HIGH SCHOOL COURSE OUTLINE OFFICE OF CURRICULUM, INSTRUCTION, & PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

HIGH SCHOOL COURSE OUTLINE OFFICE OF CURRICULUM, INSTRUCTION, & PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Department

OFFICE OF CURRICULUM, INSTRUCTION, & PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

HIGH SCHOOL COURSE OUTLINE

(Revised June 2011)

Science

Course Title

Life Science 1-2

Course Code

4001

Yes

Abbreviation

Life Sci 1-2

Grade Level

Course Length

2 semesters

Credits/Semester

Prerequisites

None

5

9 - 12

Grad Requirement

Required

X

Elective

Articulated with LBCC

No

Articulated with CSULB

No

Meets UC “a-g” Requirement

No

Meets NCAA Requirement

No

COURSE DESCRIPTION:

This course is a standards-based study of living things: origins, structures, functions, heredity, growth and development, interactions among, and behavior of living things. Content is built around major biological concepts such as biochemistry and the biology of cells, genetics, evolution, ecology, physiologic systems, and the diversity of living things. Concepts and skills are reinforced by hands-on laboratory experiences and the integration of other branches of science.

Applications to society, individuals, and the utilization of technology are included, as is consideration of the impact of human activity on biological systems. Life Science 1-2 fulfills the life science high school graduation requirement. However, it does not meet the UC/CSU “d” laboratory science or “g” elective requirements. A course in the physical sciences is also needed to complete the minimum science graduation requirement for high school.

GOALS:

(Student needs the course is intended to meet)

Students will learn most of the required California State Standards for Biology/Life Sciences.

The use of well-designed, memorable experiences and the application of scientific knowledge and methodology are essential in helping students achieve appropriate comprehension of the content.

Students will improve their ability to learn independently by drawing generalizations from science related articles, books, graphs, charts, and diagrams. Regular opportunities are provided for students to clearly communicate their understanding through oral and written explanations of science concepts.

Students will study the applications of biology to ecological, medical, commercial, and ethical issues to develop critical thinking skills, as they apply to decision making in both societal and personal contexts. This will inspire students to consider pursuing advanced studies in science and the wide variety of related career choices.

Life Science 1-2, Page 2

CA CONTENT STANDARDS:

Grade 9-12 Biology/Life Sciences:

Standards without asterisks represent those that all students are expected to achieve in the course of their studies. Standards with asterisks represent those that all students should have the opportunity to learn.

Cell Biology ............................................................................................................................. (15% of CST)

1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings. (CST, LS10) b. enzymes are proteins and catalyze biochemical reactions without altering the reaction equilibrium and the activities of enzymes depend on the temperature, ionic conditions, and the pH of the surroundings. (CST) c. how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure. (CST, LS10) d. the Central Dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information from transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus to translation of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm. (CST) e. the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins. (CST) f. usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.

(CST, LS10) g. the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. (CST) h. most macromolecules (polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursors. (CST)

i.* how chemiosmotic gradients in the mitochondria and chloroplast store energy for ATP production. j* how eukaryotic cells are given shape and internal organization by a cytoskeleton or cell wall or both.

Genetics ................................................................................................................................. (30% of CST)

2. Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. meiosis is an early step in sexual reproduction in which the pairs of chromosomes separate and segregate randomly during cell division to produce gametes containing one chromosome of each type. (CST) b. only certain cells in a multicellular organism undergo meiosis (CST, LS10) c. how random chromosome segregation explains the probability that a particular allele will be in a gamete. (CST) d. new combinations of alleles may be generated in a zygote through the fusion of male and female gametes (fertilization).

(CST, LS10) e. why approximately half of an individual’s DNA sequence comes from each parent. (CST, LS10) f. the role of chromosomes in determining an individual’s sex. (CST, LS10) g. how to predict possible combinations of alleles in a zygote from the genetic makeup of the parents. (CST)

3. A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. how to predict the probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, dominant or recessive). (CST, LS10) b. the genetic basis for Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment. (CST)

c.* how to predict the probable mode of inheritance from a pedigree diagram showing phenotypes. d.* how to use data on frequency of recombination at meiosis to estimate genetic distances between loci and to interpret genetic maps of chromosomes.

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Life Science 1-2, Page 3

4. Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. the general pathway by which ribosomes synthesize proteins, using tRNAs to translate genetic information in mRNA.

(CST) b. how to apply the genetic coding rules to predict the sequence of amino acids from a sequence of codons in RNA. (CST) c. how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein. (CST) d. specialization of cells in multicellular organisms is usually due to different patterns of gene expression rather than to differences of the genes themselves. (CST) e. proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequence of amino acids. (CST)

f.* why proteins having different amino acid sequences typically have different shapes and chemical properties.

5. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein. (CST, LS10) b. how to apply base-pairing rules to explain precise copying of DNA during semiconservative replication and transcription of information from DNA into mRNA. (CST) c. how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical and agricultural products. (CST)

d.* how basic DNA technology (restriction digestion by endonucleases, gel electrophoresis, ligation, and transformation) is used to construct recombinant DNA molecules. e.* how exogenous DNA can be inserted into bacterial cells to alter their genetic makeup and support expression of new protein products.

Ecology ................................................................................................................................. (11.7% of CST)

6. Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. biodiversity is the sum total of different kinds of organisms and is affected by alterations of habitats. (CST, LS10) b. how to analyze changes in an ecosystem resulting from changes in climate, human activity, introduction of non-native species, or changes in population size. (CST, LS10) c. how fluctuations in population size in an ecosystem are determined by the relative rates of birth, immigration, emigration, and death. (CST, LS10) d. how water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in the ecosystem and how oxygen cycles through photosynthesis and respiration. (CST, LS10) e. a vital part of an ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers. (CST, LS10) f. at each link in a food web some energy is stored in newly made structures but much is dissipated into the environment as heat. This dissipation may be represented in an energy pyramid. (CST, LS10)

g.* how to distinguish between the accommodation of an individual organism to its environment and the gradual adaptation of a lineage of organisms through genetic change.

Evolution ................................................................................................................................. (15% of CST)

7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over time. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism. (CST, LS10) b. why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool. (CST, LS10) c. new mutations are constantly being generated in a gene pool. (CST, LS10) d variation within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of a species will survive under changed environmental conditions. (CST, LS10)

e.* the conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in a population and why these conditions are not likely to appear in nature. f.* how to solve the Hardy-Weinberg equation to predict the frequency of genotypes in a population, given the frequency of phenotypes.

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Life Science 1-2, Page 4

8. Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. how natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of organisms. (CST, LS10) b. a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms survive major changes in the environment.

(CST, LS10) c. the effects of genetic drift on the diversity of organisms in a population. (CST) d. reproductive or geographic isolation affects speciation. (CST) e. how to analyze fossil evidence with regard to biological diversity, episodic speciation, and mass extinction. (CST, LS10)

f.* how to use comparative embryology, DNA or protein sequence comparisons, and other independent sources of data to create a branching diagram (cladogram) that shows probable evolutionary relationships. g.* how several independent molecular clocks, calibrated against each other and combined with evidence from the fossil record, can help to estimate how long ago various groups of organisms diverged evolutionarily from one another.

Physiology ............................................................................................................................ (18.3% of CST)

9. As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the outside environment. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. how the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide. (CST, LS10) b. how the nervous system mediates communication between different parts of the body and the body’s interactions with the environment. (CST, LS10) c. how feedback loops in the nervous and endocrine systems regulate conditions in the body. (CST) d. the functions of the nervous system and the role of neurons in transmitting electrochemical impulses. (CST) e. the roles of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons in sensation, thought, and response. (CST)

f.* the individual functions and sites of secretion of digestive enzymes (amylases, proteases, nucleases, lipases), stomach acid, and bile salts. g.* the homeostatic role of the kidneys in the removal of nitrogenous wastes and the role of the liver in blood detoxification and glucose balance. h.* the cellular and molecular basis of muscle contraction, including the roles of actin, myosin, Ca+2, and ATP. i.* how hormones (including digestive, reproductive, osmoregulatory) provide internal feedback mechanisms for homeostasis at the cellular level and in whole organisms.

10. Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease. As a basis for understanding the human immune response, students know: a. the role of the skin in providing nonspecific defenses against infection. (CST) b. the role of antibodies in the body’s response to infection. (CST, LS10) c. how vaccination protects an individual from infectious diseases. (CST, LS10) d. there are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body’s primary defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections. (CST,

LS10) e. why an individual with a compromised immune system (for example, a person with AIDS) may be unable to fight off and survive infections of microorganisms that are usually benign. (CST)

f.* the roles of phagocytes, B-lymphocytes, and T-lymphocytes in the immune system.

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Life Science 1-2, Page 5

Investigation and Experimentation .......................................................................................... (10% of CST)

1. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other four strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will: a. select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked probes, spread sheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data. (CST) b. identify and communicate sources of unavoidable experimental error. (CST) c. identify possible reasons for inconsistent results, such as sources of error or uncontrolled conditions. (CST, LS10) d. formulate explanations using logic and evidence. (CST) e. solve scientific problems using quadratic equations and simple trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions.

(CST) f. distinguish between hypothesis and theory as science terms. (CST, LS10) g. recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality. (CST) h. read and interpret topographic and geologic maps. (CST) i. analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an ecosystem). (CST, LS10) j. recognize the issues of statistical variability and the need for controlled tests. (CST, LS10) k. recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence. (CST) l. analyze situations and solve problems that require combining and applying concepts from more than one area of science.

