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Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc.
Broadband
Reference Guide
Airports
Casinos
Fitness Centers
Retail Stores
Houses of Worship
Hotels
Assisted Living
Stadiums & Arenas
Offices
Headends
Broadcast Studios Schools & Universities
Hospitals
Compliments of...
MDUs
Government
Correctional Facilites
Next Generation - “Broadband Reference Guide”
Select the desired channel
or frequency by touching
the respective blue arrow.
At the bottom of the
screen, select the icon for
the channel application.
The full range of channels is listed
to the right, select your range,
and then choose the appropriate
number to the left. Click at the
top left menu to return to your
channel info.
Compliments of...
www.nsccom.com • 800.543.1584
www.blondertongue.com • 800.523.6049
©2014 Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved. Specifications are subject
to change without notice. Trademarks are the property of their respective owner.
1
2
3
4
5
SAFETY
System Planning.............................................................4
Cable Substitution Chart.................................................5
Current Ratings for Electronic Cables..............................6
Headend HVAC Considerations.......................................7
PRODUCTS & APPLICATIONS
Encoder Collection........................................................ 11
Digital Collection.......................................................... 28
EdgeQAM & IP Solutions.............................................. 49
DIGITAL REFERENCE
Digital Cable (QAM)..................................................... 60
Digital Over-the-Air....................................................... 60
Encoding Diagram........................................................ 61
Digital Content Types................................................... 62
Digital Closed Captioning............................................. 64
Chroma Sub-Mapping Types......................................... 66
Audio Encoding............................................................ 67
Digital Tech Tips........................................................... 70
Digital Signal Analysis................................................... 75
CATV QAM Channel Center Frequency......................... 84
North American Digital Broadcast Channel Frequency... 86
ANALOG REFERENCE
Analog Cable (RF)..........................................................88
Analog Over-the-Air.......................................................88
Analog Content Types....................................................89
Analog Closed Captioning..............................................91
North America CATV Frequency Chart...........................92
US Frequency Spectrum.................................................97
North America Off-Air Frequency Chart.........................99
FM Broadcast Channel Frequency..................................101
CONNECTORS & INTERFACES
Cables, Wiring & Pinout Reference.............................. 104
Optical Connectors..................................................... 112
iv
6
7
8
9
CATV RF CALCULATIONS
System Calculations....................................................114
Passive & Coaxial Cable Characteristics.......................128
Broadband RF Network Powering................................129
OFF-AIR ANTENNAS, & SATELLITE INFO
Dipole Antenna Equations...........................................132
Multiplexers................................................................133
Antenna General Information......................................134
Antenna Spacing.........................................................135
Antenna Phasing.........................................................137
Satellite Transmission Standards.................................138
System Calculations....................................................139
North & South American C & Ku-Band Satellites........141
Broadcast Station "List"...............................................143
INTERNATIONAL TV FORMATS
Worldwide TV Standards.............................................146
CCIR Television Transmission Characteristics...............152
International Analog Channel Standards......................153
CONVERSIONS & MISC. DATA
Basic Cable Theory.....................................................156
Conversion Factors......................................................162
Fiber Optics................................................................175
10
FCC RULES
11
SYMBOLS & ACRONYMS
FCC Highlights........................................................... 180
FCC Rules...................................................................188
Common CATV Symbols.............................................194
Common IPTV Symbols..............................................196
CATV & IPTV Acronyms..............................................198
Basic Glossary of CATV & IPTV Terms......................... 230
Useful Websites and Publications................................235
v
Company Profile
Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc.
provides system operators and integrators serving the cable,
broadcast, satellite, IPTV, institutional and professional video
markets with comprehensive solutions for the provision
of content contribution, distribution and video delivery to
homes and businesses. With over 60 years of experience,
the company designs, manufactures, sells and supports an
equipment portfolio of standard and high definition digital
video solutions, as well as core analog video and high speed
data solutions for distribution over coax, fiber and IP networks.
1
2
SAFETY
PRODUCTS & APPLICATIONS
3
DIGITAL REFERENCE
4
ANALOG REFERENCE
5
CONNECTORS & INTERFACES
6
CATV RF CALCULATIONS
7
OFF-AIR ANTENNAS, & SATELLITE INFO
8
INTERNATIONAL TV FORMATS
9
CONVERSIONS & MISC. DATA
10
11
FCC RULES
SYMBOLS & ACRONYMS
1
3
SAFETY
System Planning....................................... 4
Cable Substitution Chart........................... 5
Current Ratings for Electronic Cables........ 6
Headend HVAC Considerations................. 7
4 System Planning
Headend & Distribution System Construction
The System Contractor must adhere to both national and local
building codes when constructing a Broadband CATV System.
This includes, but is not limited to the NEC, NFPA Codes and local
building ordinances.
Related National Electrical Code (NEC) Articles
Article 250 - Grounding is one of the largest, most important,
and least understood articles in the NEC. As specified in Section
90-1(a), safety is the key element and purpose of the NEC. Proper
grounding and bonding is essential for maximum protection of life
and property. If over-current protection is considered the first line
of defense, grounding could be considered the last line of defense.
Article 810 - Radio and Television Equipment covers radio and
television receiving equipment and amateur radio transmitting and
receiving equipment, but not equipment and antennas used for
coupling carrier current to power line conductors.
Article 820 - Community Antenna Television and Radio
Distribution Systems covers coaxial cable distribution of radio
frequency signals typically employed in community antenna
television (CATV) systems.
National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) - www.nfpa.org
5
Cable Substitution Chart (Per 2005 NEC*)
NEC ARTICLES
FIRE-RESISTANCE LEVEL
Test Requirements
800
PLENUM
CMP
4 (Highest)
725
COAX
MULTI-CONDUCTOR
CL3P
NFPA 262
(UL 910 Steiner Tunnel)
830
770
820
760
FPLP
NONCONDUCTIVE
CONDUCTIVE
CATVP
OFNP
OFCP
CATVR
OFNR
OFCR
CATV
OFNG
OFCG
BLP
CMP
CL3P
BLX
CMR
CL3R
CMG
CM
CL3
CMX
CL3X
CL2P
RISER
3
CMR
COAX
MULTI-CONDUCTOR
BMR
CL3R
UL-1666
(Vertical Shaft)
FPLR
CL2R
GENERAL
PURPOSE
CMG
CM
2
BM
PLTC
CL3
UL-1685
Vertical Tray
or CSA FT4
(UL 1581)
COAX
MULTI-CONDUCTOR
FPL
CL2
RESIDENTIAL
COAX
1(Lowest)
CMX
CATVX
CL3X
All cables other than
“Network Powered Broadband Cables”
(BMR, BM, BLP, BLX)
shall be coaxial cables.
CL2X
VW-1
(Vertical Frame)
Cables indicated can be substituted.
NEC Type
Definition
CMP, CMR, CMG, CM, CMX
Communications Cables
CL3P, CL3R, CL3, CL3X, CL2P, CL2R, CL2, CL2X
Class 2 and Class 3 Remote-Control, Signaling and Power Limited Cables
FPLP, FPLR, FPL
Power Limited Fire Alarm Cables
CATVP, CATVR, CATV, CATVX
Community Antenna Television and Radio Distribution Cables
OFNP, OFNR, OFNG, OFN
Nonconductive Optical Fiber Cables
OFCP, OFCR, OFCG, OFC
Conductive Optical Fiber Cables
PLTC
Power Limited Tray Cables
BMR, BM, BLP, BLX
Network-powered Broadband Communications Cables
*National Electrical Code and NEC are registered trademarks of the
National Fire Protection Association, Inc., Quincy, MA.
6
Current Ratings for Electronic Cables
The maximum continuous current rating for an electronic cable is
limited by conductor size, number of conductors contained
within the cable, maximum temperature rating of the cable, and
environmental conditions such as ambient temperature and air
flow.
To use the current capacity chart, first determine conductor size,
temperature rating, and number of conductors from the applicable
product description for the cable of interest.
Next, find the current value on the chart for the proper temperature
rating and conductor size. To calculate the maximum current
rating/conductor, multiply the chart value by the appropriate
conductor factor. The chart assumes cable is surrounded by still
air at an ambient temperature of 25˚ C. Current values are in
RMS Amperes and are valid for copper conductors only.
No. of Conductors**
Factors
1
1.6
2-3
1.0
4-5
.8
6 - 15
.7
16 - 30
.5
NOTE: Current ratings are intended as general
guidelines for low power electronic
communications and control applications.
Current ratings for power applications generally
are set by regulatory agencies such as UL, CSA,
NEC, and others.
** Do not count shields unless used as a conductor.
Headend HVAC Considerations
To maximize equipment reliability and life span, the headend room
should be temperature controlled. The heat generated by the
headend is one of the major contributors to the total amount of
BTU’s required for heating and cooling. The specified AC wattage
dissipation of a headend component directly correlates to the
amount of heat it generates. The conversion from watts to the
amount of heat generated in BTU’s is as follows:
Watts x 3.4144 = BTU’s/hour
With the total BTU’s per hour the headend generates along with the
buildings room details, a qualified HVAC technician can determine
the necessary heating and cooling requirements..
Sample Headend BTU Calculations
6233 + 6232B + (8) 6241A’s
7
9
2
PRODUCTS & APPLICATIONS
10
ENCODER COLLECTION....................11
• HD Encoders
• SD Encoders
DIGITAL COLLECTION......................28
•
•
•
•
•
Modulators
Demodulators
Transcoders
Multiplexers
Processors
EdgeQAM & IPTV SOLUTIONS........49
• Clear IP-to-Clear/Pro:Idiom™
• Bi-Directional ASI-to-IP Transcoder
• 12:4 ASI-to-IP Multiplexer
11
ENCODER
COLLECTION
12
HD264-2S-IP
H.264 HD ENCODER
2xHD-SDI/2xHDMI/2xComponent 1xIP
HD264-2S-IP (H.264 HD Encoder – 2xHD-SDI/2xHDMI/2xComponent – 2xIP)
accepts up to two (2) programs from any of the following inputs: 2xHD-SDI, 2xHDMI (unencrypted), and 2xComponent. Each input program, if applicable is first digitized, then H.264 or
MPEG-2 encoded into a high-definition Single Program Transport Stream (SPTS), and finally
IP-encapsulated and delivered in 10/100Base-T Ethernet format as an output. Each SPTS is
also available via two (2) identical ancillary outputs in ASI format.
The encoder supports Dolby® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608 and
EIA-708). It is also equipped with an auto-sensing relay that allows switching to an optional
redundant power supply in the unlikely event of primary power supply failure.
Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web
browser via a front-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection.
2xHD-SDI + 2xHDMI + 2xComponent
(2 Programs)
4xASI
2xIP
UDP/RTP
Uni- & Multi-Cast
1 program per each IP output
HD264-1S-IP is identical to HD264-2S-IP, but it accepts only one (1) input program and
simultaneously delivers 1xIP and 2xASI outputs.
13
Features
• Accepts up to two (2) programs from any of the following inputs: 2xHD-SDI, 2xHDMI
(unencrypted), and 2xComponent
• Digitizes & H.264 or MPEG-2 encodes up to two (2) input programs into two (2)
10/100Base-T Ethernet outputs
• Supports four (4) ancillary outputs in ASI format (2 identical ASI outputs for each input program)
• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers
• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608 and EIA-708
• Supports Real-time Dolby® Digital audio encoding
• Provides optional redundant power supply
• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
HD264-2S-IP 6396
HD264-1S-IP 6394
HD264-SPS 6397
Description
H.264 HD Encoder; 2xHD-SDI + 2xHDMI + 2xComponent
inputs; 2xIP + 4xASI outputs
H.264 HD Encoder; 1xHD-SDI + 1xHDMI + 1xComponent
inputs; 1xIP + 2xASI outputs
2x Standby Power Supply (supports 2x 6396 units)
Typical Application
14
HDE-2H/2S-QAM
MPEG-2 HD ENCODER
2xHDMI/2xHD-SDI/4xComponent/Composite 4xQAM
HDE-2H/2S-QAM (MPEG-2 HD Encoder – 2xHDMI/2xHD-SDI/4xComponent/
Composite – 4xQAM) accepts up to four (4) high-definition (HD) programs from any of
the following inputs: 2xHDMI (unencrypted), 2xHD-SDI, and 4xComponent/Composite. MPEG2 encoded outputs are available in the following formats simultaneously: 4xQAM, 4xGigE
(1000Base-T Ethernet), and 4xASI.
To improve transport efficiency, the encoder allows operator to (i) assign one (1) to four (4)
programs to each QAM output channel, and (ii) to individually turn on/off each of the four
(4) adjacent QAM output channels.
The encoder supports Dolby® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608 and
EIA-708). It is also equipped with an Emergency Alert System (EAS) interface. A front-panel
RF test point allows for monitoring/testing of the QAM output without service interruption.
Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web
browser via a front-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection.
2xHDMI + 2xHD-SDI + 4xComponent/Composite
EAS
(4 Inputs Total)
(4 Programs)
4xASI 4xGigE
4xAdjacent QAM
MPEG-2 HD Encoding
Dolby® Digital Audio Encoding
15
Features
• Accepts up to four (4) programs from any of the following inputs: 2xHDMI (unencrypted),
2xHD-SDI, and 4xComponent/Composite
• Simultaneously delivers the following outputs: 4xQAM, 4xGigE, and 4xASI
• Multiplexes up to four (4) input programs in any of the following output combinations:
(i) 1:1 (1 program per QAM channel)
(ii) 2:1 (2 programs per QAM channel, not exceeding 38.8Mbps)
(iii) 3:1 (3 programs per QAM channel, not exceeding 38.8 Mbps)
(iv) 4:1 (4 programs per QAM channel, not exceeding 38.8 Mbps)
• Each of the four (4) QAM channels can (i) contain 1 or 2 programs, and (ii) be turned
on/off individually
• Provides +52 dBmV QAM output level for four (4) combined channels (+60 dBmV for 1 QAM)
• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers
• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608 and EIA-708
• Equipped with EAS interface (Analog Video + L/R Audio)
• Supports Real-time Dolby® Digital audio encoding
• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration
Ordering Information
Model
Stock # Description
HDE-2H/2S-QAM 6379A
MPEG-2 HD Encoder; 2xHDMI+2xHD-SDI+4xComponent/
Composite inputs; 4xQAM+4xGigE+4xASI outputs; EAS compatible
Typical Application
16
HDE-4S-QAM
MPEG-2 HD ENCODER
4xHD-SDI/4xComponent/Composite
4xQAM
HDE-4S-QAM (MPEG-2 HD Encoder – 4xHD-SDI/4xComponent/Composite –
4xQAM) accepts up to four (4) high-definition (HD) programs from any of the following
inputs: 4xHD-SDI, 2xHD-SDI, and 4xComponent/Composite. MPEG-2 encoded outputs are
available in the following formats simultaneously: 4xQAM, 4xGigE (1000Base-T Ethernet), and
4xASI.
To improve transport efficiency, the encoder allows operator to (i) assign one (1) to four (4)
programs to each QAM output channel, and (ii) to individually turn on/off each of the four
(4) adjacent QAM output channels.
The encoder supports Dolby® Digital and Closed Captioning (EIA-608 and EIA-708). It is also
equipped with an Emergency Alert System (EAS) interface. A front-panel RF test point allows
for monitoring/testing of the QAM output without service interruption.
Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web
browser via a front-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection.
4xHD-SDI + 4xComponent/Composite
EAS
(4 Inputs Total)
(4 Programs)
4xASI 4xGigE
4xAdjacent QAM
MPEG-2 HD Encoding
Dolby® Digital Audio Encoding
17
Features
• Accepts up to four (4) programs from any of the following inputs: 4xHD-SDI, and
4xComponent/Composite
• Simultaneously delivers the following outputs: 4xQAM, 4xGigE, and 4xASI
• Multiplexes up to four (4) input programs in any of the following output combinations:
(i) 1:1 (1 program per QAM channel)
(ii) 2:1 (2 programs per QAM channel, not exceeding 38.8Mbps)
(iii) 3:1 (3 programs per QAM channel, not exceeding 38.8 Mbps)
(iv) 4:1 (4 programs per QAM channel, not exceeding 38.8 Mbps)
• Each of the four (4) QAM channels can (i) contain 1 or 2 programs, and (ii) be turned
on/off individually
• Provides +52 dBmV QAM output level for four (4) combined channels (+60 dBmV for 1 QAM)
• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers
• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608 and EIA-708
• Equipped with EAS interface (Analog Video + L/R Audio)
• Supports Real-time Dolby® Digital audio encoding
• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
HDE-4S-QAM 6374A
Description
MPEG-2 HD Encoder; 4xHD-SDI+4xComponent/Composite inputs; 4xQAM+4xGigE+4xASI outputs; EAS compatible
Typical Application
18
HDE-CHV-QAM
MPEG-2 HD ENCODER
1xComponent/HDMI/VGA/Composite
1xQAM
HDE-CHV-QAM (MPEG-2 HD Encoder – 1xComponent/HDMI/VGA/Composite –
1xQAM) accepts one (1) high-definition (HD) program from any of the following inputs:
1xComponent, 1xHDMI (unencrypted), 1xVGA, and 1xComposite. MPEG-2 encoded outputs
are available in the following formats simultaneously: 1xQAM, 1xASI, and 1xIP (10/100Base-T
Ethernet). The QAM RF output is frequency agile over the entire CATV frequency range of
54-1002 MHz (channels 2-158) with an output level of +40 dBmV.
The encoder supports Dolby® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608).
Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web
browser via a front-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection. A rear-panel VGA output port
is available for loop-through applications.
1xComponent/HDMI/VGA/Composite
(1 Program)
(1 Program)
1xASI
1xIP
1xQAM
MPEG-2 HD Encoding
Dolby® Digital Audio Encoding
19
Features
• Accepts one (1) program from any of the following inputs: 1xComponent, 1xHDMI
(unencrypted), 1xVGA, and 1xComposite
• Simultaneously delivers the following outputs: 1xQAM, 1xASI, and 1xIP
• Provides +40 dBmV QAM RF output level
• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers
• Compact design permits installation of up to 3 Encoder modules in 1RU
• Supports Real-time Dolby® Digital audio encoding
• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration
• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608
Ordering Information
Model
Stock # Description
HDE-CHV-QAM
6384A
MPEG-2 HD Encoder; 1xComponent/HDMI/VGA/Composite
inputs; 1xQAM+1xASI+1xIP outputs
1RU Rack mount chassis; holds 3 HDE-CHV-QAM modules
HDE-3MCH
6389
6389
Typical Application
6384
6
20
HDE-CSV-QAM
MPEG-2 HD ENCODER
1xComponent/HD-SDI/HDMI/VGA/Composite 1xQAM
HDE-CSV-QAM (MPEG-2 HD Encoder – 1xComponent/HD-SDI/HDMI/VGA/
Composite – 1xQAM) accepts one (1) high-definition (HD) program from any of the
following inputs: 1xComponent, 1xHD-SDI, 1xHDMI (unencrypted), 1xVGA, and 1xComposite.
MPEG-2 encoded outputs are available in the following formats simultaneously: 1xQAM,
1xASI, and 1xIP (10/100Base-T Ethernet). The QAM RF output is frequency agile over the
entire CATV frequency range of 54-1002 MHz (channels 2-158) with an output level of
+40 dBmV.
The encoder supports Dolby® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608 and
EIA-708). Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard
Web browser via a front-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection. A rear-panel VGA output
port is available for loop-through applications.
1xComponent/HD-SDI/HDMI/VGA/Composite
(1 Program)
(1 Program)
1xASI
1xIP
1xQAM
MPEG-2 HD Encoding
Dolby® Digital Audio Encoding
21
Features
• Accepts one (1) program from any of the following inputs: 1xComponent, 1xHD-SDI,
1xHDMI (unencrypted), 1xVGA, and 1xComposite
• Simultaneously delivers the following outputs: 1xQAM, 1xASI, and 1xIP
• Provides +40 dBmV QAM RF output level
• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers
• Compact design permits installation of up to 3 Encoder modules in 1RU
• Supports Real-time Dolby® Digital audio encoding
• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration
• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608 and EIA-708
Ordering Information
Model
Stock # Description
HDE-CSV-QAM 6382A
6389
HDE-3MCH
MPEG-2 HD Encoder; 1xComponent/HD-SDI/HDMI/VGA/
Composite inputs; 1xQAM+1xASI+1xIP outputs
1RU Rack mount chassis; holds 3 HDE-CSV-QAM modules
6389
Typical Application
6382
HDE-8C-QAM
MPEG-2 HD ENCODER
8xComponent/Composite 4xQAM
HDE-8C-QAM (MPEG-2 HD Encoder – 8xComponent/Composite – 4xQAM) accepts
up to eight (8) analog programs from any of the following inputs: 8xComponent and
8xComposite. The encoder is equipped with a spare input (9th input) to replace any one (1) of
the primary eight (8) inputs in the event of a failure.
The encoder digitizes, MPEG-2 encodes each input into a high-definition stream, multiplexes
the resulting eight (8) streams, and then modulates them onto four (4) adjacent QAM channels
in the 54-1002 MHz range (CATV 2-158). Any one (1) of the four (4) QAM outputs is also
available in ASI format.
The encoder supports Dolby® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608). It is
also equipped with an Emergency Alert System (EAS) interface. A front-panel RF test point
allows for monitoring/testing of the QAM output without service interruption.
Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web
browser via a rear-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection.
Optional software upgrade (Stock # 6371) enables the encoder to (i) accept eight (8) analog
programs from DishNetwork’s ViP211k satellite receivers, (ii) automatically switch over to any
of the primary eight (8) receivers in the event of failure to maintain the program stream,
and (iii) provide remote monitoring and control of up to nine (9) DishNetwork’s ViP211K
satellite receivers through UPnP protocol using a standard Web browser via a rear-panel
10/100Base-T Ethernet connection.
HD-Device #1
Spare HD-Device #9
Component/
Component #9
HD-Device #8
Component/
Composite #8
Component/
Composite #2
HD-Device #2
Component/
Composite #1
22
8xComponent/Composite + 1xSpare
EAS
(8 HD Programs Total)
(8 HD Programs)
1xASI
4xQAM
MPEG-2 HD Encoding
Dolby® Audio Encoding
23
Features
• Accepts up to 8 programs from any of the following inputs: 8xComponent and 8xComposite
• Supports additional 1 spare input to replace the failed input
• Digitizes, MPEG-2 encodes, and multiplexes up to 8 inputs into 4 QAM output channels (2
programs per QAM channel)
• Provides any 1 of the 4 QAM output streams in ASI format
• Compatible with ITU Annex A and B digital QAM formats
• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers
• Provides a front-panel RF test point (at 20 dB below primary QAM output)
• Equipped with EAS interface (Analog Video + L/R Audio)
• Supports Real-time Dolby® Digital audio encoding
• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608
• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
HDE-8C-QAM
6370
6371
Description
MPEG-2 HD Encoder; 8xComponent + 8xComposite + 1xSpare
inputs; 4xQAM + 1xASI outputs; EAS compatible
OPTION-1 MPEG-2 HD Encoder for DishNetwork’s ViP211k Satellite Receivers
Typical Application
6
24
SDE-4AV-QAM
MPEG-2 SD ENCODER
4xAV 1xQAM
SDE-4AV-QAM (MPEG-2 SD Encoder – 4xAV – 1xQAM) accepts up to four (4)
standard-definition (SD) input programs in NTSC baseband Audio/Video format. Each
input program is digitized, MPEG-2 encoded, and then multiplexed into one Multi-Program
Transport Stream (MPTS). The output is available in the following formats simultaneously:
1xQAM, 1xASI, and 1xGigE (1000Base-T Ethernet).
An optional high definition (HD) software upgrade allows the encoder to switch modes
between SD and HD. When operating in HD mode, the encoder accepts one (1) program
from any one of the following inputs: 1xHDMI (unencrypted), 1xVGA or 1xComponent.
The encoder supports Dolby® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608). It is
also equipped with an Emergency Alert System (EAS) interface. A front-panel RF test point
allows for monitoring/testing of the QAM output without service interruption.
Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web
browser via a rear-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection.
4xAV
EAS
(4 Inputs Total)
110/230V
2.0/1.0A
50/60Hz
EAS CONTROL
DRY CONTACT
GND
CAUTION:
FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION
AGAINST FIRE HAZARD REPLACE
WITH SAME TYPE FUSE
FUSE
3.0A
250V SB
QAM RF
OUTPUT
SD ENCODER 4AV-QAM
MODEL: SDE-4AV-QAM
STOCK NO. 6364
5 TO 12VDC
R
DATA OUT
GIGE
IP
RESET
EAS INPUT
L
V
Pb
Y
REMOTE
CONTROL
10/100
R
COMPONENT IN
1xGigE
L
1xQAM
(4 Programs)
V
R
INPUT 3
L
V
L
V
CC
R
VGA INPUT
Optional HD and VGA Inputs
(Software Upgradable)
1xASI
INPUT 1
VGA OUTPUT
Pr
HDMI
INPUT 2
L
V
R
INPUT 4
25
Features
• Accepts up to four (4) programs in NTSC baseband A/V format
• Digitizes, MPEG-2 encodes, & multiplexes up to four (4) programs into one MPTS
• Simultaneously delivers the following outputs: 1xQAM, 1xASI, and 1xGigE
• Supports optional HD software upgrade to accept one (1) program from any of the
following inputs: 1xHDMI (unencrypted), 1xVGA, or 1xComponent
• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers
• Provides a front-panel RF test point (at 20 dB below primary QAM output)
• Compatible with ITU Annex A and B digital QAM formats
• Equipped with EAS interface (Analog Video + L/R Audio)
• Supports Real-time Dolby® Digital audio encoding
• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608
• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration
Ordering Information
Model
Stock # Description
SDE-4AV-QAM 6364
MPEG-2 SD Encoder; 4xAV inputs; 1xQAM + 1xASI + 1xGigE
outputs; EAS compatible
Typical Application
6
26
SDE-6S-ASI
MPEG-2 SD/HD ENCODER/MULTIPLEXER
6xSD-SDI/NTSC 1xASI
SDE-6S-ASI (MPEG-2 SD/HD Encoder/ Multiplexer – 6xSD-SDI/6xNTSC – 1xASI)
accepts up to six (6) standard-definition (SD) programs from any of the following inputs:
6xSD-SDI, and 6xNTSC. MPEG-2 encoded outputs are multiplexed into one Multi- Program
Transport Stream (MPTS) which is available in the following formats simultaneously: 1xASI,
and 1xIP (10/100Base-T).
The encoder supports Dolby® Digital audio encoding for (16) analog stereo audio pairs (L+R)
which in addition to primary and secondary audio programs also provide a third pair for
the Audio Descriptor Service, an additional narration track for blind and visually impaired,
as mandated by the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of
2010 (CVAA).
Ad insertion SCTE 30/35 compliant queuing messages are generated for each program from
either the audio Cue Tone input or an insertion contact closure (operator selectable).
A baseband audio analog encoding capability table is provided on the following page for easy
reference. In addition to the baseband audio analog encoding capability audio programs that
are already encoded and present on the SDI inputs may be multiplexed with the respective
output (pass-through) without utilizing the baseband audio analog encoding resource.
The encoder also supports Closed Captioning (EIA-608, and EIA-708), and Emergency Alert
System (EAS). A front-panel DVI port is available for real-time monitoring of active programs
during operation.
Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web
browser via a rear-panel SFP port (10/100BaseT).
6xSD-SDI or NTSC
EAS
(6 Programs Total)
Uni- & Multi-cast
UDP
(6 Programs Total)
1xIP
MPEG-2 SD/HD Encoding
Dolby® Digital Audio Encoding
1xASI
27
Features
• Accepts up to six (6) video programs from any of the following inputs: 6xSD-SDI and 6xNTSC
• Simultaneously delivers the following outputs: 1xASI and 1xIP
• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers
• Provides audio encoding for Primary Audio, SAP (Secondary Audio Program), & Audio
Descriptor Service
• Provides ad messaging via SCTE 30/35 activated by either Cue Tone Audio input or upon
contact closure (user selectable)
• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608 and EIA-708
• Supports Real-time Dolby® Digital audio encoding
• Supports Emergency Alert System (EAS)
• Supports user-defined static PSIP configuration
• Supports compressed digital audio pass through for all HD-SDI & SDI inputs
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
SDE-6S-ASI
6365
SDE-6S-HD-UPG 6366
Description
MPEG-2 SD Encoder/Multiplexer; accepts only up to six (6) SD-SDI or NTSC inputs
Optional software upgrade for 2 HD-SDI inputs (or eight (8) SD-SDI inputs)
Typical Application
6
28
DIGITAL
COLLECTION
Content from Satellite Dish
QTM Series
Digital
QPSK/8PSK
QTM-II/HD/HDPLUS
Stock No. 6242
AQM
1x ASI
IRD
Stock No. 6271B
MUX-2A-QAM
2x ASI
IRD #1
IRD #2
Stock No. 6505
IRD = Integrated Receiver/Decoder
}
29
Digital (QAM)
Content from Broadcasters
DHDC
Digital
8VSB
Note: Output must be within UHF channels 14 to 69.
Stock No. 6264A & 5A
AQD
Optional: Digital ASI
Stock No. 6244
MDDM
Stock No. 6273
EAS
EAS
AP-60-860A
Stock No. 59819
DAP PLUS
AQP
Stock No. 6268
AQT
Stock No. 6275
2x 8VSB
DQMx
Stock No. 6259A
EAS
MUX-2D-QAM
Stock No. 6504
MDDA
Stock No. 6277
Analog
UHF/VHF
EAS
}
}
Analog (Composite)
Analog (Modulated RF)
Optional: Digital ASI
Stock No. 6295
4x 8VSB
Digital (8VSB)
AP-60-860A
Stock No. 59819
}
Digital (QAM)
Digital (ASI)
Analog (UHF/VHF)
30
Content from Cable Companies
EAS
Digital
CLEAR QAM
}
AP-60-860A
Stock No. 59819
AQP
Stock No. 6268
AQT
Digital (QAM)
Stock No. 6275
DQMx
4x QAM
2x QAM EAS
Stock No. 6259A
MUX-2D-QAM
Stock No. 6504
AQD
Stock No. 6244
Optional: Digital ASI
MDDM
Stock No. 6273
EAS
EAS
AP-60-860A
Stock No. 59819
DAP PLUS
Stock No. 6295
Optional: Digital ASI
MDDA
Stock No. 6277
}
Analog (Composite)
}
Analog (Modulated RF)
Digital (ASI)
AP-60-860A
Agile Processor
The AP-60-860A (Agile Digital/Analog Processor) operates in one of the three
following modes:
Mode 1: Analog Heterodyne Processor (Analog RF IN > Analog RF OUT)
Mode 2: Digital Heterodyne Processor (QAM IN > QAM OUT)
Mode 3: Digital-to-Analog Processor (8VSB or QAM IN > Analog RF OUT)
Mode 2
Mode 1
QAM
Analog RF
CATV Ch. T7-T13
CATV Ch. 2-135
VHF Ch. 2-13
UHF Ch. 14-69
CATV Ch. T7-T13
CATV Ch. 2-135
CATV Ch. 2-135
CATV Ch. 2-135
+60 dBmV
CATV Ch. 2-135
VHF Ch. 2-13
UHF Ch. 14-69
EAS
CATV Ch. 2-135
QAM
Analog RF
Mode 3
QAM/8VSB
+55 dBmV
Analog RF
+60 dBmV
Features
• As an agile analog heterodyne processor: accepts one Analog RF input (CATV sub-band
channels T7-T13, CATV standard channels 2-135, VHF channels 2-13, and UHF channels 14-69) and
delivers one Analog RF output (CATV standard channels 2-135)
• As an agile digital heterodyne processor: accepts one Digital Cable QAM input (CATV sub-band
channels T7-T13, and CATV standard channels 2-135) and delivers one Digital Cable QAM output
(CATV standard channels 2-135)
• A s an agile digital-to-analog processor: accepts one Digital Off-air 8VSB or Digital Cable
QAM input (CATV standard channels 2-135, VHF channels 2-13, and UHF channels 14-69) and
delivers one Analog RF output (CATV standard channels 2-135)
• Equipped with EAS interface which can also be used as an IF (Intermediate Frequency) input
• Supports Closed Captioning (EIA-608)
Ordering Information
Model
AP-60-860A
Stock #
59819
Description
Agile, Processor, +60 dBmV, 54-860 MHz output
Related Products
Model
DAP
AP Series
Description
Digital-to-Analog Processor; 1 RU
Agile Heterodyne Processor; 1 RU
31
32
AQC Series
Agile QAM Converter
AQC (Agile QAM Convertor) is designed for data-over-cable and digital Video-on-Demand
(VoD) applications. The unit features an advanced menu system based on a flash upgradable
microcontroller which facilitates programming information to be easily entered with frontpanel navigational key-pad.
QAM IF
QAM
44 MHz
Agile 54-860 MHz
Refer to product instruction manual for additional specification measurements and notes.
Features
• Agile output frequency range of 54-864 MHz compatible with Standard, HRC, IRC
channel assignments.
• Compact design allows for deployment of 6 modules in 2RU
• QAM output is tunable in 12.5 kHz increments.
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
Description
AQC
MIRC-12V
MIPS-12D
6274
7715
7722D
Agile QAM Converter
Rack Chassis (holds up to 6 modules)
100-240 VAC 50/60 Hz power supply (one per chassis)
6274 (1 of 6)
7722C
7715
AQD
33
ATSC/QAM DEMODULATOR
1x8VSB/QAM 1xAV / 2xASI
AQD (ATSC/QAM Demodulator) accepts one input in 8VSB (digital off-air) or QAM (digital
cable) format, and delivers one output in NTSC composite analog Audio/Video format, and two
identical outputs in ASI format.
AQD allows delivering of a digital off-air program to viewers with an analog TV set. It also
allows an operator to cherry-pick channels from a “clear” QAM cable lineup.
AQD PLUS is the same as AQD, but includes the AFD broadcast package.
AFD (Active Format Description) is a standard set of codes embedded in the
video stream and used by digital television broadcasters to optimally display a
16:9 video format on an analog television set designed for 4:3 video format.
Remote Monitoring & Control via AQD-RCS
Composite
Analog A/V
8VSB OR QAM
2 x ASI
(AQD PLUS ASI only)
Features
• Input standards supported are digital off-air (8VSB) and digital cable (QAM 64 and 256)
• NTSC Composite Analog Audio/Video output is in 480i format and supports Closed Captioning (EIA-608)
• Optional AQD-RCS module allows remote monitoring and configuration of up to 80 AQD modules
• Optional AQD-SPS unit provides standby utility power to the primary power supply (AQD Power & Control module)
Ordering Information
Model
AQD
AQD PLUS
AQD PLUS ASI
AQD-PCM
QTRC
Options
AQD-RCS
AQD/AQT-SPS
QTHF
Stock #
6245
6244
6244-10
6246
6233
Description
ATSC/QAM Demodulator
AQD with AFD Broadcast Package
AQD PLUS with 2x ASI outputs
AQD Power & Control Module
QAM Transcoder Rack Chassis
2730
6253
6235
AQD Remote Configuration Server Module
AQD/AQT Standby Power Supply
QT Headend Fan
2730
6245 (1 of 8)
6246
6233
6253
6235
34
AQM
AGILE QAM MODULATOR
1xASI 1xQAM
AQM (Agile QAM Modulator) accepts one MPEG-2 digital transport stream encapsulated
in an ASI (Asynchronous Serial Interface) format, and delivers one output in QAM format in the
5.75-864 MHz range.
ASI
QAM (with sub-band)
Features
• Input standard supported is ASI with data stream not to exceed 270 Mbps
• Output standards supported are ITU-T J.83 Annex A and Annex B (QAM 16, 32, 64, 128, 256,
512, and 1024)
• Optional IF output (Intermediate Frequency) and LVDS input (Low-Voltage Differential Signaling) is available
• Compact design allows for deployment of six modules in 2RU rack space
Ordering Information
Model
AQM
MIRC-12V
MIPS-12D
MIPS-12C PAL
Stock #
6271B
7715
7722D
B7722C
Description
Agile QAM Modulator
Rack Chassis (holds up to 6 AQM modules)
110 VAC/60 Hz power supply (one per chassis)
220 VAC/50 Hz power supply (one per chassis)
6271 (1 of 6)
7722D 7715
AQP
ATSC/QAM PROCESSOR
1x8VSB/QAM 1xQAM
AQP (ATSC/QAM Processor) accepts one input in 8VSB (digital off-air) or QAM (digital cable)
format, including the sub-band QAM input channels T7 to T13, and delivers one output in
QAM format in the 54-864 MHz range.
