in designing renovation policy pages, as will be seen in Part 3.
Source: BPIE survey
Source: Internatinal Energy Agency. (2007). Mind the Gap - Quantifying Principal-Agent Problems in Energy Efficiency. Paris: IEA/OECD.
26
27
60 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Figure 2A2 – Building owner’s decision-making process for undertaking renovation work
Building
Building typology:
- residential (single
family house, multifamilly building)
-commercial
(wholesale & retail,
type of business
-public
-office
-educational
-health
- other (i.e. industrial
facility, agriculture
etc.)
Intervention
type
Percieved
pressure/need
Urgent/
Immediate
Maintenance
Home
Improvement
Decision factors
Option appraisal;
Time constraints
Non-urgent
Cost-benefit analysis;
Payback horizon
Valuing ancillary benefits
Stand-alone
Measure
Basic information
Trustworthy advice
Willingness to act
Consequential
Improvement
Competing investments
Added complexity
Whole House
Renovation
Professional expertise
Quality contractors
Finance
In summary, there is a multiplicity of reasons why building owners do not routinely consider options for
improving their home’s energy performance, and even when there are convenient “trigger points”, the
energy saving options can often be overlooked, ignored, rejected or only partially realised. From the
consumers’ viewpoint, it is important to consider their decision-making process, which has been roughly
illustrated in Figure 2A2 where the final column highlights some of the most prevalent barriers for a given
scenario.
Challenges
Almost none of the above barriers relate to market or technical issues. This is understandable since the
lack of activity resulting from the financial, structural and other barriers have not allowed many, if any,
of the market and technical barriers to emerge or become apparent. The barriers undoubtedly exist as
latent risks. If conditions were to change dramatically and demand for low energy renovations suddenly
increased there would inevitably be issues regarding shortages of materials, components and human
resources. Additionally, the supply chains and delivery systems would struggle to adapt and would
undoubtedly operate inefficiently for a period of time. These issues are not permanent barriers because
over time the market and the supply chain would respond to demand by building greater capacity and
developing more efficient supply chains and delivery systems. The speed at which markets are able to
respond will depend upon the speed of change and the extent to which clear, consistent and believable
signals of change are given in advance.
The following represent some of the major challenges that have to be factored in (as shown in Figure
2A3), in developing a robust and comprehensive retrofit strategy.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 61
Figure 2A3 – An illustration of the main risks which need to be addressed for market uptake
CHALLENGES
Supply chain
Quality of
workmanship
Technical failure
Disturbance
I. Supply chain
Market and supply chains will certainly develop over time but short term we are facing risks. For example,
a significant shortage of material, components and suitably skilled labour could lead to renovation
work not including low energy measures. Opportunities will be missed that may not reappear for many
decades (‘lock-in effect’). Alternatively, low energy renovation projects may be abandoned because they
cannot be delivered within a specific window of opportunity.
II. Quality of workmanship
Another side-effect of a significant increase in demand could be the rapid growth of contractors offering
to undertake low energy renovation work, which if not appropriately regulated or managed, could
give rise to poor workmanship and even some serious short term failures. Both these outcomes would
generate negative feedback which in turn could stem the demand for renovation projects (in England in
the 1970s the World in Action TV programme exposed shoddy working practices in timber frame house
building that virtually stopped them being built and the industry took decades to recover).
III. Technical failure
A similar and potentially more troubling concern that has been voiced by many in the industry is the
risk of building-in long term failure risks that may not emerge for a decade or more. Whilst not a barrier
in the short term, if such failures began to occur on a large scale in several years they could result in a
massive loss of confidence and a halt in major renovation programmes; to say nothing of major costs
to building owners and insurers. Most new construction materials and more importantly construction
techniques and processes go through a long period of testing and development before they gain
approval for widespread application in new buildings. This would also be true of the materials being
used in low energy renovations but not necessarily the construction techniques and processes. Many of
these have had little testing and development. A major concern is the potential for building-in interstitial
condensation risk when installing internal wall insulation.
IV. Disturbance
Another barrier that has yet to emerge is the practical issue of what happens to the building occupier
when a major renovation is being undertaken. It is probably seen a barrier at the moment given that
occupants may not want to entertain the disruption involved in a major building renovation. In most
cases deep renovation can only be implemented in a vacant building which will involve practical and
financial barriers associated with re-locating the occupant for the period of the retrofit (4-10 weeks).
62 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
B. Regulatory and legislative framework
Improving the energy performance of buildings is a key factor in securing the transition to a ‘green’
resource efficient economy and to achieving the EU Climate & Energy objectives, namely a 20% reduction
in the GHG emissions by 2020 and a 20% energy savings by 2020. By reducing the energy consumption
of the buildings, a direct reduction of the associated GHG emissions will be obtained and a faster and
cheaper implementation of renewable energy sources will be triggered. The 2006 Energy Efficiency
Action Plan28 identified residential and commercial buildings as being the sector with the largest costeffective savings potential by 2020, estimated at around 27% (91Mtoe) and 30% (63Mtoe) of energy use,
respectively. In addition, the Action Plan indicates that, in residential buildings, retrofitting walls and
roofs insulation offer the greatest saving opportunities, while in commercial buildings, improving energy
management systems is more important. The Eco-design of the Energy-Related Products Framework
Directive 09/125/EC (recast of Energy-Using Directive 32/2005/EC), the End-use Energy Efficiency and
Energy Services Directive 32/2006/EC (ESD), the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2010/31/EU
(EPBD, recast of 2002/91/EC) as well as the Labelling Framework Directive 2010/30/EU (recast of 75/1992/
EC) aim to contribute significantly to realising the energy-saving potential of the European Union’s
buildings sector. The main legislative instrument in Europe is the 2002 Energy Performance in Buildings
Directive (EPBD) and its 2010 recast. This section is divided into two parts. First there is a review of the
overall state of implementation of the EPBD. This is followed by a review of the main components of the
building code requirements.
EPBD: Main provisions, implementation and recast
Main provisions
The 2002/91/EC Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) is, at European level, the main policy
driver affecting energy use in buildings. As originally formulated in 2002, the EPBD sets out the following
key requirements for Member States:
• minimum standards on the energy performance of new buildings and large (>1 000 m2) existing
buildings undergoing ‘major renovation’;
• a general framework; for a methodology for calculating the integrated energy performance of buildings;
• energy certification for both new and existing buildings whenever they are constructed, sold or rented
out;
• implement an inspection and assessment regime for air conditioning and medium and large size
heating systems or, in the case of the latter, develop information campaigns on the subject.
While no full assessment of the EPBD impact has been done, it is estimated that, if fully and properly
implemented, the energy savings could be as much as 96 Mtoe final energy in 2020, this being 6.5% of
EU final energy demand29.
European Commission (2006). Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realising the Potential, COM(2006) 545 final.
Source: European Commission (2008). Accompanying document to the Proposal for a Recast of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (2002/91/
EC) - Impact Assessment, SEC(2008) 2864.
28
29
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 63
Implementation (Energy Performance Certificates (EPC’s), Inspections and impacts)
Whilst most Member States already had some form of minimum requirements for thermal performance
of building envelopes before the introduction of the EPBD introduction, few had any prior requirements
for certification, inspections, training or renovation. Indeed, the absence of these requirements meant
that entirely new legislative vehicles were required in most Member States, often with responsibilities
split across different government departments, and in many cases, devolved to regional authorities. As
a result, EPBD was typically implemented in stages over a number of years, from around 2006 to 2010.
For information on the implementation of the energy performance requirements please refer to the
following section (Part 2B Building Codes).
Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs)
The implementation of the EPC schemes has been gradual in almost all Member States due to the
nature of application of the certificates. While most countries set up the first certification relating to
new buildings, the scheme for renovated, existing and new and existing public buildings were usually
left for later implementation. Figure 2B1 shows the timeline of EPC implementation in Europe showing
when countries have started to implement and run EPC schemes, as well as the number of countries
completing and fully implementing the EPC requirements set by the EPBD.
Figure 2B1 - Timeline of the Energy Performance Certificate implementation (EPBD 2002/91/EC)
Source: BPIE survey
30
Number of countries
25
20
15
Countries with running schemes for some types of
buildings (cumulative)
Countries with running schemes for all required types
of buildings (cumulative)
Countries with running schemes for some types of
buildings (implemented in that year)
Countries with running schemes for all required types
of buildings (implemented in that year)
10
5
0
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Year
Before the EPBD was created, both The Netherlands and Denmark had already set up energy certification
schemes for buildings at national level (in 1995 and 1997 respectively). Germany started in 2002 (having
recast it in 2009) and from then on, most of the countries started the implementation and enforcement of
the EPC schemes from 2007 to 2009. Generally, Member States found it easier to introduce requirements
for new buildings, as there are already processes in place to approve new buildings. However, greater
benefit can be derived from identifying and stimulating uptake of energy savings measures within the
existing stock.
64 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
At the moment all countries have started the certification process but nine of them haven’t, by the
end of 2010, operating schemes for all buildings required by the EPBD back in 2002. Greece, Romania,
Spain, Luxembourg, Lithuania and the Brussels Region of Belgium are due to implement the remaining
requirements still in 2011, while Hungary is due in 2012 and the Flanders Region of Belgium in 2013.
Latvia and Slovenia have not reported planned date to have running EPC schemes for all the buildings
required by the EPBD and the EPC scheme is still only voluntary in Switzerland.
Also, some countries already have an up and running database for the registered EPCs as can be seen on
Table 2B1 below.
Table 2B1 – Existence of EPC register/database at national level
Source: BPIE survey
AT
No
Data held individually by each region. Centralised system to be introduced in 2011.
BE
No
Database existing only for the Flemish and the Walloon regions
BG
Yes
CH
No
CY
No
CZ
No
DE
No
There are data protection concerns
DK
Yes
Offentlige Informationsserver
EE
Yes
Building Register
ES
No
Only the Autonomous Communities of Andalucía, Galicia, Canarias, Extremadura,
Navarra, Valencia and Cataluña have set registries.
FI
No
FR
No
Register under final development by ADEME
GR
Yes
Database competency of the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change (YPEKA)
HU
No
Existing database not fully operational
IE
Yes
National Administration System maintained by SEAI
IT
No
No national database, some at local/regional levels
LT
Yes
Available at the Certification Center of Building Products
(SPSC - Statybosprodukcijossertifikavimocentras)
LV
No
A Construction Information System is to be introduced in 2012 to include an EPC register
MT
No
NL
Yes
Maintained by NL Agency (www.ep-online.nl or www.energiecijfers.nl)
NO
No
There are plans to build a database which collects data on EPCs.
PL
No
Only hard copies are collected at the Poviat Building Inspectorates
PT
Yes
Administered by ADENE
RO
No
SE
Yes
The National Register of Energy Certificates (Griffon) administered by the National Board
of Housing, Building and Planning
SK
Yes
Administered by the Building Testing and Research Institute - TSUS
SI
No
UK
Yes
England & Wales: collected by Landmark
Scotland: the Home Energy Efficiency Database, maintained by the Energy Saving Trust
(www.epbniregister.com)
Northern Ireland: www.epbnindregister.com
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 65
Figure 2B2 - Number of countries with an operational EPC database
EPC register/database
Source: BPIE survey
11
7
EPC register at national level
10
Under development
or existing only at
regional/local level
No Register
1
Unknown
With the reported data from the operational registers/databases and other EPC calculation systems, the
number of registered residential EPCs as a share of the total number of dwellings can be seen in Figure
2B3.
Figure 2B3 – Share of dwellings with a registered EPC
Source: BPIE survey
AT
LT
SK
SI
EE
CY
PT
IT
SE
NO
FR
DK
IE
UK
NL
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
NOTES
AT: CY: CZ: DK: Accounted certificates only from the ZEUS EPC database
Data from 1/1/2010 to 6/5/2011
Value for 2009 and 2010 (number is about)
Data refers to the current EPC scheme (certificates issued between
1997 and 2006 are not included)
FR: Some figures are from CEREN data, some others are from the
country consultant personal expertise
GR: Registered EPC’s till July 2011
66 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
HU: Estimation for completed energy certificates
IT: Values are based on collected data from 2 regions (Piemonte and
Lombardia) and extrapolated to national level (by ENEA).
SK: Data refer to certificates issued only after 1st January 2010
(certificates issued before that date were not registered)
UK: For domestic certificates values are as of May 2011
Although the certification schemes have been working for only a couple of years, the proportion of
dwellings not yet certified remain above 90% for all countries with the exception of The Netherlands
and the United Kingdom. Note that The Netherlands has had a certification scheme for new buildings in
operation since 1995.
As for the issued and registered EPCs of non-residential buildings, Figure 2B4 provides an overview of the
relative share of certified buildings against the population in each country.
Figure 2B4 – Non-residential registered certificates per capita
Source: BPIE survey
AT
BG
SK
EE
CY
SI
NL
LT
NO
IE
PT
FR
SE
UK
DK
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
NOTES
AT: Accounting only certificates from the ZEUS EPC database
CY: Data from 1/1/2010 to 6/5/2011
DK: Data refers to the current EPC scheme (certificates issued between
1997 and 2006 are not included)
FR: Some figures are from CEREN data, some others are from the
country consultant personal expertise
SK: Data refers to certificates issued only after 1st January 2010
(certificates issued before that date were not registered)
Denmark has without doubt the largest proportion of certified non-residential buildings, followed by the
UK, Sweden and France, while the other countries still have a low share of certified buildings.
Belgium has reported having issued 302 570 EPCs in total, the Czech Republic 4 000 (approximate value
for 2009 and 2010), Greece 32 420 (registered EPCs up to July 2011), and Hungary 1 400 (estimation for
completed energy certificates).
Table 2B2 summarises the costs, where available, of acquiring an energy performance certificate across
Europe, as well as whether penalties are foreseen for EPC non-compliance.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 67
Table 2B2 – EPC costs (€ unless otherwise stated) and existence of penalties in the event of
non-compliance
Source : BPIE survey complemented with data from EPBD Concerted Action 2010 Report
Single family
AT
300-420
Multi-family
About 1/m2
Non-residential
Penalties foreseen
for EPC noncompliance
Office buildings about 1/m2.
BE
No
Yes
BG
0.5-1.5/m (cost for the energy audit needed to issue a certificate)
CH
CHF 400 - 600
Yes
2
CHF 500 - 800
CHF 700 - 1 200 (up to 1 000m )
2
CY
No
Yes
CZ
200 - 500
1 000 - 5 000
DE
150 - 300
(considerably
lower if the EPC is
online-based)
250 - 600 (considerably
lower if the EPC is onlinebased)
DK
Up to 730 for 100 m2 dwellings, up to 875 for 300
m2 dwellings
1-3/m2
Yes
EE
130 - 300
200 - 3 000
No
ES
From 100
Up to 4 000
Yes
FI
150 - 500
FR
250
80/dwelling
300 - 1 000
Yes
GR
1.5/m2
(200 minimum)
1-2/m2 (150 minimum)
300 - 2 500 (up to 1 000 m2)
From 2 500 (for buildings
above 1 000m2)
No
HU
40 - 100/dwelling
Others: 1 000 - 5 000
Yes
Yes
600 - 1 000
No
No
IE
Yes
IT
300 - 10 000 (all buildings)
LT
From 70
LV
LU
500 - 1 300
MT
250 - 750
NL
100 - 250
Yes
Up to 2 500
Yes
300 - 500
No
125 - 250/dwelling
Yes
Yes
0.5 - 1/m
Yes
2
NO
Yes
PL
50 - 150
PT
Up to 750
No
45 for EPC registration + 1-3/m
(charged by the inspection expert)
50 for registration of an EPC
+ 1-3/m2 (charged by the
inspection expert)
Yes
SE
About 400
About 1/m for
uncomplicated/
simple buildings
SI
300 - 500
SK
About 250
Up to thousand(s)
Yes
UK
£30 - 100
From £200
Yes
2
RO
No
1 000 - 1 500 for an average
sized buildings
68 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
2
Yes
No
Number of countries with penalties
for EPC’s non compliance
Figure 2B5 – Number of countries with penalties foreseen for EPC non-compliance
Source: BPIE survey
19
10
Penalties foreseen
No penalties
While residential EPCs typically cost between €100 and €300 in most Member States, the full cost range is
from under €50 to as much as €2 000. Information on costs for non-residential buildings was much more
limited. Where quoted, the values range from €0.5 to 3/m2. Where available, these registers have proven to
be extremely useful in monitoring and analysing the opportunities for energy performance improvement.
In the longer term, they will also prove invaluable in assessing trends in energy performance. A total of
18 countries out of 29 foresee penalties in the event of non-compliance with the certification process.
Inspections
Although most of the countries have already inspection schemes for boilers and/or air conditioning
systems, data collection on the number of inspections done by each Member State is still at a very low
level. Insufficient data makes it difficult to formulate an appropriate evaluation.
Italy and the Brussels Region of Belgium have experienced delays in implementing the requirements for
the certification of air conditioning systems.
As can be seen on Figure 2B6, seven countries have chosen to implement Article 8 of the initial EPBD (on
the inspection of boilers) by taking steps to ensure the provision of advice to the users on boilers and
heating systems (option b) instead of implementing an inspection and assessment regime (option a).
Figure 2B6 - Share and number of countries having implemented Article 8 of the EPBD (on the
inspection of boilers) by the method chosen
Source: BPIE survey
Unknown 1
7 b)
21 a)
Finland, France, Ireland, The Netherlands, Slovenia, Sweden and the UK have chosen option b (advice
to the users) regarding the EPBD requirement for inspection of boilers, while for Switzerland it was not
reported. All the other Member States have implemented inspection and assessment systems, mainly
because many of the countries already had a boiler inspection system in place prior to the EPBD.
Impact reported by countries in 2011
Some of the main contributions of the EPBD have been bringing energy efficiency in buildings onto the
political agenda, integrating energy performance requirements and bringing it to the attention of citizens.
On Table 2B3, the main impacts and benefits of the EPBD implementation reported by each country are
presented.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 69
Table 2B3 – Reported main impacts and benefits of the EPBD implementation by country
Source: BPIE survey
AT
Achieved harmonisation of building codes and integration of ventilation, cooling and lighting into the certificate. Also,
some lessons learned were: the need to improve the quality of energy certificates, ensuring proper qualification of
energy consultants, enforcing the obligation to present the energy certificate, and increasing the level of acceptance
of the energy certificate by the real estate sector. In this regard, there are substantial weaknesses which should be
corrected in the course of revising the respective documents and regulations according to the requirements of the
EPBD Recast.
BE
Strengthened or new requirements for insulation, ventilation and technical installations. Some tendencies after
the EPBD implementation appear to be: condensing boilers are more and more being used for heating, buildings
tend to be better thermally insulated, increased use of mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery, more
attention to the air tightness of the envelope (mostly in low energy buildings, performing (much) better than the
common average in the past) and increased interest in heat pumps.
BG
Strengthened requirements for insulation and glazing U-values; raised national consciousness of energy saving
opportunities
CH
The cantonal regulations in the field of buildings had an additional annual impact of about 3.1 PJ/a between
2000 and 2007 (additional impact every year; final energy use). The expected additional annual impact after the
implementation of the “MuKEn 2008” is quantified at 4.2 PJ/a.
CY
The implementation of the EPBD was the first attempt ever made to regulate energy consumption in buildings.
Thermal insulation requirements were introduced for the first time in 2007 along with greater importance given
to efficient technical systems and solar strategies (shading). After the EPBD implementation, the following
impacts and benefits were observed: improvement of the quality of information on the building products and
better competition between producers and vendors in supplying materials of improved thermal properties,
integration of the importance of efficient technical systems in the energy performance of buildings, also more
designers have shown interest in heat pumps and condensing boilers. Also the EPBD is expected to stimulate
energy savings of 19.9 toe from the residential section and 28.5 from the non-residential sector by 2020.
CZ
The performance requirements of renovated buildings have been set at the same level as for new buildings.
Increased energy efficiency standards can contribute more than 220 billion CZK (energy savings, new work
possibilities etc.) to the Czech State budget.
DE
Thermal performance requirements had been in place since 1977. EPBD introduced requirements for building
renovations. Efficiency plays a more important role in building services, the need for better coordination among
all actors has been perceived and the aim of realizing an integrated planning approach seems to have been
boosted.
DK
Energy requirements in place since 1961 were extended to include other regulated energy as a result of the EPBD
EE
Prior to 2008, there had been no legal requirement for insulation levels or technical systems.Depending on
the EPBD implementation scenario, energy savings in buildings can be up to 5% of total energy consumption.
Transposition of the EPBD has not affected investments or investment support schemes targeted at energy
efficiency upgrades in the buildings.