(CST) m. investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings.

Examples of issues include irradiation of food, cloning of animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer, choice of energy sources, and land and water use decisions in California. (CST) n. know that when an observation does not agree with an accepted scientific theory, the observation is sometimes mistaken or fraudulent (e.g., the Piltdown Man fossil or unidentified flying objects) and that the theory is sometimes wrong (e.g., the

Ptolemaic model of the movement of the sun, moon and planets). (CST)

CST = Standards assessed on the California Standards Test

LS10 = Standards assessed on the 10 th

grade No Child Left Behind Biology/Life Science Test

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

DISTRICT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS:

Life Science 1-2, Page 6

The Long Beach Unified School District has common assessments and assignments that are required for

Biology. The Performance Standard Criteria is shown in the table below. The objective is to have all students achieve at or above the Proficient Level and receive a C or better in the course. Performance level is determined by the average of the assessments or assignments.

Science Performance Standard Criteria

Not Proficient Partial Proficient Proficient

Advanced

Proficient

Graded Student Work

Average is a 1 or less than 60%

Average is a 2 or 60% - 69%

Average is a 3 or 70% - 84%

Average is a 4 or 85% - 100%

Standards-Based Classroom

Assessments

Written Response / Lab Report /

OES

(6 point scale)

Written Response / Lab Report /

OES

(4 point scale)

Less than 60%

1-2

1

60% - 69%

3

2

70% - 84%

4

3

85% - 100%

5-6

4

End-Of-Course Exam Less than 45% 45% - 59% 60% - 84% 85% - 100%

STATE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS:

The California State Board of Education has identified the following performance levels for the California

Standards Test (CST) in Biology/Life Sciences. The objective of Long Beach Unified School District is to have all students achieve at or above the Proficient Performance Standard (Level). The table below indicates the estimated percent correct (based on 2007 LBUSD data) and the Scaled Score (SS) on the Content Standards

Test.

Far Below Basic

Less than 28%

SS 150 – 275

Below Basic

28% - 37%

SS 276 – 299

Basic

38% - 60%

SS 300 – 349

Proficient

60% - 79%

SS 350 – 393

Advanced

Proficient

80% - 100%

SS 394 – 600

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

OUTLINE OF CONTENT AND RECOMMENDED TIME ALLOTMENT:

Life Science 1-2, Page 7

The Task Analysis and Key Vocabulary presented here are drawn from the 2003 Science Framework for California Public

Schools, which defines the intent and scope of the Science Content Standards. For additional information on the context and the benchmark standards to assess, refer to the Blueprints for the Biology Content Standards Test (CST) and the 10 th

Grade Life Sciences Test (LS10). Content sequencing, Labs/Demos, and time allocations are only suggestions and may be adjusted to suit school site curriculum plans, available materials, and student needs.

LIFE SCIENCE 1-2

Cell Biology

1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.

[CST, LS10]

(1,a)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Describe how phospholipids are organized to form a fluid mosaic cell membrane.

 Describe the functions of proteins in the cell membrane.

 Explain the difference between diffusion and osmosis.

 Compare and contrast passive and active transport.

Explain how large particles get

into and out of cells. (LBUSD)

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 2:4 & 3:2

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

selectively perishable *mosaic membrane diffusion

*fluid

*exocytosis osmosis

*endocytosis

SKILLS FOCUS:

microscopy, influence, recognition, observation

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, Discovery Activity, p 80

 PH LS, Building Inquiry, p 82

 Prentice Hall LS, Try This, p 83

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

PH LS, Ch 3:1 and 15:2

, enzymes

in digestion

… enzymes are proteins and catalyze biochemical reactions without altering the reaction equilibrium and the activities of enzymes depend on the temperature, ionic conditions, and the pH of the surroundings.(1b)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

 Show that enzymes function as biological catalysts. They speed up spontaneous reactions by lowering the activation energy without being consumed.

 Illustrate how protein shapes create the lock-and-key model of enzymes.

KEY VOCABULARY:

protein enzyme

*catalyst

*activation energy

SKILLS FOCUS:

*spontaneous

*substrate

*concentration model, analyze, compare, predict, observe

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, Teacher Demo, p 518

 PH LS, Skills Lab, p 522

 PH LS, Try This, p 77

Observing Catalysis

Observe catalase from liver homogenate or yeast reacting with peroxide substrate

Reaction Rate Investigations

Have student groups choose different variables to investigate and share results with the rest of the class.

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Cell Biology (cont’d)

2

Life Science 1-2, Page 8

The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells

(including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.

[CST, LS10]

(1c)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Discovery Channel Video

Field Trip, “Cell Structure and

Function”

… the Central Dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information from transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus to translation of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm. (1d)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Describe five properties shared

by all living organisms.

(LBUSD)

 Explain why viruses cannot be considered as living organisms.

 Distinguish prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

 Describe how each organelle performs a task essential to the life of the cell.

 Describe the composition of the nucleus.

 Compare and contrast the structure of an animal cell with that of a plant cell.

 State the three basic concepts included in the cell theory.

NOTE: The point of this standard is to become familiar with the overall flow of information from DNA codes to structural proteins. Do not get into the details of how this happens (base pairing, transcription and translation processes). These will be addressed later in Standard Sets 4 and 5.

 Describe the DNA in the nucleus as the template code from which proteins are made.

 Explain that parts of the DNA contain codes for specific proteins.

 Explain that when proteins are needed, their part of the DNA is copied (transcribed) into messenger RNA (mRNA).

 Explain that mRNA carries the code to ribosomes out in the cytoplasm, where it is converted

(translated) into the protein originally coded by the DNA.

 Recall that this process is considered the Central Dogma of molecular biology.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 2:1-4

& 7:1

PH LS, Ch 3:1, 4:3-4

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

prokaryotes eukaryotes virus

ER

ribosome

cytoplasm

lysosome organelle vesicle vacuole

SKILLS FOCUS:

genetic

DNA

RNA

GB

nucleus

cytoskeleton

mitochondrion cell membrane chloroplast cell wall

model, analyze, microscopy

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, Teacher Demo, p 65

 PH LS, Skills Activity, p 66

 PH LS, Skills Activity, p 55

 PH LS, Discovery Activity, p 60

 PH LS, “Try This”, p 62

 Prentice Hall LS, Teacher

Demo, p 63

Cell City Activity

Students create an analogy of cell organelles to city operations.

KEY VOCABULARY:

DNA

template

RNA

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, analyze

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, Building Inquiry, p 135

 Use overhead flow charts to chart main steps of protein syn.,

LS 40, LS 41

 Use of graphic organizers is helpful.

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Cell Biology (cont’d)

2

Life Science 1-2, Page 9

The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins. (1e)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Identify two types of endoplasmic reticulum (ER): smooth and rough.

 Recall that rough ER synthesizes proteins.

 Recall that smooth ER modifies lipids.

 Explain that proteins that are to be sent outside the cell are moved to the Golgi apparatus where they are modified, packaged, and moved to the cell membrane to be secreted.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 2:4

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

endoplasmic reticulum

*rough ER *smooth ER

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, analyze

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Student-Generated Analogies

Have students create detailed analogies for the functions of the rough ER, smooth ER, and

Golgi apparatus (i.e., the Golgi apparatus as a post office).

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Cell Biology (cont’d)

2

Life Science 1-2, Page 10

The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide. (1f)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that photosynthesis is a complex process that converts visible light energy into chemical energy in carbohydrate molecules.

 Recall that the processes of photosynthesis take place within chloroplasts, which can be seen under a microscope in plant cells and photosynthetic rotests.

 Explain that photosynthesis occurs in two reactions: one light-dependent and the other light-independent.

 Recall the overall reaction showing how carbon dioxide and water are turned into sugar (glucose) and oxygen.

 Explain that the lightdependent reaction within the thylakoid membrane is where light energy is first converted into chemical bond energy.

 Explain that the lightindependent reaction uses stored energy to build sugar molecules.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 3:3

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

pigment chlorophyll

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, analyze, microscopy, inference, computer modeling, measuring

Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data. (I&E 1.a)

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Microscope Observations

Have students observe carefully prepared or commercially produced thin section slides.

They should note structural organization and explain how it facilitates of the cells to sunlight and carbon dioxide during photosynthesis.

CA Sci. Framework, p 223

 PH LS, Try This p 89 (basically a pigment chromatography lab

 Use guided reading and study worksbook to have students create flow charts

 PH LS, All in One Teaching

Resources are more comprehensive compared to the study workbook.

Photosynthesis Rate

Investigations

Have students measure oxygen production rates of aquatic plants, such as elodea, by collecting the oxygen gas in a volumeter. Students should be encouraged to explore the effects of different variables on the rate of O

2

production.

[Note: if students want to vary the intensity of light by varying the distance to a light source, they can place a flat-sided bottle of water between the plant and the light source to dissipate unwanted heat that

would affect the results.]

CA Sci. Framework, p 223

Websites www.biology-online.org www.waynesword.palomar.edu www.biosciednet.org www.actionbioscience.org www.brightsurf.com

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Cell Biology (cont’d)

2

Life Science 1-2, Page 11

The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. (1g)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… most macromolecules

(polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursors. (1h)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Define cellular respiration as a series of reactions that release the chemical energy stored in the bonds of fat, protein, and carbohydrate (mostly glucose) molecules.