AQP can be utilized in a remote headend to “regenerate” a clean QAM channel from a
degraded one. It also allows TV sets to receive digital off-air programming on CATV channel
assignments by transmodulating the 8VSB broadcast to QAM.
It can also be utilized in remote digital origination applications, where the QAM channel needs
to be delivered to the headend via the sub-band frequencies.
8VSB
OR
QAM
QAM
Agile 54-864 MHz
+55 dBmV (115 dBµV)
Features
• S upports sub-band QAM input channels T7 to T13 for remote digital origination
applications
• Input standards supported are digital off-air (8VSB & 16VSB) and digital cable
(QAM 16/32/64/128/206)
• Agile QAM output at +55 dBmV and in the frequency range of 54-864 MHz range
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
Description
AQP
6268
8VSB/QAM-to-QAM Processor with sub-band input
35
36
AQT
ATSC/QAM TRANSCODER
1x8VSB/QAM 1xQAM
AQT (ATSC/QAM Transoder) accepts one input in 8VSB (digital off-air) or QAM
format, and delivers one output in QAM format in the 54-864 MHz range.
(digital cable)
AQT can be utilized in a remote headend to “regenerate” a clean QAM channel from a
degraded one. It also allows TV sets to receive digital off-air programming on CATV channel
assignments by transmodulating the 8VSB broadcast to QAM.
Remote Monitoring & Control via AQT-RCS
8VSB OR QAM
QAM
Features
• Input standards supported are digital off-air
(8VSB & 16VSB)
64, 128, and 256)
and digital cable
(QAM 16, 32,
• Agile QAM output at +40 dBmV and in the frequency range of 54-864 MHz range
• Optional AQT-RCS module allows remote monitoring and configuration of up to 80 AQT modules
• Optional AQT-SPS unit provides standby utility power to the primary power supply
(AQT Power & Control module)
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
Description
AQT
AQT-PCM
QTRC
6275
6276
6233
ATSC-to-QAM Transcoder
AQT Power & Control Module
QAM Transcoder Rack Chassis
2736
6275 (1 of 8)
6276 6233
6254
Optional Equipment
2736
AQT-RCS
AQD/AQT-SPS 6253
QTHF
6235
HDA Series
6240 xx
AQT Remote Configuration Server Module
AQD/AQT Standby Power Supply
Headend Fan
Integrated Combiner & Distribution Amplifier
6235
6240
AQT8 Series
ATSC/QAM TRANSCODER
8x8VSB/QAM IP/QAM
AQT8 Series (ATSC/QAM Transcoder) accepts up to eight (8) inputs in 8VSB (Digital
off-air) or QAM (clear digital cable) format. Two models are available depending on the desired
output format. The AQT8-IP provides an IP (GigE) output and the AQT8-QAM provides QAM
and IP outputs simultaneously.
The AQT8 Series features Emergency Alert System (EAS) program switching through either
an ASI or IP format EAS input and terminal block contacts for triggering.
Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web
browser via a rear-panel 10/100BaseT Ethernet connection.
8xATSC/QAM
8xQAM
IP
Features
• Accepts up to eight (8) ATSC or QAM channel inputs
• AQT8-IP (Stock No. 6280) provides IP output only
• AQT8-QAM (Stock No. 6281) provides IP and QAM outputs
• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers
• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608 and EIA-708 when embedded in RF input(s)
• Accepts EAS input in ASI and IP formats
• Provides an ASI output of user selected input port
Ordering Information
Model
AQT8-IP
AQT8-QAM
Stock #
6280
6281
Description
ATSC/QAM Transcoder, 8xATSC/QAM inputs, 1xIP output
ATSC/QAM Transcoder, 8xATSC/QAM inputs, IP + QAM outputs
37
38
BTPRO-1000
QAM/8VSB/Analog Signal Analyzer
BTPRO-1000 is a versatile CATV test instrument for measuring both digital and analog CATV
and Broadcast TV signals. Robust and easy to use, BTPRO-1000 provides hours of operating
time from its high capacity battery. The instrument comes complete with a soft carrying case, AC
main and automotive chargers.
An optional Pro:Idiom™ Key Recovery feature is available for Hospitality applications that employ
Pro:Idiom™ television sets. The option consists of a built-in frequency agile QAM modulator
that connects directly to an affected Pro:Idiom™ TV to provide new encryption key information.
Features
• QAM/8VSB/NTSC Measurements
• Extended frequency range of 4-1000 MHz
• MER, aBER, bBER, Noise Margin and Level/Power measurements plus Spectrum Analysis
• Automatic quality analysis: FAIL-MARGINAL-PASS
• Auto Seek & Store Function - an essential feature for creating custom memory channel
plans. Scans receivable signals, determines signal type (QAM, 8VSB or analog) and stores only
those channels having signal levels above user defined values
• Ingress and Leakage Modes
• Data Logger Function: Steps through each channel in the “Active” memory plan and stores
all related measurements
• Graphics Display
• Alpha-numeric keypad
• Optional TV Key Recovery for Hospitality Pro:Idiom™ systems
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
Description
BTPRO-1000
4230
4230 RK
QAM/8VSB/Analog Signal Analyzer
Signal Analyzer with Pro:Idiom™ Key Recovery Option
DAP Series
DIGITAL/ANALOG PROCESSOR
1x8VSB/QAM 1xANALOG RF/2xASI
DAP PLUS (Digital/Analog Processor) accepts one input in 8VSB (digital off-air) or QAM
(digital cable) format, and delivers one output in modulated analog RF format. DAP PLUS
includes the AFD broadcast package. AFD (Active Format Description) is a standard set of
codes embedded in the video stream and used by digital television broadcasters to optimally
display a 16:9 video format on an analog television set designed for 4:3 video format.
The DAP PLUS can be equipped with an optional RNC module (Remote Network Card) for remote
monitoring and control operations. One RNC module can monitor and control up to sixty-four
DAP PLUS units installed in a headend. Additionally, it can be equipped with an optional ASI
module (Asynchronous Serial Interface) that delivers two identical ASI stream outputs, allowing a
seamless migration to an all-digital platform.
Remote Monitoring & Control via RNC Module
8VSB OR QAM
2xASI
Optional
Features
EAS
Analog RF
• A gile Broadcast (UHF, VHF) and CATV (Standard, HRC, and IRC) channel assignments in the
54-864 MHz range
• Supports Emergency Alert System (EAS) input which can also be used as an Intermediate
Frequency (IF) input
• Automated scanning captures all available off-air or cable programs present on the input signal
• Supports both the Primary and the SAP (Secondary Audio Program) audio programs
• Output power level range of +50 to +62 dBmV adjustable in 0.2 dB increments
• Supports Closed Captioning (EIA-608)
Ordering Information
Model
DAP PLUS
DAP PLUS ASI
DAP PLUS RNC
DAP PLUS A/R
Stock #
6295
6295-10
6295-12
6295-22
Description
Digital-to-Analog Processor with AFD
DAP PLUS equipped with ASI module
DAP PLUS equipped with Remote Network Card (RNC) Module
DAP PLUS equipped with both the ASI and the RNC Modules
39
40
DHDP Series
DIGITAL HD PROCESSOR
1x8VSB 1xIF 1x8VSB
DHDP (Digital High-Definition Processor) is a two-module system consisting of one
down-converter module and one up-converter module. The down-converter accepts one 8VSB
(digital off-air) input in the 54-864 MHz range and delivers one output in IF (Intermediate Frequency)
format. The up-converter accepts one IF input and delivers one output in 8VSB format.
8VSB
8VSB
Features
• A gile Broadcast (UHF, VHF) and CATV (Standard, HRC, and IRC) channel assignments in the
54-864 MHz range
• Compatible with Digital TV and High-Definition TV applications
• Compact design allows for deployment of six Combo modules in 2RU rack space
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
Description
DHDC-DV
DHDC-UV
DHDP-V
MIRC-12V
MIPS-12D
DHDP-50
6264A
6265A
6266B
7715
7722D
6260A
Digital TV & High-Definition TV Down-converter module
Digital TV & High-Definition TV Up-converter module
Combo modules (6264A + 6265A)
Rack Chassis (holds up to 6 combo modules)
110 VAC/60 Hz power supply (one per chassis)
Digital TV & High-Definition Integrated Unit (+50 dBmV Output)
6264A (1 of 6) 6265A (1 of 6) 7722D 7715
DQMx
DIGITAL QAM MULITPLEXER
4x8VSB/QAM/ASI 1xQAM
DQMx (Digital QAM Multiplexer) accepts up to four inputs in ASI, 8VSB, and QAM
formats, and delivers one output in QAM format in the 54-864 MHz range. Two types of input
modules are available (ASI and 8VSB/QAM), and any combination of input modules is allowed – for
example, DQMx can be equipped with 2 ASI and 2 8VSB/QAM input modules.
Each ASI input module can process up to twelve channels, not to exceed 270 Mbps. Each
8VSB/QAM input module can process up to twelve channels, not to exceed 19.4 Mbps for
8VSB or 38.8 Mbps for QAM 256. The QAM-modulated output can contain up to twelve
channels, not to exceed 38.8 Mpbs when operating in QAM 256 mode.
ASI & 8VSB & QAM
EAS
HD/SD MPEG-2 PROCESSING
QAM
Features
• M
aintains MPEG-2 mapping if the input ASI stream is removed and the same stream is
added later (for example, after a power cycle)
• In addition to PAT, PMT, and MGT tables, supports the RRT, STT, and VCT tables of the
MPEG-2 transport stream
• Automatically re-maps duplicate PIDs, program numbers, and minor channel numbers
• Maintains mapping with new PAT/PMT/MGT versions and same programming
• User-defined major/minor or 4-digit CATV virtual channels
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
DQMx
6259A
DQMx-RF 6256
DQMx-ASI 6257
Description
Digital QAM Multiplexer; Mainframe only (requires input modules)
8VSB/QAM input module
ASI input module
6256
6257
6259A
41
42
MDDA-860
6
Micro ATSC/QAM Transcoder
1x8VSB/QAM 1xASI
The MDDA-860 is a digital demodulator and transcoder that receives one input in ATSC
8VSB (digital off-air) or “clear” QAM (digital cable) format and delivers one output in ASI format.
ASI
8VSB OR QAM
Features
• Input standards supported are digital off-air (8VSB) and digital cable (ITU-B QAM 64 and 256)
• Die-cast Chassis Offers Superior Protection against Ingress or Egress
• Demodulates & transcodes HDTV/SDTV digital signals to ASI
• Compact design allows for deployment of 12 units in 2RU
• On-site firmware updates available through front-panel
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
Description
MDDA-860
MIRC-12V
MIPS-12D
6277
7715
7722D
ATSC/QAM-to-ASI Transcoder
Rack Chassis (holds up to 12 modules)
110V/60Hz power supply (one per chassis configuration above)
6277
(1 of 12)
7722D
7715
MDDM-860
6
43
Micro ATSC/QAM Demodulator
1x8VSB/QAM 1xAV
The MDDM-860 is a digital demodulator and decoder that receives one input in ATSC 8VSB
(digital off-air) or “clear” QAM (digital cable) format and delivers one NTSC composite analog video
and stereo audio output.
The unit allows delivering of a digital off-air program to viewers with an analog TV set. It also
allows operators to cherry-pick channels from a clear QAM cable lineup.
Headends processing analog broadcasts using Blonder Tongue’s MIDM demodulators and
MICM modulators can be upgraded seamlessly to process digital broadcasts by simply
replacing the MIDM with a MDDM.
Composite
Analog A/V
8VSB OR QAM
Features
• Compact design allows for deployment of 6 channels (6 MDDM modules + 6 MICM modulators) in 2RU
• NTSC Composite Analog Video output is in 480i format and supports Closed Captioning (EIA-608)
• Input standards supported are digital off-air (8VSB) and digital cable (ITU-B QAM 64 and 256)
• Scans all 8VSB or QAM channels and stores in memory for quick channel selection
• Demodulates HDTV/SDTV digital signals to NTSC video and analog L/R audio
• On-site firmware updates/status monitoring available through front-panel
• Die-cast Chassis Offers Superior Protection against Ingress or Egress
• Adjustable picture sizes for 16:9 to 4:3 image conversion
• Supports Mono, Stereo, and SAP audio modes
Ordering Information
Model
MDDM-860
MIRC-12V
MIPS-12D
Stock #
6273
7715
7722D
Description
ATSC/QAM Demodulator
Rack Chassis (holds up to 6 MDDM + 6 MICM modulators)
7797D
110 V/60 Hz power supply
(1 of 6)
MICM
7797D
Micro channel modulator
(one per chassis config. above)
6273
(1 of 6)
7722D
7715
44
Mux-2D-QAM
8VSB/QAM Multiplexer
2x8VSB/QAM 1xQAM
The MUX-2D-QAM is designed to allow CATV operators to multiplex two digital channels
received in either 8VSB or QAM format to a single QAM output channel for delivery over a
standard coaxial distribution network.
The MUX-2D-QAM accepts up to two (2) 8VSB or clear QAM channels and aggregates them onto
one QAM RF output in the 54-864 MHz range. The MUX-2D-QAM provides the capability to filter
program streams and to assign major/minor or a single 4-digit channel number to each.
The MUX-2D-QAM also provides Emergency Alert System (EAS) program switching through ASI
input and terminal block contacts. The EAS input source, which must be in ASI format, can be
shared among multiple MUX-2D-QAM units by looping it from one to another unit without the
need for external splitting and amplification.
2x8VSB/QAM
EAS
EAS Loop
1xQAM (MULTIPLE PROGRAMS)
Features
• Supports MPEG-2 Transport Stream Tables: PAT, PMT, MGT, RRT, STT, & VCT
• Re-maps duplicate PIDs, Program Numbers, and Minor Channel Numbers
• Allows sharing of the EAS input source among multiple units
• User-defined major/minor or 4-digit CATV virtual channels
• User-defined channel names
• EAS input replaces up to 12 program streams
• Supports PID filtering & PSIP re-assignment
• Provides QAM 256 Output at 38.8 Mbps
• Accepts ASI input as EAS input source
• User-defined QAM Output Parameters
• Maintains MPEG-2 mapping
Ordering Information
Model
Stock # Description
Multiplexer, 2x 8VSB/QAM Inputs, Agile 54-860 MHz QAM output,
MUX-2D-QAM 6504
EAS compatible
Mux-2A-QAM
ASI Multiplexer
2xASI QAM
The MUX-2A-QAM is designed to allow CATV operators to multiplex two input sources in ASI
format to a single QAM output channel for delivery over a standard coaxial distribution network.
The MUX-2A-QAM accepts up to two (2) ASI inputs and aggregates them onto one QAM RF
output in the 54-864 MHz range. The MUX-2A-QAM provides the capability to filter program
streams and to assign major/minor or a single 4-digit channel number to each.
The MUX-2A-QAM also provides Emergency Alert System (EAS) program switching through
a third ASI input and terminal block contacts. The EAS input source can be shared among
multiple MUX-2A-QAM units by looping it from one to another unit without the need for external
splitting and amplification.
2xASI
EAS
EAS Loop
1xQAM (MULTIPLE PROGRAMS)
Features
• Supports MPEG-2 Transport Stream Tables: PAT, PMT, MGT, RRT, STT, & VCT
• Re-maps duplicate PIDs, Program Numbers, and Minor Channel Numbers
• Allows sharing of the EAS input source among multiple units
• User-defined major/minor or 4-digit CATV virtual channels
• User-defined channel names
• EAS input replaces up to 12 program streams
• Supports PID filtering & PSIP re-assignment
• Provides QAM 256 Output at 38.8 Mbps
• Accepts ASI input as EAS input source
• User-defined QAM Output Parameters
• Maintains MPEG-2 mapping
Ordering Information
Model
Stock # Description
MUX-2A-QAM 6505
Multiplexer, 2x ASI Inputs, Agile 54-860 MHz QAM output, EAS
compatible
45
6
46
QTM
QAM TRANSCODER MODULE
1xQPSK/8PSK 1xQAM
QTM (QAM Transcoder Module) accepts one input in QPSK or 8PSK format, and delivers one
output in QAM format in the 54-864 MHz range.
The four available models are:
1. QTM-II - accepts one input in QPSK format, and delivers one output in QAM 64 mode.
2. QTM-HD - accepts one input in QPSK or 8PSK format, and delivers on output in QAM 256
mode.
3. QTM-HD PLUS - the same as QTM-HD, but capable of QAM 512/1024 modes.
4. QTM-HD NPU - the same as QTM-HD, but with a “Null Packet” feature that allows adding/removing
null packets to/from the input stream.
QPSK or 8PSK
QAM
Features
• Supports the 8PSK modulation typically used for High-Definition TV programming
• Supports ITU-T J.83 Annex A and Annex B standards (QAM 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024)
• Compact design allows for deployment of 8 transcoders, and power & control module, in 3RU
rack space
• Optional Headend Web Server allows for remote monitoring and control of each transcoder
• Optional Standby Power Supply allows for uninterrupted service in the unlikely event of a
primary power supply failure
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
Description
6231A
QAM Transcoder Module; QPSK input, QAM 64 output
QTM-II
QTM-HD
6241
QAM Transcoder Module; QPSK/8PSK input, QAM 256 output
QTM-HD PLUS 6242
QAM Transcoder Module; QPSK/8PSK input, QAM 512/1024
output
QTM-HD NPU 6278
QAM Transcoder Module; QPSK/8PSK input, QAM 256 output;
Null Packet add/remove capability
QTRC
6233
Rack Chassis; 3RU (holds up to 8 QTM modules)
QTPCM PLUS 6232B
QT Power and Control Module (one per chassis)
Optional Equipment
QT-HWS-II
2728
QTSPS
6239A
QTHF
QTRFC
6235
6234 1
QTRFS
QTRFS-2
6234 2
6225 2
QTM (1 of 8)
6232B 6233
QTM Headend Web Server for remote monitoring and control
QT Stand-by Power Supply with integrated fan tray (supports 2 fullyloaded rack chassis)
QT 1RU rack-mounted fan tray
8 -port QAM combiner (mounts on the top of the Rack Chassis 6233)
8-port L-band Splitter (mounts underneath the Rack Chassis 6233)
2 x 4-port L-band Splitter (mounts underneath the Rack Chassis 6233)
6239A
2728
QTM-HD-4
47
QAM TRANSCODER MODULE
4xQPSK/8PSK 4xQAM
QTM-HD-4 (QAM Transcoder Module) contains four (4) independent transcoders in a single
module. Each of these transcoders accepts one (1) input in QPSK or 8PSK format, and the module
delivers four outputs in QAM format in the 54-1002 MHz range.
An integrated satellite selector switch allows operator to select any of the QPSK/8PSK inputs from
up to 4 different satellites without the need for a separate external multiswitch. The 4 RF QAM
output channels can be grouped in any 42 MHz-wide span, for example grouped consecutively
in a 24 MHz-wide span, or grouped as two pairs of adjoining RF channels each 12 MHz wide, or
any other possible combination of 4x 6 MHz-wide channels placed in a 42 MHz-wide span. The
QTM-HD-4 modules are designed to be housed in the same chassis and to be powered with the
same power/control module currently used with our QTM-HD-PLUS modules (Stock 6242) that are
QAM 512/1024 compatible.
The QTM-HD-4 may be monitored and controlled via GUI-based web pages from any computer
either locally or via the internet.
42 MHz
6 MHz
4xQPSK/8PSK
4xQAM
user-selectable from
4 different satellites
4x 6 MHz-wide chs. in any 42 MHz-wide span
TYPICAL DEPLOYMENT: 4x consecutive QAMs
24 MHz
Features
• Supports QPSK/8PSK inputs (DVB-S, DVB-S2, Turbo FEC)
• Equipped with integrated satellite switch allowing operator to select inputs from 4 different satellites
• Supports ITU-T J.83 Annex A and Annex B QAM output (QAM 16, 32, 64, 128, 256)
• Can be deployed with QTM-HD-Plus (Stock 6242) for applications requiring QAM 512/1024 modulation
• Compact design allows for deployment of 4 units (16 transcoders), including the power & control
module, in 3RU
• Optional Standby Power Supply allows for uninterrupted service in the unlikely event of a primary
power supply failure
• GUI-based menu, including SNMP-based management, provides remote monitoring/control capabilities
Ordering Information
Model
QTM-HD-4
QTRC
QTPCM-4
Stock #
6243
6233A
6238
Optional Equipment
QTSPS
6239A
QTHF
6235
Description
QAM Transcoder Module; QPSK/8PSK input, QAM 256 output
Rack Chassis; 3RU (holds up to 4 QTM-HD-4 modules)
QT Power & Control Module (one per chassis)
3RU
QT Standby Power Supply with integrated
fan tray (supports 2 fully-loaded rack chassis)
QT 1RU rack-mounted fan tray
QTM-HD-4 (1of4)
6238
6239A
6233A
48
49
EdgeQAM
& IPTV
SOLUTIONS
50
EdgeQAM Solutions
Dish Network
(ViP222 receivers)
BellTV
(6131 or 6400 receivers)
DTCP-IP
64 programs
DTCP-IP
48 programs
EQAM-400B
Stock No. 6520B
EQAM-450B
Stock No. 6525B
16 RF QAM Ch.
4 programs per QAM
16 RF QAM Ch.
3 programs per QAM
}
Pro:Idiom™ QAM
• Comprehensive GUI-based menu for remote monitoring and control via Web browser
• User-selectable QAM 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 modulation modes
• Provides a front-panel RF test point (at 20 dB below primary QAM output)
• Provides SNMP v2 for product and network management
• Provides comprehensive management of receivers
• Accepts variable and constant bitrate streams
• Provides Null Packet deletion and addition
MSO
headend
IP over Fiber
Transport
Network
Clear-IP
SPTS Mode: 64 SPTS
MPTS Mode: 16 MPTS
(64 Programs)
EQAM-420B
Stock No. 6522B
16 RF QAM Ch.
4 programs per QAM
Clear/
Pro:Idiom™ QAM
• SPTS Mode: Accepts up to sixty-four (64) MPEG-2/H.264 Single Program Transport Streams (SPTS)
• MPTS Mode: Accepts up sixteen (16) MPEG-2/H.264 Multi Program Transport Streams (MPTS),
each MPTS with maximum 4 programs and not to exceed 38.8 Mbps
• Each input program can contain 1 video and up to 2 audio elementary streams
• Supports IGMPv3 protocol
• Configurable with 4 modules, each with four (4) adjacent QAM channels, for a total of 16 QAM
channels
• Supports network based EAS program switching based on SCTE-18
• Comprehensive GUI-based menu for remote monitoring and control via standard Web browsers
• Provides a front-panel RF test point (at 20 dB below primary QAM output)
• Accepts variable and constant bitrate streams
• Provides Null packet insertion and deletion
IPTV Solutions
1xASI
51
1xGigE
IPAT
1xASI
Stock No. 6510
1xGigE
ASI Input/Output interface
• Supports Single or Multi Protocol Transport Services (SPTS or MPTS)
• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) correction
• Allows Null Packet insertion & deletion
GbE Input/Output interface
• Provides robust protection against IP network jitter and delay
• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) replacement
• Supports Uni- and Multi-cast thru RTP/UDP protocols
• Supports IPv4, ARP, IGMPv2, and ICMP protocols
• Supports variable and constant bitrates
Optional RF modules
• RF IN/OUT modules support both 8VSB and Annex A/B QAM modes
• RF IN module accepts 8VSB free-to-air & NTSC CATV standard channels 2-135
• RF OUT module provides NTSC CATV standard/sub-band channels 2-135/T7-T14
• RF OUT module provides output level of +40 dBmV
12xASI
144 un-encrypted programs
EAS
MUX-12A-IP
Stock No. 6517
2xASI
20 programs
4xGigE
ASI Input
• Supports unencrypted MPEG-2/H.264 Single or Multi Protocol Transport Services (SPTS or MPTS)
• ASI port #12 is user-selectable for EAS messaging
• Supports 12 unencrypted ASI inputs, each up to 270 Mbps
• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) correction
• Performs Null Packet insertion & deletion
GbE Output
• Provides robust protection against IP network jitter and delay
• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) replacement
• Supports Uni- and Multi-cast thru RTP/UDP protocols
• Supports IPv4, ARP, IGMPv2, and ICMP protocols
• Supports variable and constant bitrates
• Provides a single IPv4 address & port
52
EQAM-420 Series
EdgeQAM with EAS
2xGbE 16xQAM (Clear/Pro:Idiom™)
EQAM-420B (EdgeQAM with EAS) is designed to allow CATV operators to aggregate
multiple SDTV/HDTV programs received in IP format and to deliver them over a standard
coaxial distribution network. Each input program can contain one (1) video and up to two (2)
audio Elementary streams.
The EQAM-420B is capable of accepting unencrypted (clear) 1000Base-T Ethernet (GbE)
streams in one of the following two modes:
SPTS Mode: Up to sixty-four (64) MPEG-2/H.264 Single Program Transport Streams (SPTS)
MPTS Mode: Up to sixteen (16) MPEG-2/H.264 Multi Program Transport Streams (MPTS),
each MPTS with maximum four (4) programs and not to exceed 38.8 Mbps.
The input streams are aggregated in up to sixteen (16) QAM RF channels in the 54-996 MHz
range. The unit can be configured with four (4) QAM output modules, each capable of delivering
four (4) adjoining QAM channels. Each QAM channel can contain up to four (4) programs.
The EQAM-420B supports network-based (Soft/IP enabled Trigger) EAS program switching based
on the SCTE 18 standard. The unit also allows the operator to maintain the QAM RF output
unencrypted, or to encrypt it with Pro:Idiom™ against content piracy.
To utilize the Pro:Idiom™ encryption feature, the input streams must be received on a
dedicated GbE port and must meet the Pro:Idiom™ requirements. When Pro:Idiom™
encryption is activated, QAM set-top box or external Pro:Idiom™ decrypter is required to view
Pro:Idiom™ encrypted premium channels.
Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web
browser via a front-panel 10/100BaseT Ethernet connection. The SCTE-18 based EAS trigger
is also received via the same port.
Mode 1
Mode 2
64 SPTS
16 MPTS
Clear GbE
16xQAM (Clear/Pro:Idiom™)
EAS (SCTE-18 Compliant)
53
Features
• S PTS Mode: Accepts up to sixty-four (64) MPEG-2/H.264 Single Program Transport Streams (SPTS)
• MPTS Mode: Accepts up to sixteen (16) MPEG-2/H.264 Multi Program Transport Streams
(MPTS), each MPTS with maximum 4 programs and not to exceed 38.8 Mbps
• Each input program can contain 1 video and up to 2 audio elementary streams
• Supports IGMPv3 protocol
• Configurable with 4 modules, each with four (4) adjacent QAM channels, for a total of
16 QAM channels
• Supports network based EAS program switching based on SCTE-18
• Comprehensive GUI-based menu for remote monitoring/control via standard Web browsers
• Provides a front-panel RF test point (at 20 dB below primary QAM output)
• Accepts variable and constant bitrate streams
• Provides Null packet insertion and deletion
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
Description
EQAM-420B-4-64 6522B-4-64
EdgeQAM-420B equipped with 4 Quad-QAM output modules (accepts 64 unencrypted HD programs)
EQAM-420B-PIL
6522B-PIL*
Software option to add Pro:Idiom™ encryption
* Available to Pro:Idiom™ licensees only
Typical Application
54
IPAT
IP - ASI Transcoder
1xGbE
1xASI
IPAT (IP ASI Transcoder) is a bi-direction IP
ASI transcoder that accepts MPEG2/4encoded input streams in 1000Base-T Ethernet (GbE) and ASI formats simultaneously. GbE
input is transcoded to ASI output while ASI input is transcoded to GbE output.
IP
GbE
IP
GbE
ASI or QAM/8VSB (with optional RF IN module)
ASI
or QAM (with optional RF OUT module)
Two factory-installed optional modules (the RF IN and the RF OUT) allow input/output in QAM & 8VSB
formats rendering the product suitable for a wider range of applications.
An integrated web server provides comprehensive GUI-based local and remote control/
monitoring thru any standard Web browser via a front-panel 10/100BaseT interface.
Features
ASI Input/Output interface
• Supports Single or Multi Protocol Transport Services (SPTS or MPTS)
• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) correction
• Allows Null Packet insertion & deletion
GbE Input/Output interface
• Provides robust protection against IP network jitter and delay
• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) replacement
• Supports Uni- and Multi-cast thru RTP/UDP protocols
• Supports IPv4, ARP, IGMPv2, and ICMP protocols
• Supports variable and constant bitrates
Optional RF modules
• RF IN/OUT modules support both 8VSB and Annex A/B QAM modes
• RF IN module accepts 8VSB free-to-air & NTSC CATV standard channels 2-135
• RF OUT module provides NTSC CATV standard/sub-band channels 2-135/T7-T14
• RF OUT module provides output level of +40 dBmV
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
Description
IPAT
6510
GbE-to-ASI and ASI-to-GbE transcoder
6512
IPAT equipped with RF OUT module
IPAT-RFO
IPAT-RFI
6514
IPAT equipped with RF IN module
55
Typical Applications
QAM/8VSB-to-ASI Transcoder
Model: MDDA
Stock No. 6277
ASI
CATV
Headend
Multiple Programs
Multiple virtual channels
GbE
Multiple Programs
GbE
Multiple Programs
1.
IPAT's "native ASI Input with Single- or Multi-Protocol
Transport Services (SPTS or MPTS)
2.
RF QAM channel transcoded to ASI utilizing the optional
"RF IN" module
3.
RF QAM channel transcoded to ASI utilizing an external
QAM-to-ASI transcoder
4.
GbE output with uni- or multi-cast programs
5.
Display: Computer equipped with typical media player
or typical TV via an IP-to-RF settop box
1.
GbE interface with uni- or multi-cast programs
2.
The "standard" ASI output modulated to RF QAM
utilizing the optional "RF OUT" module
3.
THe "standard" ASI output modulated to RF QAM
utilizing an external QAM modulator
4.
The "standard" ASI output multiplexed with other ASI
streams and modulated to RF QAM
5.
Display: Digital TV
ASI
Multiple Programs
Multiple virtual channels
ASI streams from
Other IPATs/sources
Multiple virtual channels
ASI-to-QAM Modulator
Model: AQM
Stock No. 6271B
Multiple virtual channels
56
Mux-12A-IP
ASI-to-IP Multiplexer
12xASI 4xIP
MUX-12A-IP (12:4 ASI-to-IP Multiplexer; 12xASI > 4xIP) is designed for cherrypicking applications, allowing operators to create custom-made channel lineups by grooming
standard-definition (SD) and high-definition (HD) programs on an as-needed basis.
The multiplexer accepts up to twelve (12) unencrypted MPEG-2/H.264 inputs in ASI format and
multiplexes them into up to four (4) MPEG-2/H.264 Multi-Program Transport Streams (MPTS)
which are then encapsulated and assigned to up to four (4) IPv4 addresses in 1000Base-T
Ethernet (GigE) format suitable for distribution over Cat-5 networks. Any two (2) of the four (4)
MPTS output streams are also available in ASI format.
Each ASI input stream can contain up to 20 unencrypted programs, for a total of 240 input
programs. The GigE output can contain up to 20 programs groomed in up to four (4) MPTS
output streams from any of the available 240 input programs, each MPTS output stream not
to exceed 214 Mbps, and the sum of programs in all MPTS output streams not to exceed 20.
The multiplexer is EAS-compliant (Emergency Alert System) – operator can assign ASI port
#12 as an EAS input which, when activated, will override the content of all other ASI inputs.
Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished via a GUI-based interface
using any standard web browser.
12xASI
(240 Programs Total)
Any 2 of 4 MPTS
output streams
2xASI
20 Programs Total
Up to 4 IPv4 addresses
Uni- & Multi-cast
UDP/RTP
4xIP (GigE)
EAS
1x ASI
(port #12)
57
Features
• A ccepts up to 12 unencrypted MPEG-2/H.264 Single or Multi-Program Transport
Streams (SPTS or MPTS) in ASI format, each up to 270 Mbps
• Provides 1, 2, 3, or 4 MPTS output streams when operating in Single, Dual, Triple, or
Quad IP Outputs Modes respectively
• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web Browsers
• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) correction, null packet insertion, and deletion
• Supports EAS (Emergency Alert System) input on ASI Input port 12
• Supports Uni- and Multi-cast thru RTP/UDP protocols
• Supports ARP, IGMPv2, and ICMP protocols
• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration
Ordering Information
Model
Stock #
MUX-12A-IP 6517
Description
12:4 ASI-to-IP Multiplexer; 12xASI inputs; 4xIP (GigE) + 2xASI outputs; EAS compliant
59
3
DIGITAL REFERENCE
Digital Cable (QAM)...........................................................60
Digital Over-the-Air............................................................60
Encoding Diagram..............................................................61
Digital Content Types.........................................................62
Digital Closed Captioning...................................................64
Chroma Sub-Mapping Types..............................................66
Audio Encoding..................................................................67
Digital Tech Tips................................................................70
Digital Signal Analysis........................................................75
CATV QAM Channel Center Frequency..............................84
North American Digital Broadcast Channel Frequency.......86
3
4
2
60 Digital Cable (QAM)
1.25 MHz
3.58
0.92
0.25
6 MHz
Type:
2 Color Carrier Analog Cable (Black & White since 1941; Color since 1953)
Name:
3 Sound Carrier NTSC (National Television System Committee)
Bandwidth:
4 Video Content 6MHz
Capacity:
1 program
1
2
4
3
4
1.25 MHz
3.58
0.92
Video Carrier
Color Carrier
Sound Carrier
Video Content
0.25
6 MHz
Type:
Digital Cable
(since 1990)
Name:
QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
Type:
Digital Cable (since 1990)
Bandwidth: QAM (Quadrature
6MHzAmplitude Modulation)
Name:
Capacity: 6MHz Variable – depends of modulation
Bandwidth:
Capacity:
Variable QAM
– depends
of modulation
scheme
64 modulation
= 26.9
Mbps
QAM
64modulation
modulation
= 26.9
Mbps
QAM 64
= 26.9
Mbps
QAM 256QAM
modulation
= 38.8 Mbps = 38.8 Mbps
256=modulation
QAM 256 modulation
38.8 Mbps
6 MHz
6 MHz
Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc.
1.800.523.6049
Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc.
www.blondertongue.com
1.800.523.6049
QAM
QAM
6464
Slide # 12
www.blondertongue.com
64-Point Signal Constellation
26.9 Mbps bitrate
Can accommodate:
1x1080i HD program @ 17.9 Mbps,
or 4x480i SD programs each @ 4.2 Mbps,
or 1x720p HD program @ 8.8 Mbps + 2x480i SD programs at 4.2 Mbps,
or any combination not to exceed 26.9 Mbps
QAM
256
QAM
256
256-Point Signal Constellation
38.8 Mbps bitrate
Can accommodate:
1x1080i HD program @ 36.5 Mbps,
or 2x720p HD programs each @ 17.6 Mbps,
or 4x480i SD programs each @ 8.8 Mbps,
or 1x720p HD program @ 17.6 Mbps + 2x480i SD programs at 8.8 Mbps,
or any combination not to exceed 38.8 Mbps
Digital Over-the-Air (8VSB)
Type:
Name:
Bandwidth:
Capacity:
Digital Over-the-Air (Since Digital Transition of 2009)
8VSB (8-level Vestigial SideBand)
6MHz
19.8 Mbps
One 8VSB channel may contain 1 HD program identified, for example, as
One 8VSB
channel
mayseveral
contain
HD program
identified,
for example,
"Major"
channel
2.1, and
SD1programs
identified
as "Minor"
channels as
“Major” channel 2.1, and several SD programs identified as “Minor” channels
2.2, 2.3, 2.4, ...
2.2 , 2.3, 2.4, ...
1
6 MHz
Pilot Carrier
sche
61
Encoding Diagram
1
Un-compressed Digital content arrives in HD-SDI, SD-SDI, & HDMI formats.
igital content arrives in HD-SDI, SD-SDI, & HDMI formats.
2
Uncompressed
Digital Signal
2
Compress using MPEG-2/4 and convert to MPEG-TS
Compress using MPEG-2/4 and convert to MPEG-TS
(MPEG Transport Stream).
(MPEG Transport Stream).
Encoder
(Compressor)
oder
3
essor)
3
Pack Several MPEG-TS into one ASI stream.
Pack Several MPEG-TS into one ASI stream.
ASI Transport
ASI Carrier
Stream
(TS)
4
ASI Carrier
4
Convert ASI stream into QAM.
Convert ASI stream into QAM.
QAM Modulation
5
QAM Modulation
5
Deliver QAM over coax
Deliver QAM over coax.
