BENDIX AD-1 AIR DRYER User manual

BENDIX AD-1 AIR DRYER User manual
SD-08-2415
®
Bendix® AD-SP™ System Purge Air Dryer & SC-PR™
Single Check Protection Valve
“SPIN OFF”
DESICCANT
CARTRIDGE
MOUNTING
HOLES (3)
MOUNTING
HOLES (3)
CONTROL
PORT
HEATER &
THERMOSTAT
CONNECTOR
TURBO
CUTOFF VALVE
DELIVERY PORT
SUPPLY
PORT
EXHAUST PORT
EXHAUST PORT
FIGURE 1 - AD-SP™ SYSTEM PURGE AIR DRYER
DESCRIPTION
The function of the AD-SP™ System Purge Air Dryer is to
collect and remove air system contaminants in solid, liquid
and vapor form before they enter the brake system. It provides
clean, dry air to the components of the brake system which
increases the life of the system and reduces maintenance
costs. Daily manual draining of the reservoirs is eliminated.
The system purge designation is used because the
AD-SP™ air dryer uses a small portion of system air pressure
from the supply and front axle service reservoirs to perform
the purge or regenerative function. An SC-PR™ single check
protection valve or a valve that performs the same function
is always used in conjunction with the AD-SP™ air dryer to
protect the service system.
The AD-SP™ air dryer consists of two major component
groups, a spin off desiccant cartridge assembly and a die
cast aluminum body assembly. The desiccant cartridge is
self contained and serviced as a complete assembly. The
AD-SP™ air dryer aluminum body contains the following
serviceable components or assemblies; the turbocharger
cut-off valve, heater and thermostat assembly, delivery check
valve assembly and combined purge and relief valve
assembly. In addition, the non-serviceable purge control
valve is located in the body. All service and replacement
can be accomplished from the exterior of the dryer without
removal from the vehicle. The spin-on desiccant cartridge
is removed and installed using a “strap wrench.”
The AD-SP™ air dryer has three female pipe thread air
connections identified as follows:
Air Connection Port ID Function/Connection
CON 4 ...................... Control Port (purge valve control
& turbo cut-off).
SUP 11 .................... Supply Port (air in).
DEL 2 ...................... Delivery Port (air out).
1
GOVERNOR
AD-SP™
AIR
DRYER
REAR AXLE
COMPRESSOR
SUPPLY
SC-PR™
VALVE
FRONT AXLE
DELIVERY PORT
(TO FRONT SERVICE
RESERVOIR)
EMBOSSED PORT
IDENTIFICATION “2 DEL”
SUPPLY PORT
(FROM SUPPLY
RESERVOIR)
EMBOSSED PORT
IDENTIFICATION
“1 SUP”
FIGURE 2 - AD-SP™ AIR DRYER SYSTEM DRAWING WITH EXTERIOR AND TOP VIEW OF SC-PR™ VALVE.
OPERATION
GENERAL
The AD-SP™ air dryer alternates between two operational
modes or “cycles” during operation: the Charge Cycle and
the Purge Cycle. The following description of operation is
separated into these “cycles” of operation.
CHARGE CYCLE (refer to Figure 3)
When the compressor is loaded (compressing air)
compressed air, along with oil, oil vapor, water and water
vapor flows through the compressor discharge line to the
supply port of the air dryer body.
Air entering the supply port immediately encounters the
“turbo cut-off” valve. With no air pressure in the control port,
the turbo cut-off piston moves the valve away from its seat
in the body allowing the supply air to enter the body. As air
travels through the end cover assembly, its direction of flow
changes several times, reducing the temperature, causing
contaminants to condense and drop to the bottom or sump
of the air dryer body.
2
After exiting the end cover, the air flows into the desiccant
cartridge where an oil separator, located between the outer
and inner shells of the cartridge, removes water in liquid
form as well as liquid oil and solid contaminants.
After exiting the oil separator, air enters the space between
the desiccant drying bed and the outer cartridge shell and
flows down through the column of desiccant. Flowing through
the desiccant column, air becomes progressively dryer as
water vapor adheres to the desiccant material in a process
known as “ADSORPTION.” Using the adsorption process,
the desiccant cartridge typically removes 95% of the water
vapor from the pressurized air.
Dry air exits the bottom of the desiccant cartridge through
its center opening and returns to the air dryer body
assembly. As air flows through the supply cavity it is also
conducted, via internal passages, to the non-serviceable
purge control mechanism contained in the body. The purge
control mechanism (not shown) is able to monitor supply
air pressure. The air then flows through the delivery check
valve assembly and out the delivery port to the first (supply)
reservoir of the air system. As air moves past the delivery
check valve, on its way to the delivery port, it is also
conducted to the purge control mechanism. The purge
control mechanism is able to monitor air brake system
pressure as well as supply air pressure.
DESICCANT
PURGE
ORIFICE
OIL
SEPARATOR
REAR
RESERVOIR
CONTROL
PORT
SUPPLY
PORT
DELIVERY
CHECK
DELIVERY
PORT
TURBO
CUTOFF
GOVERNOR
PURGE
PISTON
ENGINE
TURBO
COMPRESSOR
EXHAUST
PORT
SC-PR™
VALVE
PURGE /
RELIEF
VALVE
FRONT
RESERVOIR
FIGURE 3 - AD-SP™ AIR DRYER CHARGE CYCLE
The air dryer will remain in the charge cycle until the air
brake system pressure builds to the governor cutout setting.
To protect against over pressurization of the AD-SP™ air
dryer, the purge valve incorporates an integral relief valve
feature. In the event that the compressor unloader
mechanism or governor malfunctions, at approximately 200
psi supply air pressure the AD-SP™ air dryer purge valve
will open (without control pressure), and vent excess air
pressure to atmosphere (refer to Figure 4).
DESICCANT
PURGE
ORIFICE
OIL
SEPARATOR
REAR
RESERVOIR
CONTROL
PORT
SUPPLY
PORT
DELIVERY
CHECK
DELIVERY
PORT
TURBO
CUTOFF
MALFUNCTIONING
GOVERNOR
PURGE
PISTON
ENGINE
TURBO
COMPRESSOR
EXHAUST
PORT
PURGE /
RELIEF
VALVE
SC-PR™
VALVE
FRONT
RESERVOIR
FIGURE 4 - AD-SP™ AIR DRYER RELIEF VALVE OPERATION
3
DESICCANT
PURGE
ORIFICE
OIL
SEPARATOR
DELIVERY
CHECK
REAR
RESERVOIR
CONTROL
PORT
DELIVERY
PORT
TURBO
CUTOFF
SUPPLY
RESERVOIR
GOVERNOR
PURGE
PISTON
ENGINE
TURBO
COMPRESSOR
EXHAUST
PORT
PURGE /
RELIEF
VALVE
SC-PR™
VALVE
FRONT
RESERVOIR
FIGURE 5 - AD-SP™ AIR DRYER PURGE CYCLE
PURGE CYCLE (refer to Figure 5)
PURGE PISTON
When air brake system pressure reaches the cutout setting
of the governor, typically 120 psi, the compressor unloads
(air compression is stopped) and the purge cycle of the air
dryer begins. When the governor unloads the compressor,
it pressurizes the compressor unloader mechanism and
the line connecting the governor unloader port to the control
port of the AD-SP™ air dryer body. Air entering the control
port is simultaneously directed to the turbo cut-off valve
and the purge valve control piston.
The AD-SP™ air dryer purge piston also moves in response
to governor unloader pressure, causing the purge valve to
open to atmosphere. Contaminants in the body sump are
instantly expelled when the purge valve opens. Air which
was flowing through the desiccant cartridge immediately
changes direction and begins to flow back toward the open
purge valve. Oil and solid contaminants collected by the oil
separator are removed by air flowing from the desiccant
drying bed to the open purge valve.
The initial purge cycle consists of two simultaneous
occurrences; the closing of the turbo cut-off valve and the
opening of the purge valve. Each is discussed below under
a separate subheading.
DESICCANT RE-ACTIVATION (DRYING THE
DESICCANT)
TURBO CUT-OFF VALVE (refer to Figure 5)
The primary function of the turbo cut-off valve is to prevent
loss of engine turbocharger air pressure through the
AD-SP™ air dryer in systems where the compressor intake
is connected to the engine turbocharger. The turbo cut-off
valve also eliminates the “puffing” of air out the open air
dryer exhaust when a naturally aspirated, single cylinder
compressor is equipped with an inlet check valve.
Governor unloader pressure causes the turbo cut-off valve
piston to move and close. With the turbo cut-off valve piston
seated (closed position), air in the discharge line and
AD-SP™ air dryer inlet port is prevented from entering the
air dryer.
4
The initial decompression of the air dryer assembly lasts
only a few seconds and is evidenced by an audible burst of
air at the AD-SP ™ air dryer exhaust. The initial
decompression of the air dryer assembly is “sensed” by
the purge control mechanism and is used by the purge
mechanism as a signal that desiccant re-activation should
begin. The purge control mechanism “remembers” the
highest pressure attained in the air system, the cutout
pressure of the governor.
