01758_a
H-NAL
REMEDIAL INVESTIGA.TION/FEASIBILITY
STUDY
QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN
OPERABLE
UNIT NO. 16 (SITES 89 AND 93)
CONTRACT
TASK ORDER 0344
FEBRUARY
iirqwed
21,1997
for:
DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
ATLANTIC DIVISION
NAVAL FACILITIES
ENGINEERING
COMMANi
Norftolk, Virginia
LANTDIV CLEAN Program
Contract NS2470-89-D-481.4
Prepared by:
BAKER EIWIRONMENTAL,
Coraopolis, Pennsylvania
INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0
INTRODUCTION
....................................................
2.0
SCOPE OF QUALITY
3.0
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
4.0
PROJECT ORGANIZATION
5.0
QUALITY ASSURANCE OBJECTIVES FOR DATA MEASUREMENT
5.1
Project Quality Assurance Objectives ...............................
Data
Quality Objectives ..........................................
5.2
6.0
SAMPLE AND DOCUMENT CUSTODY PROCEDURES ..................
6.1
Sampling Handling .............................................
6.2
Chain-of-Custody Procedures .....................................
Document Custody Procedures ....................................
6.3
6-l
6- 1
6- 1
6-5
7.0
CALIBRATION
PROCEDURES AND FREQUENCY .....................
Field Instruments ...............................................
7.1
7.2
Laboratory Instruments ..........................................
7.2.1 Method Calibration ......................................
7.2.2 GUMS System Calibration Procedure ........................
7.2.3 GC System Calibration Procedure for Pesticides/PCBs ...........
7.2.4 System Calibration Procedure for Metals Analysis ..............
7.2.5 System Calibration Procedure for Inorganic Analyses ...........
7.2.6 Periodic Calibration ......................................
7-l
7- 1
7- 1
7-2
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-5
8.0
ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES ........................................
8.1
Field Analysis .................................................
8.2
Laboratory Analysis .............................................
8-l
8- 1
8- 1
9.0
DATA REDUCTION, VALIDATION AND REPORTING ..................
9.1
Field Data Procedures ...........................................
Laboratory
Data Procedures ......................................
9.2
9.2.1 Laboratory Data Validation ................................
9.2.2 Analytical Reports .......................................
Independent (Third Party) Data Validation ...........................
9.3
9-l
9- 1
9- 1
9- 1
9-2
9-2
10.0
10.3
INTERNAL QUALITY CONTROL CHECKS ...........................
10.1 Field Quality Control Checks ....................................
10.2 Laboratory Quality Control Checks ................................
Laboratory Control Limits .............................................
10-l
lo- 1
10-3
1O-5
11.0
PERFORMANCE
11-1
l-l
ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN ...................
2-1
............................................
3-1
..........................................
AND SYSTEM AUDITS
ii
.............................
4-1
.....
5-l
S- 1
5-2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Continued)
12.0
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
......................................
12.1 Field Maintenance .............................................
12.2 Laboratory Maintenance ........................................
12-1
12- 1
12- 1
13.0
DATA
13.1
13.2
13.3
13-1
13- 1
13-1
13- 1
14.0
CORRECTIVE ACTION ............................................
14.1 Limits of Operation ............................................
14.2 Corrective Action ..............................................
15.0
QUALITY
MEASUREMENT ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES .................
Overall Project Assessment ......................................
Field Quality Assessment .......................................
Laboratory Data Quality Assessment ..............................
ASSURANCE REPORTING
14-1
14-1
14- 1
PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
LIST OF TABLES
:
5-l
Definitions of Data Quality Indicators .....................................
6-l
6-2
Summary of Containers, Preservation, and Holding Times for Aqueous Samples ... 6-2
Summary of Containers, Preservation, and Holding Times for Solid Samples ......
6-3
8-l
8-2
8-3
8-4
Volatile Organics - Method Performance Limits .............................
Inorganics - Method Performance Limits ...................................
TCLP - Method Performance Limits ......................................
RCRAEngineering Parameters - Method Performance Limits .................
8-2
8-6
8-9
S- 11
10-l
10-2
QA/QC Sample Frequency .............................................
QA/QC Analysis Frequency ............................................
10-2
1O-4
11-l
Field Site Audit Inspection Form ........................................
1l-2
5-3
LIST OF FIGURES
4-l
Project Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
...
III
1.0
INTRODUCTION
This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) has been developed for the field investigation at
Operable Unit (OU) No. 16 at Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The following
sites are included in this OU.
0
0
Site 89 - STC-868
Site 93 - TC-942
The preparation of this QAPP, and other related project plans, is being performed under the Navy
CLEAN Contract No. N62470-89-D-4814, Contract Task Order 0344. Baker Environmental, Inc.,
(Baker) is the prime contractor for the implementation of this project.
This QAPP addresses the quality assurance and quality control steps and procedures that will be
administered for the sample collection and analysis for this Remedial Investigation (RI). Detailed
information regarding sample handling and analytical methods are provided in Sections 6.0 and 9.0,
respectively. Sample collection procedures are provided in the Field Sampling and Analysis Plan
(FSAP).
l-1
2.0
SCOPE
OF QUALITY
ASSURANCE
PROJECT
PLAN
This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) addresses sample collection and analysis to be
conducted for the field investigation of OU No. 16 of Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The QAPP
has been developed for the Department of Navy (DON) in accordance with U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines. Contractors will follow QA/QC practices and procedures,
including chain-of-custody procedures, while conducting all sample collection and analysis
activities.
In order to provide adequate QA/QC, this investigation will require:
1.
The use of a NFESC-certified analytical laboratories;
2.
The use of accepted analytical methods for the samples discussed in the FSAP.
Analysis of samples for hazardousconstituents parameters will be performed using
the following documents:
3.
0
“Statement of Work for Organic Analysis,” USEPA, OLM01.9, August
1991
0
“Statement of Work for Inorganic Analysis,” USEPA, ILMO3.0, March
1990
0
“Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Waste,” USEPA, 1979,
Revised March 1983
0
“Environmental Protection Agency Regulations on Test Procedures for
Analysis of Pollutants,” USEPA, 40 CFR 136
0
“Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,” USEPA SW846, November
1986,3rd Edition and 1996 updates
0
“Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of
Hazardous Waste; Toxicity Characteristics Revisions; Final Rule,” USEPA,
52 FR 26886
The conducting of field audit(s) during initial sampling activities to verify that
sampling is being performed according to the Plan.
The structure of this QAPP and the QA elements addressed are:
Title Page
Table of Contents
Introduction
QAPP Scope
Project Description
Project Organization
QA Objectives for Data Measurement
Sampling Procedures
2-l
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Sample and Document Custody
Calibration Procedures and Frequency
Analytical Procedures
Data Reduction, Validation, and Reporting
Internal QC Checks
Performance and System Audits
Preventive Maintenance
Data Measurement Assessment Procedures
Corrective Action
QA Reports to Management
2-2
3.0
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
An introduction to the field investigation for OU No. 16 describing the project objectives and scope
are given in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of the RVFS Work Plan. These sections discuss the objectives of
the RVFS, and the various field sampling and analytical programs. A detailed description of the
field investigations, including sample location and designation and sampling procedures and
frequency, is presented in Sections 4.0,5.0, and 6.0 of the FSAP.
3-l
4.0
PROJECT
ORGANIZATION
Technical performance of the investigation for OU No. 16 at Camp Lejeune and key personnel
responsible for quality assurancethroughout its duration are described in Section 5.0 of the RVFS
Work Plan. The contractor will utilize subcontractors to perform laboratory analysis, data
validation, drilling and monitoring well installation, and surveying. Specific subcontractors have
not yet been identified. Figure 4-l shows the project organization, lines of authority, and support
personnel/organizations.
4-1
FIGURE
PROJECT
MCB Camp Lejeune
IRP Program
Mr. Neal Paul
Director
4-l
ORGANIZATION
Katherine Landman
Navy Environmental
Support Staff
*
.
Drafting
Word Processing
Secretarial
Report Production
USEPA Region IV
Ms. Gena Townsend
Regional Program Manager
5.0
QUALITY
ASSURANCE
OBJECTIVES
FOR DATA MEASUREMENT
The purpose of a QA Program is to establish policies for the implementation of regulatory
requirements and to provide an internal means for control and review so that the work performed
is of the highest professional standards.
5.1
Project
Ouality
Assurance
Objem
The following is a list of QA objectives which will be implemented at OU No. 16.
0
Obtain scientific data of a quality sufficient to meet scientific and legal scrutiny.
l
Gather/develop data in accordancewith procedures appropriate for its intended use.
0
Ensure that data is of acceptable precision, accuracy, completeness,
representativeness, and comparability as required by the project.
The fundamental mechanisms that will be employed to achieve these quality goals can be
categorized as prevention, assessmentand correction where:
0
Prevention of errors through planning, documented instructions and procedures, and
careful selection and training of skilled, qualified personnel.
0
Assessment of all quality assurance sampling reports furnished by the contract
laboratory.
0
Assessmentof data through data validation, and of procedures through laboratory
and field audits.
0
Correction for prevention of reoccurrence of conditions adverse to quality.
This QAPP, prepared in direct response to these goals, describesthe QA Program to be implemented
and the quality control (QC) procedures to be followed by field and laboratory personnel during the
course of the project.
This QAPP presents the project organization and specifies or references technical procedures,
documentation requirements, sample custody requirements, audit, and corrective action provisions
to be applied to provide confidence that all activities meet the intent of the QA program. This QAPP
has been prepared in accordance with USEPA guidance as presented in “Interim Guidelines and
Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans,” QAMS-005/80.
The procedures contained or referred to herein have been taken from:
0
“Statement of Work for Organic Analysis,” USEPA, OLM01.9, August 1991
0
“Statement of Work for Inorganic Analysis,” USEPA, ILM03.0, March 1990
0
“Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Waste,” USEPA, 1979, Revised
March 1983
5-l
5.2
0
“Environmental Protection Agency Regulations on Test Procedures for Analysis of
Pollutants,” USEPA, 40 CFR 136
0
“Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,” USEPA SW846, November 1986, 3rd
Edition and 1996 updates
0
“Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous
Waste; Toxicity Characteristics Revisions; Final Rule,” USEPA, 52 FR 26886
0
“Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project
Plans,” USEPA, (QAMS 005/80).
Data Quality Objectives
Data quality objectives (DQOs) are qualitative or quantitative statementsdeveloped by the data users
to specify the quality of data needed from a particular data collection activity to support a specific
decision. The DQOs are expressed in terms of precision, accuracy, representativeness,
completeness,and comparability. Definitions for these terms, as well as for the more general term
uncertainty, are given in Table 5-1. The Project Manager, in conjunction with the Navy
Environmental Technical Representative (NTR), is responsible for defining the DQOs. The intended
use of the data, analytical measurements, and the availability of resources are integral in
development of DQOs. DQOs define the level of uncertainty in the data that is acceptable for each
specific activity during the investigation. This uncertainty includes both field sampling error and
analytical instrument error. Ideally, zero uncertainty is the goal; however, the variables associated
with sampling and analysis contribute to a degree of uncertainty in any data generated. It is an
overall program objective to keep the total uncertainty within an acceptable range, so as not to
hinder the intended use of the data. To achieve this objective, specific data quality requirements
such as detection limits, criteria for accuracy and precision, sample representativeness, data
comparability, and data completeness have been specified.
The data collected will be used:
0
To evaluate the presence or absence of contamination resulting from previous
disposal activities.
0
To assesspotential contaminant migration and exposure pathways.
l
To monitor health and safety conditions during field activities.
l
To identify releases or suspectedreleases of hazardous waste and/or constituents.
0
To screen from further investigation those areas which do not pose a threat to
human health or environment.
5-2
TABLE
DEFINITIONS
OF DATA
5-l
QUALITY
INDICATORS
PRECISION - A measure of mutual agreement among individual measurements of the sample
property, usually under prescribed similar conditions. Precision is expressed in terms of the standard
deviation. Comparison of replicate values is best expressed as the relative percent difference (RPD).
Various measures of precision exist depending upon the “prescribed similar conditions”.
ACCURACY - The degree of agreement of a measurement (or an average of replicate measurements),
X, with an accepted reference or true value, T, expressed as the difference between the two values,
X-T. Accuracy is a measure of the bias in a system.
REPRESENTATIVENESS - Expressesthe degree to which data accurately and precisely represent
a characteristic of a population, parameter variations at a sampling point, a process condition, or an
environmental concern.
COMPLETENESS - A measure of the amount of the valid data obtained from the measurement system
compared to the amount that was expected under “normal” conditions.
COMPARABILITY
UNCERTAINTY
- Expressesthe confidence with which one data set can be compared with another.
- The unlikelihood of all types of errors associated with a particular decision.
5-3
All samples for characterizing the site or qualitatively assessinghuman health and environmental
risks will be analyzed and reported by the laboratory as Level IV data (NFESC Level D). All on-site
analyses, which will be used to assistin characterizing contamination, will be performed using EPA
approved methods Level (NFESC). Field parameters including temperature (aqueous only) and
specific conductance will be Level I (NFESC Level A) data quality.
5-4
6.0
SAMPLE AND DOCUMENT
CUSTODY PROCEDURES
Descriptions of the procedures to be used for sampling the groundwater and soil at the site are
provided in the FSAP. The number of samples,sampling locations, and sampling rationale by media
also are presented in Section 4.0 of the FSAP.
Sample custody procedures outlined in this section have been developed from “User’s Guide to the
Contract Laboratory Program,” December 1988, OSWER Directive No. 9240.0-01. These
procedures are in accordancewith “EPA NEIC Policies and Procedure Manual,” May 1978, revised
November 1984, EPA 330-78-001-R and “Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing
Quality Assurance Project Plans,” December 1980, QAMS-005/80.
The purpose of this section is to outline the sample handling and sample documentation procedures
to be used during implementation of the FSAP. The objective of the sample handling procedures
is to deliver representative samples to the laboratories for analysis. The objectives of the sample
documentation procedures are to: (1) ensure complete analysis of the requested parameters within
the required turnaround times; and (2) document the sample from the point of collection to the final
data report.
6.1
Samnling Handling
New polyethylene or glass bottles containing the proper preservatives will be provided by the
laboratory for sample collection. In addition to the chemical preservatives, samples will be stored
on ice at 4°C in a waterproof metal or sturdy plastic cooler, if required (see Tables 6-l through 6-2
for summaries of containers, preservation, and holding times for water and solids, respectively).
6.2
Chain-of-Custody
Procedutw
A sample is considered to be in an individual’s possession if:
0
It is in the sampler’s possessionor it is in the sampler’s view after being in his or her
possession.
0
It was in the sampler’s possessionand then locked or sealed to prevent tampering.
0
It is in a secure area.
Five kinds of documentation will be used in tracking and shipping the analytical samples:
0
0
0
0
0
Field log book
Sample labels
Chain-of-Custody (COC) records
Custody seals
Commercial carrier airbills
6-l
TABLE 6-l
SUMMARY
OF CONTAINERS,
PRESERVATION,
AND HOLDING TIMES FOR AQUEOUS
OPERABLE UNIT NO. 16 (SITES 89 AND 93)
CT0 0344
MCB CAMP LEJEUNE, NORTH CAROLINA
SAMPLES
Parameter
TCL Volatiles
Container
Two 40-ml vials with teflon septum caps
Preservation
Cool, 4°C
HCl pH <2
Holding Time
14 days (7 days if unpreserved)
TCL Semivolatiles
1-liter amber glass bottle with teflon caps
Cool, 4°C
7 days to extraction;
40 days from extraction to analysis
TCL/PCBs
l-liter amber glass bottle with teflon caps
Cool, 4°C
7 days to extraction;
40 days after extraction for analysis
TAL Metals
l-500 ml polyethylene bottle
I
TSS
l-500 ml polyethylene bottle
TDS
l-500 ml polyethylene bottle
COD
BOD
Chloride
l-250 ml polyethylene bottle
1-liter polyethylene bottle
l-250 ml polyethylene bottle
Methane
HNO> pH-3
HNO, pH-3
Cool, 4°C
6 months; Mercury 28 days
I
I
Cool, 4°C
HCL pH-3
2 days
7 days
28 days
Cool, 4°C
None Required
48 hours
28 days
Two 40-ml vials with teflon septum caps
Cool, 4°C
HCl pH <2
14 days (7 days if unpreserved)
Nitrate
Nitrite
l-250 ml polyethylene bottle
include w/nitrate sample
H,SO,G!
H2S0&2
28 days
Sulfate
l-250 ml polyethylene bottle
I-250 ml polyethylene bottle
Cool, 4°C
Cool, 4°C
28 days
28 days
Sulfide
Notes:
TCL
TAL
COD
BOD
TSS
TDS
-
Target Contaminant List
Target Analyte List
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Biological Oxygen Demand
Total Suspended Solids
Total Dissolved Solids
28 days
TABLE
SUMMARY
OF CONTAINERS,
PRESERVATION,
OPERABLE UNIT NO.
CT0
MCB CAMP LEJEUNE,
Container
I
6-2
AND HOLDING TIMES
16 (SITES 89 AND 93)
0344
NORTH CAROLINA
I
Preservation
FOR SOLID SAMPLES
I
Holding Time
TCL Volatiles
One 4-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4 “C
10 days
TCL Semivolatiles
One S-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
7 days to extraction;
40 days from extraction to analysis
TCL PesticidesKBs
One S-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
TAL Metals
One S-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
7 days to extraction;
40 days after extraction for analysis
6 months;
Mercury, 28 days
TCLP Metals
Two S-ounce wide-mouth glass jars
Cool, 4°C
14 days
Corrosivity
One 4-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
Ignitability
Reactivity
One 4-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
One 4-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
Cool, 4°C
10 days
14 days
TOC
Grain Size
Bulk Density
Permeability
One 4-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
NIA
Shelby tube
Notes:
TCL
TAL
TCLP
TOC
-
Target Contaminant List
Target Analyte List
Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
Total Organic Carbon
10 days
N/A
N/A
I
I
At a minimum,
0
0
0
0
0
0
the label for each sample bottle will contain the following
information:
Site name
Sample number
Date and time of collection
Sample type (grab or composite)
Matrix
Sampler’s initials
The sample information, as well as the analysis to be performed on the sample, will be entered in
the field log book for each sampling point. Additionally,
the following items will be entered:
Dates and times of entry
Names of field personnel on site
Names of visitors on site
Field conditions
Description of activities
Sampling remarks and observations
QA/QC samples collected
List of photographs taken
Sketch of site conditions
Custody of the samples will be maintained by field personnel from the time of sampling
time they are forwarded to the analytical laboratory.
until the
The sample custody is documented using Chain-of-Custody
(COC) records. Field personnel will
complete a COC record, in waterproof ink, to accompany each cooler forwarded from the site to the
laboratory. Chemical reagents used to preserve the samples will be recorded on the COC record.
Any errors on the COC records will not be erased; instead, a line will be drawn through the error and
initialed by the person completing the form. The original copy will be placed in a sealable plastic
bag and put inside the appropriate cooler, secured to the cooler’s lid.
If the sample cooler is to be shipped by commercial air carrier, the cooler must be secured with
custody seals so that the seals would be broken if the cooler was opened. The commercial carrier
is not required to sign the COC record as long as the custody seals remain intact and the COC record
stays in the cooler. The only other documentation required is the completed airbill.
If the sample shipment is hand delivered to the laboratory by field personnel or retrieved by
laboratory personnel at the site, then the custody seals are not necessary. The laboratory sample
custodian, or his/her designee accepting the sample shipment, whether it is from the air carrier or
the field personnel, signs and dates the COC record upon sample receipt. The original COC record
will be returned along with the final data report. The laboratory will be responsible for maintaining
internal log books and records that provide a custody record during sample preparation and analysis.
6-4
Laboratory
Chain-of-Custody
Procedures
Upon sample receipt the steps below will be performed.
0
Samples will be received and unpacked in the laboratory where the staff checks for
bottle integrity (loose caps, broken bottles, etc.).
0
Samples will be verified with incoming paperwork (packing slip, etc.) by type of
bottle and stabilizer. The paperwork must be either signed or initialed.
0
Information concerning the sample (from the sampling record, Chain-of-Custody,
and observation) will be recorded along with parameters to be analyzed, date of
sampling, and date the sample is received in the laboratory.
0
Samples will be placed in an appropriate secured storage area until analysis.
0
When analysis is complete, samples will be stored for a 30-day period unless
otherwise specified.
If collected samples arrive without Chain-of-Custody or incorrect Chain-of-Custody records, the
following steps will be taken:
0
The laboratory will prepare a nonconformance form stating the problem.
0
The site supervisor and Project Manager will be notified.
0
If the missing information cannot be provided by the field staff, the samples
affected will not be analyzed.
Primary considerations for sample storage are:
6.3
0
Secured storage.
0
Maintain prescribed temperature, if required, which is typically four degrees
Celsius.
0
Extract and/or analyze samples within the prescribed holding time for the
parameters of interest.
Document
Custody
Procedures
Project records are necessary to support the validity of the work and to furnish documentary
evidence of quality. The evidentiary value of data is dependent upon the proper maintenance and
retrieval of quality assurance records. Therefore, procedures will be established to assure that all
documents attesting to the validity of work can be accounted for when the work is completed.
Records must be legible, filled out completely, and adequately identified as to the item or activity
involved. Records will be considered valid only if initialed, signed, or otherwise authenticated and
dated by authorized personnel. These records may either be originals or reproduced copies. Records
6-5
submitted to the files, with the exception of correspondence, will be bound, placed in folders or
binders, or otherwise secured for filing.
Following receipt of information from external sources, completion of analyses, and issuance of
reports or other transmittals, associated records will be submitted to the proper file. In addition,
transmitted records must be adequately protected from damage and loss during transfer (e.g, hand
carrying or making copies prior to shipment).
The following documents will be transferred to the proper files during the course of the project:
calculations and checkprints; reports and other data transmittals; copies of proposals, purchase
orders for project services, and contracts; correspondence including incoming and outgoing letters,
memoranda, and telephone records; and reference material.
All individuals on the project staff will be responsible for reporting obsolete or superseded projectrelated information to the Project Manager. In turn, the Project Manager will notify the project and
laboratory staffs of the resulting status change in project documents, such as drawings and project
procedures.
In general, outdated drawings and other documents will be marked “void.” However, the Project
Manager may request the copies be destroyed. One copy of void documents is maintained in the
project files with the reasons, and date of voiding clearly indicated.
Documents will be marked “preliminary” to denote calculations and other material which have not
been formally checked, or based on information which has not been checked, or do not contribute
to final project information.
6-6
7.0
CALIBRATION
PROCEDURES
AND FREQUENCY
The following section describes calibration procedures and frequency.
7.1
Field Instruments
Two field instruments will be used for health and safety monitoring: the O&EL meter, and the
HNu System portable photoionizer. These instruments will be calibrated on site daily according to
the manufacturer’s instructions in addition to the factory calibration it will receive prior to the start
of site sampling. The calibration standards will be recorded in the field log book.
A pH meter and a conductivity meter will be used to analyze groundwater and surface water
samples. Procedures from “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,” USEPA, SW846, November
1986,3rd Edition will be used to calibrate these meters. Specific procedures for the calibration of
water quality instruments are presented in the FSAP.
7.2
Laboratorv
Instruments
The laboratory’s procedures for calibration and related quality control measures will be conducted
according to the protocols presented in the following documents:
“Statement of Work for Organic Analysis,” USEPA, OLMO 1.9, August 1991
“Statement of Work for Inorganic Analysis,” USEPA, ILM03.0, March 1990
“Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater,”
USEPA, July 1982
“Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Waste,” USEPA, 1979, Revised
March 1983
“Environmental Protection Agency Regulations on Test Procedures for Analysis of
Pollutants,” USEPA, 40 CFR 136
“Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,” USEPA SW846, November’ 1986,3rd
Edition and 1996 updates
“Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous
Waste; Toxicity Characteristics Revisions; Final Rule,” USEPA, 52 FR 26886
Formal calibration procedures will be established to ensure that instrumentation and equipment used
for sample analysis are accurately calibrated and properly functioning. These procedures will apply
to all instruments and equipment quantities. All calibrations will be performed by laboratory
personnel or external agencies using standard reference materials.
All calibrations will be recorded on in-house calibration forms or instrument vendor forms or in
dedicated bound notebooks. The following data will be recorded for all calibrations: the date, target
readings, actual readings, instrument identification number, and the analyst’s initials. Other data
may be recorded depending upon the calibration performed.
7-1
Only properly calibrated and operating equipment and instrumentation will be used. Equipment and
instrumentation
not meeting the specified calibration criteria will be segregated from active
equipment whenever possible. Such equipment will be repaired and recalibrated before reuse.
All equipment will be uniquely identified, either by serial number or internal calibration number,
to allow traceability between equipment and calibration records. Recognized procedures (ASTM,
USEPA, or manufacturer’s procedures) will be used for calibration whenever available.
7.2.1
Method
Calibration
Method calibration will be performed as part of the laboratory analytical procedure (calibration
curves, tuning). Calibration curves will be prepared using five standards in graduated amounts
across the appropriate range of analysis. New calibration curves will be prepared whenever new
reagents or standards are prepared or yearly, whichever is more frequent.
7.2.2
GUMS
System Calibration
Procedure
This section outlines the requirements for the calibration of GCYMS systems for the determination
of organic compounds.
The following operations will be performed in support of these
requirements:
0
0
0
Documentation
of GC/MS mass calibration and abundance pattern
Documentation
of GC/MS response factor stability
Internal standard response and retention time monitoring
Tuning: and Mass Cahbration
It will be necessary to establish that a given GCYMS system meets the standard mass spectral
abundance criteria prior to initiating data collection. This will be accomplished through the analysis
of p-bromofluorobenzene
(BFB) for volatile compounds or decafluorotri-phenylphosphine
(DFTPP)
for semivolatile compounds. The BFB or DFTPP criteria must be met before any blanks, standards,
or samples are analyzed.
A GC/MS system used for organic compound analysis will be tuned to meet the criteria specified
for BFB analysis (volatile compounds) or DFTPP (semivolatile compounds) for an injection of 50
nanograms (ng) of BFB or DFTPP. The analysis must be performed separately from standard or
blank analysis. These criteria will be demonstrated every 12 hours of operation.
Professional
judgment must be used to determine whether background subtraction is required to eliminate column
bleed or instrument background (i.e., noise). Calibration documentation will be in the form of a bar
graph spectrum and a mass listing.
GCYMS System Calibration
After tuning criteria have been met and prior to sample analysis, the GC/MS system is initially
calibrated at five concentrations utilizing the compounds to be analyzed to determine the linearity
of response. Internal and surrogate standards will be used with each calibration standard. Standards
will be analyzed under the same conditions as the samples.
7-2
0
Relative Response Factor (RRF) Calculation - The USEPA specifies the internal
standard to be used on a compound-by-compound basis for quantification. The
relative response factor (RRF) will be calculated for each compound at each
concentration level.
0
Continuing Calibration - A calibration check standard containing all semivolatile
or volatile compounds and surrogates will be run every I2 hours of analysis. A
system performance check will also be performed. The criteria will be the same as
for the initial calibration systemperformance check. A calibration check will also
be performed. The percent difference will be determined for each Calibration
Check Compound (CCC).
The percent Difference for each CCC must be less than or equal to 25.0 percent. The system
performance check and calibration check criteria must be met before sample analysis can be
performed. The continuing cahbration will be recorded on the continuing calibration forms.
7.2.3
GC System Calibration
Procedure
for Pesticides/PCBs
This section outlines the requirements for the calibration of GC systems for the determination of
pesticides/PCBs. The following operations are performed in support of these requirements:
Three types of analyseswill be used to verify the calibration and evaluate instrument performance.
The analyses of instrument blanks, Performance Evaluation mixtures (PEMs), and the mid-point
concentration of the individual standard mixtures A and B constitute the continuing calibration.
For pesticide/PCB analysis it is necessaryto establish resolution criteria by performing a Resolution
Check Mixture where the depth of the valley of two adjacent peaks must be greater than or equal to
60.0 percent of the height of the shorter peak.
The breakdown of DDT and Endrin in both of the PEMs must be less than 20.0 percent and the
combined breakdown of DDT and Endrin must be less than 30.0 percent. All peaks in both the
Performance Evaluation Mixtures must be 100 percent resolved on both columns.
The absolute retention times of each of the single component pesticides and surrogates in both of
the PEMs must be within the retention time windows determined from the three point initial
calibration.
The relative percent difference of the calculated amount and the true amount for each of the single
component pesticides and surrogates in both of the PEMs must be less than or equivalent to
25 percent.
At least one chromatogram between any two adjacent peaks in the midpoint concentrations of
Individual Standard Mixtures A and B in the initial calibration must be greater than or equal to
90 percent.
7-3
7.2.4
System Calibration
Procedure
for Metals
Analysis
This section outlines the requirements for the calibration of atomic absorption (AA) and Inductively
Coupled Plasma (ICP) systemsfor the determination of metals. The following will be performed
in support of these requirements:
0
0
Documentation of standard response
Correlation coefficient monitoring
The AA system utilized for direct aspiration technique analysis will be initially calibrated with a
calibration blank and five calibration standards. The standard concentrations will be determined as
follows. One standard will be at a concentration near, but above, the MDL. The other
concentrations will correspond to the expected range of concentrations found in the actual samples.
This five-point calibration must be performed daily.
The AA system utilized for graphite furnace technique analysis will be initially calibrated with a
calibration blank and three calibration standards. The standard concentrations will be determined
as follows. One standard will be at a concentration at the Contract Required Detection Limit
(CRDL). The other concentrations will correspond to the expected range of concentrations found
in the actual samples. This three-point calibration must be performed daily.
For AA systems,the calibration standards will be prepared fresh each time an analysis is to be
performed and discarded after use. The standards contain the same reagents at the same
concentrations as will result in the samples following preparation.
The ICP system will be calibrated initially with a calibration blank and one calibration standard.
This calibration must be performed daily. In addition, ICP systemsmust undergo quarterly linearity
checks.
Correlation Coefficient Calculation
The data points of the blank and the five calibration standardswill be utilized to calculate the slope,
the intercept, and the correlation coefficient of the best fit line. An acceptable correlation coefficient
must be achieved before sample analysis may begin. An acceptable correlation coefficient will be
>0.995 for AA analyses and >0.995 for ICP analysis.
Calibration Verification
The initial calibration curve will be verified on each working day by the measurement of one midrange calibration standard. The calibration verification acceptance criterion will be as follows:
l
0
ICEP/GFAA - 90 to 110 percent of true value
Cold Vapor AA - 80 to 120 percent of true value
When measurements exceed the control limits, the analysis will be terminated, the problem
corrected, the instrument recalibrated, and the calibration reverified.
7-4
7.2.5
System Calibration
Procedure
for Inorganic
Analyses
This section outlines the requirements that will be used for calibration of calorimetric systems for
analysesof inorganic parameters. The following will be performed in support of these requirements:
l
0
Documentation of standard response
Correlation coefficient monitoring
The system will be initially calibrated with a blank and five calibration standards. Standard
concentrations will be at a concentration near, but above, the MDL with additional concentrations
corresponding to the expected range of concentrations found in actual samples. Standards contain
the same reagents at the same concentrations as will be present in samples following preparation.
Correlation Coeffictent Calculation
Data points of the blank and five calibration standards will be utilized to calculate slope, intercept,
and correlation coefficient of a best fit line. An acceptable correlation coefficient must be achieved
before sample analysis may begin. An acceptable correlation coefftcient will be >0.995 for all
systems.
Calibration Verification
The initial calibration curve will be verified on each working day by the measurement of two
calibration standards.
0
0
ICEP/GFAA - 90 to 110 percent of true value
Cold Vapor AA - 80 - 120 percent of true value
When measurements exceed control limits, analysis will be terminated, the problem will be
corrected, the instrument will be recalibrated, and calibration will be reverified.
7.2.6
Periodic
Calibration
Periodic calibration must be performed on equipment required in analyses but not routinely
calibrated as part of the analytical methodology. Equipment that falls within this category includes
ovens, refrigerators, and balances. The calibration will be recorded either on specified forms or in
bound notebooks. Discussed below are the equipment, the calibration performed, and the frequency
at which the calibration must be performed.
0
Balances will be calibrated weekly with class S weights.
0
The pH meter will be calibrated daily with pH 4 and 7 buffer solutions and checked
with pH 10 buffer solution.
0
The temperatures of the refrigerators will be recorded daily.
l
All liquid in glass thermometers will be calibrated annually with the N.B.S.
certified thermometer. Dial thermometers will be calibrated quarterly.
7-5
a
The following
0
0
The N.B.S. Certified Thermometer
equipment
must maintain
will be checked annually
the following
at the ice point.
temperatures:
Sample Storage and Refrigerators - within 2 degrees of 4 degrees Celsius
Water Bath, Mercury - within 2 degrees of 95 degrees Celsius
7-6
8.0
ANALYTICAL
PROCEDURES
This next section discussesanalytical procedures.
8.1
Field An&us .
A O&EL and HNu PI-101 meters will be used to analyze ambient air for health and safety
monitoring, as well as to screen soil during the soil sampling. The O&EL meter detects explosive
gases that may be present (i.e., methane). The I-INu PI- 101 detects total organic vapor. These
instruments will be operated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
The pH, temperature, and specific conductivity of aqueous samples also will be measured in the
field. These analyses will be obtained in accordance with “Handbook for Sampling and Sample
Preservation of Water and Wastewater,” September 1982, EPA/600/4-82-029.
8.2
boratory
.
Analysts
The samples that will be collected during the investigation and performed by the on-site laboratory
will be analyzed for constituents listed in Table 8-l. Parameters will be analyzed using USEPA
methods as noted in Tables 8- 1 and 8-2. Compounds and the corresponding method performance
limits also are listed in Tables 8-l and 8-2.
8-l
TABLE
ORGANICS
METHOD
8-1
PERFORMANCE
Soil/Sediment
CRQL(”
h&g)
Water
Compound
10
10
Bromomethane
10
10
I
10
I
10
I
I
I
I
10
I
I
I
Chloroethane
I
10
Methvlene Chloride
I
I
10
Acetone
Carbon Disulftde
10
10
10
10
10
1,1 -Dichloroethene
10
10
1, 1 -Dichloroethane
1,2 -Dichloroethene
10
10
10
10
Chloroform
10
10
1.2 -Dichloroethane
10
10
2-Butanone
10
10
l,l, 1-Trichloroethane
10
10
Carbon Tetrachloride
10
10
Bromodichloromethane
10
10
1,2-Dichloropropane
10
10
cis- 1,3-Dichloropropene
10
10
Trichloroethene
10
10
Dibromochloromethane
10
10
1,1,2-Trichloroethane
Method
CLP/SO wC2)
Volatiles
Chioromethane
Vinvl Chloride
LIMITS
I
10
I
10
I
Benzene
trans-l,3-Dichloropropene
Bromoform
4-Methyl-2-pentanone
10
10
2-Hexanone
10
10
Tetrachloroethene
10
10
Toluene
1.1.2.2-Tetrachloroethane
Chlorobenzene
Ethylbenzene
I
I
I
I
10
10
10
10
I
I
I
I
10
10
10
10
Styrene
10
10
Xylenes (total)
10
10
I
I
I
I
Notes:
(I) Contract Required Quantitation Limit
(2) “Statement of Work for Organic Analysis,”
USEPA Contract Laboratory Program, OLM3.1.
8-2
TABLE 8-l (Continued)
ORGANIC
METHOD
PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
Notes:
(I) Contract Required Quantitation Limit
(2) “Statement of Work for Organic Analysis,”
USEPA Contract Laboratory Program, OLM3.1.
8-3
TABLE 8-l (Continued)
ORGANIC
Compound
2,6-Dinitrotolune
3-Nitroaniline
Acenaphthene
2,4-Dinitrophenol
4-Nitrophenol
Dibenzofuran
2,4-Dinitrotoluene
Diethylphthalate
4-Chlorphenyl-phenyl ether
Fluorene
4-Nitroaniline
4,6-Dinitro-2-methylphenol
N-nitrosodiphenylamine
4-Bromophenyl-phenylether
Hexachlorbenzene
Pentachlorophenol
Phenanthrene
Anthracene
Di-n-butylphthalate
Fluoranthene
Pyrene
Butylbenzylphthalate
3.3’-Dichlorobenzidine
Benzo(a)anthracene
Chrysene
bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate
Di-n-octylphthalate
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Benzo(a)pyrene
METHOD
I
I
I
I
I
Indeno( 1,2,3-cd)pyrene
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
Benzo(g,h,i)peryIene
PERFORMANCE
Water
CRQL(‘)
him
I
10
25
10
25
25
10
10
10
10
10
25
25
10
10
10
25
25
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
I
I
I
I
I
LIMITS
SoiVSediment
CRQL”’
hxi&)
330
1600
330
1600
1600
330
330
330
330
330
1600
1600
330
330
330
1600
1600
330
330
330
330
330
660
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
I
Method
cLP/sow’*’
I
I
I
Notes:
(‘I
Contract Required Quantitation Limit
(2) “Statement of Work for Organic Analysis,” USEPA Contract Laboratory Program, OLM03.1.
8-4
TABLE
ORGANIC
Aroclor-1254
Aroclor- 1260
I
METHOD
1.0
8-l (Continued)
PERFORMANCE
I
LIMITS
160.0
Notes:
(‘1 Contract Required Quantitation Limit
(2) “Statement of Work for Organic Analysis,” USEPA Contract Laboratory Program, OLM03.1.
8-5
TABLE
INORGANIC
METHOD
8-2
PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
CRDL(‘)
WL)
Method
[email protected])
Metals
Aluminum
200
200.7
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Antimony
60
200.7
204.2
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Arsenic
10
200.7
206.2
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Barium
200
200.7
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Beryllium
5
200.7
210.2
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Cadmium
5
200.7
213.2
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Calcium
5,000
200.7
215.1
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Direct Aspiration
Chromium
10
200.7
218.2
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Cobalt
50
200.7
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Copper
25
200.7
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Iron
100
200.7
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Lead
3
200.7
239.2
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Analyte
Method Description
Notes:
(‘) Methods taken from “Statement of Work for Inorganic Analysis,” USEPA Contract Laboratory
Program, ILM03.0, March 1990
(‘) Contract Required Detection Limit
(‘) Extraction method for arsenic, lead, selenium, and thallium taken from USEPA Method 3020, “Test
Methods for Evaluating Sold Waste,” USEPA, November 1986, 3rd Edition
t4) Extraction method for all other metals taken from USEPA Method 3010, “Test Methods for
Evaluating Solid Waste,” USEPA, November 1986,3rd Edition
(‘) N/A = Not Applicable
8-6
TABLE
INORGANIC
Analyte
METHOD
8-2 (Continued)
PERFORMANCE
Method
Number(z*3*4)
LIMITS
Method Description
Metals (Continued)
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Direct Aspiration
Magnesium
200.7
242.1
5000
Manganese
200.7
15
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Mercury
245.1
245.2
245.5
0.2
Water by manual cold vapor technique
Water by automated cold vapor technique
Soil/sediment by manual cold vapor
technique
Nickel
200.7
40
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Potassium
200.7
258.1
5000
Selenium
200.7
270.2
5
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Silver
200.7
272.2
10
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Sodium
200.7
273.1
5000
Thallium
200.7
279.2
10
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Vanadium
200.7
50
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Zinc
200.7
20
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Direct Aspiration
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Direct Aspiration
Notes:
(I) Methods taken from “Statement of Work for Inorganic Analysis,” USEPA Contract Laboratory
Program, ILM03.0, March 1990
c2) Contract Required Detection Limit
c3) Extraction method for arsenic, lead, selenium, and thallium taken from USEPA Method 3020, “Test
Methods for Evaluating Sold Waste,” USEPA, November 1986, 3rd Edition
(4) Extraction method for all other metals taken from USEPA Method 3010, “Test Methods for
Evaluating Solid Waste,” USEPA, November 1986, 3rd Edition
c5) N/A = Not Applicable
8-7
TABLE
INORGANIC
8-2 (Continued)
METHOD PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
Analyte
Method
Number
CRDL(‘)
km
Method Description
Biological Oxygen Demand
EPA 405.1
N/A@
N/A
Chemical Oxygen Demand
EPA 4 10.4
N/A
N/A
Chloride
Methane
I
EPA 325.2
I
N/A
1 API-IA 6211B 1 N/A
I
1
N/A
N/A
Nitrate
EPA 353.3
NIA
NIA
Nitrite
EPA 354.1
N/A
N/A
Sulfate
EPA 375.4
N/A
N/A
1Sulfide
1 EPA376.1
1 N/A
1
NIA
Total Dissolved Solids
EPA 160.1
Nl A
N/A
Total Susnended Solids
EPA 160.2
NIA
N/A
Notes:
(‘) Methods taken from “Statement of Work for Inorganic Analysis,” USEPA Contract Laboratory
Program, ILM03 .O, March 1990
t2) Contract Required Detection Limit
t3) Extraction method for arsenic, lead, selenium, and thallium taken from USEPA Method 3020, “Test
Methods for Evaluating Sold Waste,” USEPA, November 1986,3rd Edition
t4) Extraction method for all other metals taken from USEPA Method 3010, “Test Methods for
Evaluating Solid Waste,” USEPA, November 1986,3rd Edition
(‘) N/A = Not Applicable
8-8
TABLE
TCLP METHOD
8-3
PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
EPA Method 35501
EPA Method 8240
EPA Method 8240
Notes:
(1)
Practical Quantitation
November 1986.
Limit,
taken from “Test Methods for Evaluating
Sold Waste,” USEPA,
Note: These methods will be used to analyze the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract.
The extract will be prepared using Method 13 11, described in “Hazardous Waste Management Systems;
Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Toxicity Characteristics revision; Final Rule,” USEPA,
52FR 26886.
8-9
--.-
TABLE
TCLP METHOD
8-3 (Continued)
PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
Aqueous
PQL(‘)
Wl)
Solid
PQL”’
hw
Chlordane
Endrin
0.14
0.06
9.4
4.0
Heptachlor (and its hydroxide)
0.03
20
Lindane
0.04
2.7
Methyoxychlor
1.8
120
Toxaphene
2.4
160
12
1.7
240
34
Parameter
TCLP Pesticides
Method
EPA Method 35501
EPA Method 8240
EPA Method 8 150
TCLP Herbicides
2,4-D
2,4,5-TP Silvex
Water
PQL(‘)
(Ptm
Analyte
Soil
PQL(”
O-wk)
Method
Method Description
TCLP Metals
Arsenic
10
30
Chromium
Selenium
Silver
I
2
I
4
6010A
7060
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
6010A
Inductively Coupled Plasma
6OlOA
7131A
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
6010A
719lA
6010A
7421A
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
7470A
Water by manual cold vapor technique
Water by automated cold vapor technique
6010A
7740A
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
6010A
7760A
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Notes:
(1)
Practical Quantitation Limit, taken from “Test Methods for Evaluating Sold Waste,” USEPA, November
1986 and 1996 updates.
Note: These methods will be used to analyze the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract.
The extract will be prepared using Method 13 11, described in “Hazardous Waste Management Systems;
Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Toxicity Characteristics revision; Final Rule,” USEPA,
52FR 26886.
S-10
TABLE
RCRA/ENGINEERING
PARAMETERS
8-4
METHOD
PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
Aqueous
Performance
Limit
Solid
Performance
Limit
WRA
pH/Corrosivity
N/A”’
N/A”’
SW-846 90 10
Ignitability
N/A(‘)
N/A”’
SW-846 1010
Reactive Cyanide
10 mg/l(‘)
10 mg/l(‘)
SW-846 9012
Reactive Sulfide
50 mg/l(‘)
50 mg/kg(‘)
SW-846 9030
Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
N/A
N/A
EPA 160.1
Total Dissolved Solids (IDS)
N/A
N/A
EPA 160.2
Permeability
N/A
N/A
ASTM D2434- 18
Grain Size
N/A
N/A
ASTM D422-63
ASTM D1140-54
Bulk Density
N/A
N/A
ASTM D1587-14
Biological Oxygen Demand
(BOW
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
N/A
N/A
EPA 405.1
N/A
N/A
EPA 410.1
Chloride
N/A
N/A
EPA 325.2
N/A
N/A
APHA 6211B
N/A
N/A
EPA 353.3
Nitrite
N/A
N/A
EPA 354.1
Sulfate
N/A
N/A
EPA 375.4
Sulfide
N/A
N/A
EPA 376.1
Parameter
Method
arameters
Methane
Nitrate
I
Notes:
(‘) Practical Quantitation
November 1986.
Limit, taken from “Test Methods for Evaluating Sold Waste,” USEPA,
N/A - Not Applicable
S-11
9.0
DATA
REDUCTION,
VALIDATION
AND REPORTING
The following section presents data reduction, validation, and reporting procedures.
9.1
Field Data Procedures
Data validation practices as described by “Laboratory Data Validation Functional Guidelines for
Evaluating Inorganic Analyses,” USEPA, June 1988, and “Laboratory Data Validation Functional
Guidelines for Evaluating Organic Analyses - Draft,” USEPA, June 1991 will be followed to insure
that raw data are not altered and that an audit trail is developed for those data which require
reduction. The documentation of sample collection will include the use of bound field log books
in which all information on sample collection will be entered in indelible ink. Appropriate
information will be entered to reconstruct the sampling event, including site name (top of each
page), sample identification, brief description of sample, date and time of collection, sampling
methodology, field measurementsand observations, and sampler’s initials (bottom of each page, and
dated).
A rigorous data control program will insure that all documents for the investigations are accounted
for when they are completed. Accountable documents include items such as log books, field data
records, correspondence, chain-of-custody records, analytical reports, data packages, photographs,
computer disks, and reports. The project manager will be responsible for maintaining a project file
in which all accountable documents will be inventoried. The project records will be retained for a
period of three years after project close-out; then the files will be forwarded to the Navy.
All the field data, such as those generated during field measurements, observations and field
instrument calibrations, will be entered directly into a bound field notebook. Each project team
member will be responsible for proofing all data transfers made, and the Project Manager or his
designee will proof at least ten percent of all data transfers.
9.2
Laboratorv
Data Procedures
The following procedures summarize the practices routinely used by laboratory staff for data
reduction, validation, and reporting. Numerical analyses, including manual calculations, will be
documented and subjected to quality control review. Records of numerical analysesmust be legible
and complete enough to permit reconstruction of the work by a qualified individual other than the
originator.
9.2.1
Laboratory
Data Validation
Data validation begins with data reduction and continues through to the reporting of data.
Data processing will be checked by an individual other than the analyst who performed the data
processing. The checker will review the data for the following:
0
0
0
0
Utilization of the proper equations
Correctness of numerical input
Correctness of computations
Correct interpretation of raw data (chromatographs, strip charts, etc.)
