Application note No. 10367 - Developing an effective SCCR plan for facilities and purchasers of industrial equipment

Application note No. 10367 - Developing an effective SCCR plan for facilities and purchasers of industrial equipment
Application Note 10367
Effective February 2015
Developing an effective SCCR plan for facilities and
purchasers of industrial equipment
Contents
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Challenges associated with equipment SCCR code compliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Misconceptions regarding equipment SCCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Concepts for developing an equipment SCCR protection plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Appendix A: “Worst case“ fault current calculation and example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Appendix B: Evaluating and implementing an SCCR plan for existing and new equipment . . . . . . 8
Appendix C: Fault current warning label. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Appendix D: Writing an SCCR requirement into a machinery/equipment
specification for suppliers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Developing an effective SCCR plan for facilities and
purchasers of industrial equipment
Application Note 10367
Effective February 2015
Equipment SCCR that is
lower than the available
fault current can pose a
serious danger.
Background
Short-Circuit Current Rating (SCCR) is the amount of current an
electrical component or assembly is able to safely withstand in
the event of a fault (also commonly referred to as a short-circuit
current event) when properly applied. SCCRs apply to almost
all industrial control panels used for operating machinery and
equipment.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and
the National Electrical Code® (NEC®) require sufficient shortcircuit current protection of industrial control panels to protect
equipment and personnel from certain risks in the event of a
short-circuit (fault) event. Protection from fault current events is
often properly specified and applied in electrical switchgear and
distribution equipment (such as panel boards and switchboards),
but it is often misunderstood or misapplied when it comes to
industrial control panels.
This application note is written to raise the level of awareness
regarding the need for equipment SCCRs, as well as describe
concepts for creating an equipment SCCR plan. It’s important
to note that each facility should consider its unique needs
and circumstances when developing an SCCR plan for their
equipment. SCCR plans may consist of some or all of the
solutions presented in this application note, or may require other
solutions to achieve compliance with prevailing agency, code
and regulatory requirements. Always consult qualified resources
when developing and evaluating an SCCR plan.
The NEC® requires industrial control panels be marked with the
assembly SCCR as well (409.110, 670.3(A), 440.4(B). The NEC®
and OSHA require that electrical equipment provide sufficient
protection against short-circuit current events. 1910.303(b)(5) of
the OSHA regulation requires all electrical equipment, including
equipment that is already installed or new equipment being
installed, meet this requirement and does not provide for any
exemptions. Section 409.22 of the NEC® prohibits the installation
of industrial control panels in locations where available fault
currents exceed the equipment’s assembly SCCR. The available
fault current is the amount of current that would be available in
the event of a short-circuit event, and can vary depending on
the location in the electrical distribution system, among other
factors.
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In the event of a short-circuit (fault current) event, overcurrent
protective devices, such as circuit breakers and fuses, will
open the circuit. It is not enough that the overcurrent protective
devices have a sufficient interrupting rating for the fault current
levels. The other devices in the circuit, such as contactors,
disconnects, power distribution blocks and others, will also see
a portion of the available fault current. The fault current these
devices experience is the amount of current the overcurrent
protective device “lets through“ before completely opening
the circuit, (commonly referred to as the “let-through current”).
The amount of let-through current will vary depending on the
magnitude of the fault current, type of overcurrent protective
device and its amp rating, and other factors. It is important that
the components not intended to interrupt fault-level currents
be properly paired with overcurrent protective devices. These
non-overcurrent protective devices must be properly rated with
sufficient “withstand“ ratings in conjunction with overcurrent
protective devices so that they do not sustain extensive damage.
This rating, called the Short-Circuit Current Rating (SCCR) of the
device, is typically applied to components that do not provide
overcurrent protection and are used in power circuits of control
panels. These component SCCRs are established and certified
through actual short-circuit testing that validates the SCCR and
the conditions by which the rating is achieved.