Coaxial
Distribution
Network
Coaxial
Distribution
Network
MPEG-2 Transport Stream
PID
CAT
TSDT
EIT = Event Information Table
CAT = Conditional Access Table
MGT = Management Table
PAT = Program Association Table
Video
Audio (English)
Audio (French)
SI Base PID STT, MGT, VCT, RRT
EIT-n, ETT-n, other
tables referenced
by MGT
PID = Packet Identifier
62 Digital Content Types
SDI (Serial Digital Interface) refers to a family of un-compressed
un-compressed audio/video interfaces
SDI
standardized by SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers).
HD-SDI
HD-SDI (High-Definition Serial Digital Interface) or SMPTE 292M, provides a nominal
data rate of 1.485 Gbit/s. Typical video formats are 720p and 1080i.
SD-SDI
SD-SDI (Standard-Definition Serial Digital Interface) or SMPTE 259M, provides a
nominal data rate of 270 Mbit/s. Typical video format is 480i.
Typical interface type is a BNC connector for both HD-SDI and SD-SDI.
HDMI (High Definition Multi-media Interface)
HDMI
is an audio/video interface for transmitting
un-compressed digital data. It was founded in 2002 by Hitachi, Panasonic, Philips,
uncompressed
Thomson, Toshiba, Silicon Image, and Sony.
The proprietary content encryption scheme used is HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content
Protection) which is developed by Intel and licensed by the Digital Content Protection,
LLC.
Nominal data rate is 10.2 Gbits/s and various video formats from 480i to 2160p are
supported.
The only interface type is the HDMI connector.
ASI (Asynchronous
ASI
Serial Interface) is a streaming data format which often
carries an MPEG Transport Stream (MPEG-TS). Unlike the SD-SDI and HDSDI that are uncompressed, an ASI signal can carry one or multiple SD,
HD, or audio programs that are already compressed.
compressed.
Generally, the ASI signal is the final product of video compression, either
MPEG2 or MPEG4, and ready for transmission, after necessary conversions,
over various types of transmission paths such as coax, fiber, or microwave.
For example, for CATV applications the ASI stream is typically converted
into QAM. It is converted into 8VSB for broadcast applications.
The two transmission formats commonly used by the ASI interface are the
188 byte format and the 204 byte format. The 188 byte format is the more
common ASI transport stream. When optional Reed-Solomon error
correction data is included the packet can stretch an extra 16 bytes to 204
bytes total.
Data rate is variable and dependent on user’s application requirements, but
the ASI interface of most products support 270 Mbps per DVB-ASI 50083-9
standard.
63
DVI (Digital
DVI
Visual Interface) is a video-only
video-only standard designed to provide
very high visual quality on digital display devices such as LCD TVs and
computers. It was developed to replace the analog VGA (Video Graphics
Array) technology.
Depending on the DVI type (single or dual link) the data rate is
3.96 and 7.92 Gbits/s. In most CATV applications, a DVI-to-HDMI
cable is used to display the DVI signal on a HDMI-compatible TV.
64 Digital Closed Captioning
For ATSC (digital television) programming, three streams are encoded in the
video: two are backward compatible Line 21 captions (CEA-608), and the
third is a set of additional caption streams encoded in EIA-708 format. The
captioning data is carried in the video user bits of the MPEG-2 bitstream (as
specified in ATSC A/53B) and is applicable to both HD and SD.
The CEA-708 specification provides for improved captioning compared
with CEA-608:
•
Up to 63 services per program (16 announced in PSIP)
•
8 independently controlled display windows
•
Extended range of characters (i.e. more accented letters and
non-Latin letters) and fonts (monospaced and proportional
spaced, serif and sans-serif)
•
Additional font sizes (viewer-adjustable), backgrounds
(including both transparent and translucent backgrounds to
optionally replace the big black block), colors and edges
•
More text styles, including edged or drop-shadowed text
rather than the letters on a solid background
•
•
Higher bandwidth, to allow more data per minute of video
More language channels, to allow the encoding of more
independent caption streams
Chroma Sub-Mapping Types
4:4:4 YCbCr
Each of the three YCbCr components have the same sample rate. This
scheme is sometimes used in high-end film scanners and cinematic
postproduction. Two SDI connections are normally required to carry
this bandwidth: Link A would carry a 4:2:2 signal, Link B a 0:2:2, when
combined would make 4:4:4.
4:4:4 RGB (no subsampling)
Note that "4:4:4" may instead be referring to RGB (Red, Green, Blue) color
space, which implicitly does not have any chroma subsampling at all.
4:2:2
The two chroma components are sampled at half the sample rate of
luma: the horizontal chroma resolution is halved. This reduces the
bandwidth of an uncompressed video signal by one-third with little to no
visual difference. This rate is often used in high-end encoders and video
production equipment.
4:2:1
Although this mode is defined, very few firmware or hardware codecs use
this sampling mode. Cb horizontal resolution is twice as low as one of
Cr (and four times as low as one of Y). This exploits the fact that human
eye has less spatial sensitivity to blue/yellow than to red/green. Similar to
NTSC, in using lower resolution for blue/yellow than red/green, which in
turn has less resolution than luma.
4:1:1
In 4:1:1 chroma subsampling, the horizontal color resolution is quartered,
and the bandwidth is halved compared to no chroma subsampling.
Originally, 4:1:1 chroma subsampling was not considered to be broadcast
quality and was only acceptable for low-end and consumer applications.
65
66 Chroma Sub-Mapping Types Continued
4:2:0
Cb and Cr are each subsampled at a factor of 2 both horizontally and
vertically. There are three variants of 4:2:0 schemes, that are sited differently
both horizontally and vertically.
•
In MPEG-2, Cb and Cr are co-sited horizontally. Cb and Cr are
sited between pixels in the vertical direction (sited
interstitially).
•
In JPEG/JFIF, H.261, and MPEG-1, Cb and Cr are sited
interstitially, halfway between alternate luma samples.
•
In 4:2:0 DV, Cb and Cr are co-sited in the horizontal direction.
In the vertical direction, they are co-sited on alternating lines.
The PAL and SECAM color systems are especially well-suited to this kind of
data reduction. Most digital video formats corresponding to PAL use 4:2:0
chroma subsampling,
Audio Encoding
Dolby Digital: Dolby Digital is the name for audio compression
technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories. The most elaborate mode
in common usage involves five channels for normal-range speakers (20
Hz – 20,000 Hz) (right front, center, left front, rear right, rear left) and one
channel (20 Hz – 120 Hz) for the subwoofer.
• Dolby Digital (also known as AC-3):
AC-3 is a perceptual digital audio coding technique that reduces the
amount of data needed to produce high-quality sound. AC-3 is
the sound format for digital television ( DTV ), digital versatile discs
(DVD s), high definition television ( HDTV ), and digital cable and
satellite transmissions. AC-3 is a 5.1 format, which means that it
provides five full-bandwidth channels. AC-3 also has a downmixing
feature that ensures compatibility with devices that do not support
the 5.1 format.
• Dolby Digital Plus (also known as E-AC-3):
E-AC-3 is an enhanced coding system based on the AC-3 codec.
It offers increased bitrates (up to 6.144 Mbit/s), support for more
audio channels (up to 13.1), and improved coding techniques
to reduce compression artifacts, enabling lower data rates than those
supported by AC-3 (e.g. 5.1-channel audio at 256 kbit/s). It is not
backward compatible with existing AC-3 hardware.
• Dolby Digital EX:
EX adds an extension to the standard 5.1 channel Dolby Digital codec
in the form of matrixed rear channels, creating 6.1 or 7.1
channel output.
67
68 Audio Encoding Continued
• Dolby Digital Live:
Dolby Digital Live (DDL) is a real-time encoding technology for
interactive media such as video games. It converts any audio signals
on a PC or game console into a 5.1-channel 16-bit/48 kHz Dolby
Digital format at 640 kbit/s and transports it via a single S/PDIF cable.
Dolby Digital Live is available in sound cards using various
manufacturers' audio chipsets.
• Dolby True HD:
Dolby True HD is an advanced lossless audio codec. Dolby TrueHD
supports 24-bit, 96 kHz audio channels at up to 18 Mbit/s over 14
channels (HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc standards currently limit the
maximum number of audio channels to eight). It supports metadata,
including dialog normalization and Dynamic Range Control.
• Dolby Surround:
Dolby Surround was the earliest consumer version of Dolby's
multichannel analog film sound decoding format Dolby Stereo. When
a Dolby Stereo / Dolby Surround soundtrack is produced, four
channels of audio information - left, center, right, and mono
surround - are matrix-encoded onto two audio tracks. The
stereo information is then carried on stereo sources such as
videotapes, laserdiscsand television broadcasts from which the
surround information can be decoded by a processor to recreate the
original four-channel surround sound.
69
AAC:
Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy
compression and encoding scheme for digital audio and is a part of
the MPEG-4 Systems Standard. Designed to be the successor of the
MP3 format, AAC generally achieves better sound quality than MP3
at similar bit rates. An AAC encoded file can include up to 48
full-bandwith audio channels (up to 96 kHz) and 15 Low Frequency
Enhancement channels (limited to 120 Hz) plus 15 data streams. AAC
encoding methods are organized into Profiles (MPEG-2) or Object
Types (MPEG-4). These different Object Types are not necessarily
compatible with each other and may not be playable with
various decoders.
MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (Also known as MP2):
MPEG-1 Audio Layer II is a lossy audio compression format defined
by ISO/IEC 11172-3 and primarily used in European countries. MP2
is an audio codec, and is the dominant standard for audio
broadcasting. It is similar to MP3, but MP3 has become the dominant
standard for PC and Internet applications. MP2 can have sampling
rates of 32, 44.1 and 48 kHz and bitrates of 32, 48, 56, 64, 80, 96,
112, 128, 160, 192, 224, 256, 320 and 384 kbit/s.
PCM:
Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent
sampled analog signals. It is the standard form for digital audio in
computers and various Blu-ray, Compact Disc and DVD formats, as
well as other uses such as digital telephone systems. A PCM stream is
a digital representation of an analog signal, in which the magnitude
of the analogue signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, with
each sample being quantized to the nearest value within a range of
digital steps.
70 Digital Tech Tips
BER (Bit Error Rate) is the ratio of errored bits to the total number of
bits transmitted, received, or processed over a defined length of time.
Example: 3 errored bits in a total of 1,000,000 transmitted bits will
result in a BER of: 3/1,000,000 = 0.000003 = 3 x 10-6.
MER (Modulation Error Ratio) is the ratio, in decibels, of average
symbol power to average error power: MER(dB) = 10 x log (average symbol power / average error power)
MER is influenced by everything present in the signal’s transmission path
such as:
Phase Noise; CNR (Carrier-to-Noise Ratio); CTB distortion
(Composite Triple Beat); CSO distortion (Composite Second Order);
Cross Modulation (X-mod); Micro-reflections (Ghosting); Amplitude
tilt/ripple; Group Delay; Ingress.
(8VSB)
(QAM 64)
(QAM 256)
to
To help maintain the relative signal level difference between Analog and Digital channels, after adjusting for a
sloped output from the amplifier, do the following:
When using QAM 64, set signal level of digital channels 8 to 10 dB below the equivalent Analog channels.
When using QAM 256, set signal level of digital channels 6 to 8 dB below the equivalent Analog channels.
71
Interlace (1080i) vs. Progressive (1080p)
Interlace (1080i) vs Progressive (1080p)
Interlace
Interlace
First, all odd lines are scanned (1/60 sec), then all even lines (1/60 sec), presenting a full picture (1/30 sec)
Progressive
Progressive
All lines are scanned in a single pass, presenting a full picture (1/60 sec)
ATSC Scanning Formats
Definition
Lines/Frame
Pixels/Line
Aspect Ratios
Frame Rates
High (HD)
1080
1920
16:9
23.976p, 24p, 29.97p, 29.97i, 30p, 20i
High (HD)
720
1280
16:9
23.976p, 24p, 29.97p, 29.97p, 59.94p, 60p
Standard (SD)
480
704
4:3, 16:9
23.976p, 24p, 29.97p, 29.97i, 30p, 30i, 59.94p, 60p
Standard (SD)
480
640
16:9
23.976p, 24p, 29.97p, 29.97i, 30p, 30i, 59.94p, 60p
72 Digital Tech Tips
dB vs dBmV
dBmV vs µ
Decibel (dB)
A logarithmic ratio of two power levels:
– 10Log(P1/P2)
– 20Log(V1/V2)
Typical input range
for a Digital Tuner
It’s used to measure:
– Gain
– Loss
– Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
– Isolation (e.g. directional couplers)
– Noise Figure
Typical input Range
for an Analog Tuner
Decibel Millivolt (dBmV)
Reference Vol
0 dBmV = 1000
across 7
A logarithmic expression of RF signals referenced to
one millivolt (or 1000 microvolts) across 75 .
It’s used to measure:
–
–
–
Maximum output voltage of an amplifier
Minimum input signal
Maximum input signal
mV
dBmV vs µV
B)
atio of two power levels:
g(P1/P2)
g(V1/V2)
Typical input range
for a Digital Tuner
easure:
al-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
tion (e.g. directional couplers)
e Figure
Typical input Range
for an Analog Tuner
dBmV
-10
-6
0
+5
+6
+12
+15
+18
…
+60
µV
300
500
1,000
2,000
4,000
8,000
…
1V
livolt (dBmV)
expression of RF signals referenced to
or 1000 microvolts) across 75 .
easure:
dBmV
-10
-6
0
+5
+6
+12
+15
+18
…
+60
Reference Voltage Level:
0 dBmV = 1000 microvolts
across 75 
73
Bitrates vs Bandwidth
Format
Description
HD-SDI
Uncompressed High-Def digital stream
SD-SDI
Uncompressed Standard-Def digital stream
ASI
Typically carries multiple compressed HD/SD-SDI programs
QAM-256
QAM-64
8VSB
Bitrate
Bandwidth
(Mbits/sec)
(MHz)
1,485
N/A
270
N/A
270
N/A
Digital Cable
38.8
6
Digital Cable
26.9
6
Digital Over-the-Air
19.8
6
(via MPEG Transport Stream)
Encoding-vs-Quality Tradeoff
1,485 Mbps
HD-SDI
IN
OUT
Uncompressed
Compressed
MPEG-2 Chip
w/ variable output bitrate
40:1 compression
40:1
compression 36 Mbps (1080i quality)
80:1 compression
80:1
or compression 18 Mbps (720p quality)
185:1 compression
185:1
or compression 8 Mbps (480i quality)
74 Digital Tech Tips
PID Information
PID Information
PID
PID:: Packet Identifier
• Used in program header to identify different programs in a stream
• There are separate PIDs for Audio stream info and Video stream info
• PIDs do NOT affect the channel number displayed on screen
• PIDs have no relation to what RF channel the programming is on
• Programs from different sources can have SAME PIDs
• EX: two different programs coming from satellite
• If both programs are multiplexed, the multiplexer typically changes one
set of PIDs so they are not the same
• This change will NOT impact anything the customer sees
• Two programs on different QAM streams can have same PIDs with no
impact
PSIP Information
PSIP Information
PSIP:
PSIP : Program and System Information Protocol
Allows user to set Virtual Channel Numbers for each program
• PSIP tables can contain WHOLE numbers up to 4 digits (2 – 9999), like CATV
channels
channels
• PSIP tables can be formatted with Major/Minor channel numbers like
Terrestrialchannels
channels(7-1,
(7-1,7-2,
7-2,etc.)
etc.)
Terrestrial
• PSIP tables are INDEPENDENT of physical RF channel the content is on.
• PSIP tables can be modified in some Digital Equipment
• DQMx
• MUX-2D-QAM
• PSIP tables can be created in some Digital Equipment
••
••
•
•
•
•
HDE-2H/2S-QAM
AV-10E-QAM
HDE-CSV-QAM
SD4E-ASI
MUX-12A-IP
HDE-2H-QAM
SDE-6S-ASI
HDE-8C-QAM
Digital Signal Analysis
Digital signals such as QPSK & QAM use many different factors to
determine the quality and performance of the signal. The following
section will describe some of the most common factors used in
digital signal analysis.
QAM Signal to Noise Ratio vs. BER
The theoretical bit-error rate of the QAM signal as a function of the
SNR is provided for reference.
To obtain an estimated BER of the QAM signal, one can use the
following diagram to get theoretical values for BER. In the case
that the QAM 64 mode SNR is >32, it indicates 10-12 BER. It
should be noted that changing the S/N value by as little as 1 dB
alters approximately one decade. The diagram below depicts the
theoretical BER vs. SNR.
75
76 Digital Signal Analysis
QAM Signal to Noise Ratio
The following table depicts the theoretical maximum values for
various orders of QAM:
Order of QAM
SNR max
4
16
32
64
128
256
46.0 dB
46.0 dB
43.0 dB
46.0 dB
43.0 dB
46.0 dB
QAM MER — Modulation Error Ratio
The modulation error is a calculated quantity indicating the mean
or the maximum deviation of the I/Q values from ideal signal states
and thus provides a measure of signal quality.
The following diagram shows the vectors used for calculating the
modulation error:
77
The modulation error is specified as rms and as peak value. To
calculate the modulation error, all decisions fields are investigated
on after the other:
To obtain peak modulation error, the maximum magnitude of
the difference vector (error vector) formed by the vector of the
ideal and the actual signal status is determined for each decision
field. From the maximum value of these results, the peak MER
(modulation error ratio) is calculated using the following formula:
To obtain the rms modulation error, the squares of the magnitude
of all differential vectors formed by the ideal-status and actualstatus vectors are added up, and the number of symbols is counted.
Then the rms modulation error is calculated as follows:
The peak and rms modulation error can also be specified on a
logarithmic scale. Conversion is done using the following formula:
78 Digital Signal Analysis
For quantized I/Q values, the peak value is output in discrete form
only since no averaging is performed in the calculation. The rms
modulation error can be calculated within the limit values specified
in the following table. The limit values are obtained for quantized
I/Q values:
Order
of QAM
MERRMS
min
MERPK
min
MERPK
min
MERdB
max
4
0.5 %
1.563 %
98.44 %
46 dB
16
0.5 %
1.398 %
43.32 %
46 dB
32
0.7 %
1.976 %
29.33 %
43 dB
64
0.5 %
1.364 %
20.46 %
46 dB
128
0.7 %
1.952 %
13.66 %
43 dB
256
0.5 %
1.356 %
9.471 %
46 dB
The term “Modulation Error Ratio” and the prescribed method of
calculation were declared an international standard by the DVB
Measurement Group.
79
What is a QAM Signal
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) uses many different
phases known as states: 16, 32, 64, and 256. Each state is defined
by a specific amplitude and phase. This means the generation
and detection of symbols is more complex than a simple phase or
amplitude device. Each time the number of states per symbol is
increased the total data and bandwidth increases. The modulation
schemes shown occupy the same bandwidth (after filtering), but
have varying efficiencies (in theory at least).
QAM — Constellation Diagrams
Constellation diagrams are used to graphically represent the
quality and distortion of a digital signal. In practice, there is
always a combination of modulation errors that may be difficult
to separate and identify, as such, it is recommended to evaluate
the measured constellation diagrams using mathematical and
statistically methods. The following section will provide application
and interpretation information of constellation diagrams of digital
modulated signals.
80 Digital Signal Analysis
The constellation diagram examples shown are based on 64
QAM modulation and use the following basic settings: maximum
possible DVB data transmission rate of 6.92 Msps or 41.73 Mbit/s
(64 QAM); Cosine roll-off filtering with roll-off factor r = 0.15 and
PRBS (pseudo random binary sequence) data stream, no coding.
Constellation Diagram for an Ideal 64 QAM Signal
Amplitude Imbalance describes the different gains of the I and
Q components of a signal. In a constellation diagram, amplitude
imbalance shows by one signal component being expanded and
the other one being compressed. This is due to the fact that the
receiver AGC makes a constant average signal level.
Phase Error is the difference between the phase angles of the I and
Q components referred to 90°. A phase error is caused by an error
of the phase shifter of the I/Q modulator. The I and Q components
are in this case not orthogonal to each other after demodulation.
81
Interferers are understood to be sinusoidal spurious signals
occurring in the transmission frequency range and superimposed
on the QAM signal at some point in the transmission path. After
demodulation, the interferer is contained in the baseband form of
low-frequency sinusoidal spurious signals. The frequency of these
signals corresponds to the difference between the frequency of
the original sinusoidal interference and the carrier frequency in
the RF band.
In the constellation diagram, an interferer shows in the form of a
rotating pointer superimposed on each signal status. The example
applies the condition that there is no other error present at the
same time, The constellation diagram shows the path of the
pointer as a circle around each ideal signal status.
Constellation Diagram — 64 QAM signal with
Interferer (C/I = 25.0 dB)
82 Digital Signal Analysis
Carrier suppression or leakage is a special type of interference
in which it’s frequency equals the carrier frequency in the RF
channel. Carrier leakage can be superimposed on the QAM signal
in the I/Q modulator. In the constellation diagram, carrier leakage
shows up as a shifting of the signal states corresponding to the
DC components of the I and Q components.
Additive Gaussian noise can disturb the digitally modulated signal
during analog transmission, for instance in the analog channel.
Additive superimposed noise normally has a constant power
density and a Gaussian amplitude distribution throughout the
bandwidth of a channel. If no other error is present at the same
time, the points representing the ideal signal status are expanded
to form circular “clouds”.
Constellation Diagram — 64 QAM signal with
Additive Noise (SNR = 30.0 dB)
(Note: This diagram may also be obtained for other types of interference so
that a distinction from noise-produced patterns cannot be made)
83
Phase Jitter or phase noise in the QAM signal is caused by
transponders in the transmission path or by the I/Q modulator.
It may be produced in carrier recovery, a possibility that is to be
excluded here. In contrast to the phase error described above,
phase jitter is a statistical quantity that affects the I and Q path
equally. In the constellation diagram, phase jitter shows up by the
signal states being shifted about their coordinate origin.
Constellation Diagram — 64 QAM signal with
Phase Jitter (PJRMS = 1.73°)
Source: Rohde & Schwarz — EFA QAM Analyzer documentation
84 CATV QAM Channel Center Frequency
EIA
CH.
2
3
4
5
6
95
96
97
98
99
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
MHz
Center
Frequency
57
63
69
79
85
93
99
105
111
117
123
129
135
141
147
153
159
165
171
177
183
189
195
201
207
213
219
225
231
237
243
249
255
261
267
273
279
285
291
297
303
309
315
321
327
Bandwith
(MHz)
54
60
66
76
82
90
96
102
108
114
120
126
132
138
144
150
156
162
168
174
180
186
192
198
204
210
216
222
228
234
240
246
252
258
264
270
276
282
288
294
300
306
312
318
324
60
66
72
82
88
96
102
108
114
120
126
132
138
144
150
156
162
168
174
180
186
192
198
204
210
216
222
228
234
240
246
252
258
264
270
276
282
288
294
300
306
312
318
324
330
MHz
Center
Frequency
EIA
CH.
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
333
339
345
351
357
363
369
375
381
387
393
399
405
411
417
423
429
435
441
447
453
459
465
471
477
483
489
495
501
507
513
519
525
531
537
543
549
555
561
567
573
579
585
591
597
Bandwith
(MHz)
330
336
342
348
354
360
366
372
378
384
390
396
402
408
414
420
426
432
438
444
450
456
462
468
474
480
486
492
498
504
510
516
522
528
534
540
546
552
558
564
570
576
582
588
594
336
342
348
354
360
366
372
378
384
390
396
402
408
414
420
426
432
438
444
450
456
462
468
474
480
486
492
498
504
510
516
522
528
534
540
546
552
558
564
570
576
582
588
594
600
85
EIA
CH.
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
MHz
Center
Frequency
603
609
615
621
627
633
639
645
651
657
663
669
675
681
687
693
699
705
711
717
723
729
735
741
747
753
759
765
771
777
783
789
795
801
807
813
819
825
831
837
843
849
855
861
867
Bandwith
(MHz)
600
606
612
618
624
630
636
642
648
654
660
666
672
678
684
690
696
702
708
714
720
726
732
738
744
750
756
762
768
774
780
786
792
798
804
810
816
822
828
834
840
846
852
858
864
606
612
618
624
630
636
642
648
654
660
666
672
678
684
690
696
702
708
714
720
726
732
738
744
750
756
762
768
774
780
786
792
798
804
810
816
822
828
834
840
846
852
858
864
870
EIA
CH.
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
MHz
Center
Frequency
873
879
885
891
897
903
909
915
921
927
933
939
945
951
957
963
969
975
981
987
993
999
Bandwith
(MHz)
870
876
882
888
894
900
906
912
918
924
930
936
942
948
954
960
966
972
978
984
990
996
876
882
888
894
900
906
912
918
924
930
936
942
948
954
960
966
972
978
984
990
996
1002
86 North America Digital Broadcast Channel Frequency
Broadcast
Channel
Center
Freq
(MHz)
Broadcast
Channel
Center
Freq
(MHz)
2
57
54
-
60
19
503
500
-
506
3
63
60
-
66
20
509
506
-
512
4
69
66
-
72
21
515
512
-
518
5
79
76
-
82
22
521
518
-
524
6
85
82
-
88
23
527
524
-
530
7
177
174
-
180
24
533
530
-
536
8
183
180
-
186
25
539
536
-
542
9
189
186
-
192
26
545
542
-
548
10
195
192
-
198
27
551
548
-
554
11
201
198
-
204
28
557
554
-
560
12
207
204
-
210
29
563
560
-
566
13
213
210
-
216
30
569
566
-
572
14
473
470
-
476
31
575
572
-
578
15
479
476
-
482
32
581
578
-
584
16
485
482
-
488
33
587
584
-
590
17
491
488
-
494
34
593
590
-
596
18
497
494
-
500
35
599
596
-
602
BW (MHz)
BW (MHz)
87
4
ANALOG REFERENCE
Analog Cable (RF).......................................... 88
Analog Over-the-Air....................................... 88
Analog Content Types.................................... 89
Analog Closed Captioning.............................. 91
North America CATV Frequency Chart........... 92
US Frequency Spectrum................................. 97
North America Off-Air Frequency Chart......... 99
FM Broadcast Channel Frequency................ 101
88 Analog Cable (RF)
1
3
2
Transmission Standards
4
58
Hz
1.25 MHz
Type:
Name:
Bandwidth:
Capacity:
Analog Over-the
NTSC (National Telev
6MHz
1 program
Video Carrier
Color Carrier
Sound Carrier
4 Video Content
Same as A
1
2
3
3.58
0.92
0.25
6 MHz
Type:
Name:
Bandwidth:
Capacity:
3
2
1
2
3
4
0.92
Analog Cable (Black & White since 1941; Color since 1953)
NTSC (National Television System Committee)
6MHz
1 program
Video Carrier
Color Carrier
Sound Carrier
Video Content
0.25
Analog Over-the-Air
1
Digital Cable (since 1990)
3
QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
2
6MHz
Variable – depends of modulation
Type:
Name:
Bandwidth:
Capacity:
QAM 64 modulation = 26.9 Mbps
Analog Over-the
NTSC (National Telev
6MHz
1 program
Video Carrier
Color Carrier
Sound Carrier
4 Video Content
Same as A
1
QAM 256 modulation = 38.8 Mbps
2
4
1.25 MHz
Type:
Name:
Bandwidth:
Capacity:
scheme
3
3.58
0.92
0.25
6 MHz
Type:
Analog Over-the-Air
Name:www.blondertongue.com
NTSC (National Television System Committee)
Bandwidth: 6MHz
Capacity:
1 program
3
1.800.523.6049
2
Video Carrier
Color Carrier
Sound Carrier
4 Video Content
1
2
3
0.92
0.25
Same as Analog Cable
Slide # 12
Analog Content Types
Component video
Component
Video is
89
an analog video-only
video-only signal that is transmitted as three
separate signals. Component-video cables do not carry audio and are often paired with
audio cables. Component video is capable of carrying signals such as 480i, 720p, and
1080i and most high-definition TVs support the use of component video up to their
native resolution. The three most commonly used component types are:
YPbbP
Prr is
YP
the converted version of RGB which is split into three
components: Y carries luma (brightness) and sync information; Pb
carries the difference between blue and luma; and Pr carries the
difference between red and luma. The primary advantages of YPbPr
over RGB and S-video is that it is able to transfer non-interlaced video
and, and at the same time, provide high resolution video such as 1080i
or better.
RGB
RGB (Red, Green, Blue) uses no compression and contains redundant data
since most programs typically contain the same black & white image,
therefore, it requires large bandwidth to carry the signal. It’s becoming
obsolete as home theaters move toward HDMI and computers toward DVI
interfaces.
S-Video
S-Video
(Separated Video) is an extension of the analog Composite
standard. Compared to the two standards above, it provides the poorest
quality of image. It’s rarely used for today’s applications because it cannot
be used for high definition standards unless its standard is changed to
accommodate for signal modulation of the carrier frequency.
90 Analog Content Types
Composite Video is an analog video-only signal which is a composite of
three source signals called Y, U, and V. Y represents the brightness of the picture
and includes synchronizing pulses, so that by itself it could be displayed as a
monochrome picture. U and V represent hue and saturation and carry the color
information
For residential
applications,
the
For residentialand
and commercial
commercial applications,
the composite
composite
video
signal connected
is typically
video signal
is typically
usingconnected
an RCA jack,
yellow,
whichnormally
is often accompanied
with redisand
usingnormally
an RCA
jack,
yellow, which
for right and left
audio
channels.
oftenwhite
accompanied
with
red
and white for right
and left audio channels.
Analog Closed Captioning
Closed captioning rules and regulations are found in FCC 47 C.F.R. § 79.1
(part 79). Closed captioning information is embedded in the program/
signal and is decoded and displayed by the television. For all types of NTSC
programming, captions are "encoded" into Line 21 of the vertical blanking
interval. Line 21 closed captioning has two styles: 1. Scrolling (or Roll-up),
and 2. Block (or Pop-on). It allows for up to four caption services per
program and provides the limited range of white characters with-in a boxed
black background.
The Line 21 data stream can consist of data from several data channels
multiplexed together. Field 1 has four data channels: two Captions (CC1,
CC2) and two Text (T1, T2). Field 2 has five additional data channels:
two Captions (CC3, CC4), two Text (T3, T4), and Extended Data Services
(XDS). XDS data structure is defined in CEA–608. As CC1 and CC2 share
bandwidth, if there is a lot of data in CC1, there will be little room for
CC2 data. Similarly CC3 and CC4 share the second field of line 21. The
FCC recommends bilingual programming should have the second caption
language in CC3.
91
92 North America CATV Frequency Chart
EIA
CH.
T7
T8
T9
T10
T11
T12
T13
T14
2
3
4
A8
5
6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
J
K
L
CH.
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
02
03
04
01
05
06
95
96
97
98*
99*
14*
15*
16*
17
18
19
20
21
22
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
23
24*
25*
Standard
Video
7.0000
13.0000
19.0000
25.0000
31.0000
37.0000
43.0000
49.0000
55.2500
61.2500
67.2500
NA
77.2500
83.2500
91.2500
97.2500
103.2500
109.2750
115.2750
121.2625
127.2625
133.2625
139.2500
145.2500
151.2500
157.2500
163.2500
169.2500
175.2500
181.2500
187.2500
193.2500
199.2500
205.2500
211.2500
217.2500
223.2500
229.2625
Audio
11.5000
17.5000
23.5000
29.5000
35.5000
41.5000
47.5000
53.5000
59.7500
65.7500
71.7500
NA
81.7500
87.7500
95.7500
101.7500
107.7500
113.7750
119.7750
125.7625
131.7625
137.7625
143.7500
149.7500
155.7500
161.7500
167.7500
173.7500
179.7500
185.7500
191.7500
197.7500
203.7500
209.7500
215.7500
221.7500
227.7500
233.7625
Incremental
Video
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
55 2625
61.2625
67.2625
73.2625
79.2625
85.2625
91.2625
97.2625
103.2625
109.2750
115.2750
121.2625
127.2625
133.2625
139.2625
145.2625
151.2625
157.2625
163.2625
169.2625
175.2625
181.2625
187.2625
193.2625
199.2625
205.2625
211.2625
217.2625
223.2625
229.2625
Audio
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
59.7625
65.7625
71.7625
77.7625
83.7625
89.7625
95.7625
101.7625
107.7625
113.7750
119.7750
125.7625
131.7625
137.7625
143.7625
149.7625
155.7625
161.7625
167.7625
173.7625
179.7625
185.7625
191.7625
197.7625
203.7625
209.762
215.7625
221.7625
227.7625
233.7625
Harmonic
Video
Audio
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
54.0027 58.5027
60.0030 64.5030
66.0033 70.5030
72.0036 76.5036
78.0039 82.5039
84.0042 88.5042
90.0045 94.5045
96.0048 100.5048
102.0051 106.5051
Cannot lock to comb
ref: refer to FCC regs
120.0060 124.5060
126.0063 130.5063
132.0066 136.5066
138.0069 142.5069
144.0072 148.5072
150.0075 154.5075
156.0078 160.5078
162.0081 166.5081
168.0084 172.5084
174.0087 178.5087
180.0090 184.5090
186.0093 190.5093
192.0096 196.5096
198.0099 202.5099
204.0102 208.5102
210.0105 214.5105
216.0108 220.5108
222.0111 226.5111
228.0114 232.5114
* Means aeronautical channels visual carrier frequency tolerance ± 5 kHz
93
EIA
CH.
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
AA
BB
CC
DD
EE
FF
GG
HH
II
JJ
KK
LL
MM
NN
00
PP
QQ
RR
SS
TT
UU
VV
WW
XX
YY
ZZ
AAA
CH.
26*
27*
28*
29*
30*
31*
32*
33*
34*
35*
36*
37*
38*
39*
40*
41*
42*
43*
44*
45*
46*
47*
48*
49*
50*
51*
52*
53*
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
Standard
Video
235.2625
241.2625
247.2625
253.2625
259.2625
265.2625
271.2625
277.2625
283.2625
289.2625
295.2625
301.2625
307.2625
313.2625
319.2625
325.2625
331.2750
337.2625
343.2625
349.2625
355.2625
361.2625
367.2625
373.2625
379.2625
385.2625
391.2625
397.2625
403.2500
409.2500
415.2500
421.2500
427.2500
433.2500
439.2500
445.2500
451.2500
457.2500
Audio
239.7625
245.7625
251.7625
257.7625
263.7625
269.7625
275.7625
281.7625
287.7625
293.7625
299.7625
305.7625
311.7625
317.7625
323.7625
329.7625
335.7750
341.7625
347.7625
353.7625
359.7625
365.7625
371.7625
377.7625
383.7625
389.7625
395.7625
401.7625
407.7500
413.7500
419.7500
425.7500
431.7500
437.7500
443.7500
449.7500
455.7500
461.7500
Incremental
Video
235.2625
241.2625
247.2625
253.2625
259.2625
265.2625
271.2625
277.2625
283.2625
289.2625
295.2625
301.2625
307.2625
313.2625
319.2625
325.2625
331.2750
337.2625
343.2625
349.2625
355.2625
361.2625
367.2625
373.2625
379.2625
385.2625
391.2625
397.2625
403.2625
409.2625
415.2625
421.2625
427.2625
433.2625
439.2625
445.2625
451.2625
457.2625
Audio
239.7625
245.7625
251.7625
257.7625
263.7625
269.7625
275.7625
281.7625
287.7625
293.7625
299.7625
305.7625
311.7625
317.7625
323.7625
329.7625
335.7750
341.7625
347.7625
353.7625
359.7625
365.7625
371.7625
377.7625
383.7625
389.7625
395.7625
401.7625
407.7625
413.7625
419.7625
425.7625
431.7625
437.7625
443.7625
449.7625
455.7625
461.7625
Harmonic
Video
234.0117
240.0120
246.0123
252.0126
258.0129
264.0132
270.0135
276.0138
282.0141
288.0144
294.0147
300.0150
306.0153
312.0156
318.0159
324.0162
330.0165
336.0168
342.0168
348.0168
354.0168
360.0168
366.0168
372.0168
378.0168
384.0168
390.0168
396.0168
402.0201
408.0204
414.0207
420.0210
426.0213
432.0216
438.0219
444.0222
450.0225
456.0228
Audio
238.5117
244.5120
250.5123
256.5126
262.5129
268.5132
274.5135
280.5138
286.5141
292.5144
298.5147
304.5150
310.5153
316.5156
322.5159
328.5162
334.5165
340.5168
346.5168
352.5168
358.5168
364.5168
370.5168
376.5168
382.5168
388.5168
394.5168
400.5168
406.5201
412.5204
418.5207
424.5210
430.5213
436.5216
442.5219
448.5222
454.5225
460.5228
* Means aeronautical channels visual carrier frequency tolerance ± 5 kHz
94 North America CATV Frequency Chart
EIA
CH.