9-l
The checking process will be sufficient thorough enough to verify the results.
V
All entries made in benchbooks, data sheets,computation sheets,input sheets,etc. will be made in
ink. No entry will be rendered unreadable.
9.2.2
Analytical
Reports
The items listed below will be required of analytical reports.
Data will be presented in a tabular format.
Analytical reports will be approved by appropriate laboratory personnel.
The following information will be included on the report: client name and address,
report date, sampledate, analysis dates,number of samples,purchase order number,
project number, and project type. All pages must be numbered.
9.3
0
The sample numbers and corresponding laboratory numbers will be identified.
0
The parameters analyzed, report units, and values will be identified.
0
Method, trip, and field blank results will be reported.
l
Matrix spike, matrix spike duplicate, and replicate recoveries will be reported.
l
Calibration summaries will be reported.
l
Surrogate recoveries will be reported.
l
Holding times and sample analysis dates will be reported.
0
The detection limit of the procedure will be identified.
l
Consistent significant figures will be used.
l
Referenced footnotes will be used when applicable.
l
A letter of transmittal will accompany the report if any anomalies are associated
with the data.
Independent
(Third
Party) Data Validation
Review of all pertinent analytical data will be performed by Baker personnel and an independent
third party data validator.
9-2
A preliminary review will be performed by the Project Manager or designee to verify that all
necessary paperwork (e.g., chain-of-custodies, trafftc reports, analytical reports, and laboratory
personnel signatures) and deliverables are present. A detailed and independent data validation will
be performed by a data validation subcontractor to verify the qualitative and quantitative reliability
of the data presented and adherence to stated analytical protocols. This review will include a
detailed review and interpretation of all data generated by the laboratory for Level IV deliverables.
The primary tools which will be used by experienced data validation personnel will be analytical
method operating practices, statementsof work (for CLP), guidance documents, established criteria,
and professional judgment.
During the data review, a data support documentation package will be prepared which will provide
the back-up information that will accompany all qualifying statements present in the quality
assurance review.
CLP data will be validated per the CLP criteria as outlined in the following documents:
0
USEPA, Hazardous Site Control Division, Laboratory Data Validation Functional
Guidelines for Evaluating Organics Analyses, 1994.
0
USEPA, Hazardous Site Evaluation Division, Laboratory Data Validation
Functional Guidelines for Evaluating Inorganics Analyses, 1994.
All other data will be validated in accordance with method of analysis using the National Functional
Guidelines as a reference.
9-3
10.0
INTERNAL
QUALITY
CONTROL
CHECKS
The following section describes internal quality control checks.
Four types of field quality assurance/quality control samples will be submitted to the laboratory:
trip blanks, equipment rinsates, field blanks, and field duplicates. The results from the field quality
control samples will be used by the data validator to determine the overall quality of the data. A
breakdown by type of sample with which the QA/QC samples will be submitted to the laboratories
is given in Table IO- 1. A summary of the number of environmental and QA/QC samples to be
submitted for analysis will be given in the FSAP.
Field Blanks
Field blanks consist of the source water used in decontamination, steam cleaning, and drilling. At
a minimum, one field blank from each vent and each source of water must be collected and analyzed
for the same parameters as the related samples. Organic-free deionized water is taken to the field
in sealed containers and poured into the appropriate sample containers at predesignated locations.
This will be done to determine if any contaminants present in the area may have an affect on the
sample integrity.
Trip Blank
Analysis of trip blanks will be performed to monitor possible contamination during shipment and
collection of samples. Trip blanks are initiated in the laboratory prior to the shipping of sample
packs. A corresponding trip blank will be prepared for each set of samples to be analyzed for
volatile organic compounds.
Trip blank samples will be prepared by adding four drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid and then
filling the container with organic-free deionized water (ASTM Type II). The trip blanks accompany
the samplesthrough shipment to the sample site, sample collection, shipment to the laboratory, and
storage of the samples.
If the analyses indicate contamination of the trip blank, the sample sources may be resampled. If
the extent and nature of the contamination does not warrant such actions, the data will be accepted
as valid.
Field Duplicates
Duplicates for soil samples are collected, homogenized, and split. All samples except VOCs are
homogenized, and split. Volatiles are not mixed, but select segments of the soil are taken from the
length of the core and placed in 4-ounce glass jars. Cores may be sealed and shipped to the
laboratory for subsampling if the project deems this appropriate. The duplicate for water samples
should be collected simultaneously. Field duplicates should be collected at a frequency of 10% per
sample matrix for Levels III and IV. All the duplicates should be sent to the primary laboratory
responsible for analysis. The same samplesused for field duplicates shall be split by the laboratory
10-l
TABLE
10-l
QA/QC SAMPLE FREQUENCY
OPERABLE UNIT NO. 16 (SITES 89 AND 93)
CT0 0344
MCB CAMP LEJEUNE, NORTH CAROLINA
I
Type of Sample
Metal
I
Trip Blank (for volatiles only)
organic
I
NA(‘)
One per cooler or one per
shipping day
One per day
One per day
Field Blank
One per source per event?)
One per source per event?)
Field Duplicate(4)
10%
10%
Equipment Binsate
I
I
Notes:
(I) Not Applicable
(*) Samples are collected daily; however, only samples from every other day are analyzed. Other samples
are held and analyzed only if evidence of contamination exists.
(3) Source water includes water used in decontamination, steam cleaning, and drilling.
(4) The duplicate must be taken from the sample which will become the laboratory matrix spike/matrix
spike duplicate for organics or for the sample used as a duplicate in inorganic analysis.
1o-2
and used by the laboratory as the laboratory duplicate or matrix spike. This means that for the
duplicate sample, there will be analysesof the normal sample, the field duplicate, and the laboratory
matrix spike/duplicate.
Equipment
Rinsates
Equipment rinsates are the final organic-free deionized water rinse from equipment cleaning
collected daily during a sampling event. Initially, samplesfrom every other day should be analyzed.
If analytes pertinent to the project are found in the rinsate, the remaining samples must be analyzed.
The results of the blanks will be used to flag or assesslevels of analytes in the samples. This
comparison is made during validation. The rinsates are analyzed for the same parameters as the
related samples.
10.2
Laboratory
Ouality
Control Checks
This section provides descriptions of the laboratory quality control checks.
Method
Blank
Analysis of method blanks will be performed to verify that method interferences caused by
contamination in reagents, glassware, solvents, etc. are minimized and known.
Method blanks will be initiated by the analyst prior to the preparation and/or analysis of the sample
set. A method blank consists of a volume of organic-free deionized water equal to the sample
volume which is carried through the entire analytical procedure. For solid samples to be analyzed
by GUMS, the method blank consistsof a purified solid matrix approximately equal to the sample
weight. A method blank will be analyzed with each set of samples or at the very least, daily. If the
analytical data of the method blank indicates excessive contamination, the source of contaminant
will be determined. The samples may be reanalyzed or the data may be processed “as is” depending
upon the nature and extent of the contamination.
Replicate
Sample
Analysis
Replicate sample analysis will be performed to demonstrate the precision of an analysis. An
interlaboratory replicate sample is initiated by the analyst prior to sample preparation and carried
through the entire analytical procedure. The frequency of interlaboratory replicate analysis for each
analyte is summarized in Table 10-2.
Spike Analysis
Spike analysis will be performed to demonstrate the accuracy of an analysis. The analyst initiates
the spike prior to sample preparation and analysis by adding a known amount of analyte(s) to a
sample. The spike sample is carried through the entire analytical procedure. The frequency of spike
analysis for each analyte(s) is summarized in Table 10-2.
10-3
TABLE IO-2
QA/QC ANALYSIS FREQUENCY
OPERABLE UNIT NO. 16 (SITES 89 and 93)
CT0 0344
MCB CAMP LEJEUNE, NORTH CAROLINA
Parameter
W’
Replicate
Spike
All analyses by GUMS
All analyses by GC
5%
5%
5%
5%
Liquids by flame AA or ICP
Solids by flame AA or ICP
All analyses by furnace AA
5%
5%
5%
5%
10%
10%
Organic
Metals
1o-4
,.
Surrogate
Standards
Surrogate standard analysis will be performed to monitor the preparation and analyses of samples.
All samples and blanks analyzed by GUMS and GC are fortified with a surrogate spiking solution
prior to extraction or purging.
Internal
Standards
Internal standard analyses will be performed to monitor system stability. Prior to injection or
purging, internal standards are added to all blanks and samples analyzed by GUMS (refer to
Section 51.1.).
Matrix
Spikes and Matrix
Spike Duplicates
A matrix spike is an aliquot of a matrix (water or soil) fortified (spiked) with known quantities of
specific compounds and subjected to the entire analytical procedure in order to indicate the
appropriateness of the method for the matrix by measuring recovery. A matrix spike duplicate is
a second aliquot of the same matrix as the matrix spike that is spiked in order to determine the
precision of the method. A matrix spike and matrix spike duplicate will be performed at a frequency
of 1 per 20 samples for organics.
10.3
Laboratorv
Control
Limits
Control limits will be established for QC checks (spikes, duplicates, blanks, etc.). CLP control
limits for surrogate standards spikes, and duplicates associated with GUMS analyses and
pesticides/PCB analyseswill be applied. Control limits for spikes,duplicates, and reference samples
will be determined internally through statistical analysis.
Whenever an out-of-control situation occurs, the causeis determined. Any needed corrective actions
must be taken.
Method
Blanks
For metals analyses, the criteria below are used for method blank analysis.
0
If the concentration of the method blank is less than or equal to the detection level,
no correction of sample results is performed.
0
If the concentration of the blank is above the detection level for any group of
samples associatedwith a particular blank, the concentration of the sample with the
least concentrated analyte must be ten times the blank concentration. Otherwise,
all samples associated with the blank and less than ten times the blank
concentration must be redigested (reprepared) and reanalyzed, if possible. If the
affected samplescannot be reprepared and reanalyzed within method holding times,
the flagged sample result and the blank result are both to be reported. The sample
value is not corrected for the blank value.
1o-5
For GCYMS, GC analyses, the criteria below are used for method blank analysis:
0
A method blank for volatiles analysis must contain no greater than five times the
detection limit of common laboratory solvents (common laboratory solvents are:
methylene chloride, acetone, toluene, 2-butanone, and chloroform).
0
A method blank for semivolatiles analysis must contain no greater than five times
the detection limit of common phthalate esters.
0
For all other compounds not listed above, the method blank must contain less than
the detection limit of any single compound. If a method blank exceedsthe criteria,
the analytical system is considered to be out of control. The source of the
contamination is investigated and appropriate corrective measures are taken and
documented before sample analysis proceeds. All samplesprocessedwith a method
blank that is out of control (i.e., contaminated), are reextracted/repurged and
reanalyzed,when possible. If the affected samples cannot be reextracted/repurged
and reanalyzed within method holding times, the flagged sample result and the
blank result are both to be reported. The sample value is not corrected for the blank
value.
l
No positive result for pesticides/PCBsshould be reported unless the concentration
of the compound exceeds five times the amount in the blank.
0
A method blank for pesticides/PCBs must contain no greater than five times the
detection limit for any pesticides/PCBs.
Surrogate
Standards
For method blank surrogate standard analysis, corrective action will be taken if any one of the
conditions below exist.
0
Recovery of any one surrogate compound in the volatile fraction is outside the
required surrogate standard recovery limit.
0
Recovery of any one surrogate compound in the semivolatile fraction is outside
surrogate standard recovery limits.
Corrective action will include steps listed below:
0
A check of: the calculations for errors; the internal standard and surrogate spiking
solutions for degradation, contamination, etc.; and instrument performance.
a
Recalculation or reinjection/repurging of the blank or extract if the above corrective
actions fail to solve the problem.
0
Reextraction and reanalysis of the blank. For sample surrogate standard analysis,
corrective action will be taken if any one of the following conditions exist:
10-6
b
b
b
Recovery of any one surrogate compounds in the volatile fraction is outside
the surrogate spike recovery limits;
Recovery of any one surrogate compound in either semivolatile fraction is
below ten percent; or
Recoveries of two or more surrogate compounds in either semivolatile
fraction are outside surrogate spike recovery limits.
Corrective action will include the steps listed below.
0
A check of: the calculations for errors; of the internal standard and surrogate
spiking solutions for degradation, contamination, etc.; and of instrument
performance.
0
Recalculating or reanalysis the sample or extract if the above corrective action fails
to solve the problem.
0
Reextraction and reanalysis of the sample if none of the above are a problem.
1o-7
11.0
PERFORMANCE
AND SYSTEM AUDITS
A field audit will be conducted during the field investigation to verify that sampling is being
performed according to the plan. A report will be submitted within 30 calendar days of completion
of the audit. Serious deficiencies will be reported within 24 hours of the time of discovery of the
deficiency, including actions taken or to be taken to correct such deficiencies.
The following table (Table 1l-l) is used for audits. At the appropriate time, the Project Manager
or Program QA/QC designee will conduct field audits. Additionally, personnel adhere to Baker’s
Standard Operating Procedures which cover procedures, reporting and quality.
1l-1
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
FORM
Legend
X=Yes
O=No
NA = Not Applicable
Site Name
CT0 No.
Location
Date
SECTION
1 - DOCUMENTATION/SAFETY/QA/QC
PROCEDURES
1.
Were sampling locations adequately documented in a bound field log book using indelible ink?
No Yes Comments
2.
Were photos taken and a photo log maintained?
Now
Yes -
3.
What field instruments were used during this study?
4.
Were field instruments properly calibrated and calibrations recorded in a bound field log book?
No Yes Comments
5.
Was sampling equipment properly wrapped and protected from possible contamination
sample collection?
No Yes Comments
6.
Was sampling equipment constructed of [email protected], glass, or stainless steel?
7.
Were samples collected in proper order (least suspected contamination to most contaminated)?
NoYes Comments
8.
Were clean disposable latex or vinyl gloves worn during sampling?
No Yes Comments
9.
Were gloves changed for each sample station?
No Yes Comments
10.
Was any equipment field cleaned?
Yes No -
11.
Type of equipment cleaned?
11-2
prior to
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
11-3
FORM
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
FORM
12.
Were proper field cleaning procedures used?
No
Yes Comments
13.
Were equipment rinse blanks collected after field cleaning?
NoYes Comments
14.
Were proper sample containers used for samples?
No Yes Comments
15.
Were split samples offered to the facility owner or his representative?
Yes NoComments
16.
Was a receipt for samples form given to facility representative?
Yes No -
17.
Were any duplicate samples collected?
Yes No Comments
18.
Were samples properly field preserved?
Yes No Comments
19.
Were preservative blanks utilized?
No Yes Comments
20.
Were field and/or trip blanks utilized?
Yes
No -
21.
Were samples adequately identified with labels or tags?
Yes
No Comments
22.
Were samples sealed with custody seals after collection?
NoYes Comments
23.
What security measures were taken to insure custody of the samples after collection?
24.
Were chain-of-custody and receipt for samples forms properly completed?
Yes
No Comments
25.
Were any samples shipped to a laboratory?
No Yes
11-4
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
11-5
FORM
FIELD SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
FORM
26.
If yes to No. 25, were samples properly packed?
Yes NoComments
27.
If shipped to a CLP lab, were Traffic Report Forms properly completed?
No Yes Comments
2x.
What safety monitoring
sampling?
29.
Was safety monitoring equipment properly calibrated and calibrations recorded in a bound field log
book?
Yes No Comments
equipment, protection, and procedures were used prior to and during
11-6
FIELD
SECTION
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
2 - SAMPLING
- GROUNDWATER
WELLS
1.
Type of wells sampled (monitoring, potable, industrial, etc.)?
2.
Were wells locked and protected?
No
Yes Comments
3.
Were identification marks and measurement points affixed to the wells?
No Yes Comments
4.
What were the sizes and construction materials of the well casings?
5.
Were the boreholes sealed with a concrete pad to prevent surface infiltration?
No Yes Comments
6.
Was there a dedicated pump in the well?
No Yes
7.
Was clean plastic sheeting placed around the wells to prevent contamination of sampling equipment
and containers?
No
Yes
8.
Were total depths and depths to water determined before purging?
No
Yes -
9.
What device was used to determine depths?
10.
Were measurements made to the nearest 0.01 foot?
No Yes -
11.
Was the measuring device properly cleaned between wells?
No
Yes Comments
12.
Was the standing water volume in each well determined?
No Yes
13.
How was the volume determined?
14.
Was a sufficient volume purged prior to sampling?
No
Yes Comments
11-7
.
FORM
..-- _.....
--
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
FORM
15.
How many volumes?
16.
How was the purged volume measured?
17.
What was the method of purging?
18.
Were pH, conductivity, and temperature measurements taken and recorded at least once during each
well volume purged?
Yes No Comments
19.
Were pH, conductivity, and temperature readings stable prior to sampling?
NoYes Comments
20.
How many wells were sampled? -
21.
How were the samples collected?
Comments
22.
If pump was used, what type?
23.
If a pump was used, was it properly cleaned before and/or between wells?
Yes No Comments
24.
What were the cleaning procedures?
25.
Did bailers have [email protected] coated wire leaders to prevent rope from coming into contact with water?
Yes No Were bailers open or closed top?
26.
Upgradient? Bailer -
Pump -
Downgradient? Other -
27.
Was a clean bailer and new rope used at each well?
Yes No Comments
28.
Were samples properly transferred from the sampling device to the sample containers (i.e., purgeable
sample first - not aerated, etc.)?
Yes No Comments
29.
Was pH of preserved samples checked to insure proper preservation?
Yes NoComments
1 l-8
FIELD SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
FORM
30.
Were sampled iced immediately after collection?
Yes
No
31.
For what analyses were the samples collected?
32.
If samples were split, what were the sample/station numbers for these?
Other comments or observations
11-9
FIELD
SECTION
3 - SAMPLING
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
- SOIL, SEDIMENT,
FORM
SLUDGE,
ETC. (Non-Containerized)
Type of samples collected?
Genera1 description of samples?
How many samples were collected?
Were background and/or control samples collected?
Yes No m
Comments
5.
Were representative samples collected?
NoYes Comments
6.
Were grab or composite samples collected?
7.
Were composite samples area1 or vertical?
8.
How many aliquots were taken for the composite sample?
9.
What procedures and equipment were used to collect samples?
10.
Were samples thoroughly mixed prior to putting them into the sample containers?
Yes
NoComments
11.
Were samples properly placed into sample containers?
No Yes Comments
12.
Were samples iced immediately
Yes
No -
13.
For what analyses were the samples collected?
14.
If samples were split, what were the sample/station numbers for these?
15.
Was a drilling rig, backhoe, etc., used to collect soil samples?
NoYes
after collection?
1 l-10
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
11-11
FORM
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
FORM
16.
Were the drilling rig(s), backhoe(s), etc., properly cleaned according to the ESD SOP, Appendix B,
prior to arriving on site?
NoYes Comments
17.
What was the condition of the drilling and sampling equipment when it arrived on site?
18.
Was a decontamination area located where the cleaning activities would not cross-contaminate clean
and/or drying equipment?
Yes NoComments
19.
Was clean equipment properly wrapped and stored in a clean area?
Yes No
Comments
20.
Was the drilling rig(s) properly cleaned between well borings?
Yes No Comments
21.
Were the cleaning and decontamination procedures conducted in accordance with the ESD SOP?
Yes No Comments
22.
Other comments or observations
11-12
FIELD
SECTION
4 - SAMPLING
SITE AUDIT
- SURFACE
INSPECTION
WATER
1.
Type of samples collected?
2.
General description of samples?
3.
How many samples were collected?
4.
Were background and/or control samples collected?
Yes No
FORM
(Pond, Stream, River, Leachate, etc.)
Were grab or composite samples collected?
How many aliquots were taken for the composite sample?
What procedures and equipment were used to collect samples?
8.
Were samples collected directly into sample containers?
Yes No m
Comments
9.
Did the sampler wade in the stream to collect the samples?
Yes No Comments
10.
Were the samples collected upstream from the sampler?
Yes
No Comments
11.
Did the sampler insure that roiled sediments were not collected along with the water samples?
Yes
No Comments
12.
Were representative samples collected?
No
Yes
Comments
13.
Was the pH of preserved samples checked to insure proper preservation?
Yes
No Comments
14.
Were samples iced immediately
Yes
No -
after collection?
11-13
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
FORM
15.
For what analyses were the samples collected?
16.
If samples were split, what were the sample/station numbers for these?
Other comments or observations
1 l-14
FIELD SITE AUDIT
SECTION
5 - OTHER
SAMPLING
INSPECTION
- DRUMS,
FORM
TANKS, BARRELS,
ETC. (Containerized)
1.
Type of samples collected (oil, sludge, waste)?
2.
Description of containers or sources sampled?
3.
How many samples were collected?
4.
What type of equipment was used to collect the samples?
5.
What procedures were used to collect the samples?
6.
For what analyses were the samples collected?
7.
If samples were split, what were the sample/station numbers for these?
8.
Were any special safety measures taken during collection of the samples?
9.
What level of safety protection was required for collection of the samples?
11-15
FIELD SITE AUDIT INSPECTION
Other comments or observations
1 l-16
FORM
FIELD
SECTION
SITE AUDIT
6 - MONITORING
INSPECTION
WELL
FORM
INSTALLATION
General
1.
Were the wells installed in the proper locations in accordance with the study plan and/or project
operations plan (POP)?
No
Yes Comments
2.
Were the wells installed starting in the least contaminated
contaminated area?
Yes
No Comments
3.
Were proper safety protocols employed during the well installations?
Yes
No
Comments
4.
Were samples of the drilling mud, water, bentonite pellets, filter pack materials, etc., collected for
quality control analyses?
No Yes Comments
Eaubment
area and proceeding to the most
Decontamination
5.
Were the drilling rig(s), backhoe(s), etc., properly cleaned according to the ESD SOP, Appendix B,
prior to arriving on site?
No Yes Comments
6.
What was the condition of the drilling and sampling equipment when it arrived on site?
7.
Was a decontamination area located where the cleaning activities could cross-contaminant clean
and/or drying equipment?
No
Yes
Comments
8.
Was clean equipment properly wrapped and stored in a clean area?
No Yes
Comments
9.
Was the drilling rig(s) properly cleaned between well borings?
No Yes
Comments
10.
Were the cleaning and decontamination procedures conducted in accordance with the ESD SOP?
No
Yes Comments
11-17
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
FORM
Drilling
11.
What type of drilling method(s) was used to install the wells?
12.
Was this drilling method(s) the same as proposed in the study plan and/or POP?
Yes No
Comments
13.
Were soil samples collected for logging and analyses as the wells were installed?
Yes No -
14.
If yes to 13, at what intervals and by what method?
15.
If air rotary was used:
Was an in-line organic air filter employed?
Yes No Was a cyclone velocity dissipator used?
Yes No m
Comments
16.
What diameter borehole
were installed?
17.
Were surface outer casings used?
Yes No -
18.
If yes to 17, what size and to what depth?
19.
Were the wells double cased?
Yes No -
20.
If yes to 19, explain procedure.
Well Installation
21.
What type of well casing(s) and screen(s) were used?
22.
What diameter were the well casing(s)?
23.
Was there a minimum two-inch annulus around the casing (between casing and borehole wall or
inside augers)?
Yes No Comments
screen(s)?
11-18
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
FORM
24.
What was the length of the well screen(s)?
25.
What was the slot size of the well screen(s)?
26.
Was the well screen(s) commercially manufactured?
No Yes
If yes, by whom?
27.
Was the bottom of the well screen(s) plugged or capped?
Yes No Comments
28.
Were sand and/or gravel (filter) packs installed?
No Yes Comments
29.
Specify type of materials in 28 [(play sand, Ottawa sand, etc.) and grain size (20/30,20/40,
known.
30.
Was a sieve analysis conducted to determine well screen slot size and filter pack grain size?
NoYes -
31.
Were the wells installed to the proper depths?
No Yes Comments
32.
Were well screens placed at the proper intervals?
No Yes
Comments
33.
Were the filter packs placed a minimum of two feet above the well screens?
Yes
No
Comments
34.
Was the tremie tube method used to place the filter packs?
No Yes
Comments
35.
Were seals placed above the filter packs?
No
Yes
36.
If yes to 35, what materials was used for the seals?
37.
Was the vertical thickness of the seals a minimum of two feet?
No
Yes
Comments
1 l-19
etc.)], if
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
1I-20
INSPECTION
FORM
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
FORM
38.
If bentonite pellets were used for the seals above the filter packs, were they allowed to hydrate a
minimum of 8 hours?
Yes
No
Comments
39.
Did contractor/driller have documentation from manufacturer stating recommended hydration time?
No
Yes
Comments
40.
Was the tremie tube method used to place the bentonite pellets?
Yes
No
41.
Was the annulus grouted from the seal to within two feet of the ground surface, or below the frost
line?
Yes
No
Comments
42.
Was the tremie tube method used to place the grout in the annulus?
Yes No
Comments
43.
If no to 42, what method was used?
Yes
No
44.
What type of grout was used to seal the annulus (neat cement, cement/bentonite, cement/sand, etc.)?
45.
What grout mix ratio was used (should be stated in the POP)?
46.
What was the density of the grout (lb./gal., etc.)?
47.
If bentonite grout was used, was the density at least 9.4 lb./gal.?
No
Yes
48.
Was the density determined using a mud balance?
Yes No
49.
Was the grout allowed to set a minimum of 24 hours before the surface pad was installed?
Yes
No
Comments
50.
Was a concrete surface pad installed with an outer protective casing and locking cap?
No
Yes
Comments
51.
How far below the ground surface did the concrete pad extend?
11-21
FIELD
SITE AUDIT
INSPECTION
FORM
52.
What were the dimensions of the concrete pads?
53.
Did the well casings extend to a minimum of 2.5 feet above the ground surface?
Yes No
Comments
54.
How far above the ground surface did the outer protective casings extend?
55.
Did the outer protective casings have weep holes?
Yes NoComments
56.
Were the wells properly developed?
No Yes Comments
57.
Describe method of development.
58.
Give a general evaluation of the activities observed during installation of the wells.
1 l-22
12.0
PFUWENTIVE
MAINTENANCE
The following section outlines preventative maintenance.
12.1
Field Maintenance
The O&EL meter and the HNu PI-101 are to be used in site characterization and will be maintained
as described by the manufacturer’s instructions. The pH and specific conductance meters to be used
during sampling will be maintained according to Baker’s Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) F20 1.
A full set of SOPSwill be maintained in the field trailer.
12.2
Laboratory
Maintenance
Preventive maintenance is an organized program of actions to prevent instruments and equipment
from failing during use and to maintain proper performance of equipment and instruments. A
comprehensive preventive maintenance program is implemented to increase the reliability of the
measurement system. The preventive maintenance program will address the following:
0
Schedules of important preventive maintenance tasks that are carried out to
minimize downtime.
0
Lists of critical spare parts that are available to minimize downtime.
The laboratory maintains histories, in instrument/equipment logs, of all major equipment. Trouble
shooting, maintenance, and spare parts inventory will be recorded in the logs. Instruments and
equipment will be maintained periodically in accordance with procedures described in individual
analytical methods, manufacturer’s recommendation, and/or service contracts.
The modem analytical laboratory depends heavily upon instrumentation and equipment; therefore,
cleaning and preventive maintenance are primary considerations in the sustained production of
satisfactory data. Specific requirements for proper care of laboratory instrumentation and
equipment are contained in the manufacturer’s instructions; however, some general guidelines are
considered, and are listed below.
l
Special precautions must be taken to avoid spillage of corrosive chemicals on or
around equipment and instrumentation not only to extend the life of the item, but
also to eliminate contamination.
0
Where available, covers must be placed on instrumentation when not in use.
0
Instrument parts must be cleaned as required (i.e., mirrors, probes, detector cells).
12-1
13.0
DATA MEASUREMENT
ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES
The following section outlines data measurement assessmentprocedures.
13.1
Overall Project Assessment
Overall data quality will be assessedby a thorough understanding of the data quality objectives. By
maintaining thorough documentation of all decisions made during each phase of sampling,
performing field and laboratory audits, thoroughly reviewing the analytical data as they are
generated by the laboratory, and providing appropriate feedback as problems arise in the field or at
the laboratory, data accuracy, precision, and completeness will be closely monitored.
13.2
Field Ouality Assessment
To assurethat all field data are collected accurately and correctly, specific written instructions will
be issued to all personnel involved in field data acquisition by the Project Manager. The Project
Manager will perform field audit(s) during the investigation to document that the appropriate
procedures are being followed with respect to sample (and blank) collection. These audits will
include a thorough review of the field books used by the project personnel to insure that all tasks
were performed as specified in the instructions. The field audits will necessarily enable the data
quality to be assessedwith regard to the field operations.
The evaluation (data review) of field blanks, and other field QC samples will provide definitive
indications of the data quality. If a problem that can be isolated arises, corrective actions can be
instituted for future field efforts.
13.3
Laboratory Data Ouality Assessment
As part of the analytical QA/QC progmm, the laboratory applies precision and accuracy criteria for
each parameter that is analyzed. When analysis of a sample set is completed, QC data generated will
be reviewed and evaluated to ensure acceptancecriteria are met. These criteria will be method and
matrix specific.
QA/QC data review is based on the following criteria:
0
Method Blank Evaluation - The method blank results will be evaluated for high
readings characteristic of background contamination. If high blank values are
observed, laboratory glassware and reagents are checked for contamination and the
analysis of future samples halted until the system can be brought under control. A
high background is defined as a background value sufficient to result in a difference
in the sample values, if not corrected, greater than or equal to the smallest
significant digit known to be valid. A method blank must contain no greater than
two times the parameter detection limit for most parameters.
l
Trio Blank Evalua
- Trip blank results will be evaluated for high readings
similar to the method blanks described above. If high trip blank readings are
encountered (i.e. a value sufficient to result in a difference in sample values, if not
corrected, greater than or equal to the smallest significant digit known to be valid),
procedures for sample collection, shipment, and laboratory analysis are reviewed.
13-1
If both the method and the trip blanks exhibit significant background
contamination, the source of contamination is probably within the laboratory.
Ambient air in the laboratory and reagents will be checked as possible sources of
contamination.
0
.
.
.
.
rd Cahbratron
Curve Verrficatlon
- The calibration curve or midpoint
calibration standard (check standard) will be evaluated daily to determine curve
linearity through its full range and that sample values are within the range defined
by the low and high standards. If the curve is not linear, sample values are
corrected. If average response factors are used to calculate sample concentrations,
these factors are verified on a daily basis. Verification of calibration curves and
response factors will be accomplished when the evaluated response for any
parameter varies from the calibrated response by less than ranges specified in
Section 7.0.
0
Duplicate Sample Analyses - Duplicate sample analyses will be used to determine
the precision of the analytical method for the sample matrix. Two types of
duplicate sampleswill be analyzed for this project, field, and laboratory. Duplicate
results will be used to calculate precision as defined by the relative percent
difference (RPD). If laboratory duplicate values exceeds the control limit, the
sample set may be reanalyzed for the parameter in question. Precision limits will
be updated periodically following review of data.
0
Reference Sample Analyses - The results of reference sample analysis will be
compared with true values, and the percent recovery of the reference sample will
be calculated. If correction is required (excessive or inadequate percent recovery),
the reference sample must be reanalyzed to demonstrate that the corrective action
has been successful.
0
Surrogate Standard Analvm - Surrogate standard determinations will be performed
on all samplesand blanks for GUMS analyses. All samplesand blanks are fortified
with surrogate spiking compounds before purging or extraction to monitor
preparation and analysis of samples. Recoveries must meet specific criteria. If
acceptance criteria are not met, corrective action must be taken to correct the
problem and the affected sample must be reanalyzed.
0
Matrix Soike Analvses - The observed recovery of spike versus theoretical spike
recovery will be used to calculate accuracy as defined by the percent recovery. If
the accuracy value exceedsthe control limit for the given parameter, the appropriate
laboratory personnel notified and corrective action will be taken before the sample
set is reanalyzed for the parameter in question.
For completeness,it is expectedthat the methodology proposed for chemical characterization of the
sampleswill meet QC acceptancecriteria for at least 95 percent of all sample data. To ensure this
completenessgoal, data that does not meet the acceptancecriteria will be recollected, reextracted,
or reanalyzed, if necessary.
Data representativeness will be ensured through the use of appropriate analytical procedures, and
analysis of samples performed within the allowed holding times.
13-2
Comparability is a qualitative characteristic of the data. By using standard methods for sampling
and analyses, data generated in past or future investigations will be comparable with this
investigation data.
13-3
14.0
CORRECTIVE
ACTION
Corrective action will be taken whenever a nonconformance occurs. A nonconformance will be
defined as an event which is beyond the limits established for a particular operation by the plan.
Nonconformances can occur in a number of activities. Such activities include sampling procedures,
sample receipt, sample storage, sample analysis, data reporting, and computations.
The following personnel will be responsible for detecting and reporting nonconformances:
14.1
l
Project Staff - during testing and preparation and verification of numerical analyses.
0
Laboratory Staff - during the preparation for analyses, performance of analytical
procedures, calibration of equipment, and quality control activities.
Limits
of Operation
The limits of operation that are used to identify nonconformances will be established by the contents
of the Work Plan, QAPP, and FSAP. Interlaboratory control limits produced by statistical analyses
will also be considered as limits of operation.
14.2
Corrective
Action
Nonconformances will be identified and communicated to Baker to avoid delays with respect to
project schedules and prevent the submission of non-valid data. Documentation will include the
following:
0
Personnel identifying the nonconformance(s) will be identified.
0
The nonconformance(s) will be described and communicated to the Baker Project
Manager.
0
For serious nonconformances, the site supervisor will have the authority to initiate
corrective action.
0
For less serious nonconformances, corrective action will be decided upon and
signatures will be obtained prior to implementation of corrective action.
0
All nonconformances and corrective actions will be documented and reside with the
Baker Activity Coordinator. This documentation will be available to LANTDIV.
The Baker Project Manager will be notified of laboratory or field nonconformances and corrective
actions taken if:
0
0
0
A nonconformance causes a delay in work beyond the schedule completion date.
A nonconformance affects information already reported.
A nonconformance affects the validity of the data.
If the nonconformance(s) are serious and corrective action cannot resolve the problem(s), NFESC
Contract Representatives (NCRs) and the LANTDIV NTR may be notified by Baker.
14-l
15.0
QUALITY
ASSURANCE REPORTING
PROCEDURES
The Project Manager will be responsible for assessingthe performance of measurement systemsand
data quality related to the field investigation. A written record will be maintained of: the results of
laboratory QC reports and other periodic assessmentsof measurement, data accuracy, precision, and
completeness;performance and system audits; and any significant QA problems and recommended
solutions. Each deliverable will contain a QA/QC assessmentsection. Also, a QA/QC assessment
will be performed any time a significant problem is identified.
The Project Manager will keep in contact with the LANTDIV NTR through informal, verbal reports
during the project as well as through monthly progress reports.
15-1
FINAL
REMEDIAL
INVESTIGATION/FEASIBILITY
HEALTI-I AND SAFETY PLAN
STUDY
OPERABLE UI’iIT NO. 16 (SITES 89 AND 93)
MCB CAMP LEJEUNE, NORTH CAROLINA
CONTRACT
TASK ORDER 0344
FEBRUARY
21,1997
Prepured For:
DEPARTMENT
OF THE NAVY
ATLAWIC
DIVISION
NAVAL FACILITIES
ENGINEERING
COMMAND
Norfolk, Virginia
Under she:
LANTDIV
CLEAN Program
Contract N62470-89-D-4814
Prepared By:
BAKER ENVIRONMENTAL,
INC.
Coraopolis, .Pennsylvania
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE
SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..*........
ES-l
l-l
..l- 1
..l- 1
..l- 1
1-2
1-2
l-2
l-2
3
1.0
.......................................................
INTRODUCTION
Policy .........................................................
1.1
1.2
Scope .........................................................
1.3
SiteDescription .................................................
1.3.1 Site 90 (BB-9) ..............................................
1.3.2 Site 91 (BB-51) ............................................
1.3.3 Site 92 (BB-46) ............................................
Project Description .................................................
1.4
References........................................................l1.5
2.0
PROJECT PERSONNEL AND RESPONSIBILITIES
3.0
SITE CHARWI’ERIZATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-l
.3-l
3.1
Site History ......................................................
..31
3.1.1 Site90(BB-9). ...........................................
............................................
3-l
3.1.2 Site 91 (BB-51)
.3-l
3.1.3 Site 92 (BB-46) ...........................................
.3-2
3.2
Previous Investigations .............................................
..3- 2
3.2.1 Site90.. ................................................
.3-2
3.2.2 Site91 ...................................................
3.2.3 Site92....................................................32
..3- 3
3.3
PhysicalHazards ................................................
.3-3
3.3.1 Thermal Stress ............................................
.3-3
3.3.2 Explosion and Fire .........................................
.3-3
3.3.3 Utilities ..................................................
.3-4
3.3.4 Heavy Equipment ..........................................
3.3.5 Noise.....................................................35
ChemicalHazards..................................................35
3.4
.3-6
Environmental Hazards ............................................
3.5
.3-6
3.5.1 Hazardous Flora ...........................................
.3-7
3.5.2 Hazardous Fauna ..........................................
.3-8
Task-Specific Hazards .............................................
3.6
3.6.1 LandSurveying.............................................38
.3-8
3.6.2 Subsurface Sampling - Soil Boring ............................
.3-8
3.6.3 Temporary Monitoring Well Installation ........................
3-9
3.6.4 Monitoring Well Development .................................
.3-9
3.6.5 Groundwater Sampling ......................................
.3-10
3.6.6 Surface Water/Sediment Sampling (Site 92 only) ................
................................
.3-10
3.6.7 Equipment Decontamination
.3-10
3.6.8 IDW (Tanker/Rolloff Box) Sampling .........................
4.0
SITE CONTROL ........................................................
SiteAccess .....................................................
4.1
4.2
Site Conditions ...................................................
ii
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-l
4-l
..4- 1
.4- 1
TABLE
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
6.0
6.2
6.3
PROTECTIVE
7.2
7.3
7.4
..............................................
EQUIPMENT
.................................
LevelsofProtection ..............................................
Reassessmentof Protection Program ..................................
Care and Cleaning of Personal Protective Equipment .....................
DECONTAMINATION
7.1
8.0
MONITORING
BreathingZone....................................................5Point Source Monitoring ............................................
Perimeter Monitoring ..............................................
Equipment Calibration .............................................
Monitoring Documentation .........................................
PERSONAL
6.1
7.0
WorkZones ....................................................
4.3.1 Level C Activities ..........................................
4.3.2 Level D/D+ Activities .......................................
Buddy System.. .................................................
Safe Work Practices ...............................................
4.5.1 Heavy Equipment ..........................................
45.2 Drilling Operations .........................................
Sanitation Procedures/SitePrecautions ................................
EXPOSURE
5.1
OF CONTENTS
(Continued)
....................................
PROCEDURES
Personnel Decontamination .........................................
Effectiveness of Personnel Decontamination ............................
Equipment Decontamination ........................................
Decontamination Materials .........................................
..4- 1
.4-l
.4-2
..4- 2
.4-2
.4-3
.4-3
.4-4
5-l
1
.5-l
.5-2
.5-2
-5-2
6-1
..6- 1
.6-2
.6-2
7-1
.7- 1
.7-2
.7-2
.7-2
EMERGENCY
PROCEDURES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-l
8.1
Scope .........................................................
..8- 1
...........................................
.8- 1
8.2
Pre-Emergency Planning
.8- 1
8.3
Emergency Coordinator ............................................
.8-2
8.4
Communications/Telephone Numbers .................................
Assembly Area ...................................................
.8-2
8.5
Emergency Hospital Route ...........................................
8-3
8.6
.......................................
Emergency
Medical
Treatment.
8-3
8.7
Injuries ........................................................
..8- 3
8.8
Physical Injury .............................................
Chemical Injury .............................................
8.8.3 Snakebite Injury ...........................................
8.8.4 Spider Bite Injury ..........................................
8.8.5
Ticks and Insect Bites .......................................
Emergency Decontamination Procedures ................................
Personal Protection and First Aid Equipment ...........................
Notification.. ...................................................
8.8.1
8.8.2
8.9
8.10
8.11
...
111
8-4
8-4
.8-4
.8-5
.8-5
8-6
.8-6
..8- 7
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Continued)
8.12
8.13
8.14
8.15
8.16
Hazard Assessment ...............................................
Security..........................................................8EmergencyAlerting ..............................................
Training .......................................................
Spill Containment Procedures .......................................
9.0
TRAINING AND HAZARD COMMUNICATION
REQUIREMENTS
...........................................
General
Worker
Training
9.1
9.2
SupervisorTraining ..............................................
SiteSpecificTraining...............................................g9.3
Hazard Communication ............................................
9.4
Recordkeeping ..................................................
9.5
10.0
..........................
MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE REQUIREMENTS
10.1 General.........................................................lO10.2 SiteSpecific ...................................................
11.0
HEALTH AND SAFETY PLAN APPROVAL
12.0
DECLARATION
.........
..............................
OF HEALTH AND SAFETY PLAN REVIEW .............
LIST OF TABLES
3-1
Physical and Toxicological Properties of Chemicals
5-l
Monitoring Equipment and Frequency
8-l
Emergency Telephone Numbers
10-l
Medical Surveillance Testing Parameters
LIST OF FIGURES
4-l
4-2
Sites 90,9 1, and 92 Investigation Areas
General Contamination Reduction Zone Layout
8-1
8-2
Hospital Route Map
Directions to the Hospital
ATTACHMENTS
A
B
C
.8-7
7
..8- 8
..8- 9
.8-9
Baker Safety Standard Operating Procedures
Material Safety Data Sheets
Emergency Procedures for Exposure to Hazardous Materials/Waste
iv
.9-l
.9- 1
..9- 1
1
.9-2
..9- 2
lo-l
1
..lO- 1
11-l
.12-l
EXECUTIVE
SUMMAFlY
This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility
Study (IWFS) for
Operable Unit (OU) No. 17, Marine Corps Base (MCB), Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The purpose
of this RI/FS is to determine the nature, rate, direction and extent of releases of hazardous waste from
each site within OU No. 17. The primary chemical hazards associated with the tasks at these sites are
expected to include potential exposure to varying levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs),
semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and inorganics.
The physical hazards include working around heavy equipment, underground/overhead
utilities,
uneven/sloped terrain, cold strees, and heat stress. The environmental hazards may include potentially
hazardous flora and fauna. Each of these hazards is described in Section 3.0.
Section 5.0 describes the environmental
monitoring
requirements
photoionization detector (PID) and oxygen/combustible
gas meter.
which consist of using a
Due to the limited amount of information provided by previous investigations
assigned protection levels at these sites are conservative in nature. The level
assigned for work tasks and other operations will be Levels D through
upgrades/downgrades
dependent on monitoring results and the Site Health
discretion. Section 6.0 describes the personal protective equipment to be used.
and record searches,
of personal protection
D+ with protection
and Safely Offrcer’s
Section 8.0 describes emergency procedures, which includes Figure 8- 1, showing the route to the nearest
public hospital, and Figure 8-2 identifying the written directions to the hospital, along with first aid
procedures, communication procedures, and other site concerns. Table 8-l identifies the emergency
phone numbers.
ES-1
1.0
INTRODUCTION
This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) has been developed by Baker Environmental, Inc. (Baker) to
accompany the Project Plans, which include a Work Plan, Field Sampling Plan, Quality Assurance
ProjectPlan and HASP, for Contract Task Order (CTO) 0344. The Work Plan, Field Sampling Plan,
and Quality Assurance Project Plan are bound as separatedocuments, and will accompanythe HASP
in the field. The objective of the project is to conduct a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study
(RI/FS) at Operable Unit No. 17 (Sites 90,91, and 92) at Marine Corps Base (MCB) Camp Lejeune,
Jacksonville, North Carolina. The purpose of this HASP is to comply with the safety and health
regulations of the OSI-IA General Industry and Construction Standards and to define the requirements
and designate protocols to be followed during RI/FS activities involving potentially contaminated
soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediment.
1.1
Policy
It is the policy of Baker that all on-site hazardous waste management activities be performed in
conformance with a site-specific HASP. The HASP is written based on the anticipated hazards and
expected work conditions and applies ‘to field activities to be performed under this CTO.
Applicability of this HASP extends to all Baker employees, Baker’s subcontractors, and visitors
entering the site. However, subcontractors are expected to provide their own HASP and relevant
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPS) that pertain to the activities they are contracted to perform
on the site. This information will then become part of the site HASP. All personnel must review the
HASP and sign an agreement to comply with its provisions prior to commencing any on-site work.
The HASP is considered an operational document which is subject to revisions in responseto various
site-specific conditions which may be encountered. However, it may be modified/updated only with
the approval of the Project Health and Safety Officer (PHSO) and Project Manager. Proper
notification will be given to the Atlantic Division (LANTDIV) Naval Facilities Engineering
Command Navy Technical Representative (NTR) when significant changes to the HASP are
implemented.
1.2
Scope
The provisions of this HASP are applicable to Baker personnel involved with the RI/FS activities
during the Phase I activities and possible Phase II activities. During Work Plan development for
Phase II investigation activities, if required, additional applicable provisions will be added to this
HASP as required.
The HASP is based on an outline developed by the United States Coast Guard (USCG) for
responding to hazardous chemical releases (USCG Pollution Response COMDTINST-M16456.30)
and by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA), USCG, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s
(USEPA’s) recommended health and safety procedures (Occupational Safety and Health Guidance
Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities). This site-specific HASP, at a minimum, meets the
requirements under OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.120 and 1925.65 (Hazardous Waste Operations
and Emergency Response [HAZWOPER]).
1.3
Site Descrintion
A description of each of the sites is presented in the subsectionsbelow. The siteswill be investigated
as one investigation area.
l-l
1.3.1
Site 90 (BB-9)
The study area is located near the intersection of Middle Road and Peach Street between Buildings
BB-9 and BB-16 in the Courthouse Bay area of MCB Camp Lejeune. Building BB-9 currently
operates as a steam generation and heating plant. Three steel l,OOO-gallonheating oil underground
storage tanks (USTs) were located adjacent to Building BB-9. A dry cleaning facility
(Building BB- 16) is located northeast of the site (no dry cleaning on the premises, drop-off and pickup point only; however, previously there was a 250-gallon above ground storage tank [AST] in the
building which contained dry cleaning fluid). The New River is the nearest surface water body,
located approximately 800 feet south of the former UST basin. The nearest known water supply well
(BB-45) is located approximately 1,275 feet west of the site.
The site is a relatively flat area. There are buildings located in the area in addition to paved areas.