ES
Considerably tougher requirements for building envelopes; use of renewable energy made compulsory in new
buildings
FI
Thermal requirements have been in place since 1976. Energy performance is now based on overall primary
energy consumption.New building regulations were introduced at the beginning of 2010 which will lead to 30%
efficiency improvement in heat consumption in new buildings. Revised energy efficiency parts of the building
code are expected to enter into force at the beginning of 2012. This would mean a further improvement of 20 %
in the efficiency of heat consumption in buildings.
FR
20% improvement due to introduction of requirements for air conditioning, lighting, active solar, renewable, CHP
and natural lighting. The absence or delay in implementing the inspection of boilers has reduced the quality and
precision of Energy Performance Certificates in collective dwellings.
GR
Tighter energy performance requirements
HU
Revised methodology has led to tougher energy performance requirements
70 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
IE
Methodology changed from maximum permissible heat loss, to overall energy performance, in 2005. Energy
performance targets were introduced for the first time into building regulations. Certification schemes are helping
to provide industry professionals with improved skills and insights into the determinants of the energy performance
of buildings. Overall the EPBD is seen as a significant lever for improving the energy, environmental and economic
performance of Irish buildings.
IT
Energy savings achieved from 2005 to February 2010 were 10 170 GWh (1.9 Mtoe) of primary energy, due
essentially to the requirements on the residential sector.
LU
The obligation for certifying the energy performance of buildings had an important impact on the building
and rental market. Real estate agencies have taken the EPC to be a promotional instrument for energy efficient
buildings.
LV
Whilst there have been some improvements in energy performance requirements, the full benefits have not been
realised due to only partial implementation of the EPBD. For most of the existing buildings, i.e. with ventilation
without heat recovery systems, requirements were considered to be raised to quite optimal levels.
MT
Prior to 2008, there was no minimum energy performance requirement for buildings.
NL
Previous requirements for minimum energy performance, in place since 1995, have been replaced by a whole
building requirement.
PL
Introducing the EPBD has raised awareness of building energy efficiency.
PT
Additional requirements introduced, including mandatory use of renewable energy.
RO
Tougher standards and greater awareness of energy efficiency opportunities.The analysis of the real estate
market indicates that residential sellers/buyers appreciate that thermally retrofitted buildings have more value
than non-retrofitted ones. Their willingness to pay for added value generated by energy performance is linked to
both the willingness to save operating expenses and the desire to have a modern, healthy, comfortable property.
SE
National requirements have been in place since the 1950s, though the EPBD mandated, for the first time,
maximum energy use levels for buildings
SI
Stimulated much better understanding of building energy indicators
SK
30% reduction in energy requirements
Among the EPBD’s impact benefits, the following were identified as major:
• Energy performance requirements were set for the first time as a direct result of implementing the
EPBD in the case of Cyprus, Malta and Estonia;
• Existing standards were tightened in the majority of Member States;
• The approach to specifying building codes shifted from one typically expressed as a maximum
permitted U-value to one based on overall building performance, including requirements for technical
systems such as HVAC plant and lighting;
• A degree of harmonisation where previously different regions/provinces had adopted different
approaches to setting building codes was achieved within some Member States;
• Standards for building renovation were introduced for the first time in most Member States;
• Requirements for certification of buildings, and for the inspection of boilers and air conditioning
systems, were introduced for the first time, apart from one or two Member States with prior systems in
place.
According to the Directive 2010/31/EU, major renovation means the renovation of a building where:
(a) the total cost of the renovation relating to the building envelope or the technical building systems is higher than 25 % of the value of the
building, excluding the value of the land upon which the building is situated; or (b) more than 25 % of the surface of the building envelope
undergoes renovation;
30
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 71
EPBD recast (main provisions, impact and implementation)
Main provisions
Despite the actions already undertaken, a large cost-effective energy savings potential was not exploited. As a
result, many of the social, economic and environmental potential benefits at EU and national level are still not
fully explored. In addition to the complexity of the sector and the existence of market failures, the limitations
of the initial EPBD implementation represented a supplementary obstacle.
To tackle these challenges, in 2010, amendments to the EPBD were finalised and published. In addition to the
previous requirements, the EPBD recast added several new or strengthened requirements, in particular:
• Setting up EU–wide nearly Zero Energy Buildings requirements: by the end of 2020 all newly
constructed buildings will have to consume ‘nearly zero’ energy and the energy will have to be ‘to a very
large extent’ from renewable sources. As for new buildings occupied and owned by public authorities, this
requirement must be met from the beginning of 2019 onwards.
• Development of national plans for increasing the number of nZEB buildings: the Member
States ‘shall draw up national plans for increasing the number of nearly Zero Energy Buildings. These plans
may include targets differentiated according to the category of building’ and will also include information
on national policies, measures and targets on nearly Zero Energy Buildings.
• Abolishment of the 1 000 m² threshold for major renovations: The recast extended the scope
of the initial EPBD to almost all existing and new buildings and removed the 1 000 m2 threshold for major
renovations (this threshold excluded 72% of the building stock). When existing buildings undergo ‘major
renovation30’, their energy performance should be upgraded in order to meet the minimum energy
performance requirements. Member States shall furthermore follow the leading example of the public
sector by developing policies and take measures such as targets in order to stimulate the transformation of
buildings that are refurbished into nZEB.
• Setting up energy performance requirements at cost-optimal levels: Member States need to
ensure minimum energy performance requirements for buildings and to set them at cost-optimal levels.
This level shall be calculated based on a comparative methodology framework that will be defined in detail
by the Commission.
• Independent control systems for EPC and inspection reports: the authorities responsible for the
implementation of the control system shall make a random sampling check of the quality of the energy
performance certificates and inspection reports issued annually.
• Requiring an inspection report for heating and air-conditioning systems: an inspection report
shall be issued after each heating or air-conditioning system inspection containing the results of it and
including recommendations for the cost-effective improvement of the energy performance of the inspected
system and handed over to the owner or tenant of the building.
• Reinforcement of the energy certification of the buildings: energy certification was already
foreseen in the initial version of the Directive but experienced an unsatisfactory level of implementation
within EU27 Member States. The new Directive requires the energy performance certificates to be issued
for any new building and for any building that is traded on the market (sold or rented), to include a
recommendation for energy performance improvements based on economic consideration.
Impact assessment
The following savings/impacts are predicted to be achieved through the new or reinforcement provisions
of the EPBD recast.
72 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Table 2B4 – Calculated impacts and benefits to be achieved with the EPBD recast reinforcements Source: Proposal for a recast of the EPBD (2002/91/CE) – Impact assessment
Final energy savings
in 2020 (Mtoe/a)
CO2 emission reductions
in 2020 (Mt/a)
Job creation in
2020
Abolition of the 1 000 m² threshold
for major renovations
20
51
75 000
Setting up energy performance
requirements at cost-optimal levels
5 (up to 10 in 2030)
13 (up to 24 in 2030)
Up to 82 000
Setting up EU–wide nearly Zero
Energy Buildings requirements and
development of national plans
>15
>41
+++
Independent control systems for EPCs
21
57
60 000
Requiring an inspection report
for heating and air conditioning
systems
5
15-20
46 000
Implementation
The EPBD recast calls EU Member States to use a new cost-optimal methodology for calculating the
energy performance of buildings (Article 5 of EPBD recast). As defined by the Directive, cost-optimal
level means ‘the energy performance level which leads to the lowest cost during the estimated economic
lifecycle’ and ‘shall lie within the range of performance levels where the cost benefit analysis calculated
over the estimated economic lifecycle is positive’.
The EU Commission shall establish by means of delegated acts by 30 June 2011 (currently delayed)
a comparative methodology framework for calculating cost-optimal levels of minimum energy
performance requirements for buildings and building elements. The comparative methodology
framework shall differentiate between new and existing buildings and between different categories
of buildings. At the moment there is a delay in the process of elaborating the cost-optimal framework
methodology and according to the EU Commission timeline the final version is due to be published
in autumn 2011. Member States will have to report regularly (starting from July 2012) their specific
application of the methodology to the Commission and these reports may be included in the National
Energy Efficiency Action Plans under the Energy Services Directive (Directive 2006/32/EC). Based on
this framework methodology, the EU Member States should calculate cost-optimal levels of minimum
energy performance requirements using the comparative methodology framework and other relevant
parameters such as climatic conditions and the practical accessibility of energy infrastructure. The result
of the cost-optimal calculation at the Member States level shall be used as a reference to compare with
the minimum energy performance requirements in force and to enhance them accordingly if is the case.
Moreover, the EPBD recast introduces the obligation that all the new buildings should be nearly zero
energy by the end of 2020. In order to show the leader example, the new buildings occupied by public
authorities shall be nearly zero energy by the end of 2018. According to the EPBD recast, “nearly zeroenergy building means a building that has a very high energy performance where ‘the nearly zero or very
low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable
sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby’. The EU Member States shall
draw up national plans for increasing the number of nearly Zero Energy Buildings, potentially with targets
differentiated according to the building categories. As requested by the EPBD recast, these plans shall
include a national definition of nearly Zero Energy Buildings, intermediate targets for improving the energy
performance of new buildings by 2015 and information on policies, financial or other measures adopted
for the promotion of the nearly Zero Energy Buildings, including details on the use of renewable sources in
new buildings and existing buildings undergoing major renovation. The current steps undertaken towards
the EPBD recast implementation, as reported by our country experts, are presented in Table 2B5.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 73
Table 2B5 – Reported steps in the period October 2010-June 2011 planned to be undertaken towards the EPBD
recast implementation by country
Source: BPIE survey
Steps being taken towards implementation of EPBD recast
AT
The basis document for the revision of building codes and for the development of Austrian Standards, the OIB
Richtlinie 6, is in the process of being revised according to the requirements of the EPBD Recast.
BG
The implementation of the new provisions of the Directive has started. A national definition of nZEB is in a stage of
preparation.
CH
The cantons have launched a study (planned to be finalised till the end of 2011) to analyse the impact of the recast
EBPD on Switzerland and propose various scenarios on how to develop the Swiss energy policy in the building sector
in the context of the recast EBPD.
CY
The Energy Service has launched inquiries in the residential sector for detached houses, terrace houses and apartment
buildings in four meteorological areas of Cyprus. Moreover, in cooperation with the Cyprus Land Development
Corporation, The Energy Service has agreed to build dwellings with nearly zero energy.
CZ
Czech Green Building Council prepares proposal to upgrade decree 148/2007 Coll. with gradual transformation of new
building and major renovations from today´s standards via low-energy and passive building to nearly Zero Energy
Buildings till 2020.
DE
In the 2012 amendment to the Energy Saving Ordinance (Energieeinsparverordnung) a “climate-neutral” building
standard (based on primary energy indicators for all new buildings by 2020) will be introduced as required by the
recast of the EPBD 2010.
DK
A definition of nearly Zero Energy Buildings and an action plan for increasing the number of nearly Zero Energy
Buildings are being drafted by the Danish agencies responsible for the policy.
EE
No official steps towards implementation of EPBD recast, but more detailed analysis on how to ensure application of
standards for low energy buildings and nearly Zero Energy Buildings has started. The legislation will be reviewed on
the basis of information received from latest studies on application of minimum energy performance requirements in
Estonia and the EPBD recast.
ES
The responsible committees for reviewing the DB-HE, the Technical Building Code and the RITE (Regulation of Thermal Installations in Buildings) have strated their work. The first revision of the codes were planned for end 2010, the
second for 2015-2016 and the last -with nZEB requirements- for 2020..
FI
The revision of the energy efficiency part of the building bode is now being finalised for entering into force in the
beginning of the year 2012. It will bring the specific heat consumption of the new buildings to a low-energy level.
FR
The Grenelle Energy and Environment law has set a goal of net zero energy constructions in 2020. The next coming
(2011-2013) energy code – BBC (Bâtiment Basse Consommation) – sets the performance of new constructions as
very low energy consuming buildings at an average of 50kWh/m2 (in terms of primary energy) for space heating and
cooling, domestic hot water production and lighting. The calculation method and the thermal code entail the concept
of zero energy buildings as a voluntary interim goal.
GR
Article 10 of the law 38851, issued in June 2010 transposes the recast Directive in to the Greek legislation. It foresees
that up to 31/12/2019 all primary energy requirements in new buildings will be covered by renewable energy and/
or by combined heat and power systems, district heating/cooling systems etc. Regarding public buildings this
requirement should be fulfilled by 31/12/2014.
HU An expert group was established by the Ministry of Interior in 2010 to focus on the EBPD recast. The group will start its
work end January 2012.
IE
Discussions have begun between the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, the
Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources, and the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland on
the implementation of the recast Directive.
74 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
LV
The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development funds the first nearly Zero Energy Buildings.
It is planned to implement projects for various types of buildings with joint funding of €10 million in 2011 (financial
support is up to 65-80%).
NL
By July 2012 the energy performance certificate is being adapted to meet recast requirements (e.g. information on
costs and benefits of energy saving measures),. Legal frameworks are currently being changed in order to introduce
further penalties, o. The National Energy Efficiency Action Plan is being written. The policies both for the residential
and non-residential sector will be further adapted in the coming years to reach nZEB’s by 2020. An implementation
plan for all inspection articles is currently being developed in consultation with relevant market parties, in order to
meet requirements of articles 14 to 18.
NO The Norwegian standard NS 3700 for low energy and Passive House residential buildings contains stricter requirements than the current technical requirements (TEK 10). An analogous Norwegian standard for non-residential
buildings (NS 3701) is currently being worked on. These requirements are still optional, but the aim is to make them
mandatory. A plan has been proposed foreseeing energy efficiency improvements in the building sector in line with
the EPBD recast,. It includes recommendations on economic instruments to support the plan, and describes the need
to increase and continuously update the workforce competence and expertise. There is already a financial support offered by ENOVA for low energy houses and Passive Houses. The Zero Emission Building Research Centre (ZEB centre) is
working on a national definition for nZEBs.
PL
The Energy Efficiency Law has recently been (4th March) accepted by the Sejm (Parliament). The Ministry of Infrastructure is n preparing details to implement the recast Directive. The Ministry intends to implement the relevant legal
regulations later this year. The National Program of Actions to improve energy efficiency will be launched to support
the implementation of the recast Directive.
PT
The Portuguese legal framework for energy efficiency is currently being revised so that all the requirements imposed
by the EPBD recast can be adopted in Portugal in a near future. There are also some strategies and plans in order to
achieve some of the previously mentioned requirements.
SI
The new PURES 2010 regulation is already based on the EPBD recast and, as it is already very demanding, only minor
changes in RES and RUE requirements can be expected. This regulation introduces significant steps for improving the
energy efficiency in buildings, and foresees at least a 25% share of RES at building level. Currently the Energy act is being revised, and it will contain the definition of nZEB.
SK
According to the existing law there is no floor area threshold for building certification. By consequence, there is no
need to align the building code with the requirements of the recast Directive. For nearly Zero Energy Buildings, there
are only analyses examining the possibilities of minimising the energy use for heating by increasing thermal protection properties of components etc. Planned are works on conditions for cost-optimal measures.
SE
A strategy to promote low energy is under development, and programmes to promote RES are under consideration.
The energy agency together with the Swedish Construction Federation has started a program for promoting low
energy buildings.
UK
In 2006, the requirement for zero carbon homes from 2016 was announced. However, the definition of zero carbon is
not yet finalised. As a step towards the 2016 standard, the government is proposing to introduce a minimum FEE from
2013. The Scottish Government will consult publicly on recast-proposals in the middle of 2011. In Northern Ireland
there is no obvious indication about the steps being taken to implement the recast Directive.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 75
Building Codes
Incorporating energy-related requirements during the design or retrofit phase of a building is a key driver
for implementing energy efficiency measures which in turn highlights the role of building energy codes
in reducing CO2 emissions and reaching the energy saving potential of buildings. Several Member States
introduced building code requirements (prescriptive criteria) associated with the thermal performance
of buildings following the oil price increases in the 1970s while requirements in some Scandinavian
countries have been in place since the mid-1940s.
The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD, 2002/91/EC) was the first major attempt requiring
all Member States to introduce a general framework for setting building energy code requirements based
on a “whole building” approach (so called performance-based approach). Although subsidiarity applies
to implementation of the EPBD, Member States were required to introduce a methodology at the national
or regional level to calculate the energy performance of buildings based upon this framework and apply
minimum requirements on the energy performance of new buildings and large existing buildings subject
to major renovation.
Following the EPBD in 2002, requirements have gradually started shifting from prescriptive to a
performance-based approach which is regarded as a major change in the building code trends.
Major changes are also expected through the application of the cost optimality concept in the energy
performance requirements as introduced by the recast of the EPBD in 2010 (2010/31/EU). Member
States are required to set their national requirements in accordance with cost optimal levels by applying
a harmonised calculation methodology (Article 5 and annex III of EPBD recast). This is currently being
reviewed by the European Commission. The introduction of cost optimality in building regulations is
likely to have a significant impact in many countries, with requirements being improved and further
strengthened. Cost optimal levels should also gradually converge to nearly zero energy standards which
would comprise a requirement for new buildings from 2020 onwards.
Due to these foreseen changes, building codes are anticipated to be in a dynamic phase in the next decade.
Understanding building codes however requires specific technical expertise which makes monitoring and
evaluating the progress of what is happening from the political level difficult. Given the environmental
and climatic impacts of building codes, it is crucial to keep track of all the key transformations happening
in the field of building energy codes in a simple, understandable way.
Through its survey, BPIE has collected country-by-country information, making the first attempt to
provide an overall picture of what is happening in Europe in the area of building codes. A summary
of the key performance-based requirements and prescriptive criteria adopted by different countries is
presented in Table 2B6. With the exception of a few countries, all countries have now embedded building
regulations for both new and renovated buildings. These regulations are discussed in more detail on the
next page.
76 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Table 2B6 – Summary of building energy code requirements and prescriptive criteria
Source: BPIE survey
Performance
based
requirements1
Renovations
New build
Renovations
Thermal insulation
Air permeability
Ventilation
requirements
Boiler/AC system
efficiency
Lighting efficiency
Prescriptive/element-based criteria in building codes
New build
Building code
requirements
AT
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Summer comfort requirements
BE-Wl
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
N
Y
N
N
BE-Br
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
N
Y
N
N
BE-Fl
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
N
Y
N
N
Overheating indicator should not exceed
17 500kh. Tin must be under 26oC for 90% of year
in RE. K-values on global thermal insulation of
entire building. Thermal bridges
BG
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
N
CH
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
Y
NRE
CY
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
N
Solar collectors in new RE
CZ
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
BO
N
Tin of 20oC in winter and 27oC summer
DE
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
NRE
Tin (20-26oC), humidity, air change rate & air
velocity requirements
DK
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
NRE
Max Tin 26oC. Thermal bridges requirements
EE
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
NRE
RE & office temperature requirements
ES
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
NRE
Thermal comfort, Tin 21oC (winter), 26oC (summer),
mandatory RES use (solar collectors/PVs)
FI
Y
P
Y
P2
Y
Y
Y
BO
Y
FR
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
NRE
GR
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
N
Other requirements
Thermal bridges, solar shading, max 80% of
demand for heating & DHW covered by non-RES
Max Tin applies (typically 25oC). Max CO2
concentration in indoor air.
Max Tin applies based on a number of factors
HU
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
IE
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
IT
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
LT
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
LV
Y
Y
N
N
Y
Y
Y
N
N
MT
Y
N
N
N
Y
N
N
Y
NRE
Window size, glazing
NL
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
NRE
Daylight
NO
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Window size, thermal bridges, ventilation fan
power, heat recovery, summer/winter Tin
PL
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Solar shading, window area
PT
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
NRE
Y
N
Max g-value,thermal bridge, solar
collectors,cooling, DHW reqs apply
RO
Y
N
N
N
Y
N
N
N
N
Overall thermal coefficient g-value
Y
Thermal bridges
Orientation, window size, air temperature, air
humidity & air velocity, specific heat losses of
whole building & per m2
SE
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
SI
Y
Y
Y
Y3
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Solar shading, max Tin
SK
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Max Tin, humidity & air velocity apply.
UK
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 77
Important note
The elements in the prescriptive criteria can act as supplementary demands or as an alternative approach for setting requirements. In some
cases they represent embedded elements in the performance-based methodology.
Other notes
In some cases this may cover only heating demands, and in others it may also include DHW, electricity and other end uses;2 The Finnish legislation
allows authorities to decide whether the building regulations will be applied to the renovation or not. New EE requirements will be in place in 2012; 3
Slovenian requirements will be in place from end 2014/beg 2015.