The ability of these devices to withstand short-circuit events
depends greatly on the circuit’s overcurrent protective device
attributes and sometimes external factors (such as wire size
and length, enclosure volume and type, etc.). The requirements
are specified as a part of device component SCCR and must
be properly applied in order to achieve the specified level of
protection against a short-circuit.
In addition to component SCCRs for non-overcurrent protective
devices in the panel’s circuit, the overall control panel must have
an assembly short circuit current rating (assembly SCCR). This
is most commonly determined using the UL 508A procedure
that uses the component SCCRs to determine the panel’s or
assembly’s SCCR.
What is the risk?
Panels with insufficient assembly SCCR that are subjected to
a short-circuit event can expose personnel and equipment to
serious danger. Without sufficient assembly SCCR, it is likely
that the devices inside the panel will sustain and cause damage
within the panel, and it’s also possible that damage may extend
outside the panel.
Insufficient assembly SCCR poses the following hazards:
•
Electric shock and burns
•
Burns associated with arc flash and contact with heated
surfaces
•
Injury associate with flying debris
•
Damage to equipment or the facility
•
Arc blast (shock waves, shrapnel, etc.)
•
Vaporized metal
Developing an effective SCCR plan for facilities and
purchasers of industrial equipment
Insufficient equipment SCCR can pose significant risk to
personnel, and can also result in fines and negative publicity.
Data indicates that regulation and code requirements for
adequate protection against short-circuit events may not be
applied properly for new equipment installations.
Substations Transformers Studied
3000
2500
2000
1500
Application Note 10367
Effective February 2015
However, many equipment installations do not require a permit
and thus it is common for an electrical inspector to not be
present during the installation. Under these situations, the
responsibility for code compliance falls on the Authority Having
Jurisdiction (AHJ), which in many cases may be the property
owner or their agent. They may not be aware of the equipment
SCCR code requirement, nor understand the available fault
current level that’s present at the location in the electrical
distribution system where the equipment is installed. As a result,
equipment is often installed without verifying there is proper
equipment SCCR protection against a short-circuit event.
Challenges associated with equipment SCCR
code compliance
1000
500
0
10kA
2%
18kA
6%
35kA
20%
42kA
17%
65kA
37%
100kA
14%
200kA
3%
300kA
0%
A 2014 distribution analysis of substation quotations shows the
majority of the estimated short-circuit currents (available fault
currents) at the substation transformer secondaries are between
35kA and 100kA. However, surveys show a significant majority
of OEMs standardize on a bare minimum equipment SCCR of
between 5kA to 10kA. One would expect that the distribution
analysis of industrial control panel SCCRs have a similar curve
shape, but shifted to the left due to impedance that reduces
the fault current level at the location in the circuit where the
equipment is installed.
Customer survey responses regarding the SCCR level
applied to industrial control panels
We specify/design control
panels with the minimum
ratign of 5kA to 10kA
12.1%
Our default control panel
ratings are 5kA to 10kA,
but we do design for higher
SCCRs if requested
43.9%
We specify/design control
panels with ratings greater
than 18kA
9.1%
We specify/design control
panels with ratings greater
than 35kA
9.1%
We specify/design control
panels with ratings greater
than 42kA
7.6%
We specify/design control
panels with ratings greater
than 65kA
10.6%
We specify/design control
panels with ratings greater
than 100kA
7.6%
The NEC® and OSHA regulations require that electrical
equipment has sufficient protection against short-circuit events.
However, there are several challenges to these requirements for
equipment SCCR compliance:
•
Lack of awareness of code requirement
•
Unknown available fault current levels at each circuit location
where equipment is located
•
Uncertainty of how to address existing equipment with an
inadequate assembly SCCR
•
Lack of assembly SCCR requirements on new equipment
specifications
•
Difficulty locating component SCCRs for the devices used in
industrial control panels
•
Misinterpretation/misapplication of the UL 508A standard for
control panels
•
Changes in the electric distribution system that can raise
available fault current levels, thus potentially affecting the
adequacy of the existing equipment’s assembly SCCR
Lack of awareness of code requirement
56% of engineers surveyed
standardize at the minimum
panel SCCR level
The requirements that industrial control panels be rated with an
assembly SCCR were established in the 2005 cycle of the NEC®.
