Epson | Software Film Factory v2.5 | User manual | Epson Software Film Factory v2.5 User manual

USER MANUAL
FilmQA™ Pro
Version: 3.0.4864.35322
Date: July 30, 2013
Advanced Specialty Ingredients
1361 Alps Road
Wayne, NJ 07470
Table of Contents
Introduction
1
Installation
2
Getting Started
7
Operations
Menu Bar
Case Description
Case Data Selector Panel
Image Panel
Film Evaluation Panel
8
14
14
19
22
Processes
Calibration
Dose Map
Plan to Dose Comparison
One Scan Protocol
28
41
50
67
Physics Modules
Star Shot Analysis
Flatness and Symmetry Analysis
Picket Fence Analysis
74
93
96
Editors
Bitmap Color Translation
Color Translation Map
103
104
Configuration
Managing the Libraries
108
Appendices
Calibration Protocol
Efficient Protocol for Radiochromic Film Dosimetry (One Scan Protocol)
Post-Exposure Change
113
122
131
Troubleshooting
110
Index
133
1
INTRODUCTION
(Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A26tTy2iF88)
FilmQA™ Pro is a sophisticated, quantitative, analysis tool specifically designed to
simplify and streamline your IMRT QA process. The program allows you to scan or
open images of exposed application films and calculate the optimized dose maps. The
calculation is based on a scanner-dependent function generated from calibrated data
derived from three color channels (red, green and blue). The three color channels are
produced by using Gafchromic™ EBT2, EBT3, MD-V3 or HD-V2 films. These selfdeveloping radiochromic dosimetry films are intended specifically for applications in
radiotherapy.
FilmQA™ Pro complements Gafchromic™ dosimetry films. When these Gafchromic™
films are used, the optimized dose maps include corrections for thickness artifacts by
using the blue color channel to measure the absorbance of the yellow marker-dye in the
films and when the films are used with a professional flat-bed color scanner, FilmQA™
Pro’s easy-to-use features are ideal for the fast-paced, processor-less environment of
the modern hospital.
The purpose of this guide is to familiarize the user with the many useful features of
FilmQA™ Pro with a particular focus on the basic functions of calibration, calculation of a
dose map from an exposed film, comparison of a dose map to a patient-specific
treatment plan and execution of machine QA functions like star shot analysis, flatness
and symmetry determination and assessment of MLC function. In addition to the
contents of this User Guide a number of instructional videos are available for view on
YouTube. Use the table of contents in this guide to easily navigate to the desired
section, or read through the instructions step-by-step. In the end, our goal is to provide
both an in-depth introduction to and a quick reference for, all the features available in
FilmQA™ Pro.
FilmQA™ Pro is built on Ashland proprietary technology, patents pending.
2
INSTALLATION
Recommended computer requirements for FilmQA™ Pro:
Hardware:
Processor:
RAM:
Graphics:
Input Devices:
Scanners:
i7
8 GB, 1333 MHz
UXGA+ (1600 x 1200), HD (1920 x 1080) or WQXGA (2560
x 1600)
Keyboard and Mouse [Tablet (Touch screens) not
supported]
Epson 11000XL and 10000XL with Epson Twain Drivers
Minimum computer requirements for FilmQA™ Pro:
Hardware:
Processor:
RAM:
Graphics:
i5
4 GB, 1333 MHz
Wide XGA+ (1440 x 990) XGA+ (1152 x 864)
Software:
Operating System:
Windows 8
Windows 7 [with Microsoft® .NET Framework 4.0 – Full]
Windows Vista [with Microsoft® .NET Framework 4.0 – Full]
Windows XP [with Service Pack 3 (SP3), Microsoft® .NET
Framework 4 – Full and Microsoft® Visual C++ 2010
Redistributable Package (x86)]
3
1. Download and run the installation file from www.filmqapro.com\install.
2. Navigate through the following prompts by hitting “Next>”
4
3. “Agree” to the licensing agreement to proceed
4. Click “Next>” to install the necessary files in the selected folder
5. Click “Next>” to complete the installation of FilmQA™ Pro
“Close” the window to completed the installation process
6. Click on the “FilmQA™ Pro” shortcut located on your desktop
5
7. When starting FilmQA™ Pro for the first time, the program will prompt you
to generate a license (see the following message below):
8. Click “Ok” and the following window will appear
9. Click “Save” and note the stored key file name and location
10. Email the saved file to amicke@ashland.com to obtain your license key
6
11. After receiving the license key, save the key to the application folder in
either “c:\Program Files\ISP Advanced Materials\FilmQA Pro 20XX\” or
“c:\Program Files\Ashland Advanced Materials\FilmQA Pro 20XX\”.
NOTE: Only one (1) license key can be stored in the application
folder.]
12. Return to the “FilmQA™ Pro” shortcut on your desktop and when you click
the icon this time, FilmQA™ Pro will begin.
7
GETTING STARTED
(Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5mAidqhL5qM)
When FilmQA™ Pro loads, the following screen will appear:
As you can see, there are three sections. To the left is the “Case Data Selector Panel”
which allows you to add selected image objects from a saved file or directly from a
scanner. This panel contains the case tree and its branches are a collection of the case
objects required to execute a case. For instance to compare dose measurements to a
patient-specific plan, the tree requires a Film Calibration Object, a Dose Map Object and
a Dose-to-Plan Comparison Object. The objects added to the case tree are dependent
on preceding objects. For example, a dose map object cannot function unless the case
tree contains a calibration object. Click the “+” or “-“signs to expand or compress any
branch of the tree. The center section or “Image Panel” displays the selected images.
The section to the right the “Film Evaluation Panel” and displays the analytical data for
the particular image in the “Image Panel”. The right hand window can also display
properties of a selected image for example, its source, time stamp, image resolution,
dose range, data statistics as well as the cursor position and location/size of all user-
8
defined areas of interest and the size and position of a user-defined profile path across
an image.
Keep in mind that navigating through FilmQA™ Pro is very easy. Using the keyboard
and mouse point-and-click commands, you can either left click to select an item or right
click to access a drop-down menu. Hovering over any icon will display its name and
explain its function. A video
MENU BAR
At the top of the window is a Menu bar
with four tabs: File, Panel, Data and
Help. This bar controls a multitude of functions including the saving or loading of a
treatment case, changing configuration or unit settings, generating a license key or
finding helpful resources
File is the first category. Under “File”, you can start a
new treatment case, open an existing treatment case,
save a treatment case or review the most recent
treatment cases. Users can also configure certain
parameters or change the unit of measurement for the
system. After selecting “File”, the following choices are
available:
 “Load Treatment Cases from File” – Retrieve a
stored treatment case from file
 “New Empty Case” – Close the current treatment
case and start a new one
 “Save Treatment Case as” – Save the current
treatment case under a different name or in a different location
 “Recent Treatment Cases” – Load most recently used treatment cases from a new
panel that opens to the right
9
 “Configuration” – Loads/saves FilmQA™ Pro configuration settings from a new
drop-down list

“Auto Save” – Saves the configuration automatically each time you exit the
application

“Reload Last Case with Configuration” – Opens treatment case with the same
configuration that was set the last time the case was opened.