1
Legend
RE: Residential
NRE:Non-residential
Tin:
Indoor temperature
DHW: Domestic hot water
AC: Airconditioning system
BO: Boiler
P: Partly
Y: Yes
N: No
Performance based requirements for new buildings
For many countries the EPBD was the means of introducing new elements in their building codes prior
to which there were no energy performance requirements concerning the building as a whole or specific
elements. Nearly all countries have now adopted a national methodology which sets performance-based
requirements for new buildings. For countries in which prescriptive requirements existed before 2002
(e.g. Czech Republic, Belgium, Estonia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ireland, Poland), there was a shift towards a
holistic-based (i.e. whole building) approach whereby existing single element requirements in many
cases were tightened. Table 2B6 gives an overview of the current requirements in place. In some cases, the
single element requirements are just supplementary demands to the energy performance requirements
ensuring the efficiency of individual parts of a building is sufficient (e.g. Denmark). In others, they act as
alternative methods where the two approaches exist in parallel (e.g. Norway, Spain, Poland, Switzerland);
the first based on the performance of single elements and the second on the overall performance of
a building. In Switzerland, for example, the holistic approach is used mainly for new buildings and the
single element approach for shallow or deep renovations while in deep renovation cases, the holistic
approach is sometimes chosen. In countries where the performance-based approach is the main form of
requirement, most of the elements listed in the prescriptive criteria of Table 2B6 are already integral parts
of the methodology, while additional elements such as RES (solar collectors, PV, heat pumps), summer
comfort, indoor climate are embedded in the methodology.
While no country has directly and fully applied the CEN standards in their methodology procedures,
many countries have adopted an approach which is broadly compatible with the CEN methodology31 32.
A variety of reasons were cited for not using the CEN standards, including difficulty of converting into
practical procedures, timing and copyright issues. Most national procedures are applied as software
programmes and many countries (but by no means all) have adopted a CEN based methodology (EN 15
603: Energy Performance of Buildings) and/or are using the EN 13 790 monthly calculation procedure, as
the basis for the calculation “engine” for simple building. Others allow proprietary dynamic simulation
(for more complex buildings), whilst others have developed their own national methods. The assessment
of existing buildings (for building code or Certification purposes) is often based on a reduced data-set
model.
A detailed assessment of the energy performance requirements is provided in Table 2B7. It can be
seen that many different approaches have been applied and no two countries have adopted the same
approach. It is important not to attempt to compare the performance requirements set by Member
States, given the variety of calculation methods used to measure compliance and major differences in
definitions (e.g. definitions of primary and final energy, heated floor area, carbon conversion factors,
Source: Concerted Action (2010). Implementing the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD).
Source: IEE - CENSE. Retrieved June, 2011 from www.iee-cense.eu
31
32
78 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
regulated energy and total energy requirement etc.). The setting of building code requirements with
legally binding performance targets, is normally based on either an absolute (i.e. not to exceed) value,
generally expressed in kWh/m2a, or on a percentage improvement requirement based on a reference
building of the same type, size, shape and orientation. Some countries (e.g. Belgium) express the
performance requirement as having to meet a defined “E value” on a 0 to 100 scale, or on an A+ to G scale
(e.g. Italy and Cyprus).
Most methodology procedures are applied as software programmes. Software quality assurance
accreditation is undertaken in only about half of the countries, a finding which has been drawn by
the Concerted Action 2010 Report. About 50% of Member States have already introduced changes to
their methodology procedures to either to tighten requirements, achieve greater conformity with CEN
standards, and include additional technologies and/or to correct weaknesses/gaps in earlier EPBD
methodology procedures.
There is a growing interest in the harmonisation of methodology procedures. This is likely to become an
increasingly important issue in the context of the EPBD recast Article 2.2 and Article 9 requirements
associated with nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) and cost optimality (EPBD recast Article 5) since
the Commission will need to demonstrate that all Member States are delivering equivalent outcomes. A
harmonised approach to setting and measuring nZEB targets and cost-optimality implies that a broadly
equivalent methodology will be required. Table 2B8 provides a summary of the certification method
used for new buildings.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 79
Table 2B7 –Performance-based requirements for new buildings
Source: BPIE survey
Single family
houses
AT
BE - Br
BE - Wl
BE - Fl
BG
H: 66kWh/m2a
Apartment
Blocks
H: 66kWh/
m2a
Offices
H:22.75 kWh/
m3a
Educational
Buildings
E70
E75
H:22.75 kWh/
m3a
C: 1kWh/m3a
E75
E<100,
E<100
Espec<170kWh/m2a,
Overheating<17
500Kh/a
From 2012, E70
From 2012,
From 2014, E60
E70 From
2014, E60
F:122-146
F: 90-146
H&C: 82.5-102.5
H&C: 50.0kWh/m2a
102.5 kWh/
m2a
E<100
E<100
From 2012,
E70 From
2014, E60
F: 80-132
H&C:40.0-82
kWh/m2a
From 2012,
E70 From
2014, E60
F: 56-98
H&C: 40-82.0
kWh/m2a
Hospitals
Hotels &
Restaurants
Sports
facilities
Wholesale &
retail trade
H:22.75 kWh/ H:22.75
H:22.75 kWh/ H:22.75
m3a
kWh/m3a
m3a
kWh/m3a
3
3
3
C: 1kWh/m a C: 1kWh/m a C: 1kWh/m a C: 1kWh/m3a
E75
(services)
F: 180-242
H&C: 50102.5 kWh/
m2a
F: 176-230
H&C: 50102.5 kWh/
m2a
F: 90-134
H&C: 40-82
kWh/m2a
F: 90-134
H&C: 40-82
kWh/m2a
Space heating demand (effective energy): 5 litre heating oil equivalent per m2 (based on MuKEn 2008)
CH
CY
CZ
DE
DK
EE
EL
ES
FI
FR-H1
FR -H2
FR -H3
HU
IE
IT
H: 54 kWh/m2a
H: 42 kWh/
H: 46 kWh/
H: 43 kWh/
H: 44 kWh/
H: 58 kWh/
H: 40 kWh/
H: 36 kWh/
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
A or B category on the EPC scale
F: 142 kWh/m2a
F: 130 kWh/
F: 310 kWh/
F: 294 kWh/ F: 145 kWh/ F: 183 kWh/
F: 120 kWh/ F: 179 kWh/
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
New buildings must not exceed a defined primary energy demand for heating, hot water, ventilation, cooling and lighting
installations (lighting installations only for commercial) based on of a reference building of the same geometry, net floor space,
alignment and utilisation.
P: 52.5+1 650/A
P: 71.3+
P: 71.3+
P: 71.3+
P: 71.3+
P:
P: 71.3+
P: 52.5+
kWh/m2a
1 650/A kWh/ 1 650/A kWh/ 1 650/A kWh/ 1 650/A kWh/ 1 650/A kWh/ 71.3+1.650/A 1 650/A kWh/
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
kWh/m2a
m2a
m2a
P: 180 kWh/m2a
P: 150 kWh/ P: 220 kWh/
P: 300 kWh/
P: 400 kWh/
P: 300 kWh/ P: 300 kWh/ P: 300 kWh/
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
The Primary energy requirement for new and renovated building in Greece is = 0.33 – 2.73 x Reference Building energy
performance
The energy performance requirements is not expressed in units of kWh/m2a
This is based on thermal transmittance (heat loss) measured in units of W/K. For a single family house, a typical value is 134 W/K
PFF: 130kWh/m2a
PFF: 130kWh/ n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
PESH: 250kWh/m2a m2a PESH:
250kWh/
m2a
2
PFF: 110kWh/m a
PFF: 110kWh/ n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
PESH: 190kWh/m2a m2a PESH:
190kWh/
m2a
2
PFF: 80kWh/m a
PFF: 80kWh/ n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
PESH: 130kWh/m2a m2a PESH:
130kWh/
m2a
P: 110-230 kWh/
P: 110-230
P: 132-260
P: 90-254
m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
MPEPC = 0.6 &
MPEPC = 0.6 MPEPC &
MPEPC &
MPCPC = 0.69
& MPCPC = MPCPC
MPCPC
0.69
should not
should not
exceed 1
exceed 1
Regulations for new buildings are based on a set limit for heating, DHW, cooling and lighting. Only Class A+ to C buildings
comply with requirements for new buildings
80 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
LT
LV
MT
NL
NO
PL
PT
RO
SE
SI
SK
UK
Min Class C buildings: 80 kWh/m2a for buildings over 3 000 m2, 100 kWh/m2a for buildings between 501 and 3 000 m2,
115 kWh/m2a for buildings up to 500 m2.
No performance requirements are set
No performance requirements are set
P: 68 388-68 552
P: 35 595-36
MJ/a
855 MJ/a
N: 120-173 kWh/
N: 115 kWh/ N: 150 kWh/
N: 120-160
N: 300-335
N: 220 kWh/ N: 170 kWh/ N: 210 kWh/
m2a
m2a
m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
F: 142 kWh/m2a
F: 123 kWh/ F: 174kWh/
H&C: 108kWh/m2a m2a
m2a
Requirements for other non-residential buildings apply
H&C: 99
H&C: 183
2
2
kWh/m a
kWh/m a
P: 203 kWh/m2a
P: 203 kWh/ P:407kWh/
P:174 kWh/
P:465 kWh/
P:523/1 395 P: 233 kWh/ P: 1 279
F: 80 kWh/m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
kWh/m2a
m2a
kWh/m2a
F: 80 kWh/
F:122kWh/
F: 52 F kWh/
F:140 kWh/
F: 157/419
m2a
m2a
m2a
m2a
kWh/m2a
No performance-based requirements are set
FE: 55-95
FE: 55-95
FE: 55-95
FE: 55-95
FE: 55-95
FE: 55-95
FE: 55-95
FE: 55-95
FNE 110-150 kWh/ FNE 100-140 FNE 100-140 FNE 100-140
FNE 100-140 FNE 100-140 FNE 100-140 FNE 100-140
m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
P: 170-200
P: 170-200
P: 163-180 kWh/m2a for social housing, for non-residential H&C: 30-50 kWh/m2a, for nonH&C: 50 kWh/m2a H&C: 50
residential (public investment) H&C: 20-40 kWh/m2a
2
kWh/m a
P: 80-160
P: 63-126
P: 120-240
T: 42-84
T: 101-201
T: 94-187
T: 48-95
T: 81-161
H&C 42-86 kWh/
H&C: 27-53
H&C: 16-56
H&C: 28-56
H&C: 27-70
H&C: 14-71
H&C: 28-56
H&C: 27-70
m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
kWh/m2a
16-18 kgCO2 Other TER (Target carbon dioxide Emission Rate) values apply for non-domestic buildings
17-20 kgCO2
NOTES
AT
BG
Based on gross floor area and gross building volume
Based on assumption of DD=2 100, A/V=0.2 for SFH, A/V=0.8 other, 32% share of
glazing for upper limit and DD=330, A/V=1.2, 32% glazing for lower limit
CH Effective space heating demand for a typical building shape calculated on the
basis of the SIA-norm 380/1:2009
DK A denotes the gross heated floor area in the Danish formulate, example 73.1 P
@80 m2 58 P @300 m2
EE Heated floor area
FI For a single family house with building volume 522 m3, gross floor area 163 m2,
and height between floors 3m.
FR H1, H2 and H3 represent the three main climatic regions in France
IE MPEPC and MPCPC denote the Maximum Permitted Energy Performance and
Maximum Permitted Carbon Performance Coefficients used in the Ireland
scheme
NO In Small houses, calculated overall net energy demand is limited to 120+1600/m2
heated floor area.
PL Based on formula EPH+W=73+ΔEP for A/Ve<0.2; EPH+W=55+90 A/Ve+ ΔEP for
0.2< A/Ve<1.05; EPH+W=149.5++ΔEP for A/Ve>1.05 for residential buildings
PT Electricity production efficiency is approx. 0.30. For a 120 m2 building, max
energy needs (in kWh/m2a ) are 52-117 for heating, 198 for cooling, 38.9 for DHW
SI Requirements by 31.12.2014
SK Based on assumptions for shape factor, internal air temperature, floor to floor
height, air change rate, degree days, etc.
UK The UK requirements are based on achieving a % reduction in CO2 emissions over
a notional building of the same size/shape.
SE Electric heated buildings divided in three climatic zones: 95, 75, 55 kWh/m2a
LEGEND
P: Primary Energy
F: Final
N: Overall Net energy demand limit (includes all electricity for lighting and
appliances)
T: Total delivered energy
H: Heating
C: Cooling
H&C: Heating and cooling
MPEPC: Irish Maximum Permitted Energy Performance Coefficient
MPCPC: Irish Maximum Permitted Carbon Performance Coefficient
ESH (subscript): Space heating provided by electricity (incl. heat pumps)
FF (subscript): Space heating provided by Fossil Fuels
E (subscript): Electrically heated building
NE (subscript): Non-electrically heated building
BE – Br: Belgium – Brussels region
BE – Wl:
Belgium – Walloon region
BE – Fl:
Belgium – Flemish region
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 81
Table 2B8 – Key Elements considered in the certification methodology adopted by Member States
Thermal characteristics
Heating installation and
hot water supply
Air-conditioning
installations
Natural and mechanical
ventilation
Built-in lighting
installation
Design, position &
orientation of building
Passive solar systems
and solar protection
Indoor & outdoor
climatic conditions
Air-tightness
Thermal bridging
Source: BPIE survey
AT
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
BE
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
P
BG
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
CH
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
CY
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
CZ
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
DE
Y
Y
Y
P
Y
N
N
Y
Y
Y
DK
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
EE
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
P
Y
Y
P
Y
EL
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
ES
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
FI
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
FR
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
P
Y
Y
P
Y
HU
Y
Y
Y
N
P
N
N
N
Y
Y
IE
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
IT
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
LI
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
LV
Y
N
N
Y
N
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
MT
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
NL
Y
Y
P
P
P
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
NO
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
PL
Y
Y
Y
Y
P
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
PT
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
SE
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
SI
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
SK
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
UK
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Legend
Y: Yes
N:No
P:Partly
82 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Prescriptive-based requirements for new buildings
Member States have different prescriptive, element-based requirements associated with building energy
codes such as maximum U values, minimum/maximum indoor temperatures, requirements for minimum
ventilation rates and boiler and/or air conditioning plant efficiency. Some of the prescriptive criteria
associated with the key requirements presented in Table 2B6 are further analysed below.
i. Insulation
Limiting the thermal conductivity of major construction elements is the most common thermal
performance requirement for buildings. These are based upon U value requirements (expressed in
W/m2K) for the main building envelope construction elements. These U values are worst acceptable
standards which as a stand-alone measure would not necessarily mean that a building meets the overall
performance-based requirements in the respective country.
Country by country data on “maximum” U value requirements for roof, wall, floor, window and doors
collected through the BPIE survey are shown in Figure 2B7. These are presented against the relevant
heating degree days per country or region. Given the diversity in climatic conditions, maximum U value
requirements vary widely across different countries where Spain, France, Greece, Italy and Portugal have
multiple maximum U values due to the considerable variation in climatic conditions within each country.
In some countries, variations also apply for different types of buildings (e.g. Latvia) and type of heating
(e.g. Sweden). A comparison between the collected data and the cost optimal U values published by
EURIMA/Ecofys33 in 2007 (see Figure 2B7, blue line) confirm that Member State maximum U values are still
higher than the cost-optimal requirements, suggesting that U value requirements in most Member States
should be made more demanding. This was also one of the key findings of the IEA information paper on
building codes34 where it was shown that existing U value requirements for building components did
not reflect the economic optimum. From Figure 2B7, it can be deducted that this is especially true for
countries of mild or warm climates reflecting the equivalent magnitude of effort that is required in those
countries. This comes as no surprise as countries in cold climatic zones have had longer traditions in
thermal building regulations and therefore stricter requirements.
ii. Air tightness/permeability and ventilation requirements
Most countries have introduced requirements to ensure minimum levels of ventilation within buildings.
These are generally based upon metabolic rates and activity within the building. The requirements
associated with ventilation relate principally to health, comfort and productivity; however they do
have direct impact on energy requirements. The thermal performance of buildings is directly related
to airtightness and the requirements for ventilation. Excessive ventilation as a consequence of poor
construction detailing, can lead to considerable energy wastage and for this reason a number of
countries have introduced requirements to limit the air permeability of buildings. Air permeability is
normally measured using a pressure test, typically at 50Pa (4Pa in France and 10Pa in The Netherlands)
to determine the air leakage rate. The requirement is typically expressed in m3/h.m2 (where m2 is the
external envelope area) or in the case of Denmark in l/s.m2 (where m2 is the floor area). Table 2B9 provides
a summary of key requirements for Member States which have adopted airtightness requirements.
Ecofys (2007). U –Values for better energy performance of buildings. Eurima.
Laustsen, J., (2008). Energy efficiency requirements in building codes, energy efficiency policies for new buildings. Paris: IEA/OECD.
33
34
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 83
Figure 2B7 – Building envelope insulation requirements
Source : BPIE survey. Cost optimality line is based on the analysis undertaken by Ecofys in the study on U-Values for Better Energy Performance of
Buildings, 2007
Roof
Walls
2
U Values [W/m2K)]
U Values [W/m2K)]
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1
0.5
0
0
2 000
4 000
6 000
8 000
0
Floor
Window/door
U Values [W/m2K)]
1
0.5
0
2 000
4 000
6 000
0
8 000
8 000
2 000
4 000
6 000
8 000
HDD
Maximum U Value requirement
HDD
6 000
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
HDD
(5)
4 000
HDD
1.5
0
2 000
HDD
2
U Values [W/m2K)]
1.5
Ecofys 2007 cost optimality line
MT
CY
PT
GR
ES
IT
LV (1)
FR
BG
BE
NL
IE
HU
SI
560
782
1 282
1 663
1 842
1 907
0.320.65
0.330.62
0.290.38
1 970
2 483
2 686
2 872
2 902
2 906
2 922
3 053
0.2κ-0.35κ
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.25
0.25
0.2
0.35
0.4
0.4
0.37
0.45
0.28
0.2κ-0.35κ
0.20.25
0.360.40
0.370.40
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.37
0.45
0.9
1.8κ-2.4κ
1.7-1.9
1.8
2.5
4.2
2.2
1.6
1.1 -1.6
0.9-1.25 0.35-0.5 0.450.65
0.571.45-1.8 0.4-0.6 0.94
0.45-0.5 0.620.69
Roof
0.59
0.85
Walls
1.57
0.85
Floor
1.57
2
Window/
Door
5.8
3.8
UK(3)
RO
DE
SK
CH(2)
DK
CZ
AT
PL
LT
EE
SE(4)
NO
FI
HDD
3 115
3 129
3 239
3 453
3 571
3 573
3 616
4 094
4 444
5 444
5 646
5 850
0.2
0.2
0.24
0.19
0.2
0.24
0.2
0.25
0.16 0.15-0.2
0.18
0.09
Walls
0.3
0.56
0.24
0.32
0.3
0.3
0.35
0.3
0.2
0.2-0.25
0.22
0.17
Floor
0.25
0.35
0.3
3 482
0.17 or
0.2
0.17 or
0.2
0.17 or
0.2
3 503
Roof
0.2
0.45
0.4
0.45
0.25 0.15-0.2 0.4-0.6
0.18
0.16
2
1.3
1.3
1.8
1.7
1.4
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.0
Window/
Door
2.6-3.2 3.1-5.7 1.3-3.7
1.7
0.25κ-0.5κ
0.7-1.4
NOTES
(1) Depending on type of building (residential, public, industrial etc.)
where κ is a temperature factor, κ = 19/(Tin-Tout), Tin and Tout
denote indoor and outdoor temperatures, respectively.
(2) Depending on evidence of thermal bridges
(3) For England & Wales
(4) Depending on type of building (residential and non residential) &
84 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
type of heating (electric and non electric). These represent overall
U values
(5) Mean HDD values for period 1980-2004 based on Eurostat data
LEGEND
HDD:Heating degree days.
iii. Other requirements
A number of countries (e.g. Austria, Denmark, France, Estonia and Poland) have introduced minimum
requirements for specific fan power (generally expressed in W/l.s or kW/m3.s.). Given the increasing
use of mechanical ventilation system, the fan power requirement in low energy buildings is becoming
an important issue. Additionally most countries have requirements associated with the minimum
performance of boilers and airconditioning systems. Most building codes require minimum levels of
daylight to be achieved within buildings, whilst ensuring that solar gains do not result in significant
overheating and/or the requirement for air conditioning. Building requirements associated with limiting
solar gains vary from simple approaches (e.g. limiting window areas on building aspects exposed to solar
gains) through to requirements for complex modelling and simulation to demonstrate that effective
measures have been adopted to provide solar protection. The Concerted Action report 1 recommended
that much greater attention should be given to the issue of estimating the impact of summertime
overheating in the methodology in order to reduce the rapid increase in demand for air conditioning.
