BEST PRACTICES GUIDE THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS 2007 Y

BEST PRACTICES GUIDE THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS 2007 Y
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THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS
BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
JANUARY 2007
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THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS
BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS
Douglas H. Palmer, Mayor of Trenton, NJ
President
James Brainard, Mayor of Carmel, IN
Mayors Council on Climate Protection Co-Chair
Manuel A. Diaz, Mayor of Miami, FL
Vice President
Greg Nickels, Mayor of Seattle, WA
Mayors Council on Climate Protection Co-Chair
Patrick McCrory, Mayor of Charlotte, NC
Environment Committee Chair
Donald L. Plusquellic, Mayor of Akron, OH
Energy Council Chair
Will Wynn, Mayor of Austin, TX
Energy Committee Chair
Tom Cochran
Executive Director
Rosemarie M. Ives, Mayor of Redmond, WA
Sustainable Development Task Force Chair
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The United States Conference of Mayors would like to acknowledge and thank the mayors and their staff
who provided the wealth of information for this document.
The United States Conference of Mayors is the official nonpartisan organization of cities with populations of
30,000 or more. Each city is represented by its chief elected official, the Mayor.
1620 I Street, NW
Washington, DC 20006
202.293.7330
www.usmayors.org
January 3, 2007
Dear Mayor:
The past few years have clearly illustrated America’s vulnerability to an uncertain energy future. Similarly, the
emerging threat of global climate change, due largely to widespread fossil fuel use, has made it clear that business
as usual, as far as energy use is concerned, is not sustainable.
To remain competitive as the global economy expands and puts greater strain on traditional fuel supplies, the United
States, in our view, must develop a comprehensive strategy of fuel diversity, and a combination of conservation,
alternative forms of energy and modern energy technologies. Furthermore, rising energy costs and the threat of
widespread blackouts here, and the unpredictability of energy supplies from abroad require leadership at all levels
in attaining energy independence, security, and reliability.
Fortunately, as this document, The U.S. Conference of Mayors’ Energy & Environment Best Practices, illustrates,
Mayors from across America are taking the lead. From residential energy efficiency rebates to carbon neutral
municipal “Green Buildings,” cities are at the leading edge of energy conservation, easing air pollution and reducing
climate-change inducing greenhouse gas emissions.
As most of the best practices in this report indicate, Mayors and their cities have been working on these issues well
before they hit the top of the day’s news cycle. Thank you to all the cities that contributed a best practice for this
report and to all the Mayors who continue to strive toward more sustainable communities.
Sincerely,
Tom Cochran
Executive Director
ABOUT THE ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT BEST PRACTICE REPORT
The Energy and Environment Best Practices Report initially began
as a work in progress, done in preparation for U.S. Conference of
Mayors President and Long Beach Mayor Beverly O’Neill’s Cities for
a Strong America Summit on Energy and the Environment, held in
Chicago in May of 2006. That meeting’s success led Mayor
O’Neal’s successor, Dearborn Mayor Michael Guido to call for a
second summit in the fall of 2006, with a focus on green buildings.
The U.S. Conference of Mayors prepared another edition for that
second Summit on Energy and the Environment, which took place
in Atlanta in September of 2006.
This version, prepared for The U.S. Conference of Mayors’ 75th
Winter Meeting, further illustrates what cities nationwide have
done and continue to do to address the challenges associated with
the interface of energy scarcity and environmental concerns.
The U.S. Conference of Mayors initially asked mayors and their
staff to fill out a short survey that asked for background as well
as benefits and costs of any particular energy or environmental
practice in their community, based on several categories: Municipal
Buildings, Facilities & Operations; Air Quality; Climate Change;
Energy Sources; Fuels, Vehicles & Transit; Housing; and an Other
category. Cities received encouragement to contribute as many
best practices as they would like. Dozens of cities contributed a
best practice to this series of publications; of those, many provided
a great deal of information in one or more of the categories. In
many cases, the best practices defy categorization, but the document
endeavors to give due credit to each city in a category that seems
most appropriate to its best practice contribution.
The best practices in this document represent some of the many
innovative ways Mayors and their cities approach complex energy
and environmental issues. A major theme that emerged among the
different approaches toward energy independence and conservation,
along with a common environmental ethic, is leadership by example.
Through using alternative fuels in fleet vehicles, adopting “Green
Building” policies in municipal facilities, or purchasing energy from
carbon-free sources, for example, cities are proving that they can
realize increased energy security, environmental health and
economic benefits.
Each city’s best practice represents an opportunity for Mayors of
other cities to learn, to interact with each other, and improve the
quality of life for citizens in their own cities. The U.S. Conference
of Mayors welcomes all cities to continue to submit innovative
best practices.
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
1
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS
Municipal Buildings, Facilities & Operations.................................................................................................4
Alexandria, Virginia .......................................................................................................................................4
Arlington, Texas.............................................................................................................................................6
Bedford, Texas ...............................................................................................................................................6
Boston, Massachusetts ..................................................................................................................................7
Bridgeport, Connecticut ................................................................................................................................8
Chicago, Illinois .............................................................................................................................................9
Colorado Springs, Colorado (1) ...................................................................................................................10
Colorado Springs, Colorado (2) ...................................................................................................................10
Dayton, Ohio (1)..........................................................................................................................................11
Dayton, Ohio (2)..........................................................................................................................................11
Dearborn, Michigan ....................................................................................................................................12
Denver, Colorado ........................................................................................................................................12
Dublin, California ........................................................................................................................................13
Elkhart, Indiana ...........................................................................................................................................13
Eugene, Oregon ..........................................................................................................................................14
Euless, Texas ................................................................................................................................................14
Hayward, California.....................................................................................................................................15
Irvine, California ..........................................................................................................................................15
Louisville, Kentucky .....................................................................................................................................16
Medford, Massachusetts..............................................................................................................................16
Milwaukee, Wisconsin .................................................................................................................................17
Minneapolis, Minnesota ..............................................................................................................................18
New Berlin, Wisconsin .................................................................................................................................18
New Rochelle, New York .............................................................................................................................19
Saint Paul, Minnesota ..................................................................................................................................20
Sugar Land, Texas ........................................................................................................................................21
Vancouver, Washington ...............................................................................................................................21
West Hollywood, California .........................................................................................................................22
Air Quality......................................................................................................................................................24
Albuquerque, New Mexico ..........................................................................................................................24
Charlotte, North Carolina ............................................................................................................................24
Dearborn, Michigan ....................................................................................................................................25
Dublin, California ........................................................................................................................................25
Portland, Oregon.........................................................................................................................................26
Climate Change .............................................................................................................................................28
Albuquerque, New Mexico ..........................................................................................................................28
Chapel Hill, North Carolina..........................................................................................................................28
Denver, Colorado ........................................................................................................................................29
Eugene, Oregon ..........................................................................................................................................30
Houston, Texas ............................................................................................................................................31
Medford, Massachusetts..............................................................................................................................32
Portland, Oregon.........................................................................................................................................33
Saint Paul, Minnesota ..................................................................................................................................34
Salt Lake City, Utah .....................................................................................................................................35
Seattle, Washington ....................................................................................................................................35
Energy Sources ..............................................................................................................................................38
Albuquerque, New Mexico ..........................................................................................................................38
Ann Arbor, Michigan ...................................................................................................................................39
Boston, Massachusetts ................................................................................................................................39
Chicago, Illinois ...........................................................................................................................................40
Colorado Springs, Colorado (1) ...................................................................................................................40
2 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, FACILITIES & OPERATIONS
Colorado Springs, Colorado (2) ...................................................................................................................41
Dayton, Ohio (1)..........................................................................................................................................41
Dayton, Ohio (2)..........................................................................................................................................42
Eugene, Oregon (1) .....................................................................................................................................42
Eugene, Oregon (2) .....................................................................................................................................43
Hayward, California.....................................................................................................................................43
Houston, Texas (1) .......................................................................................................................................44
Houston, Texas (2) .......................................................................................................................................44
Jamestown, New York .................................................................................................................................45
Lakeland, Florida .........................................................................................................................................45
Long Beach, California ................................................................................................................................46
Medford, Massachusetts..............................................................................................................................47
St. Paul, Minnesota .....................................................................................................................................48
San Jose, California .....................................................................................................................................49
San Marcos, Texas .......................................................................................................................................50
Santa Barbara, California.............................................................................................................................50
Santa Monica, California .............................................................................................................................51
Yuma, Arizona.............................................................................................................................................51
Fuels, Vehicles & Transit................................................................................................................................52
Albuquerque, New Mexico ..........................................................................................................................52
Asheville, North Carolina .............................................................................................................................52
Austin, Texas ...............................................................................................................................................53
Boston, Massachusetts ................................................................................................................................54
Charlotte, North Carolina ............................................................................................................................55
Denver, Colorado ........................................................................................................................................56
Elkhart, Indiana ...........................................................................................................................................56
Eugene, Oregon ..........................................................................................................................................57
Hayward, California.....................................................................................................................................57
Houston, Texas ............................................................................................................................................58
Irvine, California ..........................................................................................................................................59
Los Angeles, California ................................................................................................................................60
Milwaukee, Wisconsin .................................................................................................................................61
Minneapolis, Minnesota ..............................................................................................................................61
Village Of Palatine, Illinois............................................................................................................................62
Pekin, Illinois................................................................................................................................................63
Portland, Oregon.........................................................................................................................................63
Saint Paul, Minnesota (1).............................................................................................................................64
Saint Paul, Minnesota (2).............................................................................................................................65
Salt Lake City, Utah .....................................................................................................................................66
San Marcos, Texas .......................................................................................................................................66
Housing ..........................................................................................................................................................68
Boston, Massachusetts ................................................................................................................................68
Houston, Texas ............................................................................................................................................69
Milwaukee, Wisconsin .................................................................................................................................70
Other Categories ...........................................................................................................................................72
Albuquerque, New Mexico ..........................................................................................................................72
Asheville, North Carolina .............................................................................................................................72
Colorado Springs, Colorado (1) ...................................................................................................................73
Colorado Springs, Colorado (2) ...................................................................................................................73
Los Angeles, California ................................................................................................................................74
Minneapolis, Minnesota ..............................................................................................................................75
Vista, California ...........................................................................................................................................77
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
3
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, FACILITIES & OPERATIONS
ALEXANDRIA
VIRGINIA
William D. “Bill” Euille, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City’s Department of General Services developed a Green
Building Policy and adopted it in February 2004. This policy
establishes procedures for analyzing LEED feasibility for facilities
5,000 sq ft or greater, outlines staff resource and training
goals, and it identifies program participation opportunities,
including Energy Star, Rebuild America, and the USGBC. Since
the establishment of the Green Building Policy:
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The City implemented several projects including rain gardens
and vegetated green roofs.
The City registered three USGBC LEED projects and has two
more projects in planning phases.
Made procurement changes in its Architectural/Engineering
section including those affecting cleaning supplies and
procedures, painting and flooring.
Set up an Energy Conservation fund to assist with design
and construction efforts and to reduce energy consumption
in City facilities.
The tables provide a thumbnail sketch of energy conservation
projects completed since fiscal year 2003. It includes yearly,
cumulative and total energy savings from fiscal year
2003–2005 and estimated savings for fiscal year 2006.
PROSPECTIVE ENERGY CONSERVATION PROJECTS
Alexandria’s Department of General Services has several capital
improvement projects in development and has identified their
potential energy conservation elements. It should be noted
that while the estimated payback total exceeds the seven-year
window, the City will have long-term benefit from these
improvements and some of them will be done as part of
planned life-cycle equipment replacement requirements.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Jeremy McPike
Title: Project Manager
Department: General Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 703.838.4770
BENEFITS AND COSTS
Alexandria’s Energy Conservation program is funded through
bond revenue and from $200,000 budgeted per year for its
activities.
Completed Projects & Projects Underway in the City of Alexandria, Virginia
Project, Scope
Cost
FY 03 Savings FY 04 Savings FY 05 Savings FY2006 Savings To-date
estimate
Savings
Fire Station 203: Retro-fit with
energy-efficient lighting fixtures
$13,500
$908
$883
$900
$900
$3,591
Fire Station 205: Retro-fit with
energy-efficient lighting fixtures
$14,600
$687
$679
$400
$400
$2,166
Beatley Library:
HVAC modifications
Community Shelter:
HVAC replacement
$3,000
$20,000
$35,000
$55,000
$5,200
$3,000
$3,000
Torpedo Factory:
HVAC replacement
$9,000
$5,000
$5,000
Yearly Sub-total Savings
$45,300
$1,595
GRAND TOTAL
4 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
$1,562
$21,300
$44,300
$68,757
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, FACILITIES & OPERATIONS
Project, Scope
Cost
Energy Savings/yr
Payback
Notes
Beatley Library:
Piping Modification
$35,000
$20,000
2 years
This re-work will allow
more downtime for the
system.
City Hall: Heating Plant $40,000
replacement
$4,000
10 years
This system is at the end
of its useful life (25yrs)
Courthouse: Cooling
tower replacement
$100,000
$35,000
Life Cycle replacement
Three part project: Lifecycle replacement total
costs are approximately
$550k with an estimated
annual savings rate of
$66k
Courthouse: VAV Box
replacement
$250,000
$6,000
Life Cycle replacement
Courthouse: Energy
Management System
replacement
$200,000
$25,000
8 years
Gadsby’s Tavern: Air
Handler Replacement
$50,000
$1,000
Life Cycle replacement
Gadsby’s Tavern:
Heating Plant
replacement
$50,000
$4,000
12 years
Gadsby’s Tavern:
Cooling Plant replacement
$70,000
$3,000
3years
Health Department:
Variable Air Volume
(VAV) Box replacement
$130,000
$7,000
20 years Life Cycle
replacement
Life cycle payback
Public Safety Center:
Cooling Tower
replacement
$120,000
$4,000
Life Cycle replacement
Life-cycle (30 yr) payback
Various Facilities: IP
Thermostat installation
$500–$3000 per
building
$30,000
(varies)
IP based for small to
medium buildings
Sub-Total
$1,045,500
GRAND TOTAL
ANNUAL SAVINGS
(estimated)
Another multi part lifecycle project estimated
at $170K saving of
approx. $8K per yr.
$139,000
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
5
ARLINGTON
TEXAS
BEDFORD
TEXAS
Robert N. Cluck, MD, Mayor
Jim Story, Mayor
AUTOMATIC LIGHT SENSORS
The City has installed over 170 occupancy sensors on light
switches throughout City buildings. These sensors automatically
turn off ceiling lights in offices where no motion is detected for
10 minutes.
BACKGROUND
Bedford’s comprehensive program involves lighting retrofits,
traffic lighting upgrades, water conservation, HVAC upgrades,
and upgrading roofs on various buildings.
To date, this program has saved the City nearly 13,000 kilowatt
hours of electricity. Each unit costs $50 and the total cost thus
far has been approximately $8,500. Given the current cost
for building electric service is 11.86 cents per kWh, the City
anticipates a return on its up-front costs within five years
when it is estimated the sensors will have saved 70,000 kWh
of electricity.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The program has enabled Bedford to exceed the state-wide
kWh usage reduction goals. The new HVAC systems are
expected to reduce emissions. Additional reductions in energy
usage are anticipated as the planned projects are implemented.
While some cost savings will vary with the cost of electricity, it
is anticipated savings will increase as energy usage declines.
The cost of the program is $1.2 million.
LED TRAFFIC SIGNALS
The City installed light-emitting diode (LED) lights as traffic
signal replacements at the 263 intersections with signals it
owns and at 39 of the 46 intersections it maintains through
inter-local agreements with other governmental entities.
While the total cost of this program is projected to be $1.1
million, the savings on electricity costs, are expected to be
substantial. Considering the current cost for signal electricity is
13.86 cents per kWh, the project is anticipated to return its
initial expense costs in less than three years. The LED signals
use 82% less electricity than the old incandescent technology
and this will result in an annual savings of over 2.8 million kWh
of electricity.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Steve Harper
Title: Acting Director, Environmental Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 871.459.5451
6 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Michael Griffith
Title: Facility Maintenance Manager
Department: Facilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 817.952.2149
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, FACILITIES & OPERATIONS
BOSTON
MASSACHUSETTS
Thomas M. Menino, Mayor
GREEN BUILDING TASK FORCE
After the City of Boston built its first green building, the
George Robert White Environmental Conservation Center,
Mayor Menino used the lessons learned from the process to
create his Green Building Task Force. He charged the experts—
developers, financers, contractors, designers, unions, and
academics—to take a year-long, comprehensive look at the
barriers to green building and to make recommendations
based on their findings. In November 2004, Mayor Menino,
based on the Task Force’s recommendations, announced that
the City would amend its zoning code to require LEED
certifiable as the design and construction standard for all
projects undergoing project review and would aim for LEED
Silver in the new construction of its facilities. The Public
Facilities Department has begun the design and construction
of a new police station and is just beginning the design of
a new library.
Some of the benefits of the City adopting the LEED standard
will be energy cost savings and the public health impacts of
emissions reductions, as well as indoor air quality improvements for the occupants and visitors of these buildings.
As LEED standards in City construction is a new policy, City
staff needed training and assistance to understand LEED and
how the standards interact with the state’s complex public procurement and public construction laws. The City received grant
funding support from the Massachusetts Technology
Collaborative for the Task Force and for LEED training for 60
City staff members from nine departments. The City also
received foundation support for the Green Roundtable (the
local US Green Building Council affiliate) to work with the
Public Facilities staff to green the RFP and design documents
and select a team that could meet the LEED standard.
INTEGRATED ENERGY MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS
In 2003, Mayor Menino appointed an Energy Management
Board, Chaired by the Chief of Environmental and Energy
Services. In 2005, the Board completed an Integrated Energy
Management Plan (IEMP), which studied energy use in 362
municipal buildings and identified potential savings, particularly
in the “Top Ten.” The plan’s implementation steps, over which
the Board exercises continuing authority, include:
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Establish comprehensive energy efficiency retrofit program
for city facilities, beginning with the implementation of
energy efficiency recommendations for the top two energy
users, City Hall and Boston Public Library.
Use energy efficiency standards and building commissioning
template developed for the IEMP.
Investigate distributed generation including co-generation
and renewable energy in City facilities, building on the
Boston Public Schools’ successful installation of 6MW
co-generation (one half of its load) and solar voltaic panels
on three schools.
Update and streamline the administration of energy purchasing, and create a central database of financial, property,
and utility information in order to analyze energy use.
Participate in the ISO-NE Demand Response Program.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Bradford Swing
Title: Director of Energy Policy
Department: Office of the Mayor, Environment & Energy Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 617.635.2886
GREEN ROOF PROGRAM
In 2005, Boston installed a demonstration green roof on the
8th and 9th floor balconies of City Hall. A green roof is a comprehensive system of waterproofing, growing medium, and
plants that replaces conventional roofs.
Green roofs reduce energy consumption for heating and cooling,
reduce the urban heat island effect, and reduce storm water
run-off. There are already at least 10 green roofs in Boston,
and several more are planned, including the private conversion
of the former South End Police Station and the renovation of
the McCormack Federal Building. In May 2006, the City will
host the 4th Annual International Greening Rooftops for
Sustainable Communities Conference Awards and Trade Show,
a three day conference exploring policies for supporting green
roofs, design and implementation issues, and research
concerning green roof performance.
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
7
BRIDGEPORT
CONNECTICUT
John Fabrizi, Mayor
Bridgeport has implemented several program and practices to
increase energy efficiency and reduce overall energy use in City
facilities and operations:
1
Utility bill usage analysis and comparison to identify
abnormalities among similar buildings or negative trends
for specific buildings. Performed with in-house personnel.
2
Operational time changes with installed energy
management systems.
3
Employee awareness to change habits regarding turning off
lighting and computers not in use.
4
Installation of lighting controls switches and occupancy
sensors.
5
Lighting fixture retrofit upgrades.
6
Replacement of antiquated major HVAC components.
7
Change over to LED traffic lights.
8
Replacement of vehicles with alternate fuel vehicles—
natural gas and hybrids.
BENEFITS
Utility costs are reduced due to usage curtailment and
efficiencies. Added benefits include emission reductions.
FUNDING
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Items 1, 2 and 3: Required no additional funding.
Item 4: Cost was minimal, with controls and sensors
purchased from operational accounts and installed by
in-house staff.
Item 5: Will be 50% funded by Energy Conservation
Grants. Remaining 50% will be either funded by indirect
three year financing from savings or direct capital outlays.
Item 6: A five-year performance contract.
Item 7: 80% Federal Grant with 20% State Grants for
major projects. Operational funds for change-over occurring
during bulb burn outs with 50% rebate from energy
conservation fund.
Item 8: Base cost of vehicle from capital replacement
account. Differential upgrade is 100% State Grant.
In addition, Bridgeport hosted a Lighting Fair with TechniArt on
October 19th, 2006. This fair sold compact fluorescent lights as
well as fixtures to employees and the general public. The items,
sold at a reduced price, were subsidized by the state’s energy
conservation fund that is managed by the two electrical utility
companies in the state (United Illuminating and Connecticut
Light and Power). Due to the success of the Fair and requests
for another one, the City hosted a second Lighting Fair on
December 1st at City Hall.
8 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
The City also just had its ribbon cutting of a natural compressed
gas fueling station that is open for public use. This is the only
station available to the public between New York City and
Hartford. It is located just off the exit of I-95 at the Santa Fuel
fueling station. This was a combined effort between the City
of Bridgeport, Iroquois Gas Transmission System, Santa Energy
Corporation, the State of Connecticut, Southern Connecticut
Gas Company and the Clean Cities Coalition of Southwest
Connecticut. The cost of this station is $264,750 and was
acquired using federal and private funding.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: John F. Cottell Jr.
Title: Utilities Manager
Department: Public Facilities Department, City Hall Annex
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 203.576.7851
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, FACILITIES & OPERATIONS
CHICAGO
ILLINOIS
Richard Daley, Mayor
Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley recently announced the City’s
2006 Environmental Agenda, which reflects the work of more
than 40 City departments and sister agencies and contains
nearly 200 environmental accomplishments, as well as an ambitious set of initiatives and goals for 2006. The accomplishments
and initiatives show that environmentally smart policies have
begun to take root in every aspect of the City’s operations and
in the way it partners with Chicago citizens and businesses.
The new agenda sets a course for continued innovation in the
coming year and reaffirms Mayor Daley’s belief that a healthy
environment is essential to a strong economy and improved
quality of life for Chicagoans.
The Action Agenda commits the City to reducing its use of
natural resources, improving the quality of life in the City as
a whole, and saving taxpayer dollars through wise energy and
resource conserving actions.
Highlights of the 2006 Agenda include:
Green Building In 2005, 22 new City buildings, including fire
stations, schools and libraries, registered for LEED certification,
the national standard for energy efficient, cost-effective and
healthy building. For 2006, Chicago has committed to building
all of its new buildings at a minimum LEED Silver level with a
target of Gold. Almost no other city in the country has
established such ambitious environmental building standards.
Energy Efficiency In 2005, Chicago completed energy
efficiency retrofits at all City libraries, adding to the over 15
million square feet of citywide energy efficiency retrofits Mayor
Daley has instituted. In 2006, the City will complete lighting
retrofits at all 105 of its fire stations saving $250,000 in annual
electricity costs, and reducing emissions of carbon dioxide
by 3,515 tons.
Alternative Fuels The number of hybrid vehicles in the City’s
fleet grew from 30 to over 100, with the addition of 13 new
hybrid sedans and 57 new hybrid SUVs in 2005. These vehicles
will use an estimated 10,000 gallons less than traditional
vehicles over the course of 2006, saving the City tens of
thousands of dollars. In addition, the City will retrofit 600
school buses with oxidation catalysts reducing an estimated
57 tons of carbon monoxide, 27 tons of volatile organic
compounds, and 3 tons of the particulate matter often linked
to asthma over the life span of the retrofitted buses.
Green Roofs More than 60 green roofs were installed or
planned in 2005 through City initiatives, bringing the total of
green roofs in the City to over 200 and creating over 3 million
square feet of roofs that keep the city cool and reduce the
amount of storm water directed to the City’s sewer system.
Environmentally Friendly Streets In 2006, the City will use
100% recycled aggregate in residential street construction
throughout the city and up to 50% recycled aggregate in
concrete mix for sidewalks. The City will continue to replace
stop lights with high efficiency, low cost LED lights, use recycled
rubber in its alley speed bumps, and plant medians and street
trees throughout the City that clean the air, mitigate summer
heat, and improve the overall quality of life in the City’s
neighborhoods.
The 2006 Environmental Action Agenda can be accessed at
the City of Chicago’s website at
www.cityofchicago.org/Environment.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Sadhu Johnston
Title: Commissioner
Department: Environment
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 312.744.7609
Renewable Energy In 2005, Chicago purchased solar panels
for hot-water heating capable of generating a total of 1.27
megawatts, the equivalent of heating 17 Olympic-sized
swimming pools. In 2006, the City will provide grants for the
installation of these solar panels at qualified affordable housing
developments, social service organizations, coin laundries and
health clubs. This will nearly double Chicago’s installed solar
power capacity.
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
9
COLORADO SPRINGS
COLORADO (1)
COLORADO SPRINGS
COLORADO (2)
Lionel Rivera, Mayor
Lionel Rivera, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The new 48,000 square-foot Colorado Springs Utilities
Laboratory was the first building in Colorado Springs to achieve
LEED Silver level certification and the second in the City to be
LEED certified. Energy and water conservation is evidence
throughout the facility with the use of environmentally friendly
materials, high-efficiency lighting, energy efficient windows,
efficient boiler systems and natural lighting.
BACKGROUND
Colorado Springs Utilities wrote and adopted guidelines for
Architects and Engineers who design new buildings for
Colorado Springs Utilities. The guidelines in Strategic Facilities
Guidelines for Improved Energy Efficiency in New Utility and
City Buildings set the bar to exceed energy code requirements
by no less than 30% and give guidance on how to achieve and
exceed energy requirements.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
Energy and water conservation measures at the new laboratory
will save Colorado Springs Utilities and its customers $50,000
annually in utility costs.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The City realizes approximately 40% in savings in electric and
gas consumption compared to energy code minimum
requirements.
The cost for design and construction of the LEED building was
approximately 4% of the construction cost. As a municipal
entity, all of the programs highlighted are funded through
avoided or deferred operational costs or rates. Wind power is
the only exception and is funded by program participants.
The cost to prepare the guidance document was $10,000. As
a municipal entity, all of the programs highlighted are funded
through avoided or deferred operational costs or rates. Wind
power is the only exception and is funded by program
participants.
CONTACT INFORMATION
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Bryan Aumiller
Title: Project Architect
Department: Facilities Dept., Colorado Springs Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 719.668.8317
Name: Alan Goins
Title: Facilities Manager
Department: Facilities Dept., Colorado Springs Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 719.668.8024