BBB
CCC
DDD
EEE
FFF
GGG
HHH
III
JJJ
KKK
LLL
MMM
NNN
000
PPP
-
CH.
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
Standard
Video
463.2500
469.2500
475.2500
481.2500
487.2500
493.2500
499.2500
505.2500
511.2500
517.2500
523.2500
529.2500
535.2500
541.2500
547.2500
553.2500
559.2500
565.2500
571.2500
577.2500
583.2500
589.2500
595.2500
601.2500
607.2500
613.2500
619.2500
625.2500
631.2500
637.2500
643.2500
649.2500
655.2500
661.2500
667.2500
673.2500
679.2500
685.2500
Audio
467.7500
473.7500
479.7500
485.7500
491.7500
497.7500
503.7500
509.7500
515.7500
521.7500
527.7500
533.7500
539.7500
545.7500
551.7500
557.7500
563.7500
569.7500
575.7500
581.7500
587.7500
593.7500
599.7500
605.7500
611.7500
617.7500
623.7500
629.7500
635.7500
641.7500
647.7500
653.7500
659.7500
665.7500
671.7500
677.7500
683.7500
689.7500
Incremental
Video
463.2625
469.2625
475.2625
481.2625
487.2625
493.2625
499.2625
505.2625
511.2625
517.2625
523.2625
529.2625
535.2625
541.2625
547.2625
553.2625
559.2625
565.2625
571.2625
577.2625
583.2625
589.2625
595.2625
601.2625
607.2625
613.2625
619.2625
625.2625
631.2625
637.2625
643.2625
649.2625
655.2625
661.2625
667.2625
673.2625
679.2625
685.2625
Audio
467.7625
473.7625
479.7625
485.7625
491.7625
497.7625
503.7625
509.7625
515.7625
521.7625
527.7625
533.7625
539.7625
545.7625
551.7625
557.7625
563.7625
569.7625
575.7625
581.7625
587.7625
593.7625
599.7625
605.7625
611.7625
617.7625
623.7625
629.7625
635.7625
641.7625
647.7625
653.7625
659.7625
665.7625
671.7625
677.7625
683.7625
689.7625
4
Harmonic
Video
Audio
462.0231 466.5231
468.0234 472.5234
474.0237 478.5237
480.0240 484.5240
486.0243 490.5243
492.0246 496.5246
498.0249 502.5249
504.0252 508.5252
510.0255 514.5255
516.0258 520.5258
522.0261 526.5261
528.0264 532.5264
534.0267 538.5267
540.0270 544.527C
546.0273 550.5273
552.0276 556.5276
558.0279 562.5279
564.0282 568.5282
570.0285 574.5285
576.0288 580.5288
582.0291 586.5291
588.0294 592.5294
594.0297 598.5297
600.0300 604.5300
606.0303 610.5303
612.0306 616.5306
618.0309 622.5309
624.0312 628.5312
630.0315 634.5315
636.0318 640.5318
642.0321 646.5321
648.0324 652.5324
654.0327 658.5327
660.0330 664.5330
666.0333 670.5333
672.0336 676.5336
678.0339 682.5339
684.0342 688.5342
* Means aeronautical channels visual carrier frequency tolerance ± 5 kHz
95
4
EIA
CH.
-
CH.
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
Standard
Video
691.2500
697.2500
703.2500
709.2500
715.2500
721.2500
727.2500
733.2500
739.2500
745.2500
751.2500
757.2500
763.2500
769.2500
775.2500
781.2500
787.2500
793.2500
799.2500
805.2500
811.2500
817.2500
823.2500
829.2500
835.2500
841.2500
847.2500
853.2500
859.2500
865.2500
871.2500
877.2500
883.2500
889.2500
895.2500
901.2500
907.2500
Audio
695.7500
701.7500
707.7500
713.7500
719.7500
725.7500
731.7500
737.7500
743.7500
749.7500
755.7500
761.7500
767.7500
773.7500
779.7500
785.7500
791.7500
797.7500
803.7500
809.7500
815.7500
821.7500
827.7500
833.7500
839.7500
845.7500
851.7500
857.7500
863.7500
869.7500
875.7500
881.7500
887.7500
893.7500
899.7500
905.7500
911.7500
Incremental
Video
691.2625
697.2625
703.2625
709.2625
715.2625
721.2625
727.2625
733.2625
739.2625
745.2625
751.2625
757.2625
763.2625
769.2625
775.2625
781.2625
787.2625
793.2625
799.2625
805.2625
811.2625
817.2625
823.2625
829.2625
835.2625
841.2625
847.2625
853.2625
859.2625
865.2625
871.2625
877.2625
883.2625
889.2625
895.2625
901.2625
907.2625
Audio
695.7625
701.7625
707.7625
713.7625
719.7625
725.7625
731.7625
737.7625
743.7625
749.7625
755.7625
761.7625
767.7625
773.7625
779.7625
785.7625
791.7625
797.7625
803.7625
809.7625
815.7625
821.7625
827.7625
833.7625
839.7625
845.7625
851.7625
857.7625
863.7625
869.7625
875.7625
881.7625
887.7625
893.7625
899.7625
905.7625
911.7625
Harmonic
Video
690.0345
696.0348
702.0351
708.0354
714.0357
720.0360
726.0363
732.0366
738.0369
744.0372
750.0375
756.0378
762.0381
768.0384
774.0387
780.0390
786.0393
792.0396
798.0399
804.0402
810.0405
816.0408
822.0411
828.0414
834.0417
840.0420
846.0423
852.0426
858.0429
864.0432
870.0435
876.0438
882.0441
888.0444
894.0447
900.0450
906.0453
Audio
694.5345
700.5348
706.5351
712.5354
718.5357
724.5360
730.5363
736.5366
742.5369
748.5372
754.5375
760.5378
766.5381
772.5384
778.5387
784.5390
790.5393
796.5396
802.5399
808.5402
814.5405
820.5408
826.5411
832.5414
838.5417
844.5420
850.5423
856.5426
862.5429
868.5432
874.5435
880.5438
886.5441
892.5444
898.5447
904.5450
910.5453
96 North America CATV Frequency Chart
EIA
CH.
-
CH.
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
Standard
Video
Audio
913.2500 917.7500
919.2500 923.7500
925.2500 929.7500
931.2500 935.7500
937.2500 941.7500
943.2500 947.7500
949.2500 953.7500
955.2500 959.7500
961.2500 965.7500
967.2500 971.7500
973.2500 977.7500
979.2500 983.7500
985.2500 989.7500
991.2500 995.7500
997.2500 1001.7500
Incremental
Video
Audio
913.2625 917.7625
919.2625 923.7625
925.2625 929.7625
931.2625 935.7625
937.2625 941.7625
943.2625 947.7625
949.2625 953.7625
955.2625 959.7625
961.2625 965.7625
967.2625 971.7625
973.2625 977.7625
979.2625 983.7625
985.2625 989.7625
991.2625 995.7625
997.2625 1001.7625
96
4
Harmonic
Video
Audio
912.0456 916.5456
918.0459 922.5459
924.0462 928.5462
930.0465 934.5465
936.0468 940.5468
942.0471 946.5470
948.0474 952.5474
954.0477 958.5477
960.0480 964.5480
966.0483 970.5483
972.0486 976.5486
978.0489 982.5489
984.0492 988.5492
990.0495 994.5495
996.0498 1000.5498
4
US Frequency Spectrum
97
98 FCC Aeronautical Band Frequencies
Used for Communication and Navigation
NOTE: The FCC mandated that- All full power TV stations in the
US cease analog broadcasts by June 12 2009. Currently only low
power and TV Translators are authorized for Analog Broadcasts.
4
4
99
North America Off-Air Frequency Chart
CHROMA
AUDIO
Lo VHF
2
54-60
55.25
58.83
3
60-66
61.25
64.83
4
66-72
67.25
70.83
5
76-82
77.25
80.83
6
82-88
83.25
86.83
CH.
BW (MHz)
VIDEO
59.75
65.75
71.75
81.75
87.75
Hi VHF
7
174-180
175.25
178.83
8
180-186
181.25
184.83
9
186-192
187.25
190.83
10
192-198
193.25
196.83
11
198-204
199.25
202.83
12
204-210
205.25
208.83
13
210-216
211.25
214.83
179.75
185.75
191.75
197.75
203.75
209.75
215.75
UHF
14
470-476
471.25
15
476-482
477.25
16
482-488
483.25
17
488-494
489.25
18
494-500
495.25
19
500-506
501.25
20
506-512
507.25
21
512-518
513.25
22
518-524
519.25
23
524-530
525.25
24
530-536
531.25
25
536-542
537.25
26
542-548
543.25
27
548-554
549.25
28
554-560
555.25
29
560-566
561.25
30
566-572
567.25
31
572-578
573.25
32
578-584
579.25
33
584-590
585.25
34
590-596
591.25
35
596-602
597.25
36
602-608
603.25
37
608-614
609.25
38
614-620
615.25
475.75
481.75
487.75
493.75
499.75
505.75
511.75
517.75
523.75
529.75
535.75
541.75
547.75
553.75
559.75
565.75
571.75
577.75
583.75
589.75
595.75
601.75
607.75
613 75
619.75
474.83
480.83
486.83
492.83
498.83
504.83
510.83
516.83
522.83
528.83
534.83
540.83
546.83
552.83
558.83
564.83
570.83
576.83
582.83
588.83
594.83
600.83
606.83
612.83
618.83
100 North America Off-Air Frequency Chart
CH.
BW (MHz)
VIDEO
UHF
39
620-626
621.25
40
626-632
627.25
41
632-638
633.25
42
638-644
639.25
43
644-650
645.25
44
650-656
651.25
45
656-662
657.25
46
662-668
663.25
47
668-674
669.25
48
674-680
675.25
49
680-686
681.25
50
686-692
687.25
51
692-698
693.25
52
698-704
699.25
53
704-710
705.25
54
710-716
711.25
55
716-722
717.25
56
722-728
723.25
57
728-734
729.25
58
734-740
735.25
59
740-746
741.25
60
746-752
747.25
61
752-758
753.25
62
758-764
759.25
63
764-770
765.25
64
770-776
771.25
65
776-782
777.25
66
782-788
783.25
67
788-794
789.25
68
794-800
795.25
69
800-806
801.25
CHROMA
624.83
630.83
636.83
642.83
648.83
654.83
660.83
666.83
672.83
678.83
684.83
690.83
696.83
702.83
708.83
714.83
720.83
726.83
732.83
738.83
744.83
750.83
756.83
762.83
768.83
774.83
780.83
786.83
792.83
798.83
804.83
AUDIO
625.75
631.75
637.75
643.75
649.75
655.75
661.75
667.75
673.75
679.75
685.75
691.75
697.75
703.75
709.75
715.75
721.75
727.75
733.75
739.75
745.75
751.75
757.75
763.75
769.75
775.75
781.75
787.75
793.75
799.75
805.75
NOTE: Channels 52-69 are no longer licensed for broadcast
(full power stations) after the digital transition date.
101
FM Broadcast Channel Frequency (MHz)
Channel Frequency Channel Frequency Channel Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
88.1
88.3
88.5
88.7
88.9
89.1
89.3
89.5
89.7
89.9
90.1
90.3
90.5
90.7
90.9
91.1
91.3
91.5
91.7
91.9
92.1
92.3
92.5
92.7
92.9
93.1
93.3
93.5
93.7
93.9
94.1
94.3
94.5
94.7
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
94.9
69
95.1
70
95.3
71
95.5
72
95.7
73
95.9
74
96.1
75
96.3
76
96.5
77
96.7
78
96.9
79
97.1
80
97.3
81
97.5
82
97.7
83
97.9
84
98.1
85
98.3
86
98.5
87
98.7
88
98.9
89
99.1
90
99.3
91
99.5
92
99.7
93
99.9
94
100.1
95
100.3
96
100.5
97
100.7
98
100.9
99
101.1
100
101.3
101.5
101.7
101.9
102.1
102.3
102.5
102.7
102.9
103.1
103.3
103.5
103.7
1039
104.1
104.3
104.5
104.7
104.9
105.1
105.3
105.5
105.7
105.9
106 1
1063
106.5
106.7
106.9
107.1
107.3
107.5
107.7
107.9
103
5
CONTENT TYPES & INTERFACES
Cables, Wiring & Pinout Reference........ 104
Optical Connectors............................... 112
104 Cables, Wiring & Pinout Reference
DB25 Male and Female
RS232 on DB25 (RS-232C)
Note: This is NOT the same as the DB25 Parallel port on a PC.
Pin
No.
Name Dir
Notes/Description
1
-
-
Protective/shielded ground
2
TD
OUT Transmit Data (a.k.a. TxD, Tx) (ASYNC)
3
RD
IN
4
RTS
OUT Request To Send (ASYNC)
5
CTS
IN
6
DSR
IN
7
SGND
-
Signal Ground
8
CD
IN
Carrier Detect (a.k.a. DCD)
9
-
-
Receive Data (a.k.a. RxD, Rx) (ASYNC)
Clear To Send (ASYNC)
Data Set Ready (ASYNC)
Reserved for data set testing
10
-
-
Reserved for data set testing
11
-
-
Unassigned
12
SDCD
IN
Secondary Carrier Detect. Only needed if second channel being used.
13
SCTS
IN
Secondary Clear To Send. Only needed if second channel being used.
14
STD
OUT Secondary Transmit Data. Only needed if second channel being used.
15
DB
OUT Transmit Clock (a.k.a. TCLK, TxCLK). Synchronous use only.
16
SRD
IN
Secondary Receive Data. Only needed if second channel being used.
17
DD
IN
Receive Clock (a.k.a. RCLK). Synchronous use only.
18
LL
-
Loop Loopback
19
SRTS
OUT Secondary Request to Send. Only needed if second channel being used.
20
DTR
OUT Data Terminal Ready. (ASYNC)
21
RL/SQ
-
Signal Quality Detector/Remote loopback
22
RI
IN
Ring Indicator. DCE (Modem) raises when incoming call detected used for auto answer applications.
23
CH/CI
OUT Signal Rate selector.
24
DA
-
Auxiliary Clock (a.k.a. ACLK). Secondary Channel only.
25
-
-
Unassigned
Note: Leave all pins not specified above unconnected.
105
RS232 DB25 NULL Modem Pinout
DB9 Male and Female
106 Cables, Wiring & Pinout Reference
RS232 on DB9 (EIA/TIA 574)
The column marked Dir shows signal direction with respect to the DTE.
Pin
No.
Name Dir
Notes/Description
1
DCD
IN
Data Carrier Detect. Raised by DCE when modem synchronized.
2
RD
IN
Receive Data (a.k.a. RxD, Rx). Arriving data from DCE.
3
TD
OUT Transmit Data (a.k.a. TxD, Tx). Sending data from DTE.
4
DTR
OUT Data Terminal Ready. Raised by DTE when powered on. In auto-answer mode raised only when RI arrives
from DCE.
5
SGND
-
Ground
6
DSR
IN
Data Set Ready. Raised by DCE to indicate ready.
7
RTS
OUT Request To Send. Raised by DTE when it wishes to send. Expects CTS from DCE.
8
CTS
IN
Clear To Send. Raised by DCE in response to RTS from DTE.
9
RI
IN
Ring Indicator. Set when incoming ring detected - used for auto-answer application. DTE raised DTR
to answer.
RS232 DB9 NULL Modem Pinout
Use when connecting two systems, for example two PCs, via their DB9 interfaces without
a modem. Typically called a back-to-back or NULL modem connection.
107
RS232 DB9 to DB25 NULL Modem Pinout
Use when connecting two systems (e.g. PCs) when one has a DB9 interface and the
other a DB25 interface without a modem. Typically called a back-to-back or NULL
modem connection.
RS232 DB9 to DB25 Pinout
Use when connecting a DB9 (e.g. a PC) to a DB25 (e.g. a modem) interface.
108 Cables, Wiring & Pinout Reference
RJ 45 Pinout
109
RS232 on RJ45 (RS-232D)
110 Cables, Wiring & Pinout Reference
HDMI Connector Pin Assignment
Pin
Signal Assignment
Pin
Signal Assignment
111
VGA Video Connector Pinout
1
5
6
10
11
15
Male Connector
112 Optical Connectors
FC Type Connectors
FC­APC (angled tip)
Commonly used in broadband
applications. Available on BT’s
TrailBlazer Series transmitters
and receivers.
FC­UPC
Typically used in data network
only.
Not used in broadband CATV
applications.
SC Type Connectors
SC­APC (angled tip – green body)
Commonly used in broadband
applications. Available on BT’s
TrailBlazer Series transmitters
and receivers.
SC­UPC (blue body)
Typically used in data networks only.
Not used in broadband CATV
applications.
ST Type Connector
ST (AT&T Trademark) connectors
are widely used in multimode data
networks found in buildings and
campuses.
Not used in broadband CATV
applications.
113
6
CATV RF CALCULATIONS
System Calculations..............................114
Passive & Coaxial Cable Characteristics..128
Broadband RF Network Powering..........129
114 System Calculations
Carrier/Cross Modulation (XM)
1. Cross Modulation for One Amplifier at Operating Level:
2. To Sum Identical Cross Modulation Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
3. To Sum Different Cross Modulation Ratios:
See examples starting on pages 84.
4. Cross Modulation vs Channel Loading:
XM = Cross Modulation Ratio, expressed
as a negative (-) number.
Rule: 1
dB change of the output of an amplifier
will change the cross modulation by 2 dB.
Rule: For every double the number of amplifiers
with identical cross modulation there
is a 6 dB degradation in the total
cross modulation.
FCC Requirement XM = 51 dB
N =Number of equal
contributors
NF = Noise Figure
-59.2 = Thermal Noise in
4 MHz Bandwidth
(dBmV)
115
Carrier/Composite Triple Beat (CTB)
1. Composite Triple Beat for One Amplifier at Operating Level:
2. To Sum Identical Composite Triple Beat Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
3. To Sum Different Composite Triple Beat Ratios:
See examples starting on pages 84.
4. Composite Triple Beat vs Channel Loading:
A 1 dB change of the output of an amplifier will change the CTB
ratio by 2 dB.
For every double the number of amplifiers with identical CTB,
there is a 6 dB degradation in the total CTB ratio.
FCC Requirement CTB:
Standard = 51 dB
IRC =
47 dB
HRC =
47 dB
116 System Calculations
Carrier/Single Second Order Distortion (C/SSO)
1. S
ingle Second Order Beat for One Amplifier at Operating Level:
2. To Sum Identical SSO Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
3. To Sum Different SSO Ratios:
10
10
10
A 1 dB change of the output of an amplifier will change SSO
by 1 dB.
The 10 log assumptions shown here for second order are conservative. Some engineers use 13 log or 15 log assumptions.
FCC Requirement SSO = 51 dB
117
Carrier/Composite Second Order Distortion (C/CSO)
1. Composite Second Order for One Amplifier at Operating Level:
2. To Sum Identical CSO Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
3. To Sum Different CSO Ratios:
15
15
15
See examples starting on pages 84.
4. CSO vs Channel Loading:
A 1 dB change of the output of an amplifier will change CSO by
1 dB.
FCC Requirement CSO = 51 dB
118 System Calculations
Composite Intermodulation Noise (CIN)
It is assumed that CIN is dominated by 3rd order distortion (CIN3).
This is the case in systems with analog television channels to 550
MHz and digital video above 550 MHz.
1. C
omposite Intermodulation Noise for One Amplifier at Operating
Level.
2. To Sum Identical Composite Intermodulation Noise Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
3. To Sum Different Composite Intermodulation Noise Ratios:
See examples starting on pages 84.
4. To Sum Carrier/Noise and Composite Intermodulation Ratios:
Rule: C
IN behaves like CTB in a cascade of amplifiers, but it adds to the
C/N noise.
119
Carrier/Hum Modulation (C/H)
1. To Sum Identical Carrier/Hum Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
2. To Sum Different Carrier/Hum Ratios:
See examples starting on page 84.
Note: A
bove calculations assume connection of all power supplies to the
same powerline phase.
3. To Convert Percent Hum to C/H Ratio:
4. To Convert C/H Ratio to % Hum:
120 System Calculations
Carrier/Noise
1. The Carrier/Noise contribution of a single amplifier when the
Noise Figure (NF) is known:
2. To Sum Identical Carrier/Noise Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
3. To Sum Different Carrier/Noise Ratios:
10
10
10
See examples starting on pages 84.
4. Carrier/Noise Ratio vs Bandwidth:
Rule: For every 1 dB increase in input signal level, the C/N improves by 1 dB.
For every double the number of amplifiers with identical Carrier/Noise Ratios
there is a degradation of 3 dB in the total C/N.
N =Number of equal
FCC Requirement C/N = 43 dB
contributors
NF = Noise Figure
-59.2 =Thermal Noise
in 4 MHz
Bandwidth (dBmV)
121
Determining Acceptable Peak-to-Valley Deviation
To determine what degree of overall peak-to-valley deviation is
acceptable for the Nth amplifier in a cascade, use this formula.
Where x is equal to the acceptable P-V deviation and, N = number
of amplifiers in cascade.
For example, what is the maximum acceptable peak-tovalley deviation at the 32nd amplifier in a cascade?
Thus, 4.2 dB is the maximum acceptable peak-to-valley deviation
(highest peak to lowest valley in the broadband signal) at the
32nd amplifier.
122 System Calculations
Amplifier Cascade Factor
CASCADE (N)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
C/N + SSO
10*LOG(N)
0.00
3.01
4.77
6.02
6.99
7.78
8.45
9.03
9.54
10.00
10.41
10.79
11.14
11.46
11.76
12.04
12.30
12.55
12.79
13.01
13.22
13.42
13.62
13.80
13.98
CSO
15*LOG(N)
0.00
4.52
7.16
9 03
10.48
11.67
12.68
13.55
14.31
15.00
15.62
16.19
16.71
17.19
17.64
18.06
18.46
18.83
19.18
19.52
19.83
20.14
20.43
20.70
20.97
CTB & XMOD
20*LOG(N)
0.00
6.02
9.54
12.04
13.98
15.56
16.90
18.06
19.08
20.00
20.83
21.58
22.28
22.92
23.52
24.08
24.61
25.11
25.58
26.02
26.44
26.85
27.23
27.60
27.96
123
Amplifier Cascade Factor - Example
The Amplifier Cascade Factor Chart (on previous page) is used
to predict performance considering the contribution of various
numbers of amplifiers. It assumes that all amplifiers are
operated at the same level (input level for noise, output level
for distortion). This is generally the case in a Unity Gain Based
System.
Example: What is the trunk CTB after 13 trunk amplifiers?
ingle trunk amplifier CTB specification is 87 dB
Given:1. S
@ 32 dBmV flat (from Manufacturers specs.)
2. T
runk output is 25 dBmV, channel 2 Trunk
output is 32 dBmV, channel 60 (7 dB linear tilt)
Step 1Re-rate performance of single amp
based on actual operating level.
Geometric tilt center = 28.5 dBmV
Add .5 dB correction factor =
29 dBmV average level
32 - 29 = 3 dB x 2 (for CTB) = 6 dB
87 dB + 6 dB = 93 dB CTB @
29 dBmV average level
Step 2Find cascade factor for CTB for 13
amps, on the chart = 22.28 dB
Step 3Subtract cascade factor from single amp operating
performance
93 dB - 22.28 = 70.72 dB
CTB = 70.72 dB after 13 amps
124 System Calculations
Note: S
umming different ratios requires a grasp of the antilog concept.
For brevity, the example shown is for CTB only, but the approach is
identical for all system distortion and noise calculations.
Determine End Of Line CTB Given The Following:
10 Trunk CTB = 65 dBc
1 Bridger CTB = 60 dBc
3 Line Extender CTB = 58 dBc
-65
-60
-58
Step 1. CTBs = 20 log (10 20 + 10 20 + 10 20 )
Step 2. CTBs = 20 log (10 -3.25 +10- 3.00 +10 - 2.90 )
CTBs 20 log (antilog -3.25 + antilog -3.00 + antilog -2.90)
Note: T o perform the operations in step 2, use the “inverse” log or “antilog”
function on most calculators. Antilog (Inverse Log) is used to re-express
the different exponent values to voltage so the amounts may be easily
summed. Don’t forget the minus sign.
-4
-3
-3
Step 3. CTBs = 20 log (5.62 x 10 + 1 x 10 + 1.26 x 10 )
-4
-4
-4
Step 4. CTBs = 20 log (5.62 x 10 + 10 x 10 + 12.6 x 10 )
-4
Step 5. CTBs = 20 log (28.12 x 10 )
CTB = 51 dBc
The 20 Log and 10 Log function derate charts & example on pages 86, 87
and 88 may also be used to sum different ratios if a scientific calculator is
not available.
125
20 Log Function Derate Chart
(use for CTB and XMOD)
diff
(dB) 0.00 0.10
0
6.02 5.97
1
5.53 5.49
2
5.08 5.03
3
4.65 4.61
4
4.25 4.21
5
3.88 3.84
6
3.53 3.50
7
3.21 3.18
8
2.91 2.88
9
2.64 2.61
10 2.39 2.36
11 2.16 2.13
12 1.95 1.93
13 1.75 1.74
14 1.58 1.56
15 1.42 1.41
16 1.28 1.26
17 1.15 1.14
18 1.03 1.02
19 0.92 0.91
20 0.83 0.82
21 0.74 0.73
22 0.66 0.66
23 0.59 0.59
24 0.53 0.53
25 0.48 0.47
26 0.42 0.42
27 0.38 0.38
28 0.34 0.34
29 0.30 0.30
30 0.27 0.27
31 0.24 0.24
32 0.22 0.21
33 0.19 0.19
34 0.17 0.17
35 0.15 0.15
36 0.14 0.14
37 0.12 0.12
38 0.11 0.11
39 0.10 0.10
40 0.09 0.09
SUBTRACTION VALUES
0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60
5.92 5.87 5.82 5.77 5.73
5.44 5.39 5.35 5.30 5.26
4.99 4.95 4.90 4.86 4.82
4.57 4.53 4.49 4.45 4.41
4.17 4.13 4.10 4.06 4.02
3.80 3.77 3.73 3.70 3.66
3.46 3.43 3.40 3.36 3.33
3.15 3.12 3.09 3.06 3.03
2.85 2.83 2.80 2.77 2.74
2.59 2.56 2.53 2.51 2.48
2.34 2.32 2.29 2.27 2.25
2.11 2.09 2.07 2.05 2.03
1.91 1.89 1.87 1.85 1.83
1.72 1.70 1.68 1.67 1.65
1.55 1.53 1.51 1.50 1.48
1.39 1.38 1.36 1.35 1.33
1.25 1.24 1.22 1.21 1.20
1.12 1.11 1.10 1.09 1.08
1.01 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.96
0.90 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86
0.81 0.80 0.79 0.78 0.77
0.73 0.72 0.71 0.70 0.69
0.65 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.62
0.58 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.56
0.52 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.50
0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.44
0.42 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.40
0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.35
0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32
0.30 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.28
0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25
0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23
0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.20
0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.18
0.17 0.17 0.16 0.16 0.16
0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14
0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13
0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.11
0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08
0.70
5.68
5.21
4.78
4.37
3.98
3.63
3.30
3.00
2.72
2.46
2.22
2.01
1.81
1.63
1.47
1.32
1.19
1.06
0.95
0.86
0.77
0.69
0.61
0.55
0.49
0.44
0.39
0.35
0.31
0.28
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.13
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
0.80
5.63
5.17
4.73
4.33
3.95
3.60
3.27
2.97
2.69
2.44
2.20
1.99
1.79
1.61
1.45
1.31
1.17
1.05
0.94
0.85
0.76
0.68
0.61
0.54
0.49
0.43
0.39
0.35
0.31
0.28
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
0.90
5.58
5.12
4.69
4.29
3.91
3.56
3.24
2.94
2.66
2.41
2.18
1.97
1.77
1.60
1.44
1.29
1.16
1.04
0.93
0.84
0.75
0.67
0.60
0.54
0.48
0.43
0.38
0.34
0.31
0.27
0.24
0.22
0.19
0.17
0.15
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
126 10 Log Function Derate Chart
(use for CNR and SSO)
diff
(dB) 0.00 0.10
0
3.01 2.96
1
2.54 2.50
2
2.12 2.09
3
1.76 1.73
4
1.46 1.43
5
1.19 1.17
6
0.97 0.95
7
0.79 0.77
8
0.64 0.63
9
0.51 0.50
10 0.41 0.40
SUBTRACTION VALUES
0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60
2.91 2.86 2.81 2.77 2.72
2.45 2.41 2.37 2.32 2.28
2.05 2.01 1.97 1.94 1.90
1.70 1.67 1.63 1.60 1.57
1.40 1.37 1.35 1.32 1.29
1.15 1.12 1.10 1.08 1.06
0.93 0.91 0.90 0.88 0.86
0.76 0.74 0.73 0.71 0.70
0.61 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.56
0.49 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.45
0.40 0.39 0.38 0.37 0.36
0.70
2.67
2.24
1.87
1.54
1.27
1.04
0.84
0.68
0.55
0.44
0.35
0.80
2.63
2.20
1.83
1.51
1.24
1.01
0.82
0.67
0.54
0.43
0.35
0.90
2.58
2.16
1.80
1.48
1.22
0.99
0.81
0.65
0.53
0.42
0.34
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
0.33
0.27
0.21
0.17
0.14
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.32
0.26
0.21
0.17
0.13
0.11
0.08
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.32
0.25
0.20
0.16
0.13
0.10
0.08
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.31
0.25
0.20
0.16
0.13
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.30
0.24
0.19
0.15
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.30
0.24
0.19
0.15
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.29
0.23
0.19
0.15
0.12
0.09
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.28
0.23
0.18
0.14
0.12
0.09
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.28
0.22
0.18
0.14
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.27
0.22
0.17
0.14
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.06
0.04
0.04
21
22
23
24
25
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
Combining Two X-MOD or CTB Performance
Ratings (20 Log)
10 Trunk CTB = 65 dBc
Using dB Subtraction Values
1 Bridger CTB = 60 dBc
Line Extender CTB = 58 dBc
The 20 log & 10 log derate
charts are used to sum different
ratios. The following example demonstrates how:
Step 1 Sum Trunk and Bridger CTB
1.1Find the dB difference between the
two ratios (65-60=5 dB)
1.2Look up the derate (dB Subtraction) for 5.0
dB difference in the chart (3.88 dB)
1.3Derate the poorer of the two CTB ratios
by this amount (60-3.9=56.1 dBc)
Step 2Sum the Sum of Trunk and Bridger from
Step 1 with the line extenders
2.1Find the dB difference between the
two ratios (58-56.12=1.88)
2.2Look up the derate (dB Subtraction)
for 1.88 dB difference in the chart
(5.12) (round 1.88 up to 1.9).
2.3Derate the poorer of the two CTB ratios by
this amount (56.12 - 5.12 = 51.0 dBc)
Combining Two CNR or SSO Performance Ratings
(10 Log)
Using dB Subtraction Values
10 Trunk CNR = 56.5 dB
1 Bridger CNR = 65 dB
Example: C
ombine trunk and bridger
CNR to find the resultant CNR
at the Bridger output (no line extenders).
dB difference = 65-56.5 = 8.5 dB
dB subtraction figure = 0.6 dB
Bridger output CNR = 56.5-0.6 = 55.9 dB
So then, the resultant CNR measure is about 55.9 dB.
127
128 Passive & Coaxial Cable Characteristics
Cable and Equalizer Formulas
1. Cable Loss Ratio
The ratio of cable attenuation at two frequencies is approximately
equal to the square root of the ratio of the two frequencies.
Example:To calculate the approximate cable loss at 55 MHz
when the loss at 450 MHz is 20 dB,
2. Tilt to Cable Loss
To convert tilt (differential in signal level between end frequencies
of the cable bandpass) to cable loss at the highest frequency:
Example:To calculate the cable loss at the highest frequency
when the measured tilt is 12 dB between 55 and
450 MHz
Broadband RF Network Powering
When determining the power supply location in a cable system, it
is important to know OHM’s Law, cable loop resistance, amplifier
current drain and the minimum operating voltage required for
amplifier operation.
The cable resistance is included in the manufacturers specification
sheet. Resistance is usually stated as center conductor, shield,
and loop. Loop resistance is the sum of the center conductor and
shield resistance.
The amplifier current drain and voltage requirements are also part
of the manufacturers specifications.
The ideal location of the power supply is such that the current
supplied flows equally both, away from, and towards the
headend. The total current supplied should be between 80-90%
of the power supply’s rated output. Current passing through
the amplifiers is usually limited to about 6 Amps. Since power
supplies are available with various current handling abilities, one
with slightly higher capability than required should be selected.
Determining power supply placement, refer to the figure on the
next page.
irst determine the loop resistance for each span of cable.
1. F
Example: Loop resistance = 1.7 Ohms/1000
ft. x 800’ = 1.36 Ohms.
2. L ocate the last amplifier, determine the
voltage drop across the span of cable.
sing the current draw of the amplifier, determine
3. U
the voltage drop across the span of cable.
Example: 0.375A x 1.36 Ohms = 0.51 volts.
4. S
ince the minimum operating voltage for the amplifier
is 43 volts, the voltage level at the beginning of the
800’ span would be 43.5 volts (43.0 + 0.51).
5. A
t this point, the total current flow in the coax will increase
due to the addition of another amplifier. Current flow
in this span of cable will be 0.75A (0.375 + 0.375).
129
130 Broadband RF Network Powering
6. Determine the voltage across the next span of cable.
0.75 x 1.36 Ohms = 1.02 Volts
Therefore the voltage at the output of the bridger amp is 44.5
volts. The total current at the input to the bridger amp is 2.0
amps. This is the sum of both output legs of the bridger (1.5A)
and the current draw of the bridger amp itself.
7. C
ontinue working towards the headend until the current
draw is 40-50% of the power supplies rated capability or the
voltage level nears 60 volts.
t this time, a guesstimate of where to place a power block
8. A
in the section between the power supply and headend must
be made. Add the current draw for the line extender(s) off
each trunk station to the trunk station current requirements.
A few trial calculations will show how many amplifiers can be
powered going in this direction.
131
7
OFF-AIR ANTENNAS & SATELLITE INFO
Dipole Antenna Equations.......................................132
Multiplexers............................................................133
Antenna General Information..................................134
Antenna Spacing.....................................................135
Antenna Phasing.....................................................137
Satellite Transmission Standards.............................138
System Calculations................................................139
North & South American C & Ku-Band Satellites....141
Broadcast Station "List"...........................................143
132 Dipole Antenna Equations
Shown below is a typical half-wave dipole antenna. The radiation
pattern of a Hertz dipole antenna is perpendicular to the axis of
the antenna. In directions other than the optimum directions, the
antenna is ineffective.
λ
L
To calculate the wavelength of a signal, l or the dipole length, L, or
the frequency, f, of a half-wave dipole antenna, use the following
three formulas:
where:
l = Wavelength (m)
k = Velocity Factor
c = Speed of light = 3 x 108 (m/s)
f = Frequency (Hz)
L = Length of the Dipole (m)
133
Multiplexers
ZUVSJ
ZHLSJ
ZUVSJ
ZHLSJ
LUV 2150
LUV 2150
134 Antenna General Information
Factors Which Determine The Quality Of Reception:
A) Distance to transmitter
B) Height of transmitting antenna
C) Transmitter power
D) Transmitter frequency (TV channel)
E) Type of receiving antenna
F) Height of receiving antenna
G) Terrain between the transmitter and receiving antenna
H) Obstacles between the transmitter and receiving antenna
(tall buildings, water tower, etc.)
Major Characteristics:
Gain:Indicates the amount of received signal level
increase as compared to reference antenna.
(usually a resonant dipole)
Bandwidth:The range of frequencies (TV channels) over
which the antenna is designed to operate. In
principle, there are two types of antennas:
1) Broadband
2) Single-Channel
Impedance:Home type antennas are usually 300 Ohms and
commercial antennas are usually 75 Ohms.
Pattern:Generally consists of two components, beam width
and front to back ratio. Refer to diagram.
Antenna Spacing
Mounting Channelized Antennas on the Same Mast
NOTE: Refer to Antenna Spacing Chart for dimensions
135
136 Antenna Spacing Chart
Dimension Notes:
A) The minimum
horizontal
spacing
between
the tower
structure and
the antenna
crossbar.
B) The
recommended
vertical spacing
for a gain
of 3 dB.
Channel
A
No.