In addition to specifying maximum U values, several countries have also set limits for maximum
permissible thermal bridging. This is generally expressed in W/mK. Thermal bridges can significantly
increase the building energy demand for heating and cooling and in nearly Zero Energy Buildings
thermal bridging can account for a significant proportion of the total heat loss or gain. Thermal bridging
is specific to the design and specification and can be complex and time consuming to calculate. For this
reason, some countries allow a default thermal bridging value to be used, based upon a percentage
(typically 15%) of the overall heat loss calculation. However, if a detailed thermal bridging calculation has
been undertaken, which demonstrates that thermal bridges have been reduced or eliminated, this value
can be used instead of the default. ASIEPI estimate that “a third of EU Member States have no real ‘goodpractice’ guidance on thermal bridges in the framework of their building energy regulations. The quality
of guidance in the remaining States is very varied” 35.
Schild, P. G., Blom, P. (2010). Good practice guidance on thermal bridges & construction details. ASIEPI.
35
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 85
Table 2B9 – Airtightness levels in building codes
Source: BPIE survey
AT
In naturally ventilated buildings, maximum n50 is 3.0. In mechanically ventilated buildings,
maximum n50 is 1.5.
BE
Default value of 12 m3/hm2 is used in methodology if no pressure test is available. Actual test
result is used in the calculation if available.
BG
In apartments with high airtightness, n50<2.0 h-1, with medium airtightness n50=2.0-5.0 h-1 and
with low n50>5h-1. In SFH with high airtightness, n50<4.0h-1, with medium airtightnessn50=4.0-10.0
h-1 and low airtightnessn50>10.0 h-1.
CY
Not regulated in building codes.
CZ
Recommended maximum for common buildings is 4.5 h-1, low energy buildings 1.5 h-1 and
passive houses 0.6 h-1.For mechanically ventilated buildings w/o heat recovery 1.5 h-1, with heat
recovery 1.0 h-1.
DE
For naturally ventilated buildings, n50 is 3.0h-1 and for mechanically ventilated buildings, n50 is
1.5h-1.
DK
Airtightness must be better than 1.5 l/sm2, tested @ 50 Pa.
ES
Air permeability of windows and doors depend on the climatic zone. For zones A and B (Class
1, 2, 3 and 4), maximum air permeability is 50 m3/hm2. For zones C, D and E (class 2, 3 and 4),
maximum air permeability is 27 m3/hm2.
EL
Air penetration for the reference building, is taken equal to 5.5 m3/hm2 frame.
EE
For small buildings, maximum airtightness is 6 m3/hm2 (for new buildings) and 9 m3/hm2 (for
existing buildings). For large buildings, maximum airtightness is 3 m3/hm2 (for new buildings)
and 6 m3/hm2 (for existing buildings).
FI
n50 equal to 2.0 is used for reference building heat loss in Finnish Building Code. For EPC, n50 of 4
is considered unless the measured value is different. Air change rate in new apartments should
be at least 0.5 h-1.
FR
Airtightness under 4Pa of building envelope is limited to 0.8 m3/hm2for SFH, 1.2 m3/hm2for other
residential buildings, offices, hotels educational and health care buildings and 2.5 m3/hm2 for
other buildings.
HU
Not regulated in building codes.
LT
For naturally ventilated building, maximum n50=3 h-1, for mechanically ventilated buildings,
maximum n50=1.5 h-1.
LV
Maximum n50 in dwellings is 3 m3/hm2, 4 m3/hm2 in public buildings, 6 m3/hm2 for industrial
buildings. For ventilated buildings, maximum n50 is 3 m3/hm2.
MT
Not regulated in building codes.
NL
For residential buildings, 200 dm3/s @10 Pa and for non-residential buildings 200 dm3/s per 500
m3 @10 Pa.
NO
Maximum n50 is 3.
PT
For residential buildings, the requirement is 0.6h-1. Requirements for non residential buildings
with mechanical ventilation exist depending on type of use.
SI
For naturally ventilated buildings, maximum n50 is 3.0, for mechanically ventilated buildings,
maximum n50 is 2.0.
SK
For SFH with high quality windows, maximum n50 is 4 h-1 and for all other buildings is 2 h-1. Other
values apply for buildings with double glazed windows with seals or single glazed windows
without seals.
UK
Maximum n50=10 m3/hm2
86 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Building code requirements for existing buildings
Despite being an EPBD requirement, not all countries have reported specific mandatory building codes
associated with improving the energy performance of existing buildings. It is important to recognise
that EPBD (Article 5) only applies to buildings over 1 000 m2 and most Member States have introduced
requirements for consequential improvements associated with buildings over 1 000 m2. It should
be noted that these requirements may not be applied when they are not deemed to be “technically,
functionally and economically feasible”.
Table 2B10 provides a summary of different approaches adopted by a number of Member States
when a building undergoes major renovation. Switzerland has adopted a very progressive approach
to improving the performance of existing buildings, where the thermal performance of renovated
buildings must not exceed 125% of the new building limit. A number of Member States have introduced
minimum component performance standards when building elements (e.g. windows, doors etc.) or
energy using plant (boilers, a/c equipment etc.) are being replaced. Good examples include countries
which have a performance-based requirement as well as requirements for any component that is
replaced or refurbished.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 87
Table 2B10 – Building code requirements for existing buildings
Source: BPIE survey
AT
Specific maximum heating energy demand targets for major renovation of residential and non-residential
buildings. Values for renovated buildings are around 25-38% higher than new build requirements. Heat recovery
must be added to ventilation systems when renewed. Maximum permitted U values for different elements in
case of single measure or major renovations. Prescriptive requirements to limit summer over-heating.
BE
Maximum U values and ventilation requirements apply depending on the region.
BG
Regulations requiring performance-based standards of existing housing and other buildings after renovation.
Requirements for new and renovated buildings are the same.
CH
Renovated buildings are required to use no more than 125% of the space heating demand of an equivalent
new building. A single element approach may also be applicable for renovations.
CY
Minimum energy performance requirements (class A or B) for buildings over 1 000 m2 undergoing major renovation.
CZ
Performance-based requirements when a building over 1 000 m2 is renovated. Requirements for new and
renovated buildings are the same.
DE
Conditional requirements apply in the case of renovation of components whereby requirements extend
exclusively to those parts of the building surface and parts of the installation that are the subject of the
measures. Alternatively, a holistic assessment can also be made where values for renovated buildings should
not exceed new build requirements by more than 40%.
DK
Component level requirements when existing buildings are refurbished for all improvements or extensions
regardless of building size.
EE
Performance-based requirements for all building types when buildings are major renovated. Values for
renovated buildings are around 25-38% higher than new build requirements.
ES
Existing buildings over 1 000 m2 must comply with the same minimum performance requirements as new
buildings if more than 25% of the envelope is renovated.
FI
Reference transmittance/heat loss (in W/K) requirements apply. New energy performance regulations will be
launched in 2012.
FR
Performance-based requirements for buildings undergoing renovation apply for residential buildings and values
depend on the climate and type of heating (fossil fuel/electricity). Requirements for components also apply during
building renovation. New renovation requirements for all buildings from 2013.
HU
Performance-based requirements (in terms of primary energy) apply for residential buildings, offices and
educational buildings. Requirements for new and renovated buildings are the same.
LT
Buildings over 1 000 m2 undergoing major renovation must achieve the energy performance standard of a
Class D building where D corresponds to 110 kWh/m2a for buildings > 3 000 m2; 130 kWh/m2a for buildings
from 501 to 3 000 m2; 145 kWh/m2a for buildings up to 500 m2.
LV
Requirements on different elements are applicable.
MT
U value requirements for existing renovated buildings.
NL
The Energy Performance Standard (EPN) sets requirements for the energy performance of major renovations
of existing buildings (expressed as an energy performance coefficient).
NO
Building regulation requirements only apply when the purpose or use of the building is changed at renovation
or if considered so extensive as to be equivalent to a new building.
PT
Special requirements for buildings over 1 000 m2 and over a specified threshold energy cost. A mandatory
energy efficiency plan must be prepared and all energy efficiency improvement measures with a payback of
less than 8 years must (by law) be implemented. The threshold is based upon 40% of the worst performing
buildings by typology.
SI
Minimum requirements apply to major renovations (i.e. if at least 25 % of the envelope is renovated). The
requirements apply to buildings of all size (NB the 1 000 m2 limit is not used). Min. requirements apply for the
renovation of heating systems.
SK
Requirements for improving the thermal performance of apartment by at least 20% when being renovated.
UK
Specific requirements when replacing “controlled elements” such as windows, boilers and thermal elements in
residential buildings. Consequential improvement requirements for buildings over 1 000 m2 undergoing major
renovation in so far as they are “technically, functionally and economically feasible”.
88 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Enforcement and Compliance
Building control requirements prior to, during and upon completion of the construction phase typically
involve announcement to authority, application for permits, approval of plans, inspections by authority
and completion of certificates. These requirements can be a critical step for ensuring regulation
enforcement. Based on a comprehensive review of Building Control published in June 200636 by the
Consortium of European Building Control (CEBC), building control systems in Europe have undergone
significant change over the past two decades. In many countries greater market liberalisation has resulted
in a move away from government-run building control functions. There are growing calls for minimum
quality assurance standards to be introduced in all countries to licence, audit and regulate the activities
of individuals (both public and private) involved in undertaking the building control function. This is
particularly important in the context of the structural, fire protection and energy performance regulation
requirements, where the issues are technically complex and specialist skills and expertise is required.
In the context of renovations, the BPIE survey has gathered information on the requirements, typical time
period and main obstacles associated with obtaining a permit for carrying out renovation work. From
the reported answers, it was clear that not all countries have permit requirements for renovations while,
for the ones that do so, permits are typically necessary if major changes are undertaken in the façade of
buildings (from modifying the roof to adding external insulation in case of France). Moreover, the time
required to obtain a permit could vary substantially from one month (e.g. in Czech Republic) to several
months (e.g. in Belgium) where the timeframe can be shorter if the project is supported by a renovation
programme (e.g. in Germany this is the case with the KfW Programme).
In addition, many observers suggest that the compliance and enforcement of building energy
codes is currently undertaken with less rigour and attention to detail, than other building regulation
requirements such as structural integrity and/or fire safety. While there are few studies on compliance
with building energy codes, there is a growing body of academic research suggesting that as building
thermal requirements become more demanding (e.g. in the pursuit of nearly Zero Energy Buildings)
there is increasing evidence of a performance gap between design intent (i.e. theoretical performance as
modelled using national calculation methods) and the actual energy performance in-use. This suggests
one or more of the following issues: the calculation methods are flawed, the enforcement regime is not
being undertaken sufficiently rigorously or designers and builders are failing to satisfactorily deliver the
outcome intended.
Closing the performance gap between design intent (and regulatory requirement) is likely to become an
important issue over the next decade if countries are to deliver the climate and environmental targets
related to buildings. The key findings of the PRC/Delft Univ. of Technology review of National Building
Regulations1 found that there was “little attention yet to enforcing sustainable building regulations
in most of the various countries analysed”. The report also suggested that, given the highly technical
nature of the requirements associated with sustainability and energy, there was a serious shortage of
individuals with appropriate expertise to undertake the building control function. This is resulting in poor
enforcement of compliance associated with these important issues.
Consortium of European Building Control (2006). Building Control Systems in Europe.
36
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 89
C. Financial Programmes
The regulatory framework described in section 2B provides an increasingly demanding set of requirements
aimed at new buildings in particular, and to a lesser extent for improving the energy performance of
the existing stock. However, many potential areas of improvement to existing buildings remain outside
formal legislative or regulatory requirements. To address these shortcomings, a variety of financial
programmes have been introduced. Member States have used many financial instruments in various
forms since the first oil crisis in the 1970s. However, financial issues are now more important as Europe
strives towards increasing building energy performance. This is highlighted by Article 10 in the recast of
the EPBD on financial incentives and market barriers. Article 10, paragraph 1 states:
“In view of the importance of providing appropriate financing and other instruments to catalyse the
energy performance of buildings and the transition to nearly zero- energy buildings, Member States
shall take appropriate steps to consider the most relevant such instruments in the light of national
circumstances.”
The Article goes on to state that Member States were to have drawn up by 30 June a list of “existing
and, if appropriate, proposed measures and instruments including those of a financial nature, other than
those required by this Directive, which promote the objectives of this Directive.” This list is to be updated
every three years and the Commission is to “examine the effectiveness of the listed existing and proposed
measures...”
As shown throughout this report, any ambitious retrofit strategy will have to address financing in a major way.
Review of current financial programmes
In its survey for this study, BPIE requested information on the range of financial instruments that are being
implemented in Member States. For completeness, BPIE cross checked with information available in recent
studies and on-line databases (see below). Because of the wealth of material, BPIE will create a separate
report available for download on its website documenting all financial instruments in Member States.
Figure 2C1 – Types of financial programmes and incentives on the energy performance of buildings
90 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Financial programmes fall into the main categories illustrated in Figure 2C1. For the most part, schemes
are funded by public authorities. These could be at the national/federal level, or regionally/locally. EU
structural funds and resources from other EU and international sources are also available for renovation
works, particularly in the Central and East region countries. Many of these schemes are targeted at
poor quality apartment blocks constructed prior to 1990. By contrast, white certificate schemes place
an obligation on third parties, typically energy companies, with the costs ultimately borne by energy
consumers through an increase in energy tariffs.
A summary of the financial programmes currently operating in individual EU Member States, together
with Norway and Switzerland is provided in Table 2C1.37 This table shows how the wide range of
financial instruments is used throughout Europe. BPIE has identified 333 separate schemes. It can be
seen that direct financial support in the form of grants or subsidies is prevalent throughout Europe.
Many countries support residential as well as non-residential buildings, both new build and existing
(though not necessarily in the same programme), while others focus on renovating the existing building
stock. A number only support residential buildings. There are also many schemes that target specific
technologies, such as insulation, boiler scrappage, renewables, or specific building categories, such as
social housing, the public sector, panel buildings. There are several schemes that provide support for
new passive buildings.
Various forms of loans and tax incentives are used in many countries. These are usually available for
individuals as well as businesses, thereby covering most of the building stock outside the public sector.
Somewhat less popular are energy supplier obligations/white certificate schemes, audits and third
party financing, used in only a handful of countries, though the use of energy supplier obligations could
become mandatory across all EU Member States if the current proposal in the draft Energy Efficiency
Directive is approved.
In terms of programme size, whilst it is difficult to make direct comparisons due to different funding
regimes and timescales, the financial support varies considerably from around €1 million/a to in excess
of €1 billion/a. Larger programmes tend to be support for improvements to social housing stock. These
have traditionally been funded at large scale through financial transfers from central governments to
local/regional authorities or public housing bodies. While the original purpose of these schemes has
been to meet basic housing requirements, funds are increasingly directed towards improving the energy
performance of social or public housing.
Programmes often take 3-5 years, though individual initiatives can last anything from one year to over a
decade. This is a concern if a retrofit strategy is to be for the long term. The Energy Audit Programme in
Finland has operated since 1992, while energy suppliers in the UK have been under some form of energy
saving target obligation since 1994. It is noteworthy that a number of schemes have been terminated
recently as a result of the credit crunch and consequent measures to rein in public expenditure. Table
2C2 summarises some of the identified programmes operating in different countries across Europe
illustrating theirwide range and nature.
It should be added that there are two on-line databases that provide updated information on financial instruments. The first is MURE which is a
joint project under the Intelligent Energy for Europe Programme of the European Commission/DG Energy of all energy efficiency agencies in the
EU 27, Croatia and Norway. MURE is an information platform on energy efficiency policies in Europe. See http://www.mure2.com/. The second is
the International Energy Agency that has the Policies and Measures Databases offer access to information on energy-related policies and measures
taken or planned to reduce GHG emissions, improve energy efficiency and support renewable energy development and deployment. See http://
www.iea.org/textbase/pm/index.html.
37
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 91
Table 2C1 – A summary of the current financial programmes in the EU
Source: BPIE survey
Grants, Subsidies,
Funds
Loans
Tax Incentives,
Levies Etc
AT
All
Households
BE
All
Households &
Business
BG
Existing bldgs
Residential
and Public
bldgs
CZ
All
Public bldgs
CY
All
DK
Existing bldgs
Obligations,
white certificates
3rd Party finace,
ESCOs
Other
Existing bldgs
Flanders region
Class A or B
new build
Existing
residential bldgs
ES
Residential
FI
All
FR
All
All
DE
All
Residential
GR
Existing bldgs
Private sector
HU
Existing bldgs
Planned
IE
Residential
Business
Imminent
IT
Existing bldgs
Households &
Business
All
LT
Existing bldgs
LI
All
LU
All
MT
All
NL
Residential
NO
All
PL
Public sector
PT
All
RO
Residential bldgs
SK
Existing bldgs
Existing bldgs
SL
Private residential
and Public nonresidential
Private homes
ES
All
All
SE
All
Households &
Business
CH
All
Households &
Business
UK
Existing bldgs
Residential
Residential
Households
Existing bldgs
Audits
Households &
Business
Existing
nonresidential
Existing
buildings
Private
sector
Feed-in tariff;
training scheme
Public buildings
Feed-in tariff
Yes
Feed-in tariff
household
renewable
grants
New homes
New private
nonresidential
Private sector
All
All
Existing bldgs
Planned
All
Residential
Public residential
Households
Households &
Business
92 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Public sector
Technology
procurement
Residential
Public sector
Feed-in tariff
Table 2C2 – A summary of selected financial programmes across Europe
Source: BPIE survey
AUSTRIA - Federal promotion of extraordinary efficiency
in buildings
In 2006, Austria’s federal and state governments launched a programme for residential buildings to achieve a consumption level of
65kWh per square metre, falling to 25-45 kWh/m2 by 2010, including
incentives for use of renewable heating systems. The programme is expected to generate 10 000 additional jobs (Total budget: €1.78 billion).
BELGIUM - Interest free loans to stimulate retrofitting in
Wallonia region
A 1-billion euro plan including energy efficiency renovations is to be
adopted soon in Wallonia. The objective is to reduce energy bills and
CO2 emissions, while creating 5 000 jobs by 2014. The programme covers private dwellings and public buildings including public housing,
schools and municipal buildings. The renovations will benefit from private support up to 100% financing. In the case that the owner agrees
to make several renovations, the costs not covered by the premiums
will be interest-free loans.
FINLAND - Energy audit programme
Finland’s Energy Audit Programme (the EAP) is one of the oldest
national energy efficiency grant schemes in place. EAP started as a
subsidy policy in 1992 and has operated as a full-scale programme
since 2004. It is a voluntary programme promoted by a 40 % to 50
% subsidy on energy audits. The total amount of subsidies during
the period of 1992-2007 has been €23.1 million. Since 1992 some
6 800 buildings have been audited. The cumulative savings during
the whole period 1992-2007 are approximately €360 million and
over 11 TWh, of which industry accounts for about 70 %.
FRANCE - The sustainable development account
(livret de developpement durable)
POLAND - Energy management in public sector
“The Green Investment Scheme – Energy management in public
sector” supports implementation of thermal modernization projects
in public services buildings, in particular: a. heat insulation of the
buildings, b. replacement of windows and external doors, c. upgrading lighting and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems,
d. drawing up technical documentation for the project, e. energy
management systems in buildings and f. use of renewable energy
sources. (Budget: PLN 555 million as a subsidy (equivalent to €126
million), PLN 1 110 billion (equivalent to €250 million) in the form of
a loan extended by the National Fund).
SLOVAKIA - Energy efficiency and renewable energy
finance facility
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in cooperation with the Slovak Government have financed a programme for
local banks to provide loans between between €20 000 and €2 500 000
(as well as grants of 7.5-15% of the loan amounts), together with free
technical assistance, for private companies and housing associations implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy projects.
SPAIN - Plan to boost energy services contracts
(plan 2000 ese)
The plan articulates a set of measures to reduce energy consumption in the targeted buildings by at least 20%. Alongside reductions in CO2 emissions and reduced energy dependence, the aim
is to boost the market for ESCOs, thereby increasing stable employment. The implementation of the plan is expected to have a
favourable impact, either from the point of view of the expected
energy savings, reduction in CO2 emissions, the cutback on energy
dependence and the market boost of ESCOs, which will be translated into stable employment.