10 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, FACILITIES & OPERATIONS
DAYTON
OHIO (1)
DAYTON
OHIO (2)
Rhine McLin, Mayor
Rhine McLin, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City is changing its 330 signalized intersection signals for
vehicle and pedestrian fixtures from incandescent lights to light
emitting diodes (LED).
BACKGROUND
The City’s Fleet Management Division has replaced approximately
210 light fixtures with 107 new lights. The new lights require
one-half of the power previously used and produce more light
than the old lighting system. In addition, the Division installed
a waste oil boiler to supplement its current heating system. The
Division also tracks and monitors motor fuel consumption to
make users more aware of their consumption rates.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
LEDs use approximately 88% less electricity. They also reduce
pollution from electricity production. The life of a LED is fivetimes longer than an incandescent bulb. Using LEDs enhance
safety by reducing exposure of maintenance personnel to high
traffic intersections. Maintenance costs also declined due to
less repair and replacement visits to intersections. The estimated
cost savings per intersection over a seven-year useful life when
using the LED fixtures is $4,753.
The cost of a LED fixture is $260 per unit and incandescent
fixture costs $140 per unit. The ongoing replacement program
is being paid through the General Fund. For new and rebuilt
locations, the program is being paid with federal CMAQ funds.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
These programs increased energy savings or are projected of
reduce energy costs. The new lighting program cut lighting
costs in half. The newly installed boiler is projected to consume
nearly 12,000 gallons of waste oil that is produced annually
through equipment maintenance. The boiler’s consumption
of this oil eliminates the generation of a hazardous waste
product. Using the waste oil boiler also saved almost $22,000
in natural gas costs. Fuel tracking and monitoring led to better
planning, reduced engine idling and resulted in a nearly 10%
reduction in consumption.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Diane Shannon
Title: Economist
Department: Management & Budget
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 937.333.3762
The programs described were conducted using current
budgetary levels.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Diane Shannon
Title: Economist
Department: Management & Budget
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 937.333.3762
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
11
DEARBORN
MICHIGAN
DENVER
COLORADO
Michael A. Guido, Mayor
John W. Hickenlooper, Mayor
ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING
The City of Dearborn has replaced nearly all the incandescent
and older fluorescent lighting in its buildings with energy
efficient fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps. This
includes buildings such as City Hall that are over 70 years old.
While there is no way to separate the electrical lighting costs
from total electrical costs, the energy efficient lighting
replacements are believed to have reduced lighting costs by
at least 20%. Support for this program is from the city’s
General Fund.
Denver continues to build on a strong foundation of excellence
in energy conservation policies and practices in municipal buildings and facilities. Innovations and accomplishments include:
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GREEN ROOF
Since 1979, the City of Dearborn has maintained a turf based
“green roof” over the Concourse area of its City Hall. This
innovative landscape and energy efficient feature covers
approximately 5,000 square feet of roof area and is planted
in easy to maintain turf grass. Benefits of the green roof
include a reduction in surface water run-off during rain events,
as well as lower heating and cooling costs. The Concourse roof
is maintained by the city’s Parks Division, which is a general
fund operation.
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CONTACT INFORMATION
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Name: Kurt A. Giberson
Title: Director of Public Works
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 313.943.2496
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Denver’s pioneering Light Emitting Diode (LED) traffic signal
retrofit program realized over $817,114 in annual energy,
labor and materials savings for the 2004–2005 time period.
Denver formally committed to build and certify its new
$380 million Justice Center complex by the U.S. Green
Building Council’s LEED standard.
The City’s Sustainable Development Initiative worked with
Colorado State University’s Institute for the Built
Environment to produce a Green Building Policy White
Paper, Developing a High Performance Building Policy for
the City and County of Denver, written in 2005 for
consideration and adoption in 2006.
The Mayor’s office co-hosted the Denver World Oil Summit in
November 2005, and worked with graduate students at the
University of Colorado at Denver to complete a study of the
vulnerability of the city budget related to oil price increases.
Denver city government will reduce its consumption of
electricity and natural gas 1% per year through 2011.
Denver International Airport uses a state-of-the-art
Environmental Management System and has helped lead
progress in climate protection within the City and County
of Denver.
Additional accomplishments include the renewal of the
Environmental Protection Agency’s Energy Star Label award
to the Webb Municipal Office Building; the installation of
a solar wall at the Athmar Recreation Center; several fire
station window retrofits that resulted in 10 times greater
efficiency; and a contract in progress to install air destratifier
units to increase building efficiency in the Webb Municipal
Building.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Andrew Wallach
Title: Assistant to Mayor
Department: Mayor's Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 720.865.9033
12 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, FACILITIES & OPERATIONS
DUBLIN
CALIFORNIA
ELKHART
INDIANA
Janet Lockhart, Mayor
David L. Miller, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City of Dublin has implemented several programs to
address energy efficiency, environmental performance and
emissions reductions among the community and especially
throughout City facilities and operations.
BACKGROUND
Over the last ten years, the City of Elkhart has been implementing
initiatives to improve the environment. Under the direction of
the Department of Public Works and Utilities, the Traffic Division
decided to replace 100% of the traditional 100 to 160 watt
bulbs in the City’s traffic lights with LED bulbs. When the
initiative is completed over 1,600 LED bulbs will be installed.
Another initiative is to convert all pedestrian signals into LEDbased lighting systems.
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The City adopted the Clean Air Consortium Checklist, which
includes Spare the Air Days. (See Air Quality best practices
section). The cost of the checklist compliance, including
curtailment of certain activities during Spare the Air Days, is
nominal and is incorporated into the operating budgets for
City maintenance work.
2
The City adopted Operational Guidelines for Green Building
Practices, as required under City Ordinance 9–04. The
ordinance mandates green building practices with the
estimated cost of $3 million or greater must meet the LEED
“Silver” rating and must be registered and certified by the
US Green Building Council. Much of the costs associated
with this ordinance are borne by homebuyers or others who
purchase or lease building constructed under the guidelines.
These costs are estimated to be nominal.
3
The City executed a new franchise agreement with Amador
Valley Industries for solid waste collection in January, 2005.
This agreement includes requirements for natural gas to be
used in collection vehicles in lieu of diesel fuel and specifies
the use of recycled oil and lubricants. There is no direct cost
to the City for this agreement. The cost is borne by customers
served under the franchise agreement.
4
The City maintains a network of bicycle and pedestrian trail.
These trails provide access for commuters to the Bishop
Ranch Business Park, Hacienda Business Park and to the East
Dublin BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) station. New development projects include a requirement to provide connecting
trails when possible. The City maintains nine miles of trail at
a cost of $47,000 annually. This cost is slightly over 1% of
the City’s overall annual public works operating budget of
nearly $3 million.
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The City approved the building of high-density residential
housing developments to be built adjacent to the existing
East Dublin and proposed West Dublin BART stations. There
is no direct cost to the City for this program.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
These initiatives will conserve energy. LED traffic lights use only
a minimal portion of the electricity used by traditional bulbs.
The lifetime expectancy of LED lights also is five times greater
than that of traditional bulbs. Traffic crews will no longer need
to replace traditional bulbs every, instead they will be replacing
LED lights every five years. Not only is this practice fiscally
responsible, but it also will free traffic crews to devote their
energies to other projects in the City.
Another benefit of this program will be increased traffic safety.
Traffic signals with LED lights are easier to see in daylight and
during nighttime. It is this increased visibility of LED-based traffic
lights and signals that is expected to result in reducing accidents.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Nicolas T. Schafer
Title: Environmental Programs Supervisor
Department: Public Works and Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 574.293.2572
The City has not performed quantity analyses of the programs
described to determine whether they have had an effect on air
quality or energy use.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Melissa Morton
Title: Public Works Director
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 925.833.6636
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
13
EUGENE
OREGON
EULESS
TEXAS
Kitty Piercy, Mayor
Mary Lib Saleh, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City of Eugene has installed four solar domestic hot water
systems on city-owned facilities. Two of these are seasonal
systems to preheat water for our swimming pools. These were
installed as a part of a comprehensive efficiency retrofit. Two
other systems are year-round glazed systems for domestic hot
water at Fire Stations. The Fire Station systems were part of a
package of efficiency measures included in the initial construction
of the stations.
BACKGROUND
The City of Euless aims to keep its buildings and fleet maintained
in a “green environment.” Euless currently operates 37 vehicles,
including dump trucks, that use alternative fuel sources.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
Combined annual cost savings for all four systems are estimated
at $11,000 per year. This figure will tend to increase over time,
as the cost of the avoided energy use continues to increase.
Energy savings is estimated at 11,500 therms per year, or the
equivalent of approximately 143,000 lbs of CO2.
Euless adopted various forms of recycling or waste reduction
technology to lower costs in its shop operations. Among these
operations are Ethylene Glycol recycling, filtration and reuse; oil
and fuel filter recycling; and maintaining a “dry cleaned” shop
floor and workstations, thus eliminating gray water discharges
into the waste stream. The City’s use of a 100% digital work
order system also promotes a paperless environment.
First cost for these systems were not calculated separately, but
were included as a part of larger efficiency packages. This
enabled us to average the costs and savings, thus achieve the
highest efficiency possible within our overall cost-effectiveness
guidelines. The earlier pool projects benefited from an internal
loan, while the latter projects received significant state and
local incentives through direct rebates and the ability to sell tax
credits to private investors through the Oregon Business Energy
Tax Credit program.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Lynne Eichner-Kelley
Title: Sustainable Operations Analyst
Department: Central Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 541.682.5083
A new policy was issued for all vehicles purchased by the City
to be low emissions, ultra low emissions or zero emissions
vehicles. Approximately 95percent of the City’s fleet has met
this mandate.
Facility maintenance uses ozone-friendly refrigerants, HVAC
cleaners and solvents, and implemented various energy
reduction programs. City staff administered and installed these
programs without using a third party. These programs include
the conversion of city traffic signals from incandescent to LED
fixtures, relamping of city facilities to low-E type lighting that
contains no PCB materials and the installation of three-zone
programmable thermostats in all city structures. The installation
of computer-controlled HVAC systems enable chilled water
systems to go in economy mode during unoccupied times. The
installation of automatic light dimming switches in bathrooms
and closets so that they automatically turn off after a short
time period also decreases energy use.
BENEFITS & COSTS
The benefits of this program are far greater than we imagined.
All measures implemented provide cost saving benefits. The
recycling in fleet operations will lower costs and maintain the
green environment. Using liquefied petroleum gas as an
alternative fuel source is less expensive than using gasoline,
better for the environment and the difference in car handling
is negligible. Conversion of the city traffic signals will reduce
average dollar cost and energy consumption by 75%.
It is anticipated that these energy reduction measures will
continue to save money for years to come.
The energy reduction measures in this program were of
comparable cost to expenses for previous business practices
and were paid through the general fund.
CONTACT INFORMATION
14 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
Name: Betsy Boyett
Title: Communications/Marketing Manager
Department: City Manager’s Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 817.685.1821
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, FACILITIES & OPERATIONS
HAYWARD
CALIFORNIA
IRVINE
CALIFORNIA
Roberta Cooper, Mayor
Beth Krom, Mayor
GREEN BUILDING PROGRAM CERTIFICATION
The City of Hayward’s Equipment Management Division has
been certified by the Bay Area Green Business Program as
being a “Certified Green Business.” With this certification
comes the recognition that this facility has taken great steps
toward the conservation of resources, pollution prevention,
and strict environmental compliance.
Irvine is the first city in Orange County to establish a comprehensive Green Building Program. In December 2005, the City
Council approved the residential and municipal components of
the program. The Program’s residential component is known as
the Irvine Green Homes Program and its municipal component
is the LEED Certified/Silver Program. The Program’s third
component will focus on commercial green buildings and it is
scheduled to be approved this summer. This voluntary program
incorporates the use of energy and water efficient products,
reused or recycled building resources, and non-toxic materials.
As an automotive repair facility operated by the City, it is
imperative to set the example as an environmental steward
within the community. There are many Green Business
Certification benefits among the 107 environmental incentives
in the following nine categories:
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Records and Tracking
Waste Reduction and Recycling
The City also developed a Green Building Resource Guide. This
Guide will assist local residents and builders in identifying green
building systems and materials available from local suppliers. To
find out more about the program visit the City of Irvine’s website at www.citvofirvine.org in the “Announcements” section.
Energy Conservation
Water Conservation
Pollution Prevention
Good Housekeeping and Operating Practices
Use of Safer Products and Practices
The costs to implement the Municipal Green Building Program
are expected to range between 1 and 3% of the construction
costs for municipal facilities. The voluntary residential program
costs to be paid by the development community will vary
depending on the scale of development and options chosen.
Reuse or Recycle Hazardous Materials and Wastes
Pollution Prevention from Vehicle Emissions
Implementation of these measures results in a reduction in
energy costs, a safer environment and better quality of life.
HOUSING
Hayward has passed a Resolution calling for Residential Green
Building Guidelines. The City Council’s resolution calls for
building methods that promote natural resource conservation,
energy, and water efficiency, and also good indoor air quality.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Marcia Beckett
Title: Fiscal and Environmental Programs Administrator
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 949.724.6380
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Alex Ameri
Title: Deputy Director of Public Works Utilities
Department: Public Works Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 510.583.4720
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
15
LOUISVILLE
KENTUCKY
MEDFORD
MASSACHUSETTS
Jerry E. Abramson, Mayor
Michael J. McGlynn, Mayor
BACKGROUND
With local technical assistance, Louisville began a program to
conduct energy audits of governmental facilities. These audits
were to identify opportunities to increase efficiency, conserve
energy while reducing costs and to decrease air pollution.
BACKGROUND
To increase energy efficiency the City of Medford, Mayor
Michael J. McGlynn and the Medford Energy Task Force
converted all traffic lights in Medford to highly efficient light
emitting diodes (LEDs). The technology reduces energy use by
about 90% and lowers maintenance due to an increased life
of a minimum of seven years. It also incorporates innovations
such as battery backup using photovoltaics.
The City also is converting traffic signals from incandescent
bulbs to energy efficient, low maintenance LED’s. This upgrade
is to reduce energy used by traffic signals and to improve
public safety.
BENEFITS & COSTS
The implementation of these programs will result in increased
energy efficiency, cost savings, reduced labor costs and
reductions in air emissions. LED traffic light displays reduced
energy consumption by about 80%, increased savings and
reduced air emissions including carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides
and sulfur dioxide. The longer life of LED’s reduces the cost of
preventive maintenance, emergency re-lamping labor and bulb
disposal. Louisville will save $250,000 and 7.5 million KWH
per year.
LED traffic light displays reduced energy consumption
by about 80%, increased savings and reduced air
emissions including carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides
and sulfur dioxide.
Implementation costs range from zero for behavioral modification
to about $240,000 for window retro-fitting in one building.
Funding options ranged from using budgeted general funds for
capital improvements to securing energy savings performance
contracts. Louisville is retrofitting almost 300 signals at a cost
of $620,000 from capital funds, a bond issue and federal
CMAQ funds.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Rudolph Davidson
Title: Cabinet Secretary
Department: Public Works and Services Cabinet
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 502.574.6260
16 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
The effort to convert traffic lights to LEDs is just one of the
actions proposed by the Energy Task Force in Medford’s
approved Climate Action Plan. This Climate Action Plan is a
product of the City’s participation in the Cities for Climate
Protection Campaign sponsored by the International Council
for Local Environmental Initiatives. Through the Mayor’s
ingenuity and the City Council’s approval, Medford joined
the CCP Campaign in 1999 to further environmental
awareness and initiatives within the community.
BENEFITS & COSTS
In addition to the environmental benefits there are economic
incentives for the City proceed in implementing its Climate
Action Plan. Over 45% ($40,000) of the capital costs of the
conversion was returned to the City in the form of a rebate
from Massachusetts Electric. Since the conversion to using the
more efficient LEDs in traffic lights, the average annual energy
savings has been $15,000.
To maintain the newly established higher efficiency standards in
the City and per the Climate Action Plan, any new traffic lights
added to the Medford system also will be LEDs.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Patricia L. Barry
Title: Environmental Agent
Department: Energy & Environment Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 781.393.2137
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, FACILITIES & OPERATIONS
MILWAUKEE
WISCONSIN
Tom Barrett, Mayor
1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM:
As a result of an October 2005 energy walk-thru that
assessed energy use and identified energy saving options,
Mayor Barrett directed a 10% reduction in energy
consumption for the City Hall complex including City Hall
and the Municipal and 809 buildings. To meet this directive,
several energy efficient measures were implemented:
2. RENEWABLE ENERGY PROGRAM:
Mayor Barrett directed the purchase of renewable energy. In
2006, 10% of City Hall’s electricity is provided by renewable
wind energy. Through this commitment, the City is designated
by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a Green
Power Partner.
Installation of vending machine misers that reduce electric
use during non-peak hours of operation.
Benefits
The use of renewable energy reduces both carbon dioxide and
particulate matter emissions as compared to the burning of
fossil fuels. The City’s purchase of renewable wind energy helps
to stimulate regional demand for clean, green power. In the
long term, use of renewables will improve regional air quality
and reduce the economic exposure to rising energy prices. In
addition, the use of renewable energy enhances Milwaukee’s
Green image.
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Employees were asked to remove portable electric space
heaters from their work spaces to reduce electricity
demand.
Installation of daylight optimization controls with trackers
and sensors that determine lighting based on available
daylight and occupancy of work areas.
Installation of variable frequency drive on HVAC distribution
pump that use only the amount of energy needed to deliver
heated or cooled air into a space.
Installation of economizer controls that make use of
outdoor air supply when a building requires cooling and the
outdoor air is cooler than indoor air.
Installation of carbon dioxide sensors that turn on air
delivery systems when space conditions reach design limit.
Exhaust fans and other HVAC equipment turn on or
increase the volume of air movement when somebody
is in a workspace.
Benefits
Implementation of the energy efficiency measures not only
saves on energy use, it also saves money. It is estimated that
the energy efficiency measures will reduce energy consumption
by 10% in 2006 and save $55,000.
Cost
According to the energy walk-thru, implementation of the
energy efficiency measures cost approximately $21,000 and
is funded through the city’s operating budget.
Cost
The renewable energy purchase costs less than $10,000 and is
funded through the city’s operating budget.
3. LED TRAFFIC LIGHT REPLACEMENT PROGRAM:
The City is replacing existing incandescent traffic and
pedestrian lights with energy efficient LED lighting at 712
signalized intersections. A total of 184 conversions have
been completed. This is a multi-year initiative. LED signals
use less energy and have a longer useful life, reducing
energy costs by 80%–90%.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Rhonda Kelsey
Title: Policy Manager
Department: Mayor’s Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 414.286.8595
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
17
MINNEAPOLIS
MINNESOTA
NEW BERLIN
WISCONSIN
R.T. Rybak, Mayor
Jack F. Chiovatero, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City recently installed two new solar arrays at its facilities
to lower energy costs, make the buildings more environmentally
friendly and to gain valuable experience in working with solar
array systems.
The City of Berlin is working with utility companies to secure
the best-rate for energy consumption. One initiative of the
City is find ways to cut in fuel usage by 10%. All City employees
were requested to car pool. Police are sharing patrol cars when
possible.
The Royalston Maintenance Facility array, completed in January
2006, automatically tracks the sun’s path throughout the day. It
is designed to generate nearly 2.6 kilowatts of electrical power.
Another array, mounted on top of Fire Station No. 6, is adjusted
seasonally and can generate about 5 kilowatts of electricity.
There are plans to install a third solar array at the Currie
Maintenance Facility in the near future.
Methods to conserve energy in the operations of facilities also
are being considered. Some considerations include using oil
burners in shop garages and opening windows on the upper
floors of City Hall for ventilation to reduce their AC usage.
The City also recently installed green roofs on two City owned
buildings and expects to install an additional green roof on City
Hall in the near future.
BENEFITS & COSTS
These solar arrays are connected in the power systems in the
buildings and they do not require batteries. The panels will
generate varying levels of power throughout the year depending
on the duration and intensity of sunlight during the day.
Funding for the three projects is approximately $125,000, not
including staff costs, and was partially provided through an EPA
grant ($100,000), state tax rebates (about $20,000) and inkind costs.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Gayle Prest
Title: Environmental Manager
Department: Minneapolis Environmental Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 612.673.2931
18 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Karen Nork
Title: Executive Assistant
Department: Mayor’s Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 262.797.2441
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, FACILITIES & OPERATIONS
NEW ROCHELLE
NEW YORK
Noam Branson, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City of New Rochelle began a program to install over
2,700 energy-efficient traffic signals with assistance from the
New York Power Authority (NYPA). These installations are
among the first in Westchester County.
Using existing signal light housings, the new lighting technology
has green, red, yellow and white precision-lensed light emitting
diode (LED) modules. These will replace the current incandescent
bulbs that use colored filters or lens. The LED signals have a
longer operating life and lower maintenance cost, consume
about 90% less energy and use no filters or lens.
In addition to electrical and financial savings, the project will
improve safety at 170 signal intersections due to the increased
visibility LED lights and by decreasing traffic signal failures.
The total cost of the project was nearly $340,600. The monthly
surcharge on the City electrical bill will be about $5,854 for 60
months at a 1.22% interest rate for a total payment of nearly
$351,248. This cost will be offset by a monthly savings on the
City electrical bill of nearly $6,747. As a result, the annual net
savings for the first five years will be about $10,713 per year.
After five years, the annual savings of $80,963 will only be
reduced by the increased cost of material. Material costs
currently are estimated to be $20,000 per year.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Omar T. Small
Title: Asst. to the City Manager
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 914.654.2140
Project management was conducted by NYPA staff, while the
material and labor contracts were awarded by NYPA through
competitive bid for timely and cost-effective installation. NYPA
provides full turn-key services and finances the total cost of
these LED traffic signal projects at very low interest rates. Verde
Electric Corporation of Mount Vernon will perform installation
and labor for the projects in New Rochelle. Municipalities have
a payback period of usually less than five years depending on
the quantity and signal types to be installed.
NYPA has been involved in a wide variety of LED signal projects
including work with the Metropolitan Transit Authority, the
New York City Rail Transit and also is installing energy efficient
traffic signals in various parts of New York City. NYPA is the
nation’s largest state-owned electric utility. The Power Authority
owns and operates 17 generating facilities across New York.
NYPA also owns and operates over 1,400 circuit miles of
transmission lines in various parts of the state. NYPA is a
national leader in advancing energy efficiency, clean energy
technologies and electric vehicles.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The City of New Rochelle and its School District are government
customers of the Power Authority and receive some of the
lowest cost electricity in the state for operations. Since the
early 1990s, NYPA has invested almost $2 million in energy
efficiency improvements at 9 New Rochelle facilities including
several municipal facilities and schools. These initiatives have
annually saved taxpayers over $1.5 million in municipal electric
cost and, reduced energy use by almost 800 kilowatts per year.
They also eliminated over 1,500 tons of greenhouse gases each
year, thus contributing to cleaner air.
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
19
SAINT PAUL
MINNESOTA
Chris Coleman, Mayor
The Saint Paul Sustainable Decisions Guide, when adopted in
1997, directs City departments to use environmental guidelines
in the design, construction and management of City facilities.
The Minnesota Sustainable Design Guide has been adopted by
Saint Paul for managing City-owned facilities. This guide takes
the place of the Sustainable Decision Guide.
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Conservation Improvement Programs (CIP)—The City has
been working with Xcel Energy for 15 years to expand the
CIP to city, school district, county, state government, and
private sector buildings in Saint Paul and Minneapolis,
Ramsey and Hennepin Counties. Saint Paul CIPs include
facilities energy conservation and retrofits (over 100 city
buildings since 1990), ENERGY STAR purchasing, street
lighting and signal lamp conversion, pumping peak demand
pricing, lime sludge dewatering, treatment chemical
reduction, and private sector natural gas and electricity
usage reductions.
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Estimated Annual Savings: 81,497 tons CO2 and
$7,934,000 annually.
City Wide-Energy Audit of Government Buildings
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The Weidt Group has been contracted by the State of
Minnesota Departments of Administration and Commerce
to conduct an examination of the energy use of 6,000
government buildings throughout the state.
The first phase of the project is to collect basic building
information about public buildings larger than 5,000
square feet. This information will include building name,
size, basic use, and energy use—electric, gas, steam,
chilled water, etc.
Weidt is currently matching Saint Paul facilities with their
respective district energy, electric and gas accounts
(approximately 120 facilities).
Public Works is working with Xcel Energy on a new
project called Envinta, to establish a continuous energy
management process involving conservation programs in
city buildings and training for city employees. In 2005,
Public Works, Xcel and District Energy submitted data to
the Weidt Group. This data will be available for Saint Paul
spring 2006, and will be checked and used as base data
in the Envinta project.
The Tier 1 analysis will identify those buildings which are
performing poorly and will undergo the Tier 2 study
using Envinta.
20 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
See www.stpaul.gov/depts/realestate/sustainable/.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Rick Person
Title: Program Administrator
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 651.266.6122
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, FACILITIES & OPERATIONS
SUGAR LAND
TEXAS
VANCOUVER
WASHINGTON
David G. Wallace, Mayor
Royce E. Pollard, Mayor
TRAFFIC OPERATIONS
LED (light emitting diode) technology was implemented
throughout the city streets by replacing 135 watt incandescent
bulbs with 12 watt LED indications in all traffic signals. Also,
school zone flashers now utilize LED technology. Solar
technology has also been installed on most flashers and so
the combination of LED and solar creates a long lasting,
efficient, and environmentally sound product.
BACKGROUND
The City of Vancouver’s Facilities Executive Sponsor Team, the
steering team for policy issues related to City facilities, recently
adopted the following LEED policy for City buildings:
Benefits of LED technology include improved brightness,
reduction in maintenance and electricity cost savings of
approximately 80%.
It is estimated that the cost of the above programs will pay for
themselves in a 5–7 year timeframe.
UTILITIES
A power usage analysis for water and wastewater facilities was
conducted in June 2003. The study recommended that power
factor correction capacitors be installed at water facilities to
affect savings. The analysis anticipates a five year savings of
$181,459. The same study concluded that similar installations
at the wastewater treatment plant and lift stations would not
yield energy conservation or reduce costs.
The City of Vancouver shall incorporate Leadership in Energy
and Environmental Design (LEED) green building principles and
practices into the design, construction, and operations of all
new City facilities to the fullest extent possible. Furthermore,
the City will provide leadership to encourage the application
of green building practices in private sector development. This
policy is expected to yield long-term cost savings to the City’s
taxpayers due to substantial improvements in life-cycle
performance and reduced life-cycle costs.
The City’s Firstenburg Community Center, which opened earlier
this year, is the City’s first new building since 1996 and was
built LEED certified. The building was designed and built to
take advantage of natural light and ventilation. Only in the
areas where large groups meet are conventional HVAC systems
used. The majority of the building is designed to automatically
open or close at key set points during the day or night to
maintain the internal temperature without mechanical heating
or cooling.
BUILDINGS
All new buildings will incorporate building automatic systems
(BAS). These systems will provide the capability to remotely
monitor the operation of a buildings HVAC system to insure
that the system is operating within prescribed parameters and
at optimum efficiency. Building lighting will be designed to
permit two modes of operation: half-light and full-light
through the use of timers and switches. The placement of
interior and exterior windows in the new facilities will help to
take advantage of natural light and thus reduce energy costs.
The City anticipates a 5–7 year pay-back period
The City is also in the process of switching out all fluorescent
light fixtures from T–12 to T–8 and is starting to use T–5s in
some locations, which is both improving energy efficiency and
saving operational costs. For example, the City’s Tennis Center
recently converted its lighting at significant cost savings.
CONTACT INFORMATION
The Tennis Center retrofit was funded with an internal City
FIRST grant, grants that are available to City departments to
implement cost saving measures and/or measures to improve
productivity.
Name: Kayla Samek
Title: Executive Assistant
Department: City Manager
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 281.275.2710
The City also heats its shop buildings with waste oil that is
generated when servicing the City’s fleet of vehicles.
Costs of most of these projects are built into building
construction costs.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Betsy Williams
Title: Assistant City Manager
Department: City Manager Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 360.696.8477
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
21
WEST HOLLYWOOD
CALIFORNIA
Abbe Land, Mayor
BACKGROUND
They City of West Hollywood recently passed a green building
ordinance that will require all municipal buildings to receive a
LEED certification.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
Implementation of their green building ordinance would reduce
greenhouse gases, increase energy efficiency, save the city
money and improve productivity.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Susan Healy Keene
Title: Community Development Director
Department: Community Development
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 323.848.6400
22 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
23
AIR QUALITY
ALBUQUERQUE
NEW MEXICO
CHARLOTTE
NORTH CAROLINA
Martin J. Chávez, Mayor
Patrick McCrory, Mayor
Mayor Chávez is extremely involved with monitoring
Albuquerque’s environment. Air quality is of particular concern
because it also directly affects the health and safety of the
citizens of Albuquerque.
REGIONAL AIR QUALITY BOARD
The Regional Air Quality Board was formed in 2005 by the
Regional Planning Alliance, the City of Charlotte, Mecklenburg
County, the Centralina Council of Governments, and the
Catawba Council of Governments to foster collaborative
business sector and public sector initiatives to improve air
quality in the sixteen county Charlotte Region.
Albuquerque’s “Air Aware-Gas Cap Exchange Project” was
conducted in Albuquerque and the surrounding area from
March through August 2004. During this period 641 leaking,
missing, off-specification or otherwise faulty gas caps were
exchanged for new ones. Participating vehicles included
gasoline-powered passenger cars, trucks, and recreational
vehicles. The estimated volatile organic compound reduction
is 58.8 tons. This project was funded with Special Project
dollars from the U.S. EPA.
The Regional Planning Alliance brings business perspectives
and participation from regional businesses and chambers of
commerce and the public sector entities provide perspectives
from elected officials and public staff working in the areas of
air quality and transportation.
The Air Aware project is important to Albuquerque because
its air shed is within 91% of the National Ambient Air Quality
Standard for ground-level ozone, meaning that the region is
very close to meeting its air quality goals. Faulty gas caps can
leak volatile organic compounds into the air, contributing to
the formation of ground-level ozone.
Currently, the Regional Air Quality Board is sponsoring a pilot
project to involve businesses in a voluntary program to motivate
their employees to try alternative means of commuting to and
from work. This pilot, known as “Clean Air Works!” also
includes programs to foster company changes in operational
activities that will reduce NOx emissions. The pilot project will
provide action-oriented research on which program elements
are the most effective in creating positive, sustainable change.
The City of Albuquerque also operates a high density, automated
ambient air monitoring system for the Albuquerque area. Data
from the system enable the City to demonstrate compliance
with the Federal ambient air quality standards and to effectively
utilize staff resources. The system enables the City to be proactive in developing programs, campaigns and approaches to
address weather that can impact the Albuquerque air quality.
The “Clean Air Works!” pilot project is being jointly funded
with $1 million from Mecklenburg County and the federal/
state/local CMAQ fund. The business community is providing
significant resources through program participation and
leadership and donated in-kind services.
CONTACT INFORMATION
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Richard Kennedy
Title: Deputy Director
Department: Environmental Health Department
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 505.768.2625
24 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
Name: Emmy Lou Burchette
Title: President,
Organization: Burchette & Associates
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 704.367.9580
AIR QUALITY
DEARBORN
MICHIGAN
DUBLIN
CALIFORNIA
Michael A. Guido, Mayor
Janet Lockhart, Mayor
TREECITY USA
The City of Dearborn has a well-developed urban forestry
program that sustains approximately 36,000 trees along city
streets and in city parks. Preventative trimming for proper
shape and removal of deadwood is conducted on a five-year
cycle for all trees. Professional management of a mature urban
forest helps maintain clean air and reduces cooling costs during
the summer. This program is supported by General Fund
monies and costs approximately $350,000 per year. The City
of Dearborn has received the “TreeCity USA” award for the
past eighteen years.
A resolution adopted in 2003 by the City of Dublin City Council
approved the adoption of the Clean Air Consortium Checklist
and the execution of the Vo l u n t a ry Agreement. To be incompliance with the checklist, City Department heads work with
employees to follow guidelines in the Clean Air Consortium for
ongoing use and those for using energy on Spare the Air days.
The Clean Air Consortium Checklist follows.
Ongoing

