Grade 9 and 10 Science Locally Developed Document

Grade 9 and 10 Science Locally Developed Document
Hastings and Prince Edward District School Board
Locally Developed Compulsory Credit Courses
Grades 9 and 10
Science
Grade 9 LDCC Science (SNC1L)
Grade 10 LDCC Science (SNC2L)
A. Scientific Investigation Skills and Career
Exploration
B. Scientific Inquiry: Science in Daily Life
C. Chemistry: Properties of Common
Materials
D. Biology: Living Together
E. Physics: Electrical Circuits
A. Scientific Investigation Skills and Career
Exploration
B. Scientific Inquiry: Science in Media
C. Chemistry: Interactions of Common
Materials
D. Biology: Tissues, Organs and Systems
E. Physics: Light and Optics
Laura Bray, THS
Angie Friel, CSS
Tamara Groleau, PECI
Randy Votary, Co-ordinator
July, 2010
Science, Grade 9
Locally Developed
SNC1L
________________________________________________________________________
This course emphasizes reinforcing and strengthening science related knowledge, including
scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and the relationship between science, society, and the
environment, to prepare students for success in everyday life and the workplace. Students explore
a range of topics, including science in daily life, properties of common materials, interactions and
issues of the environment, and electrical circuits. Students have the opportunity to extend
mathematical and scientific process skills and to continue developing their skills in reading, writing,
and oral language through relevant and practical science activities.
Prerequisite: None
_______________________________________________________________________________
Big Ideas
Scientific Inquiry
•
The skills of scientific investigation are used to study problems in daily life.
•
There are connections between science and activities in daily life.
Chemistry
•
Common materials can be classified and identified through their physical and chemical
properties.
•
Physical and chemical properties determine the use of common materials in daily life.
Biology
•
Living and non-living parts of an ecosystem interact in various ways.
•
Humans have an effect on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
Physics
•
The components of simple electrical circuits can be combined in different ways.
•
Electrical circuits have practical uses and impact daily life.
Fundamental Concepts Covered in This Course
Fundamental Concepts
Scientific Inquiry
Chemistry
Matter
°
°
Biology
°
Energy
°
Systems & Interactions
°
Structure & Function
°
Sustainability &
Stewardship
°
Change & Continuity
°
°
°
°
°
-2-
Physics
A. SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION SKILLS & CAREER EXPLORATION
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
Throughout this course, students will:
A1.
A2.
demonstrate scientific investigation skills (related to both inquiry and research) in the four
areas of skills (initiating and planning, performing and recording, analyzing and
interpreting, and communicating);
identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study, and
identify scientists, including Canadians, who have made contributions to those fields.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1.
Specific Investigation Skills
Throughout this course, students will:
Initiating and Planning [IP]
A1.1
formulate scientific questions about observed relationships, ideas, problems, and/or issues,
make predictions, and/or formulate hypotheses to focus inquiries or research
A1.2
select appropriate instruments and materials for particular inquiries
A1.3
identify and locate print, electronic, and human sources that are relevant to research
questions
A1.4
apply knowledge and understanding of safe practices and procedures when planning
investigations (e.g., appropriate techniques for handling, storing, and disposing of laboratory
materials [following the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System - WHMIS]; safe
operation of electrical equipment; safe handling of biological materials), with the aid of
appropriate support materials
Performing and Recording [PR]
A1.5
conduct inquiries, controlling some variable, adapting or extending procedures as required,
and using standard equipment and materials safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect
observations and data
A1.6
gather data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data using
appropriate formats, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and/or diagrams
A1.7
select, organize, and record relevant information on research topics from various sources,
including electronic, print, and/or human sources, using recommended formats and an
accepted form of academic documentation
-3-
Analysing and Interpreting [AI]
A1.8
analyse and interpret qualitative and/or quantitative data to determine whether the evidence
supports or refutes the initial prediction or hypothesis, identifying possible sources of error,
bias, or uncertainty
A1.9
analyse the information gathered from research sources for reliability and bias
A1.10 draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their
conclusions
Communicating [C]
A1.11 communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in
electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data
tables, laboratory reports, presentations, models)
A1.12 use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation, and appropriate
units of measurement (e.g., SI and imperial units)
A1.13 express the results of any calculations involving data accurately and precisely (e.g.,
calculating an average)
A2.