It is a savings account that pays tax-free interest of 2.5% a year for
investments of up to €6 000. Together with funds raised from the
previous CODEVI account, total funding is expected to reach €60
billion. Since January 2008, every bank must allocate at least 2 % of
the total account to the improvement of the energy performance
of the building. Preferential loans can be awarded to individuals,
co-properties and entrepreneurs for the purchase and installation
of: energy efficient boilers; thermal insulation (walls, windows,
shutters); thermal regulation equipment; equipment producing
energy from renewable sources; space and water heating equipment using wood or other biomass; heat pumps.
SWITZERLAND - National building support programme
of the climate cent foundation
GERMANY - Loans and subsidies from the reconstruction
credit institute, KfW
UK - Energy supplier obligations
The government-owned banking group Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (fW) plays a central role concerning promotion of energy
savings and CO2 reduction in the building sector. Between 1990
and the end of 2009 subsidies for at least 3.1 million homes were
implemented. In 2009, total subsidies amounted to €16.9 billion,
of which €10.6 billion was for energy efficiency and €6.3 billion for
renewable energies. KfW offers subsidies and loans for new buildings as well as energy efficient renovations that meet requirements
of the quality label “Effizienzhaus” (efficient building).
The Climate Cent Foundation (now the Buildings Programme) is
funded by a charge levied on all petrol and diesel imports at a rate
of 1.5 cent per litre. Support is for energy renovation of existing
buildings envelopes, i.e. roofs, walls and windows. By October
2010, 6 750 projects had been completed and CHF 118 million had
been paid out. Over the period 2008 to 2012, contracted projects
will reduce 240 000 tonnes of CO2 emissions at an average price of
CHF 790 per tonne of CO2.
In force since 1994, they initially applied to monopoly electricity
suppliers in England and Wales, but were soon extended to cover
suppliers in Scotland and N. Ireland, and then, from 2000, gas suppliers throughout the UK. The scheme has also evolved from a levybased approach, where particular levels of expenditure per supplier
were mandated, into one where, since competition was introduced
into the retail sector in 1998-99, the obligation has shifted to meeting a carbon reduction target, without specifying the level of expenditure. Initially applicable to households and small-medium
businesses, the scheme has applied to the residential sector only
since 2000.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 93
Impact of Financial Programmes
The key concern is the level of ambition that can be attained from financial programmes to motivate
consumers to invest in deep renovation. Some of the schemes identified with the most ambitious objectives
in terms of potential energy savings achieved were:
1. In Austria, under the ‘Federal Promotion of Very High Efficiency Buildings’, an initial standard of 65 kWh/m2
in 2007, going to 25 kWh/m2 in 2010 was required in order to qualify for state funding.
2. In the Flemish region of Belgium, under the energy savings investments in dwellings rented by social renting
companies, 100% of the costs are reimbursed for roof insulation, high efficiency windows and condensing
boilers.
3.The Czech Republic’s PANEL programme provides for total retrofitting (insulating buildings, improving
heating systems, distribution pipes and sources of heat and hot water and use of renewable energy).
4. In Estonia, the Green Investment Scheme requires at least 20% energy savings. The Renovation Loan for
apartment buildings also requires at least 20% energy savings.
5. In France subsidies are available for low consumption buildings and retrofits (AAP PREBAT).
6. In Germany, in its ‘Housing Modernisation Scheme’, investors receive a long-term low-interest loan of up
to €100 000 with a fixed interest rate for 5 to 10 years and redemption-free grace years. While there is no
target, the amount available should lead to very ambitious improvements.
7. In Romania, the ‘Multiannual National Programme’ for increasing the energy performance of apartment
blocks/houses requires a decrease in energy consumption from 180-240 kWh/m2 to below 100 kWh/m2.
8. In Spain, the ‘Support for Energy Efficiency in Buildings’, encourages buildings to attain a high energy rating
of A or B. Separately, PLAN 2000 ESE, which promotes energy service contracts, requires energy savings of
at least 20%. The Activation Plan, using ESCOs, also requires a reduction of 20% for state buildings.
The results of the selected measures described above are encouraging, but many of them are only modest in their
ambition. Achieving a 20% reduction may sound impressive, but much more is needed and possible.A study
published by EuroACE in 2010 illustrated the cost effectiveness38 of such programmes to governments which has
been estimated to be around €20-25/tonne of mitigated carbon emissions, a figure which is lower than virtually
all alternative non-traded carbon abatement measures. However, being cost effective does not reflect the level
of ambition. The schemes identified above show a reasonable level of ambition to save energy but a 20% energy
savings is not enough if Europe is to achieve an 80-95 % reduction in GHG emissions reductions by 2050.
One major concern is that the use of financial instruments today is only achieving the business-as-usual
case in Europe with very few financial instruments providing enough funding for deep renovations. If the
goal is to significantly increase the number of deep renovations to meet 2050 aspirations, it will require
more innovative approaches than what is seen today. There are steps underway to improve the availability
of new financing instruments. Innovative approaches include Energy Supplier Obligations, energy service
companies, the use of EU structural funds more effectively and possible targets to renovate specific building
sub-sectors (e.g. the proposal in the draft Energy Efficiency Directive to Member States to renovate a certain
percentage of public buildings annually) which will require Member States to “unlock” funding for such
renovations.
The recast of the EPBD requires Member States to outline the current and proposed financial instruments
for the buildings sector. Most Member States are doing this through their submission of National Energy
Efficiency Action Plans due June 2011.39 That provides an opportunity for Member States to reflect on how
financial instruments can be used more ambitiously and an opportunity for the European Commission to
monitor whether Member States are taking ambitious enough steps.
Klinckenberg Consultants (2010). Making Money Work for Buildings, Financial and Fiscal Instruments for Energy Efficiency in Buildings.EuroACE.
Note: Cost-effectiveness was calculated on the basis of the cost of the programme (typically to government) per ton of CO2 emission avoided,
over an impact period of up to 30 years (and shorter for investments with a shorter lifespan). More information on http://www.euroace.org/
MediaPublications/PublicationsReports.aspx
39
Updates of the national submissions are available at the European Commission - Energy website (http://ec.europa.eu/energy/efficiency/end-use_
en.htm). As of August 26, 19 Member States had submitted their plans.
38
94 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
D. Other Programmes
The BPIE 2011 survey did not directly survey other policy instruments beyond the regulatory building
codes and financial programmes. Primarily, the measures concern various aspects of information:
awareness programmes, training, specialised publications, networks and information exchange. There
are also research and development programmes at both the national, EU and international levels.
Information
Appropriate information to consumers, decision makers, the energy service sector, architects, distributors
and others in the energy efficiency field ensures that more of the cost-effective potential is achieved.
There is a wide range of information programmes throughout the region and the number of programmes
has expanded significantly in recent years. Information programmes cover a large spectrum from mass
media campaigns, information centres, training, technical manuals and brochures, labelling and energy
audits. They can be used for awareness creation or for providing detailed information to various actors:
consumers, equipment operators/technicians, managers of building complexes, engineers, architects
and decision makers.
Awareness creation is often considered key because many consumers have little understanding of
the cost-effective potential for improvements for energy efficiency or of the techniques to make such
improvements. Awareness creation is also important for service providers (e.g. auditors) to show the
market potential available. All Member States are active in awareness creation.
One rather recent addition to help in information sharing is the European portal for energy efficiency
in buildings, BUILD UP (www.buildup.eu) funded by the European Commission. It is for buildings
professionals, local authorities and citizens. The BUILD UP web portal brings together new practitioners
and professional associations while motivating them to exchange best working practices and knowledge
and to transfer tools and resources.
Training
When first introduced in 2002 the EPBD recognised that new approaches to buildings performance were
going to be needed. The recast of the EPBD, approved in 2010, increased the need for new approaches
that would require improving the capacity of a wide range of people. For new buildings, architects and
designers would need to learn to integrate latest thinking to maximise performance. This is particularly
true for the nearly Zero Energy Buildings that will be required by 31 December 2018 for public buildings
and 31 December 2020 for all buildings – residential and non-residential. Strategies need to be developed
by Member States and these have to be submitted to the Commission in early 2012.
The recast Directive makes several references to the importance of training. Furthermore, the Energy
Efficiency Plan published by the Commission in March 2011 states:
There is a clear lack of appropriate training (e.g. for architects, engineers, auditors, craftsmen, technicians
and installers). Energy efficient building solutions are often technically demanding and put high
knowledge requirements on the parties involved. Today, about 1.1 million qualified workers are available,
while 2.5 million will be needed by 2015 in order to improve the energy efficiency of buildings and
better integrate renewable energy technologies. The lack of a qualified workforce leads to sub-optimal
renovation or installation of appliances – hence it is essential that the right skills are available; major
training and qualification efforts will be required.
The European Commission, through its Intelligent Energy Europe programme, is providing support for
training programmes.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 95
R&D
The European Union supports R&D through Framework Programme 7. This includes funding for energy
efficient buildings. Currently, much of the focus is on public-private partnerships for energy-efficient
buildings and the demonstration of zero carbon building renovations for cities and regions.
The European Commission and many Member States also participate in technology programmes
of the International Energy Agency, based in Paris. Participation is through the use of Implementing
Agreements of the IEA that allow participating countries to share research efforts. For buildings there are
separate implementing agreements on buildings and community systems, district heating and cooling,
energy storage, heat pumping technologies and efficient electrical end-use equipment. The IEA recently
published a report outlining the effectiveness of their implementing agreements and the strategies for
the future.40 EU countries are very active. For example, for the agreement on buildings and community
systems, 15 Member States participate as well as Norway and Switzerland. Many of these implementing
agreements have been operating since the 1980s.
International Energy Agency (2010). Energy Technology Initiatives - Implementation Through Multi-lateral Co-operation. Paris: IEA/OECD.
Note: More information on the buildings-related implementing agreements on the IEA website (http://www.iea.org/techno/technologies/enduse.asp).
40
96 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 97
Part 3
Renovating With Purpose –
Finding a Roadmap
towards 2050
“Designing a roadmap for the systematic renovation of
the European building stock is not only key to reach the
European climate targets, but would also leverage urgently
needed economic and social benefits.”
98 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
The previous chapters so far have given a detailed overview of the buildings sector, from the physical
qualities of the sector to the policies that are driving improvements in energy savings. Our assessment
reveals a very heterogeneous European building stock and varied and unbalanced policies which are not
properly addressing the cost-effective potential. Consequently, the energy performance of the European
building stock should be significantly improved in order to realise the ambitious targets for improving
energy efficiency by 2020 and the even more ambitious targets for GHG emissions reductions by 2050.
However the energy savings targets are not binding and this affects the effectiveness of the implementing
measures. Recent policy pronouncements from the EU show that Europe is not going to achieve the
2020 energy savings target without new policies and without better implementation of current policies.
One of the major weaknesses of the 2010 recast of the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive has
been on existing buildings. While a cost-optimality calculation is being developed and while there is a
definition for major renovations, there are no effective instruments to drive the market to increase the
rate of renovation (for more energy savings) and to increase the rate of “deep” renovations.
One of the aims of this report is to identify the measures, policies, actions and solutions to barriers that
need to be taken in order to put Europe onto a path that can achieve the complete renovation of the
existing building stock by 2050. The Commission’s analysis from the low carbon road map shows that
emissions in the building sector must be reduced by as much as 90% by 2050 if the climate change
goals are to be met. As this report argues, the most effective way of achieving that target is through
a combination of cutting energy demand in buildings through increased energy efficiency and wider
deployment of renewable technologies on and in buildings together with decarbonising energy supplies.
Reducing energy consumption has another particular importance in improving security of supply and
reducing import dependency. The EU 27 dependency on energy imports increased from less than 40% of
gross energy consumption in the 1980s to 54.8% by 2008, with the highest dependency rates for crude
oil (84.2%) and for natural gas (62.3%)41.
In order to define the necessary effort for fostering the improvement of the actual building stock and
to reach the overall aims of energy and emissions reduction, BPIE has developed a number of possible
scenarios for the renovation of the EU building stock by 2050, including a “business-as-usual” case,
assuming that the current rate and ambition of renovation continues. The other scenarios give plausible
and feasible options for significantly ramping up renovation activity, depending in large part on the
policy framework that can be developed. After giving an overview of the model, this section will describe
and compare the scenarios and provide some conclusions on the future way forward for Europe.
Source: Eurostat
41
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 99
A. Economic PERSPECTIVES
It is generally recognised that energy efficiency is the cheapest way of reducing carbon emissions. The
EPBD Impact Assessment42 concluded that the potential for cost-effective energy savings in the EU
building stock is about 30% in the period to 2020. Opportunities to improve the energy performance of
buildings include:
• Improving the thermal performance of the building fabric through insulation of walls, floors and roofs,
and replacement and tightening of windows and doors.
• Improving the energy performance of heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting
systems.
• Installation of renewable technologies such as photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, biomass
boilers, or heat pumps.
• Installation of building elements to manage solar heat gains.
Each individual improvement measure has a cost and a saving associated with it that are specific to a
particular building, as well as ancillary benefits:
• Costs can vary depending on whether measures are installed individually or as a package, and also
whether improvements are being undertaken at the same time as maintenance, repair or building
upgrade/modernisation. For example, if HVAC equipment is at the end of its useful life, the cost of the
energy efficient option would be the marginal extra cost over a standard efficiency replacement.
• Savings will depend on the previous level of energy consumption, energy sources used, the price of
energy, the lifetime of the measure and also future movements in energy prices. Some of the savings
may be offset mainly when energy efficiency measures address fuel poverty, but overall this rebound
effect may be partially compensated by other above mentioned factors (e.g. by the increase of energy
prices or even by behavioural measures).
• New windows and efficient HVAC systems are known to increase the value of a property. The
value of high levels of insulation and buildings integrated renewable technologies have yet to be
fully appreciated by consumers, though this will change over time as the benefits of low energy
consumption, a good energy rating (A-B) and a low carbon footprint become more recognised and
accepted across society.
• Additional user benefits include lower noise levels and improved comfort from insulation and glazing,
better indoor air quality and temperature control from new HVAC equipment, less operational
maintenance or increased energy security and protection against price fluctuations through
deployment of renewable energy resources that are not dependent on conventional distribution
systems.
• Societal benefits range from reduced GHG emissions, improved energy security and alleviation of fuel
poverty.
• Socio-economic benefits through development of new green businesses and employment
opportunities.
While the ancillary benefits are of real value and can often be the main factor in determining whether a
particular investment is made (for example to increase comfort or reduce draughts), the case for investing
in improved energy performance is often made purely on economic grounds. This is unlike the case
for other comparable investments in a property. For example, in a residential context, consumers will
often spend large sums of money on renovating kitchens and bathrooms for aesthetic reasons, without
undertaking a cost-benefit analysis.
Source: European Commission (2008). Accompanying document to the Proposal for a Recast of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (2002/91/
EC) - Impact Assessment, SEC(2008) 2864.
42
100 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Even when viewed purely in economic terms, investments in energy saving typically need to meet a
higher hurdle rate than other investments. For example, an energy saving measure costing €10 000 that
saves €2 000 each year has a simple payback of 5 years. Many consumers or businesses would be reluctant
to make this kind of investment seeing it as not being sufficiently attractive. Yet if the life of the measure
is as little as ten years, the investment would generate an internal rate of return (IRR) of 15%, assuming
no change in energy prices (with a measure life of over 20 years, the IRR is nearly 20%). This is a highly
attractive return on investment and such an energy saving project is clearly profitable.
Notwithstanding the above, the case for a renovation roadmap argued within this report is made largely
on its economic merits.
There are 25 billion m2 of buildings in the EU27 together with Switzerland and Norway ranging from
homes, offices and retail premises to hospitals and leisure centres. As highlighted in Part 1 of this report,
this building stock exhibits a multiplicity of different shapes, sizes, styles, ages, fuels used, occupancy and
location. Each of these factors has an impact on the energy and cost savings achievable.
An added dimension to the issue of building renovation is the decision-making process. Each building
has an owner and an occupier – in some cases this will be the same person or organisation, while in
others they will be different. Indeed, large and complex commercial buildings are often characterised by
multiple levels of ownership. Decisions on whether to renovate a building could be taken by either the
owner or the occupier, or indeed jointly, making it difficult to identify the responsible party. Likewise, the
costs will be affected if multiple parties are involved in the process. This is a classical barrier for deciding
on the renovation of a building, also known in literature as the tenant-landlord dilemma (or the so called
split incentive barrier).
It is clear from the above that there is a very wide range of possible costs and savings for an almost
endless permutation of improvement measures across the European building stock. In some cases, an
improvement might be the result of a single measure like an upgrade of the HVAC equipment, while in
others it could comprise a holistic solution to an entire complex of buildings, with a package of measures.
In order to rationalise these variables, it is necessary to develop a standard metric for determining and
reporting the costs of measures. The simplest approach is to relate the total cost of a renovation (whether
it be for a single measure or an entire building) to the building floor area, i.e. €/m2.
To date, there has been no systematic attempt to garner comprehensive data on energy saving renovation
costs at European level. Moreover, the renovation costs vary greatly among EU regions and countries,
being influenced by many factors such as market development, prices of materials, financing cost,
labour market costs and the existence of specific support programmes and policies. While the difficulty
of collating such data is recognised, this is a major shortcoming that needs to be addressed, given the
importance of energy savings measures in the existing building stock to the EU’s climate and energy
security targets.
That said, a number of national or regional studies have quantified the costs of achieving different levels
of energy performance improvement across a range of building types. Most typically, these relate to
residential properties, for which the improvements can more readily be analysed and indeed replicated
over a number of similar dwellings.
In what is perhaps the most comprehensive analysis of renovation measures for residential properties,
ARGE43 calculated the costs and savings for achieving six different levels of energy performance across
three typical German dwelling types, assuming three starting positions – modernised, part-modernised
Walberg, D., & Holz, A., & Gniechwitz, T., & Schulze, T. (2011). Wohnungsbau in Deutschland - 2011 - Modernisierung oder Bestandsersatz. Kiel: ARGE.
43
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 101
and un-modernised. Compared to the original energy consumption, energy savings varied from around
20% to over 90% for the highest level of performance, with corresponding costs in the range €100800/m2. Another study44 based on Hungarian buildings derived much lower costs for a similar range of
savings: from €50/m2 to €300/m2.
These figures should also be seen in the context of current and evolving practice in renovation across
Europe. While there is a great deal of experience on implementing single measures (e.g. window/boiler
replacement, or insulation of walls/roofs), the experience of holistic “whole building” solutions is much
more limited. Achievement of very high levels of energy saving, such that the building approaches
nearly zero energy levels, requires deployment of buildings-integrated renewable technologies, and
various energy efficiency measures which have a high cost improvement potential. This suggests that
the cost of achieving high levels of energy saving will come down more rapidly over time than for the
more established measures which deliver more modest savings. It is also important to note that different
national priorities will dictate to a significant extent the costs of different types of renovation.
For example, a programme offering incentives for particular technologies would typically help to stimulate
demand and over time, reduce the cost of the technology compared to another country without the
programme or with a different energy price structure. In addition, long term renovation programmes
generate consistent benefits in both construction and supply chain industries, with a significant job
creation potential and a constant improvement of workers’ qualification and skills.
Renovation databases have been established in the UK45 and France46. At present, these hold limited
amounts of data, but provide a good example of the kind of knowledge base that needs to be built up in
order to provide a more complete picture of the range of renovation activities, including building types,
costs, savings and lessons learnt.
These studies and data sources, together with information provided by experts located in 29 countries
across Europe and an extensive literature search, have provided the first attempt to quantify renovation
investment costs at European level. After allowing for differences in costs between higher cost and lower
cost countries47, average costs for different levels of renovation have been derived in Table 3A1.
Defining renovation levels and associated costs
The term “renovation”48 has been used by different commentators to describe a wide variety of
improvements to an existing building or group of buildings. In the context of this report, “renovation” is
taken to mean an upgrade to the energy performance, unless otherwise specified.
Qualitatively, it can be seen that a renovation to a building facade (i.e. walls and windows) will provide a
different level of energy saving than one addressing all of the building envelope and its energy systems
(HVAC, lighting etc.) as well as the installation of renewable technologies. There is therefore a need to
categorise different levels of renovation.
At its most basic, the energy performance of a building can be improved by the implementation of a
single measure, such as a new boiler plant or the insulation of the roof space. Normally, these types
of measures might be termed “energy efficiency retrofit”, though for the purposes of this report, the
term “minor renovation” is proposed. Typically, energy savings of up to 30% might be expected by the
application of one to three low cost/easy to implement measures.