1.3.2
Site 91 (BB-51)
The study area is located at the northern dead end of Clinton Street east of Building .BB-5 1 in the
Courthouse Bay area of MCB Camp Lejeune. Two steel 300-gallon waste oil USTs were formerly
located in an unpaved area at the edge of a treeline, approximately 200 feet east of Building BB-5 1.
The New River is the nearest surface water body, located approximately 2,975 feet south-southwest
of the former UST basin. The nearest known water supply well (BB-44) is located approximately
1,275 feet northwest of the site.
The site is relatively flat. Much of the area surrounding Building BB-51 is unpaved and wooded.
There are a few buildings located in the area.
1.3.3
Site 92 (BB-46)
The study area is located at the end of Front Street in the Courthouse Bay area of MCB Camp
Lejeune. Building BB-46 has been dismantled. Building BB-246 has been constructed nearby to
replace Building BB-46. One steel l,OOO-gallonregular gasoline USTs (for retail use) was formerly
located northwest of Building BB-46. The site is directly adjacent to Courthouse Bay. The nearest
known water supply well (BB-45) is located approximately 2,350 feet southeastof the site.
The site is relatively flat. Much of the area surrounding Building BB-246 is unpaved and wooded.
There are a few buildings located in the area.
1.4
Proiect
Descrhtion
The work tasks that will be conducted during Phase I investigation activities at Sites 90,91, and 92
by Baker personnel include the following:
a
Advancement of soil borings
0
Installation of temporary monitoring wells to include the collection of groundwater
samples
0
Collection of surface water/sediment samples (Site 92 only)
1-2
1.5
References
The following publications have been referenced in the development and implementation of this
HASP:
0
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). 1995.
Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Phvsical Agents and
Biological Exuosure Indicies for 199% 1996.
Genium Publishing Corp, Genium’s Reference Collection, MSDSs
Lewis, Richard J., Sr. 1991. Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference, 3rd Edition,
Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York.
Martin, William F. and Steven P. Levine. 1994. Protecting Personnel at Hazardous
Waste Sites,2nd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemanne, Stoneham,Massachusetts.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/Occupational Safety and
Health Administration/US. Coast Guard/US. Environmental Protection Agency.
1985. Occupational Safetv and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site
Activities. October 1985.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1995. Title 29 Code of Federal
Regulations, Parts 1910 and 1926.
United States Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service,
Centers for Disease Control, NIOSH. 1994. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical
Hazards. June 1994.
United StatesEnvironmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial
Response, Emergency Response Division. 1992. Standard Oueratinu Safe&
Guidelines. June 1992.
l-3
2.0
PROJECT PERSONNEL AND RESPONSIBILITIES
The following personnel are designated to carry out the statedjob functions for both project and site
activities (Note: One person may carry out more than one job function; personnel identified are
subject to change.) The responsibilities that correspond with each job function are outlined below.
PROJECT
MANAGER
Mr. Matt Bartman
The Baker Project Manager will be responsible for assuring that all activities are conducted in
accordance with the HASP. The Project Manager has the authority to suspend field activities if
employees are in danger of injury or exposed to harmful agents. In addition, the Project Manager
is responsible for:
0
Assisting the PHSO, as designated below, in Site-Specific HASP development for
all phasesof the project.
0
Designating a SHSO and other site personnel who will assurecompliance with the
HASP.
0
Reviewing and approving the information presented in this HASP.
PROJECT
HEALTH
AND SAFETY
Mr. Ron Krivan
OFFICER:
The PHSO will be responsible for general development of the HASP and will be the primary contact
for inquiries as to the contents of the HASP. The PHSO will be consulted before changes to the
HASP can be approved or implemented. The PHSO also will:
SITE
0
Develop new protocols or modify the HASP as appropriate and issue amendments.
0
Resolve issues which arise in the field with respect to interpretation or
implementation of the HASP.
0
Monitor the field program through a regular review of field health and safety
records, on-site audits, or a combination of both.
0
Determine that all Baker personnel have received the required training and medical
surveillance prior to entry onto a site.
l
Coordinate the review, evaluation, and approval of the HASP.
MANAGER:
Ms. Heather DeBolt
The Site Manager will be responsible for assuring that all day-to-day activities are conducted in
accordancewith the HASP. The Site Manager has the immediate authority to suspendfield activities
if employees are subjected to a situation that can be immediately dangerousto life or health. The Site
Manager’s responsibilities include:
l
Assuring that the health and safety equipment and personal protective equipment
(PPE) has arrived on-site and it is properly maintained.
2-l
0
Coordinating overall site accessand security measures, including documenting all
personnel arriving or departing the site (i.e., name, company, and time).
0
Approving all on-site activities and coordinating site safety and health issues with
the Site Health and Safety Officer (SHSO).
0
Assisting the SHSO in coordinating emergencyprocedures with the Naval Activity,
emergency medical responders, etc., prior to or during site mobilization activities.
0
Assuring compliance with site sanitation procedures and site precautions.
0
Coordinating activities with Baker and subcontractor personnel.
0
Overseeing the decontamination of field sampling equipment.
0
Serving as the backup/alternate EmergencyCoordinator.
0
Assuming the responsibilities as indicated under “Field Team Leader,” in their
absence.
SITE HEALTH AND SAFETY OFFICER: (to be determined mior to mobilization)
The SHSO will be responsible for the on-site implementation of the HASP. The SHSO also has the
immediate authority to suspend field activities if the health and safety of site personnel is endangered
and to audit the subcontractor training, fit testing, and medical surveillance records to verity
compliance. These records will be maintained at the Baker Field Trailer. The SHSO also will:
0
Coordinate the pre-entry briefing and subsequentbriefings.
0
Assure that monitoring equipment is properly calibrated and properly operated.
0
Assure compliance with the Baker SOPSin Attachment A.
0
Inform personnel of the material safety data sheets(MSDSs) located in Attachment
B and emergency procedures for exposure to hazardous materials/waste presented
in Attachment C.
0
Manage health and safety equipment, including instruments, respirators, PPE, etc.,
that is used during field activities.
0
Confirm emergency response provisions, as necessary, in cooperation with Naval
Activity, emergency medical care, etc., prior to or during site mobilization activities.
0
Monitor conditions during field activities to ensure compliance with the HASP,
evaluate if more stringent procedures or a higher level of PPE should be
implemented, and keep the PHSO and Project Manager informed.
0
Document, as necessary,pertinent information such as accident investigation and
reporting, designated safety inspections, a record of site conditions, personnel
2-2
involved in field activities, and any other relevant health and safety issues. This
information will become part of the offtcial site records.
Act as the EmergencyCoordinator.
l
Field team members will be responsible for:
0
Familiarity with the HASP.
l
Complying with the contentsof the HASP.
0
Attending training sessionsto review the HASP and staying informed of additional
safety and health information.
0
Being alert to identified and unidentified hazards and reporting the unidentified
hazardsto the SHSO and Site Manager as soon as possible.
0
Offering suggestions,ideas, or recommendations that may improve or enhance site
safety.
0
Conducting site activities in an orderly and appropriate manner.
0
Reporting accidents/injuries, however minor, to the SHSO as soon as possible.
Subcontractor personnel will be responsible for:
0
0
Complying with the conditions outlined under “Field Team Members”, and
familiarity and compliance with the contentsof this HASP.
Complying with all OSHA regulations relevant to their work.
0
Obtaining the appropriate training, fit testing, and medical surveillance requirements
under 29 CFR 1910.120,1926.65, and 1910.134 and providing this documentation
to the Site Manager prior to or during site mobilization.
0
Having a competent safety monitor on-site.
0
Complying with the training and medical surveillance requirements as outlined in
Sections 9.0 and 10.0, respectively, and providing their own PPE that meets or
exceedsthe level of protection as outlined in this HASP.
Subcontractor Companies:
0
Drilling Operations:
(to be provided in the Final HASP Submission)
0
Survey Operations:
(to be provided in the Final HASP Submission)
0
Analytical Services:
(to be provided in the Final HASP Submission)
2-3
LANTDIV Representatives:
0
Kate Laudman, NTR
(804) 322-48 18
MCB Camp Lejeune Representatives:
0
0
0
Mr. Neal Paul
Mr. Tom Morris
Mr. Mick Senus
(910) 451-5068
(910) 451-5972
(910) 451-5068
Federal/State/Local Representatives:
0
Ms. Gena Townsend (Region Iv)
(404) 347-3555
0
Mr. PatrickWatters (NC DEHNR)
(919) 733-2801
2-4
3.0
SITE CHARACTERIZATION
This section provides information on the site history, previous investigations, and health and safety
concerns for the physical and health hazardsassociatedwith the sites.
3.1
Site Historv
Information regarding the history of Sites 90, 91, and 92 is presented in the following subsections.
3.1.1
Site 90 (BB-9)
Building BB-9 is currently operating as a steam generation and heat plant. The integrity of the three
1,OOO-gallonsteel USTs reportedly used for heating oil storage (the tanks were removed in 1993) is
suspected as being the source for a release of petroleum products to the soil and subsequently to the
underlying groundwater in this area. The site area, in addition to the former UST location, also
includes: three active ASTs of unknown capacity reported to store diesel fuel #2 east of Building
BB-9; an active oil/water separator for stormwater runoff from the active AST pad southeast of the
former UST basin, and two active 250-gallon ASTs which are used for solvent storage west of the
former UST basin.
3.1.2
Site 91 (BB-51)
Building BB-51 was constructed, and is currently used, as an instruction building for the Marine
Corps Engineering School. The integrity of the two 300-gallon steel USTs reportedly used for waste
oil (the tanks were removed in 1992) is suspectedas being the source for a release of petroleum
products to the soil and subsequently to the underlying groundwater in this area. Another possible
source of contamination is the school which has a photograph development laboratory for the
topographic engineering course. The site area, in addition to the former UST location, also includes:
a vehicle storage area west of the former UST basin and directly north of Building BB-5 1; a bermd
petroleum, oil, and lubricants area 300-feet north of Building BB-51 and northwest of the former
UST basin; an active lube-oil drum storage pad approximately 250-feet north of Building BB-5 1 and
west of the former UST basin; an active vehicle/equipment wash pad approximately 170-feet northnorthwest of Building BB-5 1 and west of the former UST basin; and an active temporary hazardous
/potentially hazardous materials storage area west of the former UST basin and northeast of Building
BB-51.
3.1.3
Site 92 (BB-46)
Building BB-46, which was used as a boat house,has been replaced by Building BB-246. A concrete
pad, in the vicinity of where Building BB-46 was located, is now used as a covered picnic area. The
integrity of a l,OOO-gallon steel UST reportedly used to store regular gasoline for retail use from
1980 to 1989 (the tank was removed in 1994) is suspected as being the source for a release of
petroleum products to the soil and subsequentlyto the underlying groundwater in the area. The site
area, in addition to the former UST location, also includes: a playground loo-feet west to southwest
from the former UST basin; and a metal storage shed, used to store 5-gallon gas cans, IO-feet
northwest from the former UST basin. The site is directly adjacent to Courthouse Bay.
3-1
3.2
Previous Investigations
A brief description of the finding of the previous investigations is included in the following
subsections.
3.2.1
Site 90
At Site 90, as a follow-up to the tank removals, a three well site checkwas conducted in April 1993
by Groundwater Technology Government Services, Inc. The analytical results included detected
concentrations of TPH-diesel, TPH-lubrication oil, and total oil and grease in subsurface soil samples
collected and detected concentrations of benzene,toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene (BTEX)
in groundwater samples collected.
A leaking underground storage tank comprehensive site assessmentwas conducted in December
1994 by Richard Catlin & Associates, Inc. The analytical results included detected concentrations
of 1, 1,l -trichloroethane, toluene, tetrachloroethene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, n-propylbenzene, and
trimethylbenzene in subsurface soil samples collected. Concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene,
chloroform, and benzene were detected in groundwater samples collected which exceeded Federal
Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) and the North Carolina Water Quality Standards (NCWQS).
The following inorganics were detectedat levels above the Federal MCLs and/or NCWQS: cadmium,
chromium, lead, and silver.
3.2.2
Site 91
At Site 9 1, as a follow-up to the tank removals, a three well site check was conducted in April 1993
by Groundwater Technology Government Services, Inc. The analytical results included detected
concentrations of total oil and grease in subsurface soil samples collected and a detected
concentration of toluene in the groundwater samplescollected.
A leaking underground storage tank comprehensive site assessmentwas conducted in September
1994 by Richard Catlin & Associates, Inc. The analytical results included detected concentrations
1,l dichloroethene,
1,1,2dichloroethene,
1,l dichloroethane,
2,2dichloropropane,
of
1, 1,l -trichloroethane, benzene, trichloroethene, 1,2dichloropropane, dibromomethane, toluene,
1;1,2-trichloroethane, ethylbenzene, 1, 1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, xylenes, isopropylbenzene,
n-propylbenzene,
1,3,5-trimethylbenzene,
2-chIorotoluene,
1,1,2&tetrachloroethane,
1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, set-butylbenzene, 1,4dichlorobenzene, n-butylbenzene, naphthalene,
chloroform, p-isopropyltoluene, and hexachlorobutadiene in subsurface soil samples colkected.
Concentrations of chloroform, 1,ldichloroethane, and benzene were detected in groundwater
samplescollected which exceededFederal MCLs and the NCWQS.
The following inorganics were detected at levels above the Federal MCLs and/or NCWQS: arsenic,
cadmium, and silver.
.
3.2.3
Site 92
At Site 92, as a follow-up to the tank removal, a three well site checkwas conducted in August 1994
by R. E. Wright Associates, Inc. The analytical results included a detected concentration of
tetrachloroethene in groundwater samplescollected which exceededFederal MCLs and NCWQS.
3-2
3.3
Phvsical Hazards
The identified potential physical hazards associatedwith this project during the site activities include
thermal stress,explosion and fire, underground utilities, heavy equipment operations, and noise. The
following presents a description of these potential hazards. Genera1physical hazards that may be
present during the project activities are listed in the following subsections.
3.3.1
Thermal Stress
Provisions for monitoring for thermal stressare included in Attachment A - Baker Safety SOPS.
3.3.2
Explosion and Fire
In general, the following items present potential explosion or fue hazards and will be monitored
closely as they pertain to each area under investigation:
0
0
0
0
0
0
Heavy equipment malfunction or refueling operations
Penetration into underground utility/service lines (gas, electric, fuel)
Ignition of trapped flammable vapors
Vehicular accidents
Puncturing of drums, tanks, or other containers during drilling operations
Ignition of flammables or combustibles from open flames during welding or cutting
(where neededduring well installations)
Hazard Prevention
Explosion and/or tire hazards can be prevented by proper grounding, approved safety cans,
compressed gas cylinder safety, leak repair, vehicle maintenance, availability of fire extinguishers,
no smoking, and no incendiary or igniter devices,
Site personnel should be trained in the proper use of portable fire extinguishing equipment. Site
personnel should respond to fues as follows:
0
0
0
0
3.3.3
Evacuate all personnel
Call 911
If the fire is small or confimed, attempts to fight the fire with portable fire
extinguishers is authorized
Support the Fire Department response forces as appropriate (e.g., providing
information regarding site activities, hazards,and missing personnel, if any)
Utilities
Underground utility clearance must be obtained before any intrusive activities are performed; this
clearance will be provided by a representative from the Public Works Department at MCB Camp
Lejeune. If underground utilities are identified in these areas, the ground above the utility lines are
to be physically marked, such as, with spray paint or flags. Base representatives are to be notified
at least one week prior to soil intrusive activities to acquire a utility clearance. A 24-&h minimum
clearance must be used for work near underground utilities.
3-3
Energized overhead electric lines may present a risk of electrocution. OSHA standards require that
equipment maintain certain distancesfrom power lines. For lines 0 to 50 kilovolts (kV), a minimum
distance of 10 feet must be maintained. Lines carrying over 50 kV require that the equipment
location be at least 10 feet plus an additional 0.4 inch for each 1 kV over 50.
3.3.4
Heavy Equipment
One of the primary physical hazards associatedwith the site work is the use of heavy equipment,
which may include the use of a drill rig and/or hydraulic-operated direct push equipment for
temporary monitoring wells. Only operators trained, qualified, and authorized will be permitted to
operate the heavy equipment.
Hazards generally associatedwith drilling operations include the following:
Hazard
0
Motor vehicle exhaust products (e.g., carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides) from
the drill rig engine.
0
Overhead utility wires (i.e., electrical and telephone) can be hazardous when the
drill rig boom is in the upright position.
0
Underground pipelines and utility lines can be ruptured or damaged during active
drilling operations.
0
Moving parts, i.e., augers, on the drill rig may catch clothing. Free or falling parts
from the cat head may causehead injury.
0
Moving the drill rig over uneven terrain may cause the vehicle to roll over or
become stuck in a rut or mud. Be aware of hazards associatedwith moving heavy
machinery and other associatedinjury.
0
High pressure hydraulic lines and air lines used on drill rigs are hazardous when
they are leaking, worn or incorrectly assembled.
Prevention
0
Review the contaminants suspected to be on site and perform air monitoring as
required. Shut down drill rig and/or divert exhaust fumes.
0
All chains, lines, and cables should be inspecteddaily for weak spots, fi-ays, etc.
0
Ear muffs and/or ear plugs effectively reduce noise levels.
0
At a minimum, personal protective equipment will include safety boots, eye
protection, and hard hats, which will be worn at all times while working around a
drill rig. Secure loose clothing. Check boom prior to approaching drill rig.
0
To avoid contact with any overhead lines, the drill rig boom should be lowered prior
to moving the rig. Overhead utilities should be considered “live” until determined
to be otherwise.
3-4
0
The rig mast will not be erectedwithin 10 feet of an overhead electrical line until the
line is deenergized,grounded, or shielded and an electrician has certified that arcing
cannot occur.
0
A thorough underground utilities search will be conducted before the
commencement of a. drilling project. Proper utility clearances must be obtained
prior to intrusive work.
All high pressure lines will be checkedprior to and during use.
The subcontracting drilling company’ssite supervisor will provide, during the HASP
briefing, a description of cautions to be observed when working around the drill rig.
Hand signals will be prearranged between the operator and personnel working
around the drill rig.
Personal will remain in the field of vision of the operator and remain clear of
moving parts, especially where loose-fitting clothing can become entangled.
Personnel working near a drill rig will be aware of the location and operation of the
emergency shut off devices.
Establish appropriate work zone around the drill rig of a radius of at least equal to
the height of the drill boom, and delineate work zone with construction warning
tape, barricades, cones,or the like.
3.3.5
Noise
Elevated noise levels may be produced during drilling and other heavy equipment operations;
therefore, hearing protection will be made available. The SHSO is responsible for making this
determination based on past experience with the type of equipment in use and the proximity of
personnel to the equipment. Employees can receive hearing protection upon request.
3.4
Chemical Hazards
Hazardous chemicals can be absorbed into the body through various pathways, such as:
l
a
a
Accidental inhalation of vapors, gases,or particulates
Accidental ingestion of contaminated material from hand-to-mouth contact
Accidental dermal and eye absorption from direct, unprotected contact
The identification of the primary chemical hazards that may be encountered at the site is based on
previous soil and groundwater investigations. A previous investigation at Site 90 identified
subsurface soil contaminated with 1,1,1-trichloroethane, toluene, tetrachloroethene, ethylbenzene,
xylenes, n-propylbenzene, and trimethylbenzene and groundwater contaminated with
benzo(a)anthracene, chloroform, benzene, cadmium, chromium, lead, and silver. Each of the
aforementioned constituents exceededavailable Federal and/or state criteria.
A previous investigation at Site 9 1 identified soil contaminated with l,ldichloroethene,
1,1,2dichloroethene, 1,l -dichloroethane, 2,2-dichloropropane, 1, 1,l -trichloroethane, benzene,
trichloroethene, 1,2-dichloropropane, dibromometbane, toluene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, ethylbenzene,
1, 1,1,2-tetrachloroetbane, xylenes, isopropylbenzene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, n-propylbenzene,
1,3,5-trimethylbenzene,
2-chlorotoluene,
1,2,4-trimetbylbenzene,
set-butylbenzene,
1,4-dichlorobenzene, n-butylbenzene, naphthalene, chloroform, p-isopropyltoluene, and
hexachlorobutadiene and groundwater contaminated with chloroform, 1,l dichloroethane, benzene,
arsenic, cadmium, and silver. Each of the aforementioned constituents exceeded available Federal
and/or state criteria.
A previous investigation at Site 92 identified groundwater contaminated with tetrachloroethene
which exceededavailable Federal and/or state criteria.
During each sampling event or well installation, an effort will be made to eliminate or reduce
potential routes of exposure through the use of engineering controls (e.g., performing investigative
activities in an upwind location according to safe sampling techniques), administrative controls
(e.g., effective training programs), and the proper use of PPE.
Table 3-l located in the “Tables” section at the end of this HASP, identifies chemical/physical
properties for No. 2 fuel oil, BTEX, 1, 1,l -trichloroethane, 1,l dichloroethane, tetrachloroethane, and
metals detected during previous investigations at Sites 90,91, and 92, respectively. The chemicals
listed in Table 3- 1 represent the most significant potential health concern to the personnel conducting
this field program. A MSDS is available in Attachment B for each of the chemicals in Table 3-1.
It is important to note that the information presented in each MSDS reflects the chemical and
toxicological properties of the specific compound in a pure, undiluted, and untransformed condition.
As such, when these compounds are detected in environmental media the hazards are anticipated to
be substantially less that those associatedwith exposure to “pure” compounds. Therefore, the data
presented in the MSDS will be utilized as reference information when questions arise as to a
constituents’s chemical, physical, and toxicological properties, or measures to be employed in an
emergency situation.
Other chemical hazards that may be present include preservative chemicals that will be in some of
the sample containers (e.g., hydrochloric acid and nitric acid), decontamination fluids, and materials
brought to the site by the subcontractors. For the aforementioned materials, an MSDS will be
obtained and made readily available to the field sampling team, in compliance with 29 CFR
1910.1200.
3.5
Environmental Hazard%
The following paragraphs identify the potential hazards associated with flora and fauna at MCB
Camp Lejeune If additional concerns are identified, they will be added to this HASP.
3.5.1
Hazardous Flora
An incidence of contact by individuals to poisonous/thorny plants is high while working in wooded
areas. Bare skin should be covered (i.e., long pants and shirt, steel toe boots, leather or cotton gloves,
safety glasses, and head protection) as much as practical when working in forested or densely
vegetated areas. Personnel should avoid entering an area in the direct path of known poisonous flora
(i.e., poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac); a secondary route should be selected. Care also
should be taken when walking in such areas as uneven terrain, or vine covered areas which may
present a tripping hazard.
3-6
While attempting to cut into dense underbrush, hazards exist from the sharp machete and gaspowered weed cutter; therefore, care should be taken when using such devices. (Note: Hearing
protection, steel toe boots, gloves, and safety glassesare required when using weed cutters.) Rashes
or other injuries will be reported to the SHSO as soon as they occur or are recognized.
3.52
Hazardous
Fauna
Mosquitoes and gnats pose a nuisance and physical hazard to field personnel; they distract workers,
leading to accidents,and pose a physical threat by transmitting live microorganisms. Avoiding the
use of perfumes and scenteddeodorants and donning light colored clothing is preferable. The use
of Avon’s “Skin So Soft” or other insect repellent is encouragedand will be provided, as needed.
Poisonous snakessuch as the rattlesnake, copperhead, and cottonmouth (water moccasin), all known
as pit vipers, are common to the United States. Snakestypically do not attack people, but will bite
when provoked, angered, or accidentally injured (as when stepped on). When encountering a snake,
avoid quick/jerky motions, loud noises, and retreat slowly; do not provoke the snake. If bitten,
follow emergencyprocedures outlined in Section 8.8.3.
Two spiders commonly found in the United Stateswhose bite can be serious: the black widow spider
and the brown recluse spider. These bites may be serious, even life-threatening. Many other spiders
will bite, but they do not produce serious complications. The black widow spider measures
approximately 1 inch long with its legs extended. It is glossy black in color and has a distinctive
yellow-orange marking in the shape of an hourglass on its belly. On its back, however, there is no
marking, and unless you happen to turn the spider over, you cannot see this mark. The danger of the
black widow spider bite lies in its systemicmanifestations. The venom from this spider attacks the
nervous system,resulting in severe muscle cramps with board-like rig,idity of the abdominal muscles,
tightness in the chest, and diff~cuhy in breathing. Sweating, nausea,and vomiting also will occur.
The brown recluse spider is a little bit smaller than the black widow spider and is dull brown in color.
It has a violin-shaped mark on its back, which can be seen when you are looking at the spider from
above. The spider gets its name because it tends to live in dark areas, comers, and old unused
buildings. The bite from this animal produces local rather than systemicmanifestations. The venom
of the brown recluse spider causessevere local tissue damage and can lead to an ulcer and gangrene.
The bitten area becomes red, swollen, and tender within a few hours after the bite. A small blister
forms, and several days later, this may form a large scab, covering a deep ulcer. Death is rarely
reported. If a spider bite by a black widow or brown recluse is suspected, follow emergency
procedures in Section 8.8.4.
There is a potential to come in contact with other dangerous insects;these include fire ants, chiggers,
bees, wasps, hornets, mites, fleas, spiders, and ticks. All personnel should perform “checks” on each
other periodically and at the end of the work shift, especially when working in grassy or forested
areas. Insect bites must be reported to the SHSO. Insect bite emergencyprocedures are outlined in
Section 8.8.5.
Prior to initiating site activities, each individual shall be questioned as to any known sensitivities to
the previously mentioned organisms or agents.
3-7
3.6
Task-SDecific
Hazards
Listed below are summaries for the hazards associatedwith each potential task for an area under
investigation. Levels of protection outlined in Section 6.0 were selected based on this task-specific
hazard identification, information obtained from previous investigations and site visits, and previous
experience with similar investigations or activities.
3.6.1
Land Surveying
Chemical
Skin contact with potentially contaminated soil or surface water.
Accidental ingestion of contaminated material from hand-to-mouth contact.
0
l
Physical/Environmental
0
0
0
3.6.2
Slips/trips/falls - sloped, uneven terrain; crawling over and under obstacles.
Skin irritation from contactwith insectsand vegetation.
Interaction with native and feral animal life.
Subsurface
Sampling
- Soil Boring
Chemical
0
0
0
0
Potentially contaminated mud, soil, or groundwater to be splashed onto body or in
eyes.
Skin contact with potentially-contaminated soil.
Ingestion of potentially-contaminated soil from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile contaminants or volatile fraction of semivolatile contaminants.
Physical/Environmental
0
0
l
0
0
0
0
3.6.3
Elevated noise levels from heavy equipment operations.
Muscle strain and heat exhaustion while lifting heavy objects.
Skin irritation from contact with insects and vegetation.
Contact with underground utilities.
Interaction with native and feral animal life.
Heavy objects landing on foot/toe or head.
Slips/trips/falls from sloped, uneven terrain; crawling over and under obstacles.
Temporary
Monitoring
Well Installation
Chemical
0
0
0
0
Potentially contaminated mud, soil, or groundwater to be splashed onto body or in
eyes.
Ingestion of contaminated materials from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile contaminants or volatile fraction of semivolatile contaminants.
Absorption of groundwater through the skin.
3-8
Physical/Environmental
Elevated noise levels from heavy equipment operation.
Muscle strain and heat exhaustion from lifting.
Shin irritation from contact with insectsand vegetation.
Contact with underground utility lines.
Interaction with native and feral animal life.
Overhead hazardsfrom drill rig operations.
Heavy objects landing on foot/toe or head.
Slips/trips/falls - sloped, uneven terrain; crawling over and under obstacles.
3.6.4
Monitoring
Well Development
Chemical
l
0
l
0
Potentially contaminated groundwater to be splashedonto body or in eyes.
Ingestion of contaminated materials from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile contaminants or volatile fraction of semivolatile contaminants.
Adsorption of groundwater through the shin.
Physical/Environmental
l
0
0
0
3.6.5
Muscle strain and heat exhaustion.
Shin irritation fi-om contact with insects and vegetation.
Interaction with native and feral animal life.
Slips/trips/falls - sloped, uneven terrain; crawling over and under obstacles.
Groundwater
Sampling
Chemical
0
0
0
0
Potentially contaminated groundwater and sample preservatives to be splashed onto
body or in eyes.
Ingestion of contaminated materials from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile contaminants or volatile fraction of semivolatile contaminants
emitting from the well opening.
Adsorption of groundwater through the shin.
PhysicaUEnvironmentaI
a
0
l
0
l
0
Muscle strain and heat exhaustion during sampling.
Shin irritation from contact with insectsand vegetation.
Interaction with native and feral animal life.
Cuts from sharp edges of the well casing.
Cuts from using knives to cut bailer rope.
Slips/trips/falls - sloped, uneven terrain; crawling over and under obstacles.
3-9
3.6.6
Surface Water/Sediment Sampling (Site 92 only)
Chemical
l
0
0
0
Potentially contaminated material and sample preservatives to be splashed onto body
or in eyes.
Ingestion of contaminated material from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile constituents or volatile fraction of semivolatile constituents
within the sedimentsor surface water.
Absorption of constituentsthrough the skin.
Physical/Environmental
0
0
l
l
0
3.6.7
Muscle strain and heat exhaustion when using sample collection equipment.
Skin irritation from contact with insects and vegetation.
Interaction with native and feral animal life.
Sampling operations that occur from boats. These operations must comply with
Baker’s Safety SOP for Safe Boat Operations.
Slips/trips/falls - sloped, uneven terrain; crawling over and under obstacles.
Equipment Decontamination
Chemical
0
0
0
0
0
Potentially contaminated mud, soil, or groundwater to be splashed onto body or in
eyes.
Skin contact with potentially-contaminated soil.
Ingestion of potentially-contaminated soil from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile contaminants or volatile fraction of semivolatile contaminants.
Adsorption of decontamination water through the skin.
Physical/Environmental
0
0
0
0
3.6.8
Muscle strain and heat exhaustion from lifting and bending.
Skin irritation from contact with insectsand vegetation.
Heavy object (i.e., split spoon) landing on fingers, hand, toes, foot and/or leg.
Slips/trips/falls
IDW (Tanker/Rolloff
Box) Sampling
Chemical
0
l
0
0
0
Potentially contaminated mud, soil, or water to be splashed onto body or in eyes.
Skin contact with potentially-comaminated soil or water.
Ingestion of potentially-contaminated soil from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile wntaminants or volatile fraction of semivolatile wntaminants.
Adsorption of decontamination/purge water through the skin.
3-10
PhysicaUEnvironmental
a
0
0
0
0
0
Muscle strain and heat exhaustion from using bailer or hand auger.
Skin irritation from contact with potentially-contaminati soil or water.
Cuts, abrasions, or sprains from climbing onto rolloff box or tanker.
Falling into potentially contaminated material in rolloff box.
Hazards associatedwith a potential “cotimed-space” situation.
Slips/trips/falls from elevated heights (i.e., top of rolloff box or tanker) onto ground.
3-11
4.0
SITE
CONTROL
Measures for daily control of the site (i.e., access,site conditions, etc.) are addressedin the following
subsections including a discussion of each site control measure. Refer to Section 6.0 for a definition
of the protection level requirements.
4.1
Site Access
The Site Manager is designated to coordinate overall access and security at each area under
investigation. Perimeters for activities to be conducted at Sites 90, 91, and 92 will be established
according to the site boundary procedures identified in Section 4.3, local conditions, the items listed
below, and Navy Activity requirements.
4.2
0
Personnel will not be permitted within the Work Zone (i.e., Exclusion Zone) or
Contamination Reduction Zone (CRZ) without proper authorization from the SHSO.
0
All personnel arriving or departing the site will be documented in the site log book.
0
All activities on site must be cleared through the Site Manager and documented in
the site log book.
0
The on-site Command Postwill be established at the Baker Field Trailer, which will
be in the Support Zone and oriented upwind f?om all Work Zones.
0
Figure 4- 1 identifies the location of each area under investigation.
Site Conditions
Specific site conditions are as follows:
0
The prevailing wind conditions will be established daily
0
Site topography consist of the following:
Small trees and brush
Relatively flat
4.3
Work
Zones
To reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substancesby workers from a potentially contaminated
area to a clean area, zones will be delineated to ensure that work activities and contamination are
confined to the appropriate areas and to keep unauthorized personnel from entering the work zones.
The following subsectionsidentify the requirements based on the level of protection in use.
4.3.1
Level C Activities
Although activities are expected to be conducted in Level D/D+ attire, if air monitoring indicates the
presence of contaminants and warrant an upgrade in the level of personal protection or the SHSO
4-l
indicates that an upgrade in protection is required, the boundaries for the following work zoneswill
be defined as follows:
0
Work Zone - The area immediately around the work area, such as the drill rig boom
radius.
0
Hotline - The boundary between the Work Zone and the CRZ.
0
CRZ - The area between the Work Zone and the Support Zone which is located
upwind of the site investigative activities.
0
Contamination Control Line - The boundary between the CRZ and the Support
Zone.
0
Support Zone - The outermost area next to the CRZ and upwind of the site
investigative activities.
The boundaries will be demarcatedusing colored boundary tape, cones,or equivalent for the Hotline
or the Decontamination Corridor of the CRZ and/or barriers for the Contamination Control Line such
as posted sign and/or barricades.
Refer to Figure 4-2 for a “General Contamination Reduction Zone Layout.” Exact locations of the
demarcated zoneswill be field determined by the SHSO during site mobilization.
Unauthorized personnel will not be permitted in the work areas.
4.3.2
Level D/D+ Activities
Work Zones for activities conducted in Protection Level D or Level D+ will be monitored by the
SHSO to restrict unauthorized personnel from entering the area during well installation and sampling
events. In populated areas, work zones shall be established in such a manner as to preclude
unauthorized personnel from entering the investigative area. A boundary will be established to
separate the work zone from the support zone using equipment such as natural boundaries
(e.g., buildings, structures, fences), signs/placards,boundary tapes, and barricades. In unpopulated
areas, the aforementioned procedures may not be necessarydue to the secluded nature of the site, the
short duration of the activity, and the low risk to outside populations. The Senior Field Team
Member or SHSO is responsible for making this determination.
4.4
Buddv Svstem
All site activities that involve intrusive sampling activities that present a potential for contact with
hazardous materials will be performed by a work team of no fewer than two people (i.e., Buddy
System).
4.5
Safe Work Practices
Routine safe work practicesmay consist of:
l
0
Conducting operations in a manner to reduce exposure of personnel and equipment.
Implementing appropriate decontamination procedures.
4-2
0
0
0
0
0
0
4.5.1
Conducting sampling activities from an upwind location.
Adhering to applicable safety regulations in OSHA Standards 29 CFR 1910 and
1926.
Setting up barriers to exclude unauthorized personnel from contaminated areas.
Minimizing the number of personnel and equipment at each area under
investigation.
Establishing work zoneswithin each area under investigation.
Establishing control points for ingress to and egress from work zones.
Heavy Equipment
The following safe work practices will be adheredto if heavy equipment operations take place.
4.5.2
0
Hard hats will be worn at when working in a work zone with heavy equipment.
0
Heavy equipment requiring an operator will not be permitted to run unattended.
0
Heavy equipment will not be operated in a manner that will endanger persons or
property nor will the safe operating speedsor loads be exceeded.
0
Heavy equipment will be shut down and positive means taken to prevent its
operation while repairs or fueling are being performed.
0
Personnel, other than the operator, will not ride on equipment.
0
A “spotter” will be used to help direct the heavy equipment operator.
0
Personnel will remain in the field of vision of the operator and remain clear of
moving parts.
0
Hand signals will be prearranged between operator and personnel working around
the heavy equipment.
0
Hearing protection will be used.
0
Backup alarms must operate properly on the heavy equipment.
Drilling
Operations
The following safe work practices will be adhered to if drilling operations occur.
0
Hand signals will be prearranged between operator and personnel working around
the drill rig.
l
Personnel will remain in the field of vision of the operator and remain clear of
moving parts where protective clothing can be entangled, i.e., Tyvek caught in the
auger.
0
Personnel working near a drill rig will be aware of the location and operation of the
emergency shut off devices.
4-3
4.6
0
Utility clearancesmust be securedprior to digging (see Section 3.3.3).
0
The drill rig boom will remain a minimum of 10 feet from power lines
(see Section 3.3.3).
0
During the HASP briefing, the supervisor of the drilling company will provide
additional precautions to be observed when working around the drill rig.
Sanitation
Procedures/Site
Precautions
Provisions for sanitation procedures and site precautions to be followed on site are outlined below.
a
A supply of clearly marked potable water, tightly closed, and equipped with a tap
will be provided.
0
Single service disposal cups will be provided.
0
Cutlets for non-potable water, clearly marked, for fire fighting or other purposes will
be provided. Cross-contamination of the potable supply shall be prevented.
0
One toilet facility for up to 20 personnel which is either chemical, recirculating,
combustion, or flush, depending on local code requirements will be provided. Two
toilet facilities will be required for greater than 20 personnel.
l
A place for food handhng meeting applicable laws or suitable alternatives to such
facilities will be provided (i.e., nearby restaurants,food wagons, etc.).
0
Clean wash water will be available in the decontamination zone during Level C or
B activities, each Baker Field Vehicle, and the Baker Field Trailer. Disposable
towelettes a&/or handwash stations also will be available in each Baker Field
Vehicle for periodic cleanups.
0
Eating, drinking, chewing gum or tobacco, smoking, or any practice that increases
the probability of hand-to-mouth transfer and ingestion of material is prohibited in
any area designated as contaminated. Smoking also will not be allowed in areas
where flammable materials are present. Hands and face must be thoroughly washed
before breaking for meals and upon leaving the site. “Contaminated” work
garments are not to be worn off site.
0
Whenever decontamination procedures for outer garments are in effect, the entire
body should be thoroughly washed as soon as possible after the protective garment
is removed.
0
Contact lensesare not uermitted to be worn on site.
l
Facial hair, which interferes with a satisfactory fit of the mask-to-face seal, is not
permitted on personnel who are or may be required to wear respirators.
4-4
0
Contact with contaminated or potentially contaminated surfaces should be avoided.
Wherever possible, do not walk through puddles, leachate, discolored surfaces, or
lean, sit or place equipment on drums/containers.
0
Medicine and alcohol can potentiate the effects of exposure to toxic chemicals;
therefore, prescribed drugs should only be taken by personnel when approved by a
qualified physician. Alcoholic beverage intake should be minimized or avoided
during after-hour operations.
0
Alcoholic beverages and firearms are prohibited on site.
l
All site personnel will observe any posted sign, warning, fence, or barrier posted
around contaminated areas.
l
Site personnel must wear the proper attire while on site. At a minimum, this will
include steel-toed boots, work pants (e.g.,jeans or other durable material), and work
shirt (e.g., short or long-sleeved, made of a durable material). Tank tops, muscle
shirts, and sweat pants are not permitted.
4-5
5.0
EXPOSURE
MONITORING
Environmental monitoring will be performed at each area under investigation; the level and degree
of monitoring will be dependent on each field activity. Due to the short duration and variability of
field tasks only realtime air monitoring (versus integrated air monitoring) will be used to assess
action levels. The action levels for the photo ionization device (PID), as specified in Section 5.1
below, are based on a “worst-case” contaminated 8-hour Time Weighted Allowance-Permissible
Exposure Level (TWA-PEL) of 1 part per million (ppm, i.e., benzene) and are consistent with those
listed by the USEPA in Section 6.9, of the Standard OperatinP Safety Guides (June, 1992).
Monitoring equipment and frequency for each field Activity can be found in Table 5- 1.
5.1
Breathiw
Zone
Personnel monitoring will be accomplished using realtime environmental monitoring instrumentation
directed at the breathing zone (BZ) (the area bordered by the outside of the shoulders and from the
mid-chest to the top of the head) of the work party personnel. BZ monitoring will be performed each
time a reading is taken at the point source (i.e., after a monitoring well is opened for groundwater
sampling, after breaking ground for soil sampling, etc.). The guidelines below identify the protection
levels required according to the concentrationsmeasured using each piece of equipment.
(1)
(2)
0
Background(2)= Level D/D+
0
>l meter unit (mu) above background for up to 1 continuous minute in the BZ =
Stop work and consult the SHSO/PHSO
0
>5mu above background for up to 15 continuous minutes in the BZ = Stop work and
consult the SHSO/PHSO
l
Instantaneous peak concentrations >lO mu in the BZ = Stop work and consult the
SHSO/PHSO
PID with 11.7 eV ultraviolet lamp set on the 1X Scale.
Background is typically 1 to 2 mu.
The action level to upgrade from Level D/D+ to Level C will be an HNu PID reading in the breathing
zone of greater than one ppm above the background for a period greater than or equal to 1 minute.
5.2
Point Source Monitoriw
The HNu PID monitor will be used to monitor the point source during the soil intrusive activities.
Point source monitoring is defined as monitoring performed at the source of the work activity.
Instantaneous readings greater than 50 ppm will cause an immediate evacuation of the area until
levels return to normal. If point source HNu PID readings are detected above background, breathing
zone monitoring also will be conducted.
Furthermore, the oxygen/lower explosive limit (O&EL) meter will be used during soil investigation
activities conducted using a drill rig. The following action levels will be observed.
5-l
Oxxen Meter(‘)
0
0
19.5% to 23.5% = Safe operating level
49.5% to >23.5% = Unsafe operating level; stop work and consult the
SHSO/PHSO
LEL Meter”’
0
0
<20% of the LEL = Safe operating level
>20% of the LEL = Unsafe operating level; stop work and consult the SHSO/PHSO
(‘I Used to evaluate physical safety in conjunction with the PID.
(2)Assigned action levels are for non-confined spaceentry operations.
5.3
Perimeter
Monitoring
A PID will be used to monitor the perimeter of the work area to determine safe areas during a work
stoppage if concentrations meet the work stoppage criteria identified in Sections5.1 and 5.2.
5.4
Eauioment
Calibration
Equipment calibration of the HNu PID and O&EL meter under the direction of the SHSO will be
completed daily before use. The calibration information will be logged on a field calibration form.
These forms will be placed in the project files upon completion of the field activities.
Pnxedures for equipment maintenance and calibration follow those guidelines found in the operating
manual provided by the manufacturer (included with eachpiece of equipment) or in Baker’s Standard
ODerating Proceduresfor Administrative. Field. and Technical Activities Manual.
5.5
Monitoring
Documentation
As environmental monitoring is performed, documentation of the results will be entered into a field
log book by the individual performing the monitoring or the SHSO. Documentation is to include
date, time, instrument result, general location, weather conditions (temperature and humidity), and
specific location, such as, background, point source, and breathing zone. This air monitoring
documentation will be placed in the project files upon completion of the field activities.
5-2
6.0
PERSONAL PROTECI’IVE
EQUIPMENT
The Level of Protection selectedis based upon the following:
6.1
0
Measured concentration of a chemical substance or substances in the ambient
atmosphere
0
Potential for exposure to substancesin air, liquids, or direct contact with material
becauseof work activities
0
Knowledge of chemicals on-site along with properties such as toxicity, route of
exposure, and contaminant matrix
Levels of Protection
Based on the information provided in Section 3.0, Site Characterization, the levels of protection and
corresponding PPE have been designated for the following field activities. The SHSO will upgrade
the level of protection based on realtime monitoring conducted at each investigation area, working
conditions, or based on his or her professional judgement according to observations of site activities.
EXCEPT IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS, CHANGES TO THE SPECIFIED LEVELS OF
PROTECIION
SHALL ONLY BE MADE WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE SHSO AND
THE SITE MANAGER, IN CONSULTATION
WITH THE PHSO AND PROJECT
MANAGER
The following table summarizes the level of protective clothing required for the field task to be
performed at each site.
ment Decontamination
X
- Level of protectionfor the task identified
Protective ensemblesare described below:
6-1
Level D
0
0
0
0
Normal work clothes*
Steel toe boots
Work gloves (as needed)
Safety glasses(as needed)
* Long or short-sleeved shirt and long pants (made of a sturdy material)
Level D+
Normal work clothes
Gloves, chemical resistant (nitrile) (during sampling activities)
Steel toe boots
Safety glasses
Hard Hat (during heavy equipment activities)
Hearing protection (as needed)
Snake chaps (as neededduring surface water/sediment sampling)
Chest/hip waders (as neededduring surface water/sediment sampling)
Level C
0
a
0
Air-purifying respirator, full-face, with organic vapor/HEPA cartridges
Chemical-resistant clothing (such as polyeoated tyvek)
Gloves (outer), chemical resistant n&rile/rubber
Gloves (inner), chemical resistant nitrile
l
Steel
0
Disposable boot covers (outer), chemical-resistantlatex
0
toe
boots
Note:
No single combination of personal protective equipment is capable of protection against all
hazards. PPE should be used in conjunction with safe work practices, effective
decontamination, and good personal hygiene.
6.2
Reassessment
of Protection
Prowam
The Level of Protection shah be upgraded or downgraded based on changes in site conditions or
findings of investigations by the PHSO.
6.3
Care and Cleaniw
of Personal
Protective
Eauhment
Provisions for the care and cleaning of PPE usedon site can be found in Attachment A - Baker Safety
SOPS.
6-2
7.0
DECONTAMINATION
PROCEDURES
The following presents the information for personnel and equipment decontamination requirements
as well as handling of materials generatedduring decontamination.
7.1
Personnel
Decontamination
Personnel leaving the Work Zone will be thoroughly decontaminated. The following protocol will
be used for the decontamination stations according to levels of protection assigned to each field
activity. All site personnel should minimize contact with contaminants in order to minimize the need
for extensive decontamination.
2. Outer
boot/glovewash
*Optional - dependson degree of contamination and type of PPEused.
The following decontamination equipment is required for Level C and higher protection levels:
0
0
0
0
a
0
l
Two small tubs (one set of wash and rinse water)
Scrub brush
Towels*
Hand and face wash capability (disposable wipes)*
Pressurizedsprayers for rinsing
Contaminated clothing disposal bag or drum*
Contaminated liquids disposal drum
7-l
0
0
Respirator cleaning solution
Liquinox and water as the decontamination solution
*Minimum for Level D decontamination.
The decontamination liquids and clothing will be contained and disposed according to policy defined
in the Field Sampling and Analysis Plan (FSAP).
7.2
Effectiveness of Personnel Decontamination
The effectiveness of site decontamination methods will be evaluated by the SHSO on a periodic
basis. This evaluation may include the observation of personnel decontamination techniques,
inspection of PPE before and after decontamination, and the questioning of site personnel for signs
and symptoms of exposure. Additional measures also may be employed by the SHSO at their
discretion.
7.3
Eauhment Decontamination
Provisions for the decontamination of equipment will be based on the size and type of equipment
used. Specific decontamination procedures for OU No. 17 are found in the FSAP.