Career Exploration
Throughout this course, students will:
A2.1
identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study and the
education and training necessary for these careers
A2.2
identify scientists, including Canadians (e.g., Kim Fernie, Robert Ackman, Kenneth Hill,
David Suzuki, Howard Alper), who have made a contribution to the fields of science under
study
-4-
B. SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY: SCIENCE IN DAILY LIFE
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.
B2.
B3.
examine the connections between science and activities in daily life;
use appropriate scientific skills, tools, and safety procedures to investigate problems;
illustrate how science is a part of daily life.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1.
Relating Science to Technology,
Society, and the Environment
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1
develop and investigate research questions about an everyday science-related topic of
personal interest [IP, PR, AI, C]
Sample questions: Which skateboard wheels are the fastest? Which snack bar is the most
nutritious? Which ball retains its bounce the longest, or bounces the highest? Which type of
light bulb lasts the longest? What effect does rotor length have on the flight of a paper
helicopter? What effect do the sun’s patterns have on the activities in my community?
B1.2
evaluate the investigation of the topic they selected and suggest possible refinements
[AI, C]
B1.3
demonstrate an understanding of how problem-solving and decision-making activities in the
workplace use scientific process skills [C]
Sample issues: sampling, researching and recording are used by companies producing
consumer products
B2.
Developing Skills of Investigation
and Communication
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1
use appropriate terminology related to scientific investigation skills, including, but not limited
to: manipulated variable (independent variable), responding variable (dependent variable),
controlled variable, fair test, hypothesis, trials, average and conclusion
B2.2
plan, conduct, and refine simple investigations using the skills of scientific investigation [IP,
PR, AI]
-5-
B2.3
formulate questions about problems or issues that can be scientifically tested using the
skills of scientific investigation (e.g., Which paper airplane flies the farthest or fastest?
Which metal retains more heat? Which colour/brand of hair dye lasts the longest? Which
location enables us to see the stars most clearly at night?) [IP]
B2.4
communicate plans, observations, and results using a variety of oral, written, and graphic
representations, and including the use of SI units, where appropriate (e.g., tables, charts,
journals, using a variety of technologies) [C]
B3.
Understanding Basic Concepts
By the end of this course, students will:
B3.1
describe how the procedures, skills, and tools employed in different areas of science are
also evident in daily life (e.g., microscopes and balances, the use of statistical evidence to
make decisions)
B3.2
describe and apply the skills of scientific investigation
B3.3
explain the importance of a “fair test” for troubleshooting and testing everyday science
problems (e.g., diagnosing computer problems, repairing automobiles, testing faulty
electrical circuits, determining safety of consumer products)
-6-
C. CHEMISTRY: PROPERTIES OF COMMON MATERIALS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course students will:
C1.
C2.
C3.
analyse how the use of various materials is based on their physical and chemical
properties;
investigate the physical and chemical properties of common materials through laboratory
activities;
explain the characteristics and classification of common materials, using appropriate
scientific terminology.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1.
Relating Science to Technology,
Society, and the Environment
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1
investigate the physical and chemical properties of the component materials of two similar
products (e.g., hair products, toothpastes, skateboards, backpacks, running shoes, building
materials, electrical materials) [IP, PR, AI, C]
C1.2
compare the physical and chemical properties of materials investigated and relate them to
how they are used [AI]
Sample questions: How do the strength and flexibility of wood and carbon fibre compare
when they are used for hockey sticks? Which types of metals conduct heat more effectively
when used for pots and pans? Which materials have greater solubility when used for makeup?