Ürge-Vorsatz, D. (2011) et al. Employment Impacts of a Large-Scale Deep Building Energy Retrofit Programme in Hungary. Center for Climate Change and
Sustainable Energy Policy - Central European University & European Climate Foundation.
National Refurbishment Centre - Refurbishment Portal. Retrieved June, 2011 from www.rethinkingrefurbishment.com/portal/
46
Effinergy. Retrieved June, 2011 from www.effinergie.org/site/Effinergie/70-ProjetsRealisations
47
Eurostat purchasing power data were used to normalise costs
48
“Retrofit” and “refurbishment” are often also used to describe essentially the same process.
44
45
102 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
At the other end of the scale, renovation might involve the wholesale replacement or upgrade of all
elements which have a bearing on energy use, as well as the installation of renewable energy technologies
in order to reduce energy consumption and carbon emission levels to close to zero, or, in the case of an
“energy positive” building, to less than zero (i.e. a building that produces more energy from renewable
sources than it consumes over an annual cycle). The reduction of the energy needs towards very low
energy levels (i.e. passive house standards, below 15kWh/m2 and year) will lead to the avoidance of a
traditional heating system. This is considered to be a break point where the ratio of the benefits (i.e.
energy cost savings) to investment costs reaches a maximum. We propose calling these renovations
nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB).
In between these two examples are renovations involving a number of upgrades. These can be subdivided
into “Moderate”, involving 3-5 improvements resulting in energy reductions the range 30-60%, and “Deep”
(60-90%). A deep renovation typically adopts a holistic approach, viewing the renovation as a package
of measures working together.
Table 3A1 summarises the 4 categories of renovation, together with average total project costs for energy
efficiency measures, expressed in €/m2 floor area. The costs reflect the total installed costs of measures,
i.e. materials, labour and professional fees, but do not include any costs not directly related to improving
the energy performance of buildings.
Table 3A1 – Renovation type and cost estimates
Source: BPIE model
Description
(renovation type)
Final energy saving
(% reduction)
Indicative saving
(for modelling purposes)
Average total project
cost (€/m2)
Minor
0-30%
15%
60
Moderate
30-60%
45%
140
Deep
60-90%
75%
330
nZEB
90% +
95%
580
Renovation Rate
In addition to a lack of comprehensive information on the costs and savings of building renovations,
there is little data on the numbers of renovations being undertaken, their depth, or indeed trends in
renovation rates. Most estimates of renovation rates (other than those relating to single energy saving
measures) are mainly between around 0.5% and 2.5% of the building stock per year. These rates typically
reflect the activity of the past few years which in some cases are linked to special circumstances during
those years (e.g. the existence of a renovation programme) and therefore may not be of normal practice.
In this work, it is assumed that the current prevailing renovation rate across Europe is 1%49. The available
results from a number of sources are provided in Table 3A2.
This is in line with the study carried out for the European Commission led by Fraunhofer Institute on the Energy Savings Potentials in EU Member
States, Candidate Countries and EEA Countries (2009). In this report, refurbishment rates of 1.2%, 0.9% and 0.5% per year were assumed for
North&West, South and Central&East regions respectively.
49
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 103
Table 3A2 – Renovation rates across different Member States (annual % of building stock renovated)
Source: BPIE survey
Country
Residential
Non-residential
Unspecified
AT
1.20%
CY
0.9%
CZ
2.4%
(single family);
3.6%
(multi-family)
Average rate
1980-2009
Estimated by
SEVEn
FI
1-1.5%
DE
0.7%
HU
Comment
1.30%
IT
1.20%
LT
0.36%
2.75%
NL
3.5%
1.6% (offices)
NO
1.5%
1.5%
PL
2.5% (multi-family
buildings)
PO
Average rate for
2005-10
1.5%
SL
2%
CH
0.8-1%
Other sources*
Novikova (2008)
Janssen (2010)
Petersdorrf
(2004)
Lechtenböhmer
(2009)
1%
1.2-1.4%
1.80%
EU 15
1%
EU 27
* as quoted in “Employment Impacts of a Large-Scale Deep Building Energy Renovate Programme in Hungary”- Urge-Vorsatz et al, Central European
University”
Prioritising the building stock that can deliver most energy savings
Countries within Europe have been grouped into three broad regions according to climatic, building
typology factors and market similarities as explained in Part 1. Moreover, each region has been further
subdivided into four age bands, corresponding approximately with the time periods when major changes
in building codes occurred.
Generally, countries in Northern and Western Europe implemented insulation standards from around the
1960s, (though some predate this time period), and this trend received a major boost in response to the
oil crises of the 1970s. With the onset of concerns over climate change, a further period of tightening can
be witnessed from around the 1990s.
104 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
New Member States from Central and Eastern Europe were somewhat insulated from global events by
the easier and cheaper access to Russian gas and oil, but the impetus for change resulted from the fall of
the Berlin Wall and a shift toward market economies from 1989 onwards. Meanwhile, in parts of Southern
Europe with little demand for heating, building codes were generally introduced much later and were
much less stringent than in colder climates. On the other hand, the energy consumption for cooling is
significantly higher than in the other European regions and here is an important savings potential.
The key dynamic of the buildings sector across the EU and in the neighbouring countries (including
European Free Trade Association members50, applicant countries such as Croatia and Eastern European
signatories of the Energy Community Treaty) is now the EPBD. For some countries based in Southern
Europe, it was the driver for introducing their first ever thermal requirements in new buildings, though
it also resulted in a tightening of thermal insulation requirements in countries which already had code
requirements.
New constructions from 2010 onwards will increasingly be subject to the cost-optimality requirements
set out in the EPBD recast, which will require tougher standards in every country, though some Member
States have already set out more demanding codes for some or all of their building stock. The final
change on the horizon are the nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) requirements, resulting in the radical
reduction of the need for fossil fuels and associated imports (averaged over an annual cycle) for heating,
cooling, hot water and fixed lighting (the so-called “regulated” energy requirements) after 2020.
Table 3A3 demonstrates the impact of geographic location, geo-political issues, building typology and
changing energy performance requirements over the years on the average energy consumption of
residential buildings in the three major European zones.
Table 3A3 – Regulated final energy for residential properties (GWh per annum)
Source: BPIE model
Regulated Energy (GWh)
Old
North & West
South
Central &
East
Total
Pre 1960
1 193 504
228 933
183 937
1 606 374
Modern
1961-1990
506 461
198 250
266 647
971 358
Recent
1991-2010
136 319
41 581
52 551
230 452
New
2011-2020
28 390
11 718
11 394
51 501
The implications for renovation policies are clear – the biggest energy savings can generally be achieved
in the older building stock. This is reflected in the scenarios, where the majority of renovation activity is
assumed to occur in the pre-1960 stock up to around 2030. From 2031 onwards the emphasis shifts to the
“Modern” age band, while it is assumed that buildings constructed in the current decade will not undergo
renovation until 2040 onwards.
Job Creation
A comprehensive review of the employment impact of energy saving building renovation spanning
Europe and North America was undertaken by the Centre for Climate Change and Sustainable Energy
Policy at the Central European University in Hungary51. On average, the studies show that 17 new jobs
were created for every €1 million of expenditure at today’s prices. That average is used in the modelling.
Liechtenstein, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.
Ürge-Vorsatz, D. (2011) et al. Employment Impacts of a Large-Scale Deep Building Energy Retrofit Programme in Hungary. Center for Climate Change and
Sustainable Energy Policy - Central European University & European Climate Foundation.
50
51
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 105
B. Overview of the Renovation Model
A renovation model has been developed which allows scenarios to be examined that illustrate the impact
on energy use and CO2 emissions of different rates (percentage of buildings renovated each year) and
depths of renovation (extent of measures applied and size of resulting energy and emissions reduction)
in the residential and non-residential building sectors up to 2050.
A number of scenarios have been modelled to illustrate the financial, economic, environmental,
employment and energy use impacts of different rates of uptake and depth of building renovation. In
particular, the scenarios assess the following outcomes, both annually and in total:
• Energy saved – the total energy savings over the lifetime of the measures installed
• CO2 saved – the total CO2 savings over the lifetime of the measures installed. The CO2 savings in a given
year are calculated by multiplying the energy saved by the weighted average CO2 emission factor for
that year
• Total investment required - the total cost of the installed renovation measures, including materials,
labour and professional costs
• Energy cost savings – the cumulative value of the lifetime energy saving. Savings in a given year are
calculated by multiplying that year’s energy saving by the weighted average energy price
• Employment impact – the number of full time equivalent jobs created over the 40-year period (20112050), based on employment factor (no. of jobs per €1 million investment) times the average annual
investment
• Cost-effectiveness indicators:
> The internal rate of return (IRR) - based on the net saving each year (i.e. cost saving less investment
required in a given year)
> Net saving to consumers - the difference between the lifetime energy cost savings and the lifetime
investment. Both figures are discounted by the weighted average consumer discount rate.
A negative figure indicates a net COST to consumers
> Net saving to society, including the value of externalities - the sum of the lifetime energy cost
savings and value of externalities, less the lifetime investment. Both figures are discounted by the
societal discount rate.
A negative figure indicates a net COST to society
> Carbon abatement cost – net lifetime societal savings divided by the lifetime carbon savings.
A negative figure indicates a net benefit per tonne of CO2 saved
The development of the model is therefore split into two parts:
(I) Assessing the practical limit (of floor area to be renovated and the energy use associated with this
building floor area); and
(II) Examining scenarios.
106 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Determining the practical limit for the renovation of the EU building stock
The first step in the modelling process was to assess the practical limit of buildings that can undergo low
energy renovation in the residential and non-residential building sectors in the 2011 to 2050 timeframe.
The practical limit to renovation up to 2050 will be affected by a number of considerations:
• Demolitions: Some buildings will be demolished and therefore leave the stock. These buildings are
likely to suffer from structural problems or be in areas where supply exceeds demand, and therefore are
unlikely candidates for renovation to improve their energy performance.
• Heritage Buildings: Many buildings have historical, aesthetic and/or cultural value. As a consequence,
planning authorities and other bodies may restrict the extent and type of renovation that can be
undertaken. In practice, these buildings are not excluded because there will always be some energy
efficiency measures that can be applied, even if it is not a total renovation. Minor and moderate measures
may often be feasible in the case of heritage buildings.
• Recent Renovations: Some buildings may have undergone renovation in the recent past and this
may make future renovation economically less attractive. It is contended that the number of buildings
renovated to a level that would prevent the application of further energy savings measures is very
small, of the order of 1% of the existing stock.
• New Buildings: New buildings constructed between 2011 and 2020 will probably be subject to
renovation in the period up to 2050, even if only to replace HVAC equipment. Also, as energy standards
for renovation are tightened and new technologies become more widely available and affordable,
these will increasingly be deployed on buildings constructed this decade. This will add to the volume
of the building stock that comprises the practical limit.
Beyond 2020 it is assumed that nZEB requirements under the recast of the EPBD will result in buildings
achieving a level of energy performance that will not require further renovation (other than equipment
replacement) to 2050.
The building stock floor area has therefore been adjusted to arrive at the 2050 practical limit by applying
the percentage reductions and increases shown in Table 3B1 to the current floor area for residential and
non-residential buildings in the EU27, Norway and Switzerland.
Table 3B1 – Adjustments to current building stock to determine the 2050 practical limit
Source: BPIE model
Adjustment
Calculation
Percentage increase or
reduction
Demolitions from 2011
to 2050
40 years at 0.2% of the building
stock each year
-8%
Heritage buildings
Assumed not to prevent
renovation at some level
0%
Recent Renovations
Assumed to be very few that
would prevent the addition
of further energy efficiency
measures
-1%
New Buildings from
2011-2020
10 years at 0.5% of the building
stock each year
+5%
Total Adjustment
(note simple rather than
compound addition)
-4%
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 107
Input data
For modelling purposes, the following information derived from section 1 of this report has been used,
together with a number of assumptions:
• The main target building stock for renovation is the practical limit, based on the existing stock of
buildings, less an allowance for demolitions and buildings already renovated. From 2040 onwards,
there will also be a small contribution from renovation of buildings constructed in the current decade
(2011-2020)
• Current rates of activity will be taken as a baseline figure for the year 2010:
> Prevailing renovation rates are 1% as the EU average; and
> Prevailing renovation depths are predominantly minor.
• Energy prices are taken from Eurostat and include all taxes, as these form part of the savings consumers
make when reducing their energy imports.
• Energy price forecasts are derived from EU Energy Trends to 203053.
• When valuing societal benefits, externalities associated with energy use are included54.
• Two rates of decarbonisation of energy supplies are modelled. The slow rate of decarbonisation is
based on that witnessed since 1990 – approx. 0.5% p.a. and reflects a continuation of current activity,
i.e. no change to the recent underlying level of decarbonisation.
• The fast one takes the decarbonisation rate needed to achieve the levels of carbon reduction assumed
in the EU 2050 Roadmap, i.e. approx. 5% p.a. for electricity and 2% for other fuels, where the latter
reflects fuel switching from higher to lower carbon sources (including renewables).
• The following discount rates have been be applied:
>
>
>
>
Households Business Public Sector Societal 10%
10%
5%
3%
• Cost reduction factors are applied, reflecting the impact of increasing renovation activity over
the period to 2050. Higher factors are applied to the deeper renovation profiles, given that there
is a steeper learning curve as the volume of activity increases, and the cost of buildings-integrated
renewable technologies in particular come down with increasing market maturity. The impact is
illustrated in Figure 3B1, with cost reductions ranging from 1% p.a. for minor renovations to 4% p.a. for
nZEB renovations.
European Commission (2010). EU energy trends to 2030 — Update 2009. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Externalities, or external costs, reflect the environmental and human health damages arising from energy use. These negative impacts include
climate change damage costs associated with emissions of CO2 and other GHGs, as well as impacts on health, agriculture etc. caused by other
air pollutants such as NOx, SO2, and particulates associated with energy production and consumption. The damage caused, by and large, is not
included in the price we pay for energy and so represents an external cost. For this study, an external cost of €0.04/kWh of electricity production has
been used – this is the average of the high and low figures used by the European Environment Agency.
53
54
108 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Figure 3B1 – Cost reductions for different levels of renovation over time
Source: BPIE model
600
Renovation costs €/m2
500
400
300
200
100
0
2010
2015
nZEB
2020
deep
2025
2030
2035
moderate
2040
2045
2050
minor
Renovation variables
The three main variables that influence the pathways for building renovation are:
• the rate of renovation, expressed as a % of the building stock in a given year;
• the depth of renovation, according to the four previously described levels: minor, moderate, deep and
nZEB; and
• the cost of renovation, which itself varies with depth.
The costs of each renovation depth assumed in our modelling are the ones from Table 3A1.
The assumptions for the evolution of the renovation rates as well as for the depth of renovation are
presented in the following paragraphs.
Rate of renovation
Our ambition is to see all EU buildings renovated between now and 2050. It can be seen that, in order to
achieve 100% renovation within 40 years, an average renovation rate of 2.5% p.a. needs to be attained.
However, with current rates as low as 1%, levels of activity need to more than double to achieve the
required annual rate.
The main variables concerning renovation rates and considered by this model are the speed at which
renovation activity ramps up, and the potential peak renovation rate (or saturation value).
Taking into account the above-mentioned assumptions and considering at the same time the practical
limits of the renovation rate, this model proposes three main growth patterns: SLOW, MEDIUM and FAST.
These three growth patterns are benchmarked against a BASELINE which assumes that the current
renovation rate remains unchanged over time.
The impact on the rate of growth of renovation activity is illustrated in Figure 3B2. It can be seen that an
aggressive pathway (labelled “FAST” in the graph) would require a rapid increase in the rate of renovations
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 109
over the next 5 years, to 2016, followed by a constant renovation rate of just under 2.6% for the remainder
of the period to 2050, a total of 34 years35. Conversely, under the slowest rate of growth (labelled “SLOW”),
renovation activity grows slowly but steadily year on year from 2011, achieving just under 4% p.a. in the
year 2050.
Also illustrated is the MEDIUM pathway in between these two levels. This pathway grows steadily over the
next decade to reach a constant rate of around 2.7% p.a. by 2022. This renovation rate is then maintained
for 28 years, until 2050.
Each of the illustrated pathways, other than the baseline, results in the same overall outcome in 2050
in terms of floor area of buildings renovated – the only variable is the timing. In any case, each pathway
will put significant requirements on the actors in the building renovation value chain (i.e. not only the
construction industry, but also planners, architects, financial service industry etc.) to service the growing
renovation demand. To sustain these renovation rates also requires respective regulatory and incentive
schemes.
Figure 3B2 – Profiles of renovation rates considered herein
Source: BPIE model
4.00%
Slow
Medium
Fast
Baseline
3.50%
3.00%
2.50%
2.00%
1.50%
1.00%
0.50%
0.00%
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2035
2040
2045
205
Depth of renovation
The other key variable in terms of activity is the renovation depth, by which we mean the proportion of
energy savings56 achieved in a renovation.
Whilst it is not possible to say with certainty what the current depth of renovation is being undertaken
within Europe, the available evidence points to a picture where the overwhelming majority of activity is
in the minor category. Deep renovations, where they do occur, are frequently pilots or demonstration
In reality, it is to be expected that renovation activity, under all scenarios, would tail off in the last few years as the market becomes saturated with
fully renovated buildings. However, this is a minor effect that has not been modelled as it does not have a significant bearing on the full period
between now and 2050, which is the main focus of this report
56
based on regulated energy use:- heating, hot water, cooling and lighting
55
110 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
projects to assess the viability of achieving energy savings of 60% or more and to provide a learning
opportunity.
In the absence of accurate figures for depths of renovations currently being undertaken, we have assumed
the following split as being the starting point of the scenarios:
•
•
•
•
Minor 85% of total renovations
Moderate 10% of total renovations
Deep 5% of total renovations
nZEB negligible
Shallow renovation path
In this option, the minor renovations continue to represent most activity over the next two decades, and
still account for 25% of activity by the middle of the century. Moderate renovations grow steadily over the
period, reaching 50% of total activity in 2050 respectively, while deep renovations grow more modestly,
achieving only 25% of total activity in 2050. nZEB activity continues to be negligible.
Figure 3B3 – Shallow renovation path
% renovations by depth
Source: BPIE model
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
2010
deep
2015
moderate
2020
2025
2030
2035
2040
2045
2050
minor
Intermediate renovation path
In the intermediate path, minor renovations continue to be most common for the next decade, but
fall away such that, by 2030, they reach just 5% of the total, continuing at that level thereafter57. Deep
renovations grow to 65% of activity by 2050, while nZEB renovations are introduced, reaching 5% of
renovations by 2050. The balance is made up of moderate renovations.
Figure 3B4 – Intermediate renovation path
% renovations by depth
Source: BPIE model
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
2010
nZEB
deep
2015
2020
moderate
2025
2030
2035
2040
2045
2050
minor
In all scenarios, 5% is the minimum level for minor renovations, to reflect situations where the only improvement in energy performance is due
to replacement of equipment at the end of its life e.g. HVAC equipment, or for some building types (e.g. heritage buildings) where the options to
renovate are limited
57
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 111
Deep renovation path
By the end of this decade, deep renovations become the dominant activity and remain so until 2050.
nZEB renovations accelerate from 2020 onwards, such that they account for 30% of the total by 2050, by
which time both minor and moderate each account for just 5% of the total.
Figure 3B5 – Deep renovation path
% renovations by depth
Source: BPIE model
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
2010
nZEB
2015
deep
2020
2025
moderate
2030
2035
2040
2045
2050
minor
Two-stage renovation path
A fourth renovation path depicts the case in which some properties are renovated twice, though with
different measures. Properties that undergo minor or moderate renovation between 2011 and 2030, with
e.g. new windows and heating systems, are then upgraded 20 years later, to deep and nZEB standards
respectively. These second round of renovations occur in addition to first time renovations, which follow
the Medium scenario – therefore, the two-stage and Medium scenarios are identical to 2030.
Figure 3B6 – Two-stage renovation path
% renovations by depth
Source: BPIE model
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
2010
moderate to nZEB
2015
2020
2025
minor to deep
112 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
2030
nZEB
2035
deep
2040
minor
2045
2050
moderate
C. Setting the scene
This section explores six scenarios under which the renovation of the European building stock might
evolve over the next 40 years. These scenarios are derived from combinations of the renovation rate and
renovation depth pathways as well as the two decarbonisation rates described earlier.