 Identify the common, macromolecules that are polymers (like a chain) of monomers (the links).

 Distinguish the monosaccharides within polysaccharides.

 Distinguish the amino acids in a protein.

 Distinguish the fatty acids, glycerol, and other components in lipids.

 Distinguish the nucleotides in nucleic acids.

 Point out the carbon “backbone” of each of these macromolecules.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 3:4

PH LS, Ch 3:1

More info Ch 15:1

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

cellular respiration

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, interpreting

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, Discovery activity, p 91

 PH LS, All in One Teaching

Resources

Modeling Molecular

Interactions

Have groups of students act out the interactions of the carbon fragments and ADP/ATP within the mitochondria, or model with process with visuals.

KEY VOCABULARY:

*polymers

amino acids

DNA glucose

*monomers

*nucleotides

RNA starch

*monosaccharide glycerol

*polysaccharide lipid nucleic acids

SKILLS FOCUS:

compare, contrast

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, All in One Teaching

Resources, p 171

Students identify various representations (2-D and 3-D) of macromolecule monomers and polymers, identifying the characteristic components.

 PH LS, Food Labs “Which

Foods Are Fat Free” would be good sample, p 79

Macro-Molecular Mugshots

Students identify various representations (2-D and 3-D) of macromolecule monomers and polymers, identifying the characteristic components.

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Cell Biology (cont’d)

Life Science 1-2, Page 12

1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

how eukaryotic cells

are given shape and internal organization by a cytoskeleton or cell

wall or both. (1j*)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

[Note: Cytoskeleton was first introduced in 7 th

Grade – standard

1b. This standard gives further detail about how they function.]

Describe the cytoskeleton as

the more rigid structures within the cytoplasm that give shape and organization eukaryotic cells.

Explain that the cytoskeleton is

composed of fine protein threads (called microfilaments) and thin protein tubes (called microtubules).

Depict the “9+2” arrangement (9

pairs of microtubules around 2 individual microtubules) which make up cilia and flagella.

Explain how the rapid assembly

and disassembly of microtubules and microfilaments, and their ability to slide past one another enable cells to move (for example, white blood cells and amoeba).

Explain how movement of

organelles within the cell use this same mechanism.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 2:4

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

*microfilaments *microtubules

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, microscopy, observe

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

9+2 Microtubule Arrangement

in Eukaryotic Flagella and

Cilia

Great electron microscopic cross-section, diagram, and explanation of how movement occurs can be found in Biology,

5 th

Ed., (AP Bio Text),

Campbell/Reece/Mitchell, p 122

Observing Microtubules

Observe plant mitosis in onion root tips to see microtubules that make up the spindle apparatus. Prepared slides of white fish blastula show microtubules in animal cells as the spindle apparatus and centrioles.

CA Sci. Framework, p 224

Inner Life of a Cell

(Video to watch with sound turned down.) http://multimedia.mcb.harvard

.edu/anim_innerlife.html

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Genetics (Meiosis and Fertilization)

2. Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… meiosis is an early step in sexual reproduction in which the pairs of chromosomes separate and segregate randomly during cell division to produce gametes containing one chromosome of each type.

[CST]

(2a)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… only certain cells in a multicellular organism undergo meiosis. (2b)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Recall the steps of mitosis

(which were taught in 7 th

grade).

 Recall that gametes have only one set of chromosomes

(haploid), as opposed to other cells that have two sets of chromosomes (diploid).

 Explain that producing haploid gametes involves two cell divisions [that only certain cells can undergo! See standard 2b].

 Diagram meiosis I, highlighting Prophase I in which the paired homologous chromosomes may exchange parts through breakage and reunion (crossing-over).

 Diagram meiosis II, showing the same mechanics as mitosis, except for skipping

DNA replication, thereby ending up with the haploid number of chromosomes.

 Show from diagrams how the four cells formed by the two divisions of meiosis have different chromosomal components (segregation).

 Recall that all four haploid cells formed by meiosis in a male produce sperm cells.

 Recall that only one of the four haploid cells formed by meiosis in a female forms an egg, while the other three remain small, degenerate polar bodies that cannot be fertilized.

 Recall that only specific diploid cells undergo meiosis.

 Recall that diploid spermatogonia cells in the testes of males produce haploid sperm.

 Recall that diploid oogonia cells in the ovaries of females produce haploid eggs.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 3:5 for mitosis review

PH LS, Ch 4:3 for meiosis

PH LS, Ch 4:3, 20:2

Brief reference for sperm and eggs. Will probably need alternate resources.

Life Science 1-2, Page 13

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

meiosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis)

*haploid

*diploid

*polar bodies

SKILLS FOCUS:

model

Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

(I&E 1.g)

Meiosis Models

Construct models (without merely copying a template) that illustrate the segregation that takes place during mitosis and meiosis. Suggest using colored yarn or pipe cleaners to represent chromosomes.

CA Sci. Framework, p 225

Meiosis Observations

Observe meiosis stages in prepared slides of Ascaris blastocyst cells.

CA Sci. Framework, p 225

 PH LS, Building Inquiry,

Modeling Mitosis, p 99 and

Modeling Meiosis, p 129

KEY VOCABULARY:

*spermatogonia *oogonia

SKILLS FOCUS:

recognize context

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Meiosis Locus-Pocus

Determine the location (locus) of meiosis in various multicellular organisms (not just animals) that reproduce sexually.

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Genetics (Meiosis and Fertilization) (cont’d)

2. Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how random chromosome segregation explains the probability that a particular allele will be in a gamete. (2c)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Identify the steps in meiosis where random segregation of genetic information occurs leading to four distinct and genetically different gametes.

 Explain how mere chance determines which chromosomes are pulled to a given side during karyokinesis

(division of the nucleus).

 Explain how this process allows predictions about genetic sorting to be made using laws of probability.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 4:3

… new combinations of alleles may be generated in a zygote through the fusion of male and female gametes (fertilization).

[CST, LS10]

(2d)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

 Explain that the formation of gametes with randomly segregated chromosomes is the first important step in sexual reproduction.

 Explain how, in the second step of sexual reproduction, the chance union of two haploid gametes makes a genetically unique, diploid organism.

 Diagram how sperm and egg fuse to form a zygote that combines genotypes of the parents to produce a new combination for the progeny.

PH LS, Ch 4:3

(briefly discussed)

PH LS, Ch 3:1, 9:1,

20:2, 3

(discussed a little more)

Life Science 1-2, Page 14

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

segregation

*karyokinesis random

SKILLS FOCUS:

analyze, model

Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

(I&E 1.g)

Genetic Chart (Part I)

Create a chart marking traits on chromosomes alternately coming from either the mother of father. Then show how random segregation leads to some gametes carrying a given maternal trait, while others will carry the paternal traits.

CA Sci. Framework, p 226

 Transparency LS 39 and LS 37

 CA Sci. Framework, p 226

 PH LS, Skills Lab, p 124. Make the right call shows probability of inheritance.

Genetic Chart (Part I)

Create a chart marking traits on chromosomes alternately coming from either the mother of father. Then show how random segregation leads to some gametes carrying a given maternal trait, while others will carry the paternal traits.

CA Sci. Framework, p 226

KEY VOCABULARY:

zygote fertilization gamete

SKILLS FOCUS:

model

Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.

(I&E 1.g)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Genetic Chart (Part II)

Create a chart to illustrate how the events of meiosis and the chance union of gametes lead to new combinations of alleles in a zygote.

CA Sci. Framework, p 226

Gametogenesis www.sparkesnotes.com/biology/

Meiosis and Mendelian

Genetics with Allele

www.sparkesnotes.com/biology/

Genotype vs. Phenotype http://www.ess.ucla.edu/huge/ genotype2.html

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Genetics (Meiosis and Fertilization) (cont’d)

2. Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… why approximately half of an individual’s

DNA sequence comes from each parent. (2e)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Describe a chromosome as a single, very long molecule of double-stranded DNA and proteins.

 Define genes as segments of

DNA that code for polypeptides

(proteins).

 Explain how, during fertilization, half of the DNA of the progeny comes from the gamete of one parent, and the other half comes from the gamete of the other parent.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PHl LS, Ch 4:3, 4

20:2

… the role of chromosomes in determining an individual’s sex. (2f)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

 Recall that normal human somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes: 44 pairs of homologous chromosomes and

2 sex chromosomes.

 Recall that females usually carry two X chromosomes in each somatic cell.

 Recall that males possess one

X chromosome and one smaller

Y chromosome.

 Explain that the sex of the progeny depends on the combination of these two sex chromosomes.

PH LS, Ch 5:1-2

Life Science 1-2, Page 15

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

*polypeptide DNA

SKILLS FOCUS:

model

Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.

(I&E 1.g)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, All in One Teaching

Resources

 PH LS, Discovery Activity “Which

Chromosome is Which?”, p 126

DNA Presentation: http://www.dnaftb.org/dnaftb/15/ concept/

Introduction to DNA Structure www.sparksnotes.com

DNA Structure and Coding http://molvis.sdsc.edu/dna/index

.htm

KEY VOCABULARY:

*somatic cell sex chromosome

*homologous chromosomes

SKILLS FOCUS:

model

Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

(I&E 1.g)

 PH LS, Building Inquiry “Applying

Concepts of Inheritance”, p 147

 Miller/Levine Biology, Ch 14:1

Lab: 50/50 Chances

Use the flip of a coin to demonstrate the 50/50 probability of boy vs. girl babies.