C1.3
C2.
present a recommendation (e.g., oral presentation, product label, product information sheet,
annotated diagram, advertisement), based on the results of the investigation and the
research of the product, appropriate for someone interested in using the product (e.g.,
hairstylist, hockey player, sportswear manufacturer, welder) [C]
Developing Skills of Investigation
and Communication
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1
use appropriate terminology related to the properties of common materials, including, but
not limited to: physical property, chemical property, malleability, ductility, density, melting
point, Periodic table, element and compound
-7-
C2.2
plan and conduct a variety of investigations on the physical properties of common materials
(e.g., determine the density, lustre, physical state, colour, malleability, and hardness of
various common materials) [IP, PR]
C2.3
plan and conduct an investigation to separate materials based on their physical properties
(e.g., filtration, magnetism, chromatography, solubility, evaporation) [IP, PR]
C2.4
conduct an investigation on the chemical properties of materials (e.g., corrosion,
combustibility and reaction with acid) [PR]
C2.5
use an inquiry process to determine the identity of common materials based on their
physical properties, chemical properties and pre-determined observations [PR, AI]
C3.
Understanding Basic Concepts
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1
recognize and describe the symbols used to classify hazardous materials at home and in
the workplace (HHPS, WHMIS)
C3.2
outline the hazards of common materials (e.g. bleach, drain cleaner, burning plastics)
associated with safe and unsafe use
C3.3
explain the characteristics of pure substances and mixtures, using appropriate scientific
terminology
C3.4
describe the physical properties (e.g. texture, lustre, solubility, clarity, colour, state, electrical
conductivity) of common materials (e.g. paints, solvents, metals) using appropriate scientific
terminology
C3.5
describe the chemical properties (e.g. flammability, reactivity, reaction in water, reaction in
acids, reaction with pH test strips) of common materials (e.g. paints, solvents, metals)
-8-
D. BIOLOGY: LIVING TOGETHER
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
D1.
D2.
D3.
explore some factors related to human activities that affect terrestrial and aquatic
ecosystems;
investigate, using appropriate laboratory and research skills, the implications and
challenges of organisms living in communities;
explain the strategies that organisms use for successful coexistence in populations and
communities.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
D1.
Relating Science to Technology,
Society, and the Environment
By the end of this course, students will:
D1.1
develop a simple action plan to address a local environmental issue
Sample issues: conduct a school recycling program that addresses waste management; to
promote car-pooling or public transit to reduce air pollution; practice conservation during
fishing and hunting to maintain animal populations; operate a composter successfully; to
manage a school garden to maintain plant populations; participate in community data
collection projects such as bird, insect, or tree population surveys) [IP, C]
D1.2
determine, through a case study, and explain how humans organize their communities to
address challenges of living together
Sample issues: waste management in a workplace, regulations on water treatment,
disease control, smoking regulations, responsibilities within a school or community for
conservation of resources, operation of a local food bank, by-laws on the use of herbicides
and pesticides) [PR, AI, C]
D2.
Developing Skills of Investigation
and Communication
By the end of this course, students will:
D2.1
use appropriate terminology related to ecosystems including, but not limited to: biotic,
abiotic, population, community, ecosystem, producer, consumer, herbivore, omnivore,
carnivore, decomposer, food chain, food web, biodiversity, aquatic, and terrestrial [C]
-9-
D2.2
make accurate observations of the organisms that exist in a community (e.g., pond water),
using a microscope [PR, C]
D2.3
investigate the characteristics and interactions of biotic and abiotic components of a
terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem, and describe the importance of these components in a
sustainable ecosystem (e.g., effects of temperature, humidity, pH, soil composition, nutrient
levels on plant growth or pond organisms) [PR, AI]
D2.4
plan and conduct an experiment to investigate the results of overcrowding in macroscopic
populations (e.g., growing plants in close proximity, fruit fly culture) including measuring rate
of growth of population size [IP, PR, AI]
D2.5
use a variety of research strategies to determine the specific roles of individuals within a
population (wolf packs, bee colony, lion prides, ant colony, whale pod) [PR]
D2.6
using observations, graph data, interpret patterns and communicate results orally and/or in
writing (e.g., predator-prey, competition, invasive species) [C]
D3.