But what about the existing equipment installed before then?
According to the OSHA regulations (1910.303(b)(5)), there is no
exemption for pre-existing equipment. However, many may not
be aware nor fully understand this requirement, the terminology,
assessment methods or implications.
Unknown available fault current
The data indicate there may be a significant difference between
actual available fault current and the assembly SCCR protection
level that’s applied to equipment’s control panel, potentially
placing personnel and equipment at risk. Further examination
is needed to understand why this may be occurring and the
challenges that may make equipment SCCR compliance more
difficult to achieve.
Fault current studies are sometimes performed during
installations of electrical distribution gear (such as switchboards
and panelboards), but often ignored at downstream equipment.
Available fault current calculation can range from simple to
complex, which may require the support of calculating tools and/
or a qualified third party to perform this task.
If sufficient equipment SCCR is required by code, how can
equipment be installed without a sufficient SCCR for the
available fault current? In cases of new construction or facility
expansion, it is common for an electrical inspector to provide
oversight of the equipment’s installation. In these cases, a
permit is pulled for the project and an electrical inspector verifies
that the code has been followed.
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Application Note 10367
Effective February 2015
Existing equipment with inadequate SCCR
Another challenge that many face is the uncertainty of how to
resolve insufficient assembly SCCRs in existing equipment. A
qualified third party can perform an analysis on equipment with
an unknown assembly SCCR and re-label it with the determined
equipment SCCR. However, this may only confirm that the
equipment SCCR was inadequate to begin with. It is often
difficult to raise the industrial control panel’s SCCR after it’s been
installed. In some cases, select panel devices can be replaced
with others having higher component SCCRs, but this poses the
risk that such substitutions may result in another changes like
altered equipment performance or voiding of warranties. It is
possible to lower the available fault current to acceptable levels
for the installed equipment by installing forms of impedance
upstream. One such example is an isolation transformer. These,
too, can be challenging to execute. There is not a single solution
to resolve all issues with insufficient equipment SCCR. Cost,
available space, and other factors may influence the approach for
resolving insufficient equipment SCCR for each situation.
Lack of SCCR requirements on new equipment specifications
For the reasons mentioned above, most specifications provided
to equipment manufacturers lack a minimum acceptable
equipment SCCR requirement. Thus, manufacturers often
provide a standard design that provides the minimum default
equipment SCCR of just 5kA. Many manufacturers are uncertain
on what level of equipment SCCR they should standardize
upon, as available fault current varies from installation site
to installation site. Without clear insistence or guidance on
equipment SCCR, this important requirement is often ignored up
front during equipment design and installation. Once installed,
it is often very difficult and expensive to raise the equipment’s
SCCR.
Difficulty locating component SCCRs
Surveys show that seven out of ten equipment designers have
some degree of difficulty locating component SCCRs for the
devices they use in their industrial control panels. Looking for
this information can result in extended design costs and project
delays. Engineers without access to comprehensive component
SCCR information often make design decisions that result in
specifying devices that are larger than needed for the application
and result in higher material costs and possibly a larger
enclosure. Component SCCRs are found on the device’s label,
or instruction sheet. Certain component SCCRs are permitted
to be posted on UL’s SCCR web page by manufacturer, but
not all available component SCCR types are posted. This often
creates confusion and frustration for the design engineer. These
difficulties can negatively impact panel component purchases for
the manufacturer and the purchaser. It is important that the right
component solutions be applied to achieve equipment SCCR
objectives in an efficient manner.