Stop at the click, do not overfill gasoline tanks.

Maintain equipment, turn engines, sharpen blades and
clean the underside of mower deck.

Tightly seal all solvent containers; properly dispose of rags
containing solvent waste.

Keep vehicles tuned up and tires properly inflated.

Avoid idling.

Have material available to the public on summertime ozone
pollution.

Encourage the use of alternative transportation, trip linking
and trip reduction.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Kurt A. Giberson
Title: Director of Public Works
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 313.943.2496
Spare the Air Day Activities

Avoid using hand-held, gas-powered equipment like lawn
mowers, trimmers and chain saws.

Use hand tools or electric equipment when possible.

Reschedule painting/striping projects.

Refuel as late in the day as possible.

Reschedule large-scale surface coating.

Avoid idling.

Reschedule vehicle painting.

Reschedule storage tank filling.

Notify employees of Spare the Air days and provide
employees with recommendations on how they can reduce
ozone pollution.

Place Spare the Air alert on local cable channel scroll.

Display signage signifying that it is a Spare the Air day.

Publicize Agencies’ participation and accomplishments.
The cost of checklist compliance, including curtailment of
certain activities during the Spare the Air days, is nominal.
All costs for checklist compliance are incorporated into the
operating budgets for City maintenance work.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Melissa Morton
Title: Public Works Director
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 925.833.6636
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
25
PORTLAND
OREGON
Tom Potter, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City of Portland’s Transportation Options Division
developed an innovative outreach project to improve air quality
by promoting smart travel and reducing car trips. In 2005 the
TravelSmart Hub Project reached over 20,000 households
(50,000 people) in seven different South East Portland
neighborhoods. The project’s success in South East Portland
led to an expanded project to cover 24,000 households in 13
North East Portland neighborhoods in 2006.
The project uses direct mail, individualized marketing, and
hands-on clinics and workshops to help those residents who
want to walk, bike, take transit or carpool more often. Each
resident in the selected area receive san order form in the mail.
They can select from a variety of transportation related
information including bicycle or walking maps, TriMet
information or other travel tools. The travel tools can include
schedules of guided walks and rides. Project staff filled the
orders for materials and incentives and delivered them by
bicycle usually within two days.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The response to this program has been overwhelmingly
positive. Community partnerships with health providers Kaiser
Permanente and Providence Portland Medical Center increased
budget savings for the City. The development of relationships
with these organizations also promoted healthy travel and
living. At least 35% of the 20,000 residents actively participated
in the Hub program in 2005 and 100% of the residents heard
from Portland’s Transportation Options Division at least five
times throughout the program.
A 9% reduction in solo trips translates into a
reduction in vehicle miles traveled of over 24 million
miles last year—that’s (an annual savings of) over
700,000 gallons of gas and 13,630,000 pounds of CO2…
by the TravelSmart Hub Project.
Surveys conducted before and after the project with control
and test groups indicate the program reduced drive-alone or
solo car trips by 9%, increased bicycling by 23%, increased
transit use by 41% and walking by 7%. A 9% reduction in
solo trips translates into a reduction in vehicle miles traveled
of over 24 million miles last year—that is over 700,000 gallons
of gas and 13,630,000 pounds of CO2 saved annually by
the project.
26 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
The total project cost was $500,000, including $227,000 for
materials and services. The Transportation Options Division
received $95,000 in sponsorships or grants to help defray
project costs. The total project works out to cost about $0.02
per vehicle-mile traveled reduced.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: David Tooze
Title: Sr. Energy Specialist
Department: Office of Sustainable Development
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 503.823.7582
AIR QUALITY
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
27
CLIMATE CHANGE
ALBUQUERQUE
NEW MEXICO
CHAPEL HILL
NORTH CAROLINA
Martin J. Chávez, Mayor
Kevin C. Foy, Mayor
Albuquerque is undertaking many initiatives to combat climate
change. As early as 1995, Mayor Martin Chávez demonstrated
leadership in a long-term environmental strategy for
Albuquerque by implementing a City resolution, which
approved Albuquerque’s membership in the Cities for Climate
Protection Campaign. His leadership and commitment continued
in 2003 with his support of the Climate Protection Agreement
and his signing of the U.S. Conference of Mayor’s Climate
Protection Agreement in June 2005, committing to meeting
or exceeding the Kyoto Protocol on a local level.
The Chapel Hill Town Council voted in September 2005 to
participate in a Carbon Reduction Program. Initially established
in England, this program challenges participants to substantially
reduce existing levels of carbon dioxide emissions (see
www.cep.unc.edu/cred). The Town of Chapel Hill and UNCChapel Hill are joint participants, and Chapel Hill is the first
U.S. town to participate. Separate goals will be proposed for
2025 and 2050, culminating in a total reduction of 60% over
that time period.
Leadership and commitment at the executive level, coupled
with effective environmental management policies have and
will continue to result in the City of Albuquerque’s ability to
perform beyond mere compliance with environmental, health,
and safety regulations. Mayor Chávez’s strategic environmental
and management style integrates all City departments, which
include many diverse and related activities. The results are
powerful. Most notably, as of 2005, the City of Albuquerque
has decreased municipal service greenhouse gas emissions to
64% of its 1990 GHG emissions.
The City has also completed a greenhouse gas emissions
inventory for the geographic area of Albuquerque and
Bernalillo County, including a greenhouse gas emissions
inventory for the City of Albuquerque Government Operations.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Richard Kennedy
Title: Deputy Director
Department: Environmental Health Department
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 505.768.2625
Chapel Hill is the first U.S. town to participate in a Carbon
Reduction Program…with goal for 2050 culminating in a
total carbon dioxide emission reduction of 60%.
The Town’s participation means that it commits to adopting a
timeline and a plan for achieving the carbon dioxide emissions
goal. The plan currently being developed will guide not only
future development in the area, but will alter existing
development as needed. Based on the plan some buildings
will need to be retrofitted for energy efficiency.
The Town Council will determine how the reductions in carbon
emissions can be made in the most cost-effective manner.
University students and faculty have developed an inventory of
carbon dioxide releases from Chapel Hill. The Town Council will
use this inventory to develop short, medium and long-term
strategies for carbon emissions reductions. The data is gathered
from reviewing electricity and natural gas consumption rates,
water usage, the number of miles driven by public transit
buses, employee transportation patterns and more.
“A spreadsheet will be presented to the Council (in May 2006)
so (viewers) can see the carbon emission levels and make
adjustments in each category,” said Dr. Douglas CrawfordBrown, director of the Carolina Environmental Program. “We
make calculations based on carbon reduction and costs associated. Municipal leaders decide which strategies to implement.”
Some strategies to reduce carbon emissions include replacing
the Chapel Hill Transit fleet with hybrid buses, replacing
heating and cooling units with more efficient models, installing
vestibule doors in public buildings, and more innovations
approved by the Town Council.
28 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
CLIMATE CHANGE
DENVER
COLORADO
John W. Hickenlooper, Mayor
Because this program is in its early planning stages, a summary
of benefits is not available. The Program’s ambitious goal of
60% reduction in carbon emissions by 2050 is anticipated to
have a lasting impact on the community including addressing
one variable related to climate change. Many agree that climate
change may be one of the greatest threats facing the planet.
Recent years show increasing temperatures and increasing
extremities in weather patterns. While there is disagreement
about the extent of climate change that will take place if
society continues emitting carbon dioxide at today’s levels,
there is broad scientific consensus that the problem is real
and must be addressed in the coming decades.
In 2005, the City of Denver and Mayor Hickenlooper provided
leadership for local and regional efforts to reduce global warming, in keeping with the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. As one of
the first 25 ICLEI “Cities for Climate Protection” program participants in the early 1990s (which now includes over 400 cities
internationally), the City of Denver met all milestones for that
program, and continues to pursue a greenhouse gas reduction
goal of 10% per capita by 2011 from the 1990 baseline of
20.2 tons per capita per year.
OTHER ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE LEADERSHIP
ACTIVITIES:

Denver was a signatory to the U.N. Urban Environmental
Accords, and the U.S. Mayor’s Climate Protection
Agreement in June 2005.

Denver was a participant in the Sundance Summit: A
Mayors’ Gathering on Climate Protection in July, 2005.

Denver International Airport uses a state-of-the-art
Environmental Management System and has helped lead
progress in climate protection within the City and County
of Denver.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Catherine Lazorko
Title: Town Information Officer
Department: Town of Chapel Hill
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 919.968.2893
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Andrew Wallach
Title: Assistant to Mayor
Department: Mayor's Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 720.865.9033
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
29
EUGENE
OREGON
Kitty Piercy, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City of Eugene has a strong environmental ethic and has
been actively pursuing energy efficiency and environmental
improvement for many years. Dozens of individual programs
and projects continue to reduce cost and emissions, and
maintain the livability of Eugene. Some of these efforts are
noted elsewhere in this survey. Other notable examples include:

All red and green traffic lights, pedestrian signals, and a
new taxiway at the Airport, were converted to LED lighting.

An Energy Management program has been in place since
1994.

Policies are in place that specify standard office temperatures and that all light and computers are off at night.

A Green Buildings Policy was adopted in 2006 that addre s s e s
new construction, remodels and ongoing operations.

A weather controlled irrigation system has been installed in
74 parks.

The City maintains 30 miles of dedicated bike paths,
89 miles of on-street bike lanes and 5 bicycle/pedestrian
bridges. Further additions to the bike/pedestrian system
are planned.

All City staff have bus passes and are encouraged to
car-pool or use other alternative transportation.

City operations use 100% recycled paper.

The Wastewater treatment plant produces 50% of its own
power from methane, consuming 90% of the methane
generated at the plant.