7.4
Decontamination Materials
The protocols outlined in the FSAP for the handling of materials used for decontamination such as
packaging, storing, and disposing will be followed to: (1) minimize the risk of off-site exposures that
could endanger public health; and (2) limit the potential for liabilities associated with handling,
containment, storage, and transportation of contaminated materials. These protocols comply with
Baker’s SOP on “Handling of Site Investigation-Derived Waste,” located in the Standard Onerating
Procedures for Administrative. Field. and Technical Activities Manual.
7-2
8.0
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
8.1
ScoDe
The activities to be conducted under this HASP are not remediation (cleanup), but investigative;
therefore the potential for a “release” to air, water, or soil is low. However, other emergencies,such
as Iire or personal injury may occur. If so, local emergency response groups will be called in to
handle the incident, as necessary.
8.2
Pre-Emewencv Planning
All applicable Navy/local emergency response contacts (On-Scene Commander, Fire Department,
Security, Ambulance, Hospital, etc.) at MCB, Camp Lejeune will be contacted prior to or during site
mobilization activities. This notification will be performed by the SHSO and/or Site Manager. The
information discussedmay include:
0
a
0
0
0
0
0
A description of site activities.
Anticipated site hazards.
Hazardous chemicals/materialsbrought on site.
Expected length of time on site.
Specific requirements the emergencyresponsefacilities may require.
Confirmation of emergencyphone numbers.
Security measuresthat must be followed by site personnel.
Specific points of contact, where applicable, will be established and added to the HASP. If
requested, MSDSs for hazardous chemicals/materiaIs brought on site (which are maintained at the
Baker Field Trailer), will be provided at this time.
8.3
Emergencv Coordinator
The SHSO acting as the Emergency Coordinator is responsible for field implementation of these
Emergency Procedures. The Emergency Coordinator is responsible for reacting (not responding) to
emergencies. As the Emergency Coordinator, specific duties include:
0
Familiarizing all on-site personnel with the emergency procedures and the
emergency coordinator’s authority.
0
Identifying the nearest telephone in the event of an emergency.
0
Communicating site emergency procedures and requirements to all Baker and
subcontractor personnel.
a
Specifying the Site Manager as the backup/alternate EmergencyCoordinator.
0
Controlling activities of subcontractors and contacting the emergency response
groups, as necessary.
0
Anticipating, identifying, and assessing fires, explosions, chemical releases, and
other emergency situations to the best of the coordinator’s ability, and providing this
information to the emergency group(s) responding.
8-l
Familiarity with site personnel trained in emergency first aid and adult cardio
pulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
l
All on-site personnel, whether involved in emergency response or not, will be notified of their
responsibilities by the Emergency Coordinator in an emergency. They will be familiar with the
emergencyprocedures and the Emergency Coordinator’s authority.
8.4
Communications/Telephone Numbers
Internal communications will rely on direct communication (via verbal or two-way radios) between
site personnel. External communications will employ a telephone located in the Baker Field Trailer,
a mobile telephone for emergency use, and various telephones located throughout the Base (near the
investigation areas). Telephone communication at the Command Post will be established during site
mobilization.
The “Buddy System” will be in effect at all times; any failure of communication requires an
evaluation of whether personnel should discontinue activities.
Air horns will be used for communication during emergency evacuation of personnel. One long
(3 second) air horn blast is the emergency signal to indicate that all personnel should evacuate
the Work Zone.
Coordination between Baker and subcontractor personnel is the responsibility of the Site Manager.
The best means for securing the lines of communication will be determined at the pre-entty briefing.
Hand signals, as outlined below, will be used in the event that radio communications fail:
Hand gripping throat
(typically Level C/B activities)
Grip partner’s wrist or both hands around waist
Hands on top of head
Thumbs up
Thumbs down
Can’t breathe
Leave area immediately
Need assistance
OK, I am all right, I understand
I do not understand
Emergency telephone numbers will be posted in the Baker Field Trailer and maintained in each Baker
Field Vehicle. The list of emergency phone numbers is presented in Table 8-1, located in the
“Tables” section at the end of this HASP.
8.5
Assemblv Area
In the event of an emergency,personnel will be instructed to meet initially at the Baker Field Vehicle
and eventually at the Baker Field Trailer. Where applicable, personnel will exit the work area
through the contamination reduction zone. If either location is inappropriate, an alternate assembly
area will be designated by the Emergency Coordinator in an upwind location from the site. At this
location, emergencyneedswill be provided such as:
0
l
Assembly for evacuated personnel
First aid for injured personnel
8-2
Decontamination material
Communications
0
l
8.6
Emergency
HosDital
Route
An emergency hospital route map (Figure 8-1) and written directions to the hospital (Figure 8-2) will
be posted in the Baker Field Trailer and maintained in the Baker Field Vehicle. Personnel will be
informed of the location of the map and the directions to the hospital during the pre-entry briefing.
8.7
Emergency
Medical
Treatment
,
This section provides information on the nearest emergency medical facility and corresponding
emergency telephone numbers.
Emergency
Medical
Services
For chemical and nonchemical exposure incidents, the nearest public hospital is:
Name
Address
On-Base Telephone No.
Off-Base Telephone No.
Note:
Onslow Countv Memorial Hosnital
3 17 Western Boulevard. Jacksonville. North Carolina
(*9) 577-2240
(910) 577-2240
In extreme emergencies,personnel may be transported to Building NH100 (Naval Hospital)
for initial treatment.
Local ambulance service is available from the Naval Ambulance Service and the City of Jacksonville.
Name
On-Base Telephone No.
Off-Base Telephone No.
Naval Hosnital (On Base) or Citv of Jacksonville (Off Base)
911
(910) 455-9119 or 911
Contact will be made with emergencypersonnel prior to the start of activities (see Section 8.2).
8.8
Iniuries
If injuries are not serious or life threatening, affected personnel may be transported by other site
personnel to the local medical facility, if necessary. Emergency medical response personnel will be
contacted in the event of serious or multiple injuries. Medical personnel will be provided with all
available information regarding the nature of the incident, chemicals involved, etc. Instances
requiring treatment beyond “fnst aid” will be handled at appropriate facilities and reported to the
Project Manager and PHSO within 24 hours.
There will be a miuimum of two persons during each phase of field activities that will be trained in
standard first aid and adult CPR. These personnel also will be familiar with Baker’s program for
potential exposure to bloodbome pathogens as outlined in the Baker Safety SOPSin Attachment A.
Subcontractors will be responsible for securing proper medical attention for their employees. Baker
may assistthe subcontractor as necessary.
8-3
8.8.1
Physical
Injury
If an employee working in a contaminated area is physically injured, first aid procedures are to be
followed. If the employee can be moved, he/she will be taken to the edge of the work area and
decontaminated, if necessary (refer to Section 8.9). Depending on the severity of the injury,
emergency medical response from the local ambulance service may be sought to stabilize victim for
transport to public hospitals. Emergency first aid may be administered by Baker personnel prior to
transporting to an awaiting ambulance or to a local emergencymedical facility, as appropriate.
8.8.2
Chemical
Injury
If the injury to a worker is chemical in nature (e.g., direct contact/exposure), the following first aid
procedures are to be instituted:
0
Eve Exuosure - If contaminated solid or liquid gets into the eyes, wash the eyes
immediately at the 15-minute emergency eyewash station (or with the personal eye
wash bottle when an eye wash station is not immediately available). Obtain medical
attention immediately. The emergency eyewash unit meets ANSI Standard 2358. l1990.
NOTE:
Contact lenseswill not be worn while working at any site.
0
Skin Exuosure - If contaminated solid or liquid gets on the skin, promptly wash the
contaminated skin using soap or mild detergent and water. If solids or liquids
penetrate through the clothing, remove the clothing immediately and wash the skin
using soap or mild detergent and water. Obtain medical attention immediately.
0
m
- If contaminated solid or liquid has been swallowed, immediately
contactthe Duke Regional Poison Control Center at l-800-672-1697. Do not induce
vomiting in an unconscious person. Obtain medical attention as directed by the
Poison Control Center.
0
Breathing - If a person has difficulty breathing, move the exposed person to fresh
air at once. If breathing is not evident, check for pulse and perform appropriate first
aid, either rescue breathing or CPR, depending on the condition. Obtain medical
attention immediately.
Proceduresto follow in the event of a chemical exposure are included in Attachment C.
8.8.3
Snakebite
Injury
In the event of a snakebite injury, the following procedures will be followed.
Look for signs and symptoms such as the characteristic appearanceof two small holes, usually about
a half inch apart, with surrounding discoloration, swelling, and pain. Systemicsigns (which may or
may not occur) include weakness,sweating, faintness, and signs of shock.
8-4
Provide treatment as follows:
8.8.4
1.
Calm the victim and keep affected area still.
2.
Contact ambulance if you cannot provide victim with transportation to the nearest
hospital.
3.
Wash the wound.
4.
Keep the affected area below the level of the heart if bite is on the arm or leg.
5.
Treat for shock.
6.
Monitor airway, breathing, and circulation.
7.
Obtain physical description of snake,if possible.
8.
Provide the emergency medical responder (either the ambulance attendant or the
emergency room at the hospital) with all pertinent information such as how long ago
the bite occurred, the type of snake (if known), any known allergic conditions (if
known), etc.
9.
Inform the SHSO as soon as possible.
Spider Bite Injury
The emergency treatment for the black widow spider bite is basic life support. Sometimes the
individual is not even aware of having been bitten, or where. Apply cold to the site of the bite if it
can be identified. There is a specific antivenin for this spider bite that must be administered by a
physician. It is particularly important to identify the spider, and bring it in, if’ you can.
The emergency treatment for the brown recluse spider is similar to that for the black widow spider
except that these bites need local surgical treatment, and these patients should be brought to the
hospital. Again, if possible, identification of the spider should be carried out.
8.8.5
Ticks and Insect Bites
If a tick is found embedded in the skin, do not squash or burn it. Grasp the tick with fine-tipped
tweezers, as close to the skin as possible, and pull slowly. Once the tick is removed, wash the area
immediately with soap and water. Apply an antiseptic or antibiotic ointment if available. Observe
the bite area periodically for signs of a rash around the site. Also, keep alert for flu like symptoms;
these may be symptoms of Lyme Disease.
Insect bites are characterized by localized pain, potential stinger, swelling, and a possible allergic
reaction. Care for an insect bite by scrapping away stingers, wash wound, cover with sterile gauze,
apply a cold pack, and watch for signals of allergic reactions.
8-5
8.9
Emewencv Decontamination Procedures
In the event of a medical emergency, patients are to be adequately decontaminated before transfer
(if possible) to prevent contamination of the medical transport vehicle and medical facility.
Emergency personnel decontamination will include the following, depending on the level of
protection.*
Level D/D+
l
l
Equipment drop
Tape, outerboot, andglove
removal
0 Coverall removal/disposal
0 Inner glove removal/
disposal
*
Level C
l
l
Equipment drop
Tape, outer boot, and glove
removal
0 Coverall removaI/disposal
Respirator removal
0 her glove removaLMisposal
l
If circumstances dictate that contaminated clothing cannot be readily removed, then remove
gross contamination and wrap injured personnel with clean garments/blankets to avoid
contaminating other personnel or transporting equipment. All emergency personnel are to
be immediately informed of the injured person’s condition, potential contaminants, and
provided with all pertinent chemical data.
If necessary,one of the site personnel equipped with appropriate PPE may accompany the injured
worker and perform decontamination with supervision of medical personnel.
8.10
Personal Protection and First Aid EauiDment
PPE available for emergencyresponsewill include the following:
l
0
0
0
0
0
Polyvinyl chloride boots
[email protected] suits, polyethylene coated and uncoated
Nitrile gloves (inner and outer)
Neoprene and nitrile gloves (outer)
Face shields and goggles
SCBAs
PPE and frost aid equipment will be available in the support zone (i.e., Baker Field Vehicle and Baker
Field Trailer).
Emergency and first aid equipment can be found at the following locations:
Fire Extinguisher:
First aid kit:
Personal eye wash bottle:
Air Horn:
15-minute Emergency Eye
Wash Station:
Baker Field Trailer and Contractor Field Vehicle
Baker Field Trailer and Baker Field Vehicle
Baker Field Trailer and Baker Field Vehicle
With Personnel
Near Area With Greatest Potential for Chemical
SulaMExnosure
8-6
8.11
Notification
If the Emergency Coordinator determines that the site has an uncontrolled situation, such as a spill,
fire, or explosion, that could threaten human health or the environment, the coordinator will
immediately call the Base Fire Department, the Activity Contact, the Project Manager, and the NTR
as soon as possible. The notification report will include:
0
0
l
0
0
a
0
8.12
Description of incident (e.g., release,tire).
Name and telephone number of individual reporting the emergency.
Location of incident.
Name and quantity of material (s) involved (if known).
The extent of injuries and number of casualties.
The possible hazardsto human health or the environment and recommendedcleanup
procedures.
Assistancethat is requested.
Hazard Assessment
The Emergency Coordinator will assesspossible hazards to human health or the environment that
may result from an uncontrolled situation, to the best of the individual’s abilities, incorporating the
following steps, as appropriate.
0
Assessthe immediate need to protect human health and safety.
0
Identify the materials involved in the incident including exposure and/or release
pathways and the quantities of materials involved.
0
Inform appropriate personnel, as identified in Section 8.11, who will determine if
release of material(s) meets USEPA requirements for reportable quantities for spills
under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or Comprehensive
Environmental Response,Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).
This assessmentmay consider both the direct and indirect effects of the chemical release, fire,
explosion, or severe weather conditions (e.g., the effects of any toxic, irritating, or asphyxiating gases
that are liberated).
8.13
Security
During activation of these Emergency Procedures,the Emergency Coordinator or his/her designated
representative will control access to the site and maintain an incident log until the appropriate
personnel, such as the Navy On-Scene Commander, arrives and takes control. The incident log will
include:
0
0
0
0
Activities that have occurred sincethe incident was first reported.
Tasks currently being performed and where.
Rescue and responseequipment used.
Protective equipment being used.
g-7
8.14
Emereencv Alerting
This section outlines the emergency alerting procedures according to the location and type of
emergency.
Personnel Injury in the Work Zone:
0
Initiate a verbal warning or one long airhorn blast and move all unaffected site
personnel to the support zone (for Level D/D+) or the CRZ (for Level C or higher).
0
Send the rescue team into the Work Zone (if required) to remove the injured person
to the hotline.
0
Have the SHSO and/or Site Manager evaluate the nature of the injury and assurethat
the affected person is decontaminatedaccordiug to Section 8.9.
0
If required, contact an ambulance and/or the designated medical facility.
In all situations when an on-site emergency results in evacuation of the Work Zone, personnel shall
not reenter until:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The conditions resulting in the emergencyhave been corrected.
The hazards have been reassessed.
The HASP has been reviewed and, if appropriate, modified.
Site personnel have been briefed on any changesin the HASP.
Personnel Injury in the Support Zone:
0
The Site Manager and SHSO will assessthe nature of the injury; if the causeof the
injury or loss of the injured person does not affect the performance of other site
personnel, operations may continue.
0
If the injury increasesthe risk to others, a verbal warning or one long airhom blast
shall be sounded and all remaining site personnel will move to the command post
for ILrther instructions.
0
Activities on site will stop until the addedrisk is mitigated.
Fire/Explosion:
0
Initiate a verbal warning or one long airhom blast and move all site personnel to the
support zone (for Level D/D+) or the CR2 (for Level C or higher).
0
Alert the fire and security departments and move all nonessential personnel to the
Baker Command Post to await further instructions,
0
Activities will stop until the addedrisk is mitigated.
8-8
Personal
Protective
Failure:
0
If any site worker experiences difficulty, failure, or alteration of protective
equipment that affects the protection factor, that person and his/her buddy shall
immediately ceasework activities, leave the Work Zone, and repair or replace the
defective equipment.
0
Reentry will not be permitted until the equipment has been repaired or replaced.
Other Equipment
0
8.15
Equipment
Failure:
If any other equipment on site fails to operate properly, the Field Team Leader shall
notify the Site Manager and SHSO to determine the effect of this failure on site
operations. If the failure affects the safety of site personnel, work with the
equipment will ceaseuntil the situation is evaluated and appropriate actions taken.
Training
Site personnel will read the details in the Emergency Proceduresprior to the pre-entry briefing. The
Emergency Procedureswill be reviewed by site personnel during the pre-entry briefmg,
8.16
Soil1 Containment
Procedures
In the event that a small (less than the reportable quantity), easily-controlled spill of hazardous
substances (e.g., gasoline, oil, etc.) occurs during the implementation of field activities, spill
containment will be utilized to prevent the additional migration of contaminants through the site area.
Large, uncontrolled spills will be handled by qualified response organizations under the direction of
qualified Base personnel and/or Navy On-Scene Commander. Any release to soil or surface water
equaling or exceeding the reportable quantities under CERCLA or the USEPA Clean Water Act will
be reported to the MCB Camp Lejeune 9 11 emergency number and the Environmental Management
Department who in turn will report it to the appropriate authorities.
Specific spill containment procedures will be dependenton the type of materials spilled and the type
of environment affected. Potential spill containment procedures may include diking with absorbent
material/pads, then removal or containment of the contaminated materials. Spill containment
materials will be located within close proximity to the storage area of the hazardous substancesin
a manner such that the pathway remains accessible and free of obstructions. Spill containment
materials available on site may include:
0
0
0
l
Vermiculite
Ground corn cobs
Dirt or sand
Shovel
8-9
9.0
TRAINING
AND HAZARD
COMMUNICATION
REQUIREMENTS
Training requirements for site personnel are outlined in the following subsections.
9.1
General
Worker
Training
All Baker employees, subcontractors, or other personnel entering the site will have received training
in compliance with OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.120. Baker employees engaged in field activities
which potentially expose workers to hazardous substances receive a minimum of 40-hours of
instruction off site and a minimum of three days actual field experience under the direct supervision
of a trained, experienced supervisor. Key points of the 40-hour training include field demonstrations,
respiratory fit testing and training, risk assessment,toxicology, chemical reactivity, use of monitoring
equipment, downrange work procedures, site safety procedures, levels of protection, protective
clothing, decontamination, and practical field exercises (e.g., donning, doffing, and working in
personal protective ensemblesfor personal protection Levels A, B, and C).
In addition to the 40-hour training program, Baker requires site employees to receive an annual 8hour refresher training course on the items specified by the 29 CFR 1910.120 standard. The general
purpose of the 8-hour refresher is to ensure that personnel retain the knowledge necessary to be
adequately protected and stay current with proper site health and safety procedures.
9.2
Supervisor
Trainiw
Baker requires that personnel involved with on-site employee supervision receive, in addition to 40hours initial training and three days of supervised field experience, at least 8 additional hours of
specialized training at the time of job assignment. Training topics include, but are not limited to, the
employer’s safety and health program and the associated employee training program, personal
protective equipment program, spill containment program, and health hazard monitoring procedures
and techniques. The 8-hour supervisory training is required to ensure that supervisors have the
knowledge necessaryto understand the use the various Health and Safety Programs and to implement
the elements of the HASP. The SHSO will be qualified as a supervisor.
9.3
Site SDecific Training
Site-specific training, as discussedin Section 1.4, will consist of an initial health and safety briefing
including the following information:
0
Names of individuals responsible for site health and safety and methods of
communicating safety and health concerns.
0
Roles and responsibilities of site personnel.
l
Site-specific health and safety hazards.
*
Use of PPE.
0
Work practices by which employeescan minimize risk.
0
Safe use of equipment on site.
9-l
a
Recognition of symptoms and signs of exposure to hazardous materials.
0
Use of monitoring equipment.
0
Site control measures.
0
Decontamination procedures.
0
Emergencyprocedures.
The SHSO will conduct the initial site-specific training prior to the initiation of field activities for
each new area under investigation.
9.4
Hazard
Communication
In order to comply with 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication Standard, the Baker written
Hazard Communication Program will be available to site personnel upon request.
All containers of hazardous materials received on site will be inspected to ensure the
following: (1) all containers will be clearly labeled as to the contents; (2) the appropriate hazard
warnings will be noted; (3) the name and addressof the manufacturer will be listed.
All secondary containers will be labeled with either an extra copy of the original manufacturer’s label
or with generic labels which have a block for identity and blocks for the hazard warnings.
Copies of MSDSs for all hazardous chemicals known or suspectedto be on site will be maintained
in the work area. MSDSs will be available to all employeesfor review during each work shift.
9.5
Recordkeeuing
Training records relevant to safe operation of the site will be maintained by the SHSO for all Baker
employees at the site.
9-2
10.0
MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
10.1
General
REQUIREMENTS
All personnel who may be exposed to materials having potentially adverse and deleterious health
effects, obtain medical clearance from Baker’s Board Certified Occupational Health Physician in
accordance with 29 CFR 1910.120(f) prior to entry onto any site. Baker’s corporate medical
surveillance program establishes a medical baseline and monitors for symptoms of overexposure for
individuals who participate in Preliminary Assessments,Site Inspections, Remedial investigations,
Feasibility Studies, and construction-phase services at sites covered by the Department of Labor,
OSHA, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard, 29 CFR 1910.120. The
program will include a medical and work history and is intended to determine the individual’s
capability for performing on-site work, including wearing chemical protective clothing and
respiratory protective equipment in a thermally-stressedenvironment.
All Baker employees that will be engagedin site activities covered by the 29 CFR 1910.120 standard
receive a Group III physical examination by a occupational health physician who has provided
information on the individual’s site activities and exposure or anticipated exposure levels. This exam
is received initially upon hire, then once every 12 months thereafter. More frequent medical
examinations, consultations, and/or laboratory testing will be provided if the examining physician
determines that an increased frequency of examination is required. A complete Group III medical
exam includes parameters such as height, weight, vision, temperature, blood pressure, and a complete
review of occupational and medical histories. Other tests in a Group III exam include chest x-rays,
electrocardiogram, spirometry, urinalysis, and blood tests. Table 10-1, located in the “Tables”
section at the back of this HASP, describes the medical surveillance testing parameters performed
annually on Baker employees. The need for additional monitoring depending on site conditions &ill
be evaluated on a case-by-casebasis.
10.2
Site Soecific
Prior to entry onto the site, all personnel, including subcontractors, will be required to provide
medical clearance to the SHSO from their company physician in accordance with 29 CFR
1910.120(f), stating that they are physically capable of performing the activities required of them.
The need for additional monitoring, dependent on information obtained during the site
characterization, will be evaluated on a case-by-casebasis. However, in the event that site employees
are injured, receive a health impairment, develop signs or symptoms which may have resulted from
exposure to hazardous substancesresulting from an emergency incident, or are exposed during an
emergency incident to hazardous substances at concentrations that are or may be above the
permissible exposure limits or the published exposure levels without the necessary personal
protective equipment being used, medical examinations and/or consultations shall be performed
according to the following schedule:
1.
As soon as possible following the emergency incident or development of signs or
symptoms.
2.
At additional times, if the examining physician determines that follow-up
examinations or consultations are medically necessary.
Procedures to follow in the event of an exposure to a hazardous material/chemical are provided in
Attachment C.
10-l
11.0
HEALTH
AND SAFETY
PLAN
APPROVAL
This Draft HASP for the RI/FS activities at MCB Camp Lejeune Sites 90, 91, and 92 has been
reviewed by the following personnel prior to the start of field activities.
Mr. Ronald W. Krivan
Name (Print)
PHSO
Title
Signature
Mr. Matthew D. Bartman
Name (Print)
Proiect Manaper
Title
Signature
Mr. Ravmond P. Wattras
Name (Print)
Senior Reviewer
Title
Signature
Ms. Heather A. DeBolt
Name (Print)
Site Manager
Title
Signature
11-l
12.0
DECLARATION
OF HEALTH
AND SAFETY
PLAN
REVIEW*
All site personnel indicated below have reviewed and are familiar with this HASP developed for the
RI/FS activities at MCB Camp Lejeune, Sites 90,9 1, and 92.
(Name-Print)
(ComPw)
(Signature)
(Date/Time)
(Name-Print)
(Compawl
(Signature)
(Date/Time)
(Name-Print)
(Company>
(Signature)
(Date/Time)
(Name-Print)
(Company)
(Signature)
(Date/Time)
(Name-Print)
(Company)
(Signature)
(Date/Time)
*This page is to be reproduced to accommodatethe numbers of personnel who receive training prior
to performing activities or visiting a site, and is to remain in the Baker Field Trailer until
demobilization.
Page -
of -
12-1
TABLES
:;
PHYSICAL
CHEMICAL
COMPOUND
(a)
TABLE 3-l
& TOXICOLOGICAL
PROPERTIES
SITES 90,91, and 92
MCB CAMP LEJEUNE
VOLATILIT
Y(c)
HAZARD
RATING
(b)
SIGN
ABSORP.
(4
CARC.
OF CHEMICALS
(e)
TWA
0
STEL
(f9
IDLH
01)
IP
0)
VOLATILE:
Benzene
Ethylbenzene
Fuel Oil No. 2
Toluene
Xylene
CHLORINATED:
1, I -Dichloroethane
1,1,1 -Trichloroethane
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
METALS:
Cadmium
chromium
2
1
1
NA
No
Yes
0.5 mg/m’
-
Lead
3
1
0
NA
No
Yes
0.05 mg/m’
-
Notes:
(a) Chemical compound of potential concern obtainedfrom previous investigation.
(b) Hazard Rating - based upon Health (H), Fire (F), or Reactivity(R) hazard from NFPA 704 Standard Rating System (0 = no hazard, 4 = high hazard)
(c) Volatility Rating - based upon vapor pressure in mm Hg at 68” F, 20” C
(d) Skin Absorption - “Yes” indicates potentialexposure through skin and mucous membranes, either by airborne or, more particularly, by direct contact - ACGIH
(e) Carcinogen - “Yes” indicates a compound is a confirmed or suspect human carcinogen by the IARC, NIOSH, NTP, EPA or ACGIH
(r) TWA - Time Weighted Average from the 19951996 TLV - Threshold Limit Value of the ACGIH or OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL), whichever is lower
(g) Short Term Exposure Limit - “STEL” denotes a 15 minute time weighted averagewhich may not be exceeded
(h) IDLH - Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health.
(i)) Ionizati~ll P~tcntial - aprreued in &smn V&S (cV) fim the NIOSH Pocket tide To Chemical HemIs
NA
700 mg/m’
NA
TABLE 5-I
MONITORING
EQUIPMENT
AND FREQUENCY
FOR EACH
CONDUCTED
AT OU NO. 17
Field Activity
PID”’
Sediment/Surface Water Sampling
D
Land Surveying
D
Temporary Monitoring Well Installation
C
Monitoring Well Development
I&P
Groundwater
I&P
Sampling
Soil Boring Sampling
C
Equipment Decontamination
D
IDW Sampling
I
FIELD
ACTIVITY
Oxygen/Combustible
Gas Meter (i)
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...._,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,._
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‘:‘:.:‘:‘:.:‘:‘:‘(I:....‘-:‘::
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.
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.
:.:.:.:...:.:.‘:‘.i’...
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i
....i......_....
.......:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:........
.............>:.:.>>:;
................~............,...(.,........
.......................~
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..~.~
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‘-~.~.-~~~~....~...............
‘.~‘......i.......
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.....:.:.:
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.....:..::.....,..._:
...,.i,.,.ii,.~.,
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‘-‘.:l....i.......
..i_..........
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.
..‘.............‘.‘.~.~.~:.;,.,.,_
,_:
::.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:
...i....i....i..
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i..................
.,.i,.,.i,.,_i.,_.....
__,::::_,
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I&P
::i:::::~~~::~~::~:~.~~.~~~~~~:~:~.~~:~.~~.~:~~~~~:~~.~:~~
‘:+::::::.:.:x.:.:.:.:.:
..,_ii,_._.,.,.,\.,.(i.,.,.,.,.,...,.,.,.,.,...,.,.,
.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.~.~
................n:.:.:..
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11.
....i..
I = Initially - At start of job task to confirm designated protection level.
P = Periodically - when site condition/set-up changes or a new area is entered.
C = Continuously - Monitor levels continuously.
D = At the discretion of the SHSO.
PID = Photoionization Detector
Note:
(‘)
As air concentrations are measured, they shall be documented in the individual’s field
logbook. In the case of continuous monitoring, every 15 minutes.
Refer to the manufacturer’s operating manual and Baker SOP prior to operation.
TABLE
EMERGENCY
8-l
TELEPHONE
Phone Number
NUMBERS
Phone Number
Response Operator
Security
Onslow County Hospital
Emergency (One Call)
Environmental Management
Public Works Department
(Underground Utilities via
EMD Contact)
Mr. Neal Paul
Mr. Tom Morris
(*2) l-800-672-1697
l-800-672-1697
Response Operator
National Response Center
l-800-424-8802
l-800-424-8802
Response Operator
CHEMTREC
l-800-424-9300
l-800-424-9300
Response Operator
Duke Regional Poison
Control Center
ATSDR
t’)
(*)
l-404-639-0700
1-404-639-0700
Response Operator
The following prefixes apply when using on-base telephones:
*2 - operator assisted calls including 800 numbers
*8 - long distance calls
*9 - local calls
When using the mobile phone, which is programmed for the Pittsburgh area, use the phone numbers (including
area codes) for an off-base phone.
TABLE
MEDICAL
SURVEILLANCE
10 - 1
TESTING
PARAMETERS*
Group II - Individuals Occasionally in the Field ( 10 - 30 days/year)
l
l
l
0
a
l
l
Medical History (Physical Exam)
Eye Exam
EKG (baseline and for individuals over 40 years of age)
Chest X-ray (baseline then every 5 years)
Spirometry
CBC with differential
SMA 12 or 26 (liver enzyme scan)
Group III - Individuals Frequently in the Field (>30 days/year)
Medical History (physical Exam)
Eye Exam
EKG (baseline then annually for individuals over 40 years of age)
Audiometry
Chest X-ray (baseline then every 3 years)
Spirometry
CBC with differential
SMA 12 or 26 (liver enzyme scan)
Urinalysis (glucose scan)
Specific Blood and Urine Tests (dependent on field exposure)**
Group III with Asbestos - Individuals frequently in the field whom also work with asbestos
l
*
**
Group III testing with the Asbestos Medical Questionnaire w/Pulmonary
and TV,.,)
Function Test (FVC,,
The occupational health physician has the right to reduce or expand the medical monitoring on an annual
basis as he/she deems necessary.
To be performed for individuals identified by the occupational health physician as being chronically
exposed to organic compounds.
FIGURES
FIGURE 4-1
LOCATION
MAP
SITES 90, 91, AND
MARINE
CORPS
BASE.
CAMP
NORTH
CAROLINA
92
LEJEUNE
FIGURE 4-2
SCHEMATIC
DIAGRAM
GENERAL CONTAMINATION
REDUCTION
ZONE LAYOUT
( 1N MILES
)
FIGURE 8-l
EMERGENCY
HOSPITAL
ROUTE
SITES 90, 91, AND 92
MARINE
CORPS
BASE,
CAMP
NORTH
CAROLINA
LEJEUNE
FIGURE
DIRECTIONS
TO HOSPITAL
8 -2
FROM
SITES
90,91, and 92
Directions to Naval Hospital Building NM100 are as follows:
la.
lb.
lc.
From Site 90, proceed west on Clinton Street and turn right (north) onto Marines Road.
From Site 9 1, proceed west on Poe Road and turn right (north) onto Marines Road.
From Site 92, proceed east on Front Street and turn left (north) onto Marines Road.
2.
Travel northeast on Marines Road for approximately 5-l/4 miles until intersecting with
SneadsFerry Road.
3.
Turn left onto SneadsFerry Road and travel for approximately 5 miles (at this point Sneads
Ferry Road becomes Holcomb Boulevard).
4.
Proceed on Holcomb Boulevard to Brewster Boulevard.
5.
Turn left onto Brewster Boulevard and proceed approximately 3/4 of a mile.
6.
Turn right, following directions to the emergency room entrance.
Directions to Onslow County Memorial Hospital are as follows:
la.
lb.
lc.
From Site 90, proceed west on Clinton Street and turn right (north) onto Marines Road.
From Site 91, proceed west on Poe Road and turn right (north) onto Marines Road.
From Site 92, proceed east on Front Street and turn left (north) onto Marines Road.
2.
Travel northeast on Marines Road for approximately 5-l/4 miles until intersecting with
SneadsFerry Road.
3.
Turn left onto SneadsFerry Road and travel for approximately 5 miles (at this point Sneads
Ferry Road becomesHolcomb Boulevard).
4.
Proceed north on Holcomb Boulevard off base and onto Route 24 West.
5.
Travel west on Route 24 for approximately 2-l/4 miles until intersecting with Western
Boulevard.
6.
Turn right onto Western Boulevard and proceed north until the fifth stoplight
(approximately 1.5 miles).
7.
Look for hospital on left.
8.
Follow directions to emergencyroom entrance.
BAKER
SAFETY
STANDARD
ATTACHMENT
A
OPERATING
PROCEDURES 2
ATTACHMENT
A
BAKER ENVIRONMENTAL, INC.
SAFETY STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
Confined SpaceEntry Program*
Respiratory Protection Program
Care and Cleaning of Personal Protective Equipment
Bloodbome Pathogens
Heat Stress
Cold Stress
Safe Boat Operations
Cutting and Welding
*Not Applicable
_.._....... .. ..,-. . .
Revised: 12/l/94
2.0 - RESPIRATORY
PROTECTION
PROGRAM
This Respiratory Protection Program presentsthe elements necessaryfor administering a successful
program. Attached at the end of this program is a copy of the following Baker Environmental, Inc.
(Baker) forms:
0
0
0
2.1
Qualitative Respirator Fit Test Record
Air- Supplying Respirator Inspection Form
Air-Purifying Respirator Inspection Form
PURPOSE
The purpose of the Baker Respiratory Protection Program is to govern the selection and use of
respiratory protection by Baker personnel. This program is also designed to meet requirements of
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards 29 CFR 1910.134 and
1926.103, “Respiratory Protection.”
2.2
SCOPE
This program applies to Baker SRN personnel including temporarily-assigned SRI and SII personnel
who may be involved with potential respiratory hazards as part of their job duties. This program
outlines the procedures to follow when respiratory equipment is required.
23
RESPONSIBILITY
Baker provides the necessary respiratory equipment to protect the safety and health of each Baker
employee. The Baker SRN Project Health and Safety Officer (PHSO) and Project Manager are
responsible for identifying the need for this Respiratory Protection Program at project sites. The
Raker Site Health and Safety Offrcer (SHSO) and Site Manager are responsible for implementing
and administering the Respiratory Protection Program in the field. Baker employees are to use and
maintain the respiratory protection provided in accordance with training received and instructions
outlined in this program.
2.4
HAZARD
ASSESSMENT
l%e key elements of a respiratory protection program must start with an assessmentof the inhalation
and ingestion hazards present in the work area. Because Baker’s services involve a variety of
environmental and industrial hygiene studies, it is not practical to identify all possible hazards to
which all employees could be exposed within the scope of this document. Therefore, it is essential
that a task specific assessmentbe conducted prior to the initiation of any activities on a given
project. This task specific assessmentshall be part of the site-specific Health and Safety Plan
(HASP).
After a task-specific assessment is completed and it is determined that there is a potential for
airborne exposure concentrations to exceed the recommended limits, engineering and administrative
controls should be implemented. If the exposure cannot be reduced, or it is not feasible to reduce
Rev.: 12194
the airborne exposure below the recommended limits, respirators will be selected by the PHSO
and/or SHSO on the basis of:
0
0
0
0
a
0
0
0
0
0
2.5
Toxicity
Maximum expected concentration
Oxygen levels
Warning properties of the substance(s) involved
Sorbent limitations
Facepiece fit
Mobility requirements
Type of use (routine, escape,or emergency entry)
Possibility of ingestion of toxic materials
Respirator attributes
TFLUNING
Each respirator wearer shall be given training, by a qualified individual, which will include
explanations and discussions of:
Opportunity to wear respiratory protection in an uncontaminated environment.
Respirator fit testing (qualitative)
The respiratory hazard(s) and what may occur if the respirator is not used properly.
The reasons for selecting a particular type of respirator.
The function, capabilities, and limitations of the selected respirator.
The method of donning the respirator and checking its fit and operation.
The proper wearing of the respirator.
Respirator maintenance, repair, and cleaning.
Recognizing and handling emergency situations.
Employees who have attended the 40-hour training in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.120
(HAZWOPER) will be provided with the basic information necessary to comply with the OSHA
training requirements and will only need to attend a supplementary session provided by qualified
Baker personnel. The annual HAZWOPER &hour refi-esher will serve to reinforce these issueson
an annual basis. Records of the training and fit-testing will be maintained for a minimum of
30 years following termination of employment for each employee.
2.6
TYPES OF RESPIRATORS
Baker purchases and provides, as necessary,the following respirators:
0
North half-face (Model 7700) and full-face (Model 7600) air-purifying respirators
0
North positive pressure 30-minute Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBAs)
(Model 800)
0
North positive pressure supplied airline respirators with 5-minute escape air
cylinders (Model 85500).
l
MSA Ultra Twin full- face respirator (Model
480263)
Rev.:
12194
l
MSA Comfo II half- face respirator (Model 479529)
Only respiratory equipment certified by the appropriate approval agencies (e.g., NIOSH, MSHA)
according to Title 30, Part II of the Code of Federal Regulations, will be distributed to Baker
employees. All Baker employees who regularly perform tasks requiring respiratory protection will
be issued their own half-face and/or full-face respirator, provided the employee can achieve a
proper fit and is medically capable of wearing the equipment.
Because 30-minute SCBAs, positive pressure supplied airline respirators, and 5-minute escape air
cylinders are used less frequently, this equipment will be distributed on an as-needed basis.
2.7
AIR QUALITY
Compressed air used for respiration shall be of high purity. Breathing air shall meet at least the
requirements of the specification for Grade D Breathing Air (or higher) as described in Compressed
Gas Association Commodity Specification G-7.1- 1966. Breathing air may be supplied to
respirators from cylinders; oxygen must never be used with air- line respirators.
Air cylinders shall be tested and maintained as prescribed in the Shipping Container Specification
Regulations of the Department of Transportation (49 CFR Part 178). Air-line couplings shall be
incompatible with outlets for other gas systems to prevent inadvertent servicing of air-line
respirators with nonrespirable gasesor oxygen.
Breathing gas containers (air cylinders) shall be marked in accordance with American National
Standard Method of marking Portable Compressed Gas Containers to IdentiQ the Material
Contained, A48.1- 1954; Federal Specification BB-A- 1034a, June 2 1,1968, Air, Compressed for
Breathing Purposes; or Interim Federal Specification GG-B00675b, April 27, 1965, Breathing
Apparatus, Self-Contained.
Breathing air, as supplied by air compressors, shall be of high purity and meet the requirements of
the specification for Grade D Breathing air (or higher) as described in CompressedGas Association
Commodity Specification G- 7.1- 1966.
The compressor for supplying air shall be equipped with necessary safety and standby devices. A
breathing air-type compressor shall be used. Compressors shall be constructed and situated so as
to avoid entry of contaminated air into the system and suitable in-line air-purifying sorbent beds
and filters installed to fiuther assure breathing air quality. A receiver of sufficient capacity to enable
the respirator wearer to escapefrom a contaminated atmosphere in the event of compressor failure,
and alarms to indicate compressor failure and overheating shall be installed in the system. If an
oil- lubricated compressor is used, it shall have a high- temperature or carbon monoxide alarm, or
both. If only a high-temperature alarm is used, the air from the compressor shall be frequently
tested for carbon monoxide to insure that it meets the specifications outlined above.
2.8
CLEANING
AND MAINTENANCE
Respiratory equipment that is used on an as-needed basis shall be maintained by qualified
personnel. This equipment shall be cleaned/sanitized, then rinsed and air-dried, after each use.
Rev.: 12194
Respiratory equipment that has been issued to an employee shall be cleaned/sanitized then rinsed
and air-dried by the wearer, (specified by OSHA in 29 CFR 1910.134) which ensures that it will
be maintained in clean and good operating condition. Inspections shall be conducted on a regular
basis during usage and prior to each project requiring the potential usage of the equipment.
All respirators shall be stored in a plastic bag within a cool/dry location, in a manner that will protect
them against dust, sunlight, heat, extreme cold, excessive moisture, or damaging chemicals. They
shall be stored to prevent distortion of rubber or other elastomer parts. Cartridges will not be stored
while attached to an air-purifying respirator at anytime.
Parts replacement and repairs shall be performed only by appropriate personnel. Equipment
requiring repairs shall be reported to appropriate Baker personnel. Examples of inspection forms
are included at the end of this text.
2.9
INSPECTIONS
At the time of cleaning, and before and after each use, respirators will be inspected. Deteriorated
components will be replaced before the respirator is placed back into service, or the respirator will
be replaced. Repair components must be obtained from the manufacturer of the respirator to
maintain the NIOSH certification. Emergency-use respirators and self-contained breathing
apparatuses (SCBAs) will be inspected after each use or at a minimum, once a month. Sample
inspection forms for both air- purifying respirators and air supplying respirators are attached. These
forms are required to be completed each time a respirator is inspected. However, during field
projects in which a field logbook is in use, personnel may enter the appropriate information into their
field logbook as an alternative to the inspection form. A list of the items to be covered during an
inspection are as follows:
0
a
Air- Purifying Respirator (full or half-face)
t
Face Piece
-Clean and sanitized?
-Cracks, tears or holes absent?
-Proper shape and flexibility retained?
-Air-purifying element holders intact?
-Stored properly, free from heat, dii and sunlight?
b
Headstraps or Headbands
-Signs of wear or tears?
-Buckles function properly?
.
Respirator Interior
-Foreign material under valve seat?
-Cracks or tears in valves/valve bodies?
-Valve covers/bodies installed properly?
Supplied Air Respirators
Cylinder undamaged?
.
Facepiece and hoses undamaged?
.
Connections undamaged?
l
Rev.: 12f94
b
t
.
Apparatus complete?
Facemask cleaned and sanitized?
Hoses and connections cleaned?
Note: The date and the initials of the qualified individual performing the inspection must be entered
into the field logbook.
2.10
FIT-TESTING
Each respirator wearer shall be provided with a respirator that can properly form a secure
face-to-mask seal. Each wearer shall be fit- tested prior to issuance of the respirator using either
an irritant smoke or odorous vapor, or other suitable test agent (see example of form at end of text).
Retesting shall be performed, at a minimum, on an annual basis or if a different model respirator,
other than the model the wearer was previously tit-tested for, is to be used. Air-purifying
respirators fit- tested qualitatively will be assigned a protection factor of 10 (APF = 10). A copy of
Baker’s Fit-Test Form is attached.
Facial hair, which interferes with the normally effective face to mask seal, is prohibited. Each
respirator wearer shall be required to check the seal of the respirator by negative and positive
pressure checks prior to entering a harmful atmosphere.
2.11
MEDICAL
SURVEILLANCE
Personnel who are or may be assigned to tasks requiring use of respirators shall participate in a
medical surveillance program on an annual basis. The medical surveillance program shall include,
but may not be limited to, a history of respiratory disease, work history, a physical exam, and
spirometry conducted by the company’s physician and at the expense of the company. These
parameters are conducted prior to fit testing an employee on a negative pressure respirator. Test
parameters included in Baker’s medical surveillance program are in each site-specific HASP.
2.12
LIMITATIONS
Wearing any respirator, alone or in conjunction with other types of protective equipment, will
impose some physiological stress on the wearer. Therefore, selection of respiratory protective
devices will be based on the breathing resistance, weight of the respirator, the type and amount of
protection needed as well as the individual’s tolerance of the given device. Additional concerns
regarding the limitations of different types of PPE and the monitoring requirements for heat
stress/strain will be addressed in the “Heat Stress” SOP.
2.13
SUBCONTRACTOR
REQUIREMENTS
In compliance with Baker’s respiratory protection program, all subcontractors under the direction
of Baker personnel will be expected to comply with pertinent sectionsof OSHA Standards 1910.134
and 1926.103. Additionally, the subcontractor will be required to:
0
Provide documentation that their employees have been fit-tested on the
air- purifying respirator the employee is expected to use.
Rev.: 12194
0
Provide documentation that their employees have been medically certified to wear
a respirator.
Rev.: 12194
QUALITATIVE
RESPIRATOR
FIT TEST RECORD
TEST SUBJECT NAME
(first)
04
DATE
SOCIAL SECURITY
AGE
SEX (M/F)
RESPIRATOR
MEDICAL
SPECIAL/UNUSUAL
0
0
0
0
NUMBER
DEPARTMENT
DATE
RESPIRATOR
TRAINING
DATE
CONDITIONS/CONSIDERATIONS:
mi
Yesus!
cl
0
0
0
0
a
(initial)
Claustrophobia
Facial hair
Eyeglasses
Contacts
Other:
0
El!2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESPIRATOR
scars
Broken or crooked nose
Extreme facial dimensions
Wrinkles
SELECTION
I
Size
Manufacturer/Model
,,s:
Testing Agent
Style
Result
S_
M-
L,
Half-
Full-
Pass-
Fail-
S-
M-
L,
Half-
Full-
Pass,
Fail-
S_
M-
L-
Half-
Full-
Pass-
Fail-
Qualitative Test
Sensitivity Check
Isoamyl Acetate
Yes: -
No: __
Yes: -
No: -
Irritant Smoke
Yes: -
No: __
Yes: -
No: -
Other:
Yes: -
No: __
Yes: -
No: -
TEST EXERCISES
(Check all that apply)
Normal Breathing
Deep Breathing
Head, Side to Side
Head, Up and Down
Talking
Bending
Jaw Movements
Rainbow Passage
COMMENTS:
Signed:
Signed:
(Test Subject)
(Technician/Instructor)
Rev.: 12194
AIR-SUPPLYING
RESPIRATOR
INSPECTION
FORM
Type
(SCBA or SAR)
* “MT”
Cylinder
Condition
(Damaged or
Undamaged)
Cylinder
(Full or MT)
Facepiece and
Hoses
(Damaged or
Undamaged)
Connections
(Damaged or
Undamaged)
Apparatus
Complete
(Yes/No)
Cleaned
and
Sanitized
(Yes/No)
Remarks
Inspected
BY
(Initials)
Date
Inspected
= Empty
Rev.: 12/W
AIR-PURIFYING
RESPIRATOR
INSPECTION
FORM
HEADSTRAPS OR
HEADBANDS
FACE PIECE
Type
(Full or
Half- Face)
Clean and
Sanitized?
Cracks,
Tears, or
Holes?
Proper
Shape and
Flexibility?
Air
Purifying
Element
Holders
Operate
Correctly?