The actual re-activation of the desiccant drying bed begins
as the purge mechanism allows dry air to flow from the
delivery port (air brake system) back into the AD-SP™ air
dryer body and through the desiccant cartridge. The delivery
check valve assembly prevents air pressure in the brake
system from returning to the air dryer and flowing out the
open purge valve. The delivery check valve forces system
air to flow through the purge mechanism. Dry air for the
brake system enters the purge control mechanism through
an air channel located in the delivery port, before the delivery
single check valve. It flows through the mechanism and
exits a purge orifice; its pressure is lowered and its volume
increased. The flow of dry air through the drying bed
reactivates the desiccant material by removing the water
vapor adhering to it.
Dry, brake system air will continue to flow through the
desiccant bed until the purge mechanism senses that the
brake system pressure has dropped between 8 - 14 psi
below what it “remembered” as being high (governor cut
out). For example: If governor cutout pressure was 120 psi
the purge mechanism will use air from the supply and front
axle reservoirs until it detects that pressure has dropped to
between 112 - 106 psi. System pressure will be reduced in
the supply and secondary (front axle) reservoirs only. The
primary or rear axle service reservoir will retain governor
cutout pressure (in the example, 120 psi). The purge cycle
and re-activation of the desiccant drying bed along with the
resulting pressure reduction takes place in approximately
15 - 20 seconds.
CHARGING
BELOW 100 PSI
DIAPHRAGM
SUPPLY
PORT
DELIVERY
PORT
SINGLE
CHECK
VALVE
CHARGING
ABOVE 100 PSI
DIAPHRAGM
SUPPLY
PORT
Once the purge cycle is complete, the purge control
mechanism closes and no further reduction of system
pressure should occur. The air dryer is ready for the next
charge cycle to begin.
DELIVERY
PORT
GOVERNOR
REAR AXLE
RESERVOIR
™
AD-SP
AIR
DRYER
The purge valve will remain open and the turbo cut-off valve
closed after the purge cycle is complete and neither will
change position until air brake system pressure is reduced
to governor cut-in pressure and the Charge Cycle begins.
FRONT AXLE RES.
COMPRESSOR
™
SC-PR VALVE DESCRIPTION
The SC-PR™ single check protection valve, combines a
single check valve and a pressure protection valve in a single
assembly. Its primary use is in conjunction with the Bendix®
AD-SP ™ air dryer and is installed in the front axle
(secondary) service reservoir in place of a standard single
check valve.
The SC-PR™ valve allows the AD-SP™ air dryer to draw air
pressure from the front axle service reservoir during the purge
cycle. It also protects the air pressure in the front axle
service reservoir, in the event of a compressor, supply, or
rear axle reservoir failure, or malfunction of the AD-SP™ air
dryer purge control mechanism.
The SC-PR™ valve is intended for direct mounting to the
service reservoir. Both SC-PR™ valve air connections are
1/2 inch pipe thread and each is identified with cast,
embossed letters for ease of identification and installation.
The letter identifications and connections to the air system
are shown below for reference.
SUPPLY
RESERVOIR
SC-PR™ VALVE
FIGURE 6 - SC-PR™ VALVE CHARGE POSITION*
Air Connection
Identification
System Connection
Supply .................... 1 SUP ....................... Connected to Supply (wet)
Reservoir
Delivery ................. 2 DEL ......................... Nipple Mounted to Front
Axle Service Reservoir
SC-PR™ VALVE OPERATION
CHARGING
During initial air system build up, air flows from the supply
reservoir to the supply port of the SC-PR™ valve. Air entering
the SC-PR™ valve supply port is present beneath the
pressure protection diaphragm and simultaneously flows
through the single check valve portion into the front axle
service reservoir. With supply air pressure less than 100
psi, the pressure protection diaphragm, which functions as
a valve, remains seated on its inlet due to spring force above.
*Cutaway views are functionally correct, but do not represent current form of SC-PR™ valve.
5
When supply pressure reaches 100 psi, the diaphragm moves
away from its seat and air entering the supply port flows through
the pressure protection valve portion, as well as the single
check valve portion, and into the front axle service reservoir.
The pressure protection valve remains open as long as
supply pressure remains above 95 psi.
PURGING
When the AD-SP™ air dryer begins its purge cycle, air from
the supply and front axle service reservoirs flows back to
the air dryer to re-activate the desiccant. Air flowing from
the front axle service reservoir to the supply reservoir must
pass through the SC-PR™ pressure protection valve portion
because the single check valve portion is closed to flow in
that direction.
Since an AD-SP™ air dryer purge cycle begins at governor
cutout (120 psi minimum) and only reduces reservoir air
pressure 8 - 14 psi, the SC-PR™ pressure protection valve
will normally remain open. If a malfunction occurs that
causes the supply reservoir to lose pressure, air from the
front axle service reservoir will flow back to the supply
reservoir until the pressure beneath the SC-PR™ pressure
protection valve diaphragm falls to approximately 95 psi.
With 95 psi or less beneath the diaphragm, spring force
moves the diaphragm into contact with the inlet seat and
air flow to the supply reservoir ceases. The supply reservoir
will continue to lose pressure, however 95 psi will be retained
in the front axle service reservoir for braking.
Any malfunction occurring between the compressor and
SC-PR™ valve that causes pressure to drop below 95 psi
will result in the SC-PR™ pressure protection valve closing
and protecting the front axle service reservoir.
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
Important: Review the warranty policy before performing
any intrusive maintenance procedures. An extended warranty
may be voided if intrusive maintenance is performed during
this period.
Because no two vehicles operate under identical conditions,
maintenance and maintenance intervals will vary.
Experience is a valuable guide in determining the best
maintenance interval for any one particular operation.
Every 900 operating hours, or 25,000 miles or three (3)
months:
1. Check for moisture in the air brake system by opening
reservoirs, drain cocks, or drain valves and checking for
presence of water. If moisture is present, the desiccant
cartridge may require replacement; however, the following
conditions can also cause water accumulation and
should be considered before replacing the desiccant:
6
NORMAL PURGE
DIAPHRAGM
SUPPLY
PORT
DELIVERY
PORT
PROTECTION
FUNCTION
SINGLE
CHECK
VALVE
DIAPHRAGM
SUPPLY
PORT
DELIVERY
PORT
GOVERNOR
™
AD-SP
AIR
DRYER
REAR AXLE
RESERVOIR
FRONT AXLE RES.
COMPRESSOR
SUPPLY
RESERVOIR
SC-PR™ VALVE
FIGURE 7 - SC-PR™ SINGLE CHECK PROTECTION VALVE
PURGE POSITION*
A. An outside air source has been used to charge the
system. This air does not pass through the drying
bed.
B. Air usage is exceptionally high and not normal for a
highway vehicle.
This may be due to accessory air demands or some
unusual air requirement that does not allow the compressor to load and unload (compressing and
non-compressing cycle) in a normal fashion. Check
for high air system leakage. If the vehicle vocation
has changed it may be necessary to upgrade the
compressor size. Refer to Appendix A, Table A and
the column entitled Vehicle Vocation.
C. The air dryer has been installed in a system that
has been previously used without an air dryer. The
system will be saturated with moisture and several
weeks of operation may be required to dry it out.
*Cutaway views are functionally correct, but do not represent current form of SC-PR™ valve.
D. A single check valve, or a device with a check valve
feature, may have been installed to the inlet port of
the supply tank or in the delivery line between the
air dryer and the supply tank. This will prevent regeneration of the air dryer desiccant cartridge and
lead to moisture accumulation in the air reservoirs.
D. With a plug installed in the delivery port, 0 psi in the
control port, and 120 psi applied to the supply port,
apply a soap solution to the purge exhaust port. If
leakage exceeds a 1” bubble in 5 seconds, repair
the purge piston and valve before proceeding to
step 2.
E. Location of the air dryer is too close to the air compressor. Refer to Locating AD-SP™ Air Dryer On
Vehicle section and Appendix A, Table A, column 2
for discharge line length.
2. Perform the Operation & Leakage Tests shown in this
publication.
F. In areas where more than a 30 degree range of temperature occurs in one day, small amounts of water
can temporarily accumulate in the air brake system
due to condensation. Under these conditions, the
presence of small amounts of moisture is normal
and should not be considered as an indication that
the dryer is not preforming properly.
Note: A small amount of oil in the system is normal and
should not be considered as a reason to replace the
desiccant cartridge; oil-stained desiccant can function
adequately.
2. Visually check for physical damage to the AD-SP™ air
dryer such as dented desiccant cartridge, chaffed or
broken air and electrical lines and broken or missing
parts. Check the SC-PR™ valve also.
3. Check mounting bolts for tightness. Re-torque to 50 ft.
pounds.
4. Perform the Operation & Leakage Tests listed in this
publication.
Every 3600 operating hours, or 100,000 miles or twelve
(12) months:
1. Test the AD-SP™ air dryer turbo cut-off and purge valves
for leakage. Disconnect the supply, control and delivery
lines from the AD-SP™ air dryer. Perform the tests below
in the order they are presented.
A. Apply 120 psi shop air pressure to the control port
and a soap solution to the supply port. If leakage
exceeds a 1” bubble in 5 seconds, repair the turbo
cut-off piston and valve before proceeding to step 2.