One difference between the baseline and the other five scenarios is the age profile of the residential
stock being renovated. Except for the baseline scenario, the profile of homes renovated is weighted
more heavily towards the older stock in the period 2011-2030, giving a higher energy saving per €
of investment during this period. The reason for applying this weighting is on the basis that policies
to increase renovation rates would favour older properties where greater energy (and hence carbon)
savings can be achieved.
Scenario 0 – Baseline (Business As Usual)
For the baseline scenario, it is assumed that the prevailing renovation rates (which are predominantly
minor) continue until 2050. Unlike the other scenarios, this does not result in a full renovation of the
building stock. In fact, at the prevailing renovation rate of just 1% p.a., only 40% of the stock is renovated
by 2050.
In terms of costs and savings58, the baseline scenario requires a total investment of €164 billion to 2050,
generating lifetime energy savings to consumers worth €187 billion – i.e. a net saving of €23 billion.
Overall benefits to society, including the value of externalities, amount to €1 226 billion.
Compared to today’s regulated energy use (heating, ventilation, hot water, cooling and lighting), energy
savings of 2% are achieved by 2020, rising to just over 9% by 2050. The corresponding CO2 savings in
2050 are 18% to 72% (the lower figure is calculated at the low decarbonisation rate; the higher at the
fast decarbonisation rate). It can be seen that the baseline scenario falls far short of the level of ambition
required to deliver the carbon savings envisaged in the EU 2050 Roadmap.
The results in saved energy are minor compared to today, which means that the high CO2 reductions by
2050 (72%) occur mainly due to a decarbonisation of the energy supply when a 5% annual decarbonisation
rate is applied.
The table below summarises the key results for 2020 and 2050.
Table 3C1 – Key results of scenario 0
Source: BPIE model
Scenario
Results in
year...
% energy
saved
% CO2
saved59
Investment
(€ billion)
Energy
Net
Net
cost
saving to saving to
saving
consumers society
(€ billion) (€ billion) (€ billion)
0 - Baseline
2020
2%
5-28%
107
94
-13
277
0 - Baseline
2050
9%
18-72%
164
187
23
1 226
All costs and savings are at present value. Consumer savings (i.e. those arising to end-users – households, businesses and public sector bodies) are
discounted by the weighted average consumer discount rate, but do not include externalities. Societal savings are discounted at 3% and include
externalities.
59
For the percentage of CO2 saved, the lower figure reflects the slow decarbonisation rate, while the higher figure reflects the higher decarbonisation
rate.
58
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 113
Scenarios 1a (Slow & shallow) and 1b (Fast & shallow)
These two scenarios both take the shallow renovation path. They compare the impact of a rapid
acceleration in the rate of renovation (“Fast & shallow”) with a slow but steady ramping up (“Slow &
shallow”). These scenarios are shown in order to illustrate the consequences of focusing mainly on
shallow renovation measures which may be perceived as the “cheaper and more pragmatic solution”.
As might be expected, the energy savings to 2020 are greater under the fast scenario (7%) where the
renovation rate rapidly rises to 2.6% of the building stock p.a. The slow scenario achieves a renovation
rate of just 1.4% by 2020, delivering 4% energy savings. However, this position is reversed by 2050 as
more buildings are renovated to a greater depth under the slow scenario. The corresponding figures for
2050 are:
Table 3C2 – Key results of scenarios 1a and 1b
Source: BPIE model
Scenario
Results % energy
in year...
saved
% CO2
saved
Investment
(€ billion)
Energy
Net
cost
saving to
saving
consumers
(€ billion) (€ billion)
Net saving
to society
(€ billion)
1a - Slow
& shallow
2020
4%
7-29%
161
163
2
532
1a - Slow
& shallow
2050
34%
40-79%
343
530
187
4 884
1b - Fast
& shallow
2020
7%
9-31%
255
260
5
853
1b - Fast
& shallow
2050
32%
38-79%
451
611
160
4 461
The fast scenario has a higher level of energy cost savings, due to savings arising earlier, but suffers
the penalty of a too rapid ramping up of activity before the impact of cost reductions through greater
experience (the “learning curve”) helps to bring the price of the moderate and deep renovations down.
The investment required for scenario 1b to 2050 is therefore greater and the net savings to consumers,
and to society, lower as a result.
Both scenarios suffer from the fact that the depth of renovation does not increase sufficiently to achieve
the 90% CO2 saving aimed for in the EU roadmap 2050. Most of the CO2 savings witnessed are due to
the decarbonising of energy supply. With the assumption of a more conservative decarbonisation rate
of 0.5% per year, CO2 reduction per year is only 7% and 9% respectively by 2020, and 40% and 38%
respectively in 2050. This means that both scenarios miss the EU’s CO2 reduction targets by a clear margin.
Higher CO2 reductions are achieved with a high decarbonisation factor. These reductions, however, are
not achieved in the building sector but mainly in the power supply sector.
Employment generation can be observed in both scenarios, mainly due to the increase in renovation
rates, but not necessarily due to the increase in the renovation depths. A slow but constant increase in
the renovation rates would generate on average 400 000 jobs annually by 2020, a fast ramping up would
lead to an average 600 000 jobs each year.
114 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
An initially slow growth in the annual renovation rate, as modelled in scenario 1a has a significant
impact on the required renovation rate in the years from 2035 onwards. As can be seen in Figure 3B2, the
renovation rate will have to grow continuously during the decades and reach a level of over 3% annually
beyond 2035, climbing to almost 4% by 2050. This requires a continuous growth of investment by the
building sector.
Further, a fast ramping up of the renovation activities as modelled in scenario 1b may also overburden
the supply side, both in terms of materials and services provided. The actors in the building renovation
value chain would have to make significant and fast investments to satisfy the growing market demand.
There are, however, recent examples of other sectors delivering significant growth rates, such as the
European renewable energy industry where turnover grew by a factor of 7 between 2005 and 201060. The
EU policy framework to support renewable energy systems played a crucial role in achieving this growth.
Scenario 2 - Medium
The Medium scenario combines the intermediate renovation path with the medium rate of growth.
Despite having a lower rate of growth than scenario 1b (fast & shallow), the energy savings in 2020 for
scenario 1b and 2 are comparable due to the higher proportion of moderate and deep renovations under
the medium scenario. By 2050, the impact of the deeper renovation profile can be seen, with energy
savings of nearly 50%, comfortably exceeding the 32-34% achieved in scenarios 1a and 1b.
CO2 reduction results for 2020 do not show a significant difference to scenarios 1a and 1b, whether under
a high or a low decarbonisation rate of the energy supply. Clear differences are only visible over the
longer term until 2050, due to the fact that the share of minor renovations decreases significantly over
the decades compared to scenarios 1a and 1b.
Results for 2050 show a clearer distinction regarding CO2 reduction. With a fast energy supply
decarbonisation, CO2 emissions will be reduced by 84%, however, with a slow energy supply
decarbonisation the reduction will only be 53%, compared to 2010.
Looking at the economic effects of this scenario, it becomes clear that the net savings for consumers are
the highest (together with scenario 4) of all scenarios for the years to 2020, with a level of €13 billion.
Societal savings including externalities amount to €902 billion the second highest saving of all scenarios
by 2020. The internal rate of return is equally high delivering a 10% return by 2020.
By 2050, the internal rate of return increases to 12.5%. At this point in time net savings for consumers will
accumulate to €300 billion, and the internal rate of return will be at 12%. Furthermore, 700 000 jobs per
year on average will have been created for the period to 2050.
Table 3C3 – Key results of scenario 2
Source: BPIE model
Scenario
Results % energy
in year...
saved
% CO2
saved
Investment
(€ billion)
Energy
Net
cost
saving to
saving
consumers
(€ billion) (€ billion)
Net saving
to society
(€ billion)
2 - Medium
2020
7%
10-31%
252
265
13
902
2 - Medium
2050
48%
53-84%
551
851
300
7 015
Source: European Renewable Energy Council. Retrieved September, 2011 from www.erec.org/statistics/turnover.html
60
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 115
Scenario 3 - Deep
The Deep scenario combines the deep renovation path with the medium rate of renovation growth.
By virtue of the rapid shift towards deep renovations, and the growing share of nearly Zero Energy
Buildings towards the middle of the century, this scenario achieves energy savings as high as 68%, with
corresponding CO2 emissions reductions of 90% (under the fast decarbonisation option) - the target for
buildings set out in the EU 2050 Roadmap.
While the investment required for the deep scenario is considerably greater than for the earlier scenarios,
so are the savings, as demonstrated in the table below.
By 2020, societal savings will amount to €1 656 billion including externalities. This figure represents
almost a doubling compared to scenario 2. On the other hand, investment costs until 2020 are also
highest of all scenarios, amounting to €477 billion which is due to the fact that deep renovation measures
are introduced quickly and on a large scale, leading to large energy savings but also requiring larger
investments. Compared to all other scenarios, this is equivalent to an almost doubling of the investment
costs in the period to 2020, or nearly a five-fold increase compared to the baseline. As a result, the internal
rate of return of 9% is slightly lower than in the previous scenario. However, the savings at present value
are still higher than the investment costs, delivering a net saving for consumers of €10 billion.
Looking ahead to 2050, the internal rate of return increases to 11.8%, however, it is only the fourth highest
of all scenarios. This can be explained by the fact that the total amount of initial costs for deep renovation
measures are relatively higher due to their fast introduction in the first half of the scenario period. This
prevents the learning effects to have a full impact on cost reduction of deep measures.
As in the case to 2020, the investment costs of this scenario are the highest also in the years to 2050,
amounting to €937 billion. However, savings are also the highest at €1 318 billion, resulting in a net
saving for consumers of €381 billion.
The impact on employment creation is the highest of all scenarios. Triggered by the relatively fast increase
in the renovation rate and by applying deep renovation measures, this scenario leads to the creation of
1.1 million direct jobs per year on average for 40 years. This is more or less equivalent to employing 1.1
million people for their full working life time.
Table 3C4 – Key results of scenario 3
Source: BPIE model
Scenario
Results % energy
in year...
saved
% CO2
saved
Investment
(€ billion)
Energy
Net
cost
saving to
saving
consumers
(€ billion) (€ billion)
Net saving
to society
(€ billion)
3 – Deep
2020
13%
16-35%
477
487
10
1 656
3 - Deep
2050
68%
71-90%
937
1 318
381
9 767
To summarize, this scenario delivers high energy and CO2 savings, while also delivering the highest
employment effects. However, it also requires a steep increase in investments in this decade which would
represent a step change compared to the current reality of renovation practices in Europe.
116 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Scenario 4 – Two-stage renovation
The fourth scenario deviates from the assumption in the previous scenarios that buildings will be
renovated once between 2010 and 2050. In this scenario, from 2031 onwards the “second stage”
renovations commence, occurring in addition to the first time renovations.
As a result of the learning curve cost reductions, particularly for the deeper renovations, the cost of
achieving a deep or nZEB renovation is now substantially less than if it had been undertaken 20 years
earlier. The overall investment is therefore considerably lower than for the Deep scenario. In present
value terms, a cost reduction of nearly 40% is achieved, despite achieving slightly higher levels of energy
and CO2 savings in 2050. Correspondingly, the net savings, both to consumers and to society at large, are
significantly greater than for the Deep scenario.
The achieved energy saving is the highest of all scenarios, leading to a 71% saving in 2050. CO2 emissions
decrease by 73% to 91%, depending on the decarbonisation rate as described earlier.
The renovation rate of this scenario follows the same path as the medium scenario until 2030, requiring
an intermediate growth rate during the first two decades. However, renovation activities will have to
significantly increase after 2030 to deliver on the second stage of renovation which comes on top of
the now continuous renovation rate of scenario 2 (c.f. Table 3C5). This requires strategic planning ahead
by the supply chain, which in turn needs to be enabled and supported by a reliable and clear policy
framework.
Table 3C5 – Key results of scenario 4
Source: BPIE model
Scenario
Results % energy
in year...
saved
% CO2
saved
Investment
(€ billion)
Energy
Net
cost
saving to
saving
consumers
(€ billion) (€ billion)
Net saving
to society
(€ billion)
4 - 2 stage
2020
7%
10-31%
252
265
13
902
4 - 2 stage
2050
71%
73-91%
584
1 058
474
10 680
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 117
The scenarios in direct comparison
Tables 3C6 and 3C7 present the full set of results of the five scenarios, to 2020 and 2050 respectively.
This overview provides an opportunity to compare the relevant indicators which should inform decision
making.
Table 3C6 – Overall results to 2020
Source: BPIE model
Scenario
0
1A
1B
2
3
4
Baseline
Slow &
Shallow
Fast &
Shallow
Medium
Deep
Two- stage
TWh/a
94
169
271
283
527
283
2020 saving as %
of today
%
2%
4%
7%
7%
13%
7%
Investment costs
(present value)
(€ billion)
107
161
255
252
477
252
Savings
(present value)
(€ billion)
94
163
260
265
487
265
Net saving (cost)
to consumers
(€ billion)
-13
2
5
13
10
13
Net saving (cost)
to society - without
externality
(€ billion)
238
462
742
787
1 441
787
Net saving (cost)
to society - including
externality
(€ billion)
277
532
853
902
1 656
902
IRR
8%
9%
9%
10%
9%
10%
MtCO2/a
286
300
319
321
367
321
%
28%
29%
31%
31%
35%
31%
€/t CO2
-4
-9
-14
-14
-26
-14
MtCO2/a
54
73
98
101
161
101
%
5%
7%
9%
10%
16%
10%
CO2 abatement cost
€/tCO2
-26
-46
-66
-70
-105
-70
Average annual net
jobs generated
Million
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.6
1.2
0.6
Description
Annual energy saving
in 2020
Internal Rate of
Return
Fast decarbonisation
Annual CO2 saving in
2020
2020 CO2 saved
(% of 2010)
CO2 abatement cost
Slow decarbonisation
Annual CO2 saving in
2020
2020 CO2 saved
(% of 2010)
118 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Table 3C7 – Overall results to 2050
Source: BPIE model
Scenario
0
1A
1B
2
3
4
Baseline
Slow &
Shallow
Fast &
Shallow
Medium
Deep
Two- stage
TWh/a
365
1 373
1 286
1 975
2 795
2 896
2050 saving as %
of today
%
9%
34%
32%
48%
68%
71%
Investment costs
(present value)
(€ billion)
164
343
451
551
937
584
Savings (present
value)
(€ billion)
187
530
611
851
1 318
1 058
Net saving (cost)
to consumers
(€ billion)
23
187
160
300
381
474
Net saving (cost)
to society - without
externality
(€ billion)
1 116
4 512
4 081
6 451
8 939
9 908
Net saving (cost)
to society - including
externality
(€ billion)
1 226
4 884
4 461
7 015
9 767
10 680
IRR
10.1%
12.4%
11.5%
12.5%
11.8%
13.4%
MtCO2/a
742
821
814
868
932
939
%
71.7%
79.3%
78.6%
83.8%
89.9%
90.7%
€/tCO2
-20
-74
-68
-103
-136
-151
MtCO2/a
182
410
391
547
732
755
%
18%
40%
38%
53%
71%
73%
CO2 abatement cost
€/tCO2
-89
-196
-185
-221
-238
-255
Average annual net
jobs generated
Million
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.7
1.1
0.8
Description
Annual energy saving
in 2050
Internal Rate of
Return
Fast decarbonisation
Annual CO2 saving in
2050
2050 CO2 saved
(% of 2010)
CO2 abatement cost
Slow decarbonisation
Annual CO2 saving in
2050
2050 CO2 saved
(% of 2010)
It is clear that only two of the scenarios achieve the ambitious European CO2 reduction targets as
described by the European Commission in its Roadmap 2050 paper. Scenarios 3 and 4, the deep and
the two-stage scenario, achieve a CO2 reduction of around 90%, but only under the assumption that
the power supply sector undergoes a fast decarbonisation as well. Nevertheless, in both scenarios the
majority of CO2 savings are achieved through energy savings measures on the demand side.
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 119
In terms of cost-effectiveness to consumers, scenarios 1-3 are broadly similar in terms of the Internal Rate
of Return when considered over the period to 2050, all falling into the range 11.5-12.5%. This is slightly
better than the baseline scenario of 10%, though not as good as scenario 4, which achieves 13.4%
The following set of graphs present and compare the overall results of the scenarios to 2050.
Figures 3C1 and 3C2 below compare the net savings to consumers and to society from the six scenario
options. It can be seen that the more ambitious the scenario, the higher the net savings are.
Figure 3C1 – Lifetime net savings to consumers (present value)
Source: BPIE model
500
450
400
€ billion
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Baseline Slow & shallow Fast & shallow
Central
Deep
Two-stage
Deep
Two-stage
Figure 3C2 – Lifetime net savings to society (present value)
Source: BPIE model
€ billion
12 000
10 000
8 000
6 000
4 000
2 000
0
Baseline Slow & shallow Fast & shallow
120 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Central
Figure 3C3 below compares the present value investment and energy savings – the difference providing
the net savings to consumers. While both the deep and the two-stage scenario achieve broadly the same
level of CO2 reduction, the deep scenario requires a significantly higher absolute investment level. In
return, it also generates higher energy cost savings; however, the net savings are smaller than in the
two-stage scenario. The high investment needs of the deep scenario are caused by a fast increase in deep
renovation measures in the first decade.
The two-stage scenario requires a lower investment due to a slower increase in the number of deep
renovations while benefiting from a longer learning period which leads to cost reductions.
Figure 3C3 – Lifetime financial impact for consumers (present value)
Source: BPIE model
€ billion (present value)
1 400
1 200
1 000
800
600
400
200
0
Baseline Slow & shallow Fast & shallow
Investment
Energy cost savings
Central
Deep
Two-stage
Net saving
Figure 3C4 shows the employment impact resulting from the investment in improving the energy
performance of Europe’s building stock, as an average over the period. It can be seen that, while
continuing with business-as-usual would employ under 200 000 people over the next 40 years, the
accelerated renovation scenarios would generate between 500 000 and over 1 million jobs.
Average personal jobs (million)
Figure 3C4 – Average employment generated in 2011-2050
Source: BPIE model
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
Baseline Slow & shallow Fast & shallow
Central
Deep
Two-stage
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 121
In all the scenarios, the estimated CO2 emission reduction by 2050 is determined by the energy savings
but also by the decarbonisation of the energy supply sector. It is interesting to note that in the deep
and two-stage scenarios there is a 71-73% CO2 emission reduction even under the slow decarbonisation
assumption, a figure which is close to the CO2 emission reduction for the slow and shallow scenario
under the fast decarbonisation assumption. This highlights the role of renovation measures in the
decarbonisation strategy. The decarbonisation of the energy supply sector is significantly eased by
decreasing the energy demand of buildings and is importantly more sustainable. Moreover, the costs for
decarbonising the energy generation system will be significantly less if the consumption patterns of the
building sector will dramatically reduce.
Each of the scenarios 1-4 represent a significant ramping up in renovation activity compared to the
current situation (i.e. the baseline scenario 0). When looked at purely in terms of the investment required,
these range from around double the baseline level for scenario 1a, through to over five times the baseline
level for the deep scenario 3. These are significant increases, but certainly achievable if governments
across the EU were to agree and implement respective policies and market stimulation mechanisms.
The current practice, as shown in Part 2 of this report, is clearly not sufficient to trigger a renovation
wave across Europe which would deliver the societal, economic and environmental benefits possible. At
a time of rising unemployment and increased energy dependency, the employment and energy-saving
benefits to consumers from an accelerated renovation programme would provide a welcome boost to
many countries continuing to suffer economic difficulties following the credit crunch.
Taking into consideration the three most relevant factors, i.e. achievement of CO2 reduction targets,
investment considerations and positive employment effects, it seems that the results of the two- stage
scenario provide the best balance of these factors, comparing all scenarios. The two-stage scenario
therefore illustrates a pathway which should influence policy choices to stimulate the renovation of the
European building stock.
122 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
Final remarks and
policy recommendations
Improving energy efficiency of buildings has important macro-economic benefits and can substantially
contribute to all three priorities of the Europe 2020 Strategy61, as well as to the EU 2050 roadmap targets.
Society as a whole will be better off as a result of investments in energy savings measures for buildings,
even before the climate benefits are taken into account. Energy saving renovation programmes developed
in countries such as Germany, the UK and Austria have already proved the positive impact in terms of
employment and private capital triggered. There are varied estimations about the positive employment
effects of energy saving renovation measures, stimulating direct employment in the construction and
related industries from the materials supply chain. Energy saving activities in buildings have a great
potential for catalysing the creation of indirect and induced jobs in education, research & innovation,
energy services companies, waste management etc.