Proper
Storage
Free From
Heat, Dirt,
Sunlight,
etc.?
Signs of
Wear or
Tear?
Buckles
Function
Properly?
RESPIRATOR
Foreign
Material
Under
Valve Seat?
INTERIOR
Cracks or
Tears in
Valves or
Valve
Bodies?
Valve Covers
and Bodies in
Good Condition
and Installed
Correctly?
Inspected
By
(Initials)
Date
Inspectel
J=OK
X=NotOK
Rev.: 12/94
3.1
INTRODUCTION
The following procedures cover the care and cleaning of Levels D, D+, C, and B personal protective
equipment (PPE). Note: These are general procedures that apply to most situations and are not all
inclusive. Procedures are subject to change at the direction of the Site Health and Safety Officer
(SHSO).
3.2
INSPECTION
Proper inspection of personal protective equipment (PPE) features several sequencesof inspection
depending on articles of PPE and its frequency of use as follows:
l
Inspection and operational testing of PPE received from the factory or distributor.
0
Inspection of PPE as it is issued to workers.
l
Inspection after use or training, and prior to maintenance.
a
Periodic inspection of stored equipment.
9
Periodic inspection when a question arises concerning the appropriateness of the
selected equipment, or when problems with similar equipment arise.
The primary inspection of PPE in use for activities at the site will occur prior to immediate use, will
be conducted by the user to ensure that the specific device or article has been checked out by the
user, and that the user is familiar with its use.
3.2.1
Chemical
Resistant
Suit (Levels D+ through
0
Determine if suit is the one specified in the Site Health and Safety Plan (HASP)
0
Before donning, inspect suit for holes or tears; check to seethat zippers are operable
and look for signs of suit degradation.
0
When wearing, avoid contact with contaminated material where possible; be aware
of sharp objects that can tear suit; periodically look over suit to check for major rips
or tears.
0
While decontaminating, remove gross excessof material from suit; remove suit so
that material does not contact inner suit; place clothing in properly labeled disposal
containers.
Rev.: 3/94
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.6
II/Outerr
0
Determine if gloves meet the specifications in the site HASP.
l
Look for rips, tears, or degradation of material. Replace as necessary or at the
direction of the SHSO.
0
Determine if boots meet the specifications in the site HASP.
l
Nondisposable boots are to be examined on a daily basis before and after use.
Disposable boots should be examined prior to donning and while in use, and
disposed according to site procedures.
8afetv(SteelveShank)s
Examine daily for gouges, open seams,etc., anything that would lessenthe integrity
of the boot. Replace as boot becomes worn.
0
Should be visually inspected before donning for fit, cracks, and overall condition.
Safety Glasses!Goeglesvels
Rear&
l
0
3.3
D throlagh
Should be visually inspected before donning for cracks, deteriorated parts, and
overall condition. Replace as necessary.
Respirators
0
3.2.8
D throucrm
0
0
3.2.7
.
)wl
(Levels D+ through
B)
Procedures for care of respiratory protective equipment are covered in Baker’s SOP
for Respiratory Protection.
Protection
(Levels D througbJ#
Disposable - Replace daily, or as material becomes worn or dirty.
Reusable - Inspect before use, clean regularly, replace parts as necessary.
EQUIPMENT
CLEANING
General procedures for cleaning of equipment are listed below. Site-specific concerns will be
addressed by the SHSO prior to and during site activities. Cleaning of respiratory equipment is
covered under the “Respiratory Protection Program” SOP.
33.1
Gross Physical
Removal
Remove large amounts of contaminated soil or sediment by scraping off with a tongue depressor or
other suitable instrument, then wipe off using a disposable wipe/paper towel.
Rev.: 3/94
3.3.2
physical/Chemi~emoval
Remove residual contamination with a soft- bristled, long-handled brush or equivalent using a
nonphosphate detergent solution.
3.3.3
[email protected]
The detergent solution and residual contaminants will be rinsed with distilled/tap water using a
pressurized sprayer, a tub filled with clean wash water, or equivalent.
3.4
EQUIPMENT
STORAGE
Storage of PPE is an important aspect to the daily care and cleaning therefore, the following
considerations should be observed:
0
Different types of PPE shall be stored in a clean and dry environment, free from
elements that could damage PPE.
0
PPE shall be stored and labeled so that site personnel can readily select the
specified PPE.
0
Contaminated, nondisposable PPE shall be decontaminated before returning to the
storage area.
0
Contaminated, disposable PPE shall not be returned to the storage trailer, but
disposed according to the provisions identified in the Site Work Plans.
Rev.: 3194
4.0 - BLOODBORNE
PATHOGENS
(Safe Handling
of First Aid Incidents)
4.1
PURPOSE
The purpose of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens
Standard, Title 29 CFR Part 1910.1030, is to protect workers from bloodbome pathogens such as
the (HIV) and (HEW) by reducing or eliminating workers’ exposure to blood and other potentially
infectious materials. Although HIV and HBV are specifically mentioned by OSHA, the standard
includes any bloodborne pathogen, such as Hepatitis C, malaria, and syphilis. The standard requires
the employer to develop a written exposure control plan that will reduce or eliminate employee
exposure, thus reducing their risk of infection.
The purpose of the Baker Environmental (Baker) exposure control plan is to minimize the possibility
of transmission of bloodborne pathogens in the workplace by establishing procedures for the safe
handling of first aid incidents that may expose personnel to blood or other potentially infectious
materials.
4.2
SCOPE
All Baker SRN personnel who may be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials as
part of their job duties (e.g., those certified in Standard First Aid) are required to follow the
guidelines set forth in this SOP. The exposure control plan shall be reviewed and updated at least
annually, to reflect new or modified tasksand procedures that affect occupational exposure, and to
reflect new or revised employee positions with occupational exposure.
4.3
RESPONSIBILITY
The Baker Project Health and Safety Offtce (PHSO) and Project Manager are responsible for
providing support and administering this exposure control plan as necessary, from the corporate
oflice. The Baker Site Health and Safety Officer and Site Manager are responsible for implementing
this exposure control plan at project sites for their employees.
4.4
DEFINITIONS
Bloodborne Pathogens - Pathogenic microorganisms that may be present in human blood, having
the potential to cause disease in humans. Two examples of bloodbome pathogens include, hepatitis
B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Contaminated - Means the presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other
potentially infectious materials on an item or surface.
Decontamination - Physically or chemically removing, inactivating, or destroying bloodbome
pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they are no longer capable of transmitting
infectious particles, so that the surface or item is rendered safe for handling, use, or disposal.
Rev.: 9194
sure Inciden_t- A specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non- intact skin, or parenteral
contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that result from the performance of an
employee’s Fluties.
Occuoational Exoosure - Reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mouth, mucous membrane, or
parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the
performance of an employee’s duties.
Other Potentially Infectious Materials - Includes the following human body fluids: semen, vaginal
secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid,
amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood,
and all body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate between body
fluids; any unfixed tissue or organ (other than intact skin) from a human; and HIV-containing cell
or tissue cultures, organ cultures, and HIV- or HBV-containing culture medium or other solutions;
and blood, organs, or other tissues Corn experimental animals infected with HIV or HBV.
Parenter - Piercing of the mucous membranes or the skin barrier through such events as
needlesticks, human bites, cuts, and abrasions.
JCepulated Waste - OSHA defines a regulated waste as a liquid or semi-liquid blood or other
potentially infectious materials; contaminated items that would release blood or other potentially
infectious materials in a liquid state if compressed,items caked with dried blood or other potentially
infectious materials that are capable of release of these materials during handling; contaminated
sharps; and pathological and microbiological wastes containing blood or other potentially infectious
materials.
4.5
PROCEDURES FOR EXPOSURE TO BLOODBORNE
PATHOGENS
The sections below will discuss the means by which Baker personnel can determine exposure
potential, modes of transmission, methods of compliance, medical monitoring, and post exposure
drocedures.
4.5.1
Exuosure Determination
The exposure determination is based upon the job classifications with occupational exposure
potential, and the activities in which these exposures.can occur, as follows.
Job Classifications
l
e
l
l
Site Manager/Site Safety and Health Officer
Environmental Scientists
Geologists
Other Baker Field Personnel
Rev.: 9194
Exposure
4.5.2
Activities
0
Response to first aid incidents involving site personnel
0
Decontamination of personnel, personal protective equipment, work surfaces, and
equipment potentially exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials
1 des
&f
Modes of virus transmission are similar for the viruses of concern. Primarily, virus transmission
occurs as the result of direct blood contact from percutaneous inoculation, contact with an open
wound, non-intact skin (e.g. chapped, abraded, or dermatitis), or mucous membranes to blood,
blood-contaminated body fluids, or concentrated virus. Protective measuresfor workers will focus
on preventing exposure to blood and other body fluids that can result from an injury or sudden
illness.
4.5.3
Methods
of Compliance
4.5.3.1
Universal
Precautions
The unpredictable and emergent nature of exposures likely to be encountered on a site may make
differentiation between hazardous body fluids and those that are not hazardous very difficult. Thus,
all employees will observe “Universal Precautions” to prevent contact with blood or other potentially
infectious materials. These “Universal Precautions” stress that all blood or other potentially
infectious materials will be treated as if they are known to be infectious.
The universal precautions will include:
4.5.3.2
(1)
Cover the skin, especially open cuts, scrapes, skin rashes, or other broken skin.
(2)
Don’t touch objects that could be contaminated, such as blood-covered surfaces,
clothing or linens.
(3)
Cover mucous membranes (i.e., mouth, nose, and eyes).
(4)
Prevent direct contact with sharps, such as needles, scalpels, or broken glass that
could pierce or puncture your skin.
(5)
Clean and decontaminate surfaces, containers, and equipment that may have been
exposed to blood or other body fluids.
Standard
Work
Practices
Standard work practices are to be implemented at all times by all employees who may be exposed
to blood or other potentially infectious materials. Work practices are defined as specific policies or
procedures whose purpose is to reduce the potential for employee exposure to bloodbome pathogens.
Work practices for use by site personnel are described in the balance of this section.
Rev.: 9194
Mona1
Hveiene
All exposed employees will observe the following hygienic practices:
0
During or immediately after exposure to blood or other potentially infectious
materials; do not eat, drink, chew gum, chew tobacco, smoke, apply cosmetics,
balms or medications, or any other activity that increases the potential for
hand- to- mouth, mucous membrane, or skin contact.
0
Following exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials, personnel
will wash their hands and any other exposed skin with a disinfectant soap and water
after removal of chemical- protective gloves or other personal protective equipment
(PPE). This will be performed before eating, urinating, defecating, applying
make-up, smoking or undertaking any activity that may result in increased
potential for hand to mouth, mucous membrane, or skin contact.
The basic premise for wearing the appropriate PPE is that site personnel must be protected from
exposure to blood and other potentially infections materials. Appropriate PPE is available to all site
personnel.
Responders to a medical emergencies will have accessto the appropriate PPE. The PPE will be
present in the site trailer and field vehicles. The PPE should be used in accordance with the level
of exposure encountered. Minor lacerations or small amounts of blood do not merit the same extent
of PPE use as required for massive arterial bleeding. Management of the patient who is not
bleeding, and has no bloody body fluids, should not routinely require the use of PPE.
The following PPE will be present in each Baker Field Vehicle and/or the Baker Site Trailer.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Disposable chemical-protective gloves (i.e, nitrile or latex)
Resuscitation equipment*
Safety glasses,goggles, or faceshields
[email protected] coveralls
*
Resuscitation Equipment - Because the risk of salivary transmission of infectious
disease during artificial ventilation of trauma victims, pocket mouth-to-mouth
resuscitation masks will be present in the first aid kits. The pocket
mouth- to- mouth resuscitation masks are designed to isolate response personnel
from contact with the victims’ blood and blood-contaminated saliva, respiratory
secretions, and vomitus.
Decontamination procedures will follow those outlined in each site HASP.
J3andlinv
Remlated
Wastes
With the exception of contaminated sharps, all other regulated wastes must be placed in closable,
color-coded, labeled containers that prevent leakage of fluids. All applicable federal and state
regulations must be followed for transporting and disposing of the wastes.
Rev.: 9194
Training
and Education
All employees with the potential for occupational exposure will receive initial training on the safe
handling of first aid incidents during first aid/CPR Instruction, and subsequently during HASP
briefings. See Appendix A for the suggested Bloodborne Pathogens Training Outline.
4.5.4
Medical
Mouitoriw
All Baker personnel will follow the guidelines established by Baker’s Board Certified Occupational
Health Physician in association with EMR, Inc.
4.5.5
p*
-
_
The following subsections presents the procedures to follow when a first aid incident occurs
involving the presence of blood or other potentially infectious material; specific steps need to be
taken to safeguard the health of Baker site personnel.
4.5.5.1
First Aid Incident
Report
If there is a reasonable cause to believe that a potential exposure to blood or other potentially
infectious materials has been experienced, the employee must complete the steps listed below.
These stepsare required when non-HBV vaccinated first aid responders participate and regardless
of whether an actual “exposure incident” occurred.
1.
Immediately notify the SHSO. The SHSO will determine whether an “exposure
incident” occurred.
2.
Wash area of contamination and remove contaminated clothing to ensure that no
further contamination will occur.
3.
All parties involved will complete the Supervisors Incident Report Form and the
incident will be reported to Baker’s Human Resources of&e.
Baker employees who render first aid where blood or other potentially infectious materials are
present must he seen by a designated EMR physician within 24 hours of the incident. The employee
must take a copy of the Supervisors Incident Report Form and a copy of OSHA Standard 1910.1030
to the physician.
Employees who respond to first aid incidents involving the presence of blood or other potentially
infectious materials where the determination was made that an “exposure incident” occurred, have
90 days following baseline blood level collection to decide if they wish to have their blood tested
for HIV.
Rev.: 9f94
The confidential medical evaluation and follow-up will include:
1.
The circumstances of the exposure.
2.
If consent has been obtained testing of the source individual’s blood in order to
determine HIV and/or HBV infectivity. If consent is not obtained this will be
documented in writing.
3.
If consent has been obtained, the exposed employee’s blood will be tested.
The occupational health physician will provide the employer with a confidential written opinion that
includes verification that the employee has been informed of the results of the evaluation and also
includes a recommendation for finther evaluation or treatment. A copy of this written opinion will
be provided within 15 days following the medical evaluation.
4.5.5.2
“Good
Samaritan”
Behavior
The OSHA standard does not cover “good samaritan” behavior. However, employees who provide
first aid as “good Samaritans” should receive the same post incident evaluation either through an
EMR designated physician or their personal physician.
4.6
REFERENCES
OSHA Title 29 CFR Part 1910.1030
U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Joint Advisory Notice:
protection against occupational exposure to Hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus.
Federal Register 1987; 52:41818-24.
Centers for Disease Control. Update on hepatitis B prevention. MMWR 1987; 36:353-360,366.
Centers for Disease Control. Update: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and human
immunodeficiency virus infection among health- care workers. h4MWR 1988; 37:229-34,239.
OSHA Instruction CPL 2-2.44, February 13, 1992, Enforcement Procedures for the Occupational
Exposure to Bloodbome Pathogens Standard.
Rev.: 9194
Appendix
SUGGESTED
A.
B.
II.
III.
D.
E.
F.
G.
TRAINING
OUTLINE
Diseases
Types
Modes of Transmission
Baker Qposure
A.
B.
C.
PATHOGENS
Purpose of the training program
Overview: Bloodborne Pathogen Standard 29 CFR 1910.1030
1.
Applicability to Site Personnel
2.
General requirements
Overview of Baker exposure control plan
3.
Bloodborne
A.
B.
BLOODBORNE
A
Control
Pbm
Purpose
Plan availability
Bloodbome pathogen hazard recognition steps
Concept of universal precautions
1.
Blood and other potentially infectious materials
2.
Potential exposure minimization
1.
Work practices
Personal protective equipment
2.
Hygienic practices
3.
Procedures for decontamination
Personnel
1.
Personal protective equipment (PPE)
2.
Tasks and procedures requiring PPE
Location of PPE
;:
C.
Disposal of PPE
Equipment
3.
4.
Work surfaces
Medical monitoring
Baker medical monitoring program
1.
Post exposure evaluation procedures
2.
First aid incident report
HBV and non-HBV vaccinated responders
;:
Exposure incidents (defined)
C.
Confidential medical evaluation
e.
Emergency Preparedness
First aid kits
1.
Personal injury
2.
Rev.: 9/94
5.0 - HEAT
5.1
STRESS
INTRODUCTION
Heat stress in the hazardous waste industry usually is a result of protective clothing decreasing
natural body ventilation, although it may occur at any time work is being performed at elevated
temperatures. If the body’s physiological processes fail to maintain a normal body temperature
becauseof excessive heat, a number of physiological reactions can occur, ranging from mild (such
as fatigue, irritability, anxiety, and decreased concentration, dexterity, or movement) to fatal.
5.2
CAUSES
AND SYMPTOMS
The following heat stresscausesand symptoms are provided for buddy monitoring purposes. Site
personnel must realize that monitoring the physical condition of fellow personnel in Levels Dt
through B protective ensembles will be more difficult.
;
1.
Heat rash results from continuous exposure to heat or humid air and chafing
clothes. The condition decreasesthe ability to tolerate heat. Symptoms include a
mild red rash.
2.
Heat cramps are causedby heavy sweating and inadequate fluid intake. Symptoms
include muscle spasmsand pain in the hands, feet, and abdomen.
3.
Heat exhaustion occurs when body organs attempt to keep the body cool, due to
inadequate fluid intake and personnel not acclimated to the environment.
Symptoms include pale, cool, moist skim heavy sweating; dizzmess,headaches,and
vomiting.
4.
Heat spoke is the most serious form of heat stress. It is a MEDICAL
EMERGENCY. Symptoms are red, hot, &y skin; lack of perspiration; nausea;
dizziness and confusion; strong, rapid pulse rate; and coma.
The need to seek medical attention and the urgency in seeking medical attention depends on the
symptoms and the severity of the symptoms displayed by the affected individual. If heat stroke is
noted or suspected,medical attention must be sought IMMEDIATELY. Efforts should be taken to
cool the body to prevent serious injury or death.
53
PREVENTION
Becauseheat stressis one of the most common and potentially serious illnesses at hazardous waste
sites, regular monitoring and other preventive measures are vital. Site workers must learn to
recognize and treat the various forms of heat stress. The best approach is preventive heat stress
management. In general:
l
Monitor for signs of heat stress.
Rev.: 3194
0
Fluid intake should be increased during rest schedules to prevent dehydration.
Drinking cool water (maintained at 50 to 60°F) is satisfactory when light sweating
occurs and temperatures are moderate to cool; however, diluted electrolyte
solutions (i.e., Gatorade, Sqwincher, or equivalent) must be used in addition to
water under one or all of the following conditions: continued or heavy sweating,
moderate to high ambient temperatures, or heavy work loads. The intake of coffee
during working hours is discouraged.
0
Acclimate workers to site work conditions by slowly increasing workloads (i.e., do
not begin site work activities with extremely demanding activities).
0
Use cooling devices to aid natural body ventilation. These devices, however, add
weight and their use should be balanced against worker efficiency. An example of
a cooling aid is a cooling vest that can be worn under clothing, but not against the
skin.
a
In extremely hot weather, conduct field activities in the early morning and evening.
l
Ensure that adequate shelter is available to protect personnel against heat that can
decrease physical efficiency and increase the threat of heat stress. If possible, set
up the command post in a shaded area, and encourage breaks in shaded areas.
0
In hot weather, rotate shifts of workers wearing impervious clothing.
0
Good hygienic standards must be maintained by frequent changes of clothing and
showering. Clothing should be permitted to dry ‘during rest periods. Persons who
notice skin problems should immediately consult the SHSO.
I
5.4
MONITORING
Provisions for monitoring for heat stresswill be determined by the SHSO and performed as outlined
below. Becausethe incidence of heat stressdepends on a variety of factors, all workers, even those
not wearing protective equipment, should be monitored.
54.1
Monitoringfor
.
For workers wearing permeable clothing (e.g., standard cotton or synthetic work clothes), follow
recommendations for monitoring requirements and suggested work/rest schedules in the current
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists’ (ACGII-I) Threshold Limit Values for
Heat Stress. If the actual clothing work differs From the ACGIH standard ensemble in insulation
value and/or wind and vapor permeability, change the monitoring requirements and work/rest
schedules accordingly.
The guidelines to follow for workers above as determined by the SHSO are as follows:
1.
Increased awareness of heat stresssymptoms and buddy monitoring.
2.
Fluid intake discipline.
Rev.: 3194
3.
Self monitoring of urine output quantities to prevent dehydration.
4.
Attention to work-rest intervals.
5.
Calculate the Heat Exposure Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for work-rest intervals
using the following steps:
a.
Determine the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) Index using the
[email protected] Heat StressMonitor.
b.
Estimate the work load using the following guidelines:
c.
(1)
Light work = sitting or standing to control machines, performing
light hand or arm work.
(2)
Moderate work = walking about with moderated lifting and
pushing.
(3)
Heavy work = pick and shove1work.
Evaluate the calculations against the following Heat Exposure TLVs* in “C
or (OF).
Work Load
Work - Rest Regimen
Special
Light
Moderate
H=W
Continuous work
30.0 (86)
26.7 (SO)
25.0 (77)
75% work - 25% rest, each hour
30.6 (87)
28.0 (82)
25.9 (78)
50% work - 50% rest, each hour
31.4 (89)
29.4 (85)
27.9 (82)
25% work - 75% rest, each hour
32.2 (90)
31.1(88)
30.0 (86)
Considerations
l
Acclimatization - After approximately one to two weeks, workers should be
acclimated to their environment.
l
Fitness - Physically fit workers will adjust more readily to a change in
environment.
0
Medication - Some medications can predispose individuals to heat-induced
illnesses.
Rev.: 3194
5.4.2
SSg
For workers wearing semipermeable or impermeable clothing encapsulating ensembles,the ACGIH
standard cannot be used. For these situations, workers should be monitored when the temperature
in the work area is above 70°F (2 1“C).
To monitor the worker, use one or more of the following methods:
0
Heart rate. Count the radial pulse during a 30-second period as early as possible
in the rest period.
ä
k
0
If the heart rate still exceeds 110 beats per minute at the next rest period,
shorten the following work cycle by one-third.
Oral temperature. Use a clinical thermometer (3 minutes under the tongue) or
similar device to measure the oral temperature at the end of the work period (before
drinking).
.
If oral temperature exceeds 99.6”F (37.6”(Z), shorten the next work cycle
by one-third without changing the rest period.
.
If oral temperatures still exceeds 99.6”F (37.6”C) at the beginning of the
next rest period, shorten the following work cycle by one-third.
ä
0
If the heart rate exceeds 110 beats per minute at the beginning of the rest
period, shorten the next work cycle by one- third and keep the rest period
the same.
Do not permit a worker to wear a semipermeable or impermeable garment
when his/her oral temperature exceeds 100.6”F (38.1 “C).
Body water loss. Measure weight on a scale accurate to a.25 pound at the
beginning and end of each work day to see if enough fluids are being taken to
prevent dehydration. Weights should be taken while the employee wears similar
clothing or preferably in underwear only. The body water loss should not exceed
1.5 percent total body weight loss in a work day.
Initially, the frequency of physiological monitoring depends on the air temperature adjusted for solar
radiation and the level of physical work. The length of work cycle will be governed by the
frequency of the required physiological monitoring.
5.5
CARING
FOR HEAT-RELATED
ILLNESS
To care for heat-related illness provide the following:
0
Remove victim from heat.
0
Loosen tight clothing.
Rev.: 3194
0
Apply cool, wet cloths to the skin.
0
Fan the victim.
0
If victim is conscious, give cool water to drink.
0
Call for an ambulance or transport to hospital if heat stroke is suspected, victim
refuses water, vomits, or starts to lose consciousness.
Rev.: 3194
6.0 - COLD STRESS
6.1
INTRODUCTION
The potential exists for either frostbite or hypothermia to occur when conducting work activities in
an environment where air temperatures may fall below freezing or where wind-chill factors lower
air temperatures below freezing. A brief description of the exposure symptoms (for both
hypothermia and frostbite) and methods of prevention are listed in the sectionsbelow:
6.2
CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS
The following cold stress causesand symptoms are provided for buddy monitoring purposes. Site
personnel must realize that monitoring the physical condition of fellow personnel in Levels D+
through B protective ensembleswill be more difftcuh.
6.2.1
Frostbite
Frostbite is a condition in which there is a freezing or partial freezing of some part of the body.
Individuals previously exposed to frostbite are more susceptible to contracting it again.
Vasoconstrictors, which include tobacco products, constrict blood vessels, and can accelerate
frostbite. The three stagesof frostbite include: (1) fiostnip- the beginnings of frostbite whereby the
skin begins to turn white; (2) superficial - similar to fiostnip except the skin begins to turn numb;
and (3) deep - the affected area is frozen to the bone, cold, numb, and very hard.
DO NOT:
a
l
0
0
6.2.2
Rub the frostbitten part.
Use ice, snow, gasoline, or anything cold on the frostbitten area.
Use heat lamps or hot water bottles to rewarm the frostbitten area.
Place the frostbitten area near a hot stove.
HvDothermia
Hypothermia is a condition in which the body loses heat faster than it is produced. At a body
temperature of 95 “F, an average man is considered to be hypothermia. Vasodilators, which include
alcohol and drugs, allow the body to lose heat faster which can accelerate hypothermia. The five
stagesof hypothermia include:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
shivering
apathy, listlessness,or sleepiness
unconsciousness,glassy stare, slow pulse or slow respiratory rate
freezing of the extremities
death
The need to seek medical attention and the urgency in seeking medical attention depends on the
symptoms and the severity of the symptoms displayed by the affected individual. If the latent
Rev.: 9194
conditions of hypothermia or frostbite are noted or suspected,medical attention must be sought
IMMEDIATELY to prevent permanent injury or death.
6.3
PREVENTION
To prevent conditions from occurring have personnel:
0
Dress in a minimum of three layers:
(1)
(2)
(3)
6.4
a skin layer to absorb moisture and keep skin dry
an insulating layer
an outer layer of nylon/wind-breaking material or chemical-protective
layer
0
Avoid touching cold surfaces (especially metal) with bare skin, minimize exposed
skin surfaces.
0
Keep active, use warm and dry shelter areas during rest cycles; use wind breaks
whenever possible.
0
Maintain body fluids by consuming warm, sweet, caffeine-free, non-alcoholic
drinks.
0
Avoid alcohol and medications that interfere with normal body regulation or reduces
tolerance to cold.
CARING FOR COLD-RELATED
ILLNESS
The following lists the general guidelines to care for cold-related injuries:
6.5
l
Start by treating any life-threatening problems.
0
Call the local emergency number for help or transport the victim to the nearest
hospital.
0
Move the victim to a warm place, if possible.
0
Remove any wet clothing and dry the victim.
0
Warm the victim slowly by wrapping in blankets or putting on dry clothing.
MONITORING
In cold weather, monitor the outdoor temperature and wind speedto determine wind chill conditions,
with work periods adjusted accordingly. The following table details the wind chill effects and
relative danger of combined cold and wind conditions. It is important to note that the wearing of PPE
in cold environments may introduce the possibility of heat stress;therefore, symptoms of heat stress
should also be considered during monitoring.
Rev.: 9194
WIND CHILL INDEX”’
(under calm conditions)
Actual ntermometer Reading (“F)
Wind Speed
50
40
30
(in mph)
calm
5
IO
15
20
20
10
0
50
48
40
36
32
40
37
28
22
18
30
27
16
9
4
20
16
4
-5
-10
Source:
-20
-30
-40
-40
-47
10
6
0
-5
-10
-15
-30
-36
-29
-33
-44
-48
-59
-63
-67
-74
-88
-104
-79
-94
-109
-82
-98
-113
-85
-100
-116
GREAT DANGER
(Danger !i-om fkezing
of exposed flesh)
-35
-49
-37
-53
INCREASING
DANGER
(‘)
-10
Equivalent Chill Temperature (“F)
-69
Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene, Third Edition. Plog, B.A., G. S. Benjamin, M. A.
Kerwin, National Safety Council, 1988.
Rev.: 9194
7.0 - SAFE BOAT
OPERATIONS
This Safe Boating Operations Program presents the Baker Environmental, Inc. (Baker) safe boat
operating procedures. The elements addressed in this procedure include purpose, scope,
responsibilities, equipment, terms, and general safe practices.
7.1
PURPOSE
The intent of the Baker Safe Boating Operations Program is to establish requirements for safe boat
operating procedures to protect personnel from potential hazardous situations. This program is also
designed to address elements of the United States(U.S.) Department of Transportation, U.S. Coast
Guard FS
reational Boats.
7.2
SCOPE
This program applies to Baker SRN projects in which Baker personnel may be involved with
sampling activities from boats as part of their job duties. This program contains requirements for
practices and procedures to protect these employees from the hazards of boating operations.
7.3
RESPONSIBILITY
The Baker SRN Project Health and Safety Offrcer (PHSO) and Project Manager are responsible for
implementing and administering this Safe Boat Operations Program at project sites. The Baker Site
Health and Safety Offtcer (SHSO), Site Manager, and field personnel are responsible to adhere to
these procedures.
7.4
TERMS
Bailer - manual device (portable bilge pump, bucket scoop, etc.) for bailing water.
Bow - The forward part of a boat.
Port - The left side of a vessel as one faces the front or bow.
Starboard - The right hand side of a vessel as one faces the front or bow.
Stem - The rear or aft part of a boat.
Type I PFD - personal flotation device rating; it is effective for all waters, especially open, rough
or remote waters where rescue may be delayed. It is designed to turn most unconscious wearers in
the water to a faceup position.
Type II PFD - personal flotation device rating; intended for calm, inland water or where there is a
good chance of quick rescue.
Rev.:
9194
Type III PFD - personal flotation device rating, good for calm, inland water, or where there is a good
chance of quick rescue. It is designed so wearers can place themselves in a face-up position in the
water.
Type IV PFD - personal flotation device rating; throwable device intended for inland water with
heavy boat traffic, where help is always present. It is designed to be thrown to a person in the water
and grasped and held by the user until rescued. Type IV devices include buoyant cushions, ring
buoys, and horseshoe buoys.
7.5
GENERAL
SAFE PRACTICES
The following list consists of genera1safe practices during sampling activities from a boat. These
safe practices are intended as a guideline for field personnel to recognize.
1.
Safe boat operation training can be conducted during the site health and safely plan
(HASP) pre-entry briefing. Training procedures for personal who will use a boat
to conduct sampling at a minimum consist of the following dot listed items.
0
l
0
0
0
0
l
Fire safety - including fire extinguisher use
Distribution of weight and movement of personal inside the boat
Sounding distress or warning signals
Engine operation and mixing of fuel
Heat exposure
Rescue techniques
Sampling procedures
2.
Personnel must be cognizant of current weather conditions by checking weather
reports before leaving shore and watchful for signs of bad weather. Sampling from
boats should not be conducted during inclement weather conditions, such as, heavy
rains, electrical storms or flooding.
3.
A minimum of two people should comprise the sampling crew, however, the
maximum capacity rating for the boat should not be exceeded. Only one person
should move on the boat at any one time.
4.
The motor should be turned off during sampling, anchoring, or when entry or exit
from the boat takes place.
5.
Each Baker boat should be inspected annually by a qualified individual. These
inspections should be documented and any safety concerns addressed before the
boat is used on any other projects.
6.
Equipment listed in Section 7.6 of this program should be maintained of the boat
and inspected to assure good operating conditions.
7.
PFDs must be Coast Guard-approved, in good and serviceable condition, and of
appropriate size for the intended user. Wearable PFDs must be readily accessible,
meaning the crew must be able to put them on in a reasonable amount of time in an
emergency (boat sinking, on-board fire, etc.). The PFDs should not be stowed in
Rev.: 9/94
plastic bags, in locked or closed compartments or have other gear stowed on top of
them.
8.
7.6
All boating accidentsmust be reported to the Baker PHSO and Project Manager as
soon as possible.
EQUIPMENT
The following equipment is required to be available on each boat.
0
0
l
l
0
0
0
0
0
l
0
l
l
7.7
2-pound ABC type fire extinguisher
First aid kit
Minimum of two oars
Knife
Type I, Type II, or Type III PFD for each crew member
Bailer
One Type IV throw flotation device with 50 feet of line
Anchor with 75 feet of line
Waste containers
Safety kill switch connected to driver
Air horn, flashlight and orange flag
Poly- coated tyvek or rainsuit
Towels
HYPOTHERMIA
The effects of cold water can causehypothermia to the body within minutes. Signs and symptoms
of hypothermia are:
0
l
l
l
Shivering
Loss of coordination
Lethargy
Coma
A poly-coated tyvek or rainsuit can be used to help maintain body temperatures while transporting
back to shore any individual who had fallen overboard.
Rev.: 9J94
8.0 - CUTTING
AND WELDING
Cutting and welding operations are performed routinely. Personnel engaged in these operations
must be highly skilled and understand the importance of using safe work practices to minimize
potential exposure to fire, explosion, or health hazards. No work involving a flame or
spark-producing operation is to be conducted without preparing a Hot Work Permit (attached) and
following the provisions of this procedure.
8.1
SAFETY
RESPONSIBILITY
Both welder and Baker personnel must work together to ensure safe cutting and welding operations.
All personnel, including subcontractors, should understand the potential hazards of the work site,
required use of personal protective equipment, and other safety aspectsprior to initiation of cutting
and welding procedures.
Under no circumstancesshould work be done in front of or around the open end of piping that has
not been cleaned/purged, then checked using the Oxygen/Lower Explosive Limit Meter.
8.2
EQUIPMENT
It is necessary to keep equipment in good working condition and inspect regularly for defects.
Equipment shall be approved and operated as specified by the manufacturer.
I
j
8.2.1
Welding
Carelessnessaround welding machines can lead to serious injury or death. The inspector should be
particularly aware of the following:
0
Never touch live metal parts with bare skin or wet clothing; electrocution can result.
0
Do not attempt to refuel a welding machine while it is in operation.
0
Inspect all machine connections and grounding prior to use.
0
Prevent electrode holders from coming in contact with people, metal objects, fuel
sources, water, or compressed gas cylinders.
0
The welder should not loop or coil the electrode cable around parts of the body.
0
Handling and storage of cylinders should be in accordance with approved
governmental practices.
0
Cylinders must always be secured and oxygen cylinders must be stored at least 20
feet from combustible gas cylinders.
Rev.: 5J94
8.2.3
Oxygen Use
0
Do not confuse oxygen with air or use it as a substitute because it supports and
accelerates combustion causing flammable materials to bum violently.
0
Oil or grease in the presence of oxygen may ignite or explode spontaneously.
l
Ensure that regulators used in oxygen service are free of dirt, oil or grease.
l
Never use oxygen to blow out or purge vessels or pipelines previously containing
flammables or to dust off clothing.
8.3
FIRE
8.3.1
Location
83.2
AND EXPiOSION
of Combustibles
0
Cutting and welding operations shall be conducted in a designated location free
from combustibles.
0
Use care when welding metal partitions or piping which are adjacent to immovable
combustibles because of the possibility of ignition by conduction.
Fire
0
Fire watchers with fire extinguishers or charged hoselines shall be posted.
0
These individuals should be prepared to extinguish fires in the incipient stage or
sound an alarm and should have no other duties at the job site.
0
833
The fire watch should continue for at least a half hour after completion of the
cutting or welding operation.
Fire Extinpishers
l
83.4
PREVENTION
Welding machines must have a fire extinguisher mounted in an easily accessibIe
location either on the machine or nearby.
prohibited
Cutting and welding operations shall not be conducted when any of the following conditions exist:
0
The area may contain flammable vapors in excessof 10% of the L.E.L.
l
Large quantities of exposed, readily ignitable materials such as bulk sulfur are
stored in the area.
Rev.: 5194
8.4
PERSONAL PROTECTION
The following sections present the personal protective equipment such as clothing, eye and face
protection, respiratory protection, and noise protection.
8.4.1
8.4.2
8.43
Clothing
0
To protect the skin during cutting or welding operations, wear gauntlet type gloves
and protective aprons. Depending on the job, it may be necessary to also wear
leggings, cape sleeves or shoulder covers, and skull caps under helmets.
0
Sleeves and collars should be buttoned, pockets should be removed from the front
of clothing or buttoned with a flap, and pants should be uncuffed to prevent the
retention of sparks.
0
To prevent patter from getting into shoes, use spats or have pants overlap shoes.
0
Woolen clothing is preferred but cotton material, preferably flame retardant, is
acceptable.
0
Keep outer clothing free from oil or grease.
Eye and Face Protection
0
Approved eye protection must be worn at all times by welders and their assistants
to protect against flying sparks, radiant energy, ultraviolet, visible and infrared
radiation.
0
Helmets must be designed to protect the face, forehead, neck and ears from radiant
heat.
0
Where exposure to flash exists for the other personnel, a screen should be used.
~esDiratory
Protectl ‘on
Adequate ventilation (natural or mechanical) is necessary in all cutting and welding operations.
Respiratory protection may also be necessaryto prevent unacceptableexposure levels to toxic fumes
and gases. Avoid breathing the fume plume.
8.4.4
floise Protection
Engine driven generators, plasma arc cutting, and other processesmay exposepersonnel to excessive
noise. If excessive noise cannot be controlled at the source, the use of ear plugs or muffs is required.
8.5
HOT WORK PERMIT
No employee is to begin hot work unless a Hot Work Permit has been obtained. It is the
responsibility of the Site Manager to request this permit. The Hot Work Permit shall be signed by
the Site Manager and Site Health and Safety Offricer and explained to each affected employee.
Rev.: 5194
Note:
It is the responsibility
of the Site Manager
practices of the Hot Work Permit.
to see that workers comply
with all safety
The Hot Work Permit will be valid for a single work shift only. On projects requiring more than a
single work shift, a new permit shall be completed at the start of each shift. The permit shall be
displayed at the project site.
At the conclusion of the project, the Hot Work Permits will be forwarded to the Site Manager and
placed in the project file.
Rev.: Y94
HOT
WORK
PERMIT
LOCATION:
SITE HEALTH
AND SAFETY OFFICER:
SITE MANAGER:
Do not cut or use other open flame or spark producing equipment until the following precautions have been
taken.
PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT
USED:
(Initial Each Item)
The location where the work is to be done has been personally examined?
Any available fire protection systems are in service?
There are no flammable dusts, vapors, liquids or unpurged tanks (empty) in the area?
Explosimeter reading <lo% LEL?
All combustible items have been moved away from the operation, or otherwise
protected with fire curtains or equivalent7
Ample portable fire suppression equipment has been provided?
Arrangements have been made to patrol the area for at least l/2 hour after the work
has been completed?
The phone number for the local Fire Department is
$1)
A fire watch is provided?
(I) Note: For hot work conducted at MCB Camp Lejeune, permission must be obtained from the Fire
Department in advance before initiating the work by dialing (9 10) 45 I-3004. See Attachment A
for a list of telephone numbers in the event that the aforementioned number is not accessible.
(SHSO Signature)
(Site Manager Signature)
ATTACHMENT
ONLY
A
911
..................................
FIRE DEPARTMENT
EMERGENCY
Fire Chief/Headquarters
................................................
-451-5815
Secretary.............................................................451-581
HeadquartersFAX
...................................................
DeputyFireChief......................................................451-595
Assistant Chief, Dispatcher #l ............................................
Assistant Chief, Dispatcher #2 ............................................
Assistant Chief, Training ................................................
..451-597
6
451-5833
45 l-0103
451-3314
.............................................
.45 l-3320
Fire Prevention Inspector ................................................
Fire Prevention Inspector ................................................
451-3327
Fire Alarm Operator ....................................................
Fire Station #l, MCAS (New River) ......................................
45 l-3004
Assistant Chief, Prevention
Fire Station #2, Midway Park (Housing Area) ................................
TruckCo.#2
.......................................................
FireStation#3,HadnotPoint.............................................451-585
Fire Station ##4,Paradise Point (Housing Area) ..............................
FireStation#5,IndustrialArea
.........................................
..............................................
Fire Station #6, Camp Geiger
Fire Station #7, Courthouse Bay .........................................
Fire Station #8, Camp Johnson (Montford Point) ............................
FireStation#lO,RifleRange.............................................451-792
5
6
45 l-0103
.451-6620
451-2383
..451-238
3
6
.451-2132
..451-213
1
451-0538
-451-7221
.451-0820
2
--
MATERIAL
ATTACHMENT B
SAFETY DATA SHEETS
--I
r
Material
Safety
Data
No. 677
Sheet
from Genium’s Reference Collection
1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE
Genium Publishing Corporation
1145 Catalyn Stxeet
Schenectady, NY 12303-1836 USA
(518) 377-8855
Issued: November 1988
QENIUM
PUBLISHINQ
I
~
Material Name:
CORP.
..,,............
1 ,1,2.2-TEXRACHLOROE’Ill ANE
2*0
_49
Genium
description (OriginKJses):
Used as a solvent primarily for cleaning and extraction procedures and as a chemical
ntermediate in the manufacture of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene; and as an analytic reagent by textile
nanufacturers in polymer characterization tests.
Xher Designations:
Acetylene Tetrachloride;
sym-Tetrachloroethane;
CHCl,CHCJ;
CAS No. 0079-34-5
Manufacturer:
Contact your supplier or distributor. Consult the latest edition of the Chemicalweek
Payers’ Guide (Genium ref. 73) for a list of suppliers.
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane,
Ca 100
CAS No. 0079-34-5
*This material can be absorbed through intact skin, which contributes to overall
exposure.
**See NIOSH, RZECS (KI8575000), for additional data with references to
reproductive, tumorigenic, and irritative effects.
P?
F
0
kG~
*See sect. 8
R 1
I
4
s -__
K
--
OSHA PEL (Skin*)
8-l-h TWA: 1 ppm, 7 mg/m3
ACGIH TLV (Skin*), 1988-89
TLV-TWA:
1 ppm, 7 mg/m3
Toxicity Data**
Human, Oral, ‘Il&
30 mgAcg
Human, Inhalation, x:
loo0 mg/m3 (30 Mins)
Rat, Oral, LD,: 800 mg/kg
s:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Molecular Weight: 168 GramsMole
Boiling Point: 295’F (146’C)
Solubility in Water (%): Insoluble
Melting Point: -47°F (-44’C)
Specific Gravity @JO = 1): 1.58658 at 77’F (25YJ)
% Volatile bv Volume: Ca 100
Vapor Press&:
6 Torrs at 77°F (25-C)*
Appearance and Odor: A colorless, nonflammable, heavy, mobile liquid; sweetish, suffocating, characteristic chloroform odor. The odor
recognition threshold is reported to be less than 3 ppm.
*At 77’F (25’C) the concentration of 1,1,2,2-tetrachlomethane
in saturated air is approximately
7900 ppm.
Extinguishing
Media: *1,1,2,2-Tehachloroethane
does not burn. Use extinguishing agents that will put out the surrounding fire. Unusual
Fire or Explosion Hazards: None rqxwtcd. Special Fire-fighting
Procedures: Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with
a full facepiece operated in the pressure-demand or positive-pressure mode to protect against the effects of the nearby fire.
Stability/Polymerization:
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroetbane
is stable in closed containers during routine operations at room temperature.
Hazardous polymerization cannot occur. Chemical Incompatibilities:
Hazardous reactions between 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and 2,4dinitmphenyl disulfide, nitrogen tetroxide, chemically active metals such as potassium; and strong caustics such as potassium hydroxide,
sodium, sodium-potassium alloy, hot iron, aluminum, and zinc in the presence of steam are reported. Conditions to Avoid: Prevent
exposure to the incompatible chemicals listed above. Contact with water causes appreciable hydrolysis that will degrade and decompose this
liquid. Hazardous Products of Decomposition:
Thermal-oxidative
degradation of 1,1,2,2-te!~achloroethane can produce highly toxic gases
such as carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of chlorine (ClOJ
Carcinogenicity:
NIOSH lists 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane
as a carcinogen.
Summary of Risks: 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
is absorbed through intact skin in significant amounts; one human fatality has been attributed to this route of exposure. This liquid is considered to be one of the most toxic of the common chlorinated hydrocarbons, particularly
with respect to tbe liver. Severely acute exposure causes depression of the central nervous system (CNS), which can cause death within 12
hours. Medical Conditions Aggravated by Long-Term
Exposure: None reported. Target Organs: Skin, eyes, respiratory system,
CNS, gastrointestinal system, liver, and kidneys. Priiry
Entry: Inhalation, skin contact/absorption. Acute Effects: The initial symptoms of exposure are lacrimation, salivation, and irritation of the nose and throat continued exposure can lead to nausea, vomiting, and
narcosis. Also, low blood pressure and cardiac rhythm abnormalities; respiratory depression; nausea, vomiting, burns of the esophagus,
and diarrhea; and anesthesia with dizziness leading to loss of consciousness and coma; plus possible transient liver and kidney changes.
Chronic Effects: The two sets of manifestations are (1) malaise, drowsiness, decreased appetite, then nausea and retching, a bad taste in
the throat, constipation, headache, pale stools, jaundice, and dark urine, as well as mental confusion. stupor, and coma; and (2) hand
1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE
No. 677
11188
.,.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.,.,...........
tremors, sensation of deafness, numbness in hands and feet, a decrease in reflexes, headache, and nausea. FIRST AID: Eyes. Immediately
flush eyes, including under the eyelids, gently but thoroughly with flooding amounts of running water for at least 15 minutes. Skin. Rinse
the affected areas with flooding amounts of water, then wash it with soap and water. Inhalation. Remove the exposed person to fresh air,
restore and/or support his or her breathing as needed. Have qualified medical personnel administer oxygen as required. Keep the exposed
person warm and at rest until medical help is available. Ingestion. Unlikely. Should this type of exposure occur, give the exposed person 3
glasses of water to drink and induce vomiting, then repeat this procedure. Get medical help (in plant, paramedic, community) for all
exposures. Seek prompt medical assistance for further treatment, observation, and support after first aid. Note to Physician: Workers
exposed to this liquid should be evaluated with a full battery of tests for the liver, kidneys, and CNS systems, as well as the blood.
Spill/Leak:
Notify safety personnel, evacuate unnecessary personnel, and provide adequate ventilation. Cleanup personnel must be properly clothed and equipped to protect the skin and eyes against any contact with the liquid as well as inhalation of its vapor (see sect. 8).
Vacuum the spilled 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane
and pump it into suitable containers for disposal. Waste Disposal: Contact your supplier
or a licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow Federal, state, and local regulations.
OSHA Designations
Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1ooO Subpart 2).