B. With 120 psi shop air pressure applied to the control port, apply a soap solution to the purge exhaust
port. If leakage exceeds a 1” bubble in 5 seconds,
repair the purge piston and valve before proceeding
to step 2.
C. With 120 psi shop air pressure applied to the control and supply port, apply a soap solution to the
purge exhaust port. If leakage exceeds a 1” bubble
in 5 seconds, repair the turbo cut-off piston and valve
before proceeding to step 2.
Every 10,800 hours; or 350,000 miles or 36 months:
1. Replace the air dryer desiccant cartridge.
Note: The desiccant change interval may vary from vehicle
to vehicle. Although typical desiccant cartridge life is three
years, many will perform adequately for a longer period of
time. In order to take maximum advantage of desiccant life
and assure that replacement occurs only when necessary,
it is important that Operation & Leakage Tests be performed.
2. Perform the Operation & Leakage Tests shown in this
publication.
WARNING!
This air dryer is intended to remove moisture and other
contaminants normally found in the air brake system.
Do not inject alcohol, anti-freeze, or other de-icing
substances into or upstream of the air dryer. Alcohol
is removed by the dryer, but reduces the effectiveness
of the device to dry air. Use of other substances can
damage the air dryer and may void the warranty.
OPERATION & LEAKAGE TESTS (ALSO SEE
VIDEO BW2327)
1. Check for excessive leakage around the purge valve.
With the compressor in loaded mode (compressing air),
apply a soap solution to the purge valve exhaust port
and observe that leakage does not exceed a 1” bubble
in 5 second. If the leakage exceeds the maximum
specified, service the purge valve assembly.
2. Check for leakage around the desiccant cartridge. With
the compressor in loaded mode (compressing air), apply
a soap solution around the desiccant cartridge seal and
observe that no leakage occurs. If leakage is noted,
tighten the cartridge using a strap wrench and re-test for
leakage.
3. While observing the dash gauge(s), build up system
pressure at approximately 1,800 engine/compressor rpm
to governor cut-out. Note the pressure on the dash
gauge(s) at the moment governor cutout occurs and that
the AD-SP™ air dryer purges with an audible escape of
air. Observe the dash gauge(s) pressure for two minutes
after the purge cycle begins. The front axle service
(secondary) reservoir pressure should not drop more than
8-14 psi below the governor cutout pressure noted and
the rear axle (primary) reservoir pressure should not drop
more than 2 psi. Perform this test 3 times to positively
confirm the values.
7
DESICCANT
CARTRIDGE
CONTROL PORT
AD-SP™ AIR
DRYER BODY
PISTON
CAP
O-RINGS
RETAINING RING
DELIVERY PORT
RETAINING RING
SUPPLY PORT
PURGE VALVE
O-RING
CONNECTOR
HEATER & THERMOSTAT
ASSEMBLY
O-RING
PURGE PISTON
SPRING
EXHAUST COVER
RETAINING RING
FIGURE 8 - AD-SP™ SYSTEM PURGE AIR DRYER EXPLODED VIEW
A. If the pressure drop in the front axle reservoir exceeds 8-14 psi, check the air brake system for
excessive leakage and repair and re-test. If the excessive pressure drop persists, replace the AD-SP™
air dryer.
B. If the pressure drop in the rear axle reservoir
exceeds 2 psi, check the air brake system for
excessive leakage and repair.
Build up system pressure to governor cut-out, wait 30
seconds for completion of the purge cycle, then "Fan"
the service brakes to reduce system air pressure to
governor cut-in. Note that the system once again builds
to full pressure and is followed by an AD-SP™ air dryer
purge.
4. Check the operation of the SC-PR™ single check
protection valve. Build system pressure to governor
cutout, wait 30 seconds for completion of the purge cycle,
then drain all air pressure from the supply reservoir while
observing the front axle reservoir dash gauge. Reservoir
pressure should decrease to approximately 95 psi and
stop. If front axle reservoir pressure continues to drop
replace the SC-PR™ valve. Do not attempt to adjust
the SC-PR™ valve. This valve is factory preset and mixadjustment can result in insufficient air pressure in the
front axle reservoir in the event of a line or component
failure. The rear axle reservoir pressure should remain
constant.
8
5. Check the operation of the heater and thermostat
assembly in the body during cold weather operation (if
possible) as follows:
A. Electric Power to the Heater and Thermostat
With the ignition or engine kill switch in the ON
position, check for voltage to the heater and
thermostat assembly using a voltmeter or test light.
Unplug the electrical connector at the air dryer and
place the test leads on each of the pins of the male
connector. If there is no voltage, look for a blown
fuse. broken wires, or corrosion in the vehicle wiring
harness. Check to see if a good ground path exists.
B. Thermostat and Heater Operation
Turn off the ignition switch and cool the body
assembly to below 40 degrees Fahrenheit.
Note: If this test is performed in warm weather (above 30
deg. F) it may be necessary to remove the heater and
thermostat assembly and cool it in a freezer.
Using an ohmmeter, check the resistance between the
electrical pins in the connector. The resistance should be
1.5 to 1.7 ohms for the 12 volt heater assembly and 6.0 to
6.9 ohms for the 24 volt heater assembly. If the resistance
is higher than the maximum stated, replace the heater and
thermostat assembly.
Warm the heater and thermostat assembly to over 90
degrees Fahrenheit and again check the resistance. The
resistance should exceed 1000 ohms. If the resistance
values obtained are within the stated limits, the thermostat
and heater assembly is operating properly. If the resistance
values obtained are outside the stated limits, replace the
heater and thermostat assembly.
REPAIRING THE AD-SP™ AIR DRYER GENERAL
If, after completing the routine operation and leakage tests,
it has been determined that one or more components of the
air dryer requires replacement or maintenance, refer to the
following list to find the appropriate kit(s). When repairing
or replacing components of the air dryer use only genuine
Bendix parts.
MAINTENANCE KITS AVAILABLE:
109495 ... 12 VOLT REPLACEMENT HEATER AND THERMOSTAT
ASSEMBLY KIT
109496 ... 24 VOLT REPLACEMENT HEATER AND THERMOSTAT
ASSEMBLY KIT
109993 ... TURBO CUT-OFF MAINTENANCE KIT
5008414 . DESICCANT CARTRIDGE REPLACEMENT
109995 ... PURGE & RELIEF VALVE MAINTENANCE KIT
65677 ... The SC-PR™ single check protection valve is
non-serviceable. Replace as an assembly.
WARNING! PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW
THESE INSTRUCTIONS TO AVOID
PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH:
When working on or around a vehicle, the following
general precautions should be observed at all times.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the
parking brakes, and always block the wheels.
Always wear safety glasses.
2. Stop the engine and remove ignition key when
working under or around the vehicle. When
working in the engine compartment, the engine
should be shut off and the ignition key should be
removed. Where circumstances require that the
engine be in operation, EXTREME CAUTION should
be used to prevent personal injury resulting from
contact with moving, rotating, leaking, heated or
electrically charged components.
3. Do not attempt to install, remove, disassemble or
assemble a component until you have read and
thoroughly understand the recommended
procedures. Use only the proper tools and observe
all precautions pertaining to use of those tools.
4. If the work is being performed on the vehicle’s air
brake system, or any auxiliary pressurized air
systems, make certain to drain the air pressure from
all reservoirs before beginning ANY work on the
vehicle. If the vehicle is equipped with an AD-IS™
air dryer system or a dryer reservoir module, be
sure to drain the purge reservoir.
5. Following
the
vehicle
manufacturer’s
recommended procedures, deactivate the electrical
system in a manner that safely removes all
electrical power from the vehicle.
6. Never exceed manufacturer’s recommended
pressures.
7. Never connect or disconnect a hose or line
containing pressure; it may whip. Never remove a
component or plug unless you are certain all
system pressure has been depleted.
8. Use only genuine Bendix ® replacement parts,
components and kits. Replacement hardware,
tubing, hose, fittings, etc. must be of equivalent
size, type and strength as original equipment and
be designed specifically for such applications and
systems.
9. Components with stripped threads or damaged
parts should be replaced rather than repaired. Do
not attempt repairs requiring machining or welding
unless specifically stated and approved by the
vehicle and component manufacturer.
10. Prior to returning the vehicle to service, make
certain all components and systems are restored to
their proper operating condition.
11. For vehicles with Antilock Traction Control (ATC),
the ATC function must be disabled (ATC indicator
lamp should be ON) prior to performing any vehicle
maintenance where one or more wheels on a
drive axle are lifted off the ground and moving.
AD-SP™ AIR DRYER REMOVAL
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface and prevent movement
by means other than the brakes.
2. Drain ALL reservoirs to 0 p.s.i. (0 kPa). - Caution:
Compressor discharge line may still contain
residual pressure.
3. Identify, mark and disconnect the supply, delivery and
control port air lines. Disconnect the wiring harness
connector from the heater and thermostat assembly
connector on the body assembly.
4. If so equipped, disconnect, remove and save the exhaust
line from the exhaust port of the air dryer.
5. Remove the three mounting bolts that secure the air
dryer to the vehicle and remove the air dryer.