The political decision is the key factor in creating a favourable framework for private investors. Strong
commitments with clear targets and offering long term predictability are necessary to trigger a step
change in renovation practices. EU Member States show significant differences in terms of commitments,
financial potential and market conditions.
Furthermore, there are significant market frictions at Member State level: the landlord-tenant dilemma,
multiple stakeholders and decision makers, conditionality in renovation of certain buildings (i.e. historical
buildings etc.), difficulties to access financing or unattractive interest rates, harmful subsidies for energy
production and heating energy prices in some countries are just some of the barriers.
Energy savings and efficiency in buildings represents an evolving market and despite the cost-effectiveness
of most measures, the transaction costs can be high and pay-back periods are not always attractive for
the private residential sector. This may also raise issues of equity, as certain measures will arguably not
be affordable by poorer households. Immediate measures are necessary to eliminate these barriers both
at the EU level, by creating an appropriate framework, and Member States level, by implementing best
practice policies that can overcome the barriers on all relevant fronts.
The substantial renovation of the EU27 building stock is insufficiently covered by the existing legislation
and hence the sectorial potential for creating cost-effective energy savings, jobs, welfare and economic
growth is not properly exploited. To attract more private capital it is necessary to develop long-term
renovation programmes with clear targets and monitoring, providing appropriate financial instruments
and public financial leverage. This is critical for the establishment of a long term market. Therefore, to have
long term programmes and associated financing is a must for transforming deep renovation strategies
into common practice.
It is necessary to create a stable, clear and simple legal framework in order to ease the administrative
burdens for both private investors and house owners.
Despite the fact that significant developments have happened in recent years, current EU legislation only
partially covers the field of buildings renovation. More targeted measures are required for fostering the
European Commission (2010). Europe 2020 - A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, COM(2010) 2020.
61
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 123
deep renovation of the existing building stock. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive stipulates
the implementation of energy saving measures only in case of deep renovation of the building and
without asking for a certain depth of renovation measures. Establishing cost-optimal levels for buildings
renovation should represent an important step forward in establishing minimum requirements for the
renovation depths. The EPBD recast also asked EU Member States to draw up by the end of June 2011
(and to update it every three years) a list of existing and proposed measures and instruments, including
financial ones, which promote the EPBD’s objectives. However this requirement refers to the objectives of
the EPBD recast which are not clearly specifying the need for a certain renovation speed or depth of the
existing building stock. It is therefore a strategic prerequisite that EU Member States implement the EPBD
recast in a way that stimulates deep renovation of the existing building stock.
As discussed in a previous chapter, at Member States level there are several ongoing programmes that
directly address the energy saving renovation of the building stock with more or less ambitious aims,
comprising a large range of financial instruments. None of them are demanding enough for delivering
the cost-optimal potential and a lot of additional efforts are required.
Consequently, in order to address the challenge of renovating the existing building stock and to keep pace
with the ambitious aims of the European Union for reducing and decarbonising the energy consumption
and production, further improvements of the EU and national frameworks are needed. Some suggestions
are presented on the next page.
Key recommendations at EU level
Policy measures:
• At EU level, it is necessary to strengthen the existing legislation with binding measures and to establish
a roadmap for the renovation of the EU27 building stock. The renovation roadmap has to be built on a
long term basis with binding targets for energy efficient retrofit of the EU27 building stock by 2050. A
renovation roadmap must have a clear monitoring and reporting plan with interim targets indicating
the renovation rates and the renovation depths to be reached gradually by 2020 and by 2030. The
renovation targets may be integrated in the National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAPs) under the
End-use Energy Efficiency and Energy Services Directive (ESD, Directive (2006/32/EC), currently under
recast into an Energy Efficiency Directive (EED)62.
• The EU legislation should call upon Member States to prepare detailed deep renovation plans
comprising regulatory, financial, informational and training measures. Having a predictable long-term
deep renovation roadmap will provide confidence to the business sector and will avoid the risk of
falling short after 2020 and creating unwanted economic problems (such as employment distortions,
additional costs etc.). To increase the cost-effectiveness of the renovation roadmap, renovation targets
can be built according to the financial and technical national potential and support potential cooperation
mechanisms between Member States. The holistic renovation approach must be encouraged in order
to increase the cost-effectiveness of the measures and to be in line with the provision of the Energy
Performance of Buildings Directive. Tailor-made roadmaps can define different phases which move
from voluntary to binding measures. The measures should be continuously evaluated and improved
whereby the renovation requirements should be eventually tightened to meet nZEB standards.
• The process of adopting minimum energy saving regulations and energy labelling for heating and
cooling equipment and construction materials under the Energy Labelling and Eco-design of the
energy related products Framework Directives has to be strengthened and supported.
European Commission (2011). Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy efficiency and repealing Directives
2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC, COM(2011) 370 final.
62
124 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
• Finally, the EU should support the harmonisation of national data collection systems concerning the
energy performance of buildings, ensuring sufficient high quality data availability and closing the gap
in existing systems which were shown through this study (c.f. Part 1). These data are needed to design
and implement properly working policies and incentive schemes that drive the necessary change in
the building sector.
Financing:
• Ambitious renovation strategies are cost-effective when considering the full life cycle but they also
require significant up front investments. For boosting the deep renovation of the EU building stock
the establishment of specific financing instruments, i.e. an EU Deep Renovation Fund (possibly via
the European Investment Bank and designed for different building types) could be considered which
complements the national financing schemes and shares the risks. The financing should be given only
for deep level renovations leading to very low energy standards. Such a fund will offer more financial
flexibility and additional confidence to private investors.
• EU expenditure for the renovation of the building stock (i.e. by Structural and Regional Development
Funds) should introduce the minimum requirement for implementing measures at cost-optimal levels
(as will be defined under the EPBD recast). This would be in line with the requirement to “climate-proof
the future EU multi-annual financial framework 2014-2020” (a budget for Europe 2020) and to deliver
on the principle that “through its operational programmes throughout the EU, cohesion policy has a
crucial role to play in stepping up efforts to reach the 20% energy efficiency target63”.
• In addition, the European Commission could facilitate the development of innovative financial
instruments at Member State level by elaborating guidelines for financing, by promoting best
practice and by stimulating the cooperation between Member States for sharing experience and
for implementing common measures and harmonised regulatory measures for deep renovation.
Innovative financing schemes should be designed to trigger increased private investment.
Training and education:
There is a strong need to increase the skills in the construction industry in Europe to ensure appropriate
framework conditions for the Internal Market of construction products and services, improve resource
efficiency and environmental performances of construction enterprises, and promote skills, innovation
and technological development to meet new societal needs and to mitigate climate risks. Hence the
upcoming strategy for the sustainable competitiveness of the construction sector, which was planned to
be realised this year by the European Commission64, may provide a strong foundation for improving the
knowledge level and the practice in renovation activities.
Key recommendations at the National level
Policy measures:
• National Governments should eliminate market barriers and administrative bottlenecks for the
renovation of the housing stock. Improving the energy efficiency of buildings will generate significant
economic benefits for society, including an important impact in terms of employment in the construction
industry, the sector most affected by the economic downturn. Improving the energy performance of
buildings should be seen as a positive force for economic recovery.
• In order to foster the deep renovation of the building stock, Member States should develop long-term
comprehensive regulatory, financial, educational and promotional packages addressing all the macro-
European Commission (2011). A Budget for Europe 2020 - Part II: Policy fiches, COM(2011) 500 final PART II.
European Commission (2010). An Integrated Industrial Policy for the Globalisation Era Putting Competitiveness and Sustainability at Centre Stage,
COM(2010) 614 final.
63
64
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 125
economic benefits. Important components of these programmes should be the faster identification and
adoption of ambitious and yet cost-effective renovation levels, the gradual strengthening/introduction
of related building code requirements and effective quality control and verification systems.
• Enforcing compliance with building codes and standards will be key to countering the perception that
energy saving renovation measures come with a price premium. Proper monitoring of compliance,
enforcement and quality control the process through a qualified workforce should be part of any policy
package to foster deep renovation. The relatively low compliance level in almost all the EU Member
States is a significant barrier in reaching the estimated energy savings potential.
• The confidence of consumers and investors into the quality level of renovation measures must be (re-)
established, so that the readiness to make the necessary investment increases. Guarantee systems for
the performance of efficiency measures should be developed.
• A better implementation of the buildings energy certification and audit schemes is needed as these
schemes are important information and awareness tools which can increase the value of efficient
buildings and can stimulate the real estate market towards green investments.
• The public sector has to take a leading role in the renovation revolution. Indeed, this is envisaged as
a requirement within the draft Energy Efficiency Directive, where, from 1 January 2014, public bodies
would be required to renovate at least 3% of their floor area each year to achieve at least the Member
State’s prevailing minimum energy performance requirements. Such a measure would kick start the
market for renovation and help to bring down costs for private households and businesses.
• Energy services companies (ESCOs) can play an important role in fostering deep renovation programmes
by providing the necessary technical and financial expertise and by triggering third party financing.
Hence, removing the market barriers facing ESCOs may facilitate a faster and better development of
the renovation programmes. Regulatory frameworks should encourage the set-up and development of
a well-functioning energy services market, not limited to commercial buildings.
• Energy supply (and distribution) companies in a number of European countries have specific obligations
for delivering energy savings through their customers’ efficiency, the so called Energy Savings
Obligations or White certificates. The proposed Energy Efficiency Directive (EED), if adopted, intends
to oblige all Member States to develop energy savings obligations for the energy companies. These
schemes are expected to also include building renovation measures. However, it will be necessary to
establish minimum performance requirements for the renovation measures to be implemented under
energy saving obligation schemes. Otherwise there is a risk of increasing the renovation speed but at
shallow levels mainly and to endangering the sustainability of the savings.
• National regulation should be periodically discussed and reinforced and all the main stakeholders
should be involved in this process in the framework of a national consultation platform.
• To persuade consumers to make the necessary investments – both a greater number than currently
witnessed, but also a progressively deeper level of renovation, additional measures should be
considered. Initiatives such as requiring the least efficient stock to be brought up to a higher energy
performance level before a property can be sold would certainly begin to stimulate the market, but
would need to be coupled with easy forms of financing. In the UK, the Energy Bill 2011 proposes that
from April 2018 all private rented properties must be brought up to a minimum energy efficiency rating
of ‘E’. This provision will make it unlawful to rent out a home or business premise that does not reach
this minimum standard – effectively banning the least efficient ‘F’ and ‘G’ properties65.
Source: Department of Energy and Climate Change. Retrieved September, 2011 from www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/legislation/energybill/1001energy-bill-2011-brief-private-rented-sector.pdf.
65
126 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
• A reliable and continuous data collection process of the main characteristics of the building stock
is a necessary prerequisite for reliable policy making. As this survey has shown the levels of data
availability and quality show drastic differences between the EU Member States. In order to improve
the knowledge level and to be able to take effective measures to improve the energy performance
of buildings, Member States should collaborate to implement a harmonised standard for collecting
relevant data about the European building stock.
Financing:
• The success of deep renovation programmes will depend on the creation of appropriate financing
schemes, addressing all the categories of private and commercial real estate owners as well as
introducing measures using appropriate subsidies, low-interest and longer term loan schemes and
other financial incentive schemes.
• Financing packages should propose appropriate market instruments tailored to different needs and
able to overcome the main market barriers. In addition, the renovation programmes should be based
on a preliminary macro-economic analysis in order to ensure the sustainability and durability of the
measure by integrating all the benefits, by minimizing the costs, by securing the programme budget
and by proposing the most suitable market instruments. Moreover, the incentives should be offered
only for a low-energy standard of the renovation, preferably based on ex-ante and ex-post evaluation
of the energy performance of the building.
• A proper public financing approach may leverage considerable private capital as has been proven by
several successful programmes developed in some European countries. Attracting private capital to
invest in building renovation is a key issue of any financing programme that aims to stimulate the
economy and to transform energy efficiency measures into a sustainable business activity. Governments
should draw up a balance sheet which calculates the costs of effective deep renovation incentive
schemes against the increased tax revenue from a significant growth of the construction industry
(e.g. through VAT, income tax, corporate tax, etc.).
• Relevant national stakeholder need to improve their knowledge about the use of the EU Structural
and Regional Funds and the EIB financing lines for improving the energy performance of the buildings
stock. Investing in buildings means investing in the development of society.
Training and promotional activities:
• For implementing effective and good quality deep renovation it is necessary to improve the skills of the
building professionals at the level of both basic professional education and long-life learning activities.
Therefore, training and educational activities should be developed both in the construction sector and
in the supply chain industries.
• Promotional and dissemination activities must be an important part of the deep building renovation
programmes. The German KfW experience indicates that an important success factor is the creation of
an energy efficiency brand66, well known and perceived by the market.
• Awareness raising and promotional activities should address the psychological barriers which exist
concerning deep renovation. A discussion about societal values needs to address behaviour change
to support investment decisions in favour of sustainability rather than investment decisions driven by
social status factors, or by short term return considerations. Soft measures need to support a shift in
values which can speed up progress towards a more sustainable behaviour by all actors in the buildings
value chain.
Gumb, G. (2010). Supporting the energy efficient rehabilitation of the building stock – The German experience. Presentation at the BPIE’s European
Roundtable on financing buildings retrofit, Nov. 2010.
66
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 127
Conclusions
As this report shows, the building sector can contribute significantly to mitigating climate change while
delivering many other societal benefits. Political courage and will, innovative investment tools and societal
awareness are key factors for transforming the sector. Existing EU policies have to be implemented in
a best practice manner to achieve the intended energy savings, while new instruments are needed to
stimulate a deep renovation wave across Europe and its Member States.
Good policy making requires good knowledge about the status quo of building performance. BPIE’s
survey has shown that data gaps exist which make it difficult to develop targeted programmes, to monitor
policy implementation and to evaluate progress. The EU and its Member States should make significant
efforts to close these data gaps and to harmonize monitoring, reporting and evaluation.
All actors in the European value chain of buildings should grab the renovation opportunity to innovate
products and services, to build a well-functioning energy saving renovation market, to offer attractive
solutions to private and commercial customers and to use their respective ingenuity to make highly
efficient buildings a common standard of the European building stock.
Essentially, what is needed is nothing less than a European energy saving renovation revolution.
128 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
DEFINITIONS
Air-conditioning system: a combination of all components required to provide a form of air treatment
in which temperature is controlled or can be lowered, possibly in combination with the control of
ventilation, humidity and air cleanliness [EPBD, 2002/91/EC]
Boiler: the combined boiler body and burner-unit designed to transmit to water the heat released from
combustion [EPBD, 2002/91/EC]
Building envelope: integrated elements of a building which separate its interior from the outdoor
environment [IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry - Compendium of Chemical
Terminology 2nd Edition (1997)];
Combined heat and power (CHP): the simultaneous conversion of primary fuels into mechanical or
electrical and thermal energy, meeting certain quality criteria of energy efficiency [EPBD, 2002/91/EC]
Commercial building: A commercial building is a building that is used for commercial use. Types can
include office buildings, warehouses, or retail (i.e. convenience stores, ‘big box’ stores, shopping malls, etc.)
Cost-optimal level: Cost-optimal level means the energy performance level which leads to the lowest
cost during the estimated economic lifecycle [EPBD, recast, 2010/31/EC]
Derived heat: Derived heat covers the total heat production in heating plants and in combined heat and
power plants. It includes the heat used by the auxiliaries of the installation which use hot fluid (space
heating, liquid fuel heating, etc.) and losses in the installation/network heat exchanges. For autoproducing
entities (= entities generating electricity and/or heat wholly or partially for their own use as an activity
which supports their primary activity) the heat used by the undertaking for its own processes is not
included. [Eurostat definition]
District heating/cooling: means the distribution of thermal energy in the form of steam, hot water or
chilled liquids, from a central source of production through a network to multiple buildings or sites, for
the use of space or process heating or cooling [EPBD, 2010/31/EC]
Energy audit: a systematic procedure to obtain adequate knowledge of the existing energy consumption
profile of a building or group of buildings, of an industrial operation and/or installation or of a private or
public service, identify and quantify cost-effective energy savings opportunities, and report the findings
[ESD, 2006/32/EC]
Energy consumption: The amount of energy consumed in the form in which it is acquired by the user.
The term excludes electrical generation and distribution losses.
Energy performance certificate: a certificate recognised by the Member State or a legal person
designated by it, which includes the energy performance of a building calculated according to a
methodology based on the general framework set out in the Annex of Directive 2002/91/EC [EPBD,
2002/91/EC]
Energy performance of a building: the amount of energy actually consumed or estimated to meet the
different needs associated with a standardised use of the building, which may include, inter alia, heating,
hot water heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting. This amount shall be reflected in one or more
numeric indicators which have been calculated, taking into account insulation, technical and installation
characteristics, design and positioning in relation to climatic aspects, solar exposure and influence of
neighbouring structures, own-energy generation and other factors, including indoor climate, that
influence the energy demand [EPBD, 2002/91/EC]
Europe’s buildings under the microscope | 129
Energy performance requirement: minimum level of energy performance that is to be achieved to
obtain a right or an advantage: e.g. right to build, lower interest rate, quality label [CEN standard - En
15217 “Energy performance of buildings – “methods for expressing energy performance and for the
energy certification of buildings”]
Energy service company (ESCO): a natural or legal person that delivers energy services and/or other
energy efficiency improvement measures in a user’s facility or premises, and accepts some degree of
financial risk in so doing. The payment for the services delivered is based (either wholly or in part) on the
achievement of energy efficiency improvements and on the meeting of the other agreed performance
criteria [ESD, 2006/32/EC]
Final energy: Energy supplied that is available to the consumer to be converted into useful energy (e.g.
electricity at the wall outlet). (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC)
Gross floor area: The total area of all the floors of a building, including intermediately floored tiers,
mezzanine, basements, etc., as measured from the exterior surfaces of the outside walls of the building
Heat pump: a device or installation that extracts heat at low temperature from air, water or earth and
supplies the heat to the building [EPBD, 2002/91/EC]
Internal gross area: A term used in the United Kingdom, defined in the RICS Standard, for the area of a
building measured to the internal face of perimeter walls at each floor level
Internal rate of return (IRR): A rate at which the accounting value of a security is equal to the present
value of the future cash flow. [European Central Bank]
Living floor space/area: total area of rooms falling under the concept of rooms [OECD Glossary of
statistical terms]
Nearly zero energy building: a building that has very high energy performance, as determined in
accordance with Annex I of the EPBD recast. The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required
should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from
renewable sources produced on-site or nearby [EPBD recast, 2010/31/EC]
Net floor area: A term used in the ISO standard to express the Interior Gross Area less the areas of all
interior walls
Net present value: The net present value (NPV) is a standard method for the financial assessment of
long-term projects. It measures the excess or shortfall of cash flows, calculated at their present value at
the start of the project
Payback time: the length of time required to recover the cost of an investment
Primary energy: Energy from renewable and non-renewable sources which has not undergone any
conversion or transformation process
Public building: building owned or occupied by any public body
Regulated energy: energy used in the home for heating, cooling, hot water and lighting
Residential building: A structure used primarily as a dwelling for one or more households. Residential
buildings include single-family houses (detached houses, semi-detached houses, terraced houses (or
alternatively row houses) and multi-family houses (or apartment blocks) which includes apartments/flats
Third-party financing: a contractual arrangement involving a third party — in addition to the energy
supplier and the beneficiary of the energy efficiency improvement measure — that provides the capital
for that measure and charges the beneficiary a fee equivalent to a part of the energy savings achieved
as a result of the energy efficiency improvement measure. That third party may or may not be an ESCO
[ESD, 2006/32/EC]
130 | Europe’s buildings under the microscope
U-Value: is the measure of the rate of heat loss through a material. Thus in all aspects of home design
one should strive for the lowest U-Values possible because the lower the U-value – the less heat that is
needlessly escaping. The calculation of U-values can be rather complex - it is measured as the amount of
heat lost through a one square meter of the material for every degree difference in temperature either
side of the material. It is indicated in units of Watts per meter Squared per Degree Kelvin (W/m2K) [Irish
Energy Centre - Funded by the Government under the national Development Plan with programmes
partly financed by the European Union.]
Useful floor space/area: floor space of dwellings measured inside the outer walls, excluding cellars, nonhabitable attics and, in multi-dwelling houses, common areas [OECD Glossary of statistical terms];
White certificates: certificates issued by independent certifying bodies confirming the energy savings
claims of market actors as a consequence of energy efficiency improvement measures [ESD, 2006/32/EC]
Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE)
Rue de Stassart 48 box 8
1050 Brussel
Belgium
www.bpie.eu
ISBN: 9789491143014
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