EPA Designations (40 CFR 302.4)
RCRA Waste, No. U209
CERCLA Hazardous Substance, Reportable Quantity: 1 lb (0.454 kg), per the Clean Water Act (CWA), § 307 (a); and the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 3 3001.
~
Goggles: Always wear protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles. Where splashing of this liquid is possible, wear a full face
shield. Follow OSHA eye- and face-protection regulations (29 CFR 1910.133). Respirator:
Use a NIOSH-approved respirator per
Genium reference 88 for the maximum-use concentrations and/or the exposure limits cited in section 2. Follow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134). For emergency or nonroutine operations (spills or cleaning reactor vessels and storage tanks), wear an SCBA.
Warning:
Air-purifying respirators will not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. Other: Wear impervious gloves, boots,
aprons, gauntlets, etc., to prevent skin contact with this liquid. Ventilation:
Install and operate general and local ventilation systems
powerful enough to maintain airborne levels of this material below the OSHA PEL standard cited in section 2. Local exhaust ventilation
is preferred because it prevents dispersion of the contaminant into the general work area by eliminating it at its source. Consult the latest
edition of Genium reference 103 for detailed recommendations. Safety Stations: Make emergency
eyewash stations, safety/quick-drench
showers, and washing facilities available in work areas. Contaminated Equipment:
Contact lenses pose a special hazard, soft lenses
may absorb irritants, and all lenses concentrate them. Do not wear contact lenses in any work area. Remove contaminated clothing and
launder it before wearing it again; clean this material from your shoes and equipment. Comments: Practice good personal hygiene;
always wash thoroughly
after using this material and before eating, drinking, smoking, using the toilet, or applying cosmetics. Keep it off
your clothing and equipment. Avoid transferring it from your hands to your mouth while eating, drinking, or smoking. Donot eat, drink,
or smoke in any work area. Do not inhale 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane
vapor.
Storage/Segregation:
Store 1,1,2,2-tetrachlomethane
in closed, airtight containers in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible chemicals (see sect. 5). Special Handling/Storage:
Provide storage areas with adequate ventilation to prevent concentrations of
the vapor from building up beyond the occupational exposure limits cited in section 2.
Transportation
Data (49 CFR 172.101-2)
DOT Shipping Name: Tetrachloroethane
DOT Hazard Class: ORM-A
ID No. UN1702
DOT Packaging Requirements: 49 CFR 173.620
DOT Packaging Exceptions: 49 CFR 173.505
IMO
IMO
IMO
IMDG
Shipping Name: 1,1.2,2-Tetrachloroethane
Hazard Class: 6.1
Label: Poison
Packaging Group: Il
References:
1,38,84-94,
100, 116, 117, 120, 122.
Judgments as to the suitability
of infwmation
h&n
for pwchascr’s
pwposcs are
o~sarily
purchasds
rcqaasibility.
l’ixrefore.
although reasonable
WC has
bea taken in the preparation
of such information,
Genium Publishing
Corp.
extends no warmotics.
tn.&a no qccscntations
and assumes no responsibility
as to the acauacy
or suitability
of sudt information
for application
to
p~chdsds
intended purposes or for consequences
of its USC.
Prepared
Industrial
p
Medical
by: PJ Igoe, BS
Hygiene
Review:
Review:
DJ Wilson,
W Silverman, MD
CIH
arIP
Genium Publishing
Corporation
1145Catalyn Street
Schenectady,NY 12303-1836 USA
Sheet No. 316
Benzene
(518)377-8854
1Issued: 1l/78
Revision: E, 8/90
Benzene (CsHs) Description: Derived by fractional distillation of coal tar, hydrodeallcylation of toluene or pyrolysis of
gasoline, catalytic reformin of petroleum, and transalkylation of toluene by [email protected]&onation
reaction. Used as a fuel; a
chemical reagent: a solvent 9 or a large number of mater& such as uaints. ~lashcs,
rubber, inks. oils, and fats; in manufac-
R
I
S
1
4
3*
extraction and rectification; as a de asing agent; in the tire industry; and in shoe factories. Benzene has been banned as an
ingredient in products intended for f?ousehold use and is no longer used in pesticides.
Other Designations: CAS No. 0071X3-2, benzol. carbon oil, coal naphtha, cyclohexatriene, mineral naphtha, nitration
benzene, phene, henyl hydride, pyrobenzol.
Manufacturer:
8 ontact your supplier or distributor. Consult the latest Chemicalweek Buyers’ Gtiden3) for a suppliers list.
NFPA
A
HMIS
H 3
F
3
i&G?0
Cautions: Benzene is a confirmed human carcinogen by the IARC. Chronic low-level exposure may cause cancer (leukemia) and bone
tissue. It is also a dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame.
I marrow damage, with injury to blood-forming
tSec.8
Benzene, ca lOO%*
1989 OSHA PELs
(29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-1-A)
8-hr TWA: 1 ppm, 3 mg/m3
15-min STEL 5 ppm, 15 mg/&
1989-90 ACGM
TLV-TWA:
10 ppm, 32 mg/m3
(29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-2)
8-hr TWA: 10 ppm
Acceptable Ceiling Concentration: 25 ppm
Acceptable Maximum Peak: 50 ppm (10 min)t
1988 NIOSH RELS
TWA: 0.1 ppm, 0.3 mg/m3
Ceiling: 1 ppm, 3 mg/m3
198586 Toxicity Data*
Man. oral, I+&: 50 mglkg; no toxic effect noted
Man, inhalation, q
: 150 ppm inhaled intermittently over
1 yr in a number of discrete, separate doses affects the
blood (other changes) and nutritional and gross metabolism (body temperature
increase)
Rabbit, eye: 2 mg administered over 24 hr produces severe
irritation
* OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1ooO, Subpart Z, states that the final benzene standard in 29 CFR 1910.1028 applies to all occupational
exposures to benzene
subsegments of industry where exposures are consistently under the action level (i.e., distribution and sale of fuels, sealed containers and pipelines,
excep
in some
coke production,
oil and gas drilling and production, natural gas processing, and the percentage exclusion for liquid mixtures); for the excepted subsegments, the benzene limits in
Table Z-2 apply.
t Acceptable maximum peak above the acceptable ceiling concentration for an S-hr shift.
$ See NIOSH, R?EC3 (CY 14OOOOO), for additional init&ve, mutative, reproductive, tumarigeaic, and toxicity data
S ifk Gravitj (15 ‘C/4 ‘C): 0.8787
vr ater Solubility: Slightly (0.180 g/100 g of Hz0 at 25 ‘C)
% Volatile by Volume: 100
Viscosity: 0.6468 mPa at 20 ‘C
Appearance and Odor: A colorless liquid with a characteristic sweet, aromatic odor. The odor recognition threshold (100% of panel) is appmximately 5 ppm (unfatigued) in air. Odor is not an adequate warning of hazard.
Flash Point: 12 ‘F (-11.1 ‘C), CC
Extinguishing
Media: Use dry chemical, foam, or carbon dioxide to extinguish benzene fires. Water .may be ineffective as an extinguishing
agent since it can scatter and spread the fire. Use water Spray to cool fire-exposed containers, flush s$ls away from exposures, disperse benzene
vapor, and protect
rsonnel attemptin to stop an uni mted benzene leak.
Unusual FIR or Ir xplosion Hazards: % enzene is a Cf ass 1B flammable liquid. A concentration exceeding 3250 ppm is considered a
fire explosion hazard. Benzene vapor is heavier
and flammable benzene vapor-air mixtures can
stored.
Special Fire-c hting Procedures: Isolate hazard area and deny entry. Since fire may produce toxic fumes, wear a self-contained breathing
apparatus (SC Q A) wth a full facepiece operated in the pressure-demand or positive-pressure mode and full protective equipment. Structural
firefighter’s protective clothing provides limited protection. Stay out of low areas. Be aware of runoff from fire control methods. Do not release to
sewers or waterways. Runoff to sewer can create pollution, fire, and explosion hazard.
Stability/Polymerization:
Benzene is stable at mom temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions. Hazardous
polymerization cannot occur.
Chemical Incompatibilities:
Benzene explodes on contact with diborane, permanganic acid, bromine pntafluoride. peroxodisulfuric acid, and
peroxomonosulfmic
acid. It ignites on contact with diox.& gen .difluoride, dioxygenyl tetrafluoroborate, Iodine he tafluoride, and sodium peroxide
+ water. Benzene forms sensitive, explosive mixture wi mdme pentafluoride, ozone, liquid oxygen, silver pert Yllorate, mtryl . rrchlo+e,
nitric
acid, and arsenic pentafluoride + potassium methoxide (explodes above 30 ‘C). A vi#omus or incandescent reaction occurs urlt brormme
trifluoride, uranium hexafluoride, and hydrogen + Raney nickel [above 410 ‘F (210 C)]. Benzene is incompatible with oxidizing materials.
Conditions to Avoid: Avoid heat and ignition sources.
Hazardous Products of Decomposition: Thermal oxidative decomposition of benzene can produce toxic gases and vapors such as carbon
monoxide.
AC-HA,
and IARC lit benzene as. resnectivelv. a suoected h mnan carcmoeen.
Y a cancer hazard. and. based on
*’
A
sufficieni human and animal evidence, a human carcinogen (Group l>:
Summary of Rkks:
Prolonged skin contact or excessive inhalation of benzene vapor may cause headache, weakness, ap tite loss, and fatigue.
The most important health hazards am cancer (leukemia) and bone marrow damage with Injury to blood-forming tissue lE m chronic low-level
exposure. Higher level exposures may imitate the respiratory tract and cause central nervous system (CNS) depression.
Medical Conditions Aggravated by Long-Term Exposure: Exposure may worsen ailments of the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, blood, and CNS.
%;le;Or
ans: Blood, central nervous system, bone marrow, eyes, upper respiratory tract, and skin.
d &try Routes: Inhalation, skm contact.
Acute ffects: Symptoms of acute overexPosure include irritation of the eyes, nose, and respiratory tract, breathlessness, euphoria, nausea,
drowsiness, headache, dizziness, and intoxrcation. Severe exposure may lead to convulsions and unconsciousness. Skin contact may cause a
drying rash (dermatitis).
Chronic Effects: Long-term chronic exposure may result in many blood disorders ranging from aplastic anemia (an inability to form blood cells)
to leukemia.
FIRST AID
Eyes: Gently lift the eyelids and flush immediately and continuously with flooding amounts of water until transported to an emergency medical
facility. Consult a physician immediately.
Skin: Quickly remove contaminated clothing. Immediately rinse with flooding amounts of water for at least 15 min. For reddened or blistered
skin, consult a physician. Wash affected area with soap and water.
Inhalation: Remove exposed person to fresh air. Emergency personnel should protect against inhalation exposure. Provide CPR to support
breathing or circulation as necessary. Keep awake and transport to a medical facili .
Ingestion: Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious or convulsing person. ‘flf ingested, do not induce vomiting since aspiration may be
fatal. Call a physician immediately.
After first aid, get appropriate
m-plant, paramedic, or community medical support.
Ph sician’s Note.: Evaluate chronic exposure with a CBC, peripheral smear, and renculocyte count for signs of myelotoxicity. Follow up any
ear 7.y mdicators of leukemia with a bone marrow biopsy. Urinary phenol conjugates may be used for biological monitoring of recent exposure.
Acute management is primarily supportive for CNS depression.
I:%-
...
.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
rei...:....../....
/.I .. ..i......_..
.A....
._.i......i.
...../.
....y.”
.L./......L.i....................................._...................,......
/_/...i ._............,.....,..._
)-......_.. ..;.................................................;......I.................................................................
i_............
Spill/Leak: Design and practice a benzene spill co-01 and countermeasure plan (SCCP). Notify safety personnel, evacuate all unnecessary
personnel, eliminate all heat and ignition sources, and provide adequate ventilation. Cleanup personnel should protect against vapor inhalation, eye
contact, and skin absorption. Absorb as much benzene as possible with an inaf noncombustible material. For large spills, die far ahead of spill
and contain liquid. Use nonsparking tools to place waste liquid or absorbent into closable containers for disposal. Keep waste out of confined
spaces such as sewers, watersheds, and waterways because of explosion danger. Follow applicable OSHA regulations (29 CFR 1910.120).
Disposal: Contact your supplier or a licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state, and local regulations.
EPA Designations
Listed as a RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.33), Hazardous Waste No. UO19
Listed as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance* (40 CFR 302.4). Reportable Quantity (RQ): 1000 lb (454 kg) [* per Clean Water Act, Sec. 307 (a),
311 (b)(4), 112; and per RCRA, Sec. 30011
SARA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355): Not listed
Listed as SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65)
OSHA Designations
Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1ooO, Tables Z-l-A and Z-2)
i:>:
..:......i..........
m:: ...:‘.
::....:;‘......... ,. ......ii.......
i..il..../...:.:.....
.;:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:...:.:.:
.,...
:.,:.:.:.:.:.~:.~.:.:.:.~:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:...:.:.:.:.:.:.,.:.:.:.:...:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.,.:.:.:.:.:...:.:.:.,.:.:.:.:.~:.:.:.:.:.:.:...:.:.:
...:.:.:.:p~:.:...:.:.:.:.:...~.:
.‘...
:.:.:.:,:.~:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:...:.~~:.:.:.;.:...:,:.:.:,:,:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.~
........_....._.......
............_.
.......
~s~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~
_.....__
::::::::.:::::.,..,........
__.n.,.,.,/,
;.._....
“i..........“:...:.:‘......
..,.,,~,..~~..~.~.~~~..~.~,.,..,,
I.........,..,....
..._..:
..,.,.....
.......:::~:...:::::.~:.:.:.:.~:,:.:.:,:~~
...........__...........
Goggles: Wear protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles, per OSHA eye- and face-protection regulations (29 CFR 1910.133).
Respirator: Seek professional advice prior to respirator selection and use. Follow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, if necessary, wear a MOSH-approved
respirator. For emergency or nonroutine operations (cleaning spills, reactor vessels, or storage tanks), wear an
SCBA. Warning! Air-purifying respirators do not protect workers in oqgen-defiiient
atmospheres.
Other: Wear impervious gloves, boots, aprons, and gauntlets to prevent skin contact.
Ventilation: Provide general and local explosion-proof ventilation systems to maintain airborne concentrations at least below the OSHA PELs
(Sec. 2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred since it prevents contaminant dispersion into the work area by controlling it at its somce!‘03)
Safety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency eyewash stations, safety/quick-drench showers, and washing facilities.
Contaminated
Equipment: Never wear contact lenses in the work area: soft lenses may absorb, and all lenses concentrate, irritants. Remove this
material from your shoes and equipment. Launder contaminated clothing before wearing.
Commenta: Never eat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Practice good personal hygiene after using this material, especially before eating, drinking,
Storage Requirements:
Store in tightly closed containers in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from all heat and ignition sources and
incompatible materials. Caution! Benzene vapor may form explosive mixtures in air. To prevent static sparks, electrically ground and bond all
containers and equipment used in shipping, receiving, or transferring operations in production and storage areas. When opening or closing
benzene containers, use nonsparking tools. Keep fire extinguishers readily available.
Engineering Controls: Because OSHA specifically regulates benzene (29 CFR 1910.1028), educate workers about its potential hazards and
dangers. Minimize all possible exposures to carcinogens. If possible, substitute less toxic solvents for benzene; use this material with extreme
caution and only if absolutely essential. Avoid vapor inhalation and skin and eye contact. Use only with adequate ventilation and appropriate
personal protective gear. Institute a respiratory protection program that includes regular training, maintenance, inspection, and evaluation.
Designate regulated areas of benzene use (see legend in the box below) and label benzene containers with “DANGER, CONTAINS BENZENE,
CANCER HAZARD.”
Other Precautions: Provide preplacernent and periodic medical examinations with emphasis on a history of blood disease or previous exposure.
Transportation
Data (49 CFR 172.101,..102)
DOT Shipping Name: Benzene (benzol)
IMO Shipping Name: Benzene
DOT Hazard Class: Flammable liquid
IMO Hazard Class: 3.2
ID No.: UN1 114
ID No.: UN1114
DOT Label: Flammable liquid
IMO Label: Flammable liquid
DOT Packaging Exceptions: 173.118
IMDG Packaging Group: II
DOT Packaging Requirements:
173.119
MSDS
Collection
References:
1,2.12.26,73,84-94,100,101,103,109,124,126,127,
Review: DJ Wilson,
Prepared by: MJ Allison. BS; Industrial Hygiene
132,134,136.138,
139,143
CIH; Medical Review: MJ Upfal, MD, MPH; Edited by: JR Shut,
MS
4
C5P
One Genium Plaza
Schenectady,NY 123044690 USA
(5 18) 377-8854
Section 1. MaterialXdentXicati~n
Sheet No. 23
Cadmium Metal/Powder
Issued: 9/77
Revision: D, S/93
., : j i
-41
Cadmium Metal/Powder
(Cd) Description: Occurs naturally in the mineral greenockite (cadmium sulfide). This
form is rare and most cadmium is obta&d by extraction fro&other ores cont&ing it as a-mineral (lead, copper,
and zinc). Zinc sulfide ores are the main source; by direct distillation or recovery from the electrolytic process. Used
in electroplating other metals, fire protection systems, nickel-cadmium storage batteries, power transmission wire,
TV phosphors, pigments for ceramic glazes, machinery enamels, baking enamels, photography and lithography,
selenium rectifiers, electrodes for cadmium-vapor lamps, and photoelectric cells; as a fungicide and a Weston
standard cell control of atomic fission in nuclear reactors.
Other Designations: CAS No. 7440-43-9, colloidal cadmium.
Manufacturer:
Contact your supplier/distributor.
Consult latest Chemical Week Buyers’ GuiaLzp3) for suppliers list.
Cautions: Cadmium is a highly toxic metal. Symptoms may be delayed several hours and include pulmonary
edema (fluid in lungs) which can be fatal. Chronic effects include kidney damage. Cd is considered a carcinogen
by several government agencies. The powder is pyrophoric and presents a significant
fiiexplosion
hazard.
Section 2. Ingredients
and Occripationti
POW&
HMISR3
H 3* 1
F
1 S
R3K3
;
Solid
R
1
HIVES
H3*I4
F0~2~0
R°K1
*Chronic
1
3-3
@
Genium
o
49 PPE-sec. 8
effects
Ex
Cadmium, ca 100%
1992 OSHA PEL
8-hr TWA: 5 M/m3
1992 OSHA SECAL*
TWA: 150r50pg/m3
1990 IDLH
50 mg/m3
I
I
Level
1993-94 ACGM TLVs
TWA: 0.01 mglm3 (total dust), Class A2 carcinogen
TWA: 0.002 mg/m3 (rcspirable fraction)
1991 DFG (Germany)
None established
1992 Toxicity Data?
Human, inhalation,
LC, *: 39 mg/m3/20
min caused
cardiac changes, throri&osis, and respiratory depression
Rat, oral, LD,,: 225 mglkg; details not reported.
Woman, inhalation, J.-C,: 129 M/m3 for 20 continuous
years produced lung tumors.
Man, TC,: 88 pg/m3/8.6 years caused kidney and ureter
toxicity with protein in the urine.
MAK
1992 NIOSH REL
Carcinogen, keep as low as possible
* Separate
engineering control limit: to be achieved in processes and work placea where it is not possible to achieve the PJX through engineering
alone. The SECAL for Cd is 15 or 50 H/m3 depending on the proeessw involved. See Federal Register 57 (178): 42222, Table VIILBl,
g/14/92.
tSee NIOSH, RTECS (EU98OOOOO), for additional mutation, reproductive,
tumorigenic,
and toxicity data
SwGon3.
.:.:
[email protected]&a
: ; ij
:
:;;;;:/i.
,.;z;
:.
..
j;/.
: ..
and work practiox
.:
” :j
Dimity: 8.642
Boiling Point: 1409 ‘F (765 *C)
Melting Point: 610 ‘F (321 ‘C)
Water Solubility: Insoluble
Vapor Pressure: 0.095 mm Hg at 609.6 ‘F (320.9 ‘C)
Other Solubiitiesz Soluble in nitric (rapidly), hydrochloric (slowly), and
Refraction Index: 1.13
other acids. The solid is soluble in ammonium nitrate solution, but the
Mohs Hardness: 2.0
powdered form undergoes an explosive reaction.
Molecular Weight: 112.4
Appearance and Odor: Silver-white, blue-tinged, lustrous, odorless, soft metal that is easily cut with a kniie. The powder is grayish-white.
Sectitin4.
FireandEqAtiion$$t+.!
: j i ; i i,‘l ..:,j. ; : i j ;.
jjj
:
.. .
i j:::
Autoignition
Temperature:
None reported
1LEL: None rep&ed
1UEL: None rcportcd
Flash Point: None reported
Extinguishing
Media: The solid metal is not flammable, but the fmely divided powder is pyrophoric. As a rule, the more finely divided the
powder is, the .qeater the potential for explosion. Use carbon dioxide, dry chemical, or sand. Unusual Fiie or Explosion Haxards: Proccsscs thal
create cadmium
dust such as cutting,
grinding,
or welding
present a serious explosion hazard in presence of ignition sources. Avoid creation of
cadmium dust clouds. Special Fire-fighting
Procedures: Because !ire may produce toxic thermal decomposition products, wear a self-contained
breathing apparatus (SCBA) with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or positive-pressure mode. Do not release runoff from fire control
methods to sewers or waterways; dike for proper disposal.
Section5
Reactivity
Rata
Stability/Polymerization:
Cadmium easily tarnishes in moist air as it is oxidized to cadmium oxide. The solid is stable in dry air. The powder is
pyrophoric. Cd becomes brittle at 176 “F (80 “C). Hazardous polymerization cannot occur. Chemical Incompatibilities:
Include ammonium nitrate
(Powdered Cd), hydrazoic acid, tellurium, zinc, ammonia, sulfur, selenium, nitryl fluoride, and oxidizing agents. Conditions to Avoid: Creation of
Cd dust clouds, exposure to heat and ignition sources,
and contact with incompatibles. Hazardous Products of Decomposition: Thermal oxidative
decomposition of Cd can produce toxic cadmium oxide (CdO) fumes.
Carcinogenicity:
The following agencies list Cd as a carcinogen: IARC Class 2A @robably carcinogenic in humans),(ls3) NTP Class 2 (reasonably
anticipated to be a carcinogen),(‘@) and NIOSH Class X (carcinogen defined without further categorization),(‘s
ACGIH TLV-A2 (suspected humiu
carcinogen),(lB3) EPA-B 1 (Probable human carcinogen) and DFG MAK-A2 (unmistakably carcinogenic in animal experimentation only).(‘s3)
Summary of Rii
Dust or fume inhalation generally results in acute symptoms delayed up to 24 hr. Effects include a flu-like syndrome similar tc
metal fume fever with chills, fever, and muscle pain in the back and limbs. Pulmonary edema (fluid in lungs) can develop after severe exposure and
may result in death. If victim recovers, residual changes may include lung fibrosis (thickening)
and vascular changes. Long-term exposure to Cd
damages the liver and kidneys (accumulates, half-life = 7 to 30 yr). Proteinuria (protein in urine) of low molecular weight is the fust sign of tubular
dysfunction. Excess urinary glucose is also seen. Bone demineralization similar to osteoporosis (decreased bone density)...
Continue
on nextpagc
No. 23 Cadmium Metal/Powder
section~..~.H~th’~~~iiDa~~ontinu~~..i
5/93
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occurs not as a direct effect of Cd exposure, but indirectly by altering kidney regulation of calcium and phosphorus which are needed for strong,
healthy bones. Some studies show a correlation between anemia (low hemoglobin in blood) and highCd levels. Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) appear
to suppress Cd toxicity; Se binds up Cd, preventing it from entering body tissue and Zn may compete for the same metabolic site. Medical Condi‘%ns Aggravated by Long-Term Exposure: Kidney, blood, or respiratory disorders. Target Organs: Blood, kidney, liver, respiratory system.
hnary Entry Routes: Inhalation, ingestion. Acute Effects: Inhalation may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, nausea and vomiting,
abdominal colic, diarrhea, chest tightness, cough, headache, and weakness. Pulmonary edema could develop up to 24 hr post exposure. Kidney
damage may occur after acute exposures, but is more likely with chronic exposure. Chronic Effects: Symptoms may be delayed several years after
last exposure and include perforation of the nasal septum (tissue between the nostrils), loss of smell, chronic bronchitis, severe progressive emphysema, anorexia, insomnia, fatigue, pallor, anemia, kidney damage, bone demineralization, lung fibrosis and possible cancer of the respiratory tract.
FIRST AID
Eyes: Do not allow victim to rub or keep eyes tightly shut. Gently lift eyelids and flush immediately and continuously with flooding amounts of
water until transported to an emergency medical facility. Consult a physician immediately.
Skin: Quickly remove contaminated clothing. Wash exposed area with soap and water.
Inhalation: Remove exposed person to fresh air and support breathing as needed.
Ingestion: Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious or convulsing person. Contact a poison control center. Unless otherwise advised, have
that conscious and ulerr person drii 1 to 2 glasses of water to dilute. Do not induce vomiting because of cadmium’s irritating nature.
Note to Physicians: 6-2 micmglobulin excretion of > 200 @g creatinine indicates kidney dysfunction as does a renal cortex [Cd] of 180 to 220
@g of wet kidney cortex. Blood Cd levels are nor indicative of exposure.
Section 7. Spill, Leak, and Di~pos&Pi-o&h&s
‘.
:
::
Spill/Leak: Notify safety personnel, isolate and ventilate area, deny entry, and stay upwind. Shut off ignition sources. Cleanup personnel should
protect against inhalation. Carefully scoop up small spills and place in sealed impermeable containers. Do IKX disperse dust by sweeping.
Remember that Cd powder can be pyrophoxic and must be handled carefully. Prevent entry into sewers, drains, and waterways. Follow applicable
OSHA regulations (29 CFR 1910.120).
Disposal: Contact your supplier or a licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state, and local regulations.
EPA Designations
Listed as a RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.24): DOO6, Characteristic of Toxicity; regulatory level = 1.0 mg/L
Listed as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance* (40 CFR 302.4): Final Reportable Quantity (RQ), 10 lb (4.54 kg)t [* per CWA, Sec. 307(a)]
SARA Extremely
Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355), TPQ: Not listed
Liited as a SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65)
OSHA Designations
Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1027)
t No reporting of releases of this substance is required if the diameter of the pieces of the solid metal is equal to or exceeds 100 pm (0.004 in.)
‘e&on&
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;oggles: Wear protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles, per OSHA eye- and facepmteztion regulations (29 CFR 1910.133). Because
mntact lens use in industry is controversial, establish your own policy. Respirator: Seek professional advice prior to respirator selection and use.
Follow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, if necessary, wear a MSHA/NIOSH-approved
respirator. For any detectable concentration, use a SCBA or supplied air respirator (with auxiliary SCBA) with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure
mode. For emergency or nonmutine operations (cleaning spills, reactor vessels. or storage tanks), wear an SCBA. Warn&? Air-purifying respiratars do notprotect works in oxygen-dejicien? atmospheres. If respirators are used, OSHA requires a written respiratory protection program that
includes at least: medical certification, training, fit-testing, periodic environmental monitoring, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and convenient,
sanitary storage areas. Other: Wear gloves, boots, aprons, and gauntlets to prevent Cd dust from contacting skin. Ventilation: Provide general and
Local exhaust ventilation systems to maintain airborne concentrations below the OSHA PEL or SECAL (Sec. 2). Lunchroom facilities should not
have concentrations above 2.5 Mm3 at any time. Local exhaust ventilation is preferred because it prevents contaminant dispersion into the work
area by controlling it at its source.
Safety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency eyewash stations. safety/quick-drench showers,
and washing facilities. Contaminated Equipment: Separate contaminated work clothes fmm street clothes; launder before reuse. Remove Cd from
shoes and clean PPE. Comments: Never eat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Practice good personal hygiene after using Cd, especially before eating,
drinking, smoking, using the toilet. or applying cosmetics.
I
Storage/Handling
Requirements: Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from heat, ignition sources, and incompatibles. Do not allow
cadmium dust to build up in storage area.
Engineering Controls: To reduce potential health hazards, use sufficient dilution or local exhaust ventilation to control airborne contaminants and
to maintain concentrations at the lowest practical level.
Administrative
Controls: Prohibit workers from removing Cd fmm protective clothing and equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means
that disperses Cd into the air. Employees must not enter eating facilities while wearing PPE unless it is vacuumed with a HEPA. Consider preplacement and periodic medical exams of exposed workers emphasizing the blood, kidneys, liver, and respiratory system. Educate workers on
Cadmium’s carcinogenicity.
Transpoktion
Data (49 CFR 172.101)
Packaging Authorizations
DOT Shipping Name: poisonous solids, n.o.s.*,
Quantity Limitations
Pymphoric metals, n.0.s.t
a) Exceptions: 173.153*, Nonet
a) Passenger Aircrafi or Railcar: 100 kg*,
b) Non-bulk Packaging: 173.213*, .187 't
DOT Hazard Class: 6.1 l , 4.2t
Forbiddent
c) Bulk Packaging: 173.240*, .242t
ID No.: UN281 I*, UN1383t
b) Cargo Aircraft Only: 200 kg*, Forbidden1
30T Packing Group: III*, It
Vessel Stowage Requirements
,OT Label: Keep away from food*, Spontaneously Combustiblet
a)
Vessel Stowage: A*, Dt
special Provisions (17X102):-*+,
Bllt
b) Other: * Solid metal, t Powder
MSDS Cdfection
References: 26.73.100.
101, 103,124,126,127,132,133,136,139,148,159,167,169.183,185,186
Prepared by: M Gannon, BA; Industrial
Hygiene
Review: PA Roy, MPH, CIH; Medical
Review: TW Thobum, MPH, MD
Genium Publishing
Corporation
1145Catalyn Street
Schenectady,NY 12303-1836 USA
Sheet No. 83
Chromium MetaWowder
(518) 377-8854
Revision: A. 1l/89
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Chromium Metal/Powder
Description: Obtained from chrome ore, chromite (FeC Tz’3 ), by electrolysis of chromium
;olutions, by direct reduction (fenochrome), and by reducing the oxide with finely d 1v 1.d ed carbon or aluminum. Used for
bromeplating other metals; for greatly increasing metal resistance and durability; in manufacturing chrome-steel or
:hrome-nickel-steel alloys (stainless steel); as a constituent of inorganic pigments; as protective coating for automotive
md equipment accessories; and in nuclear and high-temperature research.
Dther Designations: Chrome; Cr; CAS No. 744047-3.
Manufacturer:
Contact your supplier or distributor. Consult the latest Chemicalweek
Buyers’
Guide (Genium
ref. 73)
For a suppliers list.
1
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Chromium metal/Powder, ca 100%
ACGIH TLV, 1988-89*
OSHA PEL
TLV-TWA:
0.5 mg/m3
8-hr TWA: 1 mg/m3
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NIOSH DEL, 1987’
8-hr TWA (for chromium metal
and insoluble salts): 1 mg G/m3
Toxicity Data$
Rat, implant, ‘IDLo: 1200 pg/kg body weight
administered intermittently over six weeks
* This TLV is applicable to Cr+* and Cr+’ compounds. For water soluble and water-insoluble
Cr+‘, the Mr lWA
is 0.05 mg Cr *‘/ma. Certain water-insoluble
0“
compounds (zinc chromate, calcium chromate, lead chromate, barium chromate, strontium chromate, and sintered chromium trioxide) are designated as Ala (human
carcinogen).
t The NIOSH REX (lO-hr TWA) for carcinogen CY‘compounds
is 1 w;
for noncarcinogenic
Ct’ compounds (including chromic acid), the RELs (lO-hr ‘IWAs)
are 25 w/m3 and 50 pg/m’ (15~min ceiling ). The noncarcinogenic
compounds include mono- and dicbrornates of hydrogen, cesium, sodium, lithium, potassium,
rubidium, ammonia, and Cr+‘ (chromic acid anhydride).
Any and all Cr+‘ materials excluded from the noncarcinogenic
group above are carcinogenic Cr+‘ compounds.
$ See NIOSH, RTECS (GB42OWOO),
for additional data with references to tumorigenic
effects.
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Boiliig Point: 4788 ‘F (2642 ‘C)
Melting Point: 3452 “F (1900“C)
Vapor Pressure: 1 nun Hg at 2941 ‘F (1616 “C)
Vapor Density (Air = 1): 1.79
Appearance
Atomic Weight: 5 1.9% g/m01
Specific Gravity (H,O = 1 at 39 l F (4 ‘C)): 7.2 at 68 ‘F (20 ‘C)
Water Solubility: Insoluble
and Odor: Steel-gray, lustrous met& no odor.
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Flash Point: None reported
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Autoignition
Temperature:
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Cloud, 1076 “F (580 ‘C); dust
layer, 752 “F (400 ‘C)
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LEL: Dust cloud explosion,
0.230 ozlti
Extinguishing
Media: Use dry chemical or sand.
Unusual Fire or Explosion Hazards: Particle size and dispersion in air determine reactivity. Chromium powder explodes spontaneously in air,
while chromium dust suspended in CO, is ignitable and explosive when heated.
Special File-fighting
Procedures: Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with a full facepiece operated in the pressure-demand or
positive-pressure mode.
*One hundred percent of dust goes through a 74-m
~~~~,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
sieve. A 140-mJ spark can ignite a dust cloud.
Stabilitv/Polvmerixation:
Chromium is stable when properly handled and stored. Hazardous polymerization cannot occur.
.
Chemical Incompatibilities:
Chromium reacts readily with dilute, not nitric, acids to form chromous salts. It is soluble in acids (not nitric) and
strong alkalis. Its powder is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, includmg high 0, concentration. Evaporation of mercury (Hg) from Cr
amalgam leaves pyrophoric chromium. Finely divided Cr attains incandescence with nitrogen oxide, potassium chlorate, and sulfur dioxide.
Molten lithium at 18 ‘C severely attacks Cr. Fused ammonium nitrate below 200 ‘C reacts explosively and may ignite or react violently with
bromine peatafluoride.
Haxardous Products of Decomposition: Thermal oxidative decomposition of Cr can produce toxic chromium oxide fumes.
Carcinogenicity:
The NTP and OSHA list chromium as a human carcinogen.
Summary of Risks: When ingested chromium is a human poison, with gastrointestinal (GI) effects. Chromium 3 (CP3) compounds show little or
no toxicity. Less soluble chromium 6 (CP) compounds are suspected carcinogens and severe irritants of the larynx, nasopharynx, lungs, and skin
(Sec. 2). Chromic acid or chromate salts cause irritation of the skin and respiratory passage. Ingestion leads to severe irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, renal damage, and circulatory shock. Chromium metal (when heated to high temperatures) and insoluble salts are said to be involved in
histological fibrosis of the lungs, which may progress to clinically evident pneumoconiosis. Exposure to chromate dust and powder can cause skin
(dermatitis) and eye irritation (conjunctivitis).
Medical Conditions Aggravated by Long-Term
Exposure: An incresed incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma occurs in workers exposed to
chromate dust.
Target Organs: Respiratory system.
Primary Entry: Inhalation, percutaneous absorption, and ingestion.
Acute Effects: Acute exposures to dust may cause headache, coughing, shortness of breath, pneumoconiosis, fever, weight loss, nasal irritation,
inflammation of the conjunct&t,
and dermatitis.
Chronic Effects: Asthmatic bronchitis.
FIRST AID
Eyes: Flush immediately, including under the eyelids, gently but thoroughly with flooding amounts of running water for at least 15 min.
1 Skin: Brush off chromium dust. After rinsing affected area with flooding amounts of water, wash it with soap and water.
Inhalation: Remove exposed person to fresh air and support breathing as needed.
Ingestion: Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious or convulsing person. If ingested, have that conscious person slowly drink 1 to 2
glasses of water to dilute. Do not induce vomoting. A physician should evaluate all ingestion cases.
After first aid, get appropriate
in-plant, paramedic, or community medical attention and support.
I Physician’s Note: Acute toxicity causes a two-phase insult: 1) multisystem shock due to gastrointestinal corrosivity and 2) hepa& renal,
hematopoetic insult. Treatment should use ascorbic acid as a neuhalizer with gastric lavage. If the ingestion is substantial,
exchange transfusions
and/or consider hemodialysis. Treat allergic dermatitis with local cortisone or 10% ascorbic acid to reduce Ci6 to CP. Ten percent EDTA in a
lanolin base applied every 24 hr helps heal skin ulcers.
SpiII/Leak: Notify safety personnel of large spills. Cleanup personnel should wear protective clothing and approved respirators. Remove heat and
sources. Provide adequate ventilation. Keep airborne dust at a minimum. Remove spills quickly and place in appropriate containers for
disposal or reuse.
Disposal: Reclaim salvageable metal. Contact your supplier or a licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal,
state, and local regulations.
OSHA Designations
Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-l )
EPA Designations
RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.33): Not listed
Listed as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance* (40 CFR 302.4), Reportable Quantity (RQ): 1 lb (0.454 kg) [* per Clean Water Act, Sec. 307(a)]
SARA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355): Not listed
Listed as a SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65)
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............... ,_._.._._. ..i__,__.__, _.__._...,.....,.,......
Goggles: Wear protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles, per OSHA eye- and face-protection regulations (29 CFR 1910.133).
Respirator: Wear a NIOSH-approved respirator if necessary. Wear an SCBA with a full facepiece when the particle concentration’s upper limit is
50 mg/m3.
Warning: Air-purifying respifators do nor protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
Other: Wear impervious rubber gloves, boots, aprons, and gauntlets to prevent prolonged or repeated skin contact.
Ventilation: Provide generat and local explosion-proof ventilation systems to maintain airborne concentrations below the OSHA standard
(Sec. 2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred since it prevents contaminant dispersion into the work area by eliminating it at its source (Genium
ref. 103).
Safety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency eyewash stations, safetylquick-drench showers, and washing facilities.
Contaminated
Equipment: Never wear contact lenses in the work area: soft lenses may absorb, and all lenses concentrate, irritants. Launder
contaminated clothing before wearing. Remove this material from your shoes and equipment.
Comments: Never eat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Practice good personal hygiene after using thii material, especially before eating, drinking,
smoking, using the toilet, or applying cosmetics.
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Storage Requirements: Store material in cool, dry, well-ventilated area separate from acids and oxidizing agents. Seal and protect containers
from physical damage. Keep away from heat or ignition sources.
Engineering Controk: Avoid dust inhalation. Practice good housekeeping (vacuuming
and wet sweeping) to minimize airborne particulates
and to prevent dust accumulation. Use nonsparking tools and ground electrical equipment and machinery.
Transportation
Data (49 CFR 172.101, .102): Not listed
rgmuon
I.-*-
:.:
MSDS Colk&m
References: 1,2,26,38,80,87.88,89,100,109,124,
126
Prepared
by: MJ Allison, BS; Industrial Hygiene Review: DJ Wilson, CIH; Medical Review: MJ &dies,
MD
-7
@II-
Genium Publishing
Corporation
Sheet No. 830
l,l-Dichloroethane
1145 Catalyn Street
Schenectady, NY 12303- 1836 USA
I
(5 18) 377-8854
1Section 1. MaterialIdent&ation’
;::
Issued: 6/92
1. : 1..
38
l,l-Dichloroethane
(CH,CHClJ
Description: Derived by various methods; by direct chlorination of ethane, as a side
R
1
3
product of &oral manufacture, by treating ethylene and chlorine with calcium chloride, by action of phosphorus chloride on I
acetaldehyde, and the reaction of hydrogen chloride and vinyl chloride at 20 to 55 “C in the presence of an aluminum, ferric,
S 2
or zinc chloride catalyst. Found as an air contaminant in submarines and space craft. Its largest industrial use is in the
K4
production of l,l,l -trichloroethane. Also used as a cleansing agent, degreaser, solvent for plastics, oils, and fats, grain
fumigant, chemical intermediate; in insecticide sprays, rubber cementing, fabric spreading, paint and varnish removers, in ore
flotation, vinyl chloride production, and as a coupling agent in anti-knock gasoline. Formerly used as an anesthetic.
Other Designations: CAS No. 75-34-3; assymetrical dichloroetbane; chlorinated hydrochloric ether; ethylidene chloride;
ethylidene dichloride.
Manufacturer:
Contact your supplier or distributor. Consult latest Chonical Week Buyers’ Guidd7’) for a suppliers list.
Cautions: 1,l -Dichloroethane is volatile and highly flammable. It is irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract and inhalation of high
concentrations causes an anesthetic effect.
Section 2. Ingredients
and Occupational
NFPA
230
_
49
iYs2
F
3
i&G:
* sec. 8
Exposure [email protected]
l,l-Dichloroethane,
reagent grade (99.7%). Impurities consist of ethyl chloride (O.OZ%), trichloroethylene (O.OS%), butylene oxide (0.08%),
ethylene dichloride (O.Ol%), and unknown (0.14%).
1991-92 ACGIH TLVs*
1985-86 Toxicity Data?
1991 OSHA PEL
TWA: 200 ppm (8 10 mg/m’)
8-hr TWA: 100 ppm (400 mg/m’)
Mouse, oral, TD,: 185 g/kg administered intermittently
STEL: 250 ppm (1010 mg/m3)
for 78 wk produced uterine tumors.
1990 IDLH Level
1990
DFG
(Germany)
MAK
Rat,
oral, LDn: 725 mg/kg; toxic effects not yet reviewed.*
4000 ppm
100 ppm (400 mg/m’)
Rat,
inhalation,
TC,: 6000 ppm/7 hr administered during
1990 NIOSH REL
Half-life: < 2hr
6 to 15 days of pregnancy caused developmental abnor8-hr TWA: 100 ppm (400 mg/m’)
Peak Exposure Limit: 200 ppm/30 min. average malities of the musculoskeletal system.
value/maximum of 4 peaks per shift
* Notice of intended change to 100 ppm/405 mg/m3.
*See NlOSH. RTECX (KIO175000). for additional reproductive, tumorigenic and toxicity data.
$ Considered a possible error since subsequent studies at higher concentrations failed to produce comparative results.(‘33)
-&i;ec~ofi3, [email protected]&[email protected]
.:.
‘::j::.
Boiling Point: 135 “F (57.3 “C)
Melting Point: -143 “F (-%.98 “C)
Vapor Pressure: 230 mm Hg at 77 ‘F (25 ‘C)
Saturated Vapor Density (air = 1.2 kg/m3 or 0.075 lbs&):
0.129 lbs/ft?
Refraction Index: 1.4166 at 68 “F (20 “C)
Surface Tension: 24.75 dyne/cm at 68 “F (20 “C)
.
:I’~S:iy’:~-
..
2.076 kg/m3 or
..j
;!j:...,.:
...
;:i:
Molecular Weight: 98.97
Specific Gravity: 1.174 at 68 “F (20/4 “C)
Water Solubility: Slightly, 05%
Other Solubilities: Very soluble in alcohol and ether, soluble in
acetone, benzene, and fmed and volatile oils.
Relative Evaporation Rate (BuAc=l):
11.6
Odor Threshold: 49 to 1359 ppm; odor is not sufficient to warn
against overexposure
1 Appearance and Odor: Colorless, mobile, oily liquid with a chloroform odor and a saccharin taste.
.Section4,.~re~dEx~l;~on:~~.:
.‘. ..:.:I
.‘:I /.: i; ;,;:i.j:I.
i.:
1.::. i !,‘,:i:
j.:
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Fiash Point: 17 ‘F (-8.33 ‘C) CC*
1 Autoignition
Temperature:
856 ‘F (49; ‘C)
1 LEL: 5.6% V/V
1 UEL: 11.4% v/v
Extinguishing
Media: A Class 1B Flammable Liquid. For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide (CO,), or “alcohol-resistant” foam. For
large fues, use fog or “alcohol-resistant”
foam. Water may be ineffective unless used as a “blanket”.
Unusual Fire or Explosion Hazards: Vapors may travel to an ignition source and flash back. Container may explode in heat of fire.
Special Fire-fiihting
Procedures: Because fue may produce toxic thermal decomposition products, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus
(SCBA) with a full facepiece operate-d in pressuredemand or positive-pressure. mode. Structural fuefighter’s protective clothing will provide only
limited protection. If possible without risk, move container from fire area. Apply cooling water to sides of containers until well after fire is out Stay
away from ends of tanks. For massive fue in cargo area, use monitor nozzles or unmanned hose holders; if this is impossible, withdraw from area
and let fire burn. Withdraw immediately if you hear a rising sound from venting safety device or notice any tank discoloration due to fire. Do not
release runoff from fire control methods to sewers (explosion) or waterways.
* 22 ‘F (-5.5 ‘C), [email protected]‘48)
Section 5. Reactivity
Data
Sta bility/Polymeriz.ation:
1,l -Dichlomethane is stable at mom temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.
Hazardous polymerization cannot occur.
Chemical Incompatibilities:
Incompatible with strong oxidizers and forms acetaldehyde in contact with caustics. l,l-Dichlomethane
will attack
some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings.
Conditions to Avoid: Exposure to heat and ignition sources and contact with incompatibles.
Hazardous Products of Decomposition: Thermal oxidative decomposition of 1,ldichlorocthane
can produce carbon dioxide (CO.&, irritating
hydrogen chloride (HCl) and toxic phosgene (COClJ fumes.
Section 6. Health
I
Hazard
Data
as a carcinogen. However, the National Cancer Institute
Cnrchwgenicity:
The IARC, (*64) NTP,@9) and OSHA(‘*) do not list 1,ldichloroethane
has recommended caution due to analogy to other chloroethanes such as 1,2-dichlorothane which are shown to cause cancer in animals.
Summary of Risks: l,l-Dichloroethane
is irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. It causes varying degrees of central nervous system (CNS)
disturbance depending on the concentration and duration of exposure. Liver and kidney toxicity is controversial.
Continue 011nai page
[email protected],,0
1992
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that severe, acute exposures can cause damage, some quote recent detailed chronic studies which indicate little capacity for
damage; still others refute the possibility of acute damage even from very high exposures. In reviewing the data it appears likely that chronic
exposure will not cause kidney or liver damage but acute exposures to high concentrations may. There is definite evidence that 1,ldichloroethane
produces liver damage in monkeys, dogs, and rats when exposed to 98 ppm/90 days. It is also unclear whether or not l,l-dichloroethane
is absorbed
through the skin. There are reports of absorption (although not in toxic amounts) and others claiming there is no absorption. Given this controversial
data it is best to take precautions as if skin absorption, and liver and kidney damage were proven to occur. Medical Conditions Aggravated by
Long-term Exposure: Chronic respiratory and skin disease, neurological damage, and liver or kidney disorders. Target Organs: Skin, CNS, liver,
kidney. Primary Entry Routes: Inhalation and skin contact. Acute Effects: Inhalation symptoms include eye, nose, and tlnoat irritation, headache,
dizziness, coughing, staggering, disturbed vision, irregular heartbeat (can result in sudden death), unconsciousness, narcosis, coma, and death due to
cardiac or respiratory failure. There is the risk of pulmonary edema (fluid in lungs). Skin contact is irritating and causes defatting, redness and
swelling. Vapor contact with the eyes causes irritation, watering eyes and lid inflammation. Splashes to the eyes produces a burning sensation,
watering, and lid inflammation. Chronic Effects: Repeated skin contact can cause a rash and scaliness. Repeated inhalation may have neurological
effects.