Note: It is important to retain the three mounting bolts
since their length is specific to mounting the air dryer
without damage. If these bolts must be replaced, the
same length must be used.
6. Remove the AD-SP™ air dryer from its mounting brackets
on the vehicle.
DISASSEMBLY FOR PART REPLACEMENT
AND KIT INSTALLATION
1. The following disassembly and assembly procedures are
presented for reference purposes and assumes that the
appropriate AD-SP™ air dryer kits are on hand. The
instructions provided with these parts and kits should
be followed instead of the instructions presented here.
2. The replacement parts and maintenance kits that are
available do not require full disassembly and in most
cases do not require the removal of the AD-SP™ air dryer
from the vehicle.
3. If removal of the air dryer is necessary adhere to the
following caution:
9
Caution: While performing service on the AD-SP™ air dryer, it
is not recommended that a clamping device (vise,
C-clamp, etc.) be used to hold any die cast aluminum
component as damage may result. To hold the body, install a
pipe nipple in the supply port and clamp the nipple into a vise.
3. Inspect for physical damage to the body casting, broken
and or missing parts.
DISASSEMBLY - TURBO CUT-OFF VALVE
5. Inspect the bores, valve seating and o-ring contact areas
for deep scuffing or gouges or nicks that would not permit
an air tight seal.
1. Loosen the supply port line and allow any residual air in
the discharge line to drain.
2. Remove the retaining ring from the body assembly, then
remove the turbo cut-off cap from the body. Remove the
turbo cut-off cap o-ring.
4. Inspect the interior and exterior of the body for severe
corrosion, pitting and cracks. Superficial corrosion and
or pitting on the exterior portion is acceptable.
6. Inspect the pipe threads in the body. Make certain they
are clean and free of thread sealant.
3. Remove the turbo cut-off piston from the body.
7. Inspect the purge valve piston seat for nicks and
excessive wear.
4. Remove the large and small diameter o-rings from the
piston.
8. Inspect all air line fittings for corrosion. Clean all old
thread sealant from the pipe threads.
DISASSEMBLY - PURGE/RELIEF VALVE
9. All o-rings removed should be discarded and replaced
with new o-rings provided in appropriate kit(s).
1. If so equipped, disconnect, remove and save the exhaust
line from the exhaust port of the air dryer.
2. Remove the retaining ring from the body assembly, then
remove the non-metallic exhaust cover and spring from
the body. Note: The spring exerts a 30 pound force
against the exhaust cover.
3. Carefully remove the purge piston from the body and
remove the o-ring from the purge piston.
10. Lubricate the body bores and o-ring grooves, in the body
and components, with a silicone grease only such as
those packaged with Bendix maintenance kits.
11. Lubricate all o-rings with a silicone grease only, such as
those packaged with Bendix maintenance kits.
Any component exhibiting a condition described in step 3
to 8 should be replaced.
4. The purge valve has two different sides. Note which side
is visible before removing the valve. Remove the valve
from the body.
ASSEMBLY - TURBO CUT-OFF VALVE
DISASSEMBLY - HEATER AND THERMOSTAT
2. Install the large and small diameter o-rings on the piston.
1. Disconnect the vehicle wiring harness connector that
mates with the heater and thermostat connector on the
body. Pry the lock tabs out, on the vehicle wiring harness
connector, before removal from the air dryer connector.
Make sure connector seal is present on the vehicle wiring
harness connector.
3. Install the turbo cut-off piston assembly in the body.
1. Lubricate all o-rings with a silicone grease only, such as
those packaged with Bendix maintenance kits.
4. Install the o-ring on the turbo cut-off cap then install the
cap in the body.
5. Install the retaining ring in the body, making certain that
it is fully seated in its groove.
2. Remove the retaining ring that secures the heater and
thermostat in the body.
6. Before placing vehicle back into service, perform the
Operation & Leakage Tests stated elsewhere in this
manual.
3. Carefully pull the heater and thermostat assembly straight
out of the body.
ASSEMBLY - PURGE/RELIEF VALVE
4. Remove the o-ring from the heater connector.
DISASSEMBLY - DESICCANT CARTRIDGE
1. Place a strap wrench or equivalent tool on the desiccant
cartridge next to the lip low on the cartridge and rotate
counter clockwise to remove the desiccant cartridge.
CLEANING, INSPECTION AND ASSEMBLY
PREPARATION
1. Clean the exterior of the body.
2. Using a clean rag, wipe the body bores clean.
10
1. Lubricate the piston o-ring with a silicone grease only,
such as those packaged with Bendix maintenance kits.
Also lubricate completely around the outside edge of
the purge valve.
2. Install the purge valve in the body making certain that it
is firmly and squarely seated in the body with the correct
side visible. Note: The three "bumps" on the purge valve
should not be visible. If the 3 "bumps" are visible after
the purge valve is installed, the valve must be removed
and re-installed.
3. Install the o-ring on the purge piston, then install the
piston in the body taking care not to cut the piston
o-ring.
4. Install the non-metallic exhaust cover and spring in the
body.
5. Install the retaining ring in the ring in the body, making
certain that it is fully seated in its groove.
6. If so equipped, reconnect the exhaust line from the
exhaust port of the air
7. Before placing vehicle back into service, perform the
Operation & Leakage Tests stated elsewhere in this
manual.
ASSEMBLY - HEATER AND THERMOSTAT
1. Lubricate the connector o-ring with a silicone grease
only, such as those packaged with Bendix maintenance
kits.
2. Install the o-ring on the connector, then slide the heater
and thermostat assembly into the body making certain
not to cut the o-ring. Note that the "tab" on the assembly
fits into the corresponding slot in the body.
3. Install the retaining ring in the ring in the body, making
certain that it is fully seated in its groove.
4. Apply a dielectric grease on the heater and thermostat
connector contacts (both the heater and thermostat and
vehicle wiring harness connector halves).
5. After making certain the accordion seal is in place on
the vehicle wire harness connector, connect the wire
harness to the heater and thermostat assembly on the
dryer until its lock tab snaps ("clicks") into place.
6. Before placing vehicle back into service, perform the
Operation & Leakage Tests stated elsewhere in this
manual.
ASSEMBLY- DESICCANT CARTRIDGE
1. Lubricate the desiccant cartridge sealing ring with a
silicone grease only, such as those packaged with
Bendix maintenance kits and replacement parts.
2. Screw the desiccant cartridge on to the body, by hand,
until the seal makes contact with the body and rotate
clockwise approximately one full turn. If necessary,
place a strap wrench or equivalent tool on the desiccant
cartridge next to the lip low on the cartridge.
3. Before placing vehicle back into service, perform the
Operation & Leakage Tests stated elsewhere in this
manual.
INSTALLATION
1. Install the assembled AD-SP™ air dryer back onto the
vehicle using the same three mounting bolts retained
during removal. Tighten, then torque the three cap screws
to 50 lb. ft.
2. Reconnect the three air lines to the proper ports on the
body (identified during disassembly). If the fittings were
removed from the body, use a thread sealant making
certain none enters the body during re-installation
3. Apply a dielectric grease on the heater and thermostat
connector contacts (both the heater and thermostat and
vehicle wiring harness connector halves).
4. After making certain the accordion seal is in place on
the vehicle wire harness connector, connect the wire
harness to the heater and thermostat assembly on the
dryer by plugging it into the air dryer connector until its
lock tab snaps ("clicks") into place.
5. If so equipped, reconnect the exhaust line to the exhaust
port of the air dryer.
6. Before placing vehicle back into service, perform the
Operation & Leakage Tests stated elsewhere in this
manual.
RETROFITTING THE AD-SP™ AIR DRYER
GENERAL
The following retrofit instructions are presented for reference
purposes only since Bendix aftermarket retrofit and
replacement air dryers are packaged with the most up-todate installation instructions. The instructions packaged
with the AD-SP™ air dryer should be followed instead of
those presented here.
The preceding portion of this manual deals with "in-service"
repair and or replacement of the AD-SP™ air dryer. The portion
of the manual that follows is concerned with installing an
AD-SP™ air dryer on a vehicle not previously equipped with
one.
VEHICLE APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS
The basic application requirements presented here apply
to a standard air dryer installation. The majority of vehicles
in use today will meet these basic requirements however,
some may not.
The following are examples of vehicles where the AD-SP™
air dryer should not be used: bulk trailer unloading
operations, city transit coaches, trash compactors and other
high air consumption or continuous flow systems. When
vehicles of this type are encountered other Bendix air dryer
models must be used. Consult your local authorized Bendix
parts outlet or sales representative for additional information.
1. Charge Cycle Time - The AD-SP™ air dryer is designed
to provide clean, dry air for the brake system. When a
vehicle's air system is used to operate non-brake air
accessories it is necessary to determine that during
normal, daily operation the compressor should recover
from governor "cut-in" to governor "cut-out" (usually 100
psi to 120 psi) in 90 seconds or less at engine rpm's
commensurate with the vehicle vocation. Important
Note: The AD-SP™ air dryer must be used in conjunction
11
with governors which have a 120 to 130 psi nominal cutout pressure. If a governor is used that is not within this
limitation contact your Bendix parts outlet or sales
representative for additional information. If the recovery
time consistently exceeds this limit, it may be
necessary to "by-pass" the air accessory responsible
for the high air usage. Consult your local authorized
Bendix parts outlet or sales representative for additional
information.