“Save File Locations” – Recalls location of saved files

“Reset to Default” – Reset the configuration to system default.
 “Unit System” – Loads/saves the user’s unit preferences from a new panel

“Auto Save” – Save the units automatically each time you exit the application

“Load Unit Standards Only” – Load only “standard” units and exclude the loading
of number formats
 “Exit” – Closes FilmQA™ Pro

“Ask Before Exit” – Enables a ‘pop-up’ window asking whether to close FilmQA™
Pro when ‘Exit” button is clicked
Panel is the next category and helps
you configure the various tools
utilized in FilmQA™ Pro.
 “Tool Management” allows you to
select the tools available in the
software.

“Reset to Default Tools” will
change the tool set back to the
original factory configuration.

“Always include Default Tools”
is the option to see the default tools all the time.
 “Treatment Object Management” tailors the drop down menu selections.
10

“Object Type Management” displays the Case Object library allows various
objects to be activated and therefore available from the drop down list in the
Case Data Selector Panel. User-written functions can be added to the library.

“Reset to Default Treatment Object Types” returns the object list back to default
settings.

“Always include Default Treatment Object Types” is the option to see the default
object list all the time.

“Add New Treatment Object Type of Read Cases” to import user-written
treatment objects from other cases.
 “Dose Plan Reader Management” selects interfaces for specific treatment-planning
software, e.g. Pinnacle, Brain Lab, Eclipse, etc. User-written functions can be added
to the library.

“Reader Type Management” allows various readers to be available in the drop
down list.

“Reset to Default Reader Types” returns the reader type list back to the default
settings.

Always include Default Reader Types” is the option to see the default reader
types all the time.

“Show Menu to Preselect Reader Type” is a setting which will always open a
separate window to select the reader type.
 “Calibration Function Management” manages the selection of equations from a
library of functions correlating film response with radiation dose User-written
functions can be added to the library.

“Reset to Default Calibration Function Types” returns the calibration function list
back to default settings

“Always include Default Calibration Function Types” is the option to see the
default calibration equations all the time.
 “Case Data Selector Location” selects the position of the case data selector either
left, top, right or bottom.
11
Data, as the name describes, includes all data related to the patient, treatment case or
scanner. This tab also allows the
changing of measurement units and
adjustment of software preferences.
 “Patient Data” allows you to create a
new patient and add or remove a
patient from the database.
 “Treatment Case Data” allows you to
create a new treatment case and add
or remove a case from the database.
 “Scanner Data” allows you to add or remove a scanner from the database.
 “Units” allows you to change settings and format of units within the software.
 “Preferences” configures the
appearance and layout of FilmQA™
Pro.

“Tool Tip” shows or hides helpful
information in the software ( hover
the cursor over the icon or area of
interest)

“Padding” adjusts the amount of
space around each section of the
software. The range for the frame is
between 0 and 50 pixels. Horizontal
and vertical adjustments range from
1 to 20 pixels.

“Fonts” allows you to choose
between various character types and sizes.

“Colors” adjusts the palette settings for the foreground, “Fore Color” and
background, “Back Color”. “Preset Color Pairs” is another option to select
12
predetermined color mixes. Colors can always be returned to default settings by
selecting “Reset to Default Colors”

“Label Position” changes the location of icons and panel labels to either “Top
Left”, “Top Center”, “Top Right”, “Bottom Left”, “Bottom Center” or “Bottom Right”.

“Status Bar” is located at the bottom of the
screen and does the following:
1. Informs you of the current software
condition;
2. Allows changes to be made to the
status history;
3. Allows you to configure FilmQA™ Pro
(see “Preferences”); and
4. Provides you a means to copy a screen shot.
A “right click” on the status bar allows for three possible choices:
1. “Clear Status” erases all information stored in the status bar.
2. “Auto Clear Status” sets the elapsed time before the information is
automatically erased from the status bar.
3. “History” displays all messages in the status bar. “Exceptions” allows
you to view the history of software exceptions, which are events the
application could
not complete.
Exceptions” are a
tool to aid in
identifying and
fixing software
bugs. By “right
clicking” inside the “Exception History” window, you can select:

“Exception Level Depth” – the number of lines displayed related to
that particular event

“History Length” – The number of events allowed to view
13

“Reset History” – Clear all events

“Word Wrap” – Wrap the words to fit the window width

“Filter” (see arrow above) allows you to enter a criterion to reduce
the number of visible exceptions in the window. See detailed
descriptions and examples in “Menu”.

“Status” shows the
complete history of
conditions since the
application was
opened. By “right
clicking” in the
window, options become available to either “Clear Status History”,
“Copy All” line items or “Copy a Selected Row”
4. “Appearance” allows you to configure FilmQA™ Pro (see
“Preferences”)
5. “Copy Screen Shot” is simply stated and copies an image of the
current screen.
6. “Status Line Tool Tip” provides an overview of status history when
moving the cursor to the “Status Bar”
7. The “On Exception Show Popup Message” option enables a popup
window when an exception occurs.

The “Task” button is an indicator located in lower right corner of the screen.
When the application is idle, the icon will appear as
look like similar to this
otherwise the icon will
. The number on the left indicates the number of
calculation tasks in process. To cancel the current task, right click on the icon
and select

.
File management is the last option under this heading. The option toggles onoff the ability to let FilmQAPro remember the last open file location, the last
saved file location and to sync the last open and saved file locations.
14
Help is the last
category and provides
instructional
information such as
the user’s manual,
license data
generator, license
expiration notification
and related web links.

“FilmQA Pro User’s Guide” is to view the user manual for the software.

“Generate License Data” saves or copies the license data. For details on how
to obtain a license key, see Installation (Page 4 – Step #8).

“Notify, Before License Expires” monitors and warns the users before the
license expires. Choices are for 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, 50 and 100 days. The default
setting is 14 days.

“Web Pages” are links to websites related to FilmQA™ Pro.

“About FilmQA Pro 20xx” provides installation information on FilmQA™ Pro
(i.e. Version Number, License ID, License Renewal Data, etc.)
CASE DATA SELECTOR PANEL
The Case Description is a default addition to
the case tree. To store patient or case
information, go to the Case Data Selector
section and click the “+” sign next to “Case
Description”. The tree will expand to show
“Patient Data – Not Assigned” and “Case Data –
Not Assigned”.

“Patient Data” opens a drop down list to select an existing patient from the
database. By choosing “None”, no information is necessary. “Edit Patient Data”
allows the user to update patient information in the database.
15

“Case Data” opens a drop down list to select case specific information related to
the patient. Double-click the icon to open the pop-up window and select the
preferred case. “Patient Data” will change to match the patient name of the
treatment case selected.
Case Object Management allows objects to be added to the Case Tree to create a film
dosimetry case. Under “Add New Case Object”:

“Film Calibration (Ordinary)” – Scan or
open a file containing a single image to
generate a calibration curve

“Film Calibration (Mosaic)” – Scan or
open multiple image files to generate a
calibration curve

“Film Calibration Dose Maps” –
Calculates a dose map, consistency
map and uniformity map from the image
or images used to generate the
calibration curve

“Images Only (Multiple Scans)” – Scan
or open multiple image files. The images can be averaged or fused together and
the resultant image can be saved or copied to be used as required.