2
113
3
101
4
91
5
78
6
72
FM
72
7
40
8
39
9
37
10
36
11
35
12
34
13
34
B
2/3 λ
138
125
115
100
93
80
44
43
42
40
39
38
37
C
1λ
208
188
172
150
139
120
67
65
62
61
59
57
55
D
1/2 λ
104
94
86
75
70
60
33
32
31
30
29
29
28
Dimensions are in inches
B/2) T
he minimum vertical spacing between the antenna
crossbar and adjacent mechanical structures.
C) The recommended horizontal spacing for a gain of 3 dB.
D) The minimum spacing between antennas of different channels
and is the figure given for the antenna with the lowest frequency
Formulae:
One Wavelength in space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . λ (inches) = 11811
Freq. in MHz
One Wavelength in 75 Ohm coax (solid)
λ (inches) =
7783
Freq. in MHz
One Wavelength in 75 Ohm coax (foam) . . . . λ (inches) =
9565
Freq. in MHz
Antenna Nulling (finding H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d (λ) =
1
2 sin φ
137
Antenna Phasing
Signal Nulling
Chart No. II
φ° λ(inches)
2
3
4
5
6
FM
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
208
188
172
150
139
120
67
65
62
61
59
57
55
Chart No. III
φ°
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
d(λ)
5.733
2.880
1.931
1.462
1.183
1.000
0.871
0.777
0.707
φ°
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
d(λ)
0.653
0.610
0.577
0.551
0.532
0.517
0.507
0.502
0.500
Instructions:
1.Determine angle “φ“ using a field strength meter, compass, and a
single channel antenna.
2.
Locate angle “φ“ in chart No. III and determine d(λ);
multiply λ(inches) in chart No. II to find the spacing of “H”.
3.Both antennas must be identical, facing in the same direction, in the
same horizontal plane and both be right side up.
4. For angles not listed,
d(λ) =
1
2 sin (φ)
Satellite Transmission Standards
138 Satellite Transmission Standards
In North America, the satellite programs are transmited
primarily in digital format using the following two standards:
QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
8PSK (8th-order Phase Shift Keying)
~ 28 MHz
The QPSK programs are typically transmitted in the C-band (3.7 to 4.2 GHz)
and the Ku-band (11.7 to 12.2 GHz).
The 8PSK
8PSK programs are typically transmitted in DBS (12.2 to 12.7 GHz ). DBS
(Direct Broadcast Satellite), also known more broadly as direct-to-home, is a
term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception.
System Calculations
TVRO Formulas
1. System Gain Over Temperature
Ag = Antenna Gain (dB)
AT = Antenna Temperature (˚K)
LNAT = Low Noise Amp Temperature (˚K)
2. Carrier to Noise Ratio*
3. C/N for other RxBw
4. Convert C/N to S/N*
5. Declination Angle (Polar Mount Antenna)
3964 = Radius of the Earth
22300 = Distance to Satellite Arc
L
= Site Latitude
* RxBw = 30 MHz
139
140
Aximuth and Elevation Angles
Antenna pointing angles can be calculated in degrees from true
north from the following equations:
Where ∆ is the absolute value of the difference between satellite
and TVRO site longitudes and Φ is the site latitude.
Noise Temperature & Noise Figure
Noise
Figure
(dB)
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
Noise
Noise
Temperature
Figure
(˚K)
(dB)
170
0.9
159
0.8
149
0.7
139
0.6
129
0.5
120
0.4
110
0.3
101
0.2
92
0.1
84
75
Noise
Temperature
(˚K)
67
59
51
43
35
28
21
14
7
00
North & South American C & Ku-Band Satellites
North
& South
America
North
& South
America
C Ku
& Ku
Band
Satellites
C&
Band
Satellites
61.5°W
3 3
61.5°W EchoStar
EchoStar
61.5°W
6 6
61.5°W EchoStar
EchoStar
EchoStar
1212
EchoStar
61.5°W
61.5°W EchoStar 15
EchoStar 15
63.0°W
1414
63.0°W Telstar
Telstar
65.0°W
One
C1C1
65.0°W Star
Star
One
67.0°W
4 4
67.0°W AMC
AMC
70.0°W
Star
One
C2C2
70.0°W
Star One
72.0°W
6 6
72.0°W AMC
AMC
DirecTV
1R
DirecTV 1R
72.5°W
72.5°W Nimiq 5
Nimiq 5
74.0°W
2 2
74.0°W Horizons
Horizons
75.0°W
B3
75.0°W Brasilsat
Brasilsat
B3
77.0°W
EchoStar 1
77.0°W
EchoStar 1
EchoStar 4 (incl. 2.3°)
77.0°W
EchoStar 4 (incl. 2.3°)
77.0°W EchoStar 8
EchoStar 8
78.0°W
Simón Bolívar
78.0°W AMC
Simón
Bolívar
2
79.0°W
AMC 2
79.0°W AMC 5
AMC
5
81.0°W
Intelsat 3R (incl. 1.2°)
81.0°W Nimiq
Intelsat
82.0°W
4 3R (incl. 1.2°)
82.0°W AMC
Nimiq
83.0°W
9 4
83.0°W Brasilsat
AMC 9B4
84.0°W
84.0°W AMC
Brasilsat
B4
85.0°W
16
85.0°W XM
AMC
85.1°W
3 16
85.1°W Sirius
XM XM
3 5
85.2°W
85.2°W AMC
Sirius
87.0°W
3 XM 5
87.0°W Galaxy
AMC 28
3
89.0°W
89.0°W Nimiq
Galaxy
1 28
91.0°W
Galaxy
Nimiq17
1
91.0°W
93.1°W
Galaxy
2517
Galaxy
95.0°W
3C25
93.1°W Galaxy
Galaxy
95.0°W
3
95.0°W Spaceway
Galaxy 3C
96.0°W
FM 5 3
95.0°W Sirius
Spaceway
96.0°W
Sirius FM 5
97.0°W
19 19
97.0°WGalaxy
Galaxy
Galaxy
16 16
Galaxy
99.2°W
99.2°W
Spaceway
2 & DirecTV
11 11
Spaceway
2 & DirecTV
SESSES
1 1
101.0°W
101.0°WDirecTV 4S/8
DirecTV 4S/8
Spaceway
1 & DirecTV
10/1210/12
Spaceway
1 & DirecTV
103.0°W
103.0°WAMC 1
AMC 1
AMCAMC
15 15
105.0°W
105.0°WAMC 18
AMC 18
AnikAnik
F1 F1
107.3°W
107.3°WAnik F1R
Anik F1R
DirecTV
5 5
DirecTV
10
110.0°W
110.0°WEchoStar
EchoStar
10
EchoStar 11
EchoStar 11
111.1°W
Anik F2
111.1°W
Anik F2
113.0°W
SatMex 6
113.0°W
SatMex 6
114.9°W
Solidaridad 2 (incl. 2.5°)
114.9°WXM 4Solidaridad 2 (incl. 2.5°)
115.0°W
115.0°WSatMex
XM 5
4
116.8°W
116.8°WAnikSatMex
5
F3
Anik7S
F3
DirecTV
119.0°W
119.0°WEchoStar
DirecTV
14 7S
EchoStar
14 23
121.0°W
EchoStar
9/Galaxy
121.0°WGalaxy
EchoStar
9/Galaxy 23
123.0°W
18
123.0°WGalaxy
Galaxy
14 18
125.0°W
Galaxy 14
125.0°WAMC 21
AMC
21
127.0°W
Galaxy
13/Horizons
1
127.0°WCiel Galaxy
13/Horizons 1
129.0°W
2
129.0°WAMCCiel
131.0°W
11 2
133.0°W
1211
131.0°WGalaxy
AMC
135.0°W
10
133.0°WAMCGalaxy
12
137.0°W
7 10
135.0°WAMCAMC
139.0°W
8 7
137.0°WAMCAMC
139.0°W
AMC 8
For up to date info visit
http://www.lyngsat.com/america.html
141
142
mple Lyngsat
143
Broadcast Station List
For Blonder Tongue Labs Headquarters Address
The FCC released the "Final DTV" channel allotments on March 21, 2008. The final
DTV channels are RF channels that will are used after February 17, 2009. The Final
DTV assignments reflect the new core spectrum for TV broadcasts of channels 2 to
51. Channels 52 to 69 have been re-assigned for public safety and advanced wireless
services.
The former analog channel number information is carried in the new digital channel's
PSIP (Program and System Information Protocol) information. It may also be referred to
as the "tune to" or as a "virtual" channel. Digital TVs and STBs use this channel number
to tune to the particular program that in most cases is transmitted over a completely
different RF channel.
Below is a sample Station List. Because these can frequently change,
For the most up to date information, visit
www.antennaweb.org
DTV
Antenna
Type
Call
Sign
Channel
Network
City,
State
Compass
Heading
Miles
From
RF
Channel
*
yellow uhf
WNJT- DT
52.1
PBS
TRENTON, NJ
Live
Data
258º
20.8
43
*
yellow uhf
WNJU- DT
47.1
TEL
LINDEN, NJ
50º
29.5
36
*
yellow uhf
WPXN- DT
31.1
ION
NEW YORK, NY
50º
29.5
31
*
yellow uhf
WNBC- DT
4.1
NBC
NEW YORK, NY
51º
26.7
28
*
yellow uhf
WFUT- DT
68.1
TFA
NEWARK, NJ
50º
29.5
30
*
yellow uhf
WWOR- DT
9.1
MNT
SECAUCUS, NJ
50º
29.5
38
*
yellow uhf
WCBS- DT
2.1
CBS
NEW YORK, NY
51º
26.7
33
*
green uhf
WXTV- DT
41.1
UNI
PATERSON, NJ
50ºº
29.5
40
*
red uhf
WABC- DT
7.1
ABC
NEW YORK, NY
51º
26.5
7
*
red uhf
WNET- DT
13.1
PBS
NEWARK, NJ
50º
29.5
13
*
red uhf
WMBC- DT
63.1
IND
NEWTON, NJ
25º
32.1
18
*
red uhf
WNVW- DT
44
FOX
NEW YORK, NY
50º
29.5
44
*
red uhf
WPIX- DT
11.1
CW
NEW YORK, NY
51º
26.7
11
*
blue uhf
WNJB- DT
58.1
PBS
NEW
50º
29.9
8
*
blue uhf
WNJN- DT
50.1
PBS
MONTCLAIR, NJ
25º
32.1
51
*
violet uhf
WTXF- DT
29.1
FOX
PHILADELPHIA, PA
256º
53.7
42
BRUNSWICK, NJ
145
8
INTERNATIONAL TV FORMATS
Worldwide TV Standards.................................146
CCIR Television Transmission Characteristics...152
International Analog Channel Standards..........153
146 Worldwide TV Standards
Country
Population
(millions)
Analog
Standard
Digital TV
Standard
Analog
Shut-off
Date
Albania
3.7
PAL BG
DVB-T
(trial)
N/A
Algeria
35
PAL B
DVB-T
2014
Argentina
40
PAL N
ISDB-T
(custom)
7/9/16
Australia
22.4
PAL BG
DVB-T
5/11/11
Austria
8.3
PAL BG
DVB-T2
2010
Bahamas
0.33
NTSC
TBD
Bahrain
0.79
PAL B
DVB-T
Barbados
0.285
NTSC
TBD
Belgium
10.8
PAL BH
DVB-T
completed
Bermuda
0.068
NTSC
DVB-T
?
Bolivia
10.9
NTSC
ISDB-T
(custom)
?
Brazil
192
PAL M
ISDB-T
(custom)
6/29/16
Bulgaria
7.5
SECAM D
DVB-T
2012
Burma
50
NTSC
DVB-T
>2020
Cambodia
14.8
DVB-T
2015
EU
X
N/A
Canada
34
NTSC
8VSB
8/31/11
Chile
17
NTSC
ISDB-T
(custom)
2017
China
1330
PAL D
DTMB
2015
X
X
147
Country
Population
(millions)
Analog
Standard
Digital TV
Standard
Columbia
45
NTSC
DVB-T
1/1/17
Costa
Rica
4.579
NTSC
ISDBT(custom)
12/1/18
Croatia
4.5
DVB-T
2011
TBD
2025
NTSC
Analog
Shut-off
Date
EU
Cuba
11.2
Curacao
0.141
Cyprus
0.87
PAL BG
DVB-T
2011
X
Czech
Republic
10.5
SECAM
DK
DVB-T
2012
X
Denmark
5.5
PAL BG
DVB-T
completed
X
Dominican
Rep.
10
NTSC
TBD
Dubai
2.2
Egypt
77.4
SECAM
BG
DVB-T
El
Salvador
6
NTSC
8VSB
Equador
13.6
NTSC
ISDBT(custom)
Estonia
1.34
Ethiopia
79.2
PAL BG
TBD
Finland
5.3
PAL BG
France
60
SECAM EL
TBD
DVB-H
DVB-T
1/1/14
2010
X
DVB-T
completed
X
DVB-T
11/30/11
X
148 Worldwide TV Standards
Country
Population
(millions)
Analog
Standard
Digital TV
Standard
Analog
Shut-off
Date
EU
Germany
82.5
SECAM
BG
DVB-T
completed
X
Ghana
23.8
PAL BG
DVB-T
2013
Greece
11
SECAM
BG
DVB-T
2012
Greenland
0.056
NTSC
DVB-T
Guam
0.178
NTSC
TBD
Guatemala
14
NTSC
*8VSB
X
testing
Haiti
9
NTSC
TBD
Honduras
7.5
NTSC
8VSB
20172022
Hong
Kong
7
PAL I
DTMB
?
Hungary
9.9
SECAM
DK
DVB-T
Dec.
2012?
Iceland
0.317
PAL B
DVB-T
?
India
1000
PAL B
DVB-T2
3/13/15
Indonesia
230
PAL B
DVB-T
2015
?
Iran
74
PAL BG
DVB-T
Iraq
31
PAL B
DVB-H
?
Ireland
4
PAL I
DVB-T
end of
2012
X
X
149
Country
Population
(millions)
Analog
Standard
Digital TV
Standard
Analog
Shut-off
Date
Israel
7.6
PAL BG
DVB-T
3/30/2011
Italy
57.4
PAL BG
DVB-T
2012
Jamaica
2.8
NTSC
TBD
EU
X
Japan
127.3
NTSC
ISDB-T
Kenya
39
PAL BG
DVB-T2
2012
Korea
(South)
50
NTSC
8VSB
12/31/12
Latvia
2.5
DVB-T
2010
X
Libya
6.4
Lithuania
3.3
10/29/12
X
SECAM
BG
7/24/12
DVB-H
DVB-T
Luxembourg
0.5
SECAM C
DVB-T
Malaysia
28.3
PAL BG
DVB-T
2015
X
Malta
0.413
DVB-T
6/1/11
Mexico
107
NTSC
8VSB
2022
Morocco
32
PAL B
DVB-T
by 2015
Netherlands
16
PAL BG
DVB-T
completed
New
Zealand
4.4
PAL B
DVB-T
Nov. 2013
Nigeria
154
PAL B
DVB-H
Norway
4.9
PAL BG
DVB-T
Oman
2.8
PAL BG
DVB-T
completed
X
X
150 Worldwide TV Standards
Country
Population
(millions)
Analog
Standard
Digital TV
Standard
Analog
Shut-off
Date
Pakistan
170
PAL B
TBD
Panama
3.3
NTSC
DVB-T
Paraquay
6.3
PAL N
ISDB-T
(custom)
Peru
29.4
PAL N
ISDB-T
(custom)
Phillipines
92
NTSC
DVB-T2
Mar. 2015
Poland
37.8
SECAM
DK
DVB-T
7/31/13
X
Portugal
11.3
PAL BG
DVB-T
4/26/12
X
Puerto
Rico
3.9
NTSC
8VSB
6/12/09
Qatar
1.4
PAL B
DVB-H
2020
Romania
22.2
SECAM K
DVB-T
2012
Russia
141.9
SECAM D
DVB-T
2015
Samoa
0.179
NTSC
TBD
Saudi
Arabia
28.7
SECAM
BG
DVB-T
Serbia
7.3
Singapore
5
Slovakia
Slovenia
DVB-T2
PAL BG
EU
X
Apr-12
DVB-T2
2015
5.3
DVB-T2
by 2012
X
2
DVB-T
12/1/10
X
151
Country
Population
(millions)
Analog
Standard
Digital TV
Standard
Analog
Shut-off
Date
South
Africa
49.3
PAL I
DVB-T2
(? Review)
Dec. 2013
completed
X
X
Spain
46
PAL BG
DVB-T2
St. Martin
0.075
NTSC
TBD
Surinam
0.481
Sweden
9.3
PAL BG
DVB-T
completed
Switzerland
7.1
PAL BG
DVB-T
completed
Taiwan
23
NTSC
DVB-T
by 2013
Thailand
66.4
PAL B
DVB-T
2015
Trinidad
1.4
NTSC
DVB-T
Turkey
72.5
PAL BG
DVB-T
Uganda
31
PAL BG
DVB-T (?)
UK
62
PAL I
DVB-T
2012
Ukraine
46
DVB-T
by 2015
EU
TBD
Dec-12
Uruguay
3.5
PAL N
USA
310
NTSC
DVB-T
8VSB
6/12/09
Venezuela
26.8
NTSC
ISDB-T
(custom)
1/1/20
Vietnam
85.8
SECAM
DM
DVB-T
2015
X
152 CCIR Television Transmission Characteristics
For Off Air Channels
LINES
Freq.
SYSTEM (Hz)
FIELD
Freq.
(MHz)
LINE
Width
(MHz)
CHAN. VIDEO VID/SND
B/W Spacing Sideb
VEST
VISUAL
(MHz) (MHz) (MHz)
MOD
MOD AURAL
B/G
625
50
15,625
7/8
5
+ 5.5
0.75
NEG
FM
C
625
50
15,625
7
5
+ 5.5
0.75
POS
AM
D/K
625
50
15,625
8
6
+6.5
0.75
NEG
FM
H
625
50
15,625
8
5
+ 5.5
1.25
NEG
FM
I
625
50
15,625
8
5.5
+ 6.0
1.25
NEG
FM
K1
625
50
15,625
8
6
+ 6.5
1.25
NEG
FM
L
525
50
15,625
8
6
+/- 6.5
1.25
POS
AM
M
525
60
15,734
6
4.2
+45
0.75
NEG
FM
N
625
50
15,625
6
4.2
+ 4.5
0.75
NEG
FM
CCIR:
Commitée Consulatif International Radiocommunications
NTSC: National Television Systems Committee
PAL:Phase Alternating Lines
SECAM:Sequential Color with Memory
(Sequentiel Couleur Avec Memoire)
OIRT:
Organisation Internationale Radiodiffusion - Television
153
International Analog Channel Standards
Country
Color
System
Broadcast
Standard
Channel
VHF UHF Frequencies
5
Std.
Voltage and
Cycles (Hz)
Argentina
PAL
N
N
Amer
220
50
Australia
PAL
B
G
Australian
240
50
Austria
PAL
B
G
West Euro
230
50
Bahamas
NTSC
M
Amer
120
60
Belgium
PAL
B
West Euro
230
50
Bermuda
NTSC
M
Amer
120/240
60
Bolivia
NTSC
M
M
Amer
110/220
50
Brazil
PAL
M
M
Amer
110/220
60
Canada
NTSC
M
M
Amer
120
60
Chile
NTSC
M
Amer
220
50
China
PAL
D
Chinese
220
50
Colombia
NTSC
M
Amer
110
60
Costa Rica
NTSC
M
Amer
120
60
Denmark
PAL
B
220
50
Ecuador
NTSC
M
Amer
120/220
60
Egypt
SECAM
B
West Euro
220
50
Finland
PAL
B
G
West Euro
220
50
France
SECAM
L
L
French
115/220
50
Germany
SECAM/PAL
B
G
West Euro
220
50
Greece
SECAM
B
G
West Euro
220
50
Hong Kong
PAL
I
West Euro
220
50
Hungary
SECAM
D
K
East Euro
220
50
India
PAL
B
West Euro
240
50
Indonesia
PAL
B
West Euro
110/220
50
Iran
SECAM
B
West Euro
220
50
Iraq
SECAM
B
West Euro
220
50
Ireland
PAL
A
Irish
220
50
H
M
G
G
I
West Euro
154
Country
Israel
Italy
Japan
Jordan
Korea S.
Malaysia
Mexico
Morocco
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Panama
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russia
Singapore
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
United King.
Uruguay
USA
Venezuela
Color
System
PAL
PAL
W
PAL
NTSC
PAL
NTSC
SECAM
PAL
PAL
PAL
NTSC
NTSC
NTSC
SECAM
PAL
SECAM
SECAM
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
NTSC
NTSC
Broadcast
Standard
Channel
VHF
UHF
Frequencies
B
G
G
B
M
M
B
G
M
M
B
G
M
M
B
G
B
B
G
G
B
M
M
M
M
M
D
K
B
G
D
K
D
K
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
I
I
N
M
M
M
West Euro
Italian
JPN
West Euro
Amer
West Euro
Amer
Morocco
West Euro
NZ
West Euro
Amer
Amer
Amer
East Euro
West Euro
East Euro
East Euro
West Euro
West Euro
West Euro
West Euro
West Euro
Amer
Amer
Amer
Std.
Voltage and
Cycles (Hz)
230
50
50
127/220
100
50/60
220
50
100/200
60
240
50
125
60
127/220
50
50
220
230
50
220/230
50
110/115/120
60
220
60
110/115/220
50
220
50
220
50
220
50
127/220
50
230
50
127/220
50
220
50
220
50
240
50
220
50
117
60
120
60
155
9
CONVERSIONS & MISC. DATA
Basic Cable Theory...............................156
Conversion Factors................................162
Fiber Optics..........................................175
156 Basic Cable Theory
The Decibel
The decibel (dB) provides a means of representing large power
ratios as manageable, small numbers, and allows the overall gains
and losses in a module or a network to be calculated by addition
and subtraction, rather than by multiplication and division.
The original unit is the Bel (named after Alexander Graham Bell).
The decibel is one-tenth of a Bel. The power ratio of two power
measurements is calculated as follows:
Ratio of power P1 to power P2, in dB:
The power ratio of two voltage measurements is calculated as follows:
Power ratio of voltage V1 to voltage V2, in dB:
Voltage Confusion
dBmV and dBµV expressions of power contain an upper case V.
This does not mean they are expressions of voltage. They are
expressions of power. When all the power scales (dBm, dBmV and
dBµV) are laid next to each other, it is easy to see that each track
on a dB for dB basis.
Power Conversions
dBmV
A power measurement of ‘x dBmV’ indicates that a particular
signal is x dB greater than (‘above’) 1 millivolt in 75 ohms. A
negative dBmV value indicates that the signal is x dB less than
(‘below’) 1 millivolt in 75 ohms.
To convert x millivolts to dBmV:
dBµV
Similarly, a measurement of ‘x dBµV’ indicates that the signal is x
dB above one microvolt in 75 ohms.
To convert x microvolts to dBµV:
To convert dBmV to dBµV, add 60 to the dBmV reading:
dBm
A measurement of ‘x dBm’ indicates that a particular signal is x dB
greater than (‘above’) 1 milliwatt. A negative dBm value indicates
that the signal is x dB less than (‘below’) 1 milliwatt.
To convert x milliwatts to dBm:
157
158 Power Conversion
A power level, in dBmV, can be converted directly to power in
dBm, if the impedance, Z. is known:
To convert x dBmV directly to dBm:
The inverse operation is also possible if impedance is known:
To convert dBm directly to dBmV:
Impedance Mismatch
It frequently happens that the input impedance of a measuring
device (spectrum analyzer; field strength meter, etc.) does not match
the impedance of the system under test. In such a case, a correction
must be made to the reading displayed on the instrument.
Where Zi is the impedance of the instrument, and Zs is the
impedance of the system under test.
159
Table of Conversions
mV
dBmV
dbµV
dBm
1.9953
2.2387
2.5119
2.8184
3.1623
3.5481
3.9811
4.4668
5.0119
5.6234
6.3096
7.0795
7.9433
8.9125
10.0000
11.2202
12.5893
14.1254
15.8489
17.7828
19.9526
22.3872
25.1189
28.1838
31.6228
35.4813
39.8107
44.6684
50.1187
56.2341
63.0957
70.7946
79.4328
89.1251
100.0000
112.2018
125.8925
141.2538
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
-42.75
-41.75
-40.75
-39.75
-38.75
-37.75
-36.75
-35.75
-34.75
-33.75
-32.75
-31.75
-30.75
-29.75
-28.75
-27.75
-26.75
-25.75
-24.75
-23.75
-22.75
-21.75
-20.75
-19.75
-18.75
-17.75
-16.75
-15.75
-14.75
-13.75
-12.75
-11.75
-10.75
-9.75
-8.75
-7.75
-6.75
-5.75
dBmV
dbµV
dBm
158.4893 44
177.8279 45
199.5262 46
223.8721 47
251.1886 48
273.8420 48.75
281.8383 49
316.2278 50
354.8134 51
398.1072 52
446.6836 53
501.1872 54
562.3413 55
630.9573 56
707.9458 57
794.3282 58
891.2509 59
1000.0000 60
1122.0185 61
1258.9254 62
1412.5375 63
1584.8932 64
1778.2794 65
1995.2623 66
2238.7211 67
2511.8864 68
2818.3829 69
3162.2777 70
3548.1339 71
3981.0717 72
4466.8359 73
5011.8723 74
5623.4133 75
6309.5734 76
7079.4578 77
7943.2823 78
8912.5094 79
10000.0000 80
mV
104
105
106
107
108
108.75
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
-4.75
-3.75
-2.75
-1.75
-0.75
0
0.25
1.25
2.25
3.25
4.25
5.25
6.25
7.25
8.25
9.25
10.25
11.25
12.25
13.25
14.25
15.25
16.25
17.25
18.25
19.25
20.25
21.25
22.25
23.25
24.25
25.25
26.25
27.25
28.25
29.25
30.25
31.25
160 Return Loss, Reflection Coefficient, and
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
Return
Loss (dB)
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0
17.5
18.0
18.5
19.0
19.5
Reflec.
VSWR Return
Reflec.
VSWR
Coefficient (%)
Loss (dB)Coefficient (%)
100.00
20.0
10.00
1.222
94.41
34.753
20.5
9.44
1.208
89.13
17.391
21.0
8.91
1.196
84.14
11.610
21.5
8.41
1.184
79.43
8.724
22.0
7.94
1.173
74.99
6.997
22.5
7.50
1.162
70.79
5.848
23.0
7.08
1.152
66.83
5.030
23.5
6.68
1.143
63.10
4.419
24.0
6.31
1.135
59.57
3.946
24.5
5.96
1.127
56.23
3.570
25.0
5.62
1.119
53.09
3.263
25.5
5.31
1.112
50.12
3.010
26.0
5.01
1.106
47.32
2.796
26.5
4.73
1.099
44.67
2.615
27.0
4.47
1.094
42.17
2.458
27.5
4.22
1.088
39.81
2.323
28.0
3.98
1.083
37.58
2.204
28.5
3.76
1.078
35.48
2.100
29.0
3.55
1.074
33.50
2.007
29.5
3.35
1.069
31.62
1.925
30.0
3.16
1.065
29.85
1.851
30.5
2.99
1.062
28.18
1.785
31.0
2.82
1.058
26.61
1.725
31.5
2.66
1.055
25.12
1.671
32.0
2.51
1.052
23.71
1.622
32.5
2.37
1.049
22.39
1.577
33.0
2.24
1.046
21.13
1.536
33.5
2.11
1.043
19.95
1.499
34.0
2.00
1.041
18.84
1.464
34.5
1.88
1.038
17.78
1.433
35.0
1.78
1.036
16.79
1.404
35.5
1.68
1.034
15.85
1.377
36.0
1.58
1.032
14.96
1.352
36.5
1.50
1.030
14.13
1.329
37.0
1.41
1.029
13.34
1.308
37.5
1.33
1.027
12.59
1.288
38.0
1.26
1.025
11.89
1.270
38.5
1.19
1.024
11.22
1.253
39.0
1.12
1.023
10.59
1.237
39.5
1.06
1.021
Return Loss Ratio (RLR)
RLR (dB)
VSWR
Note: In a 75-Ohm transmission line.
161
162 Conversion Factors
Signal Levels
0 dBm
0 dBW
0 dBmV
=
=
=
+ 48.75 dBmV /75 ohms
+ 78.75 dBmV /75 ohms
60 dBµV
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
1/1,000
1/1,000,000
1/1,000,000,000
1/1,000,000,000,000
1,000
1,000,000
1,000,000,000
=
=
=
=
=
=
One Ton
3.415 Btu
746 Watts
14.6 pounds per square inch
(9/5 x °C) + 32
5/9 x (°F - 32)
Prefixes
milli (m)
micro (µ)
nano (n)
pica (p)
kilo (k)
mega (M)
giga (G)
Energy/Heat
12,000 BTU
1 Watt / hour
1 horsepower
1 atmosphere
°Fahrenheit
°CELSIUS
163
Volume
1 cubic yard
1 cubic inch
1 cubic meter
1 US gallon
1 US gallon
1 US gallon
1 liter
1 liter
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
27 cubic feet
16.38716 cubic centimeters
1.307943 cubic yards
3.7853 liters
128 fluid ounces
0.8327 Imperial Gallons
61.025 cubic inches
1000 cubic centimeters
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
16 ounces
453.592 grams
2.20462 pounds
1000 grams
2000 pounds
907.185 kilograms
2205 pounds
Weight
1 pound
1 pound
1 kilogram
1 kilogram
1 ton
1 ton
1 metric ton
164 Conversion Factors
Linear
1 mile
1 mile
1 kilometer
1 kilometer
1 kilometer
1 meter
1 meter
1 meter
1 centimeter
1 centimeter
1 millimeter
1 micron
1 foot
1 inch
1 inch
1 mil
1 micron
1 yard
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
5280 feet
1.60935 kilometers
3280.83 feet
0.621 miles
1000 meters
39.37 inches
3.281 feet
100 centimeters
10 millimeters
0.394 inches
1000 microns
1000 nanometers
30.48 centimeters
25.4 millimeters
1000 mils
25.4 microns
0.3937 mil
36 inches
165
Degrees, Fahrenheit to Celsius
F
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
9
-40 -40.0 -40.6 -41.1 -41.7 -42.2 -42.8 -43.3 -43.9 -44.4 -45.0
-30 -34.4 -35.0 -35.6 -36.1 -36.7 -37.2 -37.8 -38.3 -38.9 -39.4
-20 -28.9 -29.4 -30.0 -30.6 -31.1 -31.7 -32.2 -32.8 -33.3 -33.9
-10 -23.3 -23.9 -24.4 -25.0 -25.6 -26.1 -26.7 -27.2 -27.8 -28.3
0
+
0
-17.8 -18.3 -18.9 -19.4 -20.0 -20.6 -21.1 -21.7 -22.2 -22.8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-17.8 -17-.2 -16.7 -16.1 -15.6 -15.0 -14.4 -13.9 -13.3 -12.8
10 -12.2 -11.7 -11.1 -10.6 -10.0 -9.4 -8.9
-8.3
-7.8
-7.2
20
-6.7
-6.1
-5.6
-5.0
-4.4
-3.9 -3.3
-2.8
-2.2
-1.7
30
-1.1
-0.6
0.0
0.6
1.1
1.7
2.2
2.8
3.3
3.9
40
4.4
5.0
5.6
6.1
6.7
7.2
7.8
8.3
8.9
9.4
50 10.0 10.6 11.1 11.7 12.2
12.8 13.3
13.9
14.4 15.0
60 15.6 16.1 16.7 17.2 17.8
18.3 18.9
19.4
20.0 20.6
70 21.1 21.7 22.2 22.8 23.3
23.9 24.4
25.0
25.6 26.1
80 26.7 27.2 27.8 28.3 28.9
29.4 30.0
30.6
31.1 31.7
90 32.2 32.8 33.3 33.9 34.4
35.0 35.6
36.1
36.7 37.2
100 37.8 38.3 38.9 39.4 40.0
40.6 41.1
41.7
42.2 42.8
110 43.3 43.9 44.4 45.0 45.6
46.1 46.7
47.2
47.8 48.3
120 48.9 49.4 50.0 50.6 51.1
51.7 52.2
52.8
53.3 53.9
130 54.4 55.0 55.6 56.1 56.7
57.2 57.8
58.3
58.9 59.4
140 60.0 60.6 61.1 61.7 62.2
62.8 63.3
63.9
64.4 65.0
150 65.6 66.1 66.7 67.2 67.8
68.3 68.9
69.4
70.0 70.6
160 71.1 71.7 72.2 72.8 73.3
73.9 74.4
75.0
75.6 76.1
170 76.7 77.2 77.8 78.3 78.9
79.4 80.0
80.6
81.1 81.7
166 Conversion Factors
Ohm’s Law & Joule’s Law
Ohm’s Law
V = IR
V = voltage in volts
I = current in amperes
R = resistance in ohms
Joule’s Law
P = IV
P = power in watts
I = current in amperes
V = voltage in volts
Equations Summary of Ohm’s & Joule’s Laws
Ohms Law (1863)
A Law in Electricity: the strength of a direct current is directly
proportional to the potential difference and inversely proportional
to the resistance of the circuit (Georg Simon Ohm - 1870)
167
Miscellaneous Data & Constants
75 Ohm Attenuator Table & Equation
Loss
(dB)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
19.0
20.0
T-Attenuator
Resistor (Ohm)
a
b
2.16
1302.16
4.31
650.00
6.46
432.14
8.60
322.86
10.72
257.01
12.82
212.89
16.97
157.24
21.01
123.36
24.92
100.40
28.69
83.70
32.29
70.96
35.72
60.89
38.96
52.70
42.02
45.92
44.89
40.22
47.56
35.35
50.05
31.17
52.35
27.55
54.48
24.39
56.43
21.62
58.23
19.19
59.87
17.04
61.36
15.15
Pi-Attenuator
Resistor (Ohm)
c
d
2606.49
4.32
1304.32
8.65
870.75
13.02
654.32
17.42
524.75
21.89
438.60
26.42
331.46
35.77
267.73
45.60
225.71
56.03
196.09
67.20
174.21
79.27
157.49
92.38
144.37
106.73
133.87
122.49
125.32
139.87
118.27
159.11
112.39
180.46
107.44
204.21
103.25
230.67
99.67
260.18
96.60
293.15
93.96
330.01
91.67
371.25
168 75 Ohm Attenuator Table & Equations
The equations necessary to calculate the resistance values in ohms
for T and Pi pad Attenuators are as follows:
where:
n = loss in dB
z = impedance value in Ohm
To obtain resistance values at various impedances, simply
multiply the resistances by the impedance value.
Example:
Given n =
2.0, calculate
the resistance
values for a
75 Ohm
T-Attenuator:
Passive & Coaxial Cable Characteristics
Cable and Equalizer Formulas
1. Cable Loss Ratio
The ratio of cable attenuation at two frequencies is approximately
equal to the square root of the ratio of the two frequencies.
Example:To calculate the approximate cable loss at 55 MHz
when the loss at 450 MHz is 20 dB,
2. Tilt to Cable Loss
To convert tilt (differential in signal level between end frequencies
of the cable bandpass) to cable loss at the highest frequency:
Example:To calculate the cable loss at the highest frequency
when the measured tilt is 12 dB between 55 and
450 MHz
169
170 Cable and Equalizer Formulas
3. Equalizer Loss at any Frequency
To calculate the equalizer loss at any frequency, the following
formula may be used:
Example:To calculate the loss of an equalizer for 20 dB of cable
at 450 MHz at a frequency f1 of 55 MHz,
Cable Loss Conversion Chart
Use this chart to find a cable span’s attenuation at a new frequency if
you already know its attenuation at one frequency.
If you know the cable loss at f1 and want to find the corresponding loss
at a higher frequency f2 multiply the loss at f1 by the conversion factor.
The result is the cable loss at f2.
If you know the cable loss at f2 and want to find the corresponding loss
at a lower frequency f1 divide the loss at f2 by the conversion factor.
The result is the cable loss at f1.
f1
f2
f1
f2
(MHz) (MHz)
(MHz) (MHz)
220 270
1.108
400 440
1.049
220 300
1.168
400 500
1.118
220 330
1.225
400 550
1.173
220 400
1.348
400 600
1.225
220 440
1.414
400 750
1.369
220 500
1.508
400 860
1.466
220 550
1.581
400 1000
1.581
220 600
1.651
270 300
1.054
440 500
1.066
270 330
1.106
440 550
1.118
270 400
1.217
440 600
1.168
270 440
1.277
440 750
1.306
270 500
1.361
440 860
1.398
270 550
1.427
440 1000
1.508
270 600
1.491
300 330
1.049
500 550
1.049
300 400
1.155
500 600
1.095
300 440
1.211
500 750
1.225
300 500
1.291
500 860
1.311
300 550
1.354
500 1000
1.414
300 600
1.414
330 400
1.101
550 600
1.044
330 440
1.155
550 750
1.168
330 500
1.231
550 860
1.250
330 550
1.291
550 1000
1.348
330 600
1.348
1000 1250
1.118
330 750
1.508
1000 1500
1.225
330 860
1.614
1000 1750
1.323
330 1000
1.741
1000 2000
1.414
1000 2150
1.466
Example: If a cable span attenuates a 220 MHz signal by 10 dB, by how much will it
attenuate a 300 MHz signal?