2. Purge Cycle Time - During normal vehicle operation, the
air compressor must remain unloaded for a minimum of
30 seconds. This minimum purge time is required to
ensure complete regeneration of the desiccant material.
If the purge time is occasionally shorter than the times
specified, no permanent ill effect should be expected,
however, if the purge time is consistently less than the
minimum, an accessory by-pass system must be
installed.
3. European Air Brake Systems - The AD-SP™ air dryer
must not be installed in brake systems that
incorporate compressors without integral unloading
mechanisms and/or utilize a compressor discharge
line unloader valve. When vehicles of this type are
encountered other Bendix air dryer models must be used.
Consult your local authorized Bendix parts outlet or sales
representative for additional information.
4. Air Compressor Size - The AD-SP™ air dryer was
designed primarily for use with compressors rated up to
30 CFM. It is recommended that when using the
AD-SP™ air dryer with a compressor which has a rated
displacement exceeding 30 CFM that an authorized
Bendix parts outlet or Bendix marketing representative
be contacted for assistance.
5. Holset "E or QE" Type Air Compressors - The AD-SP™
air dryer can be installed with the Holset Type "E or QE"
compressor. When the AD-SP™ air dryer is used in this
installation, the Holset ECON valve should be removed
and the special orifice check valve in the "make-up" line
should be removed and replaced with a conventional
single check valve. This is most easily done using a
special 45 deg. supply port fitting, 112864, and single
check valve 109710.
6. Use the following guidelines to determine the vehicle
application suitable for the AD-SP™ air dryer:
Total Vehicle Res.
Air Dryer Model
Volume (Cu. In.)
Less than 9,000 ........................... AD-SP™ Air Dryer
Less than 9,000 w/several ........... AD-9™ Extended Purge
air accessories or high air
Volume Air Dryer
usage (e.g. transit coaches
& refuse haulers)
Greater than 9,000 ....................... AD-9™ Extended Purge
Volume Air Dryer or
Contact Bendix Commercial
Vehicle Systems LLC
12
VEHICLE PREPARATION
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface and prevent movement
by means other than the brakes.
2. Locate the front axle service (secondary) reservoir in
preparation for installing the SC-PR™ single check
protection valve included with AD-SP™ air dryer retro-fit
kits.
A. With full system pressure in all reservoirs, drain any
single reservoir and observe the reaction of the dash
gauges. If the supply reservoir was drained, no
reaction will be noted on the dash gauges. Drain air
from another reservoir. When the front axle service
reservoir gauge displays a pressure loss mark the
reservoir that was drained. Confirm that the front axle
service (secondary) reservoir has been found by
building system pressure to governor cut-out and
draining the marked reservoir. After the reservoir is
completely drained make a service brake application
and have an assistant observe the front axle service
brakes. The front axle brakes should be inoperative.
B. Some vehicles may be equipped with multicompartment reservoirs. This type of reservoir is easily identified by the presence of more than one drain
cock in the reservoir shell. The most common is a
two compartment reservoir with a "built-in" single
check valve between the two compartments. In most
instances when this type of reservoir is in use, one
of the two compartments (usually the smallest) will
be the supply reservoir and the second compartment will be either the front or rear service reservoir.
Drain air from either of the two compartments and
observe the dash gauges. If the supply reservoir compartment was drained, no reaction will be noted on
the dash gauges. If one dash gauge displays pressure loss note whether it is the front axle (secondary)
or rear axle (primary) reservoir. Mark the front axle
service (secondary) reservoir or compartment. Confirm that the correct reservoir has been found in the
same manner described in 2A.
3. Locate the supply reservoir ("wet tank") and note if a
single check valve is installed in the discharge line
connected to the reservoir. If a single check valve is found
it should be removed before proceeding with the
installation.
4. Locate and mark the single check valve that is used to
protect and isolate the front axle service reservoir.
5. Drain all reservoirs to 0 p.s.i. (0 kPa).
LOCATING AD-SP™ AIR DRYER ON VEHICLE
1. The AD-SP™ air dryer must be mounted vertically (purge
exhaust port toward road surface) outside the engine
compartment in an area of air flow while the vehicle is in
motion. The AD-SP™ air dryer must not be exposed to
direct wheel splash (located behind axle mud flap is
acceptable).
2. Locate the AD-SP™ air dryer as close to the first (supply)
reservoir as possible.
3. Do not locate the AD-SP™ air dryer near heat producing
components such as the vehicle exhaust and make
certain adequate clearance from moving components
(e.g. drive shaft, suspension, pitman arm, etc.) is
provided.
4. Locate the AD-SP™ air dryer on vehicle so that a minimum
of 1” clearance above the cartridge is available to allow
cartridge servicing. Additionally, provide access to the
bracket bolts so the unit may be removed when
necessary.
WIDTH (THICKNESS)
OF AD-SP™ AIR DRYER
MOUNTING
BRACKET
5. When choosing the mounting location for the AD-SP™
air dryer, note the discharge line length requirements
stated under the heading Connecting the Air Lines,
elsewhere in this manual.
VEHICLE FRAME
MEMBER
Important Note: Under normal operating conditions, the
maximum inlet air temperature for the AD-SP™ air dryer
is 150 degrees Fahrenheit.
MOUNTING
BOLT
MOUNTING BOLT
1/4” ABOVE
SURFACE OF
MOUNTING
BRACKET
MOUNTING THE AD-SP™ AIR DRYER
1. Install the AD-SP™ air dryer by referring to Figure 2 and
drilling the triangular mounting hole pattern in a mounting
plate and then mounting the plate on the vehicle or by
drilling the mounting hole pattern in the area of the vehicle
chosen for mounting. Note: Check the vehicle manual
before drilling a frame member.
2. Important: The length of the three mounting bolts used
to attach the AD-SP™ air dryer to the mounting plate is
very important. Refer to Figure 3. The threaded end of
the 1/2" - 13 UNC bolt must be between 1/8" below to
1/4" above the surface of the AD-SP™ air dryer mounting
bracket surface when fully installed and tightened to
50 pound feet. Damage to the dryer body will result if
the bolt warning is ignored.
MOUNTING
BOLT
1/8” BELOW
SURFACE
OF MTG.
BRACKET
FIGURE 10 - AD-SP™ SYSTEM PURGE AIR DRYER
MOUNTING BRACKET BOLT LENGTHS
Measure the thickness of all materials that the three
mounting bolts must pass through. Small adjustments can
be made using flat washers under the bolt heads. Do not
use more than 3 flat washers.
3. Mount the AD-SP™ air dryer on the vehicle using three
1/2" bolts (grade 5 min.) of the proper length and washers.
Torque to 50 lb. ft.
4.134 INCHES
CENTER TO CENTER
1/2” - 13 UNC
THREAD
(3 PLACES)
INSTALLING THE SC-PR™ VALVE
1. Refer to steps 2A and 2B under Vehicle Preparation. If
the front axle (secondary) reservoir is:
A. A single reservoir and not part of a multiple
compartment, proceed to step 2.
B. One compartment in a multiple compartment,
proceed to step 3.
2.835 INCHES
CENTER TO
CENTER
2. Locate the single check valve that protects and isolates
the front axle reservoir and remove it. Remove the air
line fitting from the single check valve and install the
same fitting in the SC-PR™ valve. Install the SC-PR™
valve and fitting in the reservoir port that was formerly
occupied by the single check valve. Reconnect the air
line to the SC-PR™ valve. Refer to Figure 12.
FIGURE 9 - AD-SP™ SYSTEM PURGE AIR DRYER
MOUNTING BRACKET DIMENSIONS
13
3. Locate an unused port in both the supply compartment
and front axle compartment of the multiple compartment
reservoir. Install the SC-PR™ valve in the front axle
reservoir (or compartment). Connect the supply port of
the SC-PR™ valve to either an unused port in the supply
compartment of the reservoir OR Tee into the line between
the AD-SP™ air dryer and the supply compartment of
the reservoir. Note: Use 3/8" air brake tubing. Refer to
Figure 13.
CONNECTING THE AIR LINES
Important General Instructions
The instructions that follow apply to all installations of the
AD-SP™ air dryer regardless of whether the AD-SP™ air
dryer is replacing an existing air dryer or is being installed
on a vehicle that never had one installed.
If the vehicle is currently equipped with an air dryer some
additional considerations apply.
A. If the AD-SP™ air dryer is replacing an integral purge air
dryer, such as the Bendix® AD-9™ air dryer, on a vehicle
equipped with any compressor except the CumminsHolset type E & QE, all that is necessary is that the air
dryer be removed and the existing air lines be correctly
connected to the AD-SP™ air dryer.