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Developing an effective SCCR plan for facilities and
purchasers of industrial equipment
Misinterpretation/misapplication of industrial control panel
SCCR standards
Surveys show that four out of ten equipment designers claim
to have some degree of difficulty understanding or applying the
UL 508A standard regarding SCCR for their industrial control
panels. This could result in insufficient protection against shortcircuit events, or it could result in an inefficient/deficient design.
It is important that manufacturers provide proper documentation
that verifies their equipment’s SCCR was properly determined
in accordance with UL 508A, or that the design was tested and
certified by a qualified third party. Errors could have a significant
impact should a short-circuit event occur.
Electrical system changes that result in higher available fault
current
Fault current level is influenced by a myriad of factors. Changes
within the electrical distribution system and leading up to the
utility source could raise or lower available fault current levels
downstream. Available fault current is subject to the source
supply and the amount of impedance in the circuit. Some
changes that yield positive benefits for electrical distribution
efficiency or electrical supply capacity may inadvertently increase
available fault current levels. For example, replacing an upstream
transformer with a larger or higher efficiency one that will have a
lower impedance. Another example could be replacing electrical
conductors with larger conductors or a more efficient busway
(with lower impedance). A more common example of changing
available fault current levels is relocating existing equipment
within the facility to a location with less total circuit impedance.
Any of the above may result in higher available fault current,
which may in turn be larger than the SCCR of the equipment
located downstream. Industrial facilities should consider an
equipment SCCR plan that provides a protection level that takes
into account future changes that can increase fault current
levels.
Misconceptions regarding equipment SCCR
In addition to the aforementioned difficulties, misconceptions
have developed regarding the application of equipment SCCR.
Below are some of the major misconceptions and considerations
regarding their validity:
•
Standardizing on a high assembly SCCR will result in
significantly higher equipment costs or a compromise in
functionality.
•
This statement is not necessarily true considering the
total cost of the equipment. In most cases, the cost of the
electrical components is a small percentage of the overall
equipment cost. While it may be true that the component
material costs may slightly increase, these incremental
costs may be avoided or mitigated with the right
information and resources, such as a searchable component
SCCR tool. Eaton provides the SCCR Protection Suite
tool, which enables equipment manufacturers to quickly
and easily find component SCCR solutions. With the right
information, a high equipment SCCR can be achieved with
limited to no increase in material costs.
Developing an effective SCCR plan for facilities and
purchasers of industrial equipment
•
Responsibility of assembly SCCR requirements belongs solely
with the equipment manufacturer or installer.
•
•
Current-limiting fuses or circuit breakers resolve all insufficient
equipment SCCRs.
•
•
While the NEC® requires that assembly SCCR for the
location be verified at installation, the ultimate responsibility
for approving the installation falls on the Authority Having
Jurisdiction (AHJ). In cases where there aren’t any federal,
state, regional or local authorities governing an installation
(such as is the case in most equipment installations), the
property owner or their designated agent is considered
the AHJ. OSHA regulations stipulate that employers must
provide a safe working environment as defined in their
regulations, of which protection against short-circuit events
is a requirement. Should a short-circuit event occur that
results in injury to personnel, the employer or the property
owner (or their agent) may be held responsible.
This may be true in some cases, but not all. Context of
current-limiting overcurrent protective device application
must be considered before declaring the panel’s assembly
SCCR. UL 508A Supplement SB permits using currentlimiting devices to raise the SCCR of downstream devices,
but only for branch circuit components. They do not apply
to any of the devices in the feeder circuit, nor can they
be used to raise the interrupting rating of a downstream
overcurrent protective device.
Application Note 10367
Effective February 2015
Concepts for developing an effective equipment
SCCR plan
There are two primary areas that must be addressed in order to
achieve proper equipment SCCR levels, and regulatory and code
compliance:
•
Existing installed equipment
•
New equipment
Addressing and resolving these areas can vary in approach
and implementation costs. All aspects influencing available
fault current levels and equipment SCCR should be carefully
considered for each site and situation. One should not think one
particular method will work equally well in all situations.