Eugene has been designated “Tree City USA” every year
since 1982. Over 7,000 street trees have been planted since
1992

3,000 Acres of wetlands have been protected; 900 acres
have been restored.
The City of Eugene has recently joined the International
Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). We are using
their assistance and protocols to quantify greenhouse gas emissions at the community and government operations levels,
quantify the impacts of our many existing efforts to reduce our
climate impact, and provide a basis for developing a community-wide strategy for further reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
30 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The impacts of these longstanding programs have changed the
way the City does business at many levels of the organization.
Efforts that focus on conserving measurable resources, such as
energy, water, paper or vehicle fuel, have successfully reduced
the budget impact on the organization from cost increases.
The Energy Program, for example, reduces utility budget
requirements by over $300,000 per year. For other programs,
the results are more difficult to quantify. Our Bike Path System,
Urban Forest and Wetland programs contribute to the livability
of Eugene and have earned us national recognition. The work
we are doing with ICLEI will quantify the GHG impacts of these
efforts, if not the overall impact on the community.
Because these efforts are embedded in the way we do business
in Eugene, the programs are funded from the individual
department budgets.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Lynne Eichner-Kelley
Title: Sustainable Operations Analyst
Department: Central Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 541.682.5083
CLIMATE CHANGE
HOUSTON
TEXAS
Bill White, Mayor
EMISSION REDUCTION PLAN
The City of Houston has updated its 2000 emissions inventory,
and added greenhouse gases to that inventory. This will enable
the city to more accurately track progress toward reducing
greenhouse gases within the city. Also, the City has joined
Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI) and the Clinton
Climate Initiative to assist in greenhouse gases reduction.
The review of emissions was conducted by an independent
consultant to help the city evaluate emissions produced by its
activities from 2000 to 2004. The review showed that we had
reduced NOx emissions by 23%. These reductions, in part, are
due to a reduction in fleet size and replacement of older vehicles with new hybrids, as well as equipment upgrades in the
boilers used at our waste treatment facilities and airport.
The consultants’ work, combined with data derived through
our ICLEI involvement, give us detailed data from which to set
emissions goals going forward.
The cost of conducting the assessments was less than
$100,000, including staff time.
CONTACT INFORMATION
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?
?
?
?
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
31
MEDFORD
MASSACHUSETTS
Michael J. McGlynn, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City of Medford has lead in addressing air quality and
climate change issues in Massachusetts since it became one of
the first in the State to join the Cities for Climate Protection™
Campaign in 1999. To fulfill its commitment the City conducted
a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventory, set GHG reduction
targets, approved the first Climate Action Plan in
Massachusetts, implemented a Vehicle Emissions Reduction
Program (VERP), initiated an anti-idling campaign, developed
an energy efficiency policy, installed solar panels on municipal
buildings and initiated a Clean Energy Choice Campaign.
Medford’s VERP exemplifies what other municipalities can
do when developing strategies to reduce GHG emissions and
air pollutants.
chose to address the air quality needs of the entire region. This
led to the City installing DPFs on 31 of the buses and DOCs on
the remaining 39, thus enabling 13 other communities who
use the same contractor to also benefit from improved air quality.
The City’s VERP seeks to improve air quality by retrofitting all of
the major fleets with routes in Medford. These fleets include
vehicles used in the City’s Department of Public Works; Waste
Management’s refuse haulers and recycling trucks; and school
buses. By focusing on minimizing potential pollutants from the
fleets used in the City of Medford, it is anticipated that this will
improve the air quality in the City.
This effort to lessen pollutants from City operated vehicles
strengthens Medford’s voluntarily efforts to reduce emissions
as part of its Climate Action Plan and serves as an excellent
best practice example. These efforts earned the City of
Medford the 2004 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Clean Air Excellence Award for Regulatory Policy and the 2005
Commonwealth of Massachusetts Environmental Purchasing
and Sustainability Award.
VERP PHASE I
The VERP has two phases. Phase I will retrofit the Department
of Public Work’s (DPW) fleet including diesel vehicles used by
the highway, parks, water and sewer, forestry and cemetery
divisions and refuse haulers and recycling trucks on contract
that provide service to the City. A Climate Protection grant
awarded from the Massachusetts Department of Environmental
Protection and Executive Office of Environmental Affairs was
used to retrofit a portion of the DPW fleet in June 2006.
The City also began integrating alternative fuels and vehicles
into its municipal fleet. Since 2004 the cemetery fleet has been
utilizing biodiesel fuel (B–20). Seven electric vehicles were
added to the fleet used by the Energy and Environment
Department, DPW, the Engineering Department, School
Department, Building Department and the Department of
Weights and Measures. By the end of 2007 all DPW vehicles
will be using ultra low sulfur diesel as mandated by federal law.
VERP PHASE II
Phase II of the VERP is known as Medford’s Clean School Bus
USA Program. This program will be used to retrofit the entire
school bus fleet. The Clean School Bus Project received funding
from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to install diesel
particulate filters (DPFs and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs)on
the 70 buses owned by its bus contractor. All buses converted
from using standard diesel fuel to using ultra low sulfur diesel
fuel (ULSD). While the City only uses 19 of these buses, officials
32 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
Concurrent with the Clean School Bus Project, the City
implemented an Anti-Idling policy. This policy was put into
force on January 11, 2005 and creates No Idle Zones around
every school in the City. The policy stipulates neither buses nor
passenger vehicles should be left running outside of the
schools. Medford’s Energy & Environment Department worked
very closely with the School Department to educate the staff
and the parents on the benefits of reduced idling and using
clean diesel fuel.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The ultimate goal of the VERP is to improve air quality and
public health. Studies have shown that the rates of childhood
asthma in the Northeast region of the United States are higher
than the rest of the country. Medford is located just five miles
northwest of Boston in Middlesex County. According to
Environmental Defense Scorecard, Middlesex County ranked
among the dirtiest 10% of all U.S. counties where the cancer
risk from hazardous pollutants exceeds one in 10,000.
Environmental Defense also noted that 92% of this air cancer
risk comes from mobile sources, particularly diesel emissions. In
addition, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was classified
as being in “serious non-attainment” of the one hour ozone
standard since the early 1990s. Massachusetts also exceeded
the standards for both 2.5 and 10 microns of particulate matter pollution on several occasions.
Given these statistics the City of Medford embarked on making
progress to improve air quality through the VERP. By installing
DPFs and DOCs in the school buses and DPW fleet, the City
continues to reduce the amount of hydrocarbons (HC),
particulate matter (PM), and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted in
and around the City. Hydrocarbons are known to contribute to
the formation of ozone and particulate matter is a primary
source of respiratory illnesses. Although it is difficult and cost
prohibitive to conduct actual air pollution measurements to
determine emissions from the retrofitted buses, the EPA has
CLIMATE CHANGE
PORTLAND
OREGON
Tom Potter, Mayor
estimated emissions reductions resulting from retrofitting diesel
buses based on numerous studies they conducted. EPA’s
estimated emissions reductions from the specific technology
used in Medford’s program are summarized below.
With the addition of the ULSD, the reductions for the DPF
increase up to 90% and up to 60% for the DOC.
Diesel Particulate Filters
(DPF)
Diesel Oxidation Catalysts
(DOC)
HC = 60%
HC = 50%
PM = 60%
PM = 20%
CO = 60%
CO = 40%
City of Medford received $483,300 to implement Phase II of
the VERP from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Clean
School Bus USA Grant Program and received $5,000 from the
Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection for a
portion of Phase I of the VERP.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Patricia L. Barry
Title: Environmental Agent
Department: Energy & Environment Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 781.393.2137
BACKGROUND—TRAFFIC SIGNAL OPTIMIZATION
Portland’s Offices of Sustainable Development and
Transportation are working with the Climate Trust on project to
improve the timing of traffic signals in seventeen major metropolitan arteries. This five-year project began in January 2005.
The project is to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions from
vehicles by reducing the amount of time cars spend idling at
and accelerating between traffic lights. Improved traffic flow
will reduce fuel wasted during stop-and-go driving. Signal
timing efficiency will therefore decrease carbon dioxide
released into the atmosphere.
This project allots funding for traffic signal system operators to
conduct studies. These studies will help identify specific steps
to optimize traffic flow in some of Portland’s most congested
thoroughfares. While this project will reduce carbon dioxide
emissions, it also will reduce other air pollutants from exhaust
pipes.
COSTS AND BENEFITS
Program costs are absorbed in a pay-for-performance contract
with the Climate Trust. After the signal timing has been completed, the Climate Trust pays Portland based on the amount
of carbon dioxide emissions that will be avoided. The City of
Portland transfers ownership of the carbon dioxide offsets
created by these reduced emissions to the Climate Trust. The
Climate Trust’s funding for the traffic signal optimization was
critical as government funding sources were not available.
Other benefits unrelated to decreasing green-house gas
emissions include:

Commuters save time traveling across town.

Commuters save on gasoline costs.

Reductions in other vehicular air pollutants.

The development of a useful model for efficiently using
energy and traffic signals.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: David Tooze
Title: Sr. Energy Specialist
Department: Office of Sustainable Development
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 503.823.7582
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
33
SAINT PAUL
MINNESOTA
Chris Coleman, Mayor
Saint Paul’s Climate Change Action Plan, the Saint Paul
Environmental-Economic Partnership Project (E-EPP), was
initiated in 1993 to implement the City’s Urban CO2 Reduction
Plan, with the goal to encourage present activities and identify
future activities that improve both the environmental and
economic health of Saint Paul.
The City’s CO2 Reduction Plan involves six strategies and
targets:
Strategy #1—Municipal Action Plan City government
taking the lead by making equipment changes and being
efficient in energy use in City-owned buildings and vehicles.
Purchasing policies to benefit from environmentally friendly
products. CO2 reduction target: 10,800 tons/year.
Strategy #2—Diversification of the Transportation Sector
Reduce reliance on automobiles by increasing public
transportation options and planning toward reducing the
need for private transportation. CO2 reduction target:
731,000 tons/year.
Strategy #3—Urban Reforestation Fix carbon emissions by
expanding green space and strategic planting of trees and
s h rubs to shelter buildings and reduce fuel consumption needed
to cool buildings. CO2 reduction target: 3,600 tons/year.
Strategy #4—Energy Efficiency Reduce energy use through
installation of cost-effective efficiency measures such as lighting,
air-handling, and insulation in residential, commercial, and
industrial sectors. CO2 reduction target: 1,354,400 tons/year.
Strategy #5—Energy Supply Promote the use of alternative
energy sources such as photovoltaic, wind, biomass and fuel
cells. CO2 reduction target: 283,200 tons/year.
Strategy #6—Recycling and Waste Prevention Prevent
pollution and reduce use of resources by reusing materials,
limiting packaging, reducing purchases, and recycling. CO2
reduction target: 10,800 tons/year.
34 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
Phase One, completed in 1993, concluded with Council
adoption of the CO2 Reduction Plan, and Phase Two is a
20–year implementation effort. These activities are paying off
with significant economic and environmental savings. Ongoing
and planned CO2 reductions total 960,000 tons per year, with
total cost savings of $59,000,000. The City of Saint Paul has
been recognized by ICLEI, the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Harvard University, Sierra Club Cool Cities, and the
Green Guide to America’s Top 10 Green Cities: 2006.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Rick Person
Title: Program Administrator
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 651.266.6122
CLIMATE CHANGE
SALT LAKE CITY
UTAH
SEATTLE
WASHINGTON
Ross “Rocky” Anderson, Mayor
Gregory J. Nickels, Mayor
As part of its Salt Lake City’s Green Program, the City has
implemented a Local Climate Action Plan. The Plan’s goal is to
show that the City can do its part to reduce global warming
and health-endangering air pollution, and provide an example
for other governmental entities, businesses, and individuals. As
part of this goal, Salt Lake City has committed to meeting the
standards of the Kyoto Protocol (7% reduction of carbon
dioxide emissions from 1990 levels)
GREENHOUSE GAS NEUTRALITY
Seattle City Light, the municipally owned electric utility serving
the City of Seattle, has a policy of greenhouse gas neutrality.
The utility avoids emissions through using conservation and,
when practical, renewable, non-greenhouse gas emitting
energy. City Light also purchases offsets equal to its fossil fuel
emissions to meet electrical demand and from operations such
as vehicle use and airline travel. Through these actions, City
Light reached its goal of greenhouse gas neutrality in 2005.
Major Steps so far include implementation of a state-of-the-art
software system for tracking emissions, establishing a baseline,
and monitoring progress. Salt Lake City is the first in the nation
to implement the system. Furthermore, the citywide recycling
program has decreased CO2 emissions by 30,550 tons per year.
2004 Emissions Reduction
Measures
Equiv. CO2 Reduced (tons)
Lighting efficiency retrofits
344
Blue Sky wind power purchase 796
1630 LED traffic signals
661
CNG fuel at SLC Airport
1,758
Biodiesel
238
Cogeneration at water
treatment plant
3,059
Methane capture at landfill
16,500
TOTAL
23,356
The City funds three full time staff positions from within
existing budgets. Grants and donations have financed minimal
additional costs.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Dorothy Stangle
Title: Assistant to the Mayor
Department: Mayor’s Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 801.535.7743
The program results in greenhouse gas reduction and several
other co-benefits, including energy savings for their customers,
reduction in emissions of other air pollutants and their
associated health and environmental impacts, avoidance of
land filling of waste material, and potential for local economic
development. City Light purchased over 250,000 metric tons
of greenhouse gas offsets to cover its emissions in 2005. The
budget is approximately $750,000 per year and is funded
through the electric rates.
CRUISE LINE OFFSETS
As part of its greenhouse gas mitigation program, Seattle City
Light purchases greenhouse gas offsets from a cruise line company that switches from diesel fuel to electricity for its ships
docked at in Seattle. Electricity use instead of diesel fuel results
in overall reduced emissions of greenhouse gases, estimated to
be about 1,300 metric tons per year from the current contract.
The program results in greenhouse gas emissions reductions
and reduction in emissions of other air pollutants and their
associated health and environmental impacts. Diesel fuel
combustion results in emissions of toxic and carcinogenic
materials. Diesel emissions have been identified as the primary
threat to air quality in the Puget Sound region. Providing an
alternative to diesel use helps avoid those emissions. The
budget for the cruise ship offsets is $10,000 per year and is
funded through the greenhouse gas mitigation program, which
is covered by electric rates.
KYOTO CHALLENGE
In February 2005, Mayor Nickels issued the “Kyoto Challenge,”
a national effort to take on climate disruption and implement
the Kyoto Protocol in cities across the United States. With
hundreds of mayors across the US now participating, the US
Mayors Climate Protection Agreement continues to gain
support. To meet the Kyoto goal locally and to provide a
“green print” for others to use elsewhere, the Mayor appointed
the Green Ribbon Commission on Climate Protection, which
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
35
SEATTLE
WASHINGTON
Gregory J. Nickels, Mayor
includes 18 leaders from Seattle’s business, labor, non-profit,
government and academic communities. Their goal is to find
local solutions to global climate disruption and begin the
development of a Climate Action Plan.
The Green Ribbon Commission Report and Recommendations
describes a suite of climate protection actions that will allow
Seattle to meet or beat the Kyoto Protocol greenhouse gas
emissions reduction goal. After presenting findings to the
Seattle community and gathering input, the City will develop a
Seattle Climate Action Plan, including a detailed implementation
strategy by September 2006. The cost is to be determined
because this is a very comprehensive effort.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Kristine Kertson
Title: Public Information Officer
Department: Office of Intergovernmental Relations
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 206.233.0073
36 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
CLIMATE CHANGE
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
37
ENERGY SOURCES
ALBUQUERQUE
NEW MEXICO
Martin J. Chávez, Mayor
SOLAR POWER
Albuquerque is in a partnership with the U.S. Department of
Energy “Million Solar Roofs” program. With this program, solar
thermal and solar photovoltaic systems will be installed in
public buildings. The City is currently installing solar pool
heating and photovoltaic systems at five City swimming pools.
Albuquerque is also involved in is a collaboration with Sandia
National Laboratory, New Mexico Tech, Technology Ventures
Corporation and other partners to develop a hybrid renewable
energy project for Albuquerque’s Sandia Science and
Technology Park. The proposed project design includes both
photovoltaic solar and methane gas-to-energy projects. The
energy produced will power the park.
HYDROGEN
The City’s Aviation Department, in a partnership with the New
Mexico Hydrogen Technology Partnership, the U.S. Army
National Automotive Center, the Department of Defense, other
government agencies and a major petroleum company, is
establishing a hydrogen production, storage and dispensing
pilot project facility on airport property. The facility will be
co-located with an existing compressed natural gas (CNG)
refueling station at the airport and will be used in conjunction
with demonstrating hydrogen internal combustion engine
vehicles to be provided to the Department of Defense and
the Aviation Department.
LANDFILL GAS
Albuquerque has been involved in monitoring close City-owned
or City operated landfills and related issues for approximately
20 years. They have also commissioned a comprehensive study
of the City owned or operated closed landfills to determine
appropriate land usage and economic development opportunities
as well as investigating landfill gas production and alternate
energy opportunities.
In 1998, the City installed a landfill gas (LFG) collection and
control system at the closed Los Angeles landfill and in 2005
the control system was modified with a renewable energy
system that generates 70 kWh of electricity which powers a
groundwater remediation system removing contaminants that
have leaked from the landfill to the underground drinking
water aquifer.
38 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
The Mayor is currently working with New Mexico’s Congressional
delegation to secure federal funding for additional LFG
renewable energy systems for other closed City landfills.
Additional landfill greenhouse gas reduction results from other
gas controls systems such as LFG collection and control systems
installed at the Cerro Colorado landfill; currently gas-to-energy
systems alternatives are under evaluation.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Richard Kennedy
Title: Deputy Director
Department: Environmental Health Department
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 505.768.2625
ENERGY SOURCES
ANN ARBOR
MICHIGAN
BOSTON
MASSACHUSETTS
John Hieftje, Mayor
Thomas M. Menino, Mayor
The City of Ann Arbor has operated the Ann Arbor Energy
Office and employed a full time, professional Energy Coordinator
for the past 17 years. This has enabled Ann Arbor to become a
regional and national leader in municipal energy programs. The
Energy Office has been successful at monitoring and reducing
energy use at all City owned facilities, implementing energy
efficiency and renewable energy programs related to the Ann
Arbor Energy Plan, purchasing natural gas and electricity in the
new, deregulated markets, creating and implementing energy
policy, obtaining and managing grants, and serving as the
City’s liaison with the local utility companies and the Ann Arbor
Energy Commission.
RENEWABLE ENERGY PROCUREMENT
In conjunction with the bulk procurement of 200 million
kWh/year electricity, the City of Boston procured 8.6% of its
load from renewable sources and was named to the EPA’s
Green Power Leadership Club.
The Ann Arbor Energy Office has saved the City over $6
million in energy costs and successfully managed over
$800,000 in federal and state grant funds for local
energy projects.
The Energy Coordinator manages the local coalition for the
federal Clean Cities program which has brought over 600
alternative fuel vehicles and associated fueling infrastructure
to the community for the Cities for Climate Protection Program
to reduce global warming emissions, and the Green Fleets
Program which has reduced petroleum fuel use by 10% for the
municipal fleet in its first year. The Ann Arbor Energy Office has
saved the City over $6 million in energy costs and successfully
managed over $800,000 in federal and state grant funds for
local energy projects.
Ann Arbor has shared its energy office learning experiences
and successful programs across the country through
presentations at national and regional conferences including
DOE, EPA, APA, APWA and many more. The Ann Arbor Energy
Office has also been instrumental in helping other communities
across the country to create their own municipal energy offices.
BOSTON’S WIND ENERGY PROGRAM
The City is promoting pilot projects to examine the potential
for wind power in Boston. City staff work with the Community
Wind Collaborative of the Massachusetts Technology
Collaborative to study the feasibility of installing wind turbines
on Long Island in Boston Harbor. This study builds upon the
MTC-funded Boston Harbor Islands Renewable Planning Guide,
which analyzes the resources of the grid-tied Boston Harbor
Islands and identifies alternative technologies and sites. It also
assessed environmental, community, and regulatory issues.
The City is coordinating this project with another wind turbine
project in Boston Harbor proposed by the Massachusetts Water
Resources Authority.
Both energy projects have submitted Notices of Proposed
Construction to the Federal Aviation Administration for
aeronautical study.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Bradford Swing
Title: Director of Energy Policy
Department: Office of the Mayor and Environmental and
Energy Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 617.635.1210
As Ann Arbor moves towards its new stated goals of 30%
renewable energy for municipal operations by 2010, 20%
renewable energy for the whole community by 2015 and a
20% reduction in global warming emissions from 2000 levels
by 2015. The Ann Arbor Energy Office plays a key role in the
planning and implementation.
With the recent large increases in energy costs and continued
instability in the energy market, municipalities that do not yet
have an energy office would do well to follow Ann Arbor’s
example and establish their own municipal energy program.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: David Konkle
Title: Energy Coordinator
Department: Public Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 734.996.3150
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
39
CHICAGO
ILLINOIS
COLORADO SPRINGS
COLORADO (1)
Richard Daley, Mayor
Lionel Rivera, Mayor
As a major element of his 2006 Environmental Action Agenda,
Mayor Richard M. Daley announced that four wind turbines
will be erected on the roof of the Richard J. Daley center to
generate electricity and lead toward the development of more
renewable energy sources.
BACKGROUND
Colorado Springs Utilities owns five small hydropower units
capable of generating 35 megawatts (MW) of power—5% of
the power generated by all Utility-owned resources. The largest
unit is the 28 MW Tesla hydroelectric turbine, operating since
1997. Of the smaller units, the oldest has been in operation
100 years and the newest one was put into service in March,
2006. Since Colorado Springs Utilities is a four-service utility—
water, electric, gas and wastewater, these turbines are entirely
contained within the raw water delivery system. Environmental
impacts from additional reservoirs and water releases are
eliminated. A sixth turbine will be completed in 2007.
Additional sites are under evaluation.
According to Mayor Daley, “These turbines will serve as a
demonstration project that could lead to new technologies
and move us toward our goal of generating 20% of the
electricity in City buildings from renewable sources by 2010.”
Known as aeroturbines, the devices were invented by Bil
Becker, a professor of industrial design at the University of
Illinois at Chicago, and were manufactured in Chicago’s Pilsen
community by Aerotecture International, Inc.
At 680 feet in the air, the aeroturbines will be the highest wind
turbines attached to a building anywhere in the world. The
aeroturbines are small, modular and well suited for urban
rooftops. They are also are quiet, self-regulating, vibration-free
and are designed to be more bird friendly than utility scale
turbines. The four turbines will produce a small portion of the
Daley Center’s electricity.
The 2006 Environmental Action Agenda can be accessed at
the City of Chicago’s website at
www.cityofchicago.org/Environment.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Brendan Daley
Title: Deputy Commissioner
Department: Environment
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 312.744.8901
40 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
BENEFITS & COSTS
These programs improve air quality and reduce the use of fossil
fuels. In 2005, Utilities-owned hydropower units eliminated
emissions of over 240 tons of sulfur dioxide, over 120 tons of
nitrogen oxides and over 73,000 tons of carbon dioxide
emissions.
In 2005, Utilities-owned hydropower units eliminated
emissions of over 240 tons of sulfur dioxide, over 120
tons of nitrogen oxides and over 73,000 tons of carbon
dioxide emissions.
As a municipal entity, all of the programs highlighted are
funded through avoided or deferred operational costs or rates.
Wind power is the only exception and is funded by program
participants.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Vicki Care
Title: Permitting Services Supervisor
Department: Environmental Services Dept.,
ColoradoSprings Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 719.668.4463
ENERGY SOURCES
COLORADO SPRINGS
COLORADO (2)
DAYTON
OHIO (1)
Lionel Rivera, Mayor
Rhine McLin, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The Colorado Springs Utilities Green Power program offers
customers the option to pay a premium on their bill to receive
electricity from wind power sources. The wind power comes
from the Ponnequin Wind Facility on the Colorado-Wyoming
border. Since wind power has no fuel costs, participating
customers receive a credit on their bill for fuel and purchased
power costs associated with the amount of wind power they
purchase. Over 900 customers participate in the program.
BACKGROUND
In 2005, the City established the “Energy Team” to provide
guidance, expertise and insight into the purchasing, utilization,
and conservation of energy. The team consists of current
employees that manage significant amounts of the City’s
diverse energy needs and have expertise in the following areas:
BENEFITS & COSTS
In 2006 Green Power customers purchased 2,140 MWh of
wind power.
As a municipal entity, all of the programs highlighted are
funded through avoided or deferred operational costs or rates.
Wind power is the only exception and is funded by program
participants.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Simon Baker
Title: Sr. Conservation Specialist
Department: DSM & Renewable Energy Solutions Dept.,
Colorado Springs Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 719.668.8231