GOVERNOR
REAR AXLE SERVICE
COMPRESSOR
SUPPLY
FRONT AXLE SERVICE
FRONT AXLE SERVICE RESERVOIR
SINGLE CHECK VALVE
FIGURE 11 - AIR SYSTEM WITHOUT AD-SP™ SYSTEM PURGE AIR DRYER
GOVERNOR
REAR AXLE RESERVOIR
AD-SP™
AIR
DRYER
COMPRESSOR
SUPPLY RESERVOIR
FRONT AXLE RESERVOIR
SC-PR™ VALVE
FIGURE 12 - AIR SYSTEM WITH AD-SP™ SYSTEM PURGE AIR DRYER
GOVERNOR
REAR AXLE RESERVOIR
COMPRESSOR
SC-PR™
VALVE
FRONT AXLE COMPARTMENT
SUPPLY COMPARTMENT
INTERNAL SINGLE CHECK VALVE
FIGURE 13 - SC-PR™ SINGLE CHECK PROTECTION VALVE INSTALLED IN MULTI-COMPARTMENT RESERVOIR
14
B. If the AD-SP™ air dryer is replacing an integral purge air
dryer such as the Bendix® AD-4™ or AD-9™ air dryer, on
a vehicle equipped with a Cummins-Holset type E or
QE compressor, in addition to removing the existing air
dryer and correctly connecting the existing air lines to
the AD-SP™ air dryer, it will be necessary to remove and
discard the Holset ECON and special orifice check valve.
See Figure 8.
dryer uses a small portion of the supply and front axle
(secondary) reservoir air pressure to purge or dry the
desiccant material. During the Purge cycle, an
approximately 8 - 14 psi drop in air pressure will be noted
on the front axle (secondary) service reservoir dash gauge.
The drop in pressure is the result of using a small amount
of air from the reservoir to purge the AD-SP™ air dryer
desiccant.
PURGE CONTROL LINE
The SC-PR™ valve protects the air pressure in the front axle
(secondary) service reservoir, in the event of a compressor,
supply or rear axle reservoir failure or malfunction of the
AD-SP™ air dryer purge control valving.
1. Install a purge control air line having a minimum inside
diameter of 3/16 inches between the AD-SP™ air dryer
control port and an unused unloader port on the governor.
The control line must be plumbed direct to the governor
and not in series with automatic drain valves, lubrication
systems, etc.
2. The control line should slope downward to the AD-SP
air dryer without forming potential water traps.
™
DISCHARGE LINE
General:
Refer to Appendix A, Table A for recommended discharge
line lengths and sizes for various vehicle applications and
vocations.
PURGE EXHAUST LINE
1. If it is necessary to direct AD-SP™ air dryer discharge
contaminates away from vehicle components a 1” (25.4
mm) I.D. hose can be clamped on the AD-SP™ air dryer
exhaust
WIRING THE HEATER/THERMOSTAT
1. Determine the vehicle's electrical system voltage and
make certain that the AD-SP™ air dryer that is to be
installed contains the same voltage heater. Confirm the
proper voltage by noting the color of the heater and
thermostat connector.
Heater & Thermostat
Connector
Voltage
Color
12 Volts ............................. White, (No other markings)
24 Volts ............................. Gray, or White w/Red Dot
The AD-SP™ air dryer is available with either a 12 or 24 volt
heater and each uses 90 watts of power.
2. A separate wire harness and splice kit is with all
AD-SP™ air dryer replacements and retro-fit kits. Refer
to the instructions contained in that kit for the proper
wiring procedure.
TESTING
Before placing the vehicle in service, perform the following
tests:
1. Close all reservoir drain cocks.
2. Build up system pressure to governor cut-out while
observing that both the front axle (secondary) and rear
axle service reservoir dash gauges rise equally in
pressure from 0 psi to governor cut-out. Note: When
building up brake system pressure to governor cutout
during testing, the engine/compressor should be run at
approximately 1,800 rpm to simulate normal operation
of the vehicle.
If either gauge fails to display this condition, stop testing
and check the installation of the SC-PR™ valve. Note
that the AD-SP™ air dryer purges with an audible escape
of air when governor cut-out pressure is reached.
3. Note that the front axle (secondary) service reservoir
pressure drops approximately 8 - 14 psi and that the
rear axle service reservoir loses no air pressure.
4. "Fan" the service brakes to reduce system air pressure
to governor cut-in. Note that the system once again builds
to full pressure and is followed by a purge at the
AD-SP™ air dryer exhaust.
5. Test the operation of the SC-PR™ valve. Build system air
pressure to governor cut-out and turn the ignition off.
Drain the supply reservoir and note that pressure in the
front axle (secondary) service reservoir does not drop
below 90 psi.
6. It is recommended that the following items be tested for
leakage to assure that the AD-SP™ air dryer will not
cycle excessively:
(A) Total air system leakage (See Bendix publication
BW-5057 "Air Brake Handbook").
(B) Compressor unloader mechanism.
TESTING THE AD-SP™ AIR DRYER
(C) Governor.
GENERAL OPERATIONAL STATEMENT
(D) Drain cock and safety valve in first (supply)
reservoir.
The AD-SP™ system purge air dryer, operates differently
than integral purge air dryers such as the AD-9™ air dryer.
The "System Purge", designation is used because this air
(E) All air connections leading to and from the first
(supply) reservoir.
15
AD-SP™ AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
SYMPTOMS
1. Dryer is constantly
“cycling” or purging.
Dryer purges frequently
(every 4 minutes or less
while vehicle is idling).
CAUSE
A. Excessive system
leakage.
IMPORTANT: Note whether
air pressure loss is shown
on dash gauge(s). Pressure
loss shown on gauges is
caused by service brake
system or component
leakage. Pressure loss NOT
SHOWN on gauges is
caused by supply system or
component leakage.
REMEDY
A. If leakage IS SHOWN on gauges test for
excessive service brake system leakage.
Allowable leakage:
Single vehicle - 1 psi/minute either service
reservoir.
Tractor trailer - 3 psi/minute either service
reservoir. Repair and retest as required.
B. If leakage is NOT SHOWN on gauges test for
excessive supply system leakage.
Remove drain cock or valve in supply reservoir (wet
tank) and install air gauge. Build system pressure,
allow air dryer to purge and observe air gauge in
supply reservoir. Pressure drop should not exceed 1
psi per minute. Perform tests 1 to 5 in the order
presented.
16
AD-SP™ AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
CAUSE
REMEDY
1. Test fittings, hoses, lines and connections. Apply
soap solution to detect excessive leakage.
Tighten or replace as needed then repeat the air
dryer charge-purge cycle and observe the gauge
installed in the supply reservoir. If leakage is
within limits remove gauge from reservoir and
replace drain cock or valve. If excessive leakage
is detected, continue testing.
2. Test accessories connected to supply reservoir.
Drain all air pressure from system, disconnect all
air lines leading to accessories (fan clutch,
wipers, air seats, etc.) and plug the reservoir at
disconnection point. Build air system pressure
until air dryer purges and observe supply
reservoir gauge. If leakage is no longer
excessive, repair or replace leaking accessory. If
excessive leakage is detected, continue testing.
3. Test governor leakage. Build system pressure to
governor cut-out, turn off engine and apply soap
solution to governor exhaust port and around
cap. Leakage should not exceed a 1" bubble in 5
seconds. Reduce system pressure to 80 psi or
less, and re-apply soap solution. Leakage should
not exceed a 1" bubble in 5 seconds. If
excessive leakage is detected in either test,
repair or replace governor.
4. Test compressor unloader leakage. Drain all air
pressure from system and remove the governor
from the compressor. Temporarily plug the
governor unloader port or air line that mated with,
or connected to, the compressor. Build air
system pressure until air dryer purges then
IMMEDIATELY SHUT OFF THE ENGINE.
Observe the air gauge in the supply reservoir. If
leakage is within limits, replace the compressor
unloaders. Re-connect the governor to the
compressor (after removing plug installed in
governor) and retest while observing supply
reservoir gauge. If excessive leakage is detected,
continue testing.
5. Test air dryer purge valve and outlet (delivery)
check valve. Drain all air pressure from system,
remove the control line connection at the air
dryer and plug the end of the air line leading to
the governor (not the air dryer control port). Build
system pressure to governor cut-out and observe
air gauge. If little or no pressure drop is observed
replace the air dryer check valve. If pressure drop
continues, apply soap solution to air dryer purge
exhaust and purge control port (where the control
line was removed). Leakage should not exceed a
1" bubble in 5 seconds. If leakage is excessive
repair or replace purge valve assembly.
17
AD-SP™ AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
2. Water and/or Oil in
Supply or Service
Reservoir.
18
CAUSE
REMEDY
B. Leaking (internal or
external) SC-PR™ single
check protection valve.
B. Locate the SC-PR™ valve on the front axle
service (secondary) reservoir and replace.
C. Incorrect governor setting
or malfunctioning
governor.
C. Minimum setting required for AD-SP™ air dryer
installation 100 cut in and 120 cut out. Test
operation of governor. Repair or replace as
necessary.
D. Rapid cycling of the
governor due to air
starvation at the RES
port of the governor.
D. With gauge installed at RES port of governor,
pressure should not drop below "Cut In"
pressure at the onset of the compressor
"Unloaded" cycle. If pressure drops, check for
"kinks" or restrictions in line connected to RES
port. Line connected to RES port on governor
must be same diameter, or preferably larger
than, lines connected to UNL port(s) on
governor.