Understanding Basic Concepts
By the end of this course, students will:
D3.1
identify the biotic and abiotic components of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems
D3.2
describe the organization and the flow of energy of food chains and food webs
D3.3
describe various methods of interaction between different species living within a community
(e.g., predation, competition, symbiosis)
D3.4
analyze the potential benefits and challenges of organisms living within a population (e.g.,
protection, sharing of food and resources, improved hunting success, pollution due to
waste, spreading of disease, care of young, hierarchical structure)
D3.5
identify some factors, and their effects on ecosystems, which are related to human activities
(e.g., the use of fertilizers, pesticides and organic fertilizers; altered shorelines; waste
disposal and hazardous wastes; strategies for pest species; urban sprawl; invasive species)
-10-
E. PHYSICS: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
E1.
E2.
E3.
analyse the practical uses of electrical circuits and their impact on daily life;
investigate simple electrical circuits, using safe practices;
describe the characteristics of electrical circuits.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
E1.
Relating Science to Technology,
Society, and the Environment
By the end of this course, students will:
E1.1
identify circuits and their components (e.g., fuses, circuit breakers, switches, loads in
appliances, electronic equipment, household wiring, handheld tools) in household and
workplace settings [C]
E1.2
develop a logical checklist to trouble shoot an electrical device of personal choice (e.g., CD
or DVD player, hair dryer or curling iron, VCR, electric floor cleaner, electronic balance,
calculator, toaster, flashlight, electric drill) [AI, C]
E2.
Developing Skills of Investigation
and Communication
By the end of this course, students will:
E2.1
use appropriate terminology related to basic electrical concepts including, but not limited to:
current, ampere, potential difference, volts, source, load, open and closed circuit, conductor,
insulator [C]
E2.2
design, build, and test an electrical circuit to investigate the components of an electrical
circuit (e.g., load, source, control device, connecting wires) [IP, PR]
E2.3
conduct investigations about circuits using electrical materials and/or computer simulations
(e.g., loads connected in series and parallel, batteries connected in series or parallel,
number of loads in a circuit, number of batteries in a circuit) [PR]
E2.4
measure and record the current and potential difference in simple circuits using an ammeter
and a voltmeter [PR]
-11-
E2.5
E3.
apply appropriate symbols to interpret and communicate electrical circuits through
schematic diagrams [AI, C]
Understanding Basic Concepts
By the end of this course, students will:
E3.1
demonstrate an understanding that electrical energy can by converted into other forms of
usable energy within electrical circuits (e.g., heat, light, motion)
E3.2
identify how household and workplace electrical devices operate by converting energy to
another form (e.g., conversion of electrical energy to light energy in a lightbulb; conversion
of electrical energy to heat energy in a stove, electric heater or heat lamp; conversion of
chemical energy to electrical energy in a battery; conversion of electrical energy to the
energy of motion in an analog watch)
E3.3
use appropriate symbols to represent different components in various types electrical
circuits (e.g., ammeter, wire, switch, battery, cell, light bulb, motor, resistor, voltmeter)
E3.4
compare the differences between the characteristics of series and parallel circuits
-12-
Science, Grade 10
Locally Developed
SNC2L
________________________________________________________________________
This course emphasizes reinforcing and strengthening science-related knowledge and skills,
including scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and the environmental impact of science and
technology, to prepare students for success in everyday life and in the workplace. Students
explore a range of topics, including science in the media, interactions of common materials, lifesustaining processes in organisms, and the interaction of light and matter. Students have the
opportunity to extend scientific process skills and to continue developing their skills in reading,
writing, and oral language through relevant and practical science activities.
Prerequisite: None
_______________________________________________________________________________
Big Ideas
Scientific Inquiry
•
Science-related information can be presented using various types of print and electronic
media for different purposes and audiences.
•
Scientific claims which are presented in the media can be tested for validity.
Chemistry
•
Common materials can react together in various ways and can be influenced by external
factors.
•
There are costs and benefits associated with the use of common materials.
Biology
•
Organisms are made of cells, tissues, and organs that are organized into systems.
•
Cells, tissues, organs, and systems can be affected by internal and external influences.
Physics
•
Light has characteristics and properties that can be manipulated with mirrors and lenses.