Use 12 – 18 groups (families) of six tosses (children) each.

Compile class results and calculate ratios.

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Genetics (Mendel’s Laws)

Life Science 1-2, Page 16

3. A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how to predict the probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, dominant or recessive). (3a)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Write genotypes and translate genotypes into phenotypes.

 Use Punnett Squares and probability math to describe the possible gametes and predict possible progeny characteristics.

 Explain how dominant and recessive alleles interact to express phenotypes.

 Use monohybrid crosses to illustrate human disorders characterized by recessive alleles (such as albinism, cystic fibrosis, and Tay-Sachs).

 Contrast the expression of recessive alleles in the conditions mentioned above with disorders produced by the possession of just one dominant allele (such as

Huntington Disease, dwarfism, and neurofibromatosis).

 Explain the expression of incomplete dominance (such as seen in comparisons of curly, straight, and wavy hair or in the expression of flower colors in snapdragon plants).

 Illustrate how sex-linked characteristics explain why males express conditions that are rare or not found in females

(such as color-blindness and hemophilia).

 Describe how monohybrid crosses can be used to determine parental genotypes and phenotypes.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 4:1-3 and

Ch 5:1, 2

Miller/Levine Biology,

Ch 14:1, 2 (provides more detail)

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

allele

phenotype

dominant

genotype

*autosomal

recessive sex-linked

Punnett Squares gamete

segregation probability

*monohybred cross filial

*incomplete dominance

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, analyze

Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an ecosystem).

(I&E 1.i)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, Skills Lab “Take a

Class Survey”, p 116

 PH LS, Try This Activity “Coin

Crosses”, p 120

 PH LS, Teacher Demo

“Observing Crosses in

Tobacco Plants”, p 121

 PH LS, Skills Lab “Make the

Right Call”, p 124

 PH LS, Try This Activity “The

Eyes Have It”, p 147

 PH LS, Build Inquiry “Modeling

Sex-linked Inheritance”, p 148

 Prentice Hall LS, Skills Lab

“Predicting”, p 152

Lab: A Dihybrid Cross

Use a 10x10 kernel area of genetic corn on the cob. Count the phenotypes: yellow smooth, yellow wrinkles, purple smooth, purple wrinkled. Compile class results to determine ratio. Use ratios to identify dominant and recessive traits and

9:3:3:1 ratio.

Lab: Distribution of Inherited

Traits

Using index cards and paper bags, pull labeled “alleles” from “individuals” to make combinations of offspring.

Explanation- Label a bag, “male” and a bag, “female”. Write “B” on several index cards as the dominant allele for brown eye color, and “b” on several cards as the recessive allele for blue eye color. Pull random cards from bags and tally genotypes.

Baby Face Activity

Students analyze their own genetic facial traits and pair up into “couples” to determine possible characteristics of a child.

“Cracking the Code of Life”,

NOVA video

Human Genome Project, cystic fibrosis, and Tay-Sachs disease.

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Genetics (Mendel’s Laws) (cont’d)

Life Science 1-2, Page 17

3. A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the genetic basis for

Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment.

(3b)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain how Gregor Mendel was able to deduce that each characteristic of an organism is controlled by two genes, one from each parent.

 Diagram Mendel’s explanation of how a parental trait can appear to vanish for a generation (first filial – F1) and then reappear in the next generation (second filial – F2).

 Recall that if the two alleles are different, the dominant one (if one is dominant) will be expressed over the recessive one.

 Recall that Mendel’s law of segregation results from the fact that alleles are separated

(segregated) by meiosis when gametes are formed.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 4:1

Miller/Levine Biology,

Ch 11: 1-3 (for more information)

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

allele

*gamete

*segregation

*independent assortment

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, analyze

Solve scientific problems by using quadratic equations and simple trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions.. (I&E 1.e)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, All in One Teaching

Resources, Unit 1

 PH LS, Skills Lab “Make the

Rich Call”, p 124

 PH LS, Skills Lab “Take a

Class Survey”, p 116

 PH LS, At Home Activity

“Gardens and Heredity”, p 115

 PH LS, Build Inquiry “Inferring the Parent Generation”, p 113

 PH LS, Build Inquiry

“Observing Pistils and

Stamens”, p 112

Mendel Research

Students locate and study various resources that describe

Mendel’s logic.

CA Sci. Framework, p 228

Mendel Model

Students design and build models to illustrate the laws of segregation and independent assortment.

CA Sci. Framework, p 228

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Genetics (Molecular Biology)

Life Science 1-2, Page 18

4. Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the general pathway by which ribosomes synthesize proteins, using tRNAs to translate genetic information in mRNA.

[CST]

(4a)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain the twofold role of DNA:

1. store and transfer genetic information from one generation to the next.

(Standard Sets 2 & 3 focus)

2. express that genetic information in the synthesis of proteins, thereby controlling the structure and function of all cells.

(Standard Set 4 focus)

 Recall that DNA does not leave the cell nucleus to produce proteins.

 Explain how the DNA’s code is carried to ribosomes in the cytoplasm (transcription) by complimentary strands of mRNA.

 Recall that ribosomes translate mRNAs to make protein.

 Recall that free-floating amino acids are bonded to specific tRNAs, which transport them to mRNA on the ribosome.

 Demonstrate proper nitrogen base pair matching from DNA to

RNA and from RNA to RNA.

 Explain how the 3-nucleotide codons of mRNA are paired with the 3-nucleotide anticodons of tRNA as the ribosome moves along the mRNA strand.

 Explain how the amino acids on the tRNAs are connected into a growing polypeptide in a sequence specified by the DNA code.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 4:4

Miller/Levine Biology,

Ch 12: 3 (for more detail and missing vocabulary)

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

RNA messenger RNA

*ribosomal RNA

ribosomes

*exons

*interons

*transcription translation

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, analyze

Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.

Analyze the locations,

(I&E 1.g) sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an ecosystem).

(I&E 1.i)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, Skills Lab “Drawing

Conclusions”, p 133

 PH LS, Build Inquiry “Modeling the Genetic Code”, p 133

 PH LS, Build Inquiry “Modeling

Protein Synthesis”, p 138

(good activity)

 PH LS, Discovery Activity “Can

You Crack the Code?”, p 131

 PH LS, All in One Teaching

Resources, Unit 1

Transcription/Translation

Activity (I)

Students simulate the process of converting DNA code to a polypeptide chain on paper or by using representative models.

CA Sci. Framework, p 229

 Video: DNA: the secret of life shows computer animations of the transcription and translation in real time.

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Genetics (Molecular Biology) (cont’d)

Life Science 1-2, Page 19

4. Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how mutations in the

DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein.

(4c)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Define mutations as permanent changes in the sequence of nitrogen bases (the “code” part of the nucleotides) in DNA.

 Explain that a mutation is created when nitrogen bases are not paired properly.

 Explain that mutations usually do not improve the product coded by the gene.

 Demonstrate how the deletion or addition of base pairs cause mutation by changing the 3nucleotide per codon reading frame used by the ribosome.

 Explain that mutations in somatic cells (any cell other than sperm or egg) are not passed on to offspring, but may cause cancer or other undesirable cellular changes.

 Explain how mutations in germ cells (those that produce sperm or egg) can alter the proteins produced in every cell of a progeny organism, causing genetic diseases such as Tay-

Sachs, sickle cell anemia, and

Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 4:4, 5:2

& 14:4

Miller/Levine Biology,

Ch 12:4 (for more information)

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

mutations protein synthesis sequence base pairs amino acid

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, analyze

Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.

Analyze the locations,

(I&E 1.g) sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena.

(I&E 1.i)

Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings.

(I&E 1.m)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, All in One Teaching

Resources, Unit 1

 Discovery Channel Video Field

Trip referenced on p 136

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Genetics (Molecular Biology) (cont’d)

Life Science 1-2, Page 20

4. Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… specialization of cells in multicellular organisms is usually due to different patterns of gene expression rather than to differences of the genes themselves.

(4d)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequence of amino acids.

[CST]

(4e)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Define gene expression as the process in which a gene codes for a product (usually protein) through transcription and translation.

 Recall that nearly all cells in an organism contain the same

DNA.

 Explain that each cell transcribes only the portions of

DNA containing the genetic information for proteins required at that specific time by that specific cell.

 Explain that some portions of the DNA are not expressed.

 Explain that specific types of cells produce proteins unique to that type of cell, meaning they transcribe portions of DNA that are not transcribed in other cell types.

 Recall that proteins are chains of amino acids varying from 50 to 3,000 units long.

 Explain that the types, sequences, and numbers of amino acids determine the type of protein produced.

Note: This is a “big picture” standard. You may wish to include some details of amino acids, peptide bonds, and folding to explain why the proteins end up being different types, but this is optional.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 2:4, 4:4

Miller/Levine Biology,

Ch 12:3

PH LS, Ch 3:1, 4:4

Miller/Levine Biology,

Ch 2.3, 12:3

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

*gene expression

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, analyze

Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality. (I&E 1.g)

Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an ecosystem).

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

(I&E 1.i)

 PH LS, Building Inquiry

“Modeling Genetic Code” ,p

133

 PH LS, All in One Teaching

Resources

 PH LS, Use teacher instructions in margins for questions to ask about protein synthesis.

KEY VOCABULARY:

sequence

SKILLS FOCUS:

compare

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Life Science 1-2, Page 21

Genetics (Biotechnology)

5. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein.