However, certain concepts can be applied that result in
developing an equipment SCCR plan that will provide protection
for employees and equipment while taking into account
immediate and future needs.
•
Determine the present available fault current levels. This
includes the available fault current at each location where
equipment is installed and at distribution points,such as
panelboards and switchboards.
•
Consider factors that may affect future fault current levels.
These include changes to the electrical distribution system
which may increase the available fault current. These include,
but are not limited to:
The interrupting rating of the circuit breaker or fuse upstream
of the equipment control panel can be used to determine the
required SCCR of the downstream equipment.
•
This, too, is incorrect, as series ratings are often applied
in electrical distribution equipment. Series ratings raise
the interrupting capacity of a downstream device when
tested in combination with an upstream device. Series
rating permits more cost-effective panelboard solutions to
be used in a distribution system. For this reason the circuit
breaker or fuse upstream of the equipment should not be
used to determine the required assembly SCCR for the
equipment control panel.
These regulations, standards and code requirements for
equipment SCCR exist to improve the safety of the electrical
systems for the worker and the workplace, but an effective
equipment SCCR protection plan is necessary not only to
ensure proper protection during installation, but also sustained
protection following the installation.
•
Future power needs that result in an increase in size of the
upstream transformer or power source
•
Improved efficiency of the upstream transformer or power
source
•
An improvement in the efficiency of the conductors or
equipment in the electrical distribution system
•
A decrease in a conductor length
•
Consider factors that may require a higher equipment SCCR in
the future. One such factor could be relocating equipment to a
location in the circuit where the fault current is higher.
•
Consider methods to resolve insufficient existing equipment
SCCR and their implementation. Such methods may include
introducing a small transformer ahead of the location of
equipment with inadequate SCCR. Other forms of impedance
may be used, or it may be possible that a qualified resource
can alter existing equipment to improve its SCCR.
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Application Note 10367
Effective February 2015
•
Define a minimum acceptable equipment SCCR specification
for new equipment that takes into account present and future
available fault current levels as described above.
•
Where appropriate and beneficial, consider grouping
equipment types by their power demand or by their
location. For example, some equipment types may
have high power demands with higher available fault
current levels and higher equipment SCCR needs. These
equipment types are likely to have higher SCCR protection
needs than other types of equipment. Other equipment
types, such as HVAC equipment, may be consistently
located far enough from the nearest power source such
that the available fault current is lower. These equipment
types may also be grouped together when developing an
equipment SCCR plan.
•
Require that equipment suppliers provide documentation
detailing the individual component SCCRs and method
by which the equipment SCCR was determined. This not
only supports the accuracy of the determined equipment
SCCR, but also identifies the required replacements parts
so maintenance personnel can retain the equipment’s SCCR
during regular maintenance activities.
•
Document requirements. Documentation is a critical step
in communicating equipment SCCR requirements to both
suppliers and personnel and is a key part in sustaining an
SCCR plan. Documentation should be considered in the
following forms:
•
•
Supplier specifications/requirements regarding equipment
SCCR
•
Procedural documentation related to maintenance or
change management that could affect equipment SCCR
level.
•
Labels indicating available fault current (and date calculated)
and minimum equipment SCCR requirements including
downstream equipment. Consider placing these labels at
each electrical distribution system point where equipment
may be installed, such as a panelboard or a transformer.
•
Equipment operation and maintenance manuals including
specific text that precludes component substitution that
may invalidate the equipment SCCR and possibly void the
warranty
•
Training documentation for maintenance and other
personnel
•
Other relevant documentation
Train appropriate personnel on code and regulatory
requirements, and company standards regarding equipment
SCCR.
Appendix A, B, C and D provide examples for some of these
concepts.