“Dose Map (Single Scan)” – Scan or open an image file for conversion to a dose
map from a Film Calibration Object. A calibration curve is required in the Case
Tree before a dose map can be generated. Note: By default the first Film
Calibration Object in the case is used. In the Dose Map branch of the Case Tree
select a different dependency if the case contains multiple Calibration Objects
and one of the subsequent ones is to be used.

“Dose to Plan Comparison” – Import a treatment plan from a file, TPS or DICOM
and do a gamma analysis against a treatment film. A Dose map Object is
required in the Case Tree before a dose-to-plan comparison can be done. Note:
16
By default the first Dose Map in the case is used. In the Dose-to-plan
Comparison branch of the Case Tree select a different dependency if the case
contains multiple Dose Map Objects and one of the subsequent ones is to be
used.

“MLC Star Shot Physics QA” – Scan or open a file of an image to perform a star
shot analysis

“MLC Picket Fence Physics QA” – Scan or open a file of an image to perform a
picket fence analysis

“Flatness and Symmetry Physics QA” – Scan or open multiple files of an image
to perform beam uniformity analysis

“Flatness and Symmetry Physics QA (Dose Map)” – Analyze a dose map
generated from a scanned film or image file using of the calibration function of a
Film Calibration Object. Note: By default the first Film Calibration Object in the
case is used. In the Flatness and Symmetry Physics QA (Dose Map) branch of
the Case Tree select a different dependency if the case contains multiple
Calibration Objects and one of the subsequent ones is to be used.

Under
“<Open Case Object from File>” – Open a case object from file
“New Treatment Case”, a drop down
list provides options to select a template of
objects to create a treatment case.

“Dose to Plan Comparison” – Opens a
template for a full treatment case that
includes the following case objects:
Film Calibration (Ordinary), Dose Map
(Single Scan) and Dose to Plan
Comparison.

“<New (Empty) Case>” – Erases everything opened under “Case Data Selector”

<Open Case Object from File>” – Open a case object from file
17
Case Data Selector shows the case
management tree which allows you to add
selected image objects into case data. It is
located on the left side of the screen. The case
data selector allows you to add patient
information, calibration data, and film images
and data analysis from a file or directly from a
scanner. Remember each object added to the
tree is dependent on the objects above it. At the
foot of the panel are a number of icons:
“Open” treatment cases from file
“Save” treatment cases to the computer.
All objects opened in the case data
selector are saved as one case.
“Expand” only the selected treatment object
tree node.
“Configure Twain Scanner” controls the
scanner configuration

“Select Twain Source” chooses the
desired scanner. Select the appropriate
scanner in the pop-up window.

“Show Twain Parameter Panel before
Each Scan” enables the scanner panel
to open each time when scanning.

“Twain Resolution” changes the spatial
resolution of the scans. Choices are 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, 144 and 192 DPI.

“Light Path” chooses between reflection and transmission modes on the scanner.

“Auto Detect whether Scanner Rotates Image” enables software to rotate the
image 90° to match the display with the scanner information. This feature is used
18
for some scanner drivers which would auto rotate the image without rotating the
device information (e.g. Epson used in conjunction with Windows XP).

“Detect whether Scanner Rotates Image” manually forces the detection of image
rotation when the automatic feature is disabled.

“Scanner Rotates Image” manually forces the scanner to rotate the displayed
image 90°.

“Options” displays a new window with
various choices. Among others you can
enable 24 bit rgb images (not
recommended for film dosimetry) and
“Allow any image resolution”
Remember full-frame, high resolution
images can get very large and slow
down an analysis.
19
IMAGE PANEL
Image Panel displays the image and user-defined
regions of interest for dose calibration and
measurement. It is located at the center of the
screen. The image panel allows the users to view
the active image and to select the region of
interest (ROI) for dose calibration and calculation.
Fifteen icons are designated as tools and appear
on the bar to the left of the image panel. These
tools are Selection Frame, Fiducial Management,
Color Leveling, Pause, Image Scaling, Color
Channel Selector, Color Range Spreader, Magnifier, Undo/Redo Buffer, Flip/Rotation,
Cropping, Filtering, Color Translation, Image Exporter and Editor Configuration. Rightclicking on any tool opens a pop-up window of additional options.

Selection Frame,
allows you to select one or more regions of interest
(rectangular, square, circular, elliptical) on the image displayed.

Fiducial Management,
allows you to select points of reference manually or
turn-on an algorithm to automatically detect those reference regions on the
image displayed.

Color Leveling,
allows you to adjust the brightness and contrast levels of
the image displayed.

Profile Path,

Pause,

Image Scaling,
displays the path line when the Profile tab is enabled.
allows you to stop all th eimage tools selected.
allows you to select image coordinate system and axis units.
When this tool is selected, you can change the coordinate system between the
image or the scanner. This ability allows the user to compare scanner effects on
the image easier. Selecting “options” allows the user to change the configuration
of the axis, image grid and color of the scanner background when scanner
coordinates are used.
20
Color Channel Selector,
allows you to select, invert, or gray the color channels of
the image displayed. Note: This tool does not change the bitmap of the image. The
screen view only changes.
Color Range Spreader,
allows you to select a range of color channels to apply to
the displayed image. “Option” available are:

Delete Color Channel Scaling – to change the channel scaling back to full range

Color Channel Scaling Dialog – opens the “color range” window so you can
manually enter the minium and maximum values. The “lock button” makes the
minimum and maximum values for all three chanells the same.

Auto Scale Color Channels to range of Selected Frame – sets the image color
channel range to color channels of the selected frame in real time.

Scale Color Channels to Image Range – sets the color ranges to the ones of the
displayed image.
Magnifier,
allows you to zoon in and out of the image. By clicking on the icon, one
can scroll up to zoom in and scroll down to zoom out using the mouse.

Auto Fit – fits the image atuomatically to your preference everytime the image is
displayed in the “Image Panel”.
Undo/Redo Buffer,
Flip/Rotation,
allows you to undo and redo the changes made to the image.
allows you to flip or rotate the entire image or region of the current
image selected.
Cropping,
allows you to crop the region of the image displayed.
Filtering,
filters the entire image or region of the image displayed by allowing pixel
modifications using a filter matrix to combine surrounding pixels. To define and edit
filters, open the filtering tool.
Color Translation,
allows you to translate colors of the entire image or region of
image displayed.

Equalize Color Channel – divides all color values by a normalized color value.
For example when “Equalize Red” is selected, all color values are divided by the
normalized red value.
21

Equalized Color Channel Density – divides all color channel densities by a
normalized color density. For example when “Equalize Red Density” is selected,
all color channel densities are divided by a normalized red density.