[CST, LS10]

(5a)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Recall that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are polymers composed of monomers called nucleotides.

 Recall the four nitrogen bases of DNA (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine) and how they pair.

 Explain that only a small part of the DNA is expressed in any given cell, meaning that genes are turned on or off as needed by the cell, producing only what is needed when it is needed.

 Recall that the nitrogen bases of RNA are the same as DNA except that thymine is replaced by uracil.

 Recognize the different functional forms of RNA: mRNA serving as a template recognized by the codons of tRNA, and rRNA, which along with proteins, comprises ribosomes.

 Recall that proteins are polymers composed of monomers called amino acids.

(See also standard 1h.)

 Identify the different functions of proteins: enzymes, transport molecules, hormones, structural components of cells, and antibodies that fight infections.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 4:4

3:1,5

Miller/Levine Biology,

Ch 12:1, 3, 2

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

exogenous DNA

RNA

nucleotides base pairing

*polymers enzymes

DNA (nitrogen bases, *pentose sugar

*phosphoric acid group)

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, analyze

Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an ecosystem).

(I&E 1.i)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Transcription/Translation

Activity (I)

Students simulate the process of converting DNA code to a polypeptide chain on paper or by using representative models.

 PH LS, Building Inquiry

“Modeling DNA Molecules”, p

101

 PH LS, All in One Teaching

Resources, Unit 1

 Use resources from previous standards on protein synthesis.

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Life Science 1-2, Page 22

Genetics (Biotechnology) (cont’d)

5. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how to apply basepairing rules to explain precise copying of DNA during semiconservative replication and transcription of information from DNA into mRNA. (5b)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain how RNA is produced by transcribing a section of DNA containing the nucleotide sequence that codes for a specific protein.

 Recall that RNA (mRNA, specifically) leaves the nucleus and goes to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where protein synthesis takes place.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 4:3-4

Miller/Levine Biology,

Ch 12:2, 3

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

SKILLS FOCUS:

Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality. (I&E 1.g)

Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an ecosystem).

(I&E 1.i)

Recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence.

(I&E 1.k)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

DNA Replication Modeling

Students create a model to the process of DNA replication showing:

1. leading and lagging strands

2. semiconservative process

3. RNA primers that initiate replication of the daughter

DNA fragments

CA Sci. Framework, p. 232-233

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Life Science 1-2, Page 23

Genetics (Biotechnology) (cont’d)

5. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how genetic engineering ( biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical and agricultural products.

[CST]

(5c)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Define recombinant DNA as containing DNA from two or more different sources.

 Explain that the purpose of recombinant DNA technology is to isolate and exchange DNA between organisms to fulfill a specific human purpose.

 Explain the benefits of using microorganisms to commercially produce human insulin, human growth hormone, blood clotting factors, and many other products this way.

 Cite specific examples of various agricultural applications of recombinant DNA technology, including increased productivity of food crops and animals, increased resistance to pests, herbicides, and viruses, and greater ability to face harsh environmental conditions.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 5:3

Miller/Levine Biology,

Ch 13:1-4 (much more detail)

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

*vectors

*restriction enzymes

*vaccine gene therapy

Human Genome Project

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, address societal issues

Recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence.

(I&E 1.k)

Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings.

(I&E 1.m)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Modeling Recombinant DNA

Students simulate the process of inserting an antibiotic resistance gene into an organism by manipulating DNA

(paper strips) using restriction enzymes (scissors) and DNA ligase (tape). Plan the activity so that students will visualize how restriction enzymes often make staggered cuts that create “sticky ends” and how these ends must be matched during ligation. CA Science.

Framework, p. 233

 PH LS, Skills Activity

“Communicating”, p 161

 PH LS, Building Inquiry

“Modeling Gene Splicing”, p

161

 PH LS, Skills Lab “Guilty or

Innocent?”, p 163 Unit 1

 PH LS, All in One Teaching

Resources, Unit 1

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Ecology

6. Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… biodiversity is the sum total of different kinds of organisms and is affected by alterations of habitats.

(6a)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Define biodiversity as the collective variety of all living organisms in an ecosystem.

 Identify factors that impact

 biodiversity, including climatic changes, fire, flood, and invasion by organisms from another system.

Explain why greater diversity in an ecosystem gives greater stability.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 21:1,

23.3

Life Science 1-2, Page 24

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

biodiversity

community

habitat

ecosystem biotic and abiotic factors

population

SKILLS FOCUS:

observe

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena. (I&E 1.i)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Virtual Ecosystems

Students can observe virtual ecological experiments from

Internet sources, or even create their own ecological experiments using modeling programs (such as

EcoBeaker).

CA Sci. Framework, p 235

Ecology Guest Expert

Invite a government, private, or university ecologist to share their work with a group of classes.

CA Sci. Framework, p 235

Actual Ecosystems

Design and carry out careful observation and monitoring of an ecosystem over time. CA

Sci. Framework, p 235

Discovery School Video:

Populations and Communities

SciLinks: www.SciLinks,org , webcode: scn-0511

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Ecology (cont’d)

6. Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how to analyze changes in an ecosystem resulting from changes in climate, human activity, introduction of nonnative species, or changes in population size.

[CST, LS10]

(6b)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that changes in ecosystems are often predictable by understanding climate patterns, seasonal reproductive cycles, population cycles, and migrations.

 Describe how unexpected disturbances, such as those caused by human intervention or the introduction of a new species, may destabilize the complex balance in an ecosystem.

 Explain that it is important to observe changes in an ecosystem over time

(longitudinal analysis) to gain useful understanding, make reasonable predictions, and when possible, plan ways to positively influence an ecosystem.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 21:2-4

23:3

… how fluctuations in population size in an ecosystem are determined by the relative rates of birth, immigration, emigration, and death.

[CST, LS10]

(6c)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Explain that because it is difficult to directly measure the total population of organisms, population fluctuations are estimated by observing relative rates of birth, death, immigration, and emigration in a population.

Explain that comparing death and emigration to birth and immigration, will show if the population will grow or decline over time.

PH LS, Ch 21:2

Life Science 1-2, Page 25

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

*longitudinal analysis

*coevolution

competition symbiosis mutualism

SKILLS FOCUS:

niche commensalism parasitism inference, observe, measure

Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data.

(I&E 1.a)

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.

Analyze the locations,

(I&E 1.g) sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an ecosystem).

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

(I&E 1.i)

Go on-line:

Population Interactons, www.PHSchool.com

,

webcode ced-5013

Ecological Simulations such as created by EcoBeaker at http://ecobeaker.com or PLATO Life Science at www.plato.com

KEY VOCABULARY:

immigration

emigration

SKILLS FOCUS:

microscopy, data collection

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Go on-line: Change in

Population Activity, www.PHSchool.com

,

webcode cep-5012

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Ecology (cont’d)

6. Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in the ecosystem and how oxygen cycles through photosynthesis and respiration.

[CST, LS10]

(6d)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… a vital part of an ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers.

[CST, LS10]

(6e)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… at each link in a food web some energy is stored in newly made structures but much is dissipated into the environment as heat.

This dissipation may be represented in an energy pyramid.

(6f)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Explain how organisms depend on non-living natural resources.

Explain how, at the molecular level, organisms depend on chemical cycles of water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements.

 Describe and illustrate how water, carbon, and nitrogen enter the biosphere through photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation in producers and are used by consumers for food and protein synthesis.

 Describe and illustrate how respiration, excretion of waste products, and death recycle chemicals back to the non-living environment.

Define the role of producers

(plants and photosynthetic microorganisms) as primarily responsible for producing organic matter.

Define the role of decomposers

(fungi and microorganisms) as primarily responsible for recycling organic matter.

 Explain and provide examples of how conditions that threaten

 the stability of producer and consumer populations jeopardize the availability of energy and matter to the rest of the biological community.

Design and illustrate energy

 pyramids for specific ecosystems.

Describe how organisms at each level of an energy pyramid store about 10 percent of the energy they take in within structures.

Describe how about 90 percent of the energy is used metabolically to survive and is released to the environment as heat.

Explain and illustrate how at each link in a food web, or level in an energy pyramid, only 10 percent of the energy is passed from an organism to its consumer.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 21:1, 2

22:2

PH LS, Ch 22:1,

10:4, (& 7:2)

PH LS, Ch 22:1

Life Science 1-2, Page 26

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

producers transpiration

consumers

respiration

combustion *erosion

*assimilation *ammonification

*nitrification *denitrification

*biogeochemical cycles

SKILLS FOCUS:

diagram

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 Have students create complete physical cycles with labels using different biomes from the book examples.

Go on-line: Water Cycle

Activity, www.PHSchool.com

, webcode: cpf-4024

KEY VOCABULARY:

producers

decomposers

consumers

*trophic level

SKILLS FOCUS:

model

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Producers & Consumers

Have students study the interactions of producers and decomposers in a closed or restricted ecosystem, such as a worm farm, a composting system, a terrarium, or an aquarium.

CA Sci. Framework, p 236

KEY VOCABULARY:

producers

*trophic levels

food web omnivores carnivores

*primary

*tertiary

consumers

food chain

decomposers herbivores

*secondary

SKILLS FOCUS:

analyze, illustrate

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 Calculations of Energy Loss

Links to Food Web/Energy

Pyramid Websites.

http://www.ftexploring.com/links

/foodchains.html

Go on-line: Links on food chain/webs, www.SciLinks.org

, webcode: scn-0521

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Evolution (Population Genetics)

Life Science 1-2, Page 27

7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over time.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.