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Developing an effective SCCR plan for facilities and
purchasers of industrial equipment
Conclusion
The NEC®, OSHA and UL® recognize the need to provide
adequate protection against short-circuit events. This can only be
achieved by understanding available fault current, communicating
protection requirements to personnel and equipment suppliers,
and proper application of components in the industrial control
panel. Execution of a proper equipment SCCR plan will provide
adequate protection for employees and equipment.
Developing an effective SCCR plan for facilities and
purchasers of industrial equipment
Application Note 10367
Effective February 2015
Appendix A
“Worst case “ fault current calculation and example
“Worst case” available fault current calculation is based on the worst case fault condition at the transformer’s secondary. It
considers the fault contribution from the transformer, motor loads, and other sources. Any other aspects that could potentially
increase fault current levels, including planned changes, should be considered when determining a “worst case” available fault
current level.
IFC = ISC trans + ISC motors
Where:
IFC = “Worst case“ fault current
ISC trans
ISC trans = Fault current contribution
from transformer
ISC motors = Fault current contribution
from motors
IFC
UL 1561 Listed transformers 25kVA and larger have a ±10% impedance tolerance, which can affect short-circuit
current levels. Thus a 0.9 factor is applied to the transformer’s impedance percentage (%). The fault current
contribution of a 3 PH transformer (ISC trans) is calculated using the following equation:
kVA x 1000
I
=
SC trans V x 1.732 x Z x 0.9
Where:
kVA = Transformer size
ISC motors V = Secondary voltage
Z = Transformer percent impedance
This equation assumes unlimited current from the utility. Often it is unknown how much current is available from
the utility, and the above formula is commonly used to define a “worst case“ condition from the utility. Generally
this assumption will not vary significantly from the actual value.
A commonly accepted practice to estimate motor generated short circuit current (Isc motors) is to multiply the total
motor FLA by 4.
Fault current from other sources are less common and in most cases have limited fault current but should be
considered in the worst case scenario if the source is supplying power the same time as the transformer source.
“Worst case“ available fault current calculation example:
In this example, the circuit is fed by a 2000kVA substation transformer with 5.75% rated impedance and a 480V secondary.
Currently 50% of the loads are motors, but the facility management anticipates that may increase to 75%.
Thus 75% will be used when determining the impact of motor loads on the available fault current.
2000kVA Substation transformer
IFC
5.75% Impedance
X
480V Transformer secondary
Isc trans =
kVA x 1000= 2000 x 1000
=46,487A
V x 1.732 x Z 480 x 1.732 x 0.0575 x 0.9
Isc motors =Total motor FLA x 4 = 2000 x 1000 x 75% x 4
480 x 1.732
=
7217A
Ifc = Isc trans + Isc motors
Ifc = 46,478 + 7217 = 53,704A
M
Fault Capacity = 54kA
Minimum Acceptable SCCR = 55kA
A minimum acceptable SCCR for new equipment is established at 55kA.
M
M
M
Loads are 75% Motors
This ensures all properly rated equipment located at any point downstream of the transformer will have
sufficient SCCR, regardless any equipment relocations or upgrades to the electrical distribution system.
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Developing an effective SCCR plan for facilities and
purchasers of industrial equipment
Application Note 10367
Effective February 2015
Appendix B
Evaluating and implementing an SCCR plan for existing and new equipment
In this example, a facility needs to evaluate their electrical distribution system for compliance, and resolve any issues. They also
need to establish an assembly SCCR plan for new equipment so that future additions will maintain compliant with OSHA and NEC®
requirements regarding protection against short-circuit events. In this case, the substation transformer is 2000kVA, with 5.75%
rated impedance and a 480V secondary. Currently 50% of the loads are motors, but expected to climb to 75% with future additions.
The facility plans to install a new production line later this year. The existing equipment must also have their assembly SCCRs
determined.