•
Society has benefitted from the development of a range of optical devices.
Fundamental Concepts Covered in This Course
Fundamental Concepts
Scientific Inquiry
Chemistry
Biology
Physics
°
Matter
°
Energy
Systems & Interactions
°
Structure & Function
°
Sustainability &
Stewardship
°
Change & Continuity
°
°
°
°
-13-
°
A. SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION SKILLS & CAREER EXPLORATION
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
Throughout this course, students will:
A1.
A2.
demonstrate scientific investigation skills (related to both inquiry and research) in the four
areas of skills (initiating and planning, performing and recording, analysing and
interpreting and communicating);
identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study, and
identify scientists, including Canadians, who have made contributions to those fields.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1.
Specific Investigation Skills
Throughout this course, students will:
Initiating and Planning [IP]
A1.1
formulate scientific questions about observed relationships, ideas, problems, and/or issues,
make predictions, and/or formulate hypotheses to focus inquiries or research
A1.2
select appropriate instruments (e.g., a microscope, laboratory glassware, an optical bench)
and materials (e.g., prepared slides, lenses, acid-base indicators) for particular inquiries
A1.3
identify and locate print, electronic, and human sources that are relevant to research
questions
A1.4
apply knowledge and understanding of safe practices and procedures when planning
investigations (e.g., appropriate techniques for handling, storing, and disposing of laboratory
materials [following the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System - WHMIS]; safe
operation of optical equipment; safe handling and disposal of biological materials), with the
aid of appropriate support materials (e.g., the Reference Manual on the WHMIS website;
the Live Safe! Work Smart! website)
Performing and Recording [PR]
A1.5
conduct inquiries, controlling some variables, adapting or extending procedures as required,
and using standard equipment and materials safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect
observations and data
A1.6
gather data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data using
appropriate formats, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and/or diagrams
-14-
A1.7
select, organize, and record relevant information on research topics from various sources,
including electronic, print, and/or human resources (e.g., website for a public health
organization, federal and provincial government publications, reference books, personal
interviews), using recommended formats and an accepted form of academic documentation
Analysing and Interpreting [AI]
A1.8
analyse and interpret qualitative and/or quantitative data to determine whether the evidence
supports or refutes the initial prediction or hypothesis, identifying possible sources of error,
bias, or uncertainty
A1.9
analyse the information gathered from research sources for reliability and bias
A1.10 draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their
conclusions
Communicating [C]
A1.11 communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in
electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data
tables, laboratory reports, presentations, debates, models)
A1.12 use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation, and appropriate
units of measurement (e.g., SI and imperial units)
A1.13 express the results of any calculations involving data accurately and precisely (e.g.,
calculating averages)
A2.
Career Exploration
Throughout this course, students will:
A2.1
identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study and the
education and training necessary for these careers
A2.2
identify scientists, including Canadians (e.g., Maude Abbott, Paul Kebarle, Reginald
Fessenden, James Hillier, Sheela Basrur, Willard Boyle), who have made a contribution to
the fields of science under study
-15-
B. SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY: SCIENCE IN MEDIA
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.
B2.
B3.
evaluate claims and presentations of science-related information in media;
investigate science-related information presented in print and electronic media using
appropriate research and laboratory skills;
explain how science-related information is presented in print and electronic media for
different purposes and audiences.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1.
Relating Science to Technology,
Society, and the Environment
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1
formulate testable questions about science-related claims and representations in the media
(e.g., advertising in print or on TV, information provided in a movie or TV show or website,
science information used in magazine or newspaper articles) [IP]
B1.2
develop procedures to assess these claims and representations, using information research
and/or laboratory investigations [PR]
B1.3
evaluate the investigation and suggest improvements (e.g., present and defend their
findings) [AI]
B1.4
communicate, by creating a media work (e.g., web page, poster, television commercial)
science-related information to a workplace audience [C]
Sample issues: hand-washing reminder, safe handling of cleaning chemicals, precautions
for use of electrical devices, safe handling and preparation of food
B2.