[CST, LS10]

(7a)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool.

(7b)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… new mutations are constantly being generated in a gene pool.

[CST, LS10]

(7c)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain and provide examples showing that natural selection works directly on expressed traits (the phenotype).

 Distinguish homozygous and heterozygous genotypes.

Distinguish dominant, codominant, and recessive homozygous allele pairings.

 Define recessive lethal alleles, such as the one responsible for

Tay-Sachs disease.

 Explain how healthy heterozygous individuals contribute the masked recessive gene to the gene pool, allowing the lethal alleles to persist in the population.

 Explain that random changes in chromosomes occur through additions, deletions, substitutions of nucleotides, and rearrangement of chromosomes.

 Explain that mutations are an important source of new genetic variation within a gene pool.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 6:1-2

21:3

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

phenotype heterozygous dominant

SKILLS FOCUS:

genotype homozygous recessive analyze, provide evidence

Select and use appropriate tools and technology to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data.

(1&E 1.a)

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, Skills Lab, “Nature at

Work” p 180

PH LS, Ch 4:2, 5:2

KEY VOCABULARY:

allele homozygous heterozygous dominant incomplete dominance recessive codominant

SKILLS FOCUS:

computer modeling

Select and use appropriate tools and technology to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data.

(1&E 1.a)

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 Variety of Punnett Square activities to demonstrate genotypes vs. phenotypes.

Ecosystem Observations.

PH LS, Ch 4:4

KEY VOCABULARY:

mutation

*point mutation

SKILLS FOCUS:

analyze, research

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings.

(I&E 1.m)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Guest Speaker

Genetic Counselor presentation

Research paper

Students make presentations on Sickle Cell Anemia and

Malaria resistance.

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Evolution (Population Genetics) (cont’d)

Life Science 1-2, Page 28

7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over time.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… variation within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of a species will survive under changed environmental conditions.

(7d)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Describe and give examples of how changing environmental factors will change how natural selection impacts populations.

 Explain how mutation and/or genetic recombination cause variation within a species, which in turn makes it more likely that at least some members of the species will survive environmental changes.

 Explain why genetic sameness means vulnerability that could lead to extinction.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Connections

PH LS, Ch 6:1, 21:3

KEY VOCABULARY:

*genetic drift *recombination

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, analyze, infer

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Go on-line: Links for Charles

Darwin, www.SciLinks.org

, webcode: scn-0351

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Life Science 1-2, Page 29

Evolution (Speciation)

8. Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of organisms.

[CST, LS10]

(8a)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms survive major changes in the environment.

(8b)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain and site examples of how natural selection favors organisms that are best suited to their immediate environment.

 Explain how the selection for adaptive traits is realigned when the environment changes.

 Provide an example of how traits that were once adaptive may become disadvantageous.

 Explain that organisms not well suited to their environment may die before they can reproduce, and therefore do not pass on their traits to the next generation.

 Explain that, just as variation within a species helps members of the species to survive environmental changes

(Standard 7d), so a variety of species within an ecosystem leads to greater chance of having some organisms survive changes.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 6:1

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

*recombination natural selection

*isolation

*divergence

*speciation

SKILLS FOCUS:

Identify and communicate sources of unavoidable experimental error.

(I&E1.b)

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

Know that when an observation does not agree with an accepted scientific theory, the observation is sometimes mistaken or fraudulent (e. g., the Piltdown

Man fossil or unidentified flying objects) and that the theory is sometimes wrong.

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

(I&E 1.n)

Natural Selection Activity

Students explore natural selection through activities that simulate predator-prey relationships where organisms struggle to obtain food or escape becoming food.

CA Sci. Framework, p 240

 Expand natural selection activities to demonstrate a variety of affecting factors and outcomes.

PH LS, Ch 23:3, 6:1

KEY VOCABULARY:

biodiversity

SKILLS FOCUS:

research

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

(I&E 1.d)

Guest Experts

Invite local scientists from

CSULB, El Dorado Nature

Center, Long Beach Aquarium,

County Sanitation Districts, or oil companies to share ecological data they collect and experiments they perform.

CA Sci. Framework, p 235

Reports on Rainforest

Species

Students research species that are closely reliant on each other. Students work as groups and report on the effects when one or more species is disrupted. Focus Question:

Would fewer or more relationships better protect the survival of the ecosystem?

 PH LS, Interdisciplinary

Exploration, Dogs – Loyal companions, p 202-207

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Life Science 1-2, Page 30

Evolution (Speciation) (cont’d)

8. Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the effects of genetic drift on the diversity of organisms in a population.

[CST]

(8c)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… reproductive or geographic isolation affects speciation.

[CST]

(8d)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Define genetic drift as a random change in gene frequencies that may occur when a small sample of individuals is randomly separated from a larger population.

 Explain how reproductive isolation of different populations of the same species may lead to new species.

 Explain that speciation occurs when populations are separated and adapt to different environmental conditions.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 6:1

PH LS, 6:2 (p 186)

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

*genetic drift

SKILLS FOCUS:

Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena.

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

(I&E 1.d)

Graphic Representation

Students create a chart of diagram to illustrate the how genetic drift occurs in a population.

KEY VOCABULARY:

ecological niches

SKILLS FOCUS:

research, analyze

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Rift Research

Students report on the Rift

Valley in Africa to find evidence of isolation effects.

Notes/Diagrams on

Speciation: Brown University

http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses

/BIO48/21.Models.HTML

Teacher Demo: Map of

Pangaea

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Life Science 1-2, Page 31

Evolution (Speciation) (cont’d)

8. Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how to analyze fossil evidence with regard to biological diversity, episodic speciation, and mass extinction.

(8e)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… how to use comparative embryology,

DNA or protein sequence comparisons, and other independent sources of data to create a branching diagram (cladogram) that shows probable evolutionary relationships

.

(8f*)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that interpretation of the fossil record indicates that major changes have occurred within

Earth’s biosphere – called macroevolution.

 Recall that four major explosions of life that follow mass extinctions are observed in the fossil record corresponding to the

Precambrian, Paleozoic,

Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras.

 Explain why extinction is inevitable in a changing world.

 Explain why mass extinctions coincide with rapid global environmental changes.

Define systematics as the study

that connects the biological diversity observed to evolutionary history of species

(phylogeny).

Explain that classification is based on similarities between species.

Describe some similarities in embryonic development that may be attributed to common ancestry.

Note that the old assertion the

“ontology recapitulates phylogeny” (i.e., that embryonic development replays the entire evolutionary history of a species) is no longer considered valid.

Recall examples of homologous structures (such as embryonic structures or forelimbs of cats, whales, and bats) that also provide evidence of a common origin.

Explain how similarities between species can also be evaluated at the molecular level by comparing amino acids in proteins or nucleotide sequences of DNA.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 6:2-3

11:4

PH LS, Ch 6:2, 2:2,

& 9:1 timeline ......... p 194-195 animals ................ p 298

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

*paleontologist v*estigial structures homologous structures

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, analyze, infer, measure

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

SciLinks: Links on evolution, www.SciLinks.org

, webcode scn-0356

Go on-line: Fossil Formation activity, PHSchool.com, webcode cep-3053

KEY VOCABULARY:

embryology taxonomy

SKILLS FOCUS:

infer

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Cladistic Activity

Have students study examples of cladograms and create new ones to explore the connection between shared characteristics and sequence of evolutionary change.

CA Sci. Framework, p 243

UC Berkley Introduction to

Cladistics

Http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu

/clad/clad1.html

American Museum of Natural

History: Understanding

Cladistics

Http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions

/Fossil_Halls/cladistics.html

Origins of Systematics: Carl

Linnaeus

Http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu

/history/linnaeus.html

Skills Lab: Telltale Molecules,

Prentice Hall LS, p 188

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Physiology (Homeostasis)

Life Science 1-2, Page 32

9. As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the outside environment.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide.

(9a)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Define homeostasis as a complex and dynamic equilibrium by which the body responds to changing demands while maintaining a constant internal environment.

 Describe the purpose of the digestive system as removing nutrients from food and delivering them to the circulatory system.

 Describe how the lungs and circulatory system work together.

 Explain how the alveoli of the lungs move O

2

from air to the circulatory system.

 Explain that, among other functions, the circulatory system delivers glucose and O

2 molecules by capillaries to each cell of the body where cellular respiration occurs.

 Describe the process of cellular respiration as oxidizing the 6carbon glucose molecules into

CO

2

and H

2

O molecules (the same reaction as combustion, only slower).

 Explain how the gas exchange process that brought O

2

to the cells works in reverse to carry the CO

2

out of the cells to be released into the alveoli of the lungs and exhaled.

 Explain how when amino acids from a protein are used for energy, they are chemically converted produce toxic ammonia, which is converted to urea and excreted by the kidneys.