2000kVA Substation transformer
5.75% Impedance
480V Transformer secondary
Distribution
Equipment
Future
Production
Line
Panelboard
Machine 2
First, let’s determine the worst case available fault current level at the transformer’s
secondary:
kVA x 1000= 2000 x 1000
=46,487A
Isc trans =
V x 1.732 x Z 480 x 1.732 x 0.0575 x 0.9
Isc motors =Total motor FLA x 4 = 2000 x 1000 x 75% x 4
= 7217A
480 x 1.732
Ifc = Isc trans + Isc motors
Ifc = 46,478 + 7217 = 53,704A
M
Machine 1
M
M
M
In this case, the worst case available fault current level at the
transformer’s secondary is 53,704 amps.
Upon inspecting Machine 1, it is determined by the equipment
label that Machine 1’s control panel is rated for 42kA. However,
Machine 2 is older equipment and its equipment label does not
list an assembly SCCR for the control panel.
Using the worst case available fault current level, Machine
1 is not compliant (42kA < 54kA). The facility decides to
pursue a more precise available fault current calculation at
Machine 1. There are three 500MCM cables per phase running
approximately 500 feet between the substation transformer
and Machine 1. Using Eaton’s FC2 fault current calculator,
they determine the calculated available fault current to be
27,782 amps. Based on this calculation, the equipment SCCR
of Machine 1 is adequate for the available fault current at its
location in the electrical distribution system (42kA > 27.782kA).
There are several options to resolve Machine 2’s unknown
equipment SCCR issue. One is to assume the minimum
5kA equipment SCCR on the control panel and determine a
more precise fault current level calculation for the point in the
electrical distribution system where Machine 2 is located. In this
case, a copper bus runs approximately 100 feet to Machine 2.
Using Eaton’s FC2 calculator, the available fault current is 48,817
amps. This does not resolve the issue as the assumed 5kA
default equipment SCCR is less than the available fault current
(5kA < 48.817kA). Machine 2 is older and will be replaced
in a few years. Management considers a reworking and
recertification of its control panel to be a significant investment
for a piece of equipment that will soon be replaced. Machine 2
has a relatively small load, so a decision is made to investigate
lowering the available fault current level below 5kA by installing
an isolation transformer ahead of Machine 2. It is determined
that a 15kVA transformer is properly sized to support the
Machine 2’s load, and a calculation of the worst case available
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fault current on the isolation transformer’s secondary resulted
in an available fault current level of 1023 amps, which is below
the panel’s minimum assembly SCCR (1.023kA < 5kA). To
remedy the 5kA default equipment SCCR assumed for Machine
2, the facility hired an electrical contractor to install a 15kVA
transformer and associated circuit protection, and the issue of
the unmarked equipment SCCR on Machine 2’s control panel
was resolved.
Now that the existing equipment SCCR has been resolved,
the facility determines its equipment SCCR specifications for
any new equipment. The substation transformer is fairly new
and expected to be in service for some time. However, some
portions of the electrical distribution system have aged, and it
is expected some portions may be replaced with busway to
lower energy losses and system impedance. Thus the facility
management determines to standardize on a minimum 55kA
equipment SCCR for any new equipment purchases. This
standardized 55kA equipment SCCR will provide flexibility
and accommodate any utility changes or electrical distribution
system upgrades while ensuring the required short-circuit event
protection for personnel.
Facility management wants to sustain their equipment SCCR
plan it has established for the existing and new equipment. They
elect to post available fault current labels at key points in the
electrical distribution system along with the minimum acceptable
equipment SCCR for new or relocated equipment. These
labels also include warnings to maintenance personnel and
contractors that they are not to make any changes or additions
to the electrical system without prior approval from facility
management. They follow up these events with annual training
for all personnel to advise them of these changes, associated
risks, and their respective responsibilities.