Loss at 300 MHz = Loss at 220 MHz x conversion factor = 10 dB x 1.168 = 11.68 dB
171
172 Cable Loss and Temperature
This equation calculates the percentage of change in cable
attenuation (loss) caused by a temperature change:
% change in cable loss = 1.1% per 10° F
This equation calculates the change in cable loss in a span of cable,
expressed in dB.
change in cable loss (in dB) =
standard loss x % change in cable loss
Example: If the standard loss is 22 dB* when the temperature is
70°F and the temperature drops to -40°F, what is the change in
attenuation for that cable span?
1.
Determine the number of degrees of temperature change.
T = T2 - T1 = (-40°F) - 70°F = (-110° F)
Find the percent change in cable loss.
% change = 1% per 10°F x (-110°F)
= (1%/10°F) x (-110°F)
= - 11%
2.
3.
Find the dB change in the span’s loss.
Change in cable loss (in dB) = -11% x 22 dB
= -2.42 dB
So, if the span’s loss was 22 dB at 70°F it becomes
22 dB + (-2.42 dB) = 19.58 dB at -40°F.
Changes in cable loss accumulate over multiple cable spans
and can cause performance degradation if not controlled by
AGC/ASC units.
Typical Cable Attenuation Chart
in dB/100 Feet @ 68°F (20°C)
173
174 Directional Couplers Insertion Loss
Indoor
TAP
VALUE NO. OF
THRU-LINE
STOCK # (dB) OUTPUTS
LOSS (dB)
SRT-1
@450 MHz @1000 MHz
4.0
1940-4
4
4.5
3.5
1940-6
6
4.0
1.6
1940-9
9
2.0
1.5
1940-12
12
2.0
1
0.7
1940-16
16
1.5
0.7
1940-20
20
1.5
0.6
1940-24
24
1.5
0.6
1940-27
27
1.5
0.6
1940-30
30
1.5
SRT-2A
@450 MHz @1000 MHz
Terminated
1942-4
4
1942-8
8
3.2
3.5
1942-11
11
2.5
3.0
1942-14
14
1.2
2.2
1942-17
17
1.0
1.8
2
1942-20
20
0.9
1.2
1942-23
23
0.9
1.2
1942-26
26
0.7
1.2
1942-29
29
0.7
1.2
1942-32
32
0.7
1.2
@450 MHz @1000 MHz
SRT-4A
Terminated
1944-8
8
1944-11
11
3.8
4.4
1944-14
14
2.3
2.5
1944-17
1.5
17
2.0
1944-20
1.2
20
1.4
4
1944-23
23
1.0
1.2
1944-26
26
0.9
1.0
1944-29
29
0.8
1.0
1944-32
32
0.8
1.0
1944-35
35
0.8
1.0
@450 MHz @1000 MHz
SRT-8A
Terminated
1948-11
11
1948-14
14
3.8
4.3
1948-17
17
2.1
2.3
1948-20
20
1.3
1.8
1948-23
23
0.8
1.2
8
1948-26
26
0.7
1.0
1948-29
29
0.6
0.8
1948-32
32
0.6
0.8
1948-35
35
0.6
0.8
Outdoor
THRU-LINE
TAP
LOSS (dB)
MODEL
VALUE
STOCK NO.
(dB) @450 MHz @1000 MHz
Terminated
4
8
4.8
4.1
11
3.7
2.2
14
2.4
1.7
DMT-1000-2
17
2.2
1.4
#3852
20
1.5
1.0
23
1.5
1.0
26
1.5
1.0
29
1.5
1.0
32
1.5
1.0
35
1.5
1.0
Terminated
8
11
4.9
4.0
14
3.7
2.2
17
2.2
1.6
DMT-1000-4
20
2.0
1.3
#3854
23
1.8
1.2
26
1.5
1.0
29
1.5
1.1
32
1.5
1.2
35
1.5
1.2
Terminated
11
14
4.9
4.2
17
3.5
2.4
20
2.6
1.7
DMT-1000-8
23
2.2
1.3
#3858
26
1.5
1.2
29
1.5
1.2
32
1.5
1.2
35
1.5
1.2
THRU-LINE
TAP
LOSS (dB)
MODEL
VALUE
STOCK NO.
(dB) @450 MHz @1000 MHz
TL-PI-1000
N/A
1.2
1.5
#3850
3.2
2.9
8
TLS-1000
2.2
1.2
12
#3851
2.2
1.2
16
TLS-1000-2
4.6
5.7
N/A
#3855
TLS-1000-3
7.0
9.0
N/A
#3856
TLS-1000-3U
5.0/8.5
6.0/9.2
N/A
#3857
(unbalanced)
Please refer to the Blonder Tongue catalog for more detailed specifications common to
indoor and outdoor passives.
175
Fiber Optics
Siecor MIC™ Cable Fiber Identification Guide
(SOLID)
1 -1O
1 Blue
2 Orange
3 Green
4 Brown
5 Slate
6 White
7 Red
8 Black
9 Yellow
10 Violet
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
(DASHED)
11 -20
Blue + Black Dash
Orange+ Black Dash
Green+ Black Dash
Brown+ Black Dash
Slate+ Black Dash
White+ Black Dash
Red+ Black Dash
Black+ White Dash
Yellow+ Black Dash
Violet+ Black Dash
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
(STRIPED)
21-30
Blue + Black Stripe
Orange+ Black Stripe
Green+ Black Stripe
Brown+ Black Stripe
Slate+ Black Stripe
White+ Black Stripe
Red+ Black Stripe
Black+ White Stripe
Yellow+ Black Stripe
Violet+ Black Stripe
Standard Single Mode Fiber
Wavelength
1310 nm
1550 nm
Attenuation
0.35 dB/km
0.24 dB/km
Dispersion
3 ps/(nm•km)
19 ps/(nm•km)
Wavelength Division Multiplexers (WDM)
Wavelengths
Bandpass
Insertion Loss
Directivity
1310/1550 nm
+ 20 nm
< 0.5 dB
≥ 60 dB
Amphenol Optical Connectors
Insertion Loss
Back Reflection
SC-FC/APC
≤ 0.3 dB
≤ -65 dB
Super SC-FC/PC
≤ .15 dB
≤ -45 dB
176 Fiber Optics
Converting MW to DBM
Use the conversion table below, to convert milliwatts (mW) to
decibel milliwatts (dBm).
mW
dBm
mW
dBm
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
-10.0
-6.99
-5.23
-3.97
-3.00
-2.20
-1.55
-0.96
-0.45
0.00
0.41
0.79
1.14
1.46
1.76
2.04
2.30
2.55
2.79
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
19.0
20.0
3.01
4.77
6.02
6.99
7.78
8.45
9.03
9.54
10.00
10.41
10.79
11.14
11.46
11.76
12.04
12.30
12.55
12.79
13.01
177
Optical Coupler Design Tool
Coupler Ports
Ratio
Loss (dB)
1x2
50/50
3.6/3.6
40/60
4.7/2.7
30/70
6.0/1.9
20/80
7.9/1.2
10/90
11.3/0.6
5/95
15.1/0.5
Coupler Ports
Ratio
Loss (dB)
33/33/33
6.0/6.0/6.0
40/30/30
4.7/6.4/6.4
50/25/25
3.6/7.3/7.3
60/20/20
2.7/8.4/8.4
70/15/15
1.9/9.6/9.6
80/10/10
1.2/11.3/11.3
Ratio
Loss (dB)
25% per port
7.3 per port
1x3
Coupler Ports
1x4
Coupler Ports
1x6
Coupler Ports
1x8
Ratio
Loss (dB)
16.6% per port
9.7 per port
Ratio
Loss (dB)
12.5% per port
10.8 per port
179
10
FCC RULES
FCC Highlights.....................................180
FCC Rules.............................................188
180 Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
!
This section is a summary of FCC specifications that CATV systems
are required to meet. This section was created so technicians and
engineers could have a ready reference at their fingertips.
All specifications in this handbook were taken from Title 47
Telecommunications, part 76.605 from the FCC. It spells out the
rule, standard, number of channels to be tested, frequency of testing, and equipment needed to perform each test.
The intention of this section is to summarize FCC specifications it is
not intended to replace them. Consult the current editions of all
specifications and regulations for complete and detailed requirements.
Aeronautical Operational Requirements
Frequency Offsets
All carrier signals or signal components carried at an average power
level equal to or greater than 10-4 watts in a 25 kHz bandwidth
in any 160 microseconds period must operate at frequencies offset from certain frequencies which may be used by aeronautical
radio services operated by FCC licensees or by the United States
Government or its Agencies. The following table summarizes the
frequency offset requirements.
Frequency Offsets
Frequency Band(Standard and IRC)
Offset
Tolerance
118-137, 225-325.6 and 335.4-400 MHz
12.5 kHz
±5 kHz
108-118 and 328.6-335.4 MHz
25.0 kHz
±5 kHz
For Harmonically Related Carrier (HRC) systems, the fundamental
frequency from which the visual carrier frequencies are derived
should be a multiple of 6.0003 MHz ±1 Hz
http://www.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Cable/WWW/aeronaut.html
181
Aeronautical Frequency Notifications
Cable operators planning to use the frequencies in the
communications and navigational frequency bands must notify the
FCC prior to the activation of these frequencies. The aeronautical
operational requirements in the aeronautical bands are contained
in 47 CFR Sections 76.610-76.616. Each notification shall include
an FCC Form 159.
❏ Legal name and local address of the cable television operator;
❏The names and FCC identifiers (e.g. CA0001) of the system
communities affected;
❏The names and telephone numbers of local system officials
who are responsible for compliance with 76.610, 76.611, and
76.612 through 76.616 of the rules;
❏Carrier and subcarrier frequencies and tolerance, type of
modulation and the maximum average power levels of all
carriers and subcarriers occurring at any location in the cable
distribution system;
❏The geographical coordinates of a point near the center of the
cable system, together with the distance (in kilometers) from
the designated point to the most remote point of the cable
plant, existing or planned, which defines a circle enclosing the
entire cable plant;
❏A description of the routine monitoring procedure to be used;
❏The cumulative leakage index derived under 76.611 (a)
(1) or the results of airspace measurements derived under
76.611 (a)(2), including a description of the method by which
compliance with the basic signal leakage criteria is achieved
and the method of calibrating the measurement equipment.
Use FCC Form 320 to submit the results.
182 Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
Visual Carrier Center Frequency
Tolerance: aeronautical channels ± 5 KHz indicated by asterisk.
For all other channels no specific tolerance indicated by FCC.
Good engineering practice ± 10 KHz for non broadcast. Local
VHF broadcasts carried “on channel” should be zero frequency
tolerance. See Option 14 in Section 1.
Rule
76.605 (a)(2) Aural Carrier Center Frequency
Standard4.5 MHz 5 kHz at subscriber terminal
& out put of modulating or processing
equipment
Number Of Channels 4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel for
every 100 MHz or fractional increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSpectrum analyzer, frequency counter, or
automated testing system
Rule
76.605 (a)(3) Minimum Visual Carrier Level
Standard0 dBmV at subscriber terminal and
3.0 dBmV at end of 100 ft. drop cable
connected to tap
Number Of Channels All NTSC or similar video channels
Frequency Of Testing Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSLM system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,
or automated test system
183
Rule
76.605 (a)(4)
Visual Carrier Level 24 Hour Variation
StandardNot to vary more than 8 dB within any
six month interval (measured before the
converter)
Number Of Channels
All NTSC or similar video channels
Frequency Of TestingIn July/August and January/February, 1
test each channel every 6 hours for each
24 hour test
Type Of EquipmentSLM, system analyzer, spectrum
analyzer, or automated test system
Rule
76.605 (a)(4)(i) Maximum Signal Level
of Adjacent Channel
StandardWithin 3 dB of any visual carrier within
6 MHz
Number Of Channels
All NTSC or similar video channels
Frequency Of TestingIn July/August and January/February, 1
test each channel every 6 hours for each
24 hour test
Type Of EquipmentSLM system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,
or automated test system
184 Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
Rule
76.605 (a) (4) (ii)
Minimum/Maximum Bandwidth
Standard Within 10 dB of the visual signal on any
other channel on a cable system of up
to 300 MHz. A 1 dB increase in level
separation for each additional 100 MHz
of bandwidth
11 dB for a 400 MHz System
12 dB for a 500 MHz System
13 dB for a 600 MHz System
Number Of Channels
All NTSC or similar video channels
Frequency Of TestingIn July/August and January/February, 1
test each channel every 6 hours for each
24 hour test
Type Of EquipmentSLM, system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,
or automated test system
Rule
76.605 (a) (4) (iii) Maximum Visual
Standard A maximum level that will not overload
the subscribers terminal or receiver
Number Of Channels
All NTSC or similar video channels
Frequency Of Testing
Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSLM, system analyzer, spectrum
analyzer, or automated test system
185
Rule
76.605 (a)(5) Aural Carrier Level
Standard10 dB to 17 dB below the associated
visual signal level. Baseband converter:
6.5 dB to 17 dB below the associated
visual-signal level
Number Of Channels
All NTSC or similar video channels
Frequency Of Testing
Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSLM system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,
or automated test system
Rule
76.605 (a)(6) Amplitude Characteristic
of a Single CATV Channel
Standard± 2 dB from -0.75 MHz to 5.0 MHz from
the channels bottom boundary at tap and
before converter (prior to Dec. 30, 1999)
above lower boundary frequency of CATV
channel (referenced to average of the
highest and lowest amplitudes)
Number Of Channels
4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel for
every 100 MHz or fractional increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSweep transmitter/receiver, spectrum
analyzer, or automated test system
186 Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
Rule
Standard
76.605 (a)(7)(ii) Carrier to Noise (C/N)
76.605 (a)(7)(iii) Carrier to Noise (C/N)
Carrier to noise shall not be less than:
1) 40 dB (June 30,1993-June 30, 1995)
2) 43 dB (As of July 1,1995)
Number Of Channels4 channels minimum, + 1 channel for
every 100 MHz or fractional increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSLM system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,
or automated test system
Rule
76.605 (a)(8)(i)
Visual Signal-to-Coherent Beats
StandardNot less than 51 dB for non-coherent
(standard) CATV systems Or not less
than 47 dB for coherent (HRC/IRC)
CATV systems
Number Of Channels4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel for every 100 MHz or fractional
increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing
Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSLM system analyzer, spectrum
analyzer, or automated test system
187
Rule
76.605 (a)(9)(i)(ii) Terminal Isolation
Standard
Not less than 18 dB (manufacturer’s
specification) and sufficient to prevent
subscriber-caused terminal reflections
Number Of Channels4 channel minimum, plus 1 channel
for every 100 MHz or fractional
increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing
Two times per year
Type Of Equipment
Manufacturer’s specifications
Rule
76.605 (a)(10) Hum
StandardNot to exceed 3% of visual signal
level
Number Of ChannelsOnly on a single channel with a single
unmodulated carrier
Frequency Of Testing
Two times per year Testing
Type Of EquipmentSLM system analyzer, spectrum
analyzer, or automated test system
188 FCC Rules
Cumulative Leakage Index
Cumulative Leakage Index (CLI), also referred to as a “figure
of merit” measurement, is a method for assessing the leakage
integrity of a cable plant. The cable operator demonstrates
compliance with a cumulative signal leakage index by showing
either that:
using either:
where:
r
ø
R
E
n
and where:
=Distance in meters (m) between the leakage source and
the center of the cable system.
=Fraction of the system cable length actually examined for
leakage sources. The fraction is equal to the strand miles
tested divided by total strand miles.
=Slant height distance (m) from leakage source i to a point
3,000 meters above the center of the cable system.
=Electric field strength in microvolts per meter (µV/m)
measured 3 meters from leak i.
=Number of leaks found with a field strength ≥ 50 µV/m.
189
Cumulative Leakage Index - continued
The following formula may be substituted to determine the CLI
figure of merit. Compliance is attained if the formula yields a figure
of merit less than or equal to 64.
where:
Mp =
Md =
n
=
L
=
k
=
Total Plant Miles (miles)
Total Plant Miles Driven (miles)
Number of leaks with the same level
Level of the leak in microvolts per meter (µV/m)
Number of different levels
Example:Given the following information about a cable system, determine the CLI.
Mp = Total plant miles = 1500 miles
Md = Plant miles driven = 1350 miles
Number of leaks and level of each in µV/m =
n1 = 300 leaks @ L1 = 50 µV/m
n2 = 30 leaks @ L2 = 100 µV/m
n3 = 3 leaks @ L3 = 450 µV/m
Sum of:
niLi2 +
n2L22 +
n3L32 =
(300 x 50 x 50) + (30 x 100 x 100) + (3 x 450 x 450) =
750000 +
300000 +
607500 =
1657500
CLI =
=
=
10 log (1.11 x 1657500)
10 log (1839825)
62.65 ≤ 64
190 FCC Rules
Maximum Leakage Levels
The following table gives the maximum leakage levels at the given
channels and voltage level.
CH#
T-7
T-8
T-9
T-10
T-11
T-12
T-13
2
3
4
5
6
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
23
24
Visual 20 µV/M
Carrier
(dBmV)
7.0000
-17.33
13.0000 -22.70
19.0000 -26.00
25.0000 -28.38
31.0000 -30.25
37.0000 -31.79
43.0000 -33.09
55.2500 -35.27
61.2500 -36.17
67.2500 -36.98
77.2500 -38.18
83.2500 -38.83
121.2625 -42.10
127.2625 -42.52
133.2625 -42.92
139.2500 -43.30
145.2500 -43.67
151.2500 -44.02
157.2500 -44.36
163.2500 -44.68
169.2500 -44.99
175.2500 -45.30
181.2500 -45.59
187.2500 -45.87
193.2500 -46.15
199.2500 -46.41
205.2500 -46.67
211.2500 -46.92
217.2500 -47.16
223.2500 -47.40
50 µV/m
(dBmV) CH#
-9.37
25
-14.74
26
-18.04
27
-20.42
28
-22.29
29
-23.83
30
-25.13
31
-27.31
32
-28.21
33
-29.02
34
-30.22
35
-30.87
36
-34.14
37
-34.56
38
-34.96
39
-35.34
40
-35.71
41
-36.06
42
-36.40
43
-36.72
44
-37.04
45
-37.34
46
-37.63
47
-37.91
48
-38.19
49
-38.45
50
-38.71
51
-38.96
52
-39.20
53
-39.44
54
Visual
20 µV/M
Carrier
(dBmV)
229.2625 -47.63
235.2625 -47.85
241.2625 -48.07
247.2625 -48.29
253.2625 -48.50
259.2625 -48.70
265.2625 -48.90
271.2625 -49.09
277.2625 -49.28
283.2625 -49.47
289.2625 -49.65
295.2625 -49.83
301.2625 -50.00
307.2625 -50.17
313.2625 -50.34
319.2625 -50.51
325.2625 -50.67
331.2625 -50.83
337.2625 -50.98
343.2625 -51.14
349.2625 -51.29
355.2625 -51.43
361.2625 -51.58
367.2625 -51.72
373.2625 -51.86
379.2625 -52.00
385.2625 -52.14
391.2625 -52.27
397.2625 -52.41
403.2500 -52.54
50 µV/m
(dBmV)
-39.67
-39.90
-40.11
-40.33
-40.54
-40.74
-40.94
-41.13
-41.32
-41.51
-41.69
-41.87
-42.04
-42.22
-42.38
-42.55
-42.71
-42.87
-43.02
-43.18
-43.33
-43.48
-43.62
-43.76
-43.91
-44.04
-44.18
-44.31
-44.45
-44.58
191
Maximum Leakage Levels - continued
CH.
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
Visual 20 µV/M
Carrier (dBmV)
409.2500 -52.66
415.2500 -52.79
421.2500 -52.91
427.2500 -53.04
433.2500 -53.16
439.2500 -53.28
445.2500 -53.40
451.2500 -53.51
457.2500 -53.63
463.2500 -53.74
469.2500 -53.85
475.2500 -53.96
481.2500 -54.07
487.2500 -54.18
493.2500 -54.29
499.2500 -54.39
505.2500 -54.49
511.2500 -54.60
517.2500 -54.70
523.2500 -54.80
529.2500 -54.90
535.2500 -54.99
541.2500 -55.09
547.2500 -55.19
553.2500 -55.28
559.2500 -55.38
565.2500 -55.47
571.2500 -55.56
577.2500 -55.65
583.2500 -55.74
589.2500 -55.83
595.2500 -55.92
601.2500 -56.00
50 µV/m
(dBmV) CH.
-44.70
88
-44.83
89
-44.96
90
-45.08
91
-45.20
92
-45.32
93
-45.44
94
-45.55 100
-45.67 101
-45.78 102
-45.89 103
-46.00 104
-46.11 105
-46.22 106
-46.33 107
-46.43 108
-46.54 109
-46.64 110
-46.74 111
-46.84 112
-46.94 113
-47.04 114
-47.13 115
-47.23 116
-47.32 117
-47.42 118
-47.51 119
-47.60 120
-47.69 121
-47.78 122
-47.87 123
-47.96 124
-48.05 125
Visual 20 µV/M
Carrier (dBmV)
607.2500 -56.09
613.2500 -56.18
619.2500 -56.26
625.2500 -56.34
631.2500 -56.43
637.2500 -56.51
643.2500 -56.59
649.2500 -56.67
655.2500 -56.75
661.2500 -56.83
667.2500 -56.91
673.2500 -56.99
679.2500 -57.06
685.2500 -57.14
691.2500 -57.22
697.2500 -57.29
703.2500 -57.37
709.2500 -57.44
715.2500 -57.51
721.2500 -57.59
727.2500 -57.66
733.2500 -57.73
739.2500 -57.80
745.2500 -57.87
751.2500 -57.94
757.2500 -58.01
763.2500 -58.08
769.2500 -58.15
775.2500 -58.21
781.2500 -58.28
787.2500 -58.35
793.2500 -58.41
799.2500 -58.48
50 µV/m
(dBmV)
-48.13
-48.22
-48.30
-48.39
-48.47
-48.55
-48.63
-48.71
-48.79
-48.87
-48.95
-49.03
-49.11
-49.18
-49.26
-49.33
-49.41
-49.48
-49.55
-49.63
-49.70
-49.77
-49.84
-49.91
-49.98
-50.05
-50.12
-50.19
-50.25
-50.32
-50.39
-50.45
-50.52
192 FCC Rules
Maximum Leakage Levels - continued
CH.
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
Visual
20 µV/m 50 µV/m
Carrier
(dBmV) (dBmV) CH.
805.2500 -58.54 -50.58 143
811.2500 -58.61 -50.65 144
817.2500 -58.67 -50.71 145
823.2500 -58.73 -50.78 146
829.2500 -58.80 -50.84 147
835.2500 -58.86 -50.90 148
841.2500 -58.92 -50.96 149
847.2500 -58.98 -51.03 150
853.2500 -59.05 -51.09 151
859.2500 -59.11 -51.15 152
865.2500 -59.17 -51.21 153
871.2500 -59.23 -51.27 154
877.2500 -59.29 -51.33 155
883.2500 -59.35 -51.39 156
889.2500 -59.40 -51.45 157
895.2500 -59.46 -51.50 158
901.2500 -59.52 -51.56
Visual 20 µV/M
Carrier
(dBmV)
907.2500 -59.58
913.2500 -59.64
919.2500 -51.73
925.2500 -59.75
931.2500 -59.81
937.2500 -59.86
943.2500 -59.92
949.2500 -59.97
955.2500 -60.03
961.2500 -60.08
967.2500 -60.13
973.2500 -60.19
979.2500 -60.24
985.2500 -60.29
991.2500 -60.35
997.2500 -60.40
50 µV/m
(dBmV)
-51.62
-51.68
-51.73
-51.79
-51.85
-51.90
-51.96
-52.01
-52.07
-52.12
-52.18
-52.23
-52.28
-52.34
-52.39
-52.44
Determine the maximum leakage levels by using the following equation:
where:
ƒ
L =
E =
ƒ =
Maximum leakage level (dBmV)
Voltage
Visual Carrier Frequency (MHz)
Step 1
Convert dBmV to µV.
Use tables in Section 6 to convert dBmV to mV. Multiply mV by
1000 to set µV.
Step 2
Convert µV to µV/m.
Multiply µV times frequency (in MHz) times .021
193
Common CATV Symbols.......................194
Common IPTV Symbols........................196
CATV & IPTV Acronyms........................198
Basic Glossary of CATV & IPTV Terms...230
Useful Websites and Publications..........235
11
SYMBOLS & ACRONYMS
194 Common CATV Symbols
Common CATV Symbols
195
196 Common IPTV Symbols
Common IPTV Symbols
197
198 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
1xRTT
Single
Carrier Radio
Transmission
Technology
3DES
Triple Data
Encryption
Standard
3DTV
Three
Dimensional
Television
3G
3rd Generation
3GPP
Third Generation
Partnership
Project
4C
Consortium
of Intel, IBM,
Matsushita, and
Toshiba
5C
Consortium
of Intel, Sony,
Matsushita,
Toshiba, and
Hitachi
A/D
Analog to Digital
A/D/A
Analog to Digital
to Analog
A/O
Additional Outlet
A/V
Audio/Video
AAA
Authentication,
Authorization,
and Accounting
AAAA
American
Association of
Advertising
Agencies
AAC
Advanced Audio
Codec
ADI
Asynchronous
Digital Interface
AAC
Advanced Audio
Compression
Ad-ID
AdvertisingDigital Interface
AACS
Advanced Access
Content System
ADM
ABSBH
Average Busy
Season Busy Hour
Add/Drop
Multiplexing
Administration
ADSL
Asymmetric
Digital
Subscriber Line
AC
Access Category
AC
Alternating Current
AES
AC_BE
Access Category
– Best Effort
Advanced
Encryption Standard
AF
Assured Forwarding
AC_BK
Access Category
– BacKground
AFF
Adaptive Field/
Frame
AC_VI
Access Category
– VIdeo
AGC
Automatic Gain
Control
AC_VO
Access Category
– VOice
AGW
Access Gateway
AI
Artificial Intelligence
AIFS
Advanced
Component
Exchange
Arbitration
InterFrame Space
AIN
Advanced
Intelligent Network
ACK
Acknowledge
AIS
ACL
Access Control List
Alarm Indication
Signal
ACL
Applications
Connection-Less
AIT
Application
Information Table
ACM
Adaptive Coding
and Modulation
AKA
Authentication and
Key Agreement
AD
Activity Detection
ALG
Application Layer
Gateway
ADI
Asset Distribution
Interface
AM
Amplitude
Modulation
AC-3
ACE
Audio Coding
Revision 3
199
AM
Application Manager
APON
AMA
Automatic
Message
Accounting
ATM-based
Passive Optical
Network
Apps
Applications
AMOL
Automated
Measurement Of
Lineup
APS
Automatic
Protection
Switching
A-MPDU
Aggregated MAC
(Media Access
Control) Protocol
Data Unit
APSK
Amplitude Phase
Shift Keying
ARCNET
Attached Resource
Computer Network
AMS
Asset
Management
System
ARDP
Advanced Return
Path Modulator
ARF
Advertising Research
Foundation and
Businesses
ANA
Association
of National
Advertisers
ASI
Asynchronous
Serial Interface
AsiaPac
Asia Pacific
ASIC
ApplicationSpecific
Integrated Circuit
ASM
Asset
Management
System
ASP
Advanced
Streaming Profile
ASP
Average Selling
Price
ASR
Access Switch Router
ASTB
Advanced SetTop Box
ASTD
American Society
for Training and
Development
ANC
Announcement
ANF
Aggregate Noise
Factor
ARIN
American Registry of
Internet Numbers
ANP
Announcement
Player
ARP
Address Resolution
Protocol
AT
Advanced
Technology
ANSI
American National
Standards Institute
ARPU
Average Revenue
per Unit (or User)
ATA
Advanced
Technology
Attachment
AOD
Advertising On
Demand
AS
Application Server
ATDMA
ASAP
As Soon As Possible
ASCII
American
Standard Code
for Information
Interchange
Asynchronous
Time Division
Multiple Access
ATM
Asynchronous
Transfer Mode
ATSC
Advanced Television
Systems Committee
AoR
Address of Record
AP
Audio Processor
AP
Automatic Power
APD
Avalanche Photo
Diode
API
Application
Programming
Interface
ASF
ASF
Advanced
Streaming
Format
Advanced
Systems Format
ATTN
Attenuator
AUP
Acceptable Use
Policy
200 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
AV
Audio/Video
AV
Audiovisual
AVC
Advanced Video
Coding
AVI
Advanced Video
Interface
BDR
Baseband Digital
Reverse
Bit Error Rate
BERT
Bit Error Rate Test
BPF
Band-Pass Filter
BFS
Broadcast File
System
BPI
Baseline Privacy
Interface
BFT
Broadcast File
Transfer
BPI+
Baseline Privacy
Interface Plus
BGCF
Breakout
Gateway Control
Function
BPL
Broadband over
Power Line
B-PON
Broadband
Passive Optical
Network
bps
Bits Per Second
BRAS
Broadband
Remote Access
Server
Abstract Window
Toolkit
B2B
Business to
Business
B2BUA
Back-to-Back
User Agent
BGP
Border Gateway
Protocol
B2C
Business to
Consumer
BICSI
Building Industry
Consulting
Services
Bellcore AMA
Format
BB
Baseband
BB
Broadband
BC
Broadcast
BC/NC
Broadcast/
Narrowcast
BC-BS
BackwardsCompatible
Broadcast Services
Bridge Protocol
Data Unit
BER
AWT
BAF
Boundary Point
BPDU
Best Effort
Additive White
Gaussian Noise
Behavioral
Aggregate
Bootstrap Protocol
BP
BE
AWGN
BA
BOOTP
BIF
Binary Interchange
Format
bits/
sym
Bits per Symbol
BIU
BMS
BRI
Basic Rate Interface
BRI
Brand Rating
Index
Broadband
Interface Unit
BRS
Broadband Radio
Service
Business
Management
System
BS
Broadcast Services
BSAM
Basic Sequential
Access Method
BSAM
Broadband
Services Access
Multiplexer
BNC
Broadcast Network
BNN
Bit-Error-Rate in
the Noise Notch
BCID
Billing Correlation
Identifier
BoD
Broadcast on
Demand
BSC
Base Station
BDF
Broadband
Digital Forward
BOM
Bill of Material
BSCC
Broadcast Stream
Client Connector
201
BSS
Basic Service Set
CAN
Business Support
System
Cellular Access
Network
CCI
BSS
Copy Control
Information
Canitec
Base Transceiver
Station
Camara Nacional
de la Industria
Television por Cable
CCK
BTS
Complimentary
Code Keying
CCM
BTS
Business Telecom
Services
CapEx
Capital
Expenditure
Channel Change
Message
CCM
BTSC
Broadcast Television
Systems Committee
CAPMAN
Capacity
Management
Constant Coding
and Modulation
CCNR
BTU/hr
British Thermal
Unit Per Hour
CAS
Conditional
Access Server
Completion of
Calls No Reply
CCS
BW
Bandwidth
CAS
Conditional
Access System
Centum Call
Seconds
BYOI
Bring Your Own
Infrastructure
CAT
Conditional
Access Table
Carrier-to-Noise
Ratio
CAT5
Category 5
CATV
Community
Antenna Television
(or Cable Television)
CB
Channel Bonding
CB
Citizen Band
CBR
C/N
CA
Call Agent
CA
Conditional Access
CA
Content Archive
CAB
Cable Advertising
Bureau
CCS
Control Compact Disc
CD
Chromatic
Dispersion
CD
Compact Disc
CDC
Changed Data
Capture
CDC
Connected
Device
Configuration
Constant Bit Rate
CDL
Code DownLoad
CAC
Call Admission
Control
CBT
Computer Based
Testing (or Training)
CDMA
Code Division
Multiple Access
CAD
Computer Aided
Design
CC
Closed Caption
CDN
CCA
Circuit Card
Assembly
Content Delivery
Network
CDP
CCCM
CPE Controlled
Cable Modem
Cisco Discovery
Protocol
CDR
Call Detail Record
CCDF
Complementary
Cumulative
Distribution Function
CD-ROM
Compact Disk-Read
Only Memory
CDT
Carrier Definition
Table
CALA
CALEA
CAM
Central America
and Latin America
Communications
Assistance for Law
Enforcement Act
Content
Addressable
Memory
202 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
CE
Consumer
Electronics
CIN
Call Indentity
Number
CE
Customer
Equipment
CINIT
CEA
Consumer
Electronics
Association
CEBus
Consumer
Electronic Bus
CEO
Chief Executive
Officer
CEP
Cable Entry Point
CEPCA
Consumer
Electronics Powerline
Communication
Alliance
CMOS
Centro de
Investigacion e
Innovacion en
Telecomunicaciones
Complimentary
Metal-Oxide
Semiconductor
CMS
Call
Management
Server
CIR
Committed
Information Rate
CMTS
CLASS
Custom Local
Area Signaling
Services
Cable Modem
Termination
System
CNAM
Calling NAMe
CNIR
Carrier-to-Noise/
Ingress Ratio
CNR
Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
CNR
Chronic NonResponder
CO
Central Office
CODEC
Coder/Decoder
COFDM
Coded Orthogonal
Frequency Division
Multiplexing
CLDC
Connection
Limited Device
Configuration
CLE
Customer
Located
Equipment
Common Local
Echange Carrier
CER
Codeword Error Ratio
CLEC
CES
Circuit Emulation
Service
CLI
Command Line
Interface
CFO
Chief Financial
Officer
CLI
Cumulative
Leakage Index
COLD
CFP
Contention Free
Periods
Central Office
Layout Design
CLR
CableHome™
Common
Language Runtime
COPS
CH
Common Open
Policy Service
Ch
Channel
CLV
Classless Inter
Domain Routing
Consumer
Lifetime Value
CORBA
CIDR
Common Object
Request Broker
Architecture
CM
Cable Modem
CoS
Class of Service
CIF
Common Image
Format
CMCI
COT
Central Office
Terminal
CIFS
Common Internet
File System
CM (Cable Modem)
To CPE (Customer
Premises Equipment)
Interface
CMLA
Copy Protection
Common
Information Model
Content
Management License
Administrator
CP
CIM
CPD
Common Path
Distortion
203
CPE
Customer
Premises
Equipment
CPM
CPMS
CPPM
CPRM
CPTWG
CPU
CR-LDP
Cost per
Thousand
Impressions
Constraintbased Label
Distribution
Protocol
CRM
Copy Protection
Management
System
Customer
Relationship
Management
CSA
Copy Protection
for Prerecorded
Media
Common
Scrambling
Algorithim
CSCF
Content
Protection for
Recordable Media
Copy Protection
Technical
Working Group
Central
Processing Unit
CSV
Comma
Separated Value
CTAM
Cable &
Telecommunications
Association for
Marketing
CTB
Composite Triple
Beat
CTIA
Call State/Session
Control(ler)
Function
Cellular
Telecommunications
& Internet
Association
CTO
CSH
Central Switch
Homerun
Chief Technology
Officer
CVCT
CSMA/
CA
Carrier Sense
Multiple Access
with Collision
Avoidance
Cable Virtual