 Explain that various organs detect and remove specific chemicals from the circulatory system.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 14:1,

2:1 (p 40)

.............................. 15:2

..................... 16:1, 17:1

.................................3:4

.............................. 16:1

..................... 15:3, 17:3

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

homeostasis alveoli

SKILLS FOCUS:

glucose observe, compare, classify

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, Links on body systems, www.SciLinks.org

, webcode scn-0411

 PH LS, Links on indigestion, www.SciLinks.org

, webcode scn-0423

Discovery School Video,

Circulation

Go on-line: Heart Activity,

PHSchool.com, webcode cep-

4031

 PH LS, Discovery Activity,

Filtering Liquid, p 579

Go on-line: Links on organs of excretion, www.SciLinks.org

, webcode scn-0443

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Physiology (Homeostasis) (cont’d)

Life Science 1-2, Page 33

9. As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the outside environment.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how the nervous system mediates communication between different parts of the body and the body’s interactions with the environment.

(9b)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… how feedback loops in the nervous and endocrine systems regulate conditions in the body.

(9c)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain how an individual becomes aware of the environment through sense organs and other body receptors (through touch, taste, and smell and by collecting information about temperature, light, and sound).

 Examine and describe various ways the body constantly responds to external stimuli through reflex arcs (e.g., pupils adjusting to light, blood circulation responding to temperature).

 Explain how hormones work in conjunction with the nervous system.

 Describe how insulin released by the pancreas into the blood regulates the uptake of glucose by muscle cells as controlled by the nervous system.

Explain how the hypothalamus of the brain controls the pituitary master gland to produce human growth hormone, and many other specialized hormones as needed by the body.

 Define feedback loops as the means by which the nervous system uses the endocrine system to regulate body conditions.

 Explain how the hormones function through feedback loops.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 19: 2-3 and 20:1 and 18:4 (p 613)

PH LS, Ch 20:1

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

*reflex arc hypothalamus pituitary gland

SKILLS FOCUS:

classify, describe

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Peripheral Nervous System http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma

.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/PNS

.html

BBC Reflex Arc http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools

/gcsebitesize/biology/humans

/nervoussystemrev4.shtml

The Basics of How Insulin and

Glucagon Work

http://www.endocrineweb.com

/insulin.html

Hormone Regulation http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma

.ultranet/BiologyPages/H

/Hormones.html

Hypothalamus and the ANS http://thalamus.wustl.edu/course

/hypoANS.html

 PH LS, Design your own Lab

“Ready or Not”, p 631

KEY VOCABULARY:

endocrine system *leptin

SKILLS FOCUS:

research

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Feedback Feedback

Research another hormone feedback loop (other than leptin) and create a poster or graphic organizer to present the findings.

Go on-line: Negative

Feedback Activity,

PHSchool.com, webcode cep-

4071

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Physiology (Homeostasis) (cont’d)

Life Science 1-2, Page 34

9. As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the outside environment.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the functions of the nervous system and the role of neurons in transmitting electrochemical impulses.

[CST]

(9d)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… the roles of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons in sensation, thought, and response.

[CST]

(9e)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

… the individual functions and sites of secretion of digestive enzymes

(amylases, proteases, nucleases, lipases), stomach acid, and bile salts

.

(9f*)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Define a nerve impulse (or action potential) as a reversal of the normal electrical potential in a neuron.

 Explain how the action potential causes the release of neurotransmitter chemicals from the end of the axon, which enter the small gap (synapse) between neurons and begins an action potential in the next neuron.

 Diagram a neuron showing the direction of impulses from dendrite to cell body to axon.

 Explain and diagram how impulses travel from sensory neurons to interneurons to motor neurons in a reflex action.

 Explain how similar pathways lead to the brain where sensations become consciously experienced and conscious actions can be taken.

Explain that digestion requires

secretions of enzymes to be mixed with food as it passes through the body.

Describe how salivary glands and the pancreas secrete amylase, an enzyme that breaks starch down into sugar.

Describe how stomach acid and gastric enzymes begin the breakdown of proteins in food.

Explain that intestinal and pancreatic secretions continue to break down proteins as they pass beyond the stomach.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 19:1

PH LS, Ch 19:1-2

PH LS, Ch 15:2-3

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

*electrochemical axon

*neurons synapse

*neurotransmitter

SKILLS FOCUS:

sequence, describe, hypothesize, diagram

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Go on-line: Nerve Impulses, www.PHSchools.com

, webcode cep-4061

KEY VOCABULARY:

dendrite interneurons

SKILLS FOCUS:

motor neurons diagram, describe, sequence, identify

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 Diagram the path from dendrite to reflex action.

Go on-line: Nervous System

Activity, www.PHSchool.com

, webcode cep-4062

KEY VOCABULARY:

enzymes

*amylase

*proteases

SKILLS FOCUS:

classify, diagram, relate, generalize

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Digestive Tract Diagram

Diagram the digestive tract, labeling important points of secretion and tracing the pathways from digestion of starches, proteins, and other foods.

CA Sci. Framework, p 246

 PH LS, Analyzing Data,

“Protein Digestion”, p 520

 PH LS, Discovery Activity,

“How Can you Speed Up

Digestion?” p 516

Go on-line: Links on digestion, www.SciLinks.org

, webcode scn-0423

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Physiology (Homeostasis) (cont’d)

Life Science 1-2, Page 35

9. As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the outside environment.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the homeostatic role of the kidneys in the removal of nitrogenous wastes and the role of the liver in blood detoxification and glucose balance

.

(9g*)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Outline the role of the kidney

nephron in the formation of urine.

Explain how the microscopic

nephrons within the kidney filter out body wastes and regulate water.

Explain the role of the liver in

blood detoxification.

Explain how the liver removes toxins from the blood, storing them, and excreting them into the bile.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 17:3 diagram and explanation on p 580-

581 p 583, shows how bile breaks up fats, but does not mention removing toxins. Brief mention on p 657 of alcohol’s effect on liver

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

*nitrogenous waste

*detoxification

SKILLS FOCUS:

classify, describe, compare

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 PH LS, Teacher Demo “Kidney

Function” p 581

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Physiology (Infection and Immunity)

10. Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the role of the skin in providing nonspecific defenses against infection.

[CST]

(10a)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that the skin serves as a physical barrier to the enormous number of potentially disease causing microorganisms in the environment.

 Explain the potential dangers of cuts and abrasions that compromise the skin’s ability to serve as a barrier.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 14:1,4

18:2

… the role of antibodies in the body’s response to infection.

(10b)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

 Define antigens as substances that are foreign to the body.

 Give specific examples of antigens, such as the surface proteins of a flu virus, which are different in shape and structure from human proteins.

 Explain that when the immune system recognizes antigens, it produces proteins called antibodies that specifically bind to the antigen that was found.

 Explain that antibodies either inactivate pathogens directly or signal other immune cells to attack the pathogen.

PH LS, Ch 18:2

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

inflammatory response

*temperature response histamine mucus

SKILLS FOCUS:

describe, analyze

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

PH LS, Discovery Activity

“What Can You Observe About

Skin?” p 488 (include pH test)

Merck Manual on the

Epidermis

http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec

18/ch201/ch201b.html

Commercial Site with Short

Movie and Information on Skin

http://www.convatec.com/US_en

/consumer/skin/education

/about_skin_care

/structure_function.jhtml

KEY VOCABULARY:

antigen antibody

SKILLS FOCUS:

pathogen analyze, research

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Go on-line: Immune

Response Activity, www.PHSchool.com

, webcode cep-4032

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Physiology (Infection and Immunity) (cont’d)

10. Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how vaccination protects an individual from infectious diseases.

[CST, LS10]

(10c)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that a problem with the immune system is that it takes several weeks to develop immunity to a new antigen.

 Explain that vaccinations avoid the problem of delay by giving the body contact with the disease antigens in advance.

 Recall that vaccines for a given disease usually contain killed pathogens for that disease or a purified surface protein from the pathogen.

 Explain how the antigens in vaccines do not cause disease, but stimulate the body to generate antibodies to oppose the pathogen.

 Explain that the immune system of a body that has been exposed to a vaccine responds quickly, because it “remembers” having been exposed to the antigen.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 18:3

Life Science 1-2, Page 36

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

immunity vaccination vaccine

SKILLS FOCUS:

research

Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings.

(I&E 1.m)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Personal Vaccination Record

Students find their own vaccination records and research the purpose and makeup of one of the vaccinations.

CA Sci. Framework, p 248

History of Vaccines

Students research the history of vaccine development from the 1700s through the twentieth century and up to the most current applications.

 CA Sci. Framework, p 248, and PH LS p 608-609

Discovery School Video

Field Trip: “Fighting Disease”,

The Importance of Vaccines

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Physiology (Infection and Immunity) (cont’d)

10. Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… there are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body’s primary defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections.

(10d)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Define viruses as the simplest form of a genetic entity, containing genetic material

(either DNA or RNA) surrounded by protein, but have no ribosomes or other organelles.

 Define bacteria as the simplest organisms with a full cellular structure.

 Compare and contrast the growth and reproduction requirements of viruses and bacteria.

 Explain that viruses are incapable of metabolism or reproduction outside of the cells of other living organisms.

Explain that bacteria are self-

contained organisms that live in a variety of environments and can reproduce sexually or asexually.

(LBUSD)

 Explain that viruses can be benign or cause harm by destroying or altering host cell structures from within.

 Explain how bacteria can be benign or helpful (LBUSD), or can cause harm by damaging host cells or releasing toxins.

 Compare the body’s defense mechanisms against viral and bacterial infections.

 Explain that the body recognizes the surface proteins of viruses as antigens and produces antibodies to neutralize the viruses.

 Explain that the body recognizes the surface proteins and toxins of bacteria as antigens and produces antibodies to neutralize them.

 Explain the differences in effective treatments for viral and bacterial infections.