Electric and Natural Gas

Heating Oil, Gasoline and Diesel Fuels

Energy Markets, Procurement and Pricing
BENEFITS & COSTS
The goal of the Energy Team is to make the City a “smart”
energy workplace by means of:

Leveraging procurement through pooled acquisitions,

Establishing metrics to monitor and reduce energy
consumption,

Evaluating possible energy conservation through
reduction/recycle opportunities,

Obtaining favorable energy price structures and tariffs, and

Using available technology to reduce or monitor energy
consumption.
There are no additional budgetary costs for salaries since
all team members are current staff of the City. Training and
development costs, however, are approximately $25,000
per year.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Diane Shannon
Title: Economist
Department: Management & Budget
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 937.333.3762
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
41
DAYTON
OHIO (2)
EUGENE
OREGON (1)
Rhine McLin, Mayor
Kitty Piercy, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City’s Wastewater Treatment Plant has a co-generation
facility that can parallel electrical demand to provide electricity
to the plant. Energy recovered from its engines also is used to
heat buildings. Its engines use methane gas produced at
anaerobic digester facilities. This provides demand side
management for offsetting peak costs while it offers a standby source for emergency outage.
BACKGROUND
Eugene has a full-time staff person whose responsibility is
implementing energy savings. The City has partnered with
Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB), a local pubic utility,
with amazing savings, both in electricity and money. Eugene
has secured over $1.5 million in incentives from EWEB and
implemented measures recommended by the utility, including
installing solar water heaters on city swimming pools, making
operational changes in city buildings and requiring more
stringent energy efficient standards for city buildings.
BENEFITS & COSTS
Benefits include low emissions from lean burning engines and
reduced electric and natural gas consumption. The Co-generation facility was installed as part of a 75% federal grant in
1989. The total construction cost was $7 million.
BENEFITS & COSTS
This partnership between Eugene and EWEB has resulted in
EWEB acquiring 9,000 MWh of installed energy efficiency, and
reduced carbon emissions by 4,500 tons.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Diane Shannon
Title: Economist
Department: Management & Budget
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 937.333.3762
The City of Eugene’s Energy Analyst works directly with the
EWEB’s staff to evaluate city electric bills and energy projects.
Together they determine the best utility program to apply to a
given situation. All projects have been funded by the utility,
with the savings going to the City as well as the utility as this
reduces the utility’s cost of buying more power.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Lynne Eichner-Kelley
Title: Sustainable Operations Analyst
Department: Central Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 541.682.5083
Dayton’s Co-generators
42 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
ENERGY SOURCES
EUGENE
OREGON (2)
HAYWARD
CALIFORNIA
Kitty Piercy, Mayor
Roberta Cooper, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City of Eugene purchases wind power for most major city
buildings. With the start of the FY07 budget year, the Facility
Management Division began purchasing 25% wind power
from our municipal utility, the Eugene Water and Electric
Board. With this purchase the City of Eugene has become the
utility’s largest wind power customer. The wind power energy
purchased annually by the City is expected to total at least 2.5
million KWH of energy or enough to power 200 homes for a
year, based on the average residential customer. The purchase
of wind power adds another sustainability element to the City’s
long-standing energy conservation program.
SOLAR POWER GENERATION PROGRAM
Hayward operates a 276 kW Roof Top Solar arr a y, covering
60,000 square feet. The system generates enough power during
the day to power 275 homes. The average savings are $51,400
annually. Carbon dioxide will be reduced by 2,000 tons over 30
years, which is equivalent to planting 600 acres of tre e s .
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The City of Eugene’s wind power purchase brought the EWEB
wind power program to near 100% subscription. The City
purchase has helped EWEB achieve its initial goal. The utility
is now designing the next generation of their renewable
energy programs. The City’s purchase will offset over 17,000
lbs of CO2.
The additional cost for 25% wind power is estimated at
$16,500 for the fiscal year 2007. The first year of the program
is funded through the City Manager’s office. In the future this
cost will be funded through the utility rates that the Facility
Division charges to other departments. The cost will then be
included as a standard cost of doing business.
The approximate cost is $1.8 million, and 50% is paid by the
City’s General Fund, and 50% ($900,000) is from PG&E Solar
Power Grant.
METHANE GAS RECOVERY
For many years Hayward has reduced its consumption of power
company electricity by using methane gas previously flared off
at the water pollution control facility, as fuel for engines driving
electric generators. This co-generation plant provides about
300 kWh of electricity which is equal to a third of the facility’s
energy needs.
Using the methane, a byproduct of the sewage treatment
process, has eliminated a source of air pollution and reduced
the amount of electricity the local energy supplier would
otherwise have to deliver. The City has realized savings of
between $300,000 and $400,000 a year for purchased
electricity.
The program results in an overall savings through cost
avoidance, which benefits wastewater system rate payers.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Lynne Eichner-Kelley
Title: Sustainable Operations Analyst
Department: Central Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 541.682.5083
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Alex Ameri
Title: Deputy Director of Public Works—Utilities
Department: Public Works—Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 510.583.4720
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
43
HOUSTON
TEXAS (1)
HOUSTON
TEXAS (2)
Bill White, Mayor
Bill White, Mayor
CONSUMER CHOICE PROGRAM
A website dedicated to informing Houstonians about options
they have in purchasing power at a time when electricity rates
have skyrocketed.
WEATHERIZATION PROGRAM The City of Houston, in
partnership with CenterPoint Energy, weatherized over 600
homes belonging to senior and low income families which
resulted in a 14% reduction in electricity usage in those
homes. The program is being expanded to an additional
1,000 homes.
This website allows consumers to compare traditional energy
with “green energy” and to obtain commitments from retail
electricity providers to consumer and environmentally friendly
purchase plans. Mayor White wants people to know that they
have a choice in purchasing power, and this website gives
them useful information to make their decisions.
After the end of 2006 neither the City nor the Texas Public Utility
Commission will have as much control over electricity rates as in
the past, as traditional ceilings on rates will be done away with.
The City recently asked electricity providers to offer their “best
price” for Houston consumers. The prices of some companies
are much less than others. Others offer “green power,” with
fewer emissions. The City of Houston required all responding
electricity providers to meet some standard of financial
strength, and to keep their offers open to Houstonians.
Seven power providers are participating with the City in the
program. Some offer several different types of products, with
both variable and fixed pricing and “green” and conventional
electricity. A customer’s choice of providers will not affect the
reliability of their service. A separate company, Center Point
Energy is responsible for that service for all retail providers.
A user-friendly “calculator” on www.houstonconsumerchoice.com
will allow consumers to explore service options and rates from
the participating providers. In addition, help with the website
will be available at all Houston Public Libraries, City MultiService Centers and other community facilities.
As the program is web based, benefits greatly outweigh the
costs, as they are minimal. Through the program, Houstonians
will be given the power to find more efficient energy.
The website was developed by a donor, and is maintained by
City IT staff, along with the City’s other web activities. There
was a significant media campaign to launch the initiative so
that consumers would know about the program. The cost was
$760,000 and was underwritten entirely by CenterPoint
Energy, the local transmission company.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Ann Travis
Title: Director of Government Affairs
Department: Mayor’s Office of Government Affairs
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 713.247.1520
44 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The City of Houston has many neighborhoods with small, older
homes that lack modern energy efficiency features. During
2006, in partnership with CenterPoint Energy, a transmission
company, the City set about to correct this problem, beginning
in the Pleasantville neighborhood. The neighborhood included
approximately 1,400 single family homes, most around 1,000
to 1,300 square feet, that were 40 to 60 years in age. All of
the homeowners were contacted and offered the opportunity
to have their homes weatherized with caulking, weatherstripping and attic insulation of 9 inches. Approximately half of the
homes accepted the offer. The work was performed by
contractors and was completed in time for the summer
months, when electricity usage is at its highest in Houston
because of air conditioning costs.
The project was quite successful. Data indicate that the average
weatherized home saw a reduction of over 14% in kilowatt
usage for the summer months, as compared to the same
period in 2005. This translated into an average savings of $160
per home.
Because the project was so successful, it has been expanded
to the Lindale and Scott Terrace neighborhoods, where an
additional 1000 homes will see energy efficiency improvements.
The program costs an average of $1000 per home and was
funded by CenterPoint Energy which collects and disburses
wires charges dedicated to energy efficiency.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Ann Travis
Title: Director of Government Affairs
Department: Mayor's Office of Government Affairs
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 713.247.1520
ENERGY SOURCES
JAMESTOWN
NEW YORK
LAKELAND
FLORIDA
Samuel Teresi, Mayor
Ralph L. “Buddy” Fletcher, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City of Jamestown, New York, Board of Public Utilities
(BPU) installed an award-winning district heating energy
conservation system to maximize the useful energy from fossil
fuel energy burned at the BPU’s power plant. District heating
is a cogeneration system that utilizes waste heat from combustion
that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The
BPU began installation of this system in the mid-1980s and
has significantly expanded the system to over 60 customers.
Installation of the system has also allowed the retirement of
many older and less efficient boilers, with resulting decreases
in greenhouse gas emissions.
LED TRAFFIC SIGNAL LAMPS AND OFF-GRID LIGHTING
The City of Lakeland retrofitted 156 intersections with LED
lamps. The replaced incandescent lamps used 135 watts each
and the installed LED lamps use only 11 watts. This upgrade
resulted in a savings of more than 90%. Additional benefits
include reduced emissions, cost savings to the Public Works
Department and reduced maintenance time and expenses.
The cost of the LED lamps exceeded $100,000 and a $50,000
federal grant absorbed some of these costs.
BENEFITS & COSTS
The district heating system utilizes heat that would otherwise
be wasted and improves the load efficiency of the municipal
utility’s plant, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Also,
many of the systems customers have replaced older inefficient
steam boilers with district heating. This source of energy not
only saves the customers from 25 to 50% on their heating and
domestic hot water bills, but also saves the customer considerable expense for boiler maintenance, chemical treatment and
possible stack emission assessments.
Bond money was secured for construction of the pilot district
heating system. The project is paid for through rates to the
district heating customers. The project is cost-effective because
it uses a product (steam) that would otherwise be wasted and
saves many customers the costs associated with older less
efficient boilers that used to provide heating.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Walter Haase
Title: General Manager
Department: Jamestown Board of Public Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 716.661.1670
The City also has 20 solar powered streetlights located at sites
where electricity is unavailable, including in parks or on boat
ramps, or where the cost to provide electricity is prohibitive.
These lights increase safety to public in areas that otherwise
would not be lit, therefore preventing injuries and reducing
crime. The lights were purchased at a then-high cost of
nearly $50,000.
CITY OWNED SOLAR WATER HEATING PROGRAM
Lakeland’s electric utility owns and operates 55 “metered”
solar residential water heaters. The City installs these individual
solar heaters directly onto the roofs of residential customers.
Utility grade metering equipment quantifies this solar energy
(heat) and it is sold to customers as a separate product. The
solar energy charge is a separate line item on customers’
monthly bills.
Benefits of using solar water heaters include reduced electricity
use during peak times, an enhanced image with conservationists,
access to a new revenue source, reduced emissions, improved
health, and satisfied customers. Customers benefit from the
lack of risks associated with owning solar heaters, not having
to pay maintenance costs for heaters, gaining a real estate
asset, having hot water during outages, and by being exempt
from solar heat rate increases. The purchase and installation
cost for solar water heaters was $2200. Grants supplemented
the cost of the first 50 systems and the city will fund additional
solar heaters or expansions of this program.
SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS
Lakeland is the host location for 23 photovoltaic (PV) systems;
17 are utility-owned and six are privately owned. These systems
produce 53 kilowatts and are grid-linked. Customers with PV
systems receive credit for surplus energy entering the grid at
the full retail electric rate.
The community benefits from PV systems in several ways. The
17 systems installed on public schools and provide educational
materials to those schools. All of the systems called “distributed generators” are in neighborhoods where the energy is
most needed. These systems have cash value through Renewable
Energy Credits (REC’s). They increase the utility’s use of
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
45
LAKELAND
FLORIDA
LONG BEACH
CALIFORNIA
Ralph L. “Buddy” Fletcher, Mayor
Beverly O’Neill, Mayor
alternative fuels and enhance their public image. Use of PV
systems also reduces emissions to the environment subsequently
enhancing the health of Lakeland citizens.
BACKGROUND
Within the downtown area and along the seashore of Long
Beach is one of the largest oil operations in the world. In a
partnership with the State of California, the City of Long Beach
manages the oil operations with its contractor Occidental
Petroleum to ensure all environmental aspects and concerns
are addressed while still providing all mineral interest owners
substantial revenue from the oil and gas production.
The total cost for all the PV systems was nearly $500,000. DOE
and the State of Florida funded about 80% of this cost and
the remainder was cost-shared with the City of Lakeland’s
salaries.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Jeff Curry
Title: Alternate Energy Coordinator
Department: Electric Utility
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 863.834.6853
The challenge has been to develop the vast oil field without
adversely affecting the scenic beauty, natural resource, or
quality of life in and around the City of Long Beach. The
unique result has been the creation of four 10-acre islands just
offshore to house the oil facilities. The islands were built to
resemble resort islands to blend in with the surrounding coastal
environment. Now it is a model operation demonstrating how
technology can be used to mitigate the impact of oil operations
in and around sensitive environments. The islands were
constructed to present the smallest possible area towards the
shoreline while still maximizing the usable area on the island
for the oil operations. To enhance the four islands, waterfalls
as well as palm trees and shrubs set against abstract concrete
walls and 180 foot tall towers all dramatically lit at night to
camouflage and to ensure any noise from the oil derricks and
day to day operations is contained.
BENEFITS OF PROGRAM
Only due to the City’s proactive management of all environmental concerns of the oil operations such as noise, odors, and
visual aesthetics has the continued production of oil and gas
been allowed to continue. The oil operation has produced
over 900 million barrels of oil that has fed the local refiners,
reducing both the amount of ships entering the Port supplying
oil and reliance on foreign supplies. The oil and gas production
has provided the State of California over $4.2 billion in
revenues since 1965. The continued operations afford and
opportunity to the surrounding community in providing over
500 skilled jobs.
COST OF PROGRAM
The project is self-funded by the revenue generated by the oil
and gas revenue. The current fiscal budget has over $270
million in expenditures and generates over $300 million in
net revenue.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Christopher J. Garner
Title: Director
Department: Long Beach Gas and Oil
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 562.570.2001
46 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
ENERGY SOURCES
MEDFORD
MASSACHUSETTS
Michael J. McGlynn, Mayor
MEDFORD LEADS WITH CLEAN ENERGY CAMPAIGN
The Medford Clean Energy Committee (MCEC) was established
in January 2004 by Mayor Michael McGlynn consisting of nine
appointed members charged with educating the public on
clean, renewable energy and investigating opportunities for
renewable energy projects within the City of Medford. Since
October 2004 the MCEC and the City of Medford’s Energy and
Environment Office have been working with the Massachusetts
Technology Collaborative (MTC) on the Medford Leads with
Clean Energy Campaign to educate the Medford community on
clean, renewable energy and to generate support for the future
siting of renewable technology within the City and the
Commonwealth.
The MCEC successfully achieved this Campaign by:

Providing Medford residents with an easy way to learn
basics about renewable energy; a framework for positive
action residents can follow, and a reliable way to measure
positive community action;

Developing and participating in local events to integrate
MCEC with the community;

Using the Mayor’s office, City Hall, City Council, Medford
Public Schools, and MTC as asset to leverage efforts;

Emphasizing current use of renewables in the City of
Medford;

Having every member of the MCEC involved in this
outreach program;

Used joint partnerships with local allied organizations;