Developing an effective SCCR plan for facilities and
purchasers of industrial equipment
Application Note 10367
Effective February 2015
Appendix C
Fault current warning label
Available fault level labels are designed to enable awareness
of and to maintain equipment SCCR compliance. In order to
increase effectiveness, consider placing labels at points where
electrical systems are accessed by qualified maintenance
personnel or contractors. Examples are at main transformers,
main switchboards, distribution panelboards, or on the
equipment control panels.
Eaton’s Bussmann business offers an online and mobile
application specifically for calculating available fault current levels
called FC2. This application allows users to calculate fault current
levels at a location in an electrical distribution system and
provides the ability to print labels for that location.
Visit www.cooperbussmann.com/FC2 for more information and
access this no-cost application.
2 available fault
current calculator
Project Name:
Brazing Line
Fault Name:
System:
Avail. Fault Current L-L-L (Amps):
Voltage L-L (Volts):
X2
Three-Phase
36,080
240
Calculation Performed On:
Jul 24, 2014 @ 9:58am
Calculation performed via the Eaton Available Fault Current Calculator v1.3
www.eaton.com
9
Developing an effective SCCR plan for facilities and
purchasers of industrial equipment
Application Note 10367
Effective February 2015
Appendix D
Writing an SCCR requirement into a machinery/equipment specification for suppliers
PART 1 PRODUCTS
1.01 MANUFACTURERS
A. Eaton
B. Bussmann
C. Moeller
The above listing of specific manufacturers does not imply acceptance of their products that do not meet the specified ratings,
features and functions. Manufacturers listed above are not relieved from meeting these specifications in their entirety. Products
in compliance with the specification and manufactured by others not named will be considered only if pre-approved by the
Engineer ten (10) days prior to bid date.
1.02 ELECTRICAL POWER AND CONTROL COMPONENTS
A. SCCR Protection
1. Electrical components used in power circuits, including circuit protection devices such as circuit breakers, motor circuit
protectors, miniature circuit breakers and fuses, as well as switching devices such as NEMA contactors and overload relays,
IEC contactors and overload relays, manual motor protectors, Type E combination motor controllers, Type F combination
motor controllers, soft starters, disconnects (fused and non-fused), as well as termination/distribution devices such as busbar
distribution systems, power distribution blocks and terminal blocks, as well as power transformation/conversion devices such as
variable frequency drives, transformers and power supplies shall be selected from the following approved SCCR protection suite
[Select one]:
a. Eaton Ultimate Protection Suite – 200kA+ SCCR
b. Eaton Premium Protection Suite – 100kA+ SCCR
c. Eaton High Level Protection Suite – 65kA+ SCCR
d. Eaton Mid-Level Protection Suite – 35kA+ SCCR
e. Eaton Basic Protection Suite – 18kA+ SCCR
2. Other types of devices not included in 1.02 A. 1, such as solid state relays, servo drives and other special application controllers, must meet minimum SCCR requirements of ____ kA at ____ volts [Enter Requirements].
1.03 INDUSTRIAL CONTROL PANEL ASSEMBLY
A. The short circuit current rating of the panel shall be no less than ____ kA at ____ volts as determined using procedures prescribed in UL 508A [Enter Requirements].
PART 2 EXECUTION
2.01 PROTECTION
A. The short-circuit current rating of the industrial control panel(s) associated with the machinery or equipment shall be determined and verified using the online OSCAR SCCR Compliance application by Eaton.
B. The manufacturer shall provide documentation that states and verifies short-circuit current rating, including approval references for each component and explanation of how the panel SCCR was determined.
Eaton
Electrical Sector
1000 Cherrington Pkwy
Moon Township, PA 15108
United States
www.eaton.com
Eaton’s Bussmann Business
114 Old State Road
Ellisville, MO 63021
United States
www.bussmann.com
© 2015 Eaton
All Rights Reserved
Printed in USA
Publication No. 10367
February 2015
Eaton is a registered trademark.
All other trademarks are property
of their respective owners.
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