 Define antiseptics as chemicals that kill infectious agents.

 Explain how antiseptics can be used to prevent infections or even treat surface infections.

 Define antibiotics as substances that can treat bacterial infections by destroying or interfering with the growth or physiology of the bacterial cell wall, or by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial DNA,

RNA, or proteins.

Explain that antibiotics do not work against viruses.

 Explain the dangers of developing antibiotic-resistant bacteria through long-standing overapplication of antibiotics.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 7:1-2

18:1,3

Life Science 1-2, Page 37

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

antibiotic *antiseptic envelope bacteriophage toxin antibiotic resistance

SKILLS FOCUS:

compare and contrast

Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings.

(I&E 1.m)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Research on Infections

Students research infections caused by protists (malaria, amoebic dysentery), bacteria

(blood poisoning, botulism, food poisoning, tuberculosis), and viruses (rabies, colds, influenza, AIDS), or specific infections currently being discussed in the media.

Students should address growth and reproduction requirements, and the effectiveness of the bodies defenses and medical treatments.

CA Sci. Framework, p 249

Antibiotic Disc Activity

Students can use commercially available antibiotic discs to show the inhibition of bacterial growth on agar plates.

CA Sci. Framework, p 249

 PH LS, Science and Society,

“Antibiotic Resistance- An

Alarming Trend”, p 618-619

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Physiology (Infection and Immunity) (cont’d)

10. Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… why an individual with a compromised immune system (for example, a person with

AIDS) may be unable to fight off and survive infections of microorganisms that are usually benign.

[CST]

(10e)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

OES: pending

PT: pending

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects and destroys key cells of the immune system before those cells can recognize and attack the virus.

 Explain how an immune system can be compromised so that it becomes either unable to recognize a dangerous antigen or incapable of mounting an appropriate defense.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 18:2

Life Science 1-2, Page 38

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

AIDS HIV

*compromised

SKILLS FOCUS:

analyze

Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

(I&E 1.d)

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

 Discovery Video,

“Understanding Viruses”, available at SMRC

Simplified Graphics of Immune

System and HIV Effect

http://www.saskschools.ca

/~bert_fox/2000gr/morrell_files

/frame.htm

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Diversity (LBUSD)

Organisms can be placed into taxonomic groups based upon morphological and biochemical similarities.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… organization of living organisms reflects our understanding of evolutionary development.

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Demonstrate the use of a

taxonomic key.

Explain why scientists use

scientific names instead of common names.

List the seven levels of

classification.

Describe and apply the

scientific system of naming organisms.

Define the term, “species”.

List the kingdoms of organisms,

recognizing that these are dynamic, depending on available evidence.

Identify the distinguishing

characteristics of members of each of the kingdoms.

Describe how the classification

of living things reflects evolutionary theory.

Explain general body

organization plans in vertebrates and invertebrates.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

PH LS, Ch 2:2, 9:1

Organisms: Ch’s 7-12

Connections

KEY VOCABULARY:

kingdom family phylum class genus species order vertebrate

SKILLS FOCUS:

taxonomy invertebrate describe, analyze

LABS / DEMOS / ETC.:

Dissections

Students compare structures and functions in different organisms. They should also describe the organizational differences between different organism classifications.

UC Berkeley Museum of

Paleontology

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/ help/taxaform.html

Discovery Lab for Taxonomy http://jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu/ lab/TaxonomyLab.html

Montgomery College Library http://mclibrary.nhmccd.edu/ taxonomy.html

Go on-line: Links on kingdoms, www.SciLinks.org

, webcode scn-

0113

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Life Science 1-2, Page 39

LABORATORY RECOMMENDATIONS:

Core experiences for this course should include detailed laboratories with complete write-ups

(when appropriate) on the following topics:

1) Wet-mount Slide Preparation

2) Dialysis Tubing - Osmosis

7) Cell Respiration

8) DNA Isolation

3) Elodea Leaf - Plasmolysis

4) Enzyme Lab

5) Mitosis / Meiosis

6) Photosynthesis / Chromatography

A minimum of 20 laboratories is recommended for this course. Our district recommends that approximately 40% of instructional time be devoted to hands-on laboratory and project-based activities.

9) Genetic Probability

10) Protein Synthesis

11) Natural Selection Activity

12) Comparative Anatomy Dissections

MATERIALS:

Basic Textbook and Supplementary Materials: Science Explorer Life Science, Padilla / Miaoulis / Cyr

Prentica Hall, © 2007

Safety Equipment:

Measuring Devices:

Other Laboratory

Equipment:

Laboratory Supplies: fire extinguisher, eye wash station centigram balances, mm rulers, triple beam balances, volumetric graduated cylinders microscopes, dissection equipment, Bunsen burners, petri dishes, pipettes, electrophoresis equipment, standard materials and equipment comparable to a professional or college laboratory chemical reagents, filter paper, chromatography paper

Other: Computer-based software and hardware, including computer labs, internet access, word processing and presentation programs, and student tutorials/practice.

 Many items are shared in your science department or may be available through Science/Math Resource Center (SMRC).

METHODS:

Learning styles of students may be addressed by implementing combinations of the following:

Significant, Proven Science Strategies for ALL Science Students

 Hands-On Lab’s

 Inquiry Activities

 Short/Long-term projects

 Student Presentations

 Peer Teaching

 Summarization

 Essential Questions

 Thematic Units

 Field Experiences

 Current Events

 Career Choices

 Guest Speakers

Reading Strategies in

Science

 Learning Logs

 Pre-teaching

 Vocabulary

 Pre-reading

 Text Structures

 Trail Markers

 Reciprocal Teaching

 Functional Text

SDAIE Strategies for English

Learners

 Tapping/Building Prior

Knowledge (Graphic

Organizers, Schema)

 Grouping Strategies

 Multiple Intelligences

 Adapt the Text

 Interactive Learning

(Manipulatives, Visuals)

 Acquisition Levels

 Language Sensitivity

 Lower the Affective Filter

(including Processing Time)

 Home/School Connection

(including Cultural Aspects)

Differentiation for Advanced

Learners

 Curriculum Compacting

 Tiered Assignments

 Flexible Grouping

 Acceleration

 Depth and Complexity

 Independent Study

Please note that these strategies often overlap and should not be limited to specifically defined courses or student populations.

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Life Science 1-2, Page 40

RESOURCES:

Documents

Science Framework: .............. http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/fd/documents/scienceframework.pdf

[or find it posted in sections at the LBUSD Science Office website]

CST / NCLB Test Blueprints: ............................ http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/blueprints.asp

CST Reference Sheets: ...................................... http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/cstsciref.asp

CST Released Test Questions ............................ http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/css05rtq.asp

National Science Standards: .................... http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/nses/html/

Science Safety Handbook for CA Public Schools (1999) can be ordered from the CDE at .................................... http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/rc/

LBUSD Approved Chemicals List

,

Chemical Hygiene Plan

, and

Science Fair

Resources: http://www.lbusd.k12.ca.us/Main_Offices/Curriculum/Areas/Science/teacher_resources.cfm

District Offices

Science Curriculum Office

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2963) o

K-12 science standards, curriculum, professional development, science fair

Science / Math Resource Center (SMRC)

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2964) o hands-on materials, consumable material orders, alternative standards-based curriculum packets

Instructional Materials Workshop (IMW) o standards-based instructional materials o content integrated instructional materials

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2965) o wood shop / lumber room o copying, enlarging, and laminating o monthly theme-based literacy supplements for science

Office of Multimedia Services (OMS)

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 7145) o videos for check out to fit the curriculum (see your librarian for current catalogs) o district TV channels programming

PALMS Office

Program Assistance for

Language Minority Students

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 8031) o technical assistance and professional development for English Language Development (ELD) and Specially

Designed Academic Instruction In English (SDAIE) o assistance in the implementation and maintenance of programs addressing the needs of English Language

Learners (ELLs)

Health Curriculum Office o curriculum and training for mandated health content

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2967)

EVALUATION METHODS:

Learning styles of students may be best assessed by implementing combinations of the following:

 laboratory-based performance tasks

 long-term projects and inventions

 portfolios

 model-building

 research projects using primary source

 written reports with oral presentations

 cooperative group assessment

 homework assessment

 notebook organization and note-taking skills

 peer evaluation

 rubric scoring

 open-ended written assessment

 single-response testing

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

Biology, Page 41

SUGGESTED GRADE WEIGHTING:

(with some possible examples)

1. Assessment ~30% o

objective tests including comprehensive finals o

performance tasks (rubric scored) o

open-ended questions (rubric scored) o

portfolios o

peer evaluations

2. Homework o

discovery assignments o

assignments reinforcing class lesson o

essays o

organization

~10%

STANDARD GRADING SCALE:

STANDARD GRADING SCALE:

Advanced Proficient

A 90 – 100%

.........................................................................................................................

B 80 – 89%

Proficient

C 70 – 79%

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................

Partial Proficient

.........................................................................................................................

Not Proficient

D 60 – 69%

F 0 – 59%

Submitted by: Eric Brundin (B. Wiley)

School: Science Office

Date:

Revised:

06/13/2008

06/27/2011 (L. Lauriano)

3. Labs o

lab reports o

active participation

~20%

4. Projects o

science fair projects

~20% o

research-based reports and projects

5. Classwork ~20% o

note taking skills o

organization skills o

oral presentations o

individual and group projects and assessments

* Key vocabulary terms not used in textbook

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