Developing Skills of Investigation
and Communication
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1
use appropriate terminology related to science in media including, but not limited to: bias,
fair test, claim, testimonial, promotion, persuasion, environmentally friendly [C]
B2.2
formulate testable questions on science-related claims and conduct investigations based on
the concept of a fair test (e.g., testing cleaning power of detergents or shampoos, lasting
power of “waterproof” mascara, relative strength of super-glues, water absorption by
diapers) [IP]
-16-
B2.3
B3.
plan and conduct an investigation comparing a traditional product with an environmentally
friendly alternative product (e.g., detergent, household cleaners, garbage bags, disposable
cups and plates) [PR]
Understanding Basic Concepts
By the end of this course, students will:
B3.1
identify the ways in which scientific information is conveyed (e.g., product labels; graphic
text in billboards, newspapers, instructions; graphs and tables in magazines, TV, posters;
visual images in print and electronic media; vocabulary and dialogue in radio advertising or
movies)
B3.2
discuss, using examples, how the method of presenting scientific information connects to
the purpose (e.g., find and compare examples used for promotion, persuasion, education,
entertainment)
B3.3
explain how different formats used in the media to present science information target
specific audiences (e.g., graphs and charts in health-related advertising, statistics on car
performance, simplified vocabulary in movies, diagrams in newspapers)
-17-
C. CHEMISTRY: INTERACTIONS OF COMMON MATERIALS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.
C2.
C3.
analyse how the interactions of common materials affect our daily lives;
investigate the types and rates of interactions between common materials through
laboratory activities;
understand how chemicals in common household and workplace materials interact.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1.
Relating Science to Technology,
Society, and the Environment
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1
research the interactions of materials that are used in daily life (e.g., hair or clothing dyes,
cleaning solvents, paints, fuels, silage, pesticides and herbicides, plastics) [PR]
C1.2
analyse the costs and benefits of a specific material with reference to its interactions with
other materials in the environment [PR, AI]
Sample issues: solvents - flammability versus use in dry cleaning; plastics - light weight
and can be formed into many different products versus hazardous when burned
C1.3
communicate an opinion, supported by evidence, about the use of a particular material, with
consideration for its physical and chemical interactions and impact on the environment [IP,
PR, AI, C]
Sample issues: plastic containers for food storage, latex paint for household exteriors,
vinegar as a cleaning agent, butane lighters, alternative materials for car body repair)
C2.
Developing Skills of Investigation
and Communication
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1
use appropriate terminology related to interactions of common materials, including, but not
limited to: reactant, product, word equation, chemical reaction, solvent, solute, chemical
indicator, chemical, physical, acid, and base [C]
-18-
C2.2
conduct experiments to investigate how materials can interact chemically and communicate
their findings (e.g., combine steel wool with oxygen, combine copper chloride and aluminum
foil) [PR, C]
C2.3
conduct experiments to investigate how acids and bases interact with each other in
neutralization reactions and with chemical indicators (e.g., litmus, phenolphthalein, beet
juice, red cabbage water) [PR, C]
C2.4
conduct experiments to determine the factors affecting rates of chemical reactions and
communicate their findings (e.g., temperature, surface area, concentration, presence of a
catalyst) [PR, C]
C3.
Understanding Basic Concepts
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1
recognize the relationships among chemical formulae, composition, and common names for
some common materials (e.g., HCl (aq), hydrochloric acid, muriatic acid; NaCl, sodium
chloride, table salt)
C3.2
distinguish between chemical reactions (e.g., burning paper, reacting metals with acids) and
physical processes (e.g., changes of states, making and diluting solutions)
C3.3
identify the factors that alter the rate of chemical reactions (e.g., temperature, surface area,
concentration, presence of a catalyst)
C3.4
compare the characteristics of acids and bases, and describe how the pH scale is used to
classify their strength
-19-
D. BIOLOGY: TISSUES, ORGANS, AND SYSTEMS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
D1.
D2.
D3.
examine some hereditary factors and lifestyle choices that have an impact on human
tissues, organs or systems and evaluate their effects on human health;
investigate through laboratory activities the various systems which are necessary to
sustain life;
demonstrate an understanding of the hierarchical organization from cells, to tissues,
organs, and systems in humans.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
D1.