FIRST AID Emergency personnel shauldprorect against contamination
Eyes: Gently lift eyelids and flush immediately and continuously with flooding amounts of water until transported to an emergency medical facility.
Do not allow victim to rub or keep eyes tightly shut. Immediately consult an ophthamlologist,
Skin: l,l-Dichloroethane
vaporizes easily and poses
an inhalation hazard as well. Quickly and carefully remove contaminated clothing; I, I-dichloroethane isflammable! Rinse with flooding amounts of
water for at least 15 min. Wash exposed area with soap and water. For reddened or blistered skin, consult a physician. Inhalation: Remove exposed
person to fresh air and support breathing as needed. Ingestion: Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious or convulsing person. Contact a
poison control center. Unless the poison control center advises otherwise, have that conscious and alert person drink 1 to 2 glasses of water, then
induce vomiting. After vomiting, give 2 tbsp activated charcoal in 8 oz water to drink.
After fmt aid, get appropriate in-plant, paramedic, or community medical support.
Note to Physicians: Proper ventilation is the main treatment for acute exposure. Be prepared to support respiration if needed. Monitor liver function
studies, urine analysis, and creatinine with acute and chronic exposure.
Some
sources
report
SpiWLeak: Immediately notify safety personnel, isolate and ventilate area, deny entry, and stay upwind. Shut off ignition sources. Cleanup
personnel should protect against inhalation and skin contact. For small spills, take up with earth, sand, vermiculite, or other absorbent, noncombustible material and using nonsparking tools, place in a suitable container. For large spills, dike far ahead of liquid spill for disposal or reclamation.
Do not allow 1 ,ldichloroethane
to enter confined areas such as a sewer because of potential explosion. Follow applicable OSHA regulations (29
CFR 1910.120). Environmental
Degradation: In soil, Lldichloroethane
volatilizes rapidly but may leach into groundwater. In water it will
volatilize from a pond, lake, or river with a half-life of 6 to 9 days, 5 to 8 days, and 24 to 32 hr. respectively. In the atmosphere it will degrade by
reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with a 62 day half-life. It may also be carried back to soil via rain.
Ecotoxicity Values: Artemia saiina, brine shrimp, TL.m 320 mgAJ24 hr, bgoaim rhomboides, pinperch, TLm 160 mglLJ24 hr; Poecilia reticulata,
guppies, LC, 202 ppm/7 days.
Disposal: Contact your supplier or a licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state, and local regulations.
EPA Designations
OSHA Designations Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR
SARA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355): Not listed
1910.1000. Table Z-l-A)
SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65): Not listed
Listed as a RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.33): NO. U076
Listed as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance* (40 CFR 302.4): Final Reportable Quantity (RQ), 1000 lb (454 kg)
[ * per RCRA, Sec. 3001 & CWA, Sec. 307(a)]
$je&[email protected]
Sp~~&[email protected]&::::.;.
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Gon&s: Wear nrotective eyeglasses or chemical safety- -goggles,
per OSHA eye- and face-protection regulations (29 CFR 1910.133). Because
-contact lens use-in industry & &ntroversial, establish your own p&y. Respgator: Seek professional advice prior to respirator self&ion and use.
Follow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, if necessary, wear a NIOSWMSHA-approved
respirator. For < 1000 ppm, use any
supplied-air respirator or SCBA. For < 2500 ppm, use any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous flow mode. For < 4000 ppm, use any
supplied-air respirator or SCBA with a full facepiece. For emergency or nonroutine operations (cleaning spills, reactor vessels, or storage tanks),
wear an SCBA. Warning! Air-purifying respirators do ?wt protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. If respirators are used, OSHA requires
a respiratory protection program that includes at least: training, fit-testing, Periodic environmental monitoring, maintenance, inspection, cleaning,
and convenienf sanitary storage areas. Other: Wear chemically protective gloves, boots, aprons, and gauntlets to prevent repeated or prolonged
skin contact. Polyvinyl alcohol is recommended as suitable material for PPG. Ventilation: Provide general and local exhaust ventilation systems to
maintain airborne concentrations below the OSHA PEL (Sec. 2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred because it prevents contaminant dispersion
into the work area by controlling it at its source. (‘03) Safety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency eyewash stations, safety/quickdrench showers, and washing facilities. Contaminated Equipment: Separate contaminated work clothes from street clothes and launder before
reuse. Thoroughly decontaminate personal protective equipment. Comments: Never eat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Practice good personal
hygiene after using thii material. especially before eating, driig,
smoking, using the toilet, or applying cosmetics.
Section 9. Special Precautions and.Comments
::
Storage Requirements: Prevent physical damage to containers. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from ignition sources and incompatibles (Se; 5). Label containers to indicate thecontents’ high flammability. Periodically inspect containers for cracks and leaks. To prevent static
sparks, electrically ground and bond all equipment used in 1.1~dichloroethane manufacture, use, storage, transfer, and shipping.
Engineering Controlsz To reduce potential health hazards, use sufficient dilution or local exhaust ventilation to control airborne contaminants and
to maintain concentrations at the lowest practical level.
Administrative
Controls: Consider preplacement and periodic medical exams of exposed workers emphasizing the skin, CNS, liver, and kidney.
Educate workers about the hazards of 1, I-dichloroethane and the necessary precautions to reduce or prevent exposure.
Transportation
Data (49 CFR 172.102)
IMO Shipping Name: 1 ,l -Dichloroe.thsne
IMO Label: Flammable Liquid
IMO Hazard Class: 3.2
IMDG Packaging Group: II
ID No.: UN2362
MSDS Co~ection References: 73,89.101,103,126.127,131.132,133,
136,140, 148,149, 153,159, 162,163, 164, 167. 168,171
Prepared by: M Gannon. BA; IndllJtrial Hygiene Review: PA Roy, MPH, CIH; Medical Review: AC Darlington, MPH, MD
CiP
Genium Publishing
Corporation
OneGenium Plaza
Schenectady,NY 123044690 USA
(5 18) 3778854
Section 1.. Material Identidcritimi
i
Material Safety Data Sheets Collection:
Sheet No. 385
Ethylbenzene
Issued: 8178
Revision: B ,9/92
I
39
Ethylhenxene (ChHsCzHs) Description: Derived by heating benzene and ethylene in presence of aluminum chloride with
subsequent distillation, by fractionation directly from the mixed xylene stream in petroleum refining, or dehydrogenation
of naphthenes. Used as a solvent, an antiknock agent in gasoline; and as an intermediate in production of synthetic rubber,
styrene, cellulose acetate, diethylbenzene, acetophenone, ethyl anthraquinone, propyl oxide, and a-methylbenzol alcohol.
Other Designations: CAS No. 100-41-4, ethylbenzol, EB, phenylethane, NCI-C56393.
Manufacturer:
Contact your supplier or distributor. Consult latest Chemical Week Buyers’ Gr.~ide(‘~) for a suppliers list.
R
1
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3
S 2*
K 4
* Skin
absorption
Ethylbenzene, ca >99.0%. Impurities
1991 OSHA PELs
8hr TWA 100 ppm (435 mg/m3)
15-min STEL: 125 ppm (545 mg/m3)
Action Level: 50 ppm (217 mg/m3)
1990 IDLH Level
2000 ppm
1990 NIOSH REL
TWA: 100 ppm (435 mg/m3)
STEL: 125 ppm (545 mglm3)
1 * See NIOSH,
-se&~n3.
230
@
HMRj
H 27
L ii
Cautions: Ethylbenzene is a skin and mucous membrane irritant considered the most irritating of the benzene series. Inhalation
causes acute and chronic central nervous system (CNS) effects. It is highly flammable and forms explosive mixtures with air.
Section 2. Ingredients and Oci%p~ti~nal .Jbmitie
NPPA
PPE - sec. t
t chronic
effects
+nits
include - 0.1% meta&para xylene, - 0.1% cumene, and - 0.1% toluene.
1992-93 ACGIH TLVs
TWA: 100 ppm (434 mg/m3)
STEL: 125 ppm (545 mg/m3)
1990 DFG (Germany) MAK
TWA: 100 ppm (440 mg/m3)
category 1: local irritants
Peak Exposure Limit: 200 ppm, 5 min
momentary value, max of S/shift
Danger of cutaneous absorption
1985-86 Toxicity Data*
Human, inhalation, TC,: 100 ppm/8 hr caused eye effects,
sleep, and respiratory changes.
Human, lymphocyte: 1 mmol/L induced sister chromatid
exchange.
Rat, oral, LDm: 3500 mg/kg; toxic effects not yet reviewed
Rat (female), inhalation, TC Lo: 1000 ppml7 hrtday, 5 days/
wk, for 3 wk prior to mating and daily for 19 days of gestation produced pups with high incidence of extra ribs.(t79)
RTECS (DAO700000), for additional irritation, mutation, reproductive, and toxicity data.
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Boili~lg Point: 277 “F (136 “C)
Molecular Weieht: 106.16
Mel&
Point: -139 “F (-95 “C)
Density: 0.863 2 77 ‘F (25 ‘C)
Surface Tension: 31.5 dyndcm
Water Solubility: Slightly, 14 mg/lO mL at 59 ‘F (15 ‘C)
Ionixation Potential: 8.76 cV
Other Solubilities: ,Miscible in alcohol, ether; soluble in carbon tetrachloride, benzene,
sulfur dioxide, and many organic solvents; insoluble in ammonia
Viscosity: 0.64 CP at 77 “F (25 “C)
Refraction Index: 1.4959 at 68 “F (20 “C)
Odor Threshold: 2.3 ppm
Relative Evaporation Rate (ether = 1): 0.0106
Vapor Pressure: 7.1 mm Hg at 68 “F (20 “C); 10 mmHg at 78.62 “F (25.9 “C); 100 mm Hg
Bulk Density: 7.21 lb/Gal at 77 “F (25 “C)
165.38 “F (74.1 “C)
Critical Temperature:
651 “F (343.9 “C)
Saturated Vapor Density (Air = 0.075 lb& or 1.2 kg/m3): 0.0768 lb/ft3 or 1.2298 kg/m3
Critical Pressure: 35.6 atm
Appearance and Odor: Colorless, flammable liquid with a pungent odor.
1Sectiim4. FireandE~plosi&i%%tta.. :“:
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Flash Point: 64 “F (18 ‘C) CC
1 UEL: 6.7% v/v
.I Autoignition
Temperature:
810 ‘F (432 ‘C)
1 LEL: 1.0% v/v
Extinguishing Media: Class 1B Flammable liquid. For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or ‘alcohol-resistant
foam. For large fries, us(
fog or ‘alcohol-resistant’ foam. Use water only if other agents are unavailable; EB floats on water and may travel to an ignition source and spread
fire. Unusual Fire or Explosion Hazards: Burning rate = 5.8 mm/mitt. Vapors may travel to an ignition source and flash back. Container may
explode in heat of fue. EB poses a vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors, and in sewers. Special Fire-Bghtlng Procedures: Because fire may
produce toxic thermal decomposition products, wear a selfcontained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand
or positive-pressure mode. Cool container sides with water until well after fne is out. Stay away from ends of tanks. For massive fire in cargo area,
use monitor nozzles or unmanned hose holders; if impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. Withdraw immediately if you hear rising sound
from venting safety device or notice any tank discoloration due to fire. Do not release runoff from fm control methods to sewers or waterways.
Section 5. Reactivity Data
Stability/Polymerization:
Ethylbenzene is stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions. Hazardou
polymerization cannot occur.
Chemical Incompatibilities:
Reacts vigorously with oxidizers.
Conditions to Avoid: Exposure to heat and oxidiis.
Hazardous Products of Decomposition: Thermal oxidative decomposition of EB can produce acrid smoke and irritating fumes,
Section6.HealthHazardData
’
.::.
:
Carcinoeenicitv:
NTP,(‘69) and OSHA(t”) do not list EB as a carcinogen. Summary of Risks: Occupational exposure to EB alone
. The IARC,
is rare since it is usually present together with other solvents. El3 is irritating to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Vapor inhalation produces
varying degrees of CNS effects depending on concentration. The liquid is absorbed through the skin but vapors are not 56 to 64% of inhaled
ethylbenzene is retained and metabolized. Urinary metabolites following exposure to 23 to 85 ppm for 8 hr ate mandelic acid (64%), phenylglyoxylic acid (25%), and methylphenylcarbinoYl-phenyl
ethanol (5%). Concurrent exposure to xylene and ethylbenzene causes slower excretion
of EB metabolites. Based on the rat LD,, one manufacturer gives 3 to 4 oz. as the lethal dose for a 100 lb person.
Continue on neti page
Cqyright0 1992Ocrinm PuWslhgCmpmtioa Any mnnnndnluseonrepaducdmwiuwutlbz pblialx% prmisrionh pmtitiled.
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-,ravated by Long-Term Exposure: Skin and CNS diseases and i mpaired pulmonary function (especially obstructive
airway disease). Target Organs: Eyes, respiratory system, skin, CNS, blood. Primary Entry Routes: Inhalation,
skin and eye contact. Acute
Effects: Vapor inhalation of 200 ppm caused transient eye irritation; 1000 ppm caused eye irritation with profuse watering (tolerance developed
rapidly); 2000 ppm caused severe and immediate eye irritation and watering, nasal irritation, chest constriction, and vertigo; 5000 ppm was
>lerable and-caused eye and nose irritation. Inhalation of high concentrations may cause narcosis, cramps, and death due to respiratory paralysis.
.m exposed to pure ethylbenzene for 10 to 15 min absorbed 22 to 33 mg/cm2/hr. Immersion of hand in solutions of 112 & 156 mg/L for 1 hr
absorbed 118 & 215.7 c18/cm2/hr, respectively. Chronic Effects: Repeated skin contact may cause dryness, scaling, and fissuring. Workers
chronically exposed to > 100 ppm complained of fatigue, sleepiness, headache, and mild irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Repeated vapor
inhalation may result in blood disorders, particularly leukopenia (abnormally low level of white blood cells) and lymphocytosis.
FIRST AID
Eyes: Do nof allow victim to rub or keep eyes tightly shut. Gently lift eyelids and flush immediately and continuously with flooding amounts of
water until transported to an emergency medical facility. Consult a physician immediately. Skin: QuicUy remove contaminated clothing. Rinse
with flooding amounts of water for at least 15 min. Wash exposed area with soap and water. For reddened or blistered skin, consult a physician.
Inhalation: Remove exposed person to fresh air and support breathing as needed. Ingestion: Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious or
convulsing person. Contact a poison control center and unless otherwise advised, have that conscious and alert person drink 1 to 2 glasses of water
to dilute. Do not induce vomiting! Aspiration of even a small amount of EB in vomitus can cause severe damage since its low viscosity and surface
tension will cause it to spread over a large area of the lung tissue.
After fiit aid, get appropriate in-plant, paramedic, or community medical support.
Note to Physicians: BE1 = mandelic acid in urine (1.5 g/g of creatinine), sample at end of shift at workweeks end. Since this test is not specific,
test for EB in expired air for confirmation.
I
Section 7. Spill, Leak, and Disposal Procedures
Spill/Leak: Notify safety personnel. Isolate and ventilate area, deny entry and stay upwind. Shut off alI ignition sources. Cleanup personnel should
protect against vapor inhalation and skin/eye contact. Take up small spills with earth, sand, vermiculite, or other absorbent, noncombustible material and place in suitable container. Dike far ahead of large spill for later reclamation or disposal. Report any release >lOOO lb. Follow applicable
OSHA regulations (29 CFR 1910.120). Environmental
Transport: If released to soil, EB partially evaporates into the atmosphere, with a half-life
of hrs to wks, and some leaches into groundwater, especially in soil with low organic carbon content. Biodegradation occurs with a half-life of 2
days. Some EB may absorb to sediment or bioconcentrate in fish. Evidence points to slow biodegradation in groundwater. In air, it reacts with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with a half-life of hrs to 2 days. Additional amounts may he removed by rain. Eeotoxicity Values:
Shrimp (Mysidopsis buhia), LCa = 87.6 mgU96 hr; sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon vuriegatus) LCw = 275 mgnl% hr, fathead minnow
(Pimephales promelus) LCa = 42.3 mg/IJ% hr in hard water & 48.5 mglL196 hr in softwater. Disposal: A candidate for rotary kiln incineration at
1508 to 2912°F (820 to 16OO’C), liquid injection incineration at 1202 to 2912°F (650 to 16OO”C), and fluidized bed incineration at 842 to 1796°F
(450 to 980°C). Contact your supplier or a licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state-,and local regulations.
EPA Designations
OSHA Designations
Listed as a RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.21): No. DO01
Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-l-A)
’ isted as a SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65)
.RA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355). TPQ: Not listed
,rsted as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance* (40 CFR 302.4): Final Reportable Quantity (RQ), 1000 lb (454 kg) [* per CWA, Sec. 3 11 (b)(4) t
CWA, Sec. 307 (a)]
Section8..Specialm;o~~onData:
.::i.j.:.i..
:
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:.
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:
Goggles: Wear protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles, per OSHA eye- and face-protection regulations (29 CFR 1910.133). Because
contact lens use in industry is controversial, establish your own policy. Respirator: Seek professional advice prior to selection and use. Follow
OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, if necessary, wear a MSHA/NIOSH-approved
respirator. For < 1000 ppm, use a powered
air-purifying respirator with an appropriate organic vapor cartridge, a supplied-air respirator (SAR), SCBA, or chemical cartridge respirator with
appropriate organic vapor cartridge. For < 2000 ppm, use a SAR or SCBA with a full facepiece. For emergency or nonroutine operations (cleaning
spills, reactor vessels, or storage tanks), wear an SCBA. Warning! Air-purifying respirators do notprotect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. If respirators are used. OSHA requires a respiratory protection program that includes at least: medical certitication, training, fit-testing,
periodic environmental monitoring, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and convenient, sanitary storage areas. Other: Wear chemically protective
gloves, boots, aprons, and gauntlets made of Viton or polyvinylchloride to prevent skin contact. Ventilation: Provide general and local exhaust
ventilation systems to maintain airborne concentrations below the OSHA PELs (Sec. 2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred because it prevents
contaminant dispersion into the work area by controlling it at its source. (to% Safety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency
eyewash stations, safety/quick-drench showers, and washing facilities. Contaminated Equipment: Separate contaminated work clothes from
street clothes and launder before reuse. Remove this material from your shoes and clean PPE. Comments: Never eat, drink, or smoke in work
areas. Practice good personal hygiene after using this material, especially before eating, drinking, smoking, using the toilet, or applying cosmetics.
Section 9. Special Precautions and Comments
Storage Requirements: Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from ignition sources and oxidizers. Outside or detatched storage is
preferred. If inside, store in a standard flammable liquids cabinet. Containers should have flame-arrester or pressure-vacuum venting. To prevent
static sparks, electrically ground and bond all equipment used with ethylbenzene. Install Class 1, Group D electrical equipment. Engineering
Controls: To reduce potential health hazards, use sufficient dilution or local exhaust ventilation to control airborne contaminants and to maintain
levels as low as possible. Purge and ventilate reaction vessels before workers are allowed to enter for maintenance or cleanup. Administrative
Controls: Consider preplacement and periodic medical exams of exposed workers that emphasize the CNS, skin, blood, and respiratory system.
Transportation
Data (49 CFR 172.101)
Packaging
Authorizations
Quantity Limitations
DOT Shipping Name: Ethylbenzene
a) Passenger Aircraft or Railcar: 5L
a) Exceptions: 173.150
DOT Hazard Class: 3
b) Non-bulk Packaging: 173.202
b) Cargo Aircraft Only: 60 L
‘0 No.: UN1 175
c) Bulk Packaging: 173.242
3T Packing Group: II
Vessel Stowage Requirements
a) Vessel Stowage: B
JOT Label: Flammable liquid
Special Provisions (172.102): Tl
b) Other: MSDS
CoUecfion
References:
26,73,100,101,103,124,126,
127,132,133,136,139,140,148,153,159.162.163,164,167,168,171,
176,179
’
.
Genium Publishing
Corporation
1145 Catalyn Street
Schenectady, NY 12303-1836 USA
6P
Sheet No. 469
Fuel Oil No. 2
(518) 377-8854
Issued: 1O/81
uon 1. Material
Revision: A, 1l/90
Id~ntM’katiiW
Oil No. 2 Description: A mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons; a distillate of low sulfur content. Fuel oil no. 2
R
resembles kerosine. U&l as a general-pm&e
domes& or commercial fuel in atomizing-type burners; as a fuel for trucks,
ships and other automotive engines; as mosquito control (coating on breeding waters); and for drilling muds.
Other Designations: CAS No. 68476-30-2, diesel oil.
Manufacturer:
Contact your supplier or distributor. Consult the latest Chemicalweek Buyers’ Guidf13) for a suppliers list.
33
1
NFPA
Cautions: Fuel oil No. 2 is a skin irritant and central nervous system depressant with high mist concentrations. It is an environmental
hazard and a dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers.
&.z
*Sec.8
Section .2. Ingredients [email protected]&i Exposure [email protected]
Fuel oil No. 2*
1989 OSHA PEL
None established
1990-91 ACGIH TLV
None established
* A complex mixture (45%)
of paraffinic. olefinic,
reduces carcinogenic risk. Fuel oils can be exempted
7 Monitor NIOSH, RTECS (HZ18OOOOO),
for future
&&~fi3,phy&n&Da~~
j:;i.i.i
1988 NIOSH REL
None established
1985-86 Toxicity Data?
Rat, oral, LD,: 9 g/kg; produces gastrointestinal
(hypermotility, diarrhea)
naphthenic, and aromatic hymns;
sulfur content
under the benzene standard (29 CFR 191O.loZ8)].
toxicity data
:j’:;.Ii:,
Boil&g PO&t Range: 363 to 634 “F (184 to 334 ‘C)
Viscosity: 268 centistoke at 100 ‘F (37.8 ‘C)
Specific Gravity: 0.8654 at 59 ‘F (15 ‘C)
Appearance and Odor: Brown, slightly viscous liquid.
.:,.:
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Water Solubility:
Pour Point:* Ql
*Pour point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid flows from an inverted test container.
C&&n:4
FireanaExpl~qnia~~jil~.~~I”j~~~i:I:i~:.i::,i...I:
(~0.5%);and
benzene
(400
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p).
[A low benzene
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. .
Insoluble
‘F (-6 ‘C)
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1 Autoignition
Temperature:
494 “F (257 ‘C) 1 LEL: 0.6% v/v
Flash Point: 100 ‘F (38 ‘C) min.
1 UEL: 7.5% v/v
Extinguishing
Media: Use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, foam, water fog or spray. Do not use a forced water spray directly on burning oil since
this s&titers the fire. Use a sm&ering technique to extinguish fire.
Unusual Fiie or Explosion Hazards: Vapors may travel to an ignition source and flash back. This fuel oil’s volatility is similar to gasoline’s.
Special Fiie-fghting
Procedures: Isolate hazard area and deny entry. Since fiie may produce toxic fumes, wear a selfcontained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) with a full facepieee operated in pressure-demand or positive-pressure mode and full protective clothing. If feasible, remove
containers from fire. Be aware of runoff from fii control methods. Do not release to sewers or waterways due to health and fiie or explosion
hazard.
Section 5. Reactivity Data
Stability/Polymerization:
Fuel oil no. 2 is stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal &rage and handling conditions.
Hazardous polymerization cannot occur.
Chemical Incompatibilities:
Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents; heating greatly increases fire hazard.
Conditions to Avoid: Avoid heat and ignition sources.
Hazardous Products of Decomposition: Thermal oxidative decomposition of fuel oil no. 2 yields various hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon
derivatives and partial oxidation products including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide.
Carcino enicity: Although it has not assi ned an overall evaluation to fuel oil No. 2, the IARC has evaluated distillate (light) fuel oils as not
classifiab 7 e as human carcinogen (Group 8 animal evidence limited).
Surmnary of Risks: Excessive inhalation of aerosol or mist can cause respiratory tract irritation, headache, dizziness, nausea, stupor, convulsions,
or unconsciousness, depending on concentration and time of exposure. Since intestinal abso tion of longer cham hydrocarbons IS lower than
absorption from lighter fuels, a lesser degree of systemic effects and more diarrhea may resuT t. When removed from exposed area, affected
Hemorrhaging and ulmonary edema, pro ressing to renal involvement and chemical pneumonitis,
persons usually experience complete reeove
may result if oil is aspirated into the lungs. $ae results are more l%ely when vomiting 58 er ingestion rather than upon ingestion, as is often the
case with lower viscosity fuels. A comparative ratio of oral-to-aspirated lethal doses may be 1 pt vs. 5 ml. Prolonged or re ated skin contact may
cause irritation of the hair follicles and may block the sebaceous glands, producing a rash of acne pimples and spots, usua E”y on arms and legs.
Medical Conditions A gravated by Lon -Term Exposure: None reported.
X3z;Or
ans: Cen
nervous system ( NS), skin, and mucous membranes.
H &try Rous
Inhalation, ingesion.
Acute ffects: Systemic effects from ingestion include gastrointestinal (GI) irritation, vomiting, diarrhea, and, in severe cases, CNS de ression,
progressing to coma and death. Inhalation of aerosol or mists may result in increased rate of respiration, tachycardia (excessively rapid. %eart
beat), and c anosis (dark purplish coloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by deficient blood oxygenation).
~~~;;E~ects:%
Repeated contact wtth the skm causes dermatitis.
Eyes: Gently lift the eyelids and flush immediately and continuously with flooding amounts of water until transported to an emergency medical
facility. Consult a physician immediately.
Skin: Quickly remove contaminated clothin . Rinse with floodin amounts of water for at least 15 min. If large areas of the body are exposed or
if irritation persists, get medical help imm e4flately. Wash affect ecf area with soap and water.
Inhalation: Remove exposed person to fresh air and support breathin as needed.
Ingestion: Never give anythin by mouth to an unconscious or convu ii mg person. If ingested, do not induce vomitingdue to aspiration hazard.
Contact a physician immediate f y.
After first aid, get a ropriate m-plant, paramedic, or community medical support.
Note to Physicians: 8 astnc lavage 1s contraindicated due to aspiration hazard. Preferred antidotes are charcoal and milk. In cases of severe
aspiration pneumonitis, consider monitoring arterial blood gases to ensure adequate ventilation. Observe the patient for 6 hr. If vital signs become
abnormal or svmutoms develoa obtain a chest x-ray.
: area for large spills, remove all heat and ignition sources, and provide maximum explosion- roof
ventilation. Cleanu petiounel should protect against vapor inhalation and liquid contact. Clean up s ills promptly to reduce fire or vapor %azards.
Use noncombustib Pe absorbent material to pick up small spills or residues. For lar e spills, dike far s cad to contain. Rick u li uid for reclamation or disnosal. Do not release to sewers or waterways due to health and fire andBor explosion hazard. Follow applicable
0 KiH regulations (29
-CFR 1910:120). Fuel oil no. 2 is an environmental h&d.
Report large spills.
Dis osal: Contact your supplier or a licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state, and local regulations.
EP d: Desienations
Listed as CRCRA Hazardous Waste 40 CFR 261.21): Ignitable waste
CERCLA Hazardous Substance (40 L FR 302.4): Not listed
SARA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355): Not listed
SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65): Not listed
OSHA Designations
.
Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1000, Subpart Z): Not listed
I
I
I
Se&ion 8. Special Pr&i$i~~.~&&~~;
i ; .:.: ; i i,: ’ : j .. Ii : 1,... I i :
i .:.;.I.
‘. 1:j I, i :j i : j : ..I i : i i I /
:
Goggles: Wear roteetive eye lasses or chemical safety goggles, per OSHA
e- and face-protection regulations (29 CFR 1910.133).
Resnirator: SeePCnrofession af advice nrior to respirator selection and use. Fo7!iow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, if
necdssary, use a NIOSH-approved res$rator witimist filter and organic vapor cartridge. For-emergency or nonroutine o
‘ons (cleaning spills,
reactor vessels,
or storagetanks),wearanSCBA. Wamin ! Air-purifying rfspiratorsdo not protectworkersin oxygen-r jicieti atmospheres.
Other: Wear impervious gloves, boots, aprons, and gaun d ets to prevent skm contact.
Ventilation: Provide eneral and local explostonf ventilation systems to maintain airborne concentrations that promote worker safety and
productivity. Local ex%aust ventilation is preferreJroosmce it. prevents contaminant dispersion into the work area by controlling it at its s~urce!*~~)
Safety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency eyewash stations, safetylquick-dtench showers, and washing facilities.
Contaminated Equipment: Never wear contact lenses in the work area: soft lenses may absorb, and all lenses concentrate, irritants. Remove this
material from our shoes and equipment. Launder contaminated clothing before wearing.
Comments: x ever eat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Rractice good personal hygiene after using this material, especially before eating, drinking,
smoking, using the toilet, or applying cosmetics.
s&.jofig*
specialPrecautionsandComrne~ts.:.
1”:.
.. ‘::
::,::
:I::
.:
Storage Requirements: Use and storage conditions should be suitable for an 0% IA Class II combustible liquid. Store in closed containers in a
well-ventilated area away from heat and ignition sources and strong oxidizing agents. Protect containers from physical damage. To prevent static
und and bond all containers and equipment used in shipping, receiving, or transferring operations. Use nonsparking tools
ment. No smoking in areas of storage or use.
skin contact and vapor or mist inhalation. Use only in a well-ventilated area with personal protective
ear Institute a res iratory protection program that includes regular training, maintenance, inspection, and evaluation. Practice good personal
%.’
ygiene and house Peeping procedures. Do not wear oil contammated clothmg. Do not put oily rags in pockets. When workmg with this material,
wear gloves or use barrier cream.
Transportation
Data (49 CFR 172.101)
DOT Shipping Name: Fuel oil
DOT Hazard Class: Combustible liquid
ID No.: NA1993
DOT Label: None
DOT Packaging Exceptions: 173.118a
DOT Packaging Requirements: None
MSDS
Cottecfion
References:
1.6,7,12,73,84,103,126,127.132,133,136,143
Prepared
by: MJ Allison,
BS; lndosthl
Hygiene
Review:
rmvri.hlmIPQObvCeni~Po~OlComonti~Aw~
DJ Wilson,
CIH;
~~reaodoairn~~ol~pub~~a~~~i~~~~d
Medical
Review:
W Silverman,
MD;
EkJRed
by: JR Stuart,
Io~tsuDchcndabllicyofinforrmtimhrrinfortbcpu~~pupose~
MS
97
Genium Publishing
Corporation
1145 Catalyn Street
Schenectady, NY 12303-1836 USA
6P
Sheet No. 713
Lead (Inorganic)
(518) 377-8854
Lead (Inorganic) (Pb) Description: Exists widely throughout the world in a number of ores. Its main commercial source R 0
Genium
is galeha (l&d sulphide). Lead-mineral is separated from-&ude ores by blast-furnace smelting, drossing, or electrolytic
I
4
1
refiiing. Lead is used mostly in manufacturing storage batteries. Other uses are in manufacturing tetraethyllead and both
S 3
0
organic and inorganic lead compounds in ceramics, plastics, and electronic devices; in producing ammunition, solder,
K 0
cable covering, sheet lead, and other metal products (brass, pipes, caulking); in metallurgy; in weights and as ballast; as a
49
chemical intermediate for lead alkyls and pigments; as a constuction material for the tank linings, piping, and equipment
used to handle the corrosive gases and liquids used in sulfuric acid manufacturing, petroleum refining, halogenation, sulfonation, extraction, and condensation; and for x-ray and atomic radiation protection.
i Other Designations: CAS No. 7439-92-1, lead oxide; lead salts, inorganic; metallic lead; plumbum.
Manufacturer:
Contact your supplier or distributor. Consult the latest Chemicalweek Buyers’ Guideo3) for a suppliers list.
Cautions: inorganic lead is a potent [email protected] poison Organic lead (for example, tetmetbyl lead) has severe, but different, health effects, * Sec. 8
Occupational lead poisoning is due to inhalation of dust and fumes. Major affected organ systems are the nervous, blood, and reproductive
svstcms, and kidneys. Health impairment or disease may result from a severe acute short- or long-term exposure.
I
Lead (inorganic) fumes and dusts, as Pb,
1989 OSHA PELs (Lead, inorganic compounds)
8-hr TWA: 50 pg/m3
Action Level TWA*: 30 pglm3
ca 100%
1989-90 ACGM TLV (Lead,
inorganic, fumes and dusts)
TLV-TWA:
150 pg/m3
1985-86 Toxicity Datat
Human, inhalation, lCtO: 10 M/m3 affects gastrointestinal tract
and liver
Human oral, ‘IDLo: 450 mgflrg ingested over 6 yr affects
peripheral and central nervous systems
Rat, oral, TDL0: 790 mg/kg affects multigeneration reproduction
1988 NIOSH REL
29 CFR 1910.1025 Lead Standard
10&r TWA: cl00 pg/m3
Blood Lead Level: 40 pg/lOO g
+ Action level applies to employee exposure without regard to respirator use.
t See NIOSH, RTECS (OF7525000),
for additional mutative, reproductive, aad toxicity data
~~~~~~~~~~
......_.......
................................._..........
..._.............................
._,.,.,.,.,.
.. .,.,.,..
.............
..................... ............,.............,....._.....
........._.....
. .....
MolccuIar Weight: 207.20
Melting Point: 621.3 ‘F (327.4 “C)
Specific Gravity (20 ‘c/4 ‘C): 11.34
Vapor Pressure: 1.77 mm Hg at 1832 ‘F (1000 ‘C)
Water Solubility: Relatively insoluble in hot or cold water*
Viscosity: 3.2 cp at 621.3 “F (327.4 ‘C)
Appearance and Odor: Bluish-white, silvery, gray, very soft metal.
more easily at a .low
.:..* Lead~.dissolves
_. ._,._.
........pH.
... ........... ......................._......L............................................
......_....._...................................................................................................._.............i.....
-:..:.......\L....I_...........................
...........
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
* ........i..........i.........................................
:::.:.:.:.:.:.:::.:.:;:.:.:.:~.:.:.:.:.~:~~:~:.:.:.:
.....................................................................................................................................................................................
.....
..A.
....,..
.A...~
...,.........,..
....,.
,..,....
,...
.....,:............................... ....... ............i ..,.,,.
Flash
Pnintt
None
renmted
1 Autoignition
Temnerature:
None mnortcd
1 LEL: None rewrted
1 UEL: None mnorted
Extinguishing
Media: Use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray. or foam to extinguish fue.
Unusual Fiie or Explosion Hazards: Flammable and moderately explosive in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame.
Special Fire-fighting Procedures: Isolate hazard area and deny entry. Since fire may produce toxic fumes, wear a self-contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) with a full facepiece operated in the pressure-demand or positive-possum mode and full protective equipment. Be aware of
runoff from fii control methods. Do not release to sewers or waterways.
Stabilitv/Polvmerixation:
Lead is stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions. It tarnishes on
exposurk to &. Hazardous polymerization cannot o&r.
Chemical Incompatibiitiesz
Mixtures of hydrogen peroxide + trioxane explode on contact with lead. Lead is incompatible with sodium azide,
zirconium, disodium acetylide, and oxidants. A violent reaction on ignition may occur with concentrated hydrogen peroxide, chlorine trilluoride,
sodium acetylide (with powdered lead), ammonium nitrate (below 200 “C with powdered lead). Lead is attacked by pure water and weak organic
acids in the presence of oxygen. Lead is resistant to tap water, hydrofluoric acid, brine, and solvents.
Conditions to Avoid: Rubber gloves containing lead may ignite in nitric acid.
Haxardous Products of Decomposition: Thermal oxidative decomposition of lead can produce highly toxic fumes of lead.
Carcinogenicity:
Although the NTP and OSHA do not list lead as a carcinogen, the IARC lists it as probably carcinogenic to humans, but having
(usually) no human evidence. However, the literature reports instances of lead-induced neoplasms, both benign and malignant, of the kidney and
other organs in laboratory rodents. Excessive exposure to lead has resulted in neurologic diiorders in infants. Experimental studies show lead has
reproductive and teratogenic effects in laboratory animals. Human male and female reproductive effects are also documented.
Summary of Risks: Lead is a potent, systemic poison that affect a variety of organ systems, including the nervous system, kidneys, reproductive
system, blood formation. and gastrointestinal (GI) system. The most important way lead enters the body is through inhalation, but it can also be
ingested when lead dust or unwashed hands contaminate food, drink. or cigarettes. Much of ingested lead passes through feces without absorption
into the body. Adults may absorb only 5 to 15% of ingested lead; children may absorb a much larger fraction. Once in the body, lead enters the
bloodstream and circulates to various organs. Lead concentrates and remains in bone for many years. The amount of lead the body stores
increases as exposure continues, with possibly cumulative effects. Depending on the dose entering the body, lead can be deadly within several
days or affect health aftcr many years. Very high doses can cause brain damage (encephalopathy).
Medical Conditions Aggravated by Exposure: Lead may aggravate nervous system disorders (e.g., epilepsy, neuropathies), kidney diseases,
high blood pressure (bypcrtension), mfertility. and anemia. Lead-induced anemia and its effect on blood presssure can aggravate cardiovascular
disease.
Continue on next page
Target Organs: Blood, central and peripheral nervous systems, kidneys, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Prima
Entry Routes: Inhalation, ingestion.
Acute z ffectsz An acute, short-term dose of lead could cause acute encephalopatby with seizures, coma, and death. However, short-term
ex sures of this magnitude are rare. Reversible kidney damage can occur from acute exposure, as well as anemia.
Clonic
Effects: Symptoms of chronic long-term overex sure include appetite loss, nausea, metallic taste in the mouth, lead line on gingival
(gum).tissue, constipahon, anxiety, anemia, pallor of the p”ace and the eye grounds, excessive tiredness, weakness, insomnia, headache, nervous irntabihty, fine tremors, numbness, muscle and joint pain, and colic accompanied by severe abdominal pain. Paralysis of wrist and, less often,
ankle extensor muscles may occur after years of increased lead absorption. Kidney disease may also result from chronic overexposure, but few, if
any, symptoms appear until severe kidney dama e has occurred. Reproductive damage is characterized by decreased sex drive, un tence, and
sterility in men; and decreased fertility, abnorm ‘3 menstrual cycles, and miscarriages in women. Unborn children may suffer neuro p”.ogic damage
or developmental problems due to excessive lead exposure in pregnant women. Lead poisoning’s severest result is encephalopathy manifested by
severe headache, convulsions, coma, delirium, and possibly death.
FIRST AID
Eyes: Gently lift the eyelids and flush immediately and continuously with flooding amounts of water until transported to an emergency medical
facility. Consult a physician immediately.
if any health
I Skin: Quickly remove contaminated clothing. Rinse with flocding amounts of water for at least 15 min. Consult a physician
I
_ _
complaints develop.
Inhalation: Remove exposed person to fresh air and support breathin as needed. Consult a physician.
Ingestion: Never give anvthiug by mouth to au unconscious or conv 9. smg-* person. If large amounts of lead were ingested.
induce vomitine with
I
Ipecac syrup. Con&lt a physic&nimmediately.
I
Spill/Leak: Notify safety personnel and evacuate all unnecessary personnel immediately. Cleanup personnel should protect against inhalation of
dusts or fume and contact with skin or eyes. Avoid creating dusty conditions. Water sprays may be used in large quantities to prevent the formation of dust. Cleanup met+&
such as vacuuming (with an a ropriate filter) or wet mopping minimizes dust dis
ion. Scoop the spilled
matenal mto closed contamers for disposal or reclamahon. I&low applicable OSHA re ulanons (29 CFR 1910.E.
Dis
1: Contact your supplier or a licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. k ollow applicable Federal, state, and local regulations.
EPKignations
Listed as ;RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.33 A
ndix II-EP Toxicity Test Procedures)
Listed as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance* (40 CFR 3&!?) R
rtable Quantity (RQJ: 1 lb (0.454 kg) [* per Clean Water Act, Sec. 307(a)]
SARA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355): Not hst
GfO
Listed as a SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65)
OSIIA Designations
Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1000. Table Z-1-A)
I
I
I
I
Goggles: Wear protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles, per OSHA eye- and face-protection regulations (29 CFR 1910.133).
Respirator: Seek rofessional advice prior to respirator selection and use. Follow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, if neceswear a NIOS R -approved respirator. For emergency or nonroutine operations (cleaning s ills, reactor vessels. or storage tanks), wear an
%A.
Waming! Air-pur~jjhg
respirators a’o not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmosp 7le res.
Other: Wear impervious gloves, boots, aprons, and auntlets to prevent skin contact Protective clothing made of man-made fibers and lacking
turn--,. pleats, of~ketsrctamlasdust~omleacl!
Ven abon: Provl e eneral and local venhlahon systems to maintain airborne concentrations below the OSHA PELs (Sec. 2). Local exhaust
ventilation is pref
since it prevents contaminant dispersion into the work area by controlling it at its source!103)
Safety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency eyewash stations, safety/quick-drench showers, and washing facilities.
Contaminated Equipment: Never wear contact lenses in the work area: soft lenses may absorb, and all lenses concentrate, irritants. Remove this
material
from our shoes and equipment. Launder contaminated clothing before wearing.
Comments: Pyever eat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Practice good personal hygiene after using this material, especially washing hands before
eating, drinking, smoking, using the toilet, or applying cosmetics.
Storage Requirements: Store in tightly closed containers in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from all incompatible materials, direct
sunlight, and heat and ignition sources.
Eneineerine Controls: Educate worker about leads hazards. Follow and inform emnlovees of the lead standard (29 CFR 1910.1025). Avoid inhalation of lead dust and fumes and ingestion of lead. Use only with appropriate persbnd rotective gear and adequate ventilation. I&itute a
res iratory protection program that includes regular training, maintenance, inspection, ana evaluation. Avoid creating dusty conditions. Segregate
anB launder contaminated clothing. Take precautions to protect laundry personnel. Practice good personal hygiene and housekeeping procedures.
Transportation
Data (49 CFR 172.102)
IMO Shipping Name: Lead compounds, soluble, n.o.s.
IMO Hazard Class: 6.1
ID No.: UN2291
IMO Label: St. Andrews Cross (X. Stow awav from foodstuffs)
IMDG Packaging Group: LII .
s
MSDS
CotJection
Refet-ences:
26.38,73,84.85.88,89.90.100,
101.103,109,
124,126,135
133, 134.136,138,
139.142.143
I
f5P
Genium Publishing
Corporation
1145Catalyn Street
Schenectady,NY 12303-1836 USA
Sheet No. 311
Methyl Chloroform
(518)377-8854
Issued: 1l/75
Revision: F, 3/92 Errata: 6192
Section 1. Material Identification
Methyl Chloroform (C$-I$&) Description: Derived by catalytic addition of hydrogen chloride to l,l-dicbloroethylene
or by R
re-fluxing chlorine monoxide with carbon tetrachloride and chloroethane. Available in technical and solvent grades which
I2
differ oniy in the amount of stabilizer added to prevent metal parts cormsion. Used as a solvent for oils, wax&, wars,cleaning
s
precision instruments, and pesticides; as a component of inks and drain cleaners; in degreasing metals, and textile pmcessing.
K
In recent years, methyl chloroform has found widespread use as a substitute for carbon tetrachloride.
Other Designations: CAS No. 71-55-6, cxrtrichloroethane; lnhibisol; l,l,l-trichloroethane;
Stmbane.
Manufacturer:
Contact your supplier or distributor. Consult latest Chemical Week Buyers’ Gui&(73) for a suppliers list.
Cautions: Methyl chloroform is a skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritant and can become narcotic with an anesthetic effect at high
concentrations.
* Data on skin absorption via methyl chloroform
is conflicting. (133)Some studies show definite absorption where others don’t.
Genium
A
2*
/I
1
w
Section 2. Ingredients and Occupational Exposure’thits
Methyl chloroform, ca 92 to 97%*
1990 OSHA PELs
8-br TWA: 350 ppm (1900 mg/m3)
15-min STEL: 450 ppm (2450 mg/m3)
1990 IDLH Level
1000 ppm
1990 NIOSH REL
15-min Ceiling: 350 ppm (1900 mg/m3)
38
1
y;
R
1
&&
*sec.8
1991-92 ACGIH TLVs
TWA: 350 ppm (1910 mg/m3)
STEL: 450 ppm (2460 mg/m3)
1985-86 Toxicity Data?
Human, oral, TD,: 670 mg/kg produced diarrhea, nausea, and
vomiting
Human, inhalation, LCb: 27 g/m3/10 min; toxic effects not yet
1990 DFG (Germany) MAKs
reviewed
TWA: 200 ppm (1080 mg/m3)
Man, eye: 450 ppm/8 hr produced irritation
Half-life: 2 hr to shift length
Rat, inhalation, TC,: 2100 pp&4 hr for 14 days prior to
Peak Exposure Limit: 1000 ppml30
mating and from 1 to 20 days of pregnancy produced specific
min (average value)/2 per shit
developmental abnormalities of the musculoskelatal system
(3 to 8%) to prevent corrosion of aluminum and some other metals. Typical inhibitors are nitromcthane,
butylene
* Methyl chloroform
usually contains inhibitors
oxide.
secondarv
butvl,~ alcohols. ketones. and nlvcol diesters.
-.---,
...~~~~~,
7 See NIOSH, RTECS (K(J2975600), for’additkal
irritation, mutation, reproductive,
$ytion3,
[email protected]&:Da~~
::j!i..
.::I
and toxicity
1’
:::.:;;i;ii.
data.
;!;;;iL;‘...I;;:
Boiling Point: 165 “F (75 “C)
Freezing Point: -22 “F (-30 “C)
Vaoor
Pressure: 100 mm He at 68 “F (20 “Cb
-.~-- ~~
Vapor Density (air = 1): 4.53
*
’
Corrosivity: Readily corrodes aluminum and its alloys
Refraction Index: 1.43765 at 69.8 ‘F (21 “C)
Viscosity: 0.858 CP at 68 ‘F (20 “C)
Appearance and Odor: Colorless liquid with a sweetish, chloroform-like
Molecular Weight: 133.42
Density: 1.3376 at 68/39X ‘F (20/4 “C)
Water Solubilitv: Insoluble
Other Solubili&s:
Soluble in acetone, alcohol, ether, benzene,
carbon tetrachloride, and carbon disultide
% in Saturated Air: 16.7% at 77 ‘F (25 ‘C)
Relative Evaporation Rate (butyl acetate = 1): 12.8
odor. The odor threshold is 44 ppm.