Other options are to invert , translate or manage the color through densities or
maps (See Bitmap Color Translation Editor and Color Translation Maps Editor).
Image Exporter,
, allows you to export to a file or clipboard the entire image, the
image with color channel selected or region of the image displayed.
Editor Configuration,
, allows you to adjust the configuration of the editor (i.e.
enable icons, adjust axis, etc.)
22
FILM EVALUATION PANEL
Film Evaluation Panel or “Analysis Window”
displays evaluation data for any image or dose map
in the Image Panel. The panel has tabs to access
eight sub-panels: Info, Cursor, Statistics, Profile,
Contour, Iso-map, Surface and Report.
Info Panel displays information pertaining to the
image (i.e. size, pixel, resolution, and color channel
range, memory and scanner information) as well as
the sizes and locations of any areas of interest
displayed on the image. Right-click in the panel to
change the units of measurement.
Cursor Panel displays information from the red
dashed box area overlaid
on the image - see red
arrow below. In the red
box, the pixel statistics
shows the information
contained in the red
dashed box (look for red
arrow to the right). Right
click in the area outlined
in red to change the units
of measurement. In the
yellow box, the window displays an enlarged image of the red dashed box in the Image
Panel. Move the pointer to see the location, magnification percentage and color range in
the cursor area. The slide bar at the bottom of the window changes the magnification of
the image. The higher the magnification, the smaller the red dashed box. Increase
magnification by dragging the bar to the right.
23
The color channel spreader,
spreads the color so that the selected image region is
displayed with a color saturation between 0% and 100%. This feature magnifies
differences in color. The color channel selector,
selects the combination of red, green
and blue color channels for mapping the view of the image region.
Statistics Panel shows the dose histogram and the
image statistics. Information is displayed for the entire
image as well as the image around the cursor. In
addition information is displayed for any areas of
interest marked on the image. It displays the image
statistics all the areas in tabular form and of the full
frame or a highlighted area of interest in histogram
form. Use the window at the bottom of the panel to
select the histogram displayed. Move the cursor or
area of interest around to see the real time tracking of
pixel information in the “Cursor Region” column or
frame columns. Pixel statistics (#, #) at the bottom of the panel indicates the location of
the cursor. The two arrows, or
number format buttons, can change the format of the numbers displayed in the
window. Depending on the image selected from the Case Tree in the Case Data
Selector, the table will present information related to the color channel (film image) or
dose for the color channel (dose map image). Right click inside the table to:

change the units and format of the column;

copy the table;

change the pixels of cursor region or 4) change the configuration of the table.
The histogram shows the bar graph for
probability versus dose or color channel
response. To zoom in, click and drag a region
from top left to bottom right of the preferred
24
region. To pan out, click and drag from bottom right to top left. Right click and hold to
drag the histogram across the data range. Right click inside the graph to: 1) change the
units and format for the color channel or probability, 2) copy the table or chart, 3) set a
new predefined data range or 4) change the configuration of the graph.
The image histogram region dropdown list selects the region of the image
displayed in the histogram. Right click
inside the window and check “simple
frame unions” to add data of all frames
(counts possible overlap regions multiple
times). Uncheck the option to count
overlap regions only once.
The histogram range button lets you toggle between full histogram range (0-100%)
and auto range (i.e. the zero clusters at boundaries are removed). The
when full range is on and becomes
when switched to auto range. Select “histogram
range” to manually enter the preferred range.
The color channel selector,
lets you select
the color channel for calculating the histogram.
The color translation tool,
lets you select a
color matrix or color translation that is applied to
the color pixel values before the histogram data is
calculated. Right clicking on the icon opens a
pop-up window with other options.
icon appears
25
The Profile Panel
shows the image
profile along the userdefined path in the
image. Click and drag
in the image panel to
create an image path.
Alternatively click the
profile icon on the
toolbar and select the
type of profile from
the menu. Click on the profile icon also to change the width of a profile path. Right-click
on the profile path itself to select the axis type from pixels, length or normalized. If
length is selected right-click again on the profile path to select the measurement units
The path profile shows in the Film Evaluation Panel as a line graph of dose or color
channel value versus position along the path. Depending on what image is selected
under the Case Data Selector, the graph presents information related to the color
channel value of a film image or the dose value for a selected color channel of a dose
map. Right click inside the graph to:
1. Change the units of the graph,
2. Copy the graph or
3. Change the configuration of the
graph.
26
The Contour Panel displays the iso-line chart of
the image for a given set of dose or color channel
values (see image on the right). Right clicking
inside the chart to copy the image, to change the
units or to configure the chart.
The legend displays the color palette associated
with different dose or color channel values. Again
by right clicking, one can change the units as well
as add, copy, plaste, open and save a palette.
Other options for contour levels are:
1. Maximize Contour Level Range – sets the
range to the mimimum and maximum color
channel values or doses of the image.
2. Auto Maximize Contour Levels – maximizes the range automatically
3. Number of Contour Levels – changes the number of isodose levels
4. Assign Default Contour Levels and Palette – change the contour levels and
palette to the software default settings.
The Iso-map Panel displays the dose map or color
channel map of the image. Right clicking inside the
chart to copy the image or to configure the chart.
Similar to the isolines, the legend displays the
variances of dose positively and negatively for the
image displayed. Likewise with the isolines palette,
right clicking in it will adjust the configurable settings.
27
The Surface Tab displays analysis data in a 3D
surface. Options to change perspective, elevation,
rotation are also available.
The Report Tab configures and formats the case
report. The report can be written based on color
channel, size and content. The footer of each report
always lists the dose distribution comparison
functions – gamma, DTA and dose difference.
The Case Report can be magnified, saved and
printed by using the familiar icons under the chart. If
any of the charts displayed in the report have been
re-calculated or altered in any way after the report
was formatted the click onthe
icon to update the
contents of the report before it is saved or printed.
28
CALIBRATION
(Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AKqpsFKprf0)
The calibration process uses films irradiated with known doses to generate a calibration
table and calculate a set of calibration functions, one for each color channel. These
calibration functions correlate the dose values of the exposed films with the color values
in the scanned images. This section describes how to use FilmQA™ Pro do a film
calibration. For demonstration purposes it uses files downloaded with the FilmQA™ Pro
installation file and installed in Program Files/Ashland Advanced Materials or ISP
Advanced Materials
FilmQA™ Pro uses simple, asymptotic, rational calibration functions that behave like
film, i.e. the response asymptotes to constant value at high dose just the way film
darkens with increasing dose. The simplest and most widely applicable of these rational
functions requires definition of three coefficients so the specific behavior of a batch of
radiochromic film could be defined with as few as three data points. In practice, we
recommend a minimum of four points since with this redundancy the application
provides some statistics that can show which of the calibration functions is best. In
general the dose points for a particular case should be
chosen in geometric progression – say 0, 75, 150 and
300 cGy - rather than in arithmetic progression. One or
two more points could be added if the dose range is
much larger – say 0 to 20 Gy – but there is no
advantage to the much large numbers of data points –
sometimes tens in number – that are frequently used.
Since relatively few calibration films are necessary, the
recommended way is to use the OneScan Protocol and
scan the calibration films all together in one image
rather than separately.
29
There are two ways to introduce calibration data or images into FilmQA™ Pro. Film
Calibration (Ordinary) is used when all the calibration films are contained in a single
scan as for the One Scan Protocol. Film Calibration (Mosaic) is used when the
calibration films are contained in multiple images.
In the “Case Data Selector” window, select “Add New Case Object” under the “Case
Object Management” heading. From the drop-down menu choose either “Film
Calibration (Ordinary)” or “Film Calibration (Mosaic)”. Both options are described below:
Film Calibration (Ordinary)
1. Click the “+” sign next to “Film Calibration
ordinary)” to expand the selection, right click on
the first heading on the branch “Data – N/A
(Empty)” and select from the menu:

“Open image ‘Calibration film’ from file”:
navigate to a folder and select a “tiff”
image file to open;

“Open image ‘’Calibration film’ from
DICOM file”: navigate to a folder and
select a DICOM file to open;

“Recent image files”: provides a shortcut
to recently used image files;

“Scan image ‘Calibration film’”: Scan and obtain an image from a Twain
compliant scanner (Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SfyaQl6rHdM)
2. Click on “Open image ‘Calibration film’ from
file”. Navigate to the
FilmQAPro/Images/Example EBT3 Rapid Arc
and open the calibration film image. A
thumbnail image appears in the empty data
slot and the full image is displayed in the
center window.
30
3. Specify the Regions of Interest (ROI) by enabling the “Selection Frame Tool”,
from the Tool Bar located in the border to the left of the image panel. The
“Selection Frame Tool” allows one or more ROI to be manipulated, i.e. moved,
sized and shaped. Be aware that in calibration you are defining the average
response of the film and the ROI should cover an area of at least 20 cm 2.

Draw a rectangular ROI at the center of one of the exposed film strips and
adjust its size. (Hint: the exposed areas in the sample images are 10 cm
wide). Alternatively click the “Info” tab in the Film Evaluation Panel to
display a range of image data including size and position of the image and
ROI’s, the date/time the image was acquired, the scanner used, etc. Repeat
the ROI selection for each calibration strip. (Note: There are shortcuts to copy
and resize ROIs. Highlight an ROI, hold down the “Ctrl” key and then point
and click to copy the ROI. By left-clicking
, you can choose from options to
copy and paste multiple ROIs and/or save them to file. Right click
and
there are more choices including an option to select an ROI and size/shape
all other ROIs in the same way.)
31
4. The next step is to activate the calibration tool. At the end of the Film
Calibration (ordinary) branch of the Case Tree click “Tool – Calibration tool”.
The calibration window containing the calibration tool opens on the right of the
screen.
Film Calibration (mosaic)
1. Click the “+” sign next to “Film
calibration (mosaic)” to expand the
selection.
2. Right click on the heading “Data –
N/A (Empty)” and choose “Open
image ‘Calibration film’ from file”
and navigate to a folder to select a
“tiff” file to open. For the purpose of
this demonstration, use the set of
images installed with FilmQAPro located in Program Files/Ashland Advanced
Materials/FilmQAPro/Images/Example EBT2 IMRT.
32

There are four calibration images in
the folder. Open the first calibration
image. A thumbnail appears in the
previously empty data slot and a new
empty slot appears. Repeat by
clicking on the empty slot and loading
the next image and continue until all
four images have been opened.
(Note: There is a shortcut to quickly
open all four image files
simultaneously. Right- click the “Film
calibration (mosaic)” heading and choose the first item “Open multiple images
from file”. Navigate to the folder, select and highlight the files and open them.)

After the images are loaded, the case tree
shows four thumbnail images. Further down
the branch is a thumbnail with the images
tiled into a mosaic. Click on the mosaic to
display it in the center window with ROIs
designated in the center of each image.
3. Enable the Selection Frame Tool,
from the
Tool Bar located in the border to the left of image
panel. The “Selection Frame Tool” allows the
regions of interest (ROI) to be manipulated, i.e.
moved, sized or shaped. Be aware that in calibration you are defining the
average response of the film and the ROI should cover an area of at least 20
cm2. Adjust the sizes of the ROIs. (Hint: The exposed areas in the sample
images are 10 cm wide). Alternatively click the “Info” tab in the Film Evaluation
Panel to display a range of image data including size and position of the image
and ROI’s, the date/time the image was acquired, the scanner used, etc. Repeat
the ROI selection for each calibration strip.
33
(Note: There are shortcuts to copy and size ROI’s. Highlight an ROI, hold down
the “Ctrl” key and then point and click to copy the ROI. By left clicking
, you
can choose from options to copy and paste multiple ROI’s and/or save them to
file. Right click
and there are
more choices
including an
option to select
an ROI and
size/shape all
other ROIs in the
same way.)
4. At the end of the Film Calibration (mosaic) branch of the Case Tree click “Tool
– Calibration tool”. The calibration window containing the calibration tool opens
on the right of the screen.
34
Once all the images are imported, a calibration table
and fitting function must be generated. In the bottom
right corner of the Film Evaluation Panel, the Color
Channel Value icon,
appears. Clicking this icon
automatically loads the response values for the
selected ROIs into a table. (Note: The calibration table
could also be populated by typing response values
manually or by copying/pasting tabulated data from
another application.)
After response values are loaded, right click in the
table to access an option menu to manipulate the response data in the table.

Color channel unit: 16-bit: response values
scaled from 0 (black) to 65535 (216-1, maximum
brightness); %: response values scaled from 0100, i.e. 16-bit response value/65535; and OD
(Optical Density): values expressed as
log10(16-bit response value/65535)

Color channel format: Adjusts the precision of
the response values

Copy table: Right click in table to copy/paste to
another application

Copy color value calibration table image:
Generates image with calibration patch tablet using calibration table and copies
image to the clipboard

Copy ‘Color’ column: Right click to copy/paste a single column

Paste universal data: Paste a selection of tables with calibration data obtained
from numerous radiochromic film lots