Focusing activities and programs that resulted in measurable
results; and

Developing tools and materials long-term in nature to
ensure that the message will be ongoing.
part of your electricity generated from renewable resources—
while earning MTC’s Clean Energy Choice Matching Grants for
Medford (www.cleanenergychoice.org). During the Campaign
the website was a great tool for residents of all ages including
children to learn about clean energ y. Almost 3,000 people visited
the website in an eight month period. The website will continue
to be a source of public outreach in the future, and provide a
means for the MCEC to educate and track its efforts. It is
estimated that about 39,000 residents were reached in some
way by this Campaign.
In October 2004, the MCEC was awarded $15,000 to participate
in MTC’s Education and Outreach Awareness Program which
funded the Medford Leads with Clean Energy Campaign.
Through this Campaign the City of Medford has earned almost
$20,000 in MTC Clean Energy Choice matching grants that
will be used for future renewable energy related projects
throughout the City. This grant set a strong foundation for the
Campaign. The next steps include continued public outreach
and implementation of additional renewable energy projects
throughout the City. Currently, the MCEC is actively pursuing
installation of a wind turbine at its public schools.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Patricia L. Barry
Title: Environmental Agent
Department: Energy & Environment Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 781.393.2137
Prior to this, the City had been working on a number of clean
energy initiatives including the installation of solar panels on
City Hall and Hormel Stadium, conducting preliminary wind
energy feasibility studies and coordinating field trips to Hull
Wind Turbine and the IBEW turbine with Mass Energy
Consumers Alliance (Mass Energy) for a group of about 200
Medford students.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The Medford Leads with Clean Energy Campaign consisted of
the creation of numerous public outreach materials including
poster/flyers, banners, website, direct mailing, and PR materials,
and several public outreach events. The two most notable
successes of the Campaign were the creation of a renewable
energy website (www.medfordcleanenergy.org) and the
amount of households that signed up for National Grid’s
GreenUp Program which allows you to choose to have all or
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
47
SAINT PAUL
MINNESOTA
Chris Coleman, Mayor
BACKGROUND
As part of St. Paul’s CO2 Reduction Plan and Environmental/
Economic Partnership Project, the City Council adopted policy
to reduce CO2 emissions by 20% and contains a detailed
listing of City projects to achieve this goal. A major component
of the Partnership involves providing clean energy to commercial,
residential and municipal customers.
District Energy Saint Paul owns and operates the largest hot
water district heating system in North America, in addition to a
large chilled water cooling system. District Energy brings green
energy to downtown buildings from a new combined heat and
power plant fueled by 100% clean wood waste from throughout
the Twin Cities Metro Area.
community solve a local wood waste disposal problem.
Efficiency gains over the previous steam heating system allow
District Energy to heat twice the building space with the same
amount of fuel, and the closed-loop distribution system has
eliminated the use of groundwater for heating and cooling.
The district cooling system utilizes two chilled water storage
tanks which produce chilled water at night using off-peak
electricity for daytime distribution to customers.
District energy systems can offer many environmental benefits.
They increase energy efficiency; reduce greenhouse gas
emissions and other air pollution; decrease emissions of ozonedepleting refrigerants; enhance fuel flexibility; facilitate the
use of renewable energy; and help manage the demand
for electricity.
Estimated Annual Savings
■
Tons CO2 reduction = 280,000
■
$10,000,000 to customers vs. operating their own
on-site heating and cooling systems (grows with price
of natural gas)
■
Total production capacity of 1,293,000 MMBTU
combined heat and power at 100% efficiency
Saint Paul Cogeneration, the wood-fueled combined heat and
power (CHP) plant that provides heat to District Energy Saint
Paul and electricity to Xcel Energy, and the largest wood-fired
CHP plant serving a district energy system in the United States,
won the 2005 Minnesota Environmental Initiative Award in the
Energy category.
CONTACT INFORMATION
District Energy Saint Paul currently provides heating service to
more than 170 buildings and 300 single-family homes,
representing over 29 million square feet of building space, or
80% of Saint Paul’s central business district and adjacent areas.
District Energy continues expanding service areas well beyond
downtown every year.
Buildings connected to a district heating system do not need
boilers and auxiliary equipment, freeing up valuable space for
other uses. Each building has its own heat exchanger and
control valve, which transfers thermal energy from the
district heating system water to the building’s
heating system water. Cooled water is then
returned to District Energy’s main plant to be
reheated and circulated once again to
buildings connected to the system.
District Energy St. Paul uses wood chips,
natural gas, oil or clean-burning coal to
fuel its district heating and cooling
systems. With the April 2003 startup
of an on-site wood-waste-fired
combined heat and power facility,
managed by an affiliate, the company
has reduced its reliance on coal and oil
by 80% and its soot (particulate) emissions by 50%. This produces significant
environmental benefits and helps the
48 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
Name: Rick Person
Title: Program Administrator
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 651.266.6122
ENERGY SOURCES
SAN JOSE
CALIFORNIA
Ron Gonzales, Mayor
BACKGROUND
In 2003, the San Jose City Council adopted the San Jose
Sustainable Energy Policy and Action Plan. Within that Policy,
goals were adopted to 1) lead by example in pursuing the most
efficient use of energy in city facilities and activities; 2) explore
opportunities to improve energy reliability, supply and price
stability to meet current and future needs; 3) promote
collaboration on energy issues; 4) promote and achieve a
cleaner and healthier environment, including improving air
quality and reducing greenhouse gas emissions; and 5)
encouraging the development and use of renewable energy
sources and alternative fuels.
An annual action plan provides a comprehensive, city-wide
series of programs and activities to achieve the goals adopted
as part of the Sustainable Energy Policy.
BENEFITS & COSTS
Since April 2001, City departments have achieved an overall
18% reduction in electricity usage, exceeding the 12% goal
established by the Mayor. City departments have avoided more
than $17M in electricity utility expenditures since April 2001
through a combination of behavioral changes and energy
efficiency improvements.
The City is completing a two year, $2.1M contract with Pacific
Gas & Electric that provided incentives and rebates for energy
installations in the small business community. Negotiations
are underway for a 2006-08 contract with Pacific Gas & Electric
for a $500,000 contract to provide training, education and
outreach for the San Jose community on energy efficiency.
The San Jose City Council is providing $1M for a low-income
energy installation program for eligible households in San Jose.
This is just a preliminary listing of the activities underway in
San Jose. Not listed are the time and resources provided by the
members of the Interdepartmental Energy Team—staff from
across the City Departments who meet to plan and act on
energy activities throughout the City, including the
implementation of green building design for new city facilities.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Mary Tucker
Title: Supervising Environmental Services Specialist
Department: Environmental Services Department
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 408.975.2581
As a result of a collaboration between the City and Pacific Gas
& Electric, more than 600 small businesses received direct
incentives and installations of energy efficiency measures,
totaling more than $850,000, equating to 1,163 kW of
energy saved.
The City has joined with major businesses and organizations
throughout San Jose/Silicon Valley and achieved emission
reductions in city facilities of over 89,000 metric tons of
carbon dioxide.
The Environmental Services Department has 0.5 FTE allocated
to the coordination of all energy programs across the City at a
cost of approximately $47,000. The General Services
D e p a rtment has 0.5 FTE allocated to coordination of city facility/
energy installations at a cost of approximately $37,000.
In 2004, the City established a City Energy Efficiency Fund with
an initial allocation of $56,000 for the installation of energy
efficiency measures in City facilities. Capital improvement
budgets for energy installations were also adopted for Public
Safety and Parks facilities at an allocation of $130,000.
Recently, a capital allocation of $200,000 was approved for
the rehabilitation of the cogeneration system at the City’s
Convention Center.
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
49
SAN MARCOS
TEXAS
SANTA BARBARA
CALIFORNIA
Susan Narvaiz, Mayor
Marty Blum, Mayor
SAN MARCOS POWERHOUSE ENERGY INVESTIGATION
PROGRAM
The San Marcos PowerHouse Energy Investigation Program
focuses on electricity generation, transmission and the use of
renewable and non-renewable resources. It was developed for
and is offered to all Wholesale Customers in Central Texas by
the Lower Colorado River Authority.
BACKGROUND
The City of Santa Barbara uses digester gas from the anaerobic
digesters at its wastewater treatment plant and two 250 kW
fuel cells to generate electricity and heat for use at the
treatment plant. The fuel cells are sized to supply the baseline
energy requirements for the plant, and are able to produce
approximately half of the plant’s total electricity demand. The
project is noteworthy both for the use of molten carbonate
fuel cells with digester gas as a hydrogen source and for the
manner in which it is managed. The project is a public/private
partnership whereby the fuel cells are located on City property,
but are owned and operated by Alliance-Monterey LLC., who is
selling the generated electricity to the City for use at the plant.
The City of San Marcos Electric Department purchases program
materials for the 600 sixth grade students in the area, at an
annual cost of $14,000 to raise awareness of energy efficiency
and resource conservation. Each student is given a workbook
to take home and fill out with parents. The PowerHouse
workbook asks for details concerning electrical appliances and
water use, and other energy resources used at the student’s
home. Students and parents alike learn about the everyday
impacts they have on natural resources.
Benefits include lessons in energy efficiency, safety and
resource conservation. Furthermore, customer awareness and
knowledge are increased and future purchases and electric use
can be positively affected.
SAN MARCOS ELECTRIC OUTREACH
The City of San Marcos Electric Department provides an
ongoing outreach program as part of standard customer
service. The program, open to all customers and the public,
promotes electricity safety, best comfort and use of energy
practices, unbiased advice on appliance purchases, and a
non-commercial source of energy information. The program
provides visits and presentations to groups as needed or
requested.
Benefits include increased awareness by customers of electricity
used and impacts on their budget and the environment. The
program costs the City of San Marcos Electric Department an
estimated at $6,500 per year, plus the salaries of Electric
Department Personnel.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Oscar Hairell
Title: Equipment Services Manager
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 512.393.8034
50 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
BENEFITS AND COSTS
Benefits of the fuel cell program are three-fold: 1. Electricity
generated from the fuel cells is sold to the City at a cost below
that of the local electric utility. Further, there are no peak rates
or demand factors for electricity from the fuel cells. 2. Prior to
installation of the fuel cells, digester gas was flared. Using the
electrochemical process of the fuel cells reduces air emissions
by up to 5,000 lbs per year. The economic value of the reduced
air emissions, if sold as pollutant credits, is approximately
$50,000 per year. 3. Because the fuel cells are among the first
installed at a wastewater treatment plant, this project serves as
a demonstration for other wastewater plants.
The project is a public/private partnership. Because the electricity
generated by the fuel cells is less expensive than that sold to
the City by the local electric utility, there is a net economic
benefit to the City of approximately $20,000 per year given
current electricity prices. All capital and operating costs are
paid by Alliance-Monterey LLC, the private partner. Costs for
purchasing electricity are paid from the City’s wastewater fund
operating budget.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Rebecca Bjork
Title: Wastewater System Manager
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 805 897.1914
ENERGY SOURCES
SANTA MONICA
CALIFORNIA
YUMA
ARIZONA
Richard Holbrook, Mayor
Larry Nelson, Mayor
Through a Million Solar Roofs grant, the City of Santa Monica
performed a detailed analysis of the physical potential of the
community’s building infrastructure. The study concluded that
integration of energy efficiency, solar, and clean distributed
generation efforts over the next 15–20 years would result in
the on-site generation of enough power to meet the net
annual energy requirements of the City and may even allow
the community to become a net exporter of electricity.
BACKGROUND
Reusable Solar Energy: The City of Yuma and Arizona Public
Service (APS) have installed a Solar Garden at the Yuma West
Wetlands. It is a solar energy plant that contains 24 single axis
photovoltaic trackers that rotate approximately 80 degrees
from 9:30 am to 3:30 pm. The rotation of the panels utilizes a
clock, controller and a hydraulic pump that move each
photovoltaic panel two degrees every eight minutes. Currently,
the 24 single axis photovoltaic trackers produce a total of 86.4
kW of power that is fed directly into the electrical grid. This
generates enough electricity to power 20 homes in the area
and will become a future energy source for the park.
This policy initiative would move Santa Monica toward
community energy independence. The City Council approved
a two year Community Energy Independence Initiative (CEII)
demonstration project that will demonstrate to residents and
businesses how effectively energy efficiency, solar energy, and
distributed generation work together and how energy
independence provides economic benefit to the community.
Up to 50 residential, commercial, and municipal buildings are
being solicited to voluntarily participate in the demonstration
program.
The table below illustrates the numerous benefits of the CEII.
The 15 months of the demonstration project (through FY
2006–2007) will be funded by the City’s Energy Efficiency/
Conservation Fund that was established in 2001 with one-time
utility user tax revenues totaling over $600,000.
BENEFITS & COSTS
The Yuma West Wetlands’ APS Solar Garden is an innovative
approach to alternative energy. It serves as an educational tool
where the community is able to experience the fascinating
breakthrough technology in solar energy. It also comes
equipped with an educational area where it explains the
advantages of solar energy and how the photovoltaic panels
work. It has also created vast awareness in the community
regarding clean, reusable energy.
This project was funded through the APS Technology
Development Department and the City of Yuma partnership.
The total cost incurred for the development of the Yuma West
Wetlands’ Solar Garden Power Plant was $500,000.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Susan Munves
Title: Energy and Green Building Administrator
Department: Environmental and Public Works Management
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 310.458.8229
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Diana Aguirre
Title: City Administration Intern
Department: City Administration
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 928.373.5000 Ext. 1010
kWh saved per year
Annual value of energy saved
Tons of CO2 mitigated
Year 1 293,095
Year 1 $ 43,964
Year 1 103.2
Year 2 927,465
Year 2 $139,120
Year 2 326.7
Total 1,220,560
Total $183,084
Total 429.9
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
51
FUELS, VEHICLES & TRANSIT
ALBUQUERQUE
NEW MEXICO
ASHEVILLE
NORTH CAROLINA
Martin J. Chávez, Mayor
Terry Bellamy, Mayor
On March 1, 2006, Mayor Chávez issued Executive Instruction
Number 19 requiring that all City of Albuquerque motor
vehicle purchases be alternative fuel vehicles. Ultimately, the
City’s target is for 100% of its rolling fleet to be powered with
alternative energy sources.
OVERVIEW
In 2000, the City adopted an Alternative Fueled Vehicle Policy.
Along with its State grant, partners, the City constructed and
put into service a public access compressed natural fueling
station in November 2005. Currently 23 alternative fueled
vehicles are in service (CNG, electric and hybrids). Low sulfur
diesel fuel also was purchased.
In addition, the City of Albuquerque’s Transit Department, ABQ
Ride, provides carpool matching. The program is currently in
the process of acquiring new software that will enable all customer service representatives to provide carpool matches when
they call 243-RIDE. With the introduction of Albuquerque’s
Rapid Ride system, additional hybrid diesel/electric buses will
provide and enhance transportation alternatives for
Albuquerque’s citizens.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Richard Kennedy
Title: Deputy Director
Department: Environmental Health Department
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 505.768.2625
52 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The City has realized emission reductions, fuel savings by
decreasing its vehicle fleet by 70 vehicles and leadership in
the community.
The CNG fueling station cost was $400,000. The City received
a $100,000 grant. Matching and Incremental costs at about
25% were paid from the General Fund and grants.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Terry Albrecht
Title: WRP Program Director, Land of Sky Regional Council
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 828.251.6622
FUELS, VEHICLES & TRANSIT
AUSTIN
TEXAS
Will Wynn, Mayor
BACKGROUND
Austin’s Plug-in Partners Campaign, is a national grass-roots
initiative, initiated and organized by the City of Austin, to
demonstrate to automakers that a market for Flexible-Fuel
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) exists today. Our
National Campaign will demonstrate the viability of this
market by:
scale of the space program of earlier decades. The letter was
also sent to President George W. Bush. Signers included,
among many others, former CIA Director James Wo o l s e y, former
National Security Advisor Robert McFarlane, and former
Secretary of Energy James Watkins. Widespread development
of PHEVs is a prime recommendation of the group.

Garnering support in the form of online petitions and
endorsements by cities across the country.

Procuring “soft” fleet orders.

Developing rebates and incentives.
Environmentally, plug-in hybrids could give millions of
American commuters a “gasoline-free” daily commute,
slashing the amount of greenhouse gases and other pollutants
being released into the environment. Also, the air quality
benefits would be magnified if plug-in hybrids were combined
with already existing flexible fuel technology. Flexible fuel
plug-in hybrids would also benefit American agriculture. For
instance, biofuels could come from corn crops, which would
give American farmers more business. Additionally, plug-in
hybrids, like conventional hybrids, do not idle when sitting still.
Estimates are that in urban driving, idling translates to about
10%–15% of total vehicle carbon emissions.
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles are outfitted with a battery pack
sufficient to power the vehicle from 20 to 60 miles on battery
charge alone. Considering that half the cars on America’s roads
are driven 25 miles a day or less, a plug-in with a 25-mile
range battery could eliminate gasoline use in the daily commute
of millions of Americans. The cost of an equivalent electric
gallon of gas is estimated to be less than $1.00.
Basically, PHEVs use the same technology as the popular
hybrids on the road today, but have a larger battery that can
be recharged by plugging into a standard home outlet.
KEY PHEV ATTRIBUTES:

Gets about twice the fuel economy of a conventional vehicle
and 30–50% better fuel economy than a standard hybrid.

Plugs into a standard electrical outlet to receive charge.

Depending on design and battery size, it can be driven 20
to 60 miles without the use of gasoline.
PHEV technology can also be combined with existing flexible
fuel technology to increase fuel efficiency even further as well
as further reduce greenhouse gases and imported oil.
A motorist driving 9,000 annual gasoline-free miles and
3,000 using gasoline would get 100 mpg (based on
vehicles that get 25 mpg).
BENEFITS & COSTS
The primary focus of the Plug-in Partners campaign is to reduce
dependency on foreign oil, reduce greenhouse gas emissions,
and improve the American economy. In recent years, a growing
awareness has developed that the United States’ dependence
on foreign oil is a national security issue. Recently, a bipartisan
coalition of leaders in the field of national security joined with
environmental and renewable energy advocates to sign an
Open Letter to the American People. The letter calls on the
nation to implement strategies for energy independence on the
Economically, Plug-in hybrids vehicles have several advantages.
Plug-in hybrid vehicles can range from 20 to 60 miles without
the use of gasoline after being charged in a standard electrical
outlet. That means tens of millions of motorists could make
their daily commute using little, if any, gasoline. A motorist
driving 9,000 annual gasoline-free miles and 3,000 using
gasoline would get 100 mpg (based on vehicles that get 25
mpg). These savings would be even more dramatic if plug-in
technology is combined with already-existing flexible fuel
technology. Also, in using flexible-fuel, American crops, such
as corn, could be used to fuel the vehicles. This, in turn makes
American agriculture a fuel source while also creating and
saving American jobs.
The City of Austin allocated $1,000,000 to achieve all aspects
of this campaign.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Lisa Braithwaite
Title: Municipal Program Professional
Department: Austin Energy
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 512.322.6511
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
53
BOSTON
MASSACHUSETTS
Thomas M. Menino, Mayor
CITY OF BOSTON FLEET POLICY AND PROMOTION OF
ALTERNATIVE-FUEL VEHICLES
In September 2005, Mayor Menino announced that all new
vehicles purchased by the City of Boston will be alternative fuel
vehicles or vehicles with similar fuel economy. Additionally, 450
City vehicles that currently run on diesel fuel will begin using
bio-diesel, a clean, domestically produced fuel, blended with
ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD).
Beyond its own procurement, Boston actively promotes the
wider use of alternative-fuel vehicles. Mayor Menino supports
the National Plug-In Partner Campaign, a national effort to
encourage manufacturers to produce flexible-fuel plug-in
hybrid vehicles. In 2006, Boston will co-host the 4th annual
AltWheels Transportation Festival at City Hall Plaza. The festival
exhibits working electric, solar, flex-fuel and hybrid vehicles and
discusses the issues—practical, economic, and political—
surrounding their use.
RETROFIT OF SCHOOL BUS FLEET WITH POLLUTION
CONTROL EQUIPMENT
Using $3.25 million from an EPA enforcement case settlement
with a local power plant, Boston is retrofitting 500 school
buses with pollution control equipment and supplying them
with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD).
Once completed in 2006, Boston will be the first major city in
the country to retrofit its entire school bus fleet. The project
will reduce tail pipe emissions from the buses, primarily SO2,
CO, and particulates by more than 90%. Additionally, there
will be a slight reduction in CO2 emissions
TRANSPORTATION ACCESS PLAN AGREEMENTS (TAPAS)
The Boston Transportation Department negotiates TAPAs for
large projects and institutional master plans subject to review
by the Boston Redevelopment Authority. A central component
of these agreements is the transportation demand management
(TDM) measures to reduce the dependence of residents,
employees, and visitors on their automobiles and encourage
trip reduction and the use of mass transit and to manage the
flow of workers and equipment during construction.
PARKING: FREEZES, STICKERS & RATES
Boston administers several parking programs that work
together to discourage commuters, especially those in singleoccupancy vehicles, from driving into the city. Parking freezes
administered by the Air Pollution Control Commission in three
areas of the city place caps on the number of off-street parking
spaces of various types (e.g. commercial, residential).
54 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
In many Boston neighborhoods, residents with Bostonregistered vehicles are eligible for parking stickers that allow
them to park on street in spaces reserved for neighborhood
use. The rates and maximum times at on-street parking meters
and rates at some parking garages are set to deter commuters
from using those spaces.
SAVE GAS, WALK BOSTON
Boston is implementing a campaign to encourage more people,
residents and visitors, to walk around the city. Most recently,
the City experienced “Sneakers on Statues” where people
were invited to “visit…famous statues and see what they’ve
got on their feet.”
On a more practical level, the City has developed pedestrian
safety guidelines to ensure that streets, intersections, and other
parts of the city’s infrastructure are designed with pedestrians
in mind. The City is investing $24 million in City Walks, and
aggressive three-year road and sidewalk repair project, and
$450,000 in the Walk Safe initiative, launched by Mayor
Menino in May, to repaint crosswalks, especially at busy
intersections, to provide safe pedestrian access in the city’s
neighborhoods.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Bryan Glascock
Title: Director
Department: Environment Department
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 617.635.3850
FUELS, VEHICLES & TRANSIT
CHARLOTTE
NORTH CAROLINA
Patrick McCrory, Mayor
The Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) has made significant
strides in lowering vehicle emissions and promoting
environmental stewardship in its operating practices since
its inception. Some of the major initiatives and programs
that CATS has implemented recently include:
EARLY IMPLEMENTATION OF ULTRA LOW SULFUR
DIESEL (ULSD)
Since June 2003, CATS has been introducing ULSD into its
fleet. Currently, CATS fuels more than 60 vehicles with ULSD,
which is currently trucked in from Doraville, Georgia. CATS also
partners with CMS on the ULSD purchase so that the CMS
fleet with diesel particulate filters installed can operate on
ULSD. In October 2007, the entire CATS fleet will be using ULSD
as part of an EPA mandate. The use of ULSD in diesel vehicles
alone will reduce the soot in diesel exhaust by up to 20%.
CLEAR THE AIR PROGRAM
Since 1997, the transit system has conducted an annual “Clear
the Air” campaign during the heavy Ozone season. This annual
program includes radio, billboard and newspaper messages on
the issues of ground level ozone. Numerous transportation fairs
are conducted with local businesses encouraging employees to
carpool, especially on Ozone Action Days. CATS coordinates the
Clear the Air Program to promote alternative methods of transportation within the region from May to September each year.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Elizabeth Presuitti
Title: Transit Project Planner
Department: CATS, Charlotte Area Transit System
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 704.432.1275
DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER (DPF) INSTALLATION
In June 2003, CATS began a pilot program to install DPFs on
three buses operating on ULSD. The pilot was so successful in
reducing emissions that all new buses since 2005 have come
with DPFs already installed. Furthermore, CATS has obtained
grant funding to purchase over 90 DPFs in the coming year to
retrofit older buses with a useful life of more than ten years.
DPFs in conjunction with ULSD fuel have proven to reduce
90% of Particulate Matter (PM), Hydrocarbon and Carbon
Monoxide emissions
HYBRID BUS PILOT PROGRAM
In August 2005, CATS put into service two hybrid buses as part
of a pilot program. To date, the vehicles are performing as
expected and provide many benefits to the operations and well
as CATS customers. These include: improved fuel economy,
lower emissions, and a smother and quieter ride for customers.
The fuel economy alone has improved by as much as 50%,
depending upon the operating environment.
HYBRID STAFF CAR PROGRAM
Since hybrid cars have been available to purchase via City
contracts, CATS has been an active participant in this program.
To date, CATS has purchased six hybrid staff cars.
ANTI-IDLING POLICY
In October 2004, CATS implemented an Anti-Idling Policy for
all CATS vehicles. CATS-owned transit and service vehicles are
not permitted to idle for more than 10 minutes at a CATS
Operations Facility or while in service (including layover) and
not idle for more than 5 minutes in an enclosed area, unless in
an extraordinary operating condition. This has proven to be
very effective in reducing the fuel consumption by CATS
vehicles by as much as 20%.
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
55
DENVER
COLORADO
ELKHART
INDIANA
John W. Hickenlooper, Mayor
David L. Miller, Mayor
The Mayor’s Sustainable Development Initiative—Greenprint
Denver—was announced in April 2005, and a city-wide
inventory and strategic plan completed to determine priority
activities, including energy and emissions as a priority area
for action.
BACKGROUND
The City of Elkhart continues to invest in initiatives designed
to improve the local environment. One initiative, under the
direction of the Department of Administration, entails the City’s
Central Garage using hybrid and flex-fuel (E–85) compatible
vehicles. The City fleet uses two Toyota Prius hybrid vehicles
and 24 Ford Taurus vehicles that operate on E–85 flex-fuel.
Presently, it is not practical to convert the entire City fleet to
hybrids or flex-fuel compatible vehicles. As older vehicles are
phased out, however, environmentally friendly automobiles
will be added to the fleet at an increasing rate.
The 2007 Action Plan includes substantial reductions in city
vehicle miles traveled, and conversion of the entire diesel fleet
to B20 biodiesel. In addition, all general passenger vehicles and
light duty trucks due for replacement will be replaced with
hybrid powered vehicles or, where those are not available,
the highest fuel mileage/lowest carbon emissions per mile
vehicles available.
Denver also coined the term “green fleet” in the early 1990’s
and launched one of the first large-scale programs in the
country. By 2005, this included a fleet of 57 hybrid electric
vehicles, dozens of alternative fueled vehicles and a large
portion of Denver’s diesel fleet powered by B20 biodiesel.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The most significant benefit of this initiative is the decrease of
harmful exhaust emissions released by City vehicles. This not
only directly influences the level of harmful exhaust emissions
in the air, but also sets a positive example for citizens to follow.
In addition, hybrid and flex-fuel vehicles are typically more fuel
efficient, which decreases the cost of fuel.
CONTACT INFORMATION
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Andrew Wallach
Title: Assistant to Mayor
Department: Mayor’s Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 720.865.9033
Name: Nicolas T. Schafer
Title: Environmental Programs Supervisor
Department: Public Works and Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 574.293.2572
56 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
FUELS, VEHICLES & TRANSIT
EUGENE
OREGON
HAYWARD
CALIFORNIA
Kitty Piercy, Mayor
Roberta Cooper, Mayor
VEHICLE FUEL EFFICIENCY
The City of Eugene non-police sedan fleet is now 53% hybrid
vehicles. There are 71 hybrid vehicles now in the City fleet. It
has become standard procedure to replace vehicles with
hybrids whenever possible. The City also uses fuel-efficient
mini-trucks for downtown maintenance.
BACKGROUND
Hayward has implemented an Alternative Fuel Vehicle program.
Currently, the city operates 12 AFVs operate on hybrid
(gas/electric), compressed natural gas, liquid propane gas,
or electric technology. The focus for the future is on hybrid
vehicles. The City has four more hybrid vehicles on order for
its fleet to replace standard gas engine vehicles.
ALTERNATIVE FUELS
B20 (20% biodiesel) has been in use in all City diesel vehicles
since Aug 2003. We have also begun using ultra low-sulfur
diesel. Additionally a pilot project is now underway using B50
(50% biodiesel) in heavy equipment. All gasoline vehicles in the
City fleet use E10 (10% ethanol). All-electric vehicles are a part
of the City fleet as well.
BENEFITS & COSTS
The use of AFVs has reduced fuel costs by about 35 to 40%
over conventional gas engine powered vehicles. The City has
also realized significant reductions in tailpipe emissions.
Vehicles operating under full electric power do not produce
any tailpipe emissions.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
We’ve seen an overall cost decrease of 14%, on a per mile
basis, to operate a hybrid vehicle. Fuel efficiency is nearly
double, from 23 to 42 mpg, cutting both cost and emissions.
In short, the use of Hybrids significantly improves life cycle
cost while improving the environment.
The Bay Area Air Quality Management District offers Vehicle
Incentive Program funds to fleets to help offset their slightly
higher purchase price. VIP grants up to $2,000 per new AFV
vehicle purchased. With the increased fuel efficiency and
reliability of these AFVs, the reduced operating costs quickly
recoup the extra money required to purchase the vehicle.
In 2004, the use of B20 in place of standard diesel was
responsible for reducing CO2 emission by over 500,000 lbs.
CONTACT INFORMATION
The State of Oregon allows municipalities to use the Business
Energy Tax Credit program on a pass-through basis. This
program offsets a large portion of the incremental cost of the
hybrid vehicles that we purchase. Any remaining added costs
would be borne by the individual department purchasing a
vehicle. Additional cost for E10, B20 and B50 fuels have been
insignificant, but again have been included in the cost of fuel
paid for by the users.
Name: Alex Ameri
Title: Deputy Director of Public Works—Utilities
Department: Public Works—Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 510.583.4720
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Lynne Eichner-Kelley
Title: Sustainable Operations Analyst
Department: Central Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 541.682.5083
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
57
HOUSTON
TEXAS
Bill White, Mayor
FLEX IN THE CITY
Houston is working with large employers to develop flexible
work schedules, including telecommuting, for employees. The
program has a measurable impact on Houston’s freeways, with
time and cost savings for motorists. The reduced traffic
congestion translates into reduced emissions, and because
some of the flexible schedules require fewer days of work per
week, the number of trips is reduced.
The project successfully showed that motorists’ time and
money could be saved without loss of productivity to
businesses. The project also saves taxpayers the millions of
dollars it would cost to build enough road-lane capacity to
achieve the same kind of improvement in mobility that was
seen through this program.
More than 140 organizations registered for the two-week
Flex in the City program as participants and/or supporters;
anticipating more than 20,000 employees eliminating an
additional peak-time commute through teleworking/
telecommuting; compressed workweeks (same number
of work hours in fewer days); or shifting their commute
to before or after peak-time commute hours.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
Employers were encouraged to measure the effect of the
flexible work options on productivity while the City measured
effects on Houston’s freeways using Houston TranStar. Traffic
engineers completed the travel time analysis on two Houston
freeways—I-45 north (North Freeway) and US 59 south
(Southwest Freeway). The travel time indicators for the two
weeks of Flex in the City show:

A 1.7-minute or 5.8% travel time-savings. The average
travel time during the week of Sept 11–15 was 29.7
minutes. During the Flex in the City project, the weeks of
Sept. 18 - 29, the travel time average was reduced to
28 minutes.