Sec~~n4..FireandExpIp~oII.D;a~a’j:jIi’
:j!‘i
!.
.i;..:‘j
GC;;~‘;::
I;;.:.
Flash Point: None (in convent&al
&Z’tests)
1Autoignitioa
Temperature:
932 *i (500 ‘C)
1 LEL: 7% v/v
1&L:
16% v/v
Extinguishing Media: Noncombustible liquid whose vapor bums in the presence of excess oxygen or a strong ignition source. For small fues, use
dry chemical or carbon dioxide (CO,). For large fires use fog or regular foam. If these materials are unavailable, a water spray may be used but be
aware that water reacts slowly with methyl chloroform to release hydrochloric acid.
Unusual Fire or Explosion Hazards: Vapors are heavier than air and may travel to a strong ignition source and flash back. Air/vapor mixtures may
explode when heated. Container may explode in heat of fire. Exposure to open flames or arc welding can produce hydrogen chloride and phosgene.
Special Fire-ftghting Procedures: Methyl chloroform’s burning rate is 2.9 mm/min. Since fire may produce- toxic thermal decomposition products,
wear a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with a full facepiece operated in pressuredemand or positivspressure mode. Structural firefighters’ protective clothing provides limited protection. Wear clothing specifically recommended by the manufacturer for use in fires involving methyl
chloroform. AD& coom water to container sides until after fire is extinguished. Stay away from ends of tanks. Isolate area for l/2 mile if fire
involves tax&,-&k, or & car. Be aware of runoff from fire control me&&. Do notielea& to sewers or waterways.
Section 5. Reactivity Da&
I
:
StabilitvlPolvmerixation:
Methyl chloroform is stable at room temperature
in closed containers
under normal storage and handling conditions.
Hazard&s polymerization can o&r in contact with aluminum trichioride.
Chemical Incompatibilities:
Methyl chloroform is incompatible with sodium hydroxide, nitrogen tetmxide, oxygen (liquid or gas), strong oxidizers,
and chemically active metals like aluminum, zinc, and magnesium powders; reacts violently with caustics to form dichloroacelylene; reacts slowly
with water to form hydrochloric acid; forms shock sensitive mixtures with potassium; and polymerizes in contact with aluminum trichloride.
Conditions to Avoid: Exposure to moisture, strong ignition sources, and arc-welding
units, and contact with incompatibles.
Hazardous Products
of Decomposition: Thermal oxidative decomposition (temperatures >500 “F, contact with hot metals, or under UV rays) of
methyl chloroform can produce &bon dioxide (COP) and toxic dichlomacetylen& hydrogen chloride, and phosgene gases.
.:.
:
..
.:.
.:.
Section(j.He&[email protected])ata::
::i:
:..
Carcinoeenicitv: The IARC (Class 3. inadequate evidence), (la) NTP,(‘42) and OSHA(‘61) do not list methyl chloroform as a carcinogen.
Summa~ of R&s: Methyl chloroform is considered one of the least toxic of the liquid chlorinated hydrocarbons. It is irritating to eyes, skin,
and respiratory tract. Although low in systemic toxicity, methyl chloroform is an anesthetic capable of causing death at high concentrations (>15,000
ppm), generally in poorly ventilated, enclosed areas. Quick and complete recovery is observed after prompt removal of unconscious
persons from
area of exposure. Like many other solvents, methyl chloroform sensitizes the heart to epinephrine (blood pressure-raising hormone) and may induce
cardiac arrhythmias and arrest.
Medical Conditions Aggravated by Long-Term Exposure: None reported.
Target Organs: Skin, eyes. central nervous (CNS) and cardiovascular (CVS) systems.
Continue on next page
Cclwli~ 0 1992ocdllm PIIalpaviml.
Primary Entry Routes: Inhalation, skin contact. Acute Effects: Methyl chloroform defats the skin causing irritation, redness, dryness, and scaling.
Contact with eyes produces irritation and mild conjunctivitis. Vapor inhalation can cause headache, dizziness, equilibrium disturbances, and in high
concentrations may lead to CNS depression, unconsciousness, and coma. During a O-mm exposure period these effects are observed: 100 ppm is the
observed odor threshold, at 500 ppm there is obvious odor and decmased reaction time, 1000 ppm causes slight equilibrium loss, at 5000 ppm there is
definite incoordination. and 20.000 nnm produces
surgical strenrrth anesthesia with nossible death. Mild liver and kidney dvsfunction mav occur after
CNS depression recovery. Although mtlikely, if ingeszon occt&, symptoms includd nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and pobsible esophagealburns. The
acute lethal human dose is -500 to 5000 mg/kg. Chronic Effects: None reported.
FIRST AID
Eyes: Gently lift eyelids and flush immediately and continuously with flooding amounts of water until transported to an emergency medical facility.
Do not allow victim to rub or keep eyes tightly shut. Consult a physician immediately. Skin: Quickly remove contaminated clothing. Rinse with
flooding amounts of water for at least 15 mm. Wash exposed area with soap and water. For reddened or blistered skin, consult a physician.
Inhalation: Remove exposed person to fresh air and support breathing as needed. Ingestion: Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious or
convulsing person. Contact a poison control center, and unless otherwise advised, have that consciou.s und alert person drink 1 to 2 glasses of water to
dilute. When deciding whether to induce vomiting, carefully consider amount ingested, time since ingestion, and availability of medical help. If large
amounts are recently ingested (absorption into the body is not yet likely to have occurred), and medical help or transportation to a medical facility is
not readily available, induce vomiting. Otherwise, vomiting is not recommended since aspiration of vomitus can produce chemical pneumonitis.
Note to Physicians: Do not use adrenaline or sympathomimetic amines in treatment because of the increased cardiac sensitivity involved.
Section 7. Spill;Leak,
and Disposal ProcedUres
; I:
Spill/Leak: Immediately notify safety personnel, isolate area deny entry, and stay upwind. Shut off all ignition sources. If possible without risk, shut
off leak. Cleanup personnel should wear fully encapsulating vapor-protective clothing. For small spills, take up with earth, sand, vermiculite, or other
absorbent, noncombustible material. Using nonsparking tools, place in suitable containers for disposal or reclamation. For large spills, dike far ahead
of liquid spill for later disposal or reclamation. Report any release in excess of 1000 lb. Follow applicable OSHA regulations (29 CFR 1910.120).
Environmental Transport: In water, methyl chloroform’s half-life is hours to weeks depending on wind and mixing conditions. It is very persistent
in groundwater. On land it volatilizes due to its high vapor pressure and leaches extensively. When released to the atmosphere, methyl chloroform can
be tmusported long distances and returned to earth via rain. It is slowly degraded by reaction with hydroxyl radicals and has a half-life of 6 months to
25 years. The Natural Resources Defenses Council reported recently that methyl chloroform depletes ozone.
Fcotexicity Values: Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), L&,0: 52.8 mg&‘% hr; Poecilia reticukta (guppy), LC,: 133 ppm~7 day.
Disposal: Contact your supplier or a licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state, and local regulations.
EPA Designations
OSHA Designations
Listed as a RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.33): No. U226
Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Zl-A)
Listed as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance* (40 CFR 302.4): Reportable Quantity
(RQ), 1000 lb (454 kg) [* per RCRA, Sec. 3001, CWA, Sec. 307(a), and CAA, Sec. 1121
SARA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355): Not listed
Listed as a SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65)
SectionS..SpecialProtectionlad~.i~
jj:.
.:I.:.
‘:..:iI
:.
.:i.
1.
..j;:
1:
-es:
Wear splash-proof, protective
chemical safety- -nodes
or faceshields, per’GSHA eye and face-n~tectionr&ulations
(29 CFR 1910.133).
-Be&&e contact iens use in industry is controversial, establish your own policy.Respirator: Seek professional advice prior to respirator selection and use. Follow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, if necessary,
wear a MSHAMIOSH-approved
respirator. Select respirator based on its suitability to provide adequate worker protection for given working
conditions, level of airborne contamination, and presence of sufficient oxygen. For emergency or nonroutine operations (cleaning spills, reactor
vessels, or storage tanks), wear an SCBA. Warning! Air-purifying respirators do notprotect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. If respirators
are used, OSHA requires a respiratory protection program that includes at least: training, fit-testing, periodic environmental monitoring, maintenance,
inspection, cleaning, and convenient, sanitary storage areas.
Other: Wear chemically protective gloves, boots, aprons, and gauntlets to prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact. Viton and butyl rubber [with
breakthrough times (BTs) of >8 hr and 4 to 7.9 hr, respectively] are recommended materials for protective gear. Do not use neoprene, polyvinyl
chloride (PVC), natural rubber, or polyethylene because these materials have a BT of <l hr.
Ventilation: Provide general and local exhaust (in some cases, explosion-proof) ventilation systems to maintain airborne concentrations below
OSHA PELs (Sec. 2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred since it prevents contaminant dispersion into work area by controlling it at its source.(lus)
Safety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency eyewash stations, safety/quick-drench showers, and washing facilities.
Contaminated Equipment: Separate contaminated work clothes from street clothes. Launder contaminated work clothing before wearing. Remove
this material from your shoes and clean personal protective equipment.
Comments: Never eat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Practice good personal hygiene after using thii material, especially before eating, drinking,
smoking, using the toileL or applying cosmetics.
Section 9. Special Precautions and Comments.
Storage Requirements: Prevent physical damage to containers. Store in cool, dry, well-ventilated (use pressure-vacuum
ventilation) area away from
igniti& sources, arc-welding operations, and incompatibles (Sec. 5). Regularly monitor inhibitor levels.-& not store in aluminum containers or use
pressure-spraying equipment when methyl chloroform is involved.
Engineering Controls: To reduce potential health hazards, use sufficient dilution or local exhaust ventilation to control airborne contaminants and to
maintain concentrations at the lowest practical level. To prevent static sparks, electrically ground and bond all equipment used in methyl chloroform
manufacturing, use, storage, transfer, and shipping.
Administrative
Controls: Consider preplacement and periodic medical exams of exposed workers that emphasize CNS, CVS, liver and skin.
Transportation
Data (49 CFR 172.101, .102)
IMO Shipping Name: l,l,l-Trichloroethane
DOT Shipping Name: l.l,l-Trichloroethane
IMO Hazard Class: 6.1
DOT Hazard Class: ORM-A
ID No.: UN2831
ID No.: UN2831
IMO
Cross
, DOT Label: None
-__--- Label: _ St.. Andrews
lMU(;
Packaging Group: lil
DOT Packaging Exceptions: 173.505
DOT Pa&a&w
Reauirerneats:
173.605
I
MSDS
Cottection
References:
F’rennred
bv: M Gannon.
BA:
26,38,73.89,100,
Indashial
Hveiene
101, 103,124,126.127,132,
Review:
D Wilson.
CIH:
133,136.148,153,
Medical Review
159.162.163,164
AC
Dachztoa
MPH,
MD;
Edited
by: JR Stuart.
MS
64
OneGenium Plaza
Schenectady,NY 12304-4690 USA
@ip
pewe~3.317
Issued: 8/79
(5 18) 377-8854
Revision: E, 9/92 Errata: 2/94
Section 1. Material Identification
43
Ioluene (CnH&H,) Description: Derived from petroleum i.e., dehydrogenation of cycloparaffin fractions followed by the
aromatization of saturated aromatic hydrocarbons or by fractional distillation of coal-tar light oil and purified by rectiticaiion. Used widely as a solvent (replacing benzene in many cases) for oils, resins. adhesives, natural rubber, coal tar, asphalt,
pitch, acetyl celluloses, cellulose paints and varnishes; a diiuent for photogravure inks, raw material for organic synthesis
bcnzoyl & benzilidene chlorides, saccharine, TNT, toluene diisocyanate, and many dyestuffs), in aviation and high octane
automobile gasoline, as a nonclinical thermometer liquid and suspension solution for navigational instruments.
Other Designations: CAS No. 108-88-3, Methacide, methylbenzene, methylbenzol, phenyhnethane, toluol, Tolu-sol.
Manufacturer: Contact your supplier or distributor. Consult latest Chemical Week Buyers’ Guide
for a suppliers list.
Cautions: Toluene is an eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritant becoming narcotic at high centrations. Liver and kidney damage
has occurred. Pregnant women chronically exposed to toluene have shown teratogenic effects. Toluene is highly flammable.
R 1
NPPA
I
3
s
2*
go
R3
_
* skin
4P
absorption
HMIS
H 2-g:’
ii
03
PPE-see. 8
Section 2. Ingredients and ‘Occupational Exposure Linih
Toluene, c 100%; may contain a small amount of benzene (- 1%). xylene, and nonaromatic hydrocarbons.
1992-93 ACGIH TLV (Skin)
1991 OSHA PELs
1985-86 Toxicity Data?
8-hr TWA: 100 ppm (375 mg/m3)
TWA: 50 __
ppm (188 mg/m3)
Man, inhalation, TC, _: 100 ppm caused hallucinations,
G-mm STEL: isb ppm (54 mg/m3)
and changes in mo;r activity and changes in
1990 DFt f (Germ
‘---my)
MAK+
psychophysiological tests.
1990 IDLH Level
i-l
nr‘30
TWA: 10, Yam (~00 mg/m3)
Human,
oral, LD,: 50 mg/kg; toxic effects not
2000 ppm
Half-life: 2 hr to end of shift
yet reviewed
Category II: Substances with systemic effects
1990 NIOSH RELs
Human, eye: 300 ppm caused irritation.
Peak Exposure Limit: 500 ppm, 30 mm
TWA: 100 ppm (375 mg/m3)
Rat, oral, LDa: 5000 mg/kg
average value, 2/shift
STBL: 150 ppm (560 mg/m3)
Rat, liver: 30 pmol/L caused DNA damage.
* Available information suggests damage to the developing fetus is probable.
t&e NIOSH, RTECS (XS5250000),
for additional irritation, mutation, reprodudive, and toxicity data.
f&$i*fi$
~ysi~~D&
.::
:I:,.
.::!I.
.. ...
.‘:
..
1:
II.
j
....
.Z.
Boiling Point: 232 “F (110.6 “C)
Melting Point: -139 “F (-95 “C)
Molecular Weight: 92.15
Density: 0.866 at 68 “F (2014 “C)
Surface Tension: 29 dyne/cm at 68 “F (20 “C)
Viscosity: 0.59 CP at 68 “F (20 “C)
Refraction Index: 1.4%7 at 20 “C/D
Water Solubility: Very slightly soluble, 0.6 mg/L at 68 “F (20 “C)
Other Solubilities: Soluble in acetone, alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform, glacial acetic
acid, petroleum ether, and carbon disulfide.
Vapor Pressure: 22 mm Hg at 68 “F (20 “C); 36.7 mm Hg at 86 “F (30 “C)
Saturated Vapor Density (Air = 0.075 lb/R? or 1.2 kg/m3: 0.0797 lb/ft3 or 1.2755 kg/m3
Odor Threshold (range of all referenced values): 0.021 to 69 ppm
Appearance and Odor: Colorless liquid with a sickly sweet odor.
f&&Jon
4. .Fjre and :&
i&&:&&&p;.
y;:.j
:; ; :: ; ;; ; ;;
:
:
&sh Point: 4tJ ‘F (4.4 “C) CC ~Antoignition
Tem&w
1 UKL: 7.0% v/v
LEL: 1.27% v/v
Extinguishing Media: Toluene is a Class 1B flammable liquid. To fight fire, use dry chemical carbon dioxide, or ‘alcohol-resistant’ foam. Water
spray may be ineffective as toluene floats on water and may actually spread fue. Unusual Fire or Explosion Hazards: Concentrated vapors are
heavier than air and may travel to an ignition source and flash back. Container may explode in heat of fire. Toluenes’ bumiog rate = 5.7 mm/min
and its flame speed = 37 cm&c. Vapor poses an explosion hazard indoors, outdoors, and in sewers. May accumulate static electricity. Special
Pit-e-tlghting Procedures: Because fire may produce toxic thermal decomposition products, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or positive-pressure mode. Structural firefighter’s protective clothing provides only limited
protection. Apply cooling water to sides of tanks until well after fire is out. Stay away from ends of tanks. For massive fire in cargo area, use
monitor nozzles or unmanned hose holders; if impossible, withdraw from fire and let bum. Withdraw immediately if you hear a rising sound from
venting safety device or notice any tank discoloration due to fire because a BLEVE (boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion) may be imminent.
Do not release runoff from fue control methods to sewers or waterways.
Section 5. Reactivity Data
:
:
Stabilitv/Polvmerixation:
Toluene is stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions. Hazardous
polyme&at&
can’t occur. Chemical Incompatihilities~
Strong oxidizers, concentrated nitric acid, nit& acid + sulfuri> acid, dinitrogen b&oxide.
silver perchlorate, bromine trifluoride, tetranitromethane, and 1,3-dichlom5,5-dimethyl-2.4imidlididione.
Conditions to Avoid: Contact with
heat, ignition sources, or incompatibles. Haxardous Products of Decomposition: Thermal oxidative decomposition of toluene can produce carbon
dioxide, and acrid, irritating smoke.
Section6.HealthHazardData
.. .
Carcinogenicity: lbe IARC,
NTP/‘69) and OSl-lA(‘@) d o not list toluene as a carcinogen. Summary of Risks: Toluene is irritating to the eyes,
nose, and respiratory tract Inhalation of high concentrations produces a narcotic effect sometimes leading to coma as well as liver and kidney
damage. 93% of inhaled toluene is retained in the body of which 80% is metabolized to benzoic acid, then to hipputic acid and excreted in urine.
The remainder is metabolized to c-cresol and excreted or exhaled unchanged. Toluene metabolism is inhibited by alcohol ingestion and is synergistic with benzene, asphalt fumes, or chlorinated hydrocarbons (i.e. perchlomethylene). Toluene is readily absorbed through the skin at 14 to 23 mg/
cm2/hr. Toluene is absorbed quicker during exercise than at rest and appears to be retained longer in obese versus thin victims; presumably due to its
lipid solubility. There is inconsistent data on toluene’s ability to damage bone marrow; chronic poisoning has resulted in anemia and leucopenia with
biopsy showing bone marrow hypo-plasia. These reports are few and some authorities argue that the effects may have been due to benzene contaminants. Chronic inhalation during pregnancy has been associated with teratogenic effects on the fetus including micmcephaly, CNS dysfunction,
attentional deficits, developmental delay + language impairment, growth retardation, and physical defects including a small midface, short palpebral
fLssures, with deepset eyes, low-set ears, flat nasal bridge with a small nose, micrognathia, and blunt fingertips. There is some evidence that toluene
causes an autoimmune
illness in which the body produces antibodies that cause inflammation of its own kidney.
Continl4e cmnext pq
cqyigbl8
1992 Crdom
Rwding
corpaalioo.
Any Co mmucial
use of rcpcductim
without the pltlishda
permini
is pmhith.ed.
Medical Conditions Aggravated by Long-Term Exposure: Alcoholism and CNS, kidney, skin, or liver disease. Target Organs: CNS, liver,
kidney, skin. Primary Entry Routes: Inhalation, skin contact/absorption. Acute Effects: Vapor inhalation causes respiratory tract irritation, fatigue,
weakness, confusion, dizziness, headache, dilated pupils, watering eyes, nervousness, insomnia, parasthesis, and vertigo progressing to narcotic coma.
Death may result from cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation with catecholamines loss. Liquid splashed in the eye causes conjunctival irritation,
transient comeal damage and possible bums. Prolonged skin contact leads to drying and fissured dermatitis. Ingestion causes GI tract irritation and
.mptoms associated with inhalation. Chronic Effects: Symptoms include mucous membrane irritation, headache, vertigo, nausea, appetite loss and
ohol intolerance. Repeated heavy exposure may result in encephalopathies (cerebeti ataxia and cognitive dysfunction), liver enlargement, and
..Idney dystrophy (wasting away). Symptoms usually appear at workdays end, worsen at weeks end and decrease or disappear over the weekend.
FIRST AID Eyes: Do not allow victim to rub or keep eyes tightly shut. Gently lift eyelids and flush immediately and continuously with flooding
amounts of water until transported to an emergency medical facility. Consult an ophthalmologist immediately. Skin: Quickly remove contaminated
clothing. Rinse with flooding amounts of water for at least 15 min. Wash exposed area with soap and water. Inhalation: Remove exposed person to
fresh air and support breathing as needed. Ingestion: Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious or convulsing person. Contact a poison control
center and unless otberwise advised, have that conscio~~~ and alert person drink 1 to 2 glasses of water to dilute. Do not induce vomiting because of
danger of aspiration into the lungs. Gastric lavage may be indicated if large amounts are swallowed; potential toxicity needs to be weighed against
aspiration risk when deciding for or against gastric lavage. Note to Physicians: Monitor cardiac function. If indicated, use epinephrine and other
catecholamines carefully, because of the possibility of a lowered myocardial threshold to the arrhythmogenic effects of such substances. Obtain CBC,
electrolytes, and urinalysis. Monitor arterial blood gases. If toluene has > 0.02% (200 ppm) benzene, evaluate for potential benzene toxicity. BEI:
hippuric acid in urine, sample at shift end (2.5 g/g creatinine); Toluene in venous blood, sample at shit end (1 .Omg/L).
S&ion 7. Spill, Leak, and Disposal Procedures.
Spill/Leak: Notify safety personnel, isolate and ventilate area, deny entry, and stay upwind. Cleanup personnel protect against inhalation and skin/eye
contact. Use water spray to cool and disperse vapors but it may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. Cellosolve, hycar absorbent materials, and
fluorocarbon water can also be used for vapor suppression/containment. Take up small spill with earth, sand, vermiculite, or other absorbent,
noncombustible material. Dike far ahead of large spills for later reclamation or disposal. For water spills, (10 ppm or greater) apply activated carbon at
10X the spilled amount and remove trapped material with suction hoses or use mechanical dredges/lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants
and precipitates. Toluene can undergo fluidized bed incineration at 842 to 17% “F (450 to 980 “C), rotary kiln incineration at 1508 to 2912 “F (820 to
1600 “C), or liquid injection incineration at 1202 to 2912 “F (650 to 1600 “C). Follow applicable OSHA regulations (29 CFR 1910.120). Ecotoxlcity
Values: Blue gill, LCso = 17 mgU24 hr; shrimp (Cr~gonfracis
coron), LCS = 4.3 ppmf96 hr, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), LC, = 36.2
mg#96 hr. Environmental Degradation: If released to land, toluene evaporates and undergoes microbial degradation. In water, toluene volatilizes
and biodegrades with a half-life of days to several weeks. In air, toluene degrades by reaction with photochemically produced hydmxyl radicals.
Disposal: Treat contaminated water by gravity separation of solids, followed by skimming of surface. Pass through dual media filtration and carbon
absorption units (carbon ratio 1 kg to 10 kg soluble material). Return waste water from backwash to gravity separator. Contact your supplier or a
licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state, and local regulations.
EPA Designations
OSHA Designations
Listed as a RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.33): NO. U220
Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Zl-A)
SARA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355), TEQ: Not listed
Listed as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance* (40 CFR 302.4): Final Reportable Quantity (RQ), 1000 lb (454 kg)
[* per RCRA, Sec. 3001; CWA, Sec. 311 (b)(4); CWA, Sec. 307 (a)]
-&I as a SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65): Not listed
jection8.SpecialProtectionData
.:..:j.::‘.
,.:,;,fV..
. . I; ..::
~.:~:j~:~,~ij.j:i:
..
Y::
Goggles: Wear protective eyeglasses with shatter-resistant glass and side-shields or chemical safety goggles, per OSHA eye- and faceprotection
regulations (29 CFR 1910.133). Because contact lens use in industry is controversial, establish your own policy. Respirator: Seek professional
advice prior to respirator selection and use. Follow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, if necessary, weaf a MSHA/NIOSHapproved respirator. For < 1000 ppm, use any chemical cartridge respirator with appropriate organic vapor cartridges, any supplied-air respirator
(SAR), or SCBA. For < 2000 ppm, use any SAR operated in continuous-flow mode, any SAR or SCBA with a full facepiece, or any air-purifying
respirator with a full facepiece having a chiistyle, front or back mounted organic vapor canister. For emergency or nonmutine operations (cleaning
spills, reactor vessels, or storage tanks), wear an SCBA. Warning! [email protected]
respirators do notprotect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
If respirators are used, OSHA requires a written respiratory protection program that includes at least: medical certification, training, fit-testing,
periodic environmental monitoring, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and convenient, sanitary storage areas. Other: Wear chemically protective
gloves, boots, aprons, and gauntlets to prevent skin contact. Polyvinyl alcohol with a breakthrough time of > 8 hr, Teflon and Viton are recommended as suitable materials for PPE. Ventilation: Provide general and local exhaust ventilation systems to maintain airborne concentrations below
the OSHA PELs (Sec. 2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred because it prevents contaminant dispersion into the work area by controlling it at its
source.(‘03%afety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency eyewash stations, safety/quick-drench showers, and washing facilities.
Contaminated Equipment: Separate contaminated work clothes from street clothes and launder before reuse. Remove toluene from your shoes and
clean PPE. Comments: Never eat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Practice good personal hygiene after using this material, especially before eating,
1 drinking, smoking, using the toilet. or applying cosmetics.
Section 9. Special Precautions and Comments
Storage Requirements: Prevent physical damage to containers. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from ignition sources and incompatibles. Outside or detached storage is preferred. If stored inside, use a standard flammable liquids warehouse, room, or cabinet. To prevent static
sparks, electrically ground and bond all equipment used with toluene. Do not use open lights in toluene areas. Install Class 1, Group D electrical
equipment. Check that toluene is free of or contains < 1% benzene before use. Engineering Controls: To reduce potential health hazards, use
sufficient dilution or local exhaust ventilation to control airborne contaminants and to maintain concentrations at the lowest practical level. Adminlstrative Controls: Adopt controls for confined spaces (29 CFR 1910.146) if entering areas of unknown toluene levels (holes, wells, storage tanks).
Consider preplacement and periodic medical exams of exposed workers that emphasii the CNS, liver, kidney, and skin. Include hemocytometric
and thrombocyte count in cases where benzene is a contaminant of toluene. Monitor air at regular intervals to ensure effective ventilation.
Transportation
Data (49 CFR 172.101)
Quantity Limitations
Vessel Stowage Requirements
DOT Shipping Name: Toluene
Packaging Authorizations
I DOT Hazard Class: 3
a) Exceptions: 150
a) Passenger Aircrafi or Rallcar: 5L
zzef Slowage: B
b) Non-bulk Packagln : 202
b) Cargo Aircraft Only: 60L
:
1 No.: UN1294
OT Packin Group: II
c) Bulk Packaging: 24 !I
I DOT Label: k ammable Liauid
L
Genium Publishing
Corporation
OneGenium Plaza
Schenectady,NY 12304-4690 USA
a!=
(518) 377-8854
Sheet No. 318
Xylene (Mixed Isomers)
Issued: 1I/80 Revision: E, 9/92 Errata: lU94
,45
S*ctio,n, I..,,Material idetitifkati~,~ ,,
1
Xylene (Mixed Isomers) (C,H,,)
R 1
NFPA
_ __ Description: The commercial pmduci is a blend of tt le thrtx isomers [ortho-(o-), mela-(m), para-(
with the largest proportion being m- xylene. Xylene is obtained from coal tar, toluene by transalkylation, and
I
2
3
pseudccumene. Used in the manufacture of dyes, resins, paints, varnishes, and other organics; as a general solvent for
“K;
20
dhesives, a cleaning agent in microscope technique; as a solvent for Canada balsam microscopy; as a fuel component; in
aviation gasoline, protective coatings, sterilizing catgut, hydrogen peroxide, perfumes, insect repcllants, pharmaceuticals, and
43
the leather industry; in the production of phthalic anhydride, isophthalic, and terephthalic acids and their dimethyl esters
which are used in the manufacture of polyester fibers; and as an indirect food additive as a component of adhesives. Around
Y”2
the home, xylene is found as vehicles in paints, paint removers, degreasing cleaners, lacquers, glues and cements and as
solvent/vehicles for pesticides.
ii
0
Other Designations: CAS No. 1330-20-7 [95-47-6; 108-38-3; 106-42-3 (o-, m-, pisomers)], dimethylbenzene,
PPE $
methyltoluene, NCEC55232, Violet 3, xylol.
t chronic
Manufacturer:
Contact your supplier or distributor. Consult latest Chemical Week Buyers’ Guidf13) for a suppliers list.
Effects
Cautions: Xylene is an eye, skin, and mucous membrane irritant and may be narcotic in high concentrations. It is a dangerous fie hazard. $ sec. *
Section 2. Ingredients and Qccupathal
[email protected]&s
-
Xylene (mixed isomers): the commercial product generally contains - 40% nt-xylene; 20% each of o-xylene, p-xylene, and ethylbenzene; and small
quantities of toluene. Unpurified xylene may contain pseudocumene.
1992-93 ACGLH TLVs
1985-86 Toxicity Data*
1991 OSHA PELs
8-hr TWA: 100 ppm (435 mg/m3)
Human, inhalation, T&: 200 ppm produced
TWA: 100 ppm (434 mg/m2
15min STEL: 150 ppm (655 mg/m3)
STEL 150 ppm (651 mg/m )
olfaction effects, conjunctiva irritation, and other
BEI (Biological Exposure Index): Methylhippuric
changes involving the lungs, thorax, or respiration.
1990 IDLH Level
acids in urine at end of shift: 1.5 g/g creatinme
Man, inhalation, LCb: 10000 ppm/6 hr; toxic
1000 ppm
effects not yet reviewed.
1990 DFG (Germany) MAK
Human, oral, LDb: 50 mg/kg; no toxic effect noted.
1990 NIOSH RELS
TWA: 100 ppm (440 mg/m3)
Rat, oral, LDsO: 4300 mg/kg; toxic effect not yet
TWA: 100 ppm (435 mg/m2
Category II: Substances with systemic effects
reviewed.
STEL: 150 ppm (655 mg/m )
Half-life: < 2 hr
Rat, inhalation, LC&: 5000 ppm/4 hr; toxic effects
Peak Exposure: 200 ppm, 30 min, average value,
not yet reviewed.
4 peaks per shift
k See NIOSH, RTECS @E2lOG000),
Sp&[email protected]&Da&
for additional
ii
toxicity
:
data.
:I;!,:
Boiling Point Range: 279 to 284 ‘F i137 to 140 “C)*
Boiling Point: orrho: 291 ‘F (144 ‘C); meta: 281.8 ‘F (138.8 ‘C);
para: 281.3 ‘F(138.5 ‘C)
F&zing
Point.&elting
Pbmt: o&w: -13 ‘F (-25 ‘C);
metu: -53.3 “F (- 47.4 ‘C); para: 55 to 57 ‘F (13 to 14 “C)
Vapor Pressure: 6.72 mm Hg at 70 ‘F (21 ‘C)
Saturated Vapor Density (Air = 1.2 kg/m3): 1.23 kg/m3, 0.077 lbs/ft3
Appearance and Odor: Clear, sweet-smelling liquid.
* Materials
with wider and narrower
boiling
ranges are commercially
Section4. FireandExplo$ionData
j
.::.
ii:
:
Molecular Weight: 106.16
Specific Gravity: 0.864 at 20 ‘Cl4 “C
Water Solubiiitv: Practicallv insoluble
Other Solubili&s:
Miscibliwith
absolute alcohol, ether, and
many other organic liquids.
OctanolNater
Partition Coefficient: 1ogKow = 3.12-3.20
Odor Threshold: 1 ppm
Viscosity: <32.6 SUS
available.
. . ..I
.:s;.;;:,:,
Flash Point: 63 to 77 ‘F (17 to 25 ‘C) Cc (Autoignition Temperature: 982 “F (527 ‘C) (m-) ILEL: 1.1 (A-. p); 0.9 (o-) IU&
7.0 (m-, p-); 6.7 (o-)
Extinguishing Media: l+r small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide (COJ water spray or regular foam. For large fires, use water spray, fog or
regular foam. Water may be ineffective. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers. Unusual Fiie or Explosion Hazards: Xylene vapors or
liquid (which floats on water) may travel to an ignition source and flash back. The heat of fire may cause containers to explode and/or produce
irritating or poisonous decomposition products. Xylene may present a vqr explosion hazard indoors, outdoors, or in sewers. Accumulated static
electricity may occur from vapor or liquid flow sufficient to cause ignition. Special Fire-feting
Procedures: Because fire may produce toxic
thermal decomposition products, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or positivepressure mode. Structural firefighter’s protective clothing will provide limited protection. If feasible and without risk, move containers from fire area.
Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers until well after fue is extinguished. Stay clear of tank ends. Use unmann ed hose holder or monitor nozzles for
massive cargo fires. If impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. Withdraw immediately in case of any tank discoloration or rising sound from
venting safety device. Do not release runoff from fire control methods to sewers or waterways.
Section 5. Reactivity Data
Stability/Polymerization:
Xylene is stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions. Hazardous
plyme&ati&
cannot occur.-Xylene is easily chlorinate& sulfonated, or nitrated. Chemical Incompati&ities:
Incompatibilities include strong
acids and oxidizers and 1,3-dichlom-5,5-dimethyl-2,4-imidazolidindione
(dichlomhydrantoin).
Xylene attacks some forms of plastics, rubber, and
:oatings. Conditions to Avoid: Avoid heat and ignition sources and incompatibles. Haxardous Products of Decomposition: Thermal oxidative
decomposition of xylene can produce carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and various hydrocarbon products.
Section 6. Health Hazard Data :
Carcinogenicity: The IARC, (Iti) NTP>‘@) and OSHA(16d) do not list xylene as a carcinogen. Summary of Risks: Xylene is an eye, mucous
membrane, and respiratory tract irritant. Irritation starts at 200 ppm: severe breathing difficulties whi& may be delaied in onset &n occur at high
concentrations. It is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant and at high concentrations can cause coma. Kidney and liver damage can occur with
xylene exposure. With prolonged or repeated cutaneous exposure, xylene produces a defatting dermatitis. Chronic toxicity is not well defined, but it
is less toxic than benzene. Prior to the 1950s. benzene was often found as a contaminant of xylene and the effects attributed to xylene such as blood
dyscrasias arc questionable. Since the late 1950s. xylenes have been virtually benzensfree and blood dyscrasias have not been associated with
xylenes. Chronic exposure to high concentrations of xylene in animal studies have demonstrated mild reversible decrease in red and white cell
counts as well as increases in platelet counts.
Cotiinue on nf?xfDa*,
Section 6, Health Hazatid- Data, coir;tinrit?d
Menstrual irregularity was reported in association with workplace exposure to xylene perhaps due to effects on liver metabolism. Xylene crosses the
human placenta, but does not appear to l?e teratogenic under conditions tested to date. Medical Conditions
Aggravated
by Long-Term
Exposure: CNS, respiratory, eye, skin, gastromtestinal (GI) , liver and kidney disorders. Target Organs:
CNS, eyes, GI tract, liver, kidneys, and skin.
Primary
Entry
Routes:
In%?tion, skin absorption (slight), eye contact, ingestion. Acute Effects: Inhalation of high xylene concentrations may
cause dimness; nausea, vomlhng, and abdominal pain; eye, nose, and throat irritation; respiratory tmct irritation leading to pulmonary edema (fluid
lung); drowsiness; and unconsciousness. D,irect eye contact can result in conjunctivitis and comeal burns. Ingestion may cause a burning sensan in the oropharynx and stomach and transient CNS depression. Chronic
Effects:
Repeated or prolonged skin contact may cause drying and
defatting of the skin leading to dermatitis. Repeated eye exposure to high vapor concentrations may cause reversible eye damage, peripheral and
central neuropathy, and liver damage. Other symptoms of chronic exposure include headache, fatigue, irritability, chronic bronchitis, and GI
disturbances such as nausea, loss of appetite, and gas.
FIRST
AID Emergency personnel should protect against exposure. Eyes: Do not allow victim to rub or keep eyes tightly shut. Gently lift eyelids
and flush immediately and continuously with flooding amounts of water until transported to an emergency medical facility. Consult a physician
immediately. Skin: Quickly remove contaminated clothing. Rinse with flooding amounts of water for at least 15 min. Wash exposed area with soap
and water. For reddened or blistered skin, consult a physician. Carefully dispose of contaminated clothing as it may pose a fire hazard.Inhalation:
Remove exposed person to fresh air and support breathing as needed. Monitor exposed person for respiratory distress. Ingestion:
Never give
anything by mouth to an unconscious or convulsing person. Contact a poison control center and unless otherwise advised, a!o not induce vomiting! If
spontaneous vomiting should occur, keep exposed person’s head below the hips to prevent aspiration (breathing liquid xylene into the lungs).
Aspiration of a few n$litnerers of xylfne can cause chemical pneunwnibs, pulmonary edema, and hemorrhage. Note to Physicians:
Hippor&
acid
or the ether glucummde of orrho-tolulc acid may be useful in diagnosis of meta-, para- and orrho-xylene exposure, respectively. Consider gastric
lavage if a large quantity of xylene was ingested. Proceed gastric lavage with protection of the airway from aspiration; consider endotracheal
intubation with inflated cuff.
Section 7. Spill, Leak, and Disposal Procedures
Spill/Leak:
Notify safety personnel, evacuate all unnecessary personnel, remove all heat and ignition sources, and ventilate spill area. Cleanup
personnel should pmtect against vapor inhalation and skin or eye contact. If feasible and without undue risk, stop leak. Use appropriate foam to
blanket release and suppps vapors. Water spray may reduce vapor, but does not prevent ignition in closed spaces. For small spills, absorb on paper
and evaporate in appropriate exhaust hood or absorb wth sand or some non-combustible absorbent and place in containers for later disposal. For
large spills dike far ahead of liquid to contain. Do not allow xylene to enter a confined space such as sewers or drains. On land, dike to contain or
divert to impermeable holding area. Apply water spray to control flammable vapor and remove material with pumps or vacuum equipment. On
water, contain material with natural barriers, booms, or weirs; apply universal gelling agent and use suction hoses to remove spilled material.
Report any release in excess of 1000 lb. Follow applicable OSHA regulations (29 CFR 1910.120). Environmental
Transport:
Little bioconcent&ion is expected. Biological oxygen demand 5 (after 5 days at 20 “C): 0.64 (no stated isomer). Ecotoxicity
vahxs:
LD5,,, Goldfish, 13 mg/I,f24 hr,
conditions of bioassay not specified, no specific isomer. Environmental
Degradation: In the atmosphere, xylenes degrade by reacting with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with a half-life ranging from l-l .7 hr. in the summer to lo-18 hr in winter or a typical loss of 67-868
per day. Xylenes are resistant to hydrolysis. Soil Absorption/Mobility:
Xylenes have low to moderate adsorption to soil and when spilled on land,
will volatilizz and leach into groundwater. Disposal: As a hydrocarbon, xylene is a good candidate for controlled incineration. Contact your supplier
or a licensed con&actor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state, and local regulations.
EPA Designations
OSHA Designations
qARA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355): Not listed
Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-l-A)
ted as a SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65)
dted as a RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.33): No. U239, FO03 (spent solvent)
Listed as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance* (40 CFR 302.4): Final Reportable Quantity (RQ), 1000 lb (454 kg) [* per Clean Water Act,
Sec. 31 l(b)(4); per RCRA, Sec. 30011
Se&ion&
$peci&fio&tionDatai
L:ijt:.
..:I;
. .
;
Goggles: Wear protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles, per OSHA eye and face-protection regulations (29 CFR 1910.133). Because
contact lens use in industry is controversial, establish your own policy. Respirator: Seek professional advice prior to respirator selection and use.
Follow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, if necessary, wear a MSHAMIOSH-approved
respirator. For concentrations >lCOO
ppm, use any chemical cartridge respirator with organic vapor cartridges; any powered, air-purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridges; any
supplied-air respirator, or any self-contained breathing apparatus. For emergency or nonroutine operations (cleaning spills, reactor vessels, or
storage tanks), weaf an SCBA. Warning! Air-purilying respirators do not protect workrs in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. Other: Wear chemically protective gloves. boots, aprons, and gauntlets to prevent all skin contact. With breakthrough times > 8 hr, consider polyvinyl alcohol and
fluorocarbon rubber ([email protected] as materials for PPE. Ventilation: Provide general and local exhaust ventilation systems to maintain airborne concentitions below the OSHA PELs (Sec. 2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred because it prevents contaminant dispersion into the work area by
controlling it at its source!103) Safety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency eyewash stations, safety/quick-drench showers, and
washing facilities. Contaminated Equipment: Separate contaminated work clothes from street clothes. Launder contaminated work clothing
before wearing. Remove this material from your shoes and clean PPE. Comments: Never eat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Practice good personal hygiene after using this material, especially before eating, drinking, smoking, using the toilet, or applying cosmetics.
Section 9. Special Precaufio~s and [email protected] : j
:
Storage Requirements: Store in clearly labelled, tightly closed, containers in a cool, well-ventilated place, away from strong oxidizing materials
and heat and ignition sources. During transferring operations, electrically ground and bond metal containers. Engineering Controls: To reduce
potential health hazards, use sufficient dilution or local exhaust ventilation to control airborne contaminants and to maintain concentrations at the
lowest practical level. Use hermetically sealed equipmenf transfer xylene in enclosed systems, avoid processes associated with open evaporating
surfaces, and pmvide sources of gas release with enclosures and local exhaust ventilation. Use Class I, Group D electrical equipment. Administrative Controls:
Establish air and biological monitoring programs and evaluate regularly. Consider preplacement and periodic medical examinations
including a complete blood count, a routine urinalysis, and liver function tests. Consider hematologic studies if there is any significant contamination
of the solvent with benzene. If feasible, consider the replacement of xylene by less toxic solvents such as petrol (motor fuel) or white spirit. Before
carrying out maintenance and nzpair work, steam and flush all equipment to remove any xylene residues.
Transportation
Data (49 CFR 172.101)
DOT Shipping Name: Xylenes
Packaging Authorizations
Quantity Limitations
Vessel Stowage R uirements
a) Passenger, Aircraft, or Railcar: 5L
a) Vessel Stowage: 2
DOT Hazard Class: 3
a) Exceptions: 173.150
HI No.: UN1307
b) Cargo Aircraft Only: 60L
b) Other: b) Nonbulk Packaging : 173.202
\T Packin Group: II
c) Bulk Packaging: 173.242
/T Label: fl ammable Liquid
lspecial Provisions
(172.102):
Tl
,
MSDSCollcction
hqm-ed
by:
R&e-as:
MJ Worth,
26.73,
89, 100, 101,103.
124,126,
Hygiene
Review:
PA
BS; Industrial
127,
132,133,136,
Roy, MPH, CIH; Medical
139,
140,148,149,
Review:
153,159,163,
164,
167.
171,
174,176,
180.
W Silverman, MD
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EMERGENCY
PROCEDURES
HAZARDOUS
ATTACHMENT
FOR EXPOSURE
MATERIALS/WASTE
C
TO
ATTACHMENT
C
EMERGENCY
PROCEDURES
FOR EXPOSURE
HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS/WASTE
TO
1.
Call ambulance or transport individual to hospital/clinic
immediately.
Monitor airway,
breathing and circulation during trip to hospital or while waiting for the ambulance.
Administer first aid or CPR, as necessary. Don’t forget to take the HASP with you; it
contains information on the contaminants expected to be found on site and will assist the
physician in his/her assessment of the exposure.
2.
Fill in Potential Exposure Report, answering each of the questions to the best of your ability.
3.
Contact our physician(s)
at EMR as soon as possible.
a.
Call EMR
b.
Ask to speak with:
The procedure is as follows:
at l-800-229-3674!
Dr. David L. Barnes;
Dr. Elaine Theriault; or
Ms. T.J. Wolff, R.N.
and follow directions for
Note:
During nonbusiness hours (after 6 p.m.) call 1- 800-229-3674
paging the aforementioned
individuals.
4.
Once in contact with any of these individuals, explain what has happened (they will review
the information on the form with you and may ask you to fax the form to them, if possible),
and allow either of them to speak with the attending physician.
5.
When asked about payment (and they will ask), inform the Hospital/Clinic/Physician
that
this is a “work related injury” and have them contact Teresa Nelson at (412) 269-4655.
Have invoices sent to:
Michael Baker Jr. Inc.
Attn: Benefits Coordinator
Airport Office Park, Bldg. 3
Coraopolis, PA 15 108
6.
Contact the Project Manager and the Project Health
feasible, but wait no longer than 24 hours.
and Safety Officer as soon as it is
Page 1 of 2
Name:
Date of Exposure:
Social Security No.:
Age:
I.
Exposing
Agent
Name of Product or Chemicals
Characteristics
Solid
II.
Sex:
(if known)
(if the name is not known)
Liquid
GZIS
Mist
Fume
Dose Determinants
What was individual
doing?
How long did individual
Was protective
work in area before signs/symptoms
developed?
gear being used? If yes, what was the PPE?
Was there skin contact?
Was the exposing agent ,inhaled?
Were other persons exposed? If yes, did they experience symptoms?
III.
Signs and Symptoms
Immediately
0
0
0
0
0
0
(check off appropriate
symptoms)
with Exposure:
Burning of eyes, nose, or throat
Tearing
Headache
Cough
Shortness of breath
Delirium
0
0
0
0
0
0
Chest tightness/pressure
Nausea/vomiting
Dizziness
Weakness
Heat flashes
Other
Delaved Symptoms:
0
0
0
Cl
Weakness
Nausea/vomiting
Shortness of breath
Cough
0
0
0
0
0
Loss of appetite
Abdominal pain
Headache
Numbness/tingling
Other
Vapor
Page 2 of 2
IV.
Present
Status of Symptoms
cl
cl
cl
Cl
El
cl
cl
Burning of eyes, nose, or throat
Tearing
Headache
Cough
Shortness of breath
Chest tightness/pressure
Cyanosis (bluish skin color)
Have symptoms
(please check off appropriate
Improved
V.
Treatment
None
VI.
of Symptoms
Source:
EMR
Inc.
q
cl
Self- medicated
physician)
symptoms)
Nausea/vomiting
Dizziness
Weakness
Loss of appetite
Abdominal pain
Numbness/tingling
Other
response and give duration of symptoms):
(check off appropriate
Name
Hospital/Clinic
Cl
0
Cl
cl
0
Worsened
(Attending
VH.
(check off appropriate
Remain Unchanged
response)
Physician treated
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