E. Leaking purge control
mechanism or delivery
check valve in AD-SP™
air dryer.
E. Eliminate all leakage possibilities in 1A Replace AD-SP™ air dryer.
F. High air usage - Vehicle
application.
F. Refer to the "Vehicle Application
Requirements" section of this manual and
verify application.
A. Improper discharge line
length or improper line
material. Maximum air
dryer inlet temperature is
exceeded.
A. Refer to section entitled Connecting the Air Lines
as well as Appendix A, Table A columns 1 & 2
then and check line size and length.
B. Air system charged from
outside air source
(outside air not passing
through air dryer).
B. If system must have outside air fill provision,
outside air should pass through air dryer. This
practice should be minimized.
C. Air dryer not purging
(see Symptom #5).
C. See Symptom #5.
D. Purge (air exhaust) time
insufficient due to
excessive system
leakage (see causes for
Symptom #1).
D. Check causes and remedies for Symptom #1.
E. Excessive air usage,
duty cycle too high - Air
dryer not compatible
with vehicle air system
requirement (Improper air
dryer/vehicle
application).
E. See Appendix A, Table A, column 1, for
recommended compressor sizes. If the
compressor is “too small” for the vehicle vocation
(for example, where a vehicle’s vocation has
changed or service conditions exceed the
original vehicle or engine OE spec’s) then
upgrade the compressor. Note: The costs
incurred (e.g. installing a larger capacity
compressor, etc.) are not covered under original
compressor warranty.
AD-SP™ AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
CAUSE
NOTE: Duty Cycle is the
ratio of time the compressor
spends building air to total
engine running time. Air
compressors are designed
to build air (run “loaded”) up
to 25% of the time. Higher
duty cycles cause
conditions that affect air
brake charging system
performance which may
require additional
maintenance. Factors that
add to the duty cycle are: air
suspension, additional air
accessories, use of an
undersized compressor,
frequent stops, excessive
leakage from fittings,
connections, lines,
chambers or valves, etc.
F. Air compressor
discharge and/or air
dryer inlet temperature
too high.
REMEDY
Charge Cycle Time - The AD-SP™ air dryer is
designed to provide clean, dry air for the brake
system. When a vehicle’s air system is used to
operate non-brake air accessories it is
necessary to determine that; during normal,
daily operation the compressor should recover
from governor “cut-in” to governor “cut-out”
(usually 100 psi to 120 psi) in 90 seconds or
less at engine RPM’s commensurate with the
vehicle vocation. If the recovery time consistently
exceeds this limit, it may be necessary to
“bypass” the air accessory responsible for the
high air usage. An example of where a by-pass
system would be required is when the
compressor is used to pressurize a tank trailer
for purposes of off-loading product. Consult your
local authorized Bendix parts outlet or sales
representative for additional information.
Purge Cycle Time - During normal vehicle
operation, the air compressor must remain
unloaded for a minimum of 30 seconds. This
minimum purge time is required to ensure
complete regeneration of the desiccant material.
If the purge time is consistently less than the
minimum, an accessory by-pass system must
be installed. Consult your local authorized
Bendix parts outlet or sales representative for
additional information.
Air Compressor Size - Although the AD-SP™ air
dryer can be used in conjunction with larger
compressors, it was designed primarily for units
rated for up to 30 CFM. It is recommended that
when using the AD-SP™ air dryer with a
compressor which has a rated displacement
exceeding 30 CFM that an authorized Bendix
parts outlet or Bendix marketing representative
be contacted for assistance.
F. Restricted discharge line. See Appendix A, Table
A, column 1 & 2 for recommended sizes. If
discharge line is restricted or more than 1/16"
carbon build up is found, replace the discharge
line. Replace as necessary.
Discharge Line Freeze-Up: The discharge line must
maintain a constant slope down from the
compressor to the air dryer inlet fitting to avoid low
points where ice may form and block the flow. If,
instead, ice blockages occur at the air dryer inlet,
insulation may be added here, or if the inlet fitting is
a typical 90 degree fitting, it may be changed to a
straight or 45 degree fitting. For more information on
how to help prevent discharge line freeze-ups, see
Bendix Bulletins TCH-08-21 and TCH-08-22. Shorter
discharge line lengths or insulation may be required
in cold climates.
19
AD-SP™ AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
CAUSE
REMEDY
Insufficient coolant flow through compressor. Inspect
coolant line. Replace as necessary (I.D. is 1/2"
min.). Inspect the coolant lines for kinks and
restrictions and fittings for restrictions. Replace as
necessary. Verify coolant lines go from engine block
to compressor and back to the water pump. Repair
as necessary.
Restricted air inlet (not enough air to compressor).
Check compressor air inlet line for restrictions,
brittleness, soft or sagging hose conditions etc.
Repair as necessary. Inlet line size is 3/4 ID.
Maximum restriction requirement for compressors is
25 inches of water. Check the engine air filter and
service if necessary (if possible, check the air filter
usage indicator).
Poorly filtered inlet air (poor air quality to
compressor). Check for leaking, damaged or
malfunctioning compressor air inlet components
(e.g. induction line, fittings, gaskets, filter bodies,
etc.). Repair inlet components as needed. Note: Dirt
ingestion will damage compressor and is not
covered under warranty.
If you found excessive oil present in the service
reservoir and you did not find any issues above, the
compressor may be passing oil.
Replace compressor. If still under warranty, follow
normal warranty process.
G. Compressor malfunction.
H. Air by-passes desiccant
cartridge assembly.
I.
20
Desiccant requires
replacement.
G. If you found excessive oil present in the service
reservoir and you did not find any issues above,
the compressor may be passing oil. Test the
compressor using the BASIC cup method as
described in the Bendix compressor service
manual and referred to in Appendix A, Table A,
column 5.
Replace compressor. If still under warranty, follow
normal warranty process.
H. When replacing the desiccant cartridge, make
sure desiccant cartridge assembly is properly
installed and sealing rings are in place on
mounting surface of desiccant cartridge.
I. Replace desiccant cartridge assembly. Refer to
Appendix A, Table A columns 3 & 4 for
recommended intervals.
AD-SP™ AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
CAUSE
REMEDY
3. Oil present at air dryer
purge exhaust or
cartridge during
maintenance.
A. Air brake charging
system is functioning
normally.
A. Air dryers remove water and oil from the air
brake charging system. A small amount of oil is
normal. Check that regular maintenance is
being performed and that the amount of oil in the
air tanks (reservoirs) is within the acceptable
range shown on the BASIC cup (see also
column 5 of Appendix A, Table A). Replace the
air dryer cartridge as needed and return the
vehicle to service.
4. Air is escaping from air
dryer exhaust during
Charge Cycle but able
to build system air
pressure. (Compressor
pumping.)
A. Air dryer purge valve
leaking.
A. Repair or replace air dryer purge valve.
B. Compressor unloader
mechanism malfunction.
B. One or both dash air gauges should show higher
than normal air pressure. Test compressor
unloader mechanism for proper operation. Repair
or replace unloaders as necessary.
C. Governor malfunction.
C. One or both dash air gauges may show higher
than normal air pressure. Test governor for proper
operation. Repair or replace as necessary.
D. Air flow to the supply
reservoir restricted.
D. Kinked, plugged, damaged hose tubing or fittings:
Check to determine if air is reaching first
reservoir. Inspect for kinked tubing or hose.
Check for un-drilled or restricted hose or tubing
fittings. Repair or replace as necessary.
Desiccant cartridge plugged: Check compressor
for excessive oil passing and/or correct
compressor installation. Repair or replace as
necessary. Replace desiccant cartridge.
5. Air escaping from air
dryer exhaust port
during entire purge
cycle. (Compressor not
running.)
E. Excessive pressure
pulsations from
compressor. (Typical
single cylinder type.)
E. Increase volume in discharge line by added length
or size of line, or add a ping tank.
A. Leaking turbo cutoff valve
in AD-SP™ air dryer.
A. Note dash gauges to verify Purge Cycle has
ended. Perform Air Dryer “Operation & Leakage
Tests” specified in this manual. Repair or replace
as necessary.
B. Leaking purge piston
o-ring in AD-SP™ air
dryer.
B. Perform Air Dryer “Operation & Leakage Tests”
specified in this manual. Repair or replace as
necessary.
C. Leaking or
malfunctioning purge
control mechanism.
C. Replace AD-SP™ air dryer.
D. Leaking delivery check
valve.
D. Perform Air Dryer “Operation & Leakage Tests”
specified in this manual. Repair or replace as
necessary.
21
AD-SP™ AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
6. Unable to build air
system pressure. Air
not escaping from
AD-SP™ air dryer
exhaust (not exhibiting
Symptom #4 plus this
symptom.)
7. Unable to build air
system pressure.
8. Air dryer does not purge
or exhaust air. Note:
this symptom often
precedes Symptom #9
if desiccant cartridge is
not replaced.
22
CAUSE
REMEDY
A. Frozen discharge line.
A. Inspect discharge line installation for water traps
that could freeze. Refer to “Connecting The Air
Lines” section in manual. Repair or replace as
necessary.
B. Compressor unloader
mechanism
malfunction.