That is 906 hours a day taken off those two freeways.
(The average travel timesaving of 1.7 minutes for each of
the 8,000 peak-hour commuters for each freeway during
the two peak hours (am/pm) per day).

The combined estimated annual user cost savings for the
more 16,000 peak-hour commuters for the two freeways is
$16.8 million. (Annual road user cost savings includes the
time-savings from a productivity perspective due to travel
time, safety in terms of traffic accident avoidance and
fuel costs.)
58 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
There are 1,434 employee-commuter participants who have
responded to the post Flex in the City survey to date and that
survey shows that:

68% found their commute was faster or much faster than
the previous week

58% found their morning and/or evening stress levels to be
lower or much lower than the previous week

96% found their productivity levels on the job to be the
same or higher than the previous weeks

50% plan to continue working in a flexible work schedule
as a result of participating in Flex in the City.
As a result, Mayor White created a city position for a Director
of Flextime, whose sole responsibility is dedicated to increasing
flextime arrangements with large employers in the public and
private sectors. With this initiative the City of Houston is
leading the way in promoting work place flexibility.
The total cost of the program is approximately $200,000/year.
This is funded through the City’s general fund, which supports
the staff position and associated overhead, and corporate
sponsorships, which underwrite certain pieces of the program.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Ann Travis
Title: Director of Government Affairs
Department: Mayor's Office of Government Affairs
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 713.247.1520
FUELS, VEHICLES & TRANSIT
IRVINE
CALIFORNIA
Beth Krom, Mayor
ZEV-NET SHARED-USE VEHICLES
The City is one of only a few nationwide to support a zeroemission shared-use vehicle program using electric cars.
Initiated in April 2002, the Zero Emission Vehicle-Network
Enabled Transport program (ZEV-NET) makes zero-emission
vehicles available to participating employers to transport
employees to and from the Irvine Transportation Center.
The ZEV-NET initiative is a public-private partnership involving
the City of Irvine, the University of California, Irvine (UCI),
Toyota, The Irvine Company and the Orange County
Transportation Authority. The UCI National Fuel Cell Research
Center leads and manages ZEV-NET along with the UCI
Institute of Transportation Studies. These two units also are
affiliated with The Henry Samueli School of Engineering.
Other collaborators include the California Air Resources Board
and the UCI California Institute for Telecommunications and
Information Technology.
The City (of Irvine) is one of only a few nationwide to
support a zero-emission shared-use vehicle program
using electric cars.
PLUG-IN PARTNERSHIP
The City of Irvine is a founding member of the Plug-in Partners,
a national grass-roots campaign that promotes a market for
flexible-fuel hybrid electric vehicles. The viability of this market
will be demonstrated through development of rebates and
incentives, “soft” fleet orders, petitions and endorsement by
cities across the country. Partners envisioned in this campaign
are local and state governments, utilities, and environmental,
consumer and business organizations. In January 2006, the
Irvine City Council approved a resolution authorizing the City
to support a local “Plug-in City of Irvine” campaign. This
campaign will work with local partners to advocate for the
purchase of flexible-fuel plug-in hybrid vehicles.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Marcia Beckett
Title: Fiscal and Environmental Programs Administrator
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 949.724.6380
Using a web-based system the program enables authorized
drivers to reserve vehicles online for their use during the day.
At the close of each business day vehicles are returned to the
train station and reconnected to battery chargers maintained
by the UCI National Fuel Center Research Center. Key benefits
include less traffic congestion in Irvine, cleaner air quality,
raising awareness of alternate fuels and promoting mass transit
and carpooling.
HYDROGEN FUEL CELL PARTNERSHIP
The City of Irvine is partnering with the National Fuel Center
Research Center at the University of California, Irvine and
Toyota Motor Sales, USA to participate in a pilot program
designed to showcase the future of urban transportation. The
National Fuel Cell Research Center was the first university fuel
cell research center established in the United States. The Center
known to have been in the forefront of emerging hydrogen
technology, in working with Toyota on fuel cell research by
evaluating vehicle performance, reliability and usability.
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
59
LOS ANGELES
CALIFORNIA
Antonio R. Villaraigosa, Mayor
BACKGROUND
In June 2000, the Los Angeles City Council adopted the Clean
Fuel Policy for City-owned heavy-duty vehicles. This included
vehicles in the Bureau of Sanitation’s solid waste collection fleet.
In March 2006, Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa directed the Bureau
of Sanitation to convert its entire fleet of solid waste collection
vehicles from diesel to clean fuel by 2010. This initiative is part
of the Mayor’s commitment to ensure all City residents access
to a better environment, improved health and a higher quality
of life.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
Key accomplishments of the Alternative Fuel Program include:

Enhancing the solid waste collection fleet to include 260
clean fuel vehicles. Now nearly 40% of residential curbside
collection vehicles have liquefied natural gas (LNG) engines.

For engines not yet equipped to operate on LNG, the City
uses ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel to power solid waste
collection vehicles.

Reducing emissions from toxic air contaminants associated
with diesel fuel exhausts including 46.3 tons per year of
NOx and 1.26 tons of PM per year.

An estimated fuel cost saving of $600,000 in fiscal year
2004–2005 by using LNG instead of diesel fuel in solid
waste collection vehicles.

The development and operation of three state-of-the-art
liquefied natural gas/compressed natural gas (LNG/CNG)
refueling stations for solid waste collection vehicles that
have a total combined storage volume of LNG exceeding
110,000 gallons. These stations are in the City of Los
Angeles East Valley and West Valley Yards and in the Harbor
District Collection Yard.

Plans to have another LNG/CNG refueling station operational
by summer 2006 that will be located at the South Los
Angeles District Yard.

Plans underway to design a LNG/CNG station at the City of
Los Angeles North Central District.
The differential cost to equip a solid waste collection vehicle
with a natural gas engine and a diesel counterpart was
$25,000 to $30,000. The cost to build a LNG storage facility
and refueling station for a fleet of approximately 100 solid
waste collection vehicles was about $7,000,000. The City of
Los Angeles, Bureau of Sanitation received more than
$11,000,000 from external grants (Carl Moyer Program,
60 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
Mobile Sources Air Pollution Reduction Review Committee,
California Energy Commission, and U.S. Department of Energy)
to support the Clean Fuel Program for solid waste collection
vehicles. The City’s General Fund supports the remaining costs
for the program.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Alex E. Helou
Title: Division Manager II
Department: Bureau of Sanitation—Solid Resources Support
Services Division
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 213.485.3637
FUELS, VEHICLES & TRANSIT
MILWAUKEE
WISCONSIN
MINNEAPOLIS
MINNESOTA
Tom Barrett, Mayor
R.T. Rybak, Mayor
ALTERNATIVE FUELS PROGRAM:
The City has a total of 135 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs)
which comprise approximately 5% of the vehicle fleet. The AFV
breakdown by fuel type includes:
LPG–131
CNG–1
Electric–3
OVERVIEW
As of March 2006 the City of Minneapolis fleets included 53
E85 vehicles, 5 hybrids, and 3 maintenance shop tricycles. In
2005 City of Minneapolis vehicles and equipment used
1,100,000 gallons of ultra low sulfur unleaded gasoline to
lower emissions and 760,000 gallons of B5 fuel (5% biodiesel).
In 2004 to 2005 the City contracted with a local gas station to
provide E85 fuel to its vehicles but the lack of a convenient
location made using E85 difficult. As a result, the City’s 2006
budget includes the development of an E85 fueling station at
its most heavily used maintenance facility in order to increase
the usage of E85 fuel.
In late 2006, the City will be negotiating a new fuel contract
that includes the purchase of biodiesel at a 2% blend (B2). The
City will convert its full diesel fuel purchase to B2. A total of
923 pieces of equipment are diesel fueled, approximately 35%
of the vehicle fleet.
Other recent sustainability initiatives regarding City fleets include:
Benefits
Use of alternative fuels improves air quality by reducing mobile
source emissions including nitrous oxides, hydrocarbons,
carbon monoxide and particulate matter. In addition, reducing
petroleum use through alternate sources of energy increases
national energy security and lessens US dependence on
foreign oil.

Installed aqueous parts washer in lieu of using mineral solvents

Installed stage-1 vapor recovery system at all City fuel
stations prior to state mandates.

Installing eight catalytic converters on eight diesel trucks to
reduce carbon monoxide emissions.

Maintain vehicles and equipment properly and timely to
reduce emissions and improve fuel economy.
Cost
The incremental cost of biodiesel is expected to be $0.02/
gallon. The City’s annual diesel usage is approximately 1M
gallons. The B2 purchase is expected to cost an additional
$20,000 above the cost of diesel fuel.

Developed engine idling policy for Public Works 1200
employees

Educating all drivers and operators on the harmful effects of
needless engine idling and also policy requirements.

Acquiring LED lights for squad cars to reduce current draw
and corresponding fuel consumption to power the lights.

Optimized fleet size, eliminating low-utilization vehicles and
equipment.

Entered into car sharing arrangement with HOURCAR
(http://www.hourcar.org/) as an alternative to using city
owned pool car vehicles. These hybrids are conveniently
located and easy to access.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Rhonda Kelsey
Title: Policy Manager
Department: Mayor's Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 414.286.8595
E 85 BENEFITS

E85 reduces demand for oil imported from the Middle East
and politically unstable regions.

Ethanol is renewable. Minnesota ethanol is made from
starch found in corn and cheese-making byproducts.

E85 is a safe and fully approved fuel made from 85% ethyl
alcohol (ethanol) and just 15% petroleum. Use of E85 is
approved by all flexible fuel vehicle manufacturers.

E85 is cleaner. E85 reduces ozone-forming pollution by
20% and greenhouse gas emissions by nearly 30%.

Ethanol is less toxic. Gasoline contains compounds like
benzene, toluene, and xylene. Use of E85 reduces the
release of these chemicals into the environment.
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
61
MINNEAPOLIS
MINNESOTA
VILLAGE OF PALATINE
ILLINOIS
R.T. Rybak, Mayor
Rita L. Mullins, Mayor

E85 has a 105 octane rating and provides a boost in engine
horsepower. It burns cooler than gasoline and keeps
engines clean.

E85 is typically priced lower than gasoline.

Ethanol degrades quickly in water. This reduces danger from
gasoline spills and leaks.
BACKGROUND
The Village of Palatine has purchased B20 Biodiesel for all
Village diesel equipment since March of 2000. Five vehicles
currently use E-85 and they have their own storage facility.
Palatine Park District also uses the fuels. The Village of Palatine
has also taken advantage of the Chicago area’s Clean Air
Counts Program and installed sixteen catalytic mufflers on
some of its diesel vehicles.
BIODIESEL FUEL BENEFITS

It is made from non-petroleum, renewable resources that
can be produced domestically

It can be used in most diesel engines, especially newer ones
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The main benefit is emission reductions through the use of
catalytic mufflers. Clean Air Counts funded these projects.

It has less carbon monoxide, particulates, and sulfur dioxide
emissions
CONTACT INFORMATION

It produces less carbon dioxide (CO2)

It is safer to handle
COSTS

FFV(E85) vehicles are about the same costs as regular vehicles

E85 gallon of gas costs $1.99 at area gas stations compared
to over $2.65 for regular unleaded gas.

The new E85 Fueling Station is being jointly funded by the
City of Minneapolis and Hennepin County. Hennepin also
plans to purchase E85 vehicles.

Using ultra low sulfur unleaded gasoline and bio diesel fuels
is more expensive than using regular unleaded gas and the
costs are borne by the users of the vehicles.

HOURCAR car-sharing costs are borne by the users. At the
close of 2006 there plans to conduct an analysis comparing
costs of this project to the cost of using city car pool vehicles.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Gayle Prest
Title: Environmental Manager
Department: Minneapolis Environmental Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 612.673.2931
62 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
Name: Bob Franz
Title: Fleet Services Coordinator
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 847.202.6976
FUELS, VEHICLES & TRANSIT
PEKIN
ILLINOIS
PORTLAND
OREGON
Frank Mackaman, Mayor
Tom Potter, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City of Pekin is home to two ethanol plants and they are
converting their vehicle fleets to flexible fuel (E–85) vehicles.
They just purchased three and are specifying three more for
this year.
MOBILE SOLAR GENERATOR FOR A NICHE MARKET
A solar photovoltaic (PV) application for a unique market in
the commercial industry has quick payback and health benefits.
The City of Portland created a public/private partnership with
the Office of Transportation—Bureau of Maintenance and
Portland General Electric. Portland’s Office of Transportation
engineered, designed, installed and monitored the 2,500-watt
Mobile Solar Generator (MSG) in one of the City’s parking
meter repair trucks. It is believed to be the nation’s first with
its application designed for government and industrial
maintenance operations.
BENEFITS & COSTS
Local businesses benefit, becoming less reliant on foreign oil
while running on cleaner-burning engines.
Joint funding exists for the vehicles: Public Utility and Private
(Ethanol Plants)
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Dennis Kief
Title: City Manager
Department: City Manager’s Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 309.477.2300
Mobile solar generators provide a cost-effective way to
reduce greenhouse gases through the use of renewable
solar technology.
Mobile solar generators replace the use of fossil fuel generators
mounted on the maintenance trucks and trailers. They are
designed to meet the daily demands in field operations.
The solar generators are made up of common commercially
available components. Mobile solar generators provide a
cost-effective way to reduce greenhouse gases through the
use of renewable solar technology.
BENEFITS & COSTS
The Mobile Solar Generator project reflects the community’s
values and interest in obtaining cleaner city environments. The
City’s goal is to increase the use of renewable technologies like
photovoltaics and to encourage the public/private partnership
concept. This concept continues to provide practical and
innovative solutions. Portland’s interest in continuing to
develop MSGs is supported by its desire for superior financial,
health and environmental benefits in the work site and urban
areas. Continuous exposure to high levels of exhaust and noise
pollution is a health risk concern for workers and is subject to
OSHA standards. The Mobile Solar Generator produces
electricity at a lower life cycle cost than common fossil fuel
generators. While the initial cost of a MSG is higher, the very
low maintenance and downtime costs associated with using
one recovers this cost in two years.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: David Tooze
Title: Sr. Energy Specialist
Department: Office of Sustainable Development
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 503.823.7582
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
63
SAINT PAUL
MINNESOTA (1)
Chris Coleman, Mayor
BACKGROUND
Saint Paul is continuing to develop transit policies and practices
that emphasize pedestrians, bikers, commuter rail, light rail,
and busways as real alternatives to the automobile.
ered. The Study evaluated phasing of improvements over
a 20-year period. The study concluded that the
following could be accommodated:
Transit/Transportation Initiatives

Central Corridor—Light Rail Transit—
www.centralcorridor.org/index.asp
■
■
■

Connecting downtown Saint Paul and Minneapolis via
the State Capitol—One of the largest “unbuilt” transit
corridors in the U.S.
Project Description: Light Rail Transit on University Avenue
has been pursued for well over 20 years. Now, however,
the region is on the brink of proceeding forward. The
project entails construction of LRT from the Union Depot
in Saint Paul to the Metrodome in Minneapolis. There are
11 stations within Saint Paul. The estimated construction
cost is $840 million, although that estimate was made in
spring, 2002. Currently the Ramsey County Regional Rail
Authority (RCRRA) is the lead agency on LRT development.
Project Status: There are two simultaneous processes
underway: the environmental review process (EIS) and
development of the “New Starts” application to the
Federal Transit Administration (FTA). However, they are
linked in one crucial factor—the development of the Cost
Effectiveness Index (CEI). The EIS was released for public
review/hearing fall 2005. The New Starts Application is a
staff-generated document, and its development is moving
forward. Subsequent to these processes is the Preliminary
Engineering phase (PE), which takes about two years.
Final design will take two years to complete. Construction
will commence after final design.
Union Depot—
www.co.ramsey.mn.us/rail/docs/LTKsummary.pdf
■
As part of the Federal highway bill passed by Congress in
September 2005, the City of Saint Paul received $50 million to jump-start the conversion of the Union Depot in
Downtown Saint Paul into a regional transportation hub.
■
For the past four years, the Ramsey County Regional Rail
Authority (RCRRA) has sponsored the LOCATE Task Force
to evaluate the location and design of a multi-modal transit
hub in downtown Saint Paul. The first task was to look at
alternative sites for such a facility, and not surprisingly,
the Union Depot was selected. The second task was to
evaluate the Union Depot head house, concourse and
platform to see if it could accommodate all modesconsid-
64 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
—
One set of tracks for AMTRAK;
—
Two sets of freight tracks;
—
Three sets of commuter rail/high-speed rail tracks;
—
Two sets of LRT tracks;
—
One bay for taxis, airport shuttles and limousines;
—
One bay for express buses;
—
One bay for local buses;
—
One bay for Greyhound and Jefferson Lines buses; and
—
Bikes would also be accommodated.
■
The third task is to help relocate the U.S. Post Office
(USPS) from downtown Saint Paul. Recently, the USPS
agreed to relocate operations to Dakota County over the
next 5 years. This sets the stage for more detailed planning
with respect to use of the Depot and platform, as well as
difficulties of track approaches from the southeast. Staff
recently determined that the Post Office is just outside of
the Lowertown Heritage Preservation District.
■
Project Status: The City and RCRRA are beginning to
negotiate acquisition of the concourse and platform from
the USPS. Acquisition is to be negotiated by the end of
2005. Additional technical studies are anticipated in the
near future. The Saint Paul Port Authority is staffing
this project.

City Vehicle Efficiency Impro v e m e n t s —The City is phasing
in higher-mileage and flexible-fuel vehicles into the city’s
sedan and light utility vehicle fleet, and will increase the
percentage of bio-fuels used in city vehicles, moving toward
Ethanol-E85% and Biodiesel-B20% as feasible in 2006.

Downtown Employee Metropass—Metro Transit offers
programs to encourage transit use and relieve parking
shortages in the Twin Cities. Employers can enroll in the
Metropass program and sell the passes to employees at a
discounted rate. Employers also receive a tax break for
joining the Metropass program. Metropass transit passes
provide over 3,000 Downtown Saint Paul workers unlimited
transit system rides 24 hours a day anywhere in the metro
area. The monthly fee is subsidized 50–90% by employers.
The rates are cheaper as a greater number of riders use it
per company. The City of a Saint Paul is a member of
this program.
FUELS, VEHICLES & TRANSIT
SAINT PAUL
MINNESOTA (2)
Chris Coleman, Mayor

HOURCAR Car Sharing—www.hourcar.org/index.html
■
■
■
■
The City of Saint Paul supports HOURCAR, the
Neighborhood Energy Consortium’s new car-sharing
program, by providing discounted parking space for
HOURCAR vehicles in two city-owned parking ramps.
Studies of North American car-sharing organizations show
that every vehicle in a car-sharing fleet typically replaces
up to 20 privately-owned vehicles. HOURCAR reduces
traffic congestion, improves air quality, and saves
members money by spreading the costs of ownership
across several drivers. Each HOURCAR is a Toyota Prius
hybrid, making the program an environmental standout.
HOURCAR got rolling spring 2005 with six cars
distributed among hubs in the Uptown and Loring Park
neighborhoods in Minneapolis and the Lowertown district
of downtown Saint Paul. As the program grows, any
neighborhood with a critical mass of members is a
candidate for HOURCAR expansion. NEC launched HOURCAR with 240 members and twelve new hybrid vehicles.
With a fleet entirely of gas-electric hybrid vehicles and a
flexible payment plan, HOURCAR aims to maximizecarsharing’s proven benefits of cleaner air, reduced traffic,
resource conservation, and greater mobility for residents
at all income levels. HOURCAR offers membership plans
tailored to distinct needs of individual drivers, households,
and businesses.
HOURCAR members may save up to several thousand
dollars each year by car-sharing. Members who pay
$5/month dues can use HOURCARs at a rate of
$6.95/hour plus $0.45/mile. Members may choose to
pay higher monthly dues of $20 along with lower usage
rates of $4.95/hour plus $0.39/mile. HOURCAR pays for
everything else—fuel, insurance, maintenance.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Rick Person
Title: Program Administrator
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 651.266.6122
BIODIESEL PARTNERSHIP
City cars are using a filling station at the University of
Minnesota Saint Paul campus, paying a competitive rate for
E85 gasoline. Besides E85 vehicles, the city’s heavier trucks
this summer will start running on B20, or fuel made with 20%
biodiesel.
Although Saint Paul began purchasing flex-fuel fleet vehicles
in 1997, initially the Ford Taurus, and more recently, the Ford
Focus, the City could not justify building a fueling station for
E85, considering each vehicle logged only about 5,500 miles
per year.
The City’s partnership with the University of Minnesota helps
the fuel make more economic sense and reduces the cost of
meeting its environmental goals.
E85 gets about 20% less mileage than gasoline, meaning the
city will have to pay more to drive the same distance;
however, it is cleaner burning than regular gasoline, which cuts
down on greenhouse-gas emissions and other harmful pollutants.
A 10% blend is typical, but flexible-fuel cars can run on blends
with higher ethanol content.
In addition to an expansive curbside recycling program, which
is heading toward a 75% residential recycling rate, Saint Paul’s
non-profit partner, Eureka Recycling has purchased a fleet of
recycling trucks that run on biodiesel. The biodiesel in Eureka’s
fleet replaces 12,000 gallons of petroleum-based fuel with 216
acres of soybeans annually, at a cost of one penny per
household per month.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Rick Person
Title: Program Administrator
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 651.266..6122
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
65
SALT LAKE CITY
UTAH
SAN MARCOS
TEXAS
Ross “Rocky” Anderson, Mayor
Susan Narvaiz, Mayor
The Salt Lake City Green Program consists of environmental
programs and goals to help preserve the health and vitality of
the community, create efficiencies, and save tax payer dollars.
Among its many goals, the City provides options for
environmentally-responsible transportation, encourages the
use of these options, and decreases dependence on
automobile use.
San Marcos employs a number of emission reduction and fuel
efficiency initiatives:

San Marcos is a staunch coalition partner of Central Texas
Clean Cities. The coalition is currently made up of over 60
motivated companies, agencies and municipalities working
together to improve air quality standards, reduce vehicle
emissions levels, promote alternative fuels and vehicles, and
develop fueling infrastructure to make alternative fuels
more convenient. This coalition provides options and
flexibility to meet petroleum displacement goals. These
options include anti-idling technologies, the expanded use
of fuel blends, and higher efficiency vehicles and driving
practices.