Relating Science to Technology,
Society, and the Environment
D1.1
use scientific investigation skills to research health problems (e.g., asthma, sickle-cell
anemia, heart disease, Crohn’s disease) related to tissues, organs or systems in humans
[IP, PR, AI, C]
D1.2
use scientific investigation skills to research how lifestyle choices relate to a healthy body
[IP, PR, AI, C]
Sample issues: the effects of cigarettes, eating a balanced diet, getting an appropriate
amount of sleep, effects of substance abuse
D2.
Developing Skills of Investigation
and Communication
By the end of the course, students will:
D2.1
use appropriate terminology related to human cells, tissues, organs and systems, including
but not limited to: digestion, ingestion, respiration, excretion, circulation [C]
D2.2
formulate questions, plan and perform simple experiments to investigate how organisms
respond to environmental stimuli (e.g., earthworm response to light, plant response to
gravity or light, mimosa plant response to touch, Euglena response to light, eye response to
light, production of saliva) [IP, PR, AI, C]
D2.3
make accurate observations and draw labeled biological diagrams using microscopes
and/or microviewers [PR, C]
D2.4
locate, through a laboratory or computer-simulated dissection, the organs within various
systems of an animal (e.g., a worm, a frog, a fish, a grasshopper) [PR]
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D3.
Understanding Basic Concepts
By the end of the course, students will:
D3.1
describe the basic life-sustaining processes of organisms (e.g., ingestion of food, waste
removal, gas exchange, material transport, response to environmental stimuli, reproduction,
growth and development)
D3.2
describe the structure and function for the basic components of a typical animal cell (e.g.,
nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane)
D3.3
explain cell organization by describing the link between cells, tissues, organs, and systems
in the human body
D3.4
identify the organs and explain the general function for some of the systems in the human
body (e.g., circulatory, digestive and respiratory systems)
D3.5
describe the basic interactions between systems in the human body (e.g., connection
between respiratory and circulatory systems)
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E. PHYSICS: LIGHT AND OPTICS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of the course, students will:
E1.
E2.
E3.
analyze the properties of light as they are applied to optical devices and explain their
impact on society;
investigate, through inquiry, the properties of light using mirrors and lenses;
demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics and properties of light with respect
to transmission and reflection.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
E1.
Relating Science to Technology,
Society, and the Environment
By the end of the course, students will:
E1.1
explain how the properties of light are applied in the operation of an optical device (e.g., eye
glasses, security mirrors, car mirrors, make-up mirrors, magnifying glasses, dentistry
mirrors) [PR, C]
E1.2
research and assess the economic and environmental costs and benefits of various types of
light bulbs (e.g., incandescent, LED, CFL) [IP, PR, AI, C]
E2.
Developing Skills of Investigation
and Communication
By the end of the course, students will:
E2.1
use appropriate terminology related to light and optics, including, but not limited to: normal,
mirror, lens, converging, diverging, convex, concave, angle of incidence, angle of reflection
[C]
E2.2
investigate the reflection of light using various types of mirrors and lenses (e.g., plane,
converging, diverging) [PR, C]
E2.3
use an inquiry process to investigate the law of reflection using a plane mirror [PR, AI, C]
E2.4
investigate how various objects (e.g., opaque, transparent and translucent) reflect, transmit
or absorb light [PR, C]
E2.5
construct an optical device (e.g., funhouse mirror, solar oven, security system, periscope)
that uses a variety of mirrors and/or lenses [IP, PR]
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E3.
Understanding Basic Concepts
By the end of this course, students will:
E3.1
describe various sources of light (e.g., incandescence, chemiluminescence, LED)
E3.2
describe what happens to light when it strikes an object (e.g., absorbed, reflected, or
transmitted)
E3.3
explain regular and diffuse reflection of light
E3.4
explain the law of reflection of light using a plane mirror (e.g., angle of incidence equals
angle of reflection)
E3.5
explain how light is reflected within the human eye
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