Insert or Delete Rows: Point and click to add or delete a row

Delete all rows: Self explanatory
35

Options: Provides a menu of options to customize the calibration table
The dose values can be entered manually from the keyboard or copied and pasted from
a table of values. From the IMRT and RapidArc examples installed with FilmQA™ Pro,
the doses, in cGy, are embedded in the names of the image files. The dose values can
be entered in any order, since, by default, once the table is full, the dose
values/responses are sorted in reverse order depending on the responses in the red
color (i.e. lower response values are associated with higher dose). Right click the Color
Channel Synchronization icon,
just below the table to select a choice for
synchronizing the dose values with the response values, or to turn off the doseresponse synchronization. Note: Doses and/or response values could also be entered
by copying and pasting from a table. There are files Exposure.txt in each of the folders:
Example EBT2 IMRT and Example EBT3 Rapid Arc containing the example images.
For convenience open the appropriate txt file and copy and paste the doses into the
calibration table.
The image below shows a completed calibration (the EBT2 IMRT example). The mosaic
image and user-selected ROIs are shown in the image panel (center section). The film
evaluation panel (right
section) displays
tabulated and graphical
calibration data for
each color channel
along with the userselected fitting function
and coefficients relating
measured film
response to dose.
36
Data will not be fitted and no plot will be displayed unless there is exactly one dose
value for each row of response values. Note: A chart with data points, but no fitted line
for one or more of the channels means that no dose-response correlation could be
established for that fitting function. Also, if the chart displays a fit with one or more
singularities, choose another fitting function. You cannot use a function containing a
singularity.
The fitting function matched to the plotted calibration curve is displayed in a window
just above the calibration table. There are several choices in addition to the default,
color reciprocal linear vs. dose function. Click on the right end of the calibration function
window to see all the choices.
37

Color reciprocal linear vs. dose: X (D) =A + B / (D-C) where X (D) is the response
at dose D and A, B and C are coefficients to be determined. This function is used
as the default.

Color rational (linear) vs. dose: X (D) = (A + BD) / (D+C) where X (D) is the
response at dose D and A, B and C are coefficients to be determined.

Color rational (quadratic) vs. dose: X (D) = P2 (D) / (D+E) where X (D) is the
response at dose D; P2 (D) = AD2 + BD +C and A, B, C, and E are coefficients to
be determined.

Color rational (cubic) vs. dose: X (D) = P3 (D) / (D+F) where X (D) is the
response at dose D; P2 (D) = AD3 + BD2 + CD + E and A, B, C, E and F are
coefficients to be determined.

Exponential universal calibration EBT3/Epson 10000XL: X (D) = A + BDC where
X (D) is the response at dose D and A, B and C are coefficients to be
determined.
Right click this icon
to display or copy/paste the determined coefficients of the
selected fitting functions to another application. The fitting functions are generally
expressed as X (D) = fD and the inverse D = fX (D) where X (D) is the response
expressed as (16-bit value/65535) at dose D in Gy.
Use the Calibration Statistics icon
just under the calibration table to display the
calibration statistics in the image panel. This is a table of dose consistency values
determined from the calibration doses values and the fitted values. It provides help in
selecting the fitting function best suited to the data points. Lower values in the table
signify better consistency among the color channels. In this case, and most cases with
doses <500 cGy, the best fitting function is the rational (linear) function.
38
For a higher dose ranges, e.g. 0-10 Gy the color rational linear function: X (D) = (A
+BD) / (D+C) is often preferred. For even greater dose ranges up to 20, 30 Gy or more,
the rational quadratic or cubic functions are preferred.
The exponential universal calibration is a generic or pre-shaped function determined by
compounding calibration data from many, many production lots of EBT type films. It may
better represent the shape of the response curve of EBT type films and in this way
make it better adapted to the characteristics of any one lot than are the other fitting
functions.
When the calibration is finished, there are a number of save options. Click “File” on the
menu bar and “Save treatment case as …” to save the entire case. Or save the
calibration data by right
clicking on “Film
Calibration”, go to
“Save Film Calibration
Data as Treatment
Object” (see the green
box in the image to the
right). The calibration
curve, calibration table,
function and scanned
images of patches will be stored to use in calculating a dose map in this case or another
case. When a Calibration Treatment Object is reloaded the calibration can be edited.
39
Alternatively, choose “Export” and select “Save as Fixed Calibration” (see red box
above). In this case only the calibration will be saved for use in calculating a dose map,
but for security, a fixed calibration cannot be edited or revised. Scanner header
information is required to save a fixed calibration function
To load calibration data saved as a
Treatment Case choose “File” on the menu
bar and “Load treatment case from file”. If
saved as a Treatment Object or Fixed
Calibration then right-click ”Add new Case
Object”, select “Open case object from file”
and navigate to the folder containing the
case object file. A case may contain multiple
calibration objects, but if a case contains
more than one calibration object it will be
necessary to select the correct dependency
for any other objects in that case requiring a
calibration, e.g. a Dose Map Object. For instance, expand the “Dose Map Object” and
select the dependence for that branch of the case tree.
Calibration cases and calibration data can be saved in many ways. The Calibration
Function Management icon
located under the calibration function window provides
a shortcut to saving and utilizing a calibration in other useful ways. Right-click the icon
to access the menu:

Save as a fixed calibration: Saves the calibration in a form that cannot be
edited or revised when later used

Save as FilmQA XR calibration: Saves calibration in a form that can be used in
the FilmQA™ XR application

Calibration function type management: Accesses the calibration function
library from which other existing calibration functions could be loaded

Add as universal calibration: Adds the calibration as a pre-shaped function
40

Add calibration as color mapping: Adds the calibration function as a tool to
convert response values to dose. When this option is invoked, for example in
plotting a profile across an image in response space, the profile chart and table
will be displayed as dose vs. position as opposed to scanner response vs.
position.

Edit calibration function name: Customizes the name of the selected
calibration function

Add unknown calibration function types: Provides a path to adding a new
calibration function to the calibration function library.
Other icons of interest involved with the calibration are:
A. Under the Calibration Table

Increases or decreases number of decimal points for response data

Refreshes the loading of ROI response data into calibration table
B. Under the Data Chart

Selects whether the chart plots the calibration function or the 1st, 2nd
or 3rd derivative

Expands or compresses the dose range to either a discrete range
or the full color interval

Chooses which color channel data is displayed in the chart. The
selection does not affect the calibration. It only changes how the
calibration functions are displayed.