Located in a near non-attainment area, San Marcos staff
works with several air quality consultants to assist in
developing emissions strategies and cost analyst studies
under the Texas Emission Reduction Plan.
Salt Lake City promotes and has greatly expanded the use of
mass transit. The City has successfully built the University TRAX
line and expanded it to the Medical Center; and construction
has recently commenced on a new inter-modal hub. It is
working to fund light rail to the airport and also working to
extend light rail hours on weekends,

The City staff is tasked to closely follow vehicle/equipment
replacement guidelines and “right size” their fleet
requirements based on functional operations and fuel
usage. When practical, fleet vehicles operate on alternative
fuels (Propane and Ethanol). The City and Texas State
University have partnered to operate a local area Propane
Re-Fueling Station.
Furthermore, the City is promoting use of alternative fuel
vehicles, as evidenced by the conversion of the city’s fleet and
Mayor Anderson’s personal vehicle.

90% of the City fleet has been converted to use full
synthetic engine, transmission and hydraulic fluids. There
has been a marked increase in fuel economy and fleet
downtime. The City operates its fleets on recycled engine
coolant.
Major steps so far include the promotion of cycling through
creating of 45 miles of bike lanes, completion of the city’s first
cross-downtown bike route on 200 South, 45 new bike racks
throughout the CBD, and the “Bike Pool” program for
employees at the City and County Building.
The City also promotes walking. A massive pedestrian safety
program has reduced pedestrian accidents 16% in 2002, 20%
in the CBD.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Dorothy Stangle
Title: Assistant to the Mayor
Department: Mayor’s Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 801.535.7743
City fleet operations use only low volatile organic compound
stripping material to avoid additional air pollution.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Oscar Hairell
Title: Equipment Services Manager
Department: Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 512.393.8034
66 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
FUELS, VEHICLES & TRANSIT
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
67
HOUSING
BOSTON
MASSACHUSETTS
Thomas M. Menino, Mayor
CITY OF BOSTON GREEN AFFORDABLE HOUSING
PARTNERSHIP
In June of 2006, the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative,
Renewable Energy Trust (MTC) awarded the City of Boston,
Department of Neighborhood Development a $2 million
Renewable Energy Partnership Grant. An innovative
interdepartmental collaboration, the City of Boston Green
Affordable Housing Partnership, applied for this grant to
enable the City to build quality, attractive, healthy affordable
housing that will last. The Department of Neighborhood
Development is the lead agency of a partnership that includes
the Boston Housing Authority, Boston Redevelopment
Authority, Boston Public Health Commission, the Mayor’s
Office and the Environmental and Energy Services Cabinet.
The MTC grant enables the City of Boston to address
affordable housing development team capacity to integrate
renewable energy/energy efficiency/green/healthy building
(RE/EE/GR/HB) early in the development process. The City’s
RE/EE/GR/HB Program will address this challenge through
outreach, training and project management.
The Program intends to make the inclusion of RE/EE/GR/HB
building practices commonplace in the City’s affordable
housing program by coordinating the resources of:

MTC (renewable energy),

The Enterprise Foundation (green),

NStar and KeySpan (energy efficiency)
For the MTC grant application, DND identified 1,060 affordable
housing units in its pipeline: 716 new construction units (265
for sale; 451 rent) and 344 rehab units (rent). Boston Housing
Authority’s (BHA) Franklin Hill Project identifies 317 new
construction affordable housing units (226 replacement public
housing rental units; 75 Section 8 voucher rental units; 16
for-sale units). DND estimates that MTC’s $2 million funding
will result in PV installations on approximately 200 housing
units in three to four projects creating four to seven buildings
containing 20 to 60 units.
68 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
The City of Boston received $100,000 funding from an
anonymous foundation for consultancy services to provide
Program Project Management during calendar year 2007 to
assist in integrating the complex of funding and resources
available for the creation of affordable housing in Boston.
The Program Project Manager(s) will complement and augment
ongoing training of DND staff by the Green Roundtable on the
green building approach: the early stage planning integration
of design, engineering, construction, and building operations.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Bradford Swing
Title: Director Energy Policy
Department: Mayor’s Office of Environmental and Energy
Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 617.635.3425
HOUSING
HOUSTON
TEXAS
Bill White, Mayor
PLEASANTVILLE WEATHERIZATION PROGRAM
Mayor Bill White has led a City of Houston neighborhood
revitalization campaign which includes a weatherization
program. The weatherization program will improve the energy
efficiency of homes in an inner city 1950’s neighborhood
known as Pleasantville. The Mayor’s goal is to have over five
hundred homes weatherized by the end of the summer of
2006. The City of Houston’s partner in this program is
CenterPoint Energy, the energy services provider for the
Houston area. As a partner, CenterPoint Energy has agreed
to provide this service free of charge to Houston residents.
The Mayor also has engaged the Houston Advanced Research
Center to provide program management and to execute the
science and data collection and analysis for the program.
This program, like all utility company-sponsored weatherization
programs, requires the residents to meet income qualification
guidelines to enroll in the program. The program was initiated
on February 13, 2006. More than 500 of the 1,470
Pleasantville residents have enrolled to have their homes
weatherized. The program is actively engaging the community
currently, with over fifty per cent of the enrolled homes already
complete as of May 1, 2006.
This innovative energy program is one of the cornerstones of
the Mayor’s energy and environmental programs. The program
demonstrates the City’s involvement and commitment to the
people of Houston. The Mayor insists that both quantitative
and qualitative measurement of utility data created by the
weatherization program be collected, analyzed and widely
published. The City of Houston wants to ensure that everyone
involved with the program has a better understanding of the
improved quality of life received through this programs action.
Mayor Bill White hopes to replicate the program in other
communities throughout the City of Houston based upon the
outcome of the Pleasantville Weatherization Program.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Ann Travis
Title: Director of Government Affairs
Department: Mayor’s Office of Government Affairs
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 713.247.1520
The weatherization program’s scope of work may address
many components of the resident’s home which will provide
reduced energy expenditures for the resident and improved
energy efficiency. The possible scope of work includes the
following: installing weather stripping on windows and doors;
caulking windows; replacing incandescent lamps with compact
fluorescent lamps; installing insulation in the attic; installing
insulation on exposed hot water piping; and insulating water
heaters with blankets. These energy efficiency tactics are not
only beneficial to the city’s neighborhoods and surrounding
communities but can be a major factor in global warming.
Home weatherization programs such as this have the potential
to produce important energy savings. The Mayor anticipates
the weatherized homes to save as much as 10–13% in energy
consumption. By reducing the amount of energy used in
residential neighborhoods, this program helps to reduce air
emissions from power plants in the Houston area. The
reduction in emissions improves the air quality, both indoors
and out, for the residents of this neighborhood, resulting in
better human and ecosystem health.
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
69
MILWAUKEE
WISCONSIN
Tom Barrett, Mayor
Mayor Tom Barrett appointed a Commissioner of the
Department of City Development who is a green building
advocate. City land sales, requests for proposals and current
design reviews are all opportunities the City of Milwaukee uses
to negotiate more green buildings.
Mayor Barrett has directed an inventory of city regulations
to identify barriers to green building and development. An
inventory will provide the basis for the creation of appropriate
incentives to encourage and stimulate green development.
This review will be coordinated by the new Director of
Environmental Sustainability.
The Housing Authority of the City of Milwaukee (HACM) was
awarded one of six “World Leadership Awards” by the World
Leadership Forum for its model of affordable housing that
transforms neighborhoods. The World Leadership Forum is a
not-for-profit organization that promotes leadership
internationally by highlighting the work of exceptional leaders
and achievers in categories that make the greatest impact.
In addition, HACM was recently recognized by the Sierra Club
for Highland Park: Highland Gardens and Highland Homes
naming it one of “America’s Best New Development Projects.”
Sierra Club commended HACM for embracing conservation
[and] green building techniques.” Highland Gardens, a 114
unit low-income public housing facility was built with a 20,032
square foot modular green roof, made extensive use of
recycled materials including windows, cement and flooring,
was planted with two rain gardens and uses rain water to
flush toilets.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Rhonda Kelsey
Title: Policy Manager
Department: Mayor’s Office
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 414.286.8595
70 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
HOUSING
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
71
OTHER CATEGORIES
ALBUQUERQUE
NEW MEXICO
ASHEVILLE
NORTH CAROLINA
Martin J. Chávez, Mayor
Terry Bellamy, Mayor
BACKGROUND
In September 2006, Mayor Martin J. Chávez signed into law
legislation that increased Albuquerque’s capital program set-aside for energy conservation and renewable energy from 1% to
3%, representing approximately $3.6 million dollars each bond
cycle. One of the main changes beyond the 2% increase is the
City’s ability to use the funds for design/build and training
activities associated with the energy conservation and
renewable energy projects.
Ashville has developed a program to encourage residential and
commercial Green Buildings and energy efficiency. The main
programmatic elements include:
3% of Albuquerque’s Capital Improvement Program for the
general fund in 2007, 2009 and 2011 bond elections will be
reserved to fund the design, installation, purchase, user training and monitoring of Energy Conservation and/or Renewable
Energy that reduce fossil fuel based energy costs and energy
consumption.
Long term benefits include improved energy efficiency reduced
emissions due to high density.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
Department of Finance and Administrative Services will budget
3% of the General Obligation Bond Program, which represents
about $3.6 million dollars each bond cycle. City Departments
will submit applications for project funding to the City’s energy
management division. A committee of City fiscal and technical
staff shall approve selected projects based on established
criteria. Capital expenses of a project should be regained from
energy savings generated from the project within the expected
life of the equipment and , projects using renewable energy
shall have a lower life cycle cost than a project using
conventional energy. Project allocations cannot exceed 40%
of the total funding available.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Richard Kennedy
Title: Deputy Director
Department: Environmental Health Department
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 505.768.2625
72 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE

Educate City building inspectors about benefits of Green
Building,

Promote public education regarding green building,

Eliminate disincentives to green building techniques,

Promote green concepts via smart growth planning practices
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Terry Albrecht
Title: WRP Program Director, Land of Sky Regional Council
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 828.251.6622
OTHER CATEGORIES
COLORADO SPRINGS
COLORADO (1)
COLORADO SPRINGS
COLORADO (2)
Lionel Rivera, Mayor
Lionel Rivera, Mayor
BACKGROUND
Colorado Springs Utilities initiated an ENERGY STAR Makeover
Contest and provided the winning homeowner with energy
efficiency measures worth more than $25,000. Ten sponsors
donated all the equipment and installation services. The more
than 3,500 applications received for the contest were used to
create a targeted mailing list of customers interested in energy
conservation education.
BACKGROUND
Colorado Springs Utilities offers seven efficiency rebates for residential customers—clothes, washer, furnace, insulation, windows, programmable thermostats, lighting, and dual flush toilets. Similarly, Colorado Springs Utilities offers three efficiency
rebates for commercial customers—business lighting, custom
Peak Demand Rebates, and LED traffic signals.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The contest created greater awareness of residential energy
efficiency retrofits and their benefits. The winning home
increased its efficiency by 65% earning it the ENERGY STAR.
The cost to administer and promote the program was $20,000.
As a municipal entity, all of the programs highlighted are
funded through avoided or deferred operational costs or rates.
Wind power is the only exception and is funded by program
participants.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Robin Spaulding
Title: Conservation Specialist
Department: DSM & Renewable Energy Solutions Dept.,
Colorado Springs Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 719.668.8647
In another, similar program, Colorado Springs Utilities offers
customers a $4 per watt rebate to install solar photovoltaic
systems at their homes and businesses. The incentive structure
is designed to optimize solar power production. Measures were
implemented to monitor system performance and ensure
sustained operation. Net metering allows participating
customers to “spin the meter backwards” and get credit for
the solar power their systems generate.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
In 2005 efficiency rebates saved 5,145 MWh of electric
consumption, 4.67 MW of electric demand, 428,779 MCF of
natural gas and 20,692,173 gallons of water.
In 2006 PV rebates are expected to produce 94.6 MWh of solar
power and to average 21.3 kW in savings during summer peak
demand periods.
The efficiency program cost was $1.1 million in rebate
expenditures. The photovoltaic system rebates program cost is
$220,000. As a municipal entity, all of the programs highlighted
are funded through avoided or deferred operational costs or
rates. Wind power is the only exception and is funded by
program participants.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Mark James
Title: Energy DSM Supervisor
Department: DSM & Renewable Energy Solutions Dept.,
Colorado Springs Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 719.668.8017
or
Name: Simon Baker
Title: Energy Sr. Conservation Specialist
Department: DSM & Renewable Energy Solutions Dept.,
Colorado Springs Utilities
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 719.668.8231
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
73
LOS ANGELES
CALIFORNIA
Anthony Villaraigosa, Mayor
BACKGROUND
The City of Los Angeles Department of Public Works, Bureau of
Sanitation collects and disposes of one million tons of solid
waste each year. Collection of recyclable and yard trimming
solid waste is done separately. City officials decided disposing
solid waste by landfilling is not the best practice. Los Angeles
mayor Antonio Villaraigosa directed the Bureau of Sanitation
to eliminate reliance on landfills by increasing recycling and
establishing an alternative technology facility by 2010.
The City is currently engaged in a five-year Alternative Solid
Waste Processing Technologies Program. This program is to
identify alternative municipal solid waste processing technologies that will increase landfill diversion in an environmentally
sound manner. It will also emphasize options that are energy
efficient, socially acceptable and economical. When the
program concludes in 2010 it would have executed three
phases: Phase I—Evaluation of alternative solid waste
processing technologies; Phase II—Facility siting, public
education awareness, and Requests for Proposals; and
Phase III—Design and construction of an alternative solid
waste processing technology facility.
Completed in September 2005, Phase I of the Alternative Solid
Waste Processing Technologies Program identified viable
potential technologies that could meet the City’s objectives.
The technologies identified were advanced thermal recycling,
gasification and pyrolysis. Research done in a study during this
phase evaluated thermal technologies, biological/chemical
technologies and physical technologies.
As part of the study, a life cycle analysis was performed to
evaluate the energy and emissions associated with fuels,
electrical energy, and material inputs for all stages of the waste
management process. The life cycle study focused on differentiation between waste-to-energy (advanced thermal recycling),
FIGURE 1 ANNUAL NET ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY SCENARIO
FIGURE 2 ANNUAL NET POUNDS OF CRITERIA AIR EMISSIONS BY SCENARIO
74 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
OTHER CATEGORIES
MINNEAPOLIS
MINNESOTA
R.T. Rybak, Mayor
conversion technologies, and existing traditional solid waste
management processes (landfilling). The issues were energy
consumption, NOx emissions, SOx emissions, carbon monoxide
and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions
contribute to the greenhouse effect. These emissions are a
by-product from fossil fuel combustion and the biodegradation
of organic materials. Offsets of carbon dioxide emissions can
result from the displacement of fossil fuels, materials recycling
and the diversion of organic wastes from landfills.
1. ZONING CODE—LANDSCAPING OR GREEN ROOFS
Green roofs and living walls are permitted in the zoning
code and encouraged by staff. If a developer cannot meet
their on site landscaping requirements as required by code,
green roofs and living walls are allowable under the
“alternative compliance” provision. Green roofs and living
walls can be a negotiated element of a Planned Unit
Development. The establishment of green roof performance
standards is being explored.
BENEFITS AND COSTS
The life cycle scenarios analyzed are summarized in Figures 1
and 2. These results are presented as net life cycle totals for
each scenario. A positive value represents a net life cycle
burden and a negative value represents a net life cycle benefit,
savings or avoidance. For example, a negative value for energy
consumption in the advanced thermal recycling, anaerobic
digestion, and conversion technology scenarios means that
more energy is generated than consumed.
2. ZONING CODE—TRAVEL DEMAND MANAGEMENT PLAN
City Zoning Code requires non-residential developments
with new or additional gross square feet of 100,000 or more
to include a travel demand management (TDM) plan. This
plan is to address the transportation impacts of the development on air quality, parking, and roadway infrastructure. It
also is to identify measures to minimize transportation
impacts of the development. The City works with the
developments to fulfill on the goals and mitigating measures
committed to in the TDM Plans. These TDM Plans include
methods to encourage and coordinate carpooling among
tenants and employees. There is also a zoning ordinance
regarding bicycle facilities re q u i rements in new developments
of over 500,000 square feet or more of new or additional
gross floor space in downtown districts. These facilities are
to include secure bicycle parking spaces, shower facilities
and clothing storage.
Figure 1 shows that using the advanced thermal recycling and
gasification scenarios for the City of Los Angeles will result in
large energy savings. While anaerobic digestion results in some
energy savings, these savings are only about half the savings
derived from using thermal technologies.
Figure 2, including particulate matter, SOx, NOx, and CO,
are lower (i.e., exhibit a savings) for the advanced thermal
recycling, gasification, and anaerobic digestion scenarios than
for the landfill scenario, This is largely due to the electrical
energy and recycling offsets created by these technologies.
The anaerobic digestion alternative performs about on par with
advanced thermal recycling and gasification, except that it has
higher net NOx emissions.
Based on the Phase I evaluation of alternative solid waste
processing technologies, the City of Los Angeles would benefit
from the developing thermal alternative technologies to
process its solid waste. Studies indicate thermal processing
technology will reduce air emissions and increase energy
production from alternative fossil fuel sources.
The evaluation, education awareness and siting costs are about
$1.7 million and will be funded by general funds. The estimated
construction cost for one facility to process 1000 tons of solid
waste is $200 million and will be funded using private and
government sources.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Alex E. Helou
Title: Division Manager II
Department: Bureau of Sanitation—Solid Resources Support
Services Division
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 213.485.3637
3. ZONING CODE—BONUS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN
DOWNTOWN BUILDINGS
Buildings in the downtown districts may receive a bonus to
increase the amount of allowable floor area by incorporating
energy efficiency.
Determining energy efficiency is subject to the following
standards:

Submission of a high performance building plan. The
applicant is to submit a high performance building plan.
This plan is to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the
planning director that a minimum increase of 35% in overall
building energy efficiency will be achieved using Minnesota
Energy Code. The demonstration shall include all reports,
modeling, and approval processes described in the High
Performance Building Policy Guide.

Energy-saving strategies that are missing must be brought
to design specification or installed within ninety days of the
city’s verification report or submittal to the city of a thirdparty commissioning report by a licensed engineer.
Developers of buildings not in compliance with the
approved energy efficiency premium can mitigate the
deficiency through alternative actions as defined in the High
Performance Building Policy Guide.
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
75
MINNEAPOLIS
MINNESOTA
R.T. Rybak, Mayor

The energy efficiency measures shall be maintained in good
working order for the life of the principle structure.
4. ZONING CODE—DENSITY BONUSES
The City promotes increased density through a set of density
bonuses. In January 2005, the City Council adopted amendments to the zoning code related to the Pedestrian Overlay
District. The new provisions apply only to the Light Rail Train
Station areas. These provisions incorporated a minimum
density requirement, increased density bonuses and a bicycle
parking requirement. Appropriate increases in allowable
density, based on land use planning, can be accomplished
largely through changes in underlying zoning. Nevertheless,
City policy supports higher-density development in areas
where there are amenities, services and transportation
alternatives.
Additional density bonuses near LRT stations are tied to
meeting certain policy objectives rather than outright
increases. These policy objectives include underground
parking, mixed use development and affordable housing.
Density bonuses encourage smart choices on transit options,
maximize a pedestrian character of the neighborhood and
more efficiently use resources.
5. ZONING CODE—PRIORITY FOR PEDESTRIANS AND
TRANSIT USERS
New buildings must be oriented toward pedestrians by
being constructed close to the public sidewalk and must
have a principal entrance facing the street. Clear and well
lighted walkways must be provided. Vehicle parking may be
reduced for buildings near transit stops or for buildings that
incorporate a transit shelter or bicycle parking. Minimum
window requirements for walls facing the street help to
ensure a more interesting (and safe) pedestrian environment.
6. ZONING CODE—LANDSCAPING
Among the City’s landscaping requirements, landscaping
proposed in new developments must consider the ecological
issues that follow.
1
Interception and filtration of precipitation and stormwater
through maximizing multiple layered vegetative cover.
2
Reduction of reflectance and urban heat island effects
through increasing canopy cover.
3
Conservation of energy through strategic shading and the
use of windbreaks.
4
Selection and placement of plant materials to limit
required maintenance of landscaped areas.
5
Preservation or restoration of natural amenities.
76 THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
The City Council adopted changes to the landscaping requirements in April 2005. Among the improvements specified is on
requiring all parking lots over 10 spaces to have no parking
space farther than 50 feet from an on-site tree.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Gayle Prest
Title: Environmental Manager
Department: Minneapolis Environmental Services
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 612.673.2931
OTHER CATEGORIES
VISTA
CALIFORNIA
Morris B. Vance, Mayor
The City of Vista conducts several programs to improve energy
efficiency, cut energy costs and reduce emissions.

The City-owned and operated Wave Waterpark uses solar
heat for heating pool water. This increases energy efficiency
while it decreases operating costs. The Wave Waterpark is
financed via the City’s general fund.

A small inventory of hybrid cars (Honda Civics) is part of the
City’s fleet and this promotes savings in fuel costs and it
reduces air emissions.

The City conducted an energy efficiency evaluation with
help from the San Diego Regional Energy Office at all cityoperated facilities. Once the suggestions are implemented,
it is anticipated the City will realize 30% cost savings from
improved energy efficiency.

City employees work 9/80 schedule. This was originally
started to comply with the Regional Air Quality Control
Board’s standards to alleviate traffic congestion on
roadways. This schedule, implemented at no cost, resulted
in emissions reduction and improved energy efficiency due
in part to electricity to facilities being off for two extra
days per month.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Name: Brian Ambrose
Title: Management Analyst
Department: Engineering/Public Works
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 760.726.1340
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
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THE UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS
BEST PRACTICES GUIDE
Tom Cochran, Executive Director
1620 I Street, Northwest
Washington, D.C. 20006
phone: 202.293.7330
fax: 202.293.2352
www.usmayors.org
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