Channel Table
CW
Codeword
CW
Continuous Wave
CSMA/
CD
Carrier Sense
Multiple Access
with Collision
Detection
CWDM
Coarse
Wavelength
Division
Multiplexing
CWM
Common
Warehouse
Metamodel
D&B
Dun & Bradstreet
CQoS
CableHome™
Quality of Service
CQP
CableHome™
QoS Portal
CSO
Composite
Second Order
CRA
Contention
Resolution Algorithm
CSR
Customer Service
Representative
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy
Check
CS-RZ
CarrierSuppressed
Return-to-Zero
D/E
Decrypt/Extract
DA
Destination Address
CSS
Content
Scrambling
System
DAB
Digital Audio
Broadcast
DAC
CSU/
DSU
Channel Service
Unit/Data
Service Unit
Descrambler
Authorization
Center
DAC
Digital Addressable
CRC
CRG
CRL
Cyclic
Redundancy
Check
CableHome™
Residential
Gateway
Certificate
Revocation List
204 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
DAC
Digital to Analog
Converter
DANIS
Digital Addressable
Network Interface
System
DARPA
Defense Advanced
Research Projects
Agency
DAS
DASE
Direct Attached
Storage;
Distributed
Antenna System
Digital TV Application
Software Environment
DAT
Digital Audio Tape
DAT
DOCSIS® Settop Gateway
Address Table
DAVIC
Digital Audio
Visual Council
DB
Database
DC
Directional Coupler
DCR
Digital Cable Ready
DC
Dispersion
Compensator
DCS
Digital Crossconnect System
DCA
Digital Cable
Application
DCT
DCAPMAN
Dynamic Capacity
Management
Digital
Communications
(Cable) Terminal
DCT
DCAS
Downloadable
Conditional
Access System
Discrete Cosine
Transform
DCT
Discrete Cosine
Transform
DCC
Data
Communication
Channel
DCC
Dynamic
Channel Change
DCD
Disconnection Delay
DCD
Downstream
Channel
Descriptor
DE
Default
DeCSS
Defeat Content
Scrambling
System
DEM
DigiCipher Even
Manager
DENI
Digital
Entertainment
Networking
Initiative
dB
Decibel
DCE
Data Circuit
Comm Equipment
DES
dBc
Decibel Referenced
to the Carrier
DCF
Data Encryption
Standard
DES
dBFS
Decibel Below
Full Scale
Dispersion
Compensating
Fiber
dBm
Decibel milliwatt
DF
Delivery Function
dBmV
Decibel milliVolt
Distributed
Coordination
Function
Digital
Encryption
Standard
DFAST
DBPSK
Differential
Binary Phase
Shift Keying
Dynamic Feedback
Arrangement
Scrambling
Technique
DFB
Distributed
Feedback
DHCP
Dynamic Host
Configuration
Protocol
DBS
Direct Broadcast
Satellite
DC
DigiCipher®
DC
Direct Current
DCF
DCII
DigiCipher® II
DCM
Dispersion
Compensation
Module
DCP
Device Control Protocol
DCP
Digital Convergence
Platform
205
DHEI
DigiCable
Headend
Expansion
Interface
DMIF
Delivery
Multimedia
Integration
Framework
DHWG
Digital Home
Working Group
DML
DiffServ
Differentiated
Services
Direct Modulated
Distributed
Feedback Laser
DNCS
Digital Network
Control System
Div
Division
DIX
DEC-Intel-Xerox
DLCI
Data Link
Connection Identifier
DRAM
Dynamic Random
Access Memory
DRC
Dynamic Range
Control
DRM
Digital Rights
Management
DS
Downstream
DS0
Digital Signal 0 (zero)
DSA
Dynamic Service
Addition
DSCP
Differentiated
Service Code Point
DNS
Domain Name
System
DOA
Dead on Arrival
DOCSIS Diagnostic
Program
DSE
Data-Over-Cable
Service Interface
Specifications
Digital Service
Encoder
DSG
DOCSIS® Settop Gateway
DLL
Data Link Layer
DOCS
DIAG
DLNA
Digital Living
Network Alliance
DOCSIS®
DLS
Down Load Server
DM
Degraded Modem
DOCSIS
-RFI
DOCSIS® Radio
Frequency Interface
DSL
DM
Demodulator
Digital
Subscriber Line
DoD
DM
Device Manager
Department of
Defense
DSLAM
DoS
Denial of Service
Digital Subscriber
Line Access
Multiplexer
DPI
Digital Program
Insertion
DSM
Digital Storage
Media, DNCS
Session Manager
DSMCC
Digital Storage
Medium Command
& Control
DSMCC
UN Digital Storage
Media Command
and Control Userto-Network
®
DM
Dispersion
Mitigation
DMA
Designated
Marketing Area
DPON
DMB
Digital
Multimedia
Broadcasting
Deep-Fiber Passive
Optical Network
DPSK
Differential Phase
Shift Keying
DMC
Dual Modem
Cards
DPT
Dynamic Packet
Transport
DMCA
Digital Millennium
Copyright Act
DQoS
Dynamic Quality
of Service
DSP
Digital Signal
Processing
DMH
Degraded
Modem Hours
DQPSK
Differential Quadrature
Phase Shift Keying
DSP
Digital Signal
Processor
206 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
DSR
Digital Satellite
Receiver
DVBDSNG
DSSS
Direct
Sequencing
Spread Spectrum
DVB (Digital Video
Broadcast) Digital
Satellite News
Gathering
DVB-H
DVB Handheld
DVBRCS
DVB (Digital
Video Broadcast)
Return Channel
via Satellite
DSTB
Digital Set-top Box
DS-UWB
Direct Sequence
Ultra-WideBand
DS-x
Digital Signal (level)
DSx
Dynamic Service
Change
DTCP
Digital
Transmission
Content Protection
DTCP/5C
Digital Transmission
Content Protection/5
Companies
DTD
Dial Tone Delay
DTE
Data Terminal
Equipment
DTH
Direct To Home
DTMF
Dual Tone Multifrequency
DVS
Digital Video
Subcommittee
DWDM
Dense
Wavelength
Division
Multiplex
E/I
Encrypt/Insert
EA-DFB
Electro-Absorption
Modulator Integrated
Distributed Feedback
Laser
EAP
Extensible
Authentication
Protocol
EAS
Emergency Alert
System
eBIF
Enhanced Binary
Interchange
Format
EBITDA
Earnings Before
Interest, Taxes,
Depreciation,
and Amortization
DVB-S
DVB (Digital
Video Broadcast
Standard
DVB-S
DVB Satellite
DVB-T
DVB Terrestial
DVC
Digital Video
Compressor
DVD
Digital Versatile
Disc
DVD+R
Recordable
Digital Versatile
Disc
DVD+
RW
Rewritable Digital
Versatile Disc
ECC
DVD
CCA
Digital Versatile
Disc Copy Control
Association
Encryption
Control Center
eCM
Embedded Cable
Modem
DTV
Digital Television
DUN
Dial-Up Networking
DVI
Device Under
Test
Display Visual
Interface
ECM
DUT
Entitlement
Control Message
DVNR
Digital Video
Broadcast
Digital Vision
Noise Reducer
ECR
DVB
Efficient Consumer
Response
DVR
DVB (Digital
Video Broadcast)
Asynchronous
Serial Interface
Digital Video
Recorder
ECR
DVBASI
Engineering
Change Request
DVS
Digital Video
Standard
EDC
Electronic
Dispersion
Compensator
207
EDCA
Enhanced
Distributed
Channel Access
EDFA
Erbium Doped
Fiber Amplifier
EDGE
Enhanced Data
Rates for Global
Evolution
Embedded
Data-Over-Cable
Service Interface
Specifications
EIRP
Effective Isotropic
Radiated Power
EoS
EIS/SCS
Event Information
Scheduler/
SimulCrypt
Synchronizer
EP
End Point
EPG
Electronic
Program Guide
Ethernet Line
Aggregation
EPL
Ethernet Private Line
EPON
Ethernet Passive
Optical Network
EPRI
Electric Power
Research
Institute
EPROM
Electrically
Readable
Programmable
Read Only Memory
ELA
E-LSP
EXP-Inferred-PSC
Label Switch
Path
EM
Element Manager
EMC
Encoder Monitor
and Control
EMEA
Europe, Middle
East and Asia
Expedited
Forwarding
EMI
Electro-Magnetic
Interference
EFM
Ethernet in the
First Mile
EML
Externally
Modulated Laser
EFMS
Error Free
Milliseconds
EMM
EFS
Error Free Seconds
Entitlement
Management
Message
EHDR
Extended Header
EMS
EIA
Electronics Industry
Association
Element
Management
System
eMTA
Embedded
Multimedia
Terminal Adapter
eDOCSIS™
EEPROM
EF
EIC
Electronically
Erasable
Programmable
Read Only
Memory
Entertainment,
Information, and
Communications
EIGRP
Enhanced
Interior Gateway
Routing Protocol
EIR
Excess
Information Rate
ENDEC
Encode/Decode
ENUM
Electronic
Numbering
E-O
Electrical-Optical
EoD
Everything on Demand
Ethernet over
SONET
EQAM
Edge QAM
ER
Edge Router
ERIM
Erasmus Research
Institute of
Management
ERM
Edge Resource
Manager
ERS
Encryption
Renewal System
ES
Errored Seconds
ES
Exclusive Session
ESC
Embedded
Signaling Channel
ESCON
Enterprise
System
Connection
ESF
Extended
SuperFrame
208 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
ES
Errored Seconds
ExCCI
Extended CC
FF
Fast Forward
ES
Exclusive Session
EX-MOD
FFT
ESC
Embedded
Signaling
Channel
Externally
Modulated
Fast Fourier
Transform
EXP
Experimental
FGPS
FastE
Fast Ethernet
FEC, Guard
time, Preamble,
Stuffing bytes
FHCS
Fragment
Header Check
Sequence
FHSS
Frequency
Hopping Spread
Spectrum
FICON
Fiber Connection
ESCON
Enterprise System
Connection
FAT
File Allocation Table
ESF
Extended
SuperFrame
FBI
Federal Bureau
of Investigation
ESM
EOD Server Manager
FC
Fiber Channel
ESP
Encapsulating
Security Payload
FC-AL
Fiber Channel –
Arbitrated Loop
ETS
Event Trigger
System
FCC
Federal
Communications
Commission
FIFO
First In First Out
FLR
Frame Loss Ratio
FCP
Fibre Channel Protocol
FM
FCRC
Fragment Cyclic
Redundancy
Check
Frequency
Modulation
FN
Fiber Node
FOADM
Fixed Filter
Optical Add/
Drop Multiplexer
FOD
Free on Demand
FOSC
Final Draft
International
Standard
Fiber Optic
Splice Closure
FP
Fabry-Perot
Face Description
FPM
FEC and Packet
Multiplexer
FQDN
Fully Qualified
Domain Name
FR
Frame Relay
FRAG
Fragmentation
ETSI
European
Telecommunication
Standards Institute
ETTH
Ethernet To The Home
ETTx
Ethernet To The
x (end point)
eTV
Enhanced Television
EVC
Ethernet Virtual
Circuit
EV-DO
Evolution-Data Only
EVM
Error Vector
Magnitude
EVPL
Ethernet Virtual
Private Line
EVPLAN
Ethernet Virtual Private
Local Area Network
EXC
Electronic Cross
Connect
FDD
Frequency
Division Duplexed
FDDI
Fiberoptic Digital
Data Interface
FDIS
FDP
FE
Fast Ethernet
FEC
Forward Error
Correction
FEC
Forwarding
Equivalence
Class
209
FSCWDM
Full Spectrum
– Coarse
Wave Division
Multiplexing
GBIC
Module
GNT
Gbps
Gigabits per Second
GOP
Group of Pictures
GC
Gateway
GPI
GCR
Group
Configuration
Request
General Purpose
Interface
G-PON
Gigabit Passive
Optical Network
GPRS
General Packet
Radio Service
GPS
Global Positioning
System
GQoS
Generic Quality
of Service
FSN
Full Service Network
FSO
Free Space Optical
FTA
Free to Air
GDV
Group Delay Variation
FTP
File Transfer
Protocol
GE
Gigabit Ethernet
FTTB
Fiber to the Business
GEM
Globally
Executable MHP
FTTC
Fiber to the Curb
GFL
Group Flow Label
FTTH
Fiber to the Home
GFP
FTTN
Fiber to the Node
Generalized
Framing Procedure
FTTP
Fiber to the Premises
FTTU
Fiber to the User
FTTx
Fiber to the (endpoint)
FW
Firewall
FWM
Four-Wave Mixing
FXS
Grant
GR
Generic Requirement
GRE
Generic Routing
Encapsulation
GRM
Global Resource
Manager
GRX
GPRS (General
Packet Radio
Service) Roaming
eXchange
GS
Global Server
GSM
Global System
for Mobile
communications
GSMA
Global System
for Mobile
communications
Association
GFP-F
Generic Framing
Procedure-Framed
GFP-T
Generic Framing
Procedure-Transparent
GFP-T
Transparent
Generalized
Framing Procedure
Foreign
eXchange Station
GGSN
Gateway GPRS
Support Node
Go2BroadbandSM
GHz
Gigahertz
GaAs
Gallium Arsenide
GigE
Gigabit Ethernet
GARP
Generic Attribute
Registration Protocol
GIGO
Garbage In,
Garbage Out
GB
Gigabyte
GIS
GB/s
Gigabits per Second
Geographic
Information
System
GSRM
GbE
Gigabit Ethernet
GMPLS
Global System
Resource
Manager
GBIC
Gigabit Interface
Converter
Generalized
MultiProtocol
Label Switching
GTP
GPRS Tunneling
Protocol
G2B
210 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
GUI
Graphical User
Interface
HDD
High Definition
Decoder
HIT
Headend
Interface Terminal
GVRP
GARP VLAN
Registration
Protocol
HDE
High Definition
Encoder
HITS
Headend In The Sky
HLR
HDLC
Gateway
High Level Data
Link Control
Home Location
Register
GW
HMAC
GWC
Gateway
HDMI
keyed-Hashing
for Message
Authentication Code
H&S
Hub and Spoke
High Definition
Multimedia
Interface
HMS
HAN
Home Area Network
HD-PLC
HAVi
Home Audio Video
Interoperability
High Definitionready Powerline
Communications
Headend
Management
System
HMS
Home Media Server
HCCA
Hybrid
Coordination
function controlled
Channel Access
HDR
Header
HMS
HDT
Host Digital
Terminal
Hybrid Management
Sub-layer
HN
Home Network
HDTV
High Definition
Television
H-Net
Home Network
HNv1
Home
Networking
Version 1
HOD
HBO On Demand
HOM
High-Order
Modulation
Home
PNA™
Home Phoneline
Networking
Alliance
Homes Passed
HCF
Hybrid Coordination
Function
HCM
Hardware Control
Message
HCRP
Hard Copy Cable
Replacement
HDVOD
High-Definition
Video on Demand
HE
Headend
HEC
Headend Cable
HEM
Headend Modem
HCS
Header Check
Sequence
HF
High Frequency
HCT
Headend
Configuration Tool
HFC
Hybrid Fiber/Coax
HD
Hardware
HGW
Home Gateway
HP
HD
High Definition
HH
HouseHold
HPF
High Pass Filter
HDBH
High-Day Busy Hour
HHP
Households Passed
HPLMN
Home Public Land
Mobile Network
HDCP
High-bandwidth
Digital Content
Protection
HHR
Half Horizontal
Resolution
HPNA
Home Phoneline
Networking Alliance
Hi-PHY
HDD
Hard Disk Drive
High Performance
Physical Layer
HPOV
Hewlitt Packard
Open View
211
HQ
High Quality
HVS
Human Vision System
HRC
Harmonically
Related Carriers
Hz
Hertz
HSA
High Speed Access
HSCI
High Speed
Cable Interface
HSD
High Speed Data
HSDPA
High Speed Downlink
Packet Access
I/O
Input/Output
IAG
Interactive Advertising
Guidelines
IAMS
Intelligent Asset
Management System
IANA
Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority
In-Band
IDE
Integrated
Development
Environment
IDE
Integrated
Device
Electronics
iDEN
integrated
Digital Enhanced
Network
IDS
Intrusion Detection
System
IDT
Integrated Digital
Terminal
IEC
International
Electrotechnical
Commission
HSE
HD Service Encoder
IB
HSI
High-Speed Internet
ICB
Independent
Customer Builds
HSP
Headset Profile
ICC
HSRP
Hot Standby
Router Protocol
Instant Channel
Change
ICE
Home Subscriber
Server
Information &
Content Exchange
IEEE
HSS
Institute of Electrical
and Electronics
Engineers
ICE
Inter Chip Encryption
HSS/
HLR
High Speed Serial/
Home Location Register
IEEE-SA
ICMP
Internet Control
Message Protocol
HSUPA
High Speed Uplink
Packet Access
Institute of Electrical
and Electronics
Engineers Standards
Association
ICO
Incumbent Cable
Operator
IETF
Internet Engineering
Task Force
HTML
Hyper Text
Markup Language
i-CSCF
Home Theatre
Personal Computer
InterrogatingCall State
Control Function
IF
HTPC
Intermediate
Frequency
i-CSCF
Initial First Cost
Hyper Text
Transfer Protocol
IGMP
Internet Group
Multicast Protocol
HVAC
Heating, Ventilation,
and Air Conditioning
Interrogating-Call
State/Session
Control(ler)
Function
IFC
HTTP
IGRP
ID
Identifier
Interior Gateway
Routing Protocol
HVAC
High Voltage
Alternating Current
IDC
International
Data Group Inc.
IKE
Internet Key Exchange
HD Video Compressor
ILEC
IDCT
Incumbent Local
Exchange Carrier
HVC
Inverse Discrete
Cosine Transform
212 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
ILMI
Interim Link
Management
Interface
IM
Instant Messaging
IMD
Intermodulation
Distortion
IPM
Intelligent Policy
Management
IPMP
Intellectual Property
Management &
Protection
IPPV
Impulse Pay Per View
IPRM
IP Rights
Management
System
IMS
IP Multimedia
Subsystem
INA
Interactive
Network Adaptor
IPSec
Internet Protocol
Security
I-NET
Institutional
Network
IPTA
INP
Input
Internet Protocol
Transport
Agreement
ISA
Interactive
Service
Architecture
iSCSI
Internet Small
Computer
System Interface
ISDB
Integrated
Service Digital
Broadcast
ISDB-T
Integrated
Services Digital
Broadcasting
-Terrestrial
ISDN
Integrated
Services Digital
Network
IPTV
Internet Protocol
Television
ISI
IPv4
Internet Protocol
version 4
Inter-Symbol
Interference
IS-IS
Internet Protocol
IR
Infrared
IPAT
Internet Protocol
Access Terminal
IRD
Integrated
Receiver/Decoder
Intermediate
System-toIntermediate
System
ISM
IP-CAN
Internet Protocol
Cellular Access
Network
IRI
Industrial
Reporting Inc
Industrial
Scientific Medical
ISMS
IRR
Internal Rate of
Return
Integrated Service
Management
System
IRT
Integrated
Receiver/
Transcoder
ISO
International
Organization for
Standardization
ISP
Inside Plant
ISP
Internet Service
Provider
ISTP
Internet
Signaling
Transport
Protocol
INA
Interface Adaptor
INT
International
IntServ
Integrated Services
IP
IPCDN
IP over Cable
Data Network
IPDR
Internet Protocol
Detail Record
IPDT
Internet Protocol
Digital Terminal
IRTDBG
Integrated Receiver
Transmitter
DeBuG
IPG
Interactive
Program Guide
IS
Information Systems
IPG
Inter-Packet Gap
IS
International
Standard
213
ISUP
Integrated Services
Digital Network
User Part
JCP
Java Community Process
ksym/s
Kilosymbols Per Second
JMF
Java Medium
Framework
ksym/
sec
Kilosymbols Per Second
KTTA
Korean
Telecommunications
Technology
Association
ISV
Independent
Software Vendor
JND
IT
Information
Technology
Just Noticeable
Difference
JNI
Java Native Interface
ITA
Interactive
Television
Association
JPEG
Joint
Photographic
Experts Group
International
Telecommunications
Union
JSR
ITU
ITU-T
International
Telecommunication
Union Telecommunication
Standardization
Sector
Java Specification
Request
kVA
1000 Volt Amperes
kW
Kilowatt
l
Current
L/R
Left/Right
JTA
Job Task Analysis
L2
Level 2
JVM
Java Virtual Machine
L2TP
JVT
Java Vision Toolkit
Layer-2
Tunneling
Protocol
L2TPv3
Layer-2
Tunneling
Protocol
Version 3
LAeq
Long-term
A-weighted
loudness
EQuivalent
JVT
Joint Video Team
iTV
Interactive Television
k
Kilo = 1000
IUC
Interval Usage Code
kB
Kilobyte
IVR
Interactive Voice
Response
kb/s
Kilobits per Second
kbps
Kilobits per Second
KDC
Key Distribution
Center
LAN
Local Area
Network
LATA
Local Access and
Transport Area
LC
Local Convergence
LCAS
Link Capacity
Adjustment
Scheme
LCC
Life-Cycle Cost
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
IVRM
Intelligent
Video Resource
Manager
IWF
Internetworking
Function
KDCF
Korea Digital
Cable Forum
IWF
InterWorking
Function
kHz
Kilohertz
IXC
Interexchange
Carrier
KLS
Key List Server
km
Kilometer
KP
Kernel Processor
KSA
Knowledge, Skills
& Abilities
IXP
J2ME
Internet Exchange
Provider
Java2 MicroEdition
214 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
LCP
Local Convergence
Point
LMP
Link Management
Protocol
M/U
Modulator/
Upconverter
LCS
Line Code Signaling
LNB
M3UA
LD
Long Distance
Low Noise Blockdownconverter
MTP-3 User
Adaptation
LDAP
Lightweight
Directory Access
Protocol
LNP
Local Number
Portability
MAC
Media Access Control
MACD
Moves, Adds,
Changes, Deletes
MAN
Metropolitan
Area Network
MAP
Main Audio
Program
MAS
MPEG-Aware
Switch
MB
Megabyte
Mb/s
Megabits per
Second
MB/s
Megabytes per
Second
MB-AFF
Macro Block Adaptive
Frame/Field
LO
Local Origination
LOADM
Lightweight
Optical Add/
Drop Multiplexer
LDP
Label Distribution
Protocol
LDPC
Low Density
Parity Check
LOS
Line Of Sight
LDS
Local Digital Switch
LOS
Loss of Signal
LEC
Local Exchange
Carrier
LovSAN
a.k.a The Blaster Worm
LED
Light Emitting Diode
LP
Long Play
LEN
Length
LEO
Low Earth Orbit
LER
Label Edge Router
LF
Low Frequency
LFA
Long Format
Advertising
LH
DWDM
Long Haul Dense
Wave Division
Multiplex
LLC
Logical Link Control
L-LSP
Label-OnlyInferred-PSC LSP
LMDS
Local Multipoint
Distribution Service
LMI
Link Management
Interface
LPCM
Linear Pulse
Code Modulation
LRU
Least Recently
Used
LSB
Least Significant Byte
LSP
Label Switched Path
Mbaud
Megabaud
LSP
Legacy Set-top Profile
LSR
Label Switch Router
Mbits/
sec
Megabits per
Second
LTC
Longitudinal
Time Code
MBOA
MultiBand
OFDM Alliance
LTS
Long Term
Storage
MBOFDM
LUA
Last User Activity
Multiband
Orthogonal
Frequency Domain
Modulation
LVI
Low Voltage
Integrator
Mbps
Megabits per
Second
LWP
Low Water Peak
MBps
MegaByte per
Second
215
MBS
Mission Bit Stream
MC
Motion Compensation
M-
Modular Cable Modem
Termination System
CMTS
MC-PC
Media Center
Personal Computers
MCPC
Multiple Channel
Per Carrier
MCTF
Motion
Compensated
Temporal Filtering
MDA
Message-Digest
Algorithm
MDA
Model Driven
Architecture
MDR
MGCF
Media Gateway
Control(ler) Function
MOS
MGCP
Media Gateway
Control Protocol
MP
Media Player
[email protected]
Main Profile @
High Level
MP3
MPEG-2 Layer 3
MPAA
Motion Picture
Association of
America
MPBGP
MultiProtocol
Border Gateway
Protocol
MPC
Media Player
MPDU
MAC (Media
Access Control)
Protocol Data Unit
MGW
Media GateWay
MHP
Multimedia
Home Platform
MHz
Megahertz
MIB
Management
Information Base
MIDP
Mobile Information
Device Profile
MIMO
Multiple Input,
Multiple Output
Mean Opinion
Score
MIP
Mobile IP
Mobile Digital
Recorder
MIPS
Million Instructions
Per Second
MPE
Multi Protocol
Encapsulation
MDU
Multiple Dwelling Unit
[email protected]
MP
Main Level @
Main Profile
MPEG
mDVR
Multi-TV Digital
Video Recorder
Moving Pictures
Expert Group
MLD
Multicast Listener
Discovery
MEMS
Micro-ElectroMechanical
Systems
MPEGTS
MM
Multimedia
Moving Pictures
Expert Group
Transport Stream
MMD
Multipoint Microwave
Distribution
MPLS
Multiprotocol
Label Switching
MMI
Man Machine Interface
MPS
Modular
Processing System
MMT
Modulation
Mode Table
MPTS
Multiple Program
Transport Stream
MEN
Metro Ethernet
Network
MER
Modulation Error Ratio
MF
Multifield
MF
Multifrequency
MOCA
Multimedia Over
Coax Alliance
MPTSTE
MPLS – Traffic
Engineering
MG
Media Gateway
Control(ler)
MOD
Movies on Demand
MQ
Medium Quality
Media Gateway
MOF
Meta Object Facility
M-QAM
M-ary Quadrature
Amplitude Modulation
MGC
216 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
MRFC
Multimedia
Resource Function
MTBF
Mean Time
Between Failures
NASS
Network Access
Attachment Function(s)
MRFP
Multimedia Resource
Function Processor
MTP-3
Message Transfer
Part Level 3
NAT
Network Address
Translation
MRTG
Multi Router
Traffic Grapher
MTTF
Mean-Time-To-Failure
NBC-BS
MTTR
Mean Time- To- Repair
Non BackwardsCompatible
Broadcast Services
MTTU
Mean Time to
Understand
NBI
Northbound
Interface
MS
Master Server
ms
Millisecond
MSA300
Standard 10
Gigabit Ethernet
Connector
MUX
Multiplexer
NC
Network
MV
Motion Vector
NCM
Next Century Media
MSB
Most Significant Byte
MVNO
NCS
Network Control System
MSC
Mobile Switching
Center
Mobile Virtual
Network Operator
NCS
MVoD
Network-based
Call Signaling
MSE
Multi-Standard
Encoder
Mobile Video on
Demand
NCTA
MVP
Multi-View Profile
National Cable &
Telecommunications
Association
msec
Millisecond
MZ
Mach-Zehnder
NDA
MSFT
Microsoft Corporation
NABTS
Non-Disclosure
Agreement
MSN
Microsoft Network
North American
Broadcast Teletext
Standard
NDE
MSO
Multiple System
Operator
NANPA
North American
Numbering Plan
Administration
Network
Dimensioning
Engine
NDMH
MSPP
Multi-Service
Provisioning Platform
NAP
Network Access Point
Non-Degraded
Modem Hours
Mega-Symbols
per Second
NAPT
Network Address &
Protocol Translation
NDVR
Msps
Network Digital
Video Recording
National
Authorization Service
Network Element
Multi-Standard
Receiver
NAS
NE
MSR
NEBS
MSRP
Manufacturer’s
Suggested Retail Price
NAS
Network
Attached Storage
Network
Equipment
Building System
MTA
Multimedia
Terminal Adapter
NASRAC
National Authorization
Service–Regional
Access
NEMA
National
Electrical
Manufactures
Association
217
NEMS
Network Element
Management
System
NIST
National Institute
of Standards and
Technology
nRTP
Non Real-time
Transport
Protocol
NETBIOS
Network Version
of Basic Input/
Output System
NIT
Network
Information Table
nrtPS
Non-Real Time
Polling Service
NIU
Network Interface Unit
NRVC
NF
Noise Figure
Noise Reduction
Video Compression
NLOS
Non-Line of Sight
NFS
Network File System
nm
Nanometer
NRZ
NG STB
Next Generation
Set-Top Box
NonReturn to
Zero
NMS
Network
Management System
ns
Nanosecond
NG-L1
Next Generation Layer 1
NSI
Network Side
Interface
NGN
Next Generation
Network
NSP
Network Service
Provider
NGNA
Next Generation
Network Architecture
NTIA
NGO
Non-Government
Organization
National
Telecommunications
and Information
Administration
ngOSS
Next Generation
Operations
Support System
NTP
Network Time
Protocol
NTS
Near Term
Storage
NTSC
National
Television System
Committee
ngSONET
Next Generation
Synchronous
Optical NETwork
NI
Network Interface
NIC
Network
Interface Card
NID
Network
Interface Device
NIM
Network
Interface Module
NIS
Network Infrastructure
Solutions
NNI
Network-Network
Interface
NNOC
National Network
Operations Center
NNTP
Network News
Transfer Protocol
NOC
Network
Operations Center
NP
Number Portability
NPAC
Number Portability
Administration
Center
NPR
Noise Power Ratio
NPT
Network
Performance Tool
NTSC
nPVR
Network-based
Personal Video
Recorder
National
Television System
Committee
NVM
Non-Volatile
Memory
NVOD
Near Video-OnDemand
NW
Network
NRSS
Network
Renewable
Security Standard
NRTC
National Rural
Telecommunications
Cooperative
218 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
O/E
OADM
OAM
OAM&P
OCAP
OC-CC
OC-CFR
Optical Signal-toElectrical Signal
Conversion
Optical Add/
Drop Multiplexer
Operations,
Administration, &
Maintenance
Operations,
Administration,
Maintenance &
Provisioning
OpenCable™
Application
Platform
OpenCable™
CableCARD™
OCn
OCSP
Online Certificate
Status Protocol
Office of Cable
Signal Theft
Optical-toElectrical-to-Optical
OEPL
Optical Ethernet
Private Line
OEPLAN
Optical Ethernet
Private Local
Area Network
OEVPL
Optical Ethernet
Virtual Private Line
OEV
PLAN
Optical Ethernet
Virtual Private
Local Area
Network
OFC
OFDM
OpenCable™ Core Functional
Requirements
Optical Carrier (level)
OCST
O-E-O
Optical Fiber
Communication
Orthogonal
Frequency
Division
Multiplexing
OH
Overhead
OIU
Organizationally
Unique Identifier
OJT
On-The-Job Training
OLT
Optical Line Terminal
OOK
On-Off-Keying
OOO
Optical-OpticalOptical
OpEx
Operations
Expenditure
OpLT
Optical Line
Termination
OpTN
Optical Transport
Network
ORX
Optical Receiver
OS
Operating System
OSA
Open Service Access
OSC
Optical Supervisory
Channel
OSD
On-Screen Display
OSGi
Open Services
Gateway
Initiative
OSI
Open Systems
Interconnect
OSMINE
Operations
Systems
Modification for
the Integration of
Network Elements
OC-x
Optical Carrier (level)
OM
ODA
Outlet Digital
Adapter
Out of Band
Modulator
OMA
Open Mobile Alliance
OSNR
Optical Signal-toNoise Ratio
ODRL
Open Digital
Rights Language
OMG
Object Management
Group
OSP
Outside Plant
OE
Optical Ethernet
ONDS
Optical Node
Distribution Switch
OSPF
Open Shortest
Path First
O-E
Optical-Electrical
ONT
Original Equipment
Manufacturer
Optical Network
Termination
OSS
OEM
Operational
Support System
OOB
Out-of-Band
OSSI
OSS Interface
219
OSW
OTDR
Optical Switch
Optical Time
Domain
Reflectometer
PBP
Personal Basis Profile
PDG
Packet Data Gateway
PBR
Policy Based Routing
PDH
PBX
Private Branch
Exchange
Plesiochronous
Digital Hierarchy
PDI
Path Defect Indicator
OTN
Optical Transition Node
PC
PacketCable™
PDL
OTU-N
Optical Transport Unit
PC
Polarization
Dependent Loss
OTX
Optical Transmitter
Personal
Computer
PDP
PCI
Peripheral
Component
Interconnect
Policy Decision
Point
OUI
OWG
Organizationally
Unique Identifier
OnRamp
Working Group
OXC
Optical Cross Connect
P2P
Peer to Peer
P2P
Point to Point
PACM
Provisioning,
Activation,
Configuration &
Management
PEG
Public, Education,
Government
PEP
Policy Enforcement
Point
PER
Packet Error Rate
PES
Packetized
Elementary Stream
PESQ
Perceptual Evaluation
of Speech Quality
PCMCIA
Personal
Computer
Memory Card
PCMM
PacketCable™
Multimedia
PCR
Peak Cell Rate
PCR
Program Clock
Reference
PCS
Personal
Communications
System
PHB
Per-hop Behavior
P-CSCF
Proxy-Call
State/Session
Control(ler)
Function
PHS
Payload Header
Suppression
PHY
Physical (layer)
Personal Digital
Assistant
PID
Packet Identifier
PID
Program Identifier
PIM
Protocol Independent
Multicast
PIM-SM
Protocol Independent
Multicast – Sparse
Mode
PAN
Personal Area
Network
PAR
Project
Authorization
Request
PARM
Parameter
PAT
Port Address
Termination
PDA
Program Association
Table
PDD
Post-dial Delay
PDF
Policy Distribution
Function
PDF
Probability Density
Function
Personal
Broadband
Industry
Association
Polarization
Dependent
Wavelength
Pulse Code
Modulation
Phase Alternating Line
PBIA
Protocol Data Unit
PDW
PCM
PAL
PAT
PDU
220 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
PIN
PIN
PING
Personal Identification
Number
Positive-IntrinsicNegative
Packet Internet
Gopher
PIP
Picture In Picture
PKI
Public Key
Infrastructure
PKT
Packet
PL
PLC
Packet Loss
Packet Loss
Concealment
PN
Program Number
PRBS
PNA
Phone Network
Alliance
Pseudo-Random
Bits Stream
PRCF
Positioning Radio
Coordination Function
PO
Purchase Order
POD
Point of
Deployment
POH
Path Overhead
PON
Passive Optical
Network
POP
Point Of Presence
POP3
Post Office
Protocol 3
POS
PRI
Primary Rate Interface
PRM
Polarization
Recovery Module
PRNG
Pseudo Random
Number Generators
PRV
Privacy
PS
Policy Server
PS
Portal Services
Packet Over SONET
PS
Power Supply
Provisioning
Server
PLC
Powerline
Communications
POTS
Plain Old
Telephone Service
PS
PLMN
Public Land
Mobile Network
POTS
Plain Old
Telephone System
PSA
PacketCable
Service Agreement
PLT
Powerline
Telecommunications
PPD
Post-pickup Delay
PSI
Performance
Monitoring
PPE
Programmable
Processing Element
Program Specific
Information
PM
PSIP
PMB
Permanent
Message Buffer
PPP
Point-to-Point
Protocol
Program & System
Information Protocol
PSK
Phase Shift Keying
PMD
Polarization
Mode Dispersion
PPPoA
PPP over ATM
PSK
PreShared Key
PPPoE
Point-to-Point Protocol
over Ethernet
PSNR
Peak Signal to
Noise Ratio
PPT
Power Passing Tap
PSP
PPTP
Point-to-Point
Tunneling Protocol
Packet Streaming
Protocol
PSP
PPV
Pay per View
Packet Success
Probability
PRBS
Pseudo-Random
Binary Sequence
PSQ
Packet Streaming
Queue
PMI
Packet Multiplex
Interface
PMK
Pairwise Master Key
PML
Packet Multiplex
Link
PMP
Point to MultiPoint
PMT
Program Map Table
221
PSQM
Perceptual
Spec Quality
Measurement
QFM
QoS prioritized
Forwarding and
Media Access
PSTN
Public Switched
Telephone
Network
QL
Quantization Level
QL/BR
PSTN
Public Switched
Telephone
Network
PTK
RAP
Resource
Allocation Protocol
RARP
Reverse Address
Resolution Protocol
Quantization
Level/Bit Rate
RBOC
Regional Bell
Operating Company
QLP
Quantization
Level Processor
RBW
Resolution Bandwidth
RCA
Root Cause Analysis
Pairwise
Temporal Key
QoE
Quality of
Experience
RCV
Receiver
PTS
Program
Transport Stream
QOS
Quality of Service
RDI
Remote Defect
Indicator
QPSK
PTT
Postal, Telegraph
& Telephone
Quadrature Phase
Shift Keying
ReTP
Real Time Protocol
Rear-Chassis
Output Module
PTV
PowerTV
PVC
Permanent
Virtual Circuit
PVC
Private Virtual
Circuit
PVR
Research and
Development
R.H.