B. Test compressor unloader mechanism for
proper operation. Repair or replace as
necessary.
C. Governor malfunction.
C. Test governor for proper operation. Repair or
replace as necessary.
D. Air flow to service brake
system restricted or
plugged. Air pressure on
one dash gauge normal
with no, or low pressure
on other gauge.
D. Kinked, plugged, damaged hose tubing or fittings
in line between supply reservoir and low
pressure service reservoir
A. AD-SP™ air dryer purge
control line incorrectly
connected to governor.
A. Check that purge control of AD-SP™ air dryer is
connected to governor UNL (unloader) port on
governor.
B. Air trapped in purge
control line (between
governor and AD-SP™ air
dryer.)
B. Inspect for kinked, plugged, damaged hose
tubing or fittings. Check for undrilled or restricted
hose or tubing fittings. Repair or replace as
necessary.
C. Governor malfunction.
C. Test governor operation. Repair or replace as
necessary.
D. Compressor unloader
mechanism
malfunction.
D. Test compressor unloader mechanism for
proper operation. Repair or replace as
necessary.
E. AD-SP™ air dryer purge
valve piston frozen
open.
E. Check operation of AD-SP™ air dryer heater and
thermostat. Repair or replace as necessary.
F. AD-SP™ air dryer purge
valve piston stuck.
F. Check operation and repair or replace as
necessary.
A. Air not reaching AD-SP™
air dryer purge control
port.
A. Test to determine air flows through purge control
line to purge control port on AD-SP™ air dryer
when compressor unloaded. Check for undrilled
fittings. Purge control line broken, not
connected, mis-connected, frozen, damaged.
Inspect, repair or replace as necessary. Replace
desiccant cartridge.
B. AD-SP™ air dryer purge
valve or piston frozen
closed.
B. Check operation of AD-SP™ air dryer heater and
thermostat. Repair or replace as necessary.
Replace desiccant cartridge.
C. Extremely high air usage
requirements on vehicle.
C. Refer to the Vehicle Application Requirements
section of this manual and verify application.
AD-SP™ AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
REMEDY
CAUSE
A. This symptom is almost
always accompanied by
one or more of
Symptoms 1, 2, 3, 4,
and 6. See related
causes for these
Symptoms above.
A. See related Remedies for Causes under
Symptoms 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6*.
B. Air dryer not securely
mounted. (Excessive
vibration.)
B. Vibration should be held to minimum. Add
bracket supports or change air dryer mounting
location if necessary*.
C. Defective desiccant
cartridge.
C. Replace*.
D. Compressor passing
excessive oil.
D. Check for proper compressor installation; if
symptoms persist, replace compressor*.
E. Air dryer has not purged
for an extended period.
E. Refer to Symptom #7 Causes and Remedies*.
10. “Pinging” noise
excessive during
compressor loaded
cycle.
A. A single cylinder
compressor with high
pulse cycles.
A. A slight “pinging” sound may be heard during
system build up when a single cylinder
compressor is used. If this sound is deemed
objectionable, it can be reduced substantially by
increasing the discharge line volume. This can
be accomplished by adding an additional four
feet of discharge line or adding a 90 cubic inch
reservoir between the compressor and the
AD-SP™ air dryer.
11. The air dryer purge
piston cycles rapidly in
the compressor
unloaded (noncompressing) mode.
A. Compressor fails to
“unload.”
A. Faulty governor installation: no air line from
governor to compressor or line is “kinked” or
restricted. Install or repair air line.
9. Desiccant material
being expelled from air
dryer purge valve
exhaust (may look like
whitish liquid or paste
or small beads).
-ORUnsatisfactory
desiccant life.
*If desiccant material is being expelled, cartridge and purge valve must be removed from air dryer and desiccant
material must be removed from interior of dryer. Clean the interior surfaces of dryer and install a new cartridge. Clean
and inspect the purge valve before re-installation, or replace with a new purge valve.
23
Appendix A
Table A: Maintenance Schedule and Usage Guidelines
Regularly scheduled maintenance is the single most important factor in maintaining the air brake charging system.
Column 1
Vehicle Used for:
Typical
Compressors
No. of
Spec'd
Axles
Column 2
Discharge
Line
I.D.
Length
1/2 in.
6 ft.
Column 3
Recommended
Air Dryer
Cartridge
Replacement 1
Column 4
Recommended
Reservoir
Drain
Schedule2
Column 5
Acceptable
Reservoir
Oil Contents3
at Regular
Drain Interval
Compressor with up to 25% duty cycle
e.g. Line haul single trailer
with air suspension,
school bus.
5
or
less
High Air Use
e.g. Double/triple trailer, open
highway coach/RV, (most)
pick-up & delivery, yard or
terminal jockey, off-highway,
construction, loggers, concrete
mixer, dump truck, fire truck.
8
or
less
Compressor with up to 25% duty cycle
e.g. City transit bus, refuse,
bulk unloaders, low boys,
urban region coach, central
tire inflation.
24
12
or
less
Bendix® Tu-Flo® 750 air compressor
Compressor with up to 25% duty cycle
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
5/8 in.
9 ft.
Every 3
Years
1/2 in.
9 ft.
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
5/8 in.
1/2 in.
5/8 in.
Recommended
Every
Month Max of every
90 days
12 ft.
For the
BASIC
Test Kit:
Order
Bendix
P/N
5013711
Every 2
Years
15 ft.
Every
Month
5/8 in.
12 ft.
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
3/4 in.
BASIC test
acceptable
range:
3 oil units
per month.
See
appendix
A.
12 ft.
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
Bendix® BA-922™, or DuraFlo™ 596 air
compressor
e.g. Line haul single trailer
w/o air suspension, air over
hydraulic brakes.
5
or
less
Bendix® BA-921™ air compressor
Compressor with less than 15% duty
cycle
Bendix® Tu-Flo® 550 air compressor
Low Air Use
BASIC test
acceptable
range:
5 oil units
per month.
See
appendix
A.
Every
Year
15 ft.
Footnotes:
1 With increased air demand the air dryer cartridge needs to be replaced more often.
2 Use the drain valves to slowly drain all reservoirs to zero psi.
3 Allow the oil/water mixture to fully settle before measuring oil quantity.
4 To counter above normal temperatures at the air dryer inlet, (and resultant oil-vapor passing
upstream in the air system) replace the discharge line with one of a larger diameter and/or
longer length. This helps reduce the air's temperature. If sufficient cooling occurs, the oilvapor condenses and can be removed by the air dryer. Discharge line upgrades are not
covered under warranty. Note: To help prevent discharge line freeze-ups, shorter discharge
line lengths or insulation may be required in cold climates. (See Bendix Bulletins TCH-08-21
and TCH-08-22, included in Appendix B, for more information.)
5 For certain vehicles/applications, where turbo-charged inlet air is used, a smaller size
compressor may be permissible.
Note: Compressor and/or air dryer
upgrades are recommended in cases
where duty cycle is greater than the
normal range (for the examples above).
For Bendix® Tu-Flo® 550 and 750
compressors, unloader service is
recommended every 250,000 miles.
Appendix B
Additional Troubleshooting Information
The troubleshooting procedure presented on the following pages has been excerpted from a laminated card entitled:
Troubleshooting Charging and Air Supply Systems. The complete card can be obtained from authorized Bendix parts
outlets under literature number BW1779. It is presented here because of the air dryers connection to the supply air system
and for convenience. The procedure is not all inclusive but rather represents the most commonly encountered complaints.
STANDARD SINGLE CHECK VALVE
(USED W/INTEGRAL PURGE AIR
DRYERS)
GOVERNOR
LOW PRESSURE
INDICATOR
DASH
GAUGE
CONVENTIONAL
SUPPLY SYSTEM
& INTEGRAL PURGE
AIR DRYER
REAR
SAFETY
VALVE
SUPPLY
TWO CYL.
COMPRESSOR
AIR DRYER
FRONT
STANDARD SINGLE
CHECK VALVE
SAFETY
VALVE
GOVERNOR
HOLSET TYPE
"E & QE"
COMPRESSOR
WITH ECON
VALVE
AIR
DRYER
REAR
LOW
PRESSURE
INDICATOR
SUPPLY
HOLSET
“E OR QE”
COMPRESSOR
FRONT
HOLSET
ECON VALVE
SPECIAL
SINGLE CHECK
("CHOKE" IN INLET)
STANDARD SINGLE
CHECK VALVE
SAFETY
VALVE
GOVERNOR
HOLSET TYPE
"E & QE"
COMPRESSOR
W/O ECON
VALVE
DASH
GAUGE
AIR DRYER
DRAIN COCK
LOW PRESSURE
INDICATOR
REAR
DASH
GAUGE
SUPPLY
HOLSET
“E OR QE”
COMPRESSOR
SPECIAL
SINGLE CHECK
("CHOKE" IN INLET)
SINGLE CHECK PROTECTION VALVE
(USED W/SYSTEM
PURGE AIR DRYERS)
FRONT
SINGLE CHECK VALVE (USED
W/INTEGRAL PURGE AIR DRYERS)
25
26
27
28
BW1777 © 2004 Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC All rights reserved. 10/2004 Printed in U.S.A.
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