Allows custom ranges for the dose and response axes
41
DOSE MAP
(Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfcGM3yIHlU)
To measure or evaluate a dosimetry film, it is necessary to first scan the film and apply
an appropriate calibration function to convert the resulting image into dose space. Once
converted to a dose image, FilmQA™ Pro offers an array of quantitative analysis tools to
evaluate the dose maps.
To work with an exposed
application film begin by
opening a Calibration Object
and developing a calibration
function. Alternatively open a
saved case containing a
calibration object/calibration
function or load a Calibration
Object or Fixed Calibration from
file. For either of the last two,
right click on “Add new case
object” in the Case Data
Selector window and from the
drop-down menu, select “Open
case object from file” then navigate to the correct folder and load the calibration file.
Note: The calibration function is scanner dependent as well as being dependent on the
film type and manufacturing lot. The film image being used for dose map calculation
must be acquired from the same scanner as the calibration data and be the same
acquisition type, e.g. reflection or transmission mode and positive or negative image. In
addition the application film must come from the same manufacturing lot as the
calibration film.
42
To demonstrate the dose map calculation,
another case object will be added to the
example from the previous section, Calibration.
Specifically the example adds a Dose Map
object to the “Film Calibration (mosaic)” object.
Begin by clicking “Add New Case Object” under
the Case Object Management heading in the
Case Data Selector window. From the dropdown menu select “Dose Map (Single Scan)”
and when the dose map object appears in the
case tree click “+” to expand the heading. Then
right click “Data – Dose Film (Empty)” and
import the IMRT image by choosing “Open
Image ‘Dose Film’ from File”. Navigate to
Program Files/Ashland Specialty Materials/Film
QA Pro 2013/Image/Example EBT2 IMRT and open the “IMRT Composite” image.
FilmQA™ Pro can open various image formats including “bmp”, “tiff”, “gif”, “jpeg”, “png”
and “fits”, but for dosimetry the “tiff” format should be the one used. FilmQA™ Pro also
recognizes images in DICOM format
files. To use a DICOM file, select
“Open Image ‘Dose Film’ from DICOM
File”. IMRT image in the example is
from a head-and-neck treatment plan
and is a composite containing all seven
fields. Note: A dose map image may
also be generated directly by scanning an application film.
43
Once the IMRT image has loaded, FilmQA™ Pro by default, uses triple-channel
dosimetry and automatically builds a dose map and a consistency map. When the
calculations are complete the dose map and consistency map are displayed as
thumbnail images under the dose map object branch. Triple-channel dosimetry
involves the solution of a non-linear optimization problem for each pixel in an image.
Since many images contain >500,000 pixels the creation of triple-channel dose map
may take more than 10 seconds depending on the computer resources available. In the
bottom right hand corner of the screen is a little star icon. When the star is colored blue
-
- it indicates the application is busy with calculations. The number beside the star
is the number of calculation processes under way.
The consistency map displays a representation of dose uncertainty defined as
2
2
2
√ ((D - D ) + (D - D ) + (D - D ) ) where D , D and D are the calculated doses
R
B
B
G
G
R
R
G
B
in the red, green and blue channels respectively. The optimization problem used to
calculate doses in multi-channel dosimetry involves
minimizing the consistency function for each pixel in
the image. Full frame images on an A3 scanner can
involve the solution of a million optimization
problems, or more. Using triple channel dosimetry
and the One Scan Protocol – see Lewis, et al., Med.
Phys., 39(10), 2012, pp 6339 - consistency values
better than 1% of the maximum dose to the
application film are the standard.
In addition to triple-channel dosimetry other dose
mapping methods and options are available. By right-clicking on the “Dose-map
(single scan)” line, a menu of options appears.

Rebuild: Recalculates dose and consistency maps using the selected method

Dose mapping method: Allows the following options to be specified:
44

Dose map from single channel: Calculates dose for each channel
independently

Dose map using density reference channel: Dual channel dosimetry – uses
the selected channel as the reference. The appropriate choice is to use the
channel where the slope of the dose response curve is least. Up to 30 Gy, at
least, the blue channel has the lowest slope and is the best choice for the
reference channel. Dual channel dosimetry with blue channel as reference is
equivalent to doing dosimetry by dividing red channel response by blue channel
response or using the radio of the green ro blue response.

Dose map using triple channel uniformity optimization: Splits the application
image into dose-dependent and dose-independent fractions thereby removing
the effect of film non-uniformities and scanner artifacts from the dose map - see
Micke, et al., Med. Phys., 38(5), 2011, pp 2523.

Recalibration using reference regions: Used to implement the OneScan
Protocol by removing scan-to-scan variability and making it possible to get
dosimetry results with a few minutes of radiochromic film exposure
 Auto scale dose range: Scales the dose range of the dose map between the
highest and lowest detected values
45
 User defined dose range: Scales the dose range of the dose map to the
user’s values – this is helpful when the film image contains dark areas not
related to dose – e.g. pen marks, scanner masks
 Enforce same dose range for RGB: When checked, the dose range is the
same for all color channels

Uniformity Map: Click this line to calculate and display the uniformity map. In
triple channel dosimetry, the film image is split into dose-dependent and doseindependent parts. The uniformity map is the dose-independent part and
contains the film and scanner artifacts removed from the dose map.

Consistency Map: Click this link to access options for displaying and scaling the
consistency map. In triple channel dosimetry, the consistency map is the
remaining error after the dose-independent information is removed. Lower
consistency means a better calibration.
46

Filtering: Contains filters that could be applied to any image data before
calculating dose or uniformity maps.

Fiducial Detection: Contains options and methods useful in recognizing the
placement of fiducial markers

Duplicate ‘Dose map (single scan)’: Adds a duplicate copy of the dose map
object to the case tree. This option is useful when comparing dose mapping
methods or other data treatments.

Save ‘Dose map (single scan)’ data as treatment object: Saves all the data in
the dose map object as a treatment object that can be added to another case.

Delete ‘Dose map (single scan)’: Deletes the Dose Map object from the case
tree.

Recover removed object: Recovers a dose map object deleted in error.
47

Save all ‘Dose map (single scan)’ images as: Saves the dose film image

Save all images of the treatment case as: Saves the film images from all case
objects in the case tree.

Refresh treatment case tree: Refreshes all calculations in the case tree after
one or more parameters have been changed

Sort objects: Sorts the
case objects according
to a number of options.
This feature is useful
when multiple objects of
various types have been added to the case tree without regard to their order.

Twain scanner: Reprises the configuration options for the Twain scanner
otherwise available through the Twain Configuration icon
at the bottom of
the Case data selector window.