Relative Humidity
REL
Rights Expression
Language
RACF
Resource Access
Control Facility
REQ
Request
RACS
Resource &
Admission Control
Function(s)
ResApp
Resident Application
RF
Radio Frequency
RFC
Request for
Comment
RFP
Request for
Proposal
Personal Video
Recorder
RADD
Remote Addressable
DANIS/DLS
RADIUS
Remote Authentication
Dial-in User Service
RAID
Redundant Array Of
Inexpensive Disks
RG
Residential
Gateway
QoS Characteristics
Management Client
RAM
Random Access
Memory
RIAA
Recording Industry
Association of
America
QoS Characteristics
Management Server
RAN
Radio Access Network
RIM
RAP
Regional Access
Point
Rear-Chassis
Input Module
RIN
Relative Intensity
Noise
PWE3
Pseudo-Wire
End-to-End
Working Group
QAM
Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation
QBP
QoS Boundary Point
QCC
QCS
QEF
R&D
ReCOM
Quasi-Error Free
222 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
RIP
Routing Information
Protocol
RSA
Rivest-Shawir-Adleman
(crypto algorithm)
S/IMP
Signal-to-Impulse
Ratio
RISC
Reduced Instruction
Set Computer
RSM
Remote Satellite
Modulator
S/N
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SAC
Subscriber
Authorization Center
SAG
Synthetic Analog
Gateway
SAN
Storage Area Network
SAP
Secondary Audio
Program
RJ
Registered Jack
RSU
RKS
Record-Keeping
Server
Resynchronization
Software Utility
RSVP
Resource reSerVation
Protocol
RSVPTE
Resource Reservation
Protocol with Traffic
Engineering
RT
Real Time
SAP
Service Access Point
RTI
Real Time Ingest
SARA
Scientific-Atlanta
Resident Application
RM
Resource Manager
RMS
Root Mean Square
RMX
Remux
RNOC
Regional Network
Operations Center
RO
Read Only
RTN
ROADM
Re-configurable
Optical Add/Drop
Multiplexing
Regional Transport
Network
SAS
Subscriber
Authorization System
RTOS
Real Time
Operating System
SATA
Serial Advanced
Technology Attachment
ROAP
Rights Object
Acquisition Protocol
RTP
Real-time
Transport Protocol
SAW
Surface Acoustic
Wave
ROB
Return on
Bandwidth
RTSP
Real Time
Streaming Protocol
SB
Switched Broadcast
Round-trip Time
SBC
Switched
Broadcast Client
SBCA
Satellite Broadcasting
Communication
Association
SBM
Switched Broadcast
Manager
SBS
Stimulated Brilliouin
Scattering
SBS
Switched
Broadcast Server
SBV
Switched
Broadcast Video
ROI
Return on
Investment
ROM
Read Only
Memory
RPD
Return Path
Demodulator
RTT
RU
Rack Unit
RW
Rewind
RX
Receiver
RZ
Return to Zero
RZ-DPSK
Return to Zero
Differential Phase
Shift keying
RPM
Revolutions per
Minute
RPR
Resilient Packet Ring
RS
Reed-Solomon
s.f.
Square Foot
RSA
Reed-Solomon
Association
S/I
Signal-toInterference Ratio
223
SBW
Signal Bandwidth
SCSI
Standard
Connector/Angled
Physical Contact
Small Computer
System Interface
SDV
SC/APC
Switched Digital
Video
SCTE
Society of Cable
Telecommunications
Engineers
SDVOD
Standard Definition
Video-on-Demand
Supervisory Control
& Data Acquisition
SD
Standard Definition
SE
Single Encoder
SEM
SmartStream
Encryptor Modulator
SEP
Simulcast Edge
Processor
SeRTP
Sequenced
Routing Table
Protocol
SCADA
S-CDMA
Synchronous
Code Division
Multiple Access
SCE
Single Channel
Encoder
SCM
Stored Content
Manager
SCM
Sub-Carrier
Multiplexing
SCMS
Serial Copy
Management
System
SCN
Service Class Name
SCN
Shared Content
Network
SCO
Synchronous
Connection Oriented
SCP
SCPC
SCR
Service Control
Platform
Single Channel
Per Carrier
Silicon Controlled
Rectifier
SCS
Service
Capability Server
s-CSCF
Serving-Call State/
Session Control(ler)
Function
SDB
Switched Digital
Broadast
SDH
Synchronous
Digital Hierarchy
SDI
Serial Digital
Interface
SDIO
Secure Digital
Input/Output
SERDES
Serializer/
Deserializer
SDK
Software
Development Kit
SES
Severely Errored
Seconds
SDL
Simple
DirectMedia Layer
SF
Service Flow
SF
SuperFrame
SFID
Service Flow
Identifier
SDM
SmartStream
Device Manager
SDMH
Severely Degraded
Modem Hours
SFP
SDMI
Secure Digital
Music Initiative
Small Formfactor Pluggable
SG
Service Group
SG
Signaling Gateway
SGC
Signaling Gateway
SGW
Security GateWay
SHA-1
Secure Hash
Algorithm 1
SHDB
Switched HighDefinition Digital
Broadcast
SI
System Information
SDP
Session Description
Protocol
SDPF
Service Policy
Decision Function
SDRAM
Synchronous
Direct Random
Access Memory
SDTV
Standard Definition
Television
224 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
SIC
Standard Industrial
Classification
SMS
Service Management
System
SPIT
SPAM over IP
Telephony
SID
AMOL
Source Identification
– Automatic
Measurement of
Lineups
S-MTA
Standalone Multimedia
Terminal Adaptor
SpIM
Splice Information
Message
SMTP
Self phase Modulation
Service Identifier
Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol
SPM
SID
SPP
Serial Port Profile
SIFS
Shortest
InterFrame Space
SPTS
Single Program
Transport Stream
SQL
Structured Query
Language
SR
Satellite Receiver
SR
Switch Router
SIM
SIP
SISO
Subscriber
Identity Module
Session Initiation
Protocol
SNG
Satellite News
Gathering
SNMP
Simple Network
Management Protocol
SNR
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SOA
Semiconductor
Optical Amplifier
Single-Input
Single-Output
SOAP
SRAM
SIT
Splice Information
Table
Simple Object
Access Protocol
Static Random
Access Memory
SoC
Systems on a Chip
SRM
SL
Sync Layer
S-OFDM
System Resource
Manager
SLA
Service Level
Agreement
Scalable Orthogonal
Frequency Division
Multiplexing
SRS
Stimulated
Raman Scattering
SOH
State of Health
SLC
Shorten Last Codeword
SRTP
SOHO
SLIC
Subscriber Line
Interface Card
Small Office/
Home Office
Secure Realtime Transport
Protocol
SONET
Signal Level Meter
Synchronous
Optical Network
SRUP
SLM
Sequenced Routing
Update Protocol
SM
Single Mode
SP
Service Provider
SS7
Signaling System
number 7
Small & Medium
Business
SPAN
Services & Protocols for
Advanced Networks
SSB
Single Sideband
SSD
Solid State Disk
SMB
SME
Small &Medium
Enterprise
SMF
Single Mode Fiber
SMPTE
Society of Motion
Picture & Television
Engineers
SPDF
Synchronous
Piggybacked Data Flow
SSH
Secure Shell
SPDIF
Sony/Philips
Digital Interface
SSI
Synchronous
Serial Interface
SPE
Synchronous
Payload Envelope
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer
225
SSM
SSMF
SSP
Source Specific
Multicast
Standard Single
Mode Fiber
Session Setup
Protocol
STAMP
Set-top Applications
& Middleware
Platform
STB
Set-Top Box
STG
Subscriber
Telephony
Gateway
STL
Studio-toTransmitter Link
STM
Synchronous
Transport Module
STP
Spanning Tree
Protocol
STS
Synchronous
Transport Signal
STT
Set-top Terminal
STT
SW
Software
TDMA
SX
Short Reach as in
1000Base-SX
Time Division
Multiple Access
TDMoIP
SYNC
Synchronization Profile
Time Division
Multiplexing over
Internet Protocol
SYSLOG
System Log
TDT
Time & Date Table
SYST
System
Integration & Test
TEC
Triggered Event
Command
T1
A Telecommunications
Standard Committee
T1
TELR
Talker Echo
Loudness Rating
TAM
Tier Addressed
Message
TFC
Tunable Filter Chip
TFF
hin Film Filter
TFTP
Trivial File
Transfer Protocol
TGCP
Trunking Gateway
Control Protocol
TB
Terabyte
TBD
To Be Determined
Tbps
Terabits per Second
TC
Transmission
Convergence
TGS
Ticket Granting
Server
TCAP
TransactionCapabilities
Application Part
THz
Terahertz
TIA
Telecommunication
Industry Association
TIA
Trans Impedance
Amplifier
TIPHON
Telecommunications
& Internet Protocol
Harmonization Over
Networks
TISPAN
Telecom & Internet
Services & Protocols
for Advanced
Networks
TKIP
Temporal Key
Integrity Protocol
TL1
Transaction
Language One
TCM
TandemConnection
Monitoring
System Time Table
TCM
Trellis Coded
Modulation
STTD
Space Time
Transmit Diversity
TCO
Total Cost of
Ownership
STUN
Simple Transversal
of UDP (User
Datagram Protocol)
TCP
Transmission
Control Protocol
SU
Subscriber Unit
TCP/IP
SUT
System Under Test
Transmission
Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol
SVOD
Subscription
Video on Demand
TDD
Time Division Duplex
SVP
Secure Video
Processor
TDM
Time Division
Multiplexing
226 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
TLS
Transparent LAN
Service
TSID
Transport Stream
Identifier
UCC
Upstream
Channel Change
TLS
Transport Layer
Security
TSP
Television Service
Processor
UCD
Upstream Channel
Descriptor
TLV
Type, Length, Value
T-SPEC
Traffic SPECification
UCID
TMX
Transport Multiplexer
TSR
Upstream
Channel Identifier
TN
Transit Node
Technical Service
Representative
UCS
TSS
Telephony Switching
Sub-System
Uplink Control
System
UDDI
Universal Description,
Discover & Integration
UDLR
Uni-Directional
Link Routing
UDP
User Datagram
Protocol
UDP/IP
User Datagram
Protocol/Internet
Protocol
UDSL
Unidirectional Digital
Subscriber Line
UDWDM
Ultra Dense
Wave Division
Multiplex
UEQ
Universal Edge QAM
(Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation)
UGS
Unsolicited Grant
Service
TNCS
Transmission Network
Control System
TOADM
Tunable Optical Add/
Drop Multiplexer
TTL
Time-to-Live
TTLS
Television on
Demand
Tunnel Transparent
Layer Security
TTS
Text To Speech
ToD
Time of Day
TURN
TOS
Theft of Service
Traversal Using
Relay NAT (Network
Address Translation)
TOD
TOS
Type of Service
TV
Television
TP
Transport
Processor
TVCT
Terrestrial Virtual
Channel Table
TPL
TDM Private Line
TVOD
TPS
Transport
Parameter
Signaling
Television on
Demand
TWC
Time Warner Cable
TX
Transmit
TXOP
Transmission
Opportunity
U/S
Upstream
UGS/
AD
UGS with Activity
Detection
UA
User Agent
UHF
U-ASPD
Unscheduled Automatic Power
Save Delivery
Ultra High
Frequency
UI
User Interface
UKL
Unit Key List
TR
Technical Reference
TRI
Telephony Return
Interface
TRP
Target Rating
Points
tRTO
TCP Retransmit
Timeout
TSI
Time Slot
Interchange
UBR
Unspecified Bit Rate
227
UMA
Unlicensed
Mobile Access
USM
UML
Unified Modeling
Language
UTI
Universal Transport
Interface
UMTS
Universal Mobile
Telecommunications
System
UTP
Unshielded
Twisted Pair
UWB
Ultra Wideband
V
Voltage
V/A
VAC
UNE
Unbundled
Network Element
UNE-P
Unbundled
Network Element
- Platform
VCM
Virtual Channel Map
VCO
Virtual Channel
Override
VCO
Voltage Cut Off
VCR
Video Cassette
Recorder
VCT
Virtual Channel
Table
Video/Audio
VDC
Volts Direct Current
Volts Alternating
Current
VDLM
Virtual Data Line
Monitor
VDSL
Very High-bitrate Digital
Subscriber Line
User-based
Security Model
UNI
User Network
Interface
VAD
Voice Activity
Detection
U-NII
Unlicensed National
Information
Infrastructure
VAG
Voice Access
Gateway
VDT
Video Dial Tone
UPA
Usability
Professionals’
Association
VBI
Vertical Blanking
Interval
VER
Virtual Ethernet
Ring
VBR
Variable Bit Rate
VF
Voice Frequency
UPrS
Uplink Product
Support
VBRNRT
Variable Bit Rate
– Non-Real Time
VHF
Very High
Frequency
UPnP
Universal Plug
& Play
VBR-RT
Variable Bit Rate
– Real Time
VHS
Video Home
System
UPS
Uninterruptible
Power Supply
VC
Virtual Channel
VLAN
Uniform Resource
Identifier
VC-1
VLL
Virtual Leased Line
URL
Uniform Resource
Locator
Video Compression
(Coding) 1
(Formerly VC-9-Soon to be VCAT)
Virtual Local
Area Network
URI
VLR
Visitor Location
Register
VM
Virtual Machine
VN
Voltage Null
VOD
Video on
Demand
US
VCAT
Virtual
Concatenation
Virtual Channel
Identifier
Variable Coding
& Modulation
Upstream
USB
Universal Serial Bus
VCI
USF
Universal Service
Fund
VCM
228 CATV & IPTV Acronyms
VoDSL
Video over Digital
Subscriber Line
VSB
Vestigial
Sideband
VoIP
Voice over
Internet Protocol
VT
Virtual Tributary
VTS
VoWi-Fi
Voice over Wi-Fi
Video Transport
Service
VP
Voltage Peak
WAN
Wide Area Network
VPI
Virtual Path
Identifier
WCD
VPL
Virtual Private Line
Wideband
Channel
Descriptor
WCDMA
Wireless Code
Division Multiple
Access
WiMedia
An alliance
for Wireless
Multimedia
WIP
Work in Process
WLAN
Wireless Local
Area Network
WM
Wave Multiplexing
or Wave Mixing
WM9
Windows Media
Player, version 9
WMAN
Wireless
Metropolitan
Area Network
Wireless
Multimedia
Extension
VPLS
Virtual Private
LAN Service
VPN
Virtual Private
Network
WCM
Wideband Cable
Modem
WME
VPWS
Virtual Private
Wire Service
WCMTS
VQ
Vector
Quantization
Wideband Cable
Modem Termination
System
WMM
Wi-Fi MultiMedia
WDM
Wave Division
Multiplex
WMMSA
WECA
Wireless Ethernet
Compatibility
Alliance
Wi-Fi MultiMedia
Standards
Association/
Alliance
WOFDM
WEP
Video-Rich
Navigation
Audio/Visual
Wired Equivalent
Privacy
WFA
Workforce
Automation
Wavelet
Orthogonal
Frequency
Division
Multiplexing
WPA
VRTX
Virtual Real-Time
Extension
WFM
Workforce
Management
Wireless (Wi-Fi)
Protected Access
VS
Video Server
WiFi
Wireless Fidelity
WPAFSK
VSA
Vector Signal
Analyzer
WiMax
WPAN
VSAT
Very Small
Aperture Terminal
Worldwide
Interoperability
for Microwave
Access
Wireless (Wi-Fi)
Protected Access
with Pre-Shared
Key
Wireless Personal
Area Network
WPE
Wireless Plant
Extension
VRF
VRN
VRNAV
Virtual Routing
& Forwarding
Tables
Video-Rich
Navigation
229
WRED
Weighted
Random Early
Detection
WSDL
Web Services
Definition
Language
xOD
X-service on
Demand (i.e.,
Movies on
Demand)
xoIP
Anything Over
Internet Protocol
WSS
Wavelength
Selective Switch
XPM
Cross-Phase
Modulation
WWAN
Wireless Wide
area Network
xPON
WWDM
Wide WDM
X version of
Passive Optical
Network
XAUI
10 Gigabit Ethernet
Attachment Unit
Interface
xVOD
xDSL
Any variant
of the Digital
Subscriber Line
technology
X version (or
form) of Video
on Demand (i.e.,
Subscription,
Near, etc.)
xWDM
Non-specific
form of Wave
Multiplex
y/y
Year Over Year
ZWP
Zero Water Peak
ZWPF
Zero Water Peak
Fiber
XENPAK
Fiber Optic
Transceiver
Module
conforming to
10GigE Standard
XFP
10-Gigabit Small
Form-factor
Pluggable
xHTML
Extensible
Hypertext
Markup
Language
XMI
XML
Metadata
Interchange
XML
Extensible
Markup
language
XMOD
Cross Modulation
230
Basic Glossary of CATV & IPTV Terms
For more information, visit the Technical Services section
of our web site and the Blonder Tongue “Broadband
Reference Guide”.
A
Access List: List kept by routers to control access to or
from the router for a number of services.
Address Mask: Bit combination used to describe which
portion of an address refers to the network or subnet
and which part refers to the host. mask.also subnet mask.
Administrative Distance: A rate of the trustworthiness of
a routing information source. The higher the value, the
lower the trustworthiness rating.
Amplification: The act of increasing the amplitude or
strength of a signal.
Amplifier: Device used to increase strength of TV signals.
Amplitude Modulation: A process whereby the amplitude
of a single frequency carrier is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous values of a modulating wave.
Analog Signal: A signal which is continually variable and
not expressed by discrete states of amplitude, frequency,
or phase.
Agile (Frequency Agile): The capability to change channels
quickly and easily, usually by setting switches, i.e. agile
modulator, agile processor.
Application Layer: Layer 7 of the OSI reference model.
This layer provides services to application processes (such
as electronic mail, file transfer, and terminal emulation).
Provides user authentication.
ATSC (Advanced Television System Committee): A digital
television format standard that will replace the US analog
NTSC television system by February 17, 2009. The high
definition television standards defined by the ATSC produce wide screen 16:9 images up to 1920×1080 pixels in
size, more than six times the display resolution of NTSC. In
lieu of an HD broadcast, up to six standard-definition “virtual channels” can be broadcast over a 6 MHz TV station.
Attenuator: Device used to reduce signal strength.
Automatic Gain Control (AGC): A feature of some amplifiers and radio receivers which provides a substantially
constant output even though the signal input varies
over wide limits.
B
Bandwidth: A range of frequencies (a portion of spectrum) defined by upper and lower frequency limits.
Bit-Error Rate: In a digital communications system, the
fraction of bits transmitted that are received incorrectly.
Bit Rate (Baud): The speed at which digital information is
transmitted, usually expressed in bits per second.
Block Size: Number of hosts that can be used in a subnet.
Block sizes typically can be used in increments of 4, 8, 16,
32, 64 and 128.
Bridge: A deivce for connecting two segments of a
network using identical protocols to communicate and
transmitting packets between them. Operates at the Data
Link layer, layer 2 of the OSI model. The purpose of the
bridge is to filter, send or flood any incoming frame, based
on MAC address of that particular frame.
Broadcast Address: Special address reserved for sending a
message to all stations. Generally, a broadcast address is a
MAC destination address of all ones.
Broadcast Domain: The set of all devices that will receive
broadcast frames originating from any device within the
set. Broadcast domains are typically bounded by routers
because routers do not forward broadcast frames.
C
Cable Equalizer: Device used to counter the effects of
cable slope. Can be a stand alone device or an optional
plug-in module for an amplifier.
Carrier-to-Noise Ratio (C/N Ratio or CNR): The difference in
amplitude of a carrier, and the noise power that is present in that portion of spectrum occupied by the carrier.
See Noise.
Cascade: Term used when referring to amplifiers serially
connected.
Cherry Picker: Type of headend system where a desired
limited number of channels are selected from a CATV feed,
rather than distributing all of the available CATV channels
common in schools.
CIDR: CIDR allows routers to group routes together in
order to cut down on the quantity of routing information
carried by the core routers. With CIDR, several IP networks
appear to networks outside the group as a single, larger
entity.
Class A Network: Part of Internet Protocal hierarchical
addressing scheme. Class A networks have only 8 bits
for defining networks and 24 bits for defining hosts and
subnets on each network.
Class B Network: Part of Internet Protocal hierarchical
addressing scheme. Class B networks have 16 bits for
defining networks and 16 bits for defining hosts and
subnets on each network.
Class C Network: Part of Internet Protocal hierarchical
addressing scheme. Class A networks have 24 bits for
defining networks and 8 bits for defining hosts and
subnets on each network.
Classful Routing: Routing protocols that do not send
subnet mask information when a route update is sent.
Classless Routing: Routing protocols that send subnet
mask information in the routing updates. Classless
Routing allows Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) and
supernetting.
231
Combiner: Device, which permits combining of several
signals into one output with a high degree of isolation
between, inputs. Usually used for combining outputs of
processors and modulators.
Community: In SNMP, a logical group of managed devices
and NMSs in the same administrative domain.
Community String: Text string that acts as a password
and is used to authenticate messages sent between a
management station and a router containing a SNMP
agent. The community string is sent in every packet
between the manager and the agent.
Connectionless: Data transfer without the existence of a
virtual circuit. It has low overhead, uses best-effort delivery
and is not reliable.
Connection-Oriented: Data transfer method that sets
up a virtual circuit before any data is transferred. Uses
acknowledgement and flow control for reliable data
transfer.
Console: In SNMP (Simple Network Management
Protocol), a software program that has the capability of
interacting with an agent, including examining or changing
the values of the data objects in the agent's Management
Information Base (MIB).
Composite Triple Beat Distortion (CTB): CTB in an important
distortion measurement of analog CATV systems. It is
mainly caused by second order distortion in distribution systems.
Couplers: In fiber optics, a device which links three or
more fibers, providing two or more paths for the transmission signal.
D
Data Link Layer: Layer 2 of the OSI reference model. This
layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical link.
The data link layer is concerned with physical addressing,
network topology, line discipline, error notification,
ordered delivery of frames, and flow control. The IEEE has
divided this layer into two sublayers: The MAC sublayer
and the LLC sublayer.
Decibel (dB): A logarithmic unit of measure expressing the
ratio of two discrete levels, input and output for example,
of power, voltage, or current. May be used to denote either
loss (-dB) or gain (+dB).
Decibel-Millivolts (dBmV): The dB denotes a ratio between
two levels (see Decibel) but the qualifying term mV
establishes one of the levels as a reference. Zero dBmV
(0 dBmV) is one millivolt (0.001 or 10-1 volts) measured
across a 75 Ohm impedance.
Decibel-Milliwatt (dBm): A unit of power. Decibels referenced to a unit of one milliwatt. Zero dbM = 1 mW.
Decibel-Watt (dBW): A unit of power. Decibels referred to
a unit of one watt. Zero dBW = 1 Watt.
Demodulator: Device that provides baseband audio and
video outputs from a TV channel input.
DHCP : A TCP/IP protocol that dynamically assigns an IP
address to a computer. Dynamic addressing simplifies
network administration because the software keeps
track of IP addresses rather than requiring a network
administrator to do so.
Digital signal: A signal which is expressed by discrete
states. Information may be assigned value or meaning by
combinations of the discrete states of the signal using a
code of pulses or digits.
Directional coupler: A network or device that divides
the input signal in a fixed ratio between the output and
tap ports.
Diplexer: A device used to combine or separate two
signals. A U/V band separator is one example of a diplexer.
Dish: A parabolic antenna used for satellite reception.
Dynamic Routing: Routing that adjusts automatically to
network topology or traffic changes. Also called adaptive
routing.
E
Equalizer, cable: A network designed to compensate for the
frequency/loss characteristics of a cable, so as to permit
the system to pass all frequencies in a uniform manner.
Ethernet: A specification for a transmission system
including Layers 1 and2 of the OSI 7-layer model using
the CSMA/CD access method and operates over various
types of cables at 10 Mbps. In common usage, "Ethernet"
refers to both the DIX (DEC - Intel - Xerox) version of this
specification or to the IEEE version, moreformally known
as "802.3".
F
FCC: Federal Communications Commission. Regulatory
agency that sets communication standards in the US.
Filter: Device used to reject or pass a specified frequency or range of frequencies. Some
examples are band-pass filters, notch filters,
channel elimination filter, low & high pass filters.
Firewall: Router or access server, or several routers
or access servers, designated as a buffer between any
connected public networks and a private network. A
firewall router uses access lists and other methods to
ensure the security of the private network.
Frame: In data networks, the information packet and all of
the preceding and succeeding signals necessary (flag bytes,
preambles, frame checks, abort sequences, etc.) to convey
it along the data link
G
Gain: An increase in power produced by an amplifier and
expressed in decibels. See Amplifier.
232
Basic Glossary of CATV & IPTV Terms
Gateway: A TCP/IP router that routes packets between
different network numbers.
Get: In SNMP, a command given by the Console to retrieve
a single data structure from a MIB.
Guardband: A portion of spectrum left vacant and not utilized between two carriers or bands of carriers, to provide
a margin of safety against mutual interference.
H
Headend (HE): The equipment where all signals are
received, processed and combined prior to distribution.
Hertz (Hz): Frequency of periodic oscillations, expressed
in cycles per second.
Heterodyne: The process of mixing two frequencies
together to generate frequencies of their sum and difference. This process is used for channel conversion.
Heterodyne Signal Processor: A unit employed in CATV
systems to convert a carrier frequency to an intermediate
frequency (IF). The intermediate frequency carrier may
then be filtered, regulated, or otherwise conditioned, and
then heterodyned back to either the original carrier frequency, or to a completely new carrier frequency.
Highband: The radio spectrum between 174 and 216
megahertz (MHz). Standard television channels 7 through
13 fall within this spectrum.
Hub: A common connection point for computers and
devices in a network that takes an incoming signal and
repeats it on all other ports.
Hyperband: CATV channels AA thru YY (numeric
equivalents-37 thru 61) failing in the frequency range of
300 to 450 MHz.
I
Impedance: Circuit characteristic (voltage divided by current). TV distribution has standardized on 75-Ohm and
300-Ohm.
Insertion Loss: The loss introduced into a cable or system
by the Insertion of a device or network expressed in
decibels. See Loss.
Interference: Noise or other disturbances such as spurious
signals that, when introduced to a desired signal, reduce
the intelligibility of the information carried on that signal.
IP Address: a 32-bit address assigned to hosts using the
TCP/IP protocol. Each computer/device on the public
internet has a unique IP address. An example of an IP
address is 192.168.1.
IP Multicast: Routing technique that allows IP traffic to be
propagated from one source to a number of destinations
or from many sources to many destinations. Rather than
sending one packet to each destination, one packet is sent
to a multicast group identified by a single IP destination
group address.
Isolation: Electrical separation (or loss) between two
locations or pieces of equipment. Degree of isolation
usually specified in dB.
K
Ku Band: Range of frequencies used in satellite transmissions. Common uplink frequency for U.S. domestic
satellites is 14 to 14.5 GHz with a downlink frequency of
11.7 to 12.2 GHz.
L
LAN: A communication infrastructure that supports data
and resource sharing within a small area (<2 km diameter)
that is completely contained on the premises of a single
owner.
Laser: Acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”. A device which generates or amplifies
electromagnetic oscillations at wavelengths between the
far infrared (sub-millimeter) and ultraviolet.
Linear: The characteristic of a device or network whose
output signal voltage is directly proportional to its input
signal voltage.
Line Extender: An amplifier operating at relatively high
transmission levels in the feeder sub-system of a trunk plus
feeder designed CATV system.
LNA: Low Noise Amplifier. Provides initial amplification of
downlink signal at antenna location.
LNB: Low Noise Block (converter). Integrated LNA and
down converter. Available in either C or Ku band inputs. The
most prevalent output frequency scheme is 950-1450 MHz,
however other schemes that have been used include 9001400, 1000-1500 and 270-770 MHz.
Local Origination: Channels that are generated on site,
such as those that are derived from character generators,
laser disks, or VCR’s in the headend.
Loss: Reduction in signal strength usually expressed in dB.
Synonymous with attenuation.
Low Band: The radio spectrum between 54 and 88 MHz.
Standard VHF television channels 2 through 6 fall within
this spectrum.
M
Microwave: spectrum at frequencies approximately 1,000
MHz and higher.
Mid-band: The radio spectrum between 88 and 174 MHz,
which lies between standard VHF television, channels 6
and 7. CATV channels A through I (nine channels) fall within
the mid-band spectrum.
Modulator: A device, which produces a TV channel from
baseband audio/video, inputs.
Multicast: Single packets copied by the network and sent
to a specific subset of network addresses. These addresses
are specified in the destination address field.
233
Multicast Group: Dynamically determined group of IP
hosts identified by a single IP multicast address.DIX (DEC
- Intel - Xerox) version of this specification or to the IEEE
version, moreformally known as "802.3".
Multimode Fiber: A fiber that supports propagation of
more than one mode of a given wavelength.
Multiplexer: A device which combines two or more optical
signals onto one communications channel.
N
Network Address: Network layer address referring to a
logical, rather than a physical, network device. Also called
a protocol address.
Network Layer: Layer 3 of the OSI reference model. This
layer provides connectivity and path selection between
two end systems. The network layer is the layer at which
routing occurs. Corresponds roughly with the path control
layer of the SNA model.
Noise Figure (NF): A measure of how much noise an active
device, such as a TV amplifier, adds to the thermal noise
level constant of –59 dBmV
O
Oscillator: A circuit generating an alternating current wave
at some specific frequency.
P
Passive: Describing a device which does not contribute
energy to the signal it passes.
Phaselock: The control of an oscillator such that its output
signal maintains a constant phase angle relative to a second, reference signal.
Photodetector: Any device which detects light, generally
producing an electronic signal with intensity proportional
to that of the incident light.
Photodiode: A diode designed to produce photo-current by absorbing light. Photodiodes are
used for the detection of optical power and for
the conversion of optical power to electrical power.
PING (Packet Internet Groper): A command used to test
connectivity to a device over a TCP/IP network.
Power: Energy per unit of time.
Pre-Amplifier: Low noise amplifier usually mounted in
close proximity to a receiving antenna. Used to compensate for down lead losses.
Q
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM): Digital
modulation format where information is conveyed in the
amplitude and phase of a carrier signal.
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK): Form of Phase
Shift Keying in which two bits are modulated at once,
selecting one of four possible carrier phase shifts (0, 90,
180, or 270 degrees). QPSK allows the signal to carry
twice as much information as ordinary PSK using the
same bandwidth. QPSK is used for satellite transmission of
MPEG-2 video, cable modems, video-conferencing, cellular
phone systems, and other forms of digital communication
over an RF carrier.
R
Receiver: A device that detects and converts a signal
after transmission over a communications network from
a transmitter.
Remote Local Origination: Closed-circuit program generated some place other than the headend. Example:
Sub-channel origination.
Repeater: A signal amplification device, often used along
cables to extend transmission distances.
Return loss: A ratio expressed in dB between the reflected
signal and the total signal applied to a device.
RFI: Radio Frequency Interference. Undesired RF signals.
Router: A device that routes/forwards data across a
networks.
RTP: defines a standardized packet format for
delivering audio and video over IP network.
S
Session Layer: The layer in the OSI 7-Layer Model that is
concerned with managing the resources required for the
session between two computers.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N Ratio): The difference in
amplitude of a signal (before modulation or after detection of a modulated carrier), and the noise present in the
spectrum occupied by the signal, when both are measured
at the same point in the system.
Single-Mode Fiber: An optical waveguide through which
only one mode will propagate.
Slope: Difference in attenuation between specified low
and high frequencies.
SNMP: A de facto standard for management of networked
devices using a simple request-response data retrieval
mechanism.
Splitter: A network or device that divides its input energy
equally between two outputs.
Strip Amplifier: Slang expression for a channelized highoutput AGC’d amplifier used in processing VHF or UHF
channels in a headend.
Sub-Band: The radio spectrum between 5 and 40 MHz.
Subnet : A portion of a network that shares a common
address component but is on a different segment than the
rest of the network.
Subnet Address: Portion of an IP address that is specified
as the subnetwork by the subnet mask. See also IP address,
234
Basic Glossary of CATV & IPTV Terms
subnet mask, and subnetwork.
Subnet Mask: A representation of a user's Internet
address where all of the bit positions corresponding to
the user's network and subnetwork id are 1's and the bit
corresponding to the user's host id are 0's.
Super-Band: The radio spectrum between 216 and approx.
400 MHz.
Switch: A switch is a device that forwards packets between
nodes based on the packet's destination node address
(either hardware or protocol).
T
Tap, Subscriber: A device that diverts a predetermined
amount of its input energy to one or more tap outputs. The
remaining balance of the input energy is presented to a tap
output port for propagation farther out into the system.
Tap, optical: A device for extracting a portion of the optical
signal from a fiber.
Telnet : A Telnet program allows a user at a terminal or
PC to log in to a remote computer and run a program and
execute other Unix commands.
Termination: Resistive device at end of distribution line or
unused outputs of equipment to avoid reflections (ghost).
Thru-Line Loss: Insertion loss of a tapoff.
Transmitter-Fiber: In a fiber optic system, the device
which converts a modulated electrical signal into an optical signal for transmission through a fiber. A transmitter
typically consists of a light source (LED or diode laser) and
driving electronics.
Transmitter: A device that launches signals into a
communications network, to be collected by a receiver
on the other end.
Transcoder: Also Transmodulator. Changing a signal’s
modulation scheme to a different modulation for bandwidth efficiency or system requirements.
Transponder: A frequency converter (translator) aboard a
satellite that changes the uplink signal to the downlink signal and provides amplifications. Typical C-Band domestic
satellites have 24 transponders.
Transport Protocol: The Protocol Layer of the OSI 7-Layer
Model that is concerned with management of the data
flow between source and destination.
Trap: A device used to attenuate specific frequencies
of channels.
Trap: In SNMP, a message sent from the Agent to the
Console when the Agent detects that condition defined by
the network manager has occurred.
Two-way: Describing a transmission system, which can
transport signals in both directions simultaneously.
T-1 Carrier System: A digital transport signal (1.5 Mbps).
A 24-channel, transistorized, time-division, pulse-code
modulation, voice carrier used on exchange cable to provide short-haul trunks.
U
UDP: A protocol within the TCP/IP protocol suite that
is used in place of TCP when a reliable delivery is not
required. There is less processing of UDP packets than
there is for TCP. UDP is widely used for streaming audio
and video, voice over IP (VoIP) and videoconferencing,
because there is no time to retransmit erroneous or
dropped packets.
Uplink: Transmission from earth to a satellite.
V
Vestigial Side Band (VSB): In amplitude-modulated transmissions, a portion of only one sideband of a modulated
carrier. The modulated carrier is passed through a filter
having a graduated cut-off characteristic near the carrier
frequency.
Video: 1. Pertaining to the signal which carries a television
picture. 2. Describing the 4 MHz band of frequencies which
constitutes a television signal.
W
Watt: The Unit of Electric Power.
Waveguide: Any device which guides electromagnetic
waves along a path defined by the physical construction
of the device.
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM): The provision of two or more channels over a common optical
waveguide, the channels being differentiated by optical
wavelength.
8VSB: The 8-level vestigial sideband modulation method
adopted for terrestrial broadcast of the ATSC digital television standard in the United States, Canada, and other
countries.
Useful Websites
www.antennaweb.org: off-air antenna reports (see page 140 for sample)
www.tvfool.com: off-air antenna reports
www.fcc.gov: Federal Communications Commission - CATV rules
Useful Websites:
http://acronyms.silmaril.ie/cgi-bin/uncgi/acronyms: Acronym Search
(see page 139 for sample)
www.lyngsat.com:
satellite
www.antennaweb.org
– off-airinformation
antenna reports
www.satsig.net:
signalsreports
information
www.tvfool.com –satellite
off-air antenna
www.fcc.gov - Federal Communications
www.satelliteguys.us:
satellite forums Commission - CATV rules
http://acronyms.silmaril.ie/cgi-bin/uncgi/acronyms
- Acronym Search
www.geo-orbit.org:
satellite lookup
www.lyngsat.com - satellite information
www.satnews.com:
glossary
www.satsig.net - satellite signals information
www.its.bldrdoc.gov/fs-1037:
rules for telecommunications
www.satelliteguys.us – satellite forums
www.scte.org:
Society
of Cable
Television Engineers
www.geo-orbit.org
- satellite
lookup
www.satnews.com - glossary
www.its.bldrdoc.gov/fs-1037 - rules for telecommunications
www.scte.org - Society of Cable Television Engineers
Useful Publications
Useful Publications:
Cable Television by William Grant (text book)
Society of Cable Television Engineers, Inc.
140 Philips Road
Exton, PA 19341-1318
Phone: 610-363-6888
Fax: 610-363-5898
Wireless Cable and SMATV by Steve Berkhoff and Frank Baylin
Baylin Publications (paperback)
1905 Mariposa
Boulder, CO 80302
Phone: 303-449-4551
Fax:303-939-8720
235
One Jake Brown Road
Old Bridge, NJ 08857
TEL: 732-679-4000
FAX: 732-679-4353
800-523-6049
www.blondertongue.com
Please Visit our Website for a List of
Company Contacts and Literature Requests.
©2014 Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Trademarks are the property of their respective owner.
Rev 12.0
Encoders
Digital CATV
Edge & IP
CATV
www.nsccom.com • 800.543.1584
©2014 Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved. Specifications are subject
to change without notice. Trademarks are the property of their respective owner.
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