Options: Accesses a variety of options to change the display of the Tool Tip, the
icons and button bars and allow types of image movement as well as a selection
of image types and resolutions. These options are otherwise available through
the Tool Tip icon
at the bottom of the Case data selector window.
Clicking on “Dose mapping method” leads to options to calculate single channel, dual
channel or triple channel dose maps as well as an option to scale the dose map either
automatically, or on a user-defined basis. When the dose map is displayed in the center
window (clicking any thumbnail image will display that image in the window) the scale of
the dose map image appears in the right hand window under the “Info” tab. Indeed, the
information on any image displayed in the center window is available under the “Info”
tab. (Note: Rarely, the display in the center panel will fail to update when a different
thumbnail is selected. If so, toggle back and forth to other thumbnail images until the
update is triggered.)
48
The default when a dose map is calculated is “auto-scaling” and it works well unless the
darkest areas in the image are not due to radiation exposure, but rather occur because
of ink marks on the film or from a mask used on the scanner. In such a case the
apparent dose-range of the image may be much higher than the actual dose range to
the film and lead to loss of precision in the dose measurements. The remedy is to scale
the dose map using a “User defined dose range”.
Enter the dose range values setting the upper value about 25% higher than the
expected maximum dose to the film. Click on the maximum value then enter the new
value, check that
the dose unit is
correct, and press
“Enter” on the
keyboard. Change
the minimum value
if necessary and then click “OK”. Immediately and automatically the dose map will be
recalculated with the new user-selected dose range. Right-click any of the thumbnail
images will reveal a menu of options including saving the image to file,
copying the image to another location in FilmQA™ Pro or copying the
image as a CSV table of values to a spreadsheet application, e.g. Excel.
When an image is displayed in the image panel (the center window), a
large variety of options and tools are available through the icons on the left
side of the Image Panel and the tabs along the left side of the Image
Evaluation Panel (the right-hand window). The purpose and operation of
these features is described in the Image Panel and Film Evaluation Panel
sections.
49
To change the axis units or to copy the image
from the image panel, right-click on the axis of the
image to change the the “Axes Type” from pixels
(the default) to length in mm or to hide the axis.
Right-click in the same place to “Copy chart” or
“Copy image” and paste in another location.
As soon as a dose image loads and
so long as a calibration curve is
available in the case, FilmQA™ Pro
automatically builds the dose and
consistency maps. The thumbnail
dose and consistency map images
appear below the corresponding
dose film in the case tree.
To save a copy of the patient
treatment film, right click on “Dose
Map (Single Scan)” and select
either “Save ‘Dose Map (Single
Scan)’ Data as Treatment Object”
or “Save all ‘Dose Map (Single Scan)’ Images as” (See green box – right). FilmQA™ Pro
saves images in various formats including “tiff”, “png” and “fits”.
The Treatment Case can be saved by clicking “File” on the menu bar and selecting
“Save Case Treatment” or “Save Case Treatment as …” Saving the case as a
“Treatment Case” is advantageous because all the data for all the Case Objects in the
case is saved in one single file, not as separate files. Of course as referenced earlier,
any single film image, Dose Map, Consistency Map or Uniformity Map, etc. can be
saved separately, or the all the data contained in any Case Object can be saved as a
Treatment Object.
50
PLAN TO DOSE COMPARISON
(Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8V0dZJ_mchY)
In this Section the comparison of an IMRT treatment plan to a dose map calculated from
a patient film is described. The description that follows uses the image and data files
provided along with the installation of the FilmQA™ Pro application. It builds on the
example contained in the Calibration and Dose Map Sections of this User Manual.
Everything needed for the example is contained in Program Files/Ashland Advanced
Materials/FilmQA Pro 2013/Image/Example EBT2 IMRT. The example assumes that the
calibration films and dose map film in the Example EBT2 IMRT folder have been used
to calculate a dose map using triple channel dosimetry.
Under the “Case Object Management” heading in the Case data selector window
choose “Add new case object”. Select “Dose to plan comparison” from the drop
down menu and click the “+” sign to expand the selection. The following items appear
under the branch:

Data-Treatment plan (empty): Location for the treatment plan

Data – Dose map (read only): Location for dose map created in last section

Data – Dose map registered (empty read only): Not used

Data – Comparison dose to plan (empty read only): Not used

Dependence – Dose map (single scan): Right click and specify which dose
map to use if the case has multiple dose maps

Tool – image comparer: Click on this tool to start the image comparer – the
images from the treatment film and treatment plan are overlaid and displayed in
the Image Panel.
Since the example case contains a dose map, it is automatically loaded into the slot
“Data –dose map (read only)” as indicated by the appearance of the thumbnail image
in the display. If a case contains multiple dose maps the first dose map in the case is
automatically loaded. So if comparison of one of the other dose maps to plan is
required, right click on the line “Dependence-dose map (single scan)” and select the
Dose Map required from the drop down list.
51
The “Data –dose map (read only)” slot could also be populated by copying and
pasting image data from a spreadsheet. With the file to be copied on the clipboard right
click “Data –dose map (read only)” and select “Paste CSV data as image to ‘dose
map’” to load the image. In the panel that then appears enter the scaling ranges
defining the physical size of the images and its color or dose scaling range.
To add the Treatment Plan, right click on the line “Data-Treatment plan (empty)” and
select from the menu:

Open treatment plan: Select this option to open a treatment plan from a list of
planning system-specific formats – BrainLab, Pinnacle, Tomotherapy, and Xio

Open image ‘Treatment plan’ from file: Opens a treatment plan stored in tiff
format

Open image ‘Treatment plan’ from Dicom file: Opens a treatment plan from a
3D dose map in a DICOM format
52

Scan Image ‘Treatment plan’: Not operative

Paste CSV data as image to ‘Treatment plan’: Copy a plan from a spreadsheet
to be posted as CSV table. . In the panel that then appears enter the scaling
ranges defining the physical size of the image and its color or dose scaling
range.
For the example select “Open treatment plan” go to the folder Program Files/Ashland
Advanced Materials/FilmQA Pro 2013/Image/Example EBT2 IMRT and look for
Pinnacle format
files with
extension
*.header and
*.text. Load the
.header file, it
contains the plan.
The .txt file with
the scaling and
dose ranges is
loaded
automatically.
Once the Treatment plan has loaded the Dose to plan comparison section of the case
tree appears as shown above. Inspection of the
thumbnail images reveals they are aligned differently.
Aligning the image is a two-step process The first step
is a rough alignment that could be done either on the
film image in the Dose Map Object, or on the dose
map image in the Image Comparer tool. The second
step is done only in the Image Comparer tool and precisely overlays the dose map with
the treatment plan using fiducial marks either as the pre-punched holes in some
53
versions of the film itself (e.g. EBT3F or EBT3P) or scribed onto the patient film with pen
by a user at the time the film was exposed. The fiducial marks delineate the in-plane
and transverse axes of the treatment system as indicated by the projection of the lightfield onto the film. When using a film with pre-punched fiducial holes the marks are
lined up with the crosshairs in the lightfield, or the film is placed onto the registration
pins of a GafChromic™ QuiCk Phantom and the registration marks on the outside of the
phantom then are aligned with the crosshairs. Rough alignment, manually
Observe the thumbnail images. Depending on the orientation used for scanning the
dose map film the
image could be
rotated or flipped
relative to the
treatment plan.
Observing the
images in the
example case a
rough alignment
could be achieved by rotating the dose map by 90° counterclockwise and then flipping it
right-to-left. Note: If the thumbnail images are indistinct, then click on the dose map
image and then the treatment plan image to display them at full size in the Image
Panel).
For the example, click on the patient film image
to display it in the Image Window and then
click the
icon in the toolbar to the left of the
Image Window to use the Flip and \Rotation
tool. Select “Rotate left 90°”, then reactivate
the tool and “Flip horizontally” to achieve
rough orientation
54
The fiducial marks may have been highlighted when the dose map was calculated or
the highlighting could be added at this stagewith the Fiducial marker tool. Notice that the
rough alignment of this image is now correct, Then click the
icon and “Image
fiducial type” and select “General fiducial point”. Point the cursor at
the black fiducial mark at the top of the image near the center and
click. The fiducial is delineated with a mark
indicating that it will be
fitted in horizontal direction (left-to-right). For fine adjustment of the position relative to
the scribe mark click on the fiducial to highlight it like this
and then hold down the
“Ctrl” key and adjust the position with the keyboard arrows. Repeat the process for the
scribe marks located at bottom-center and about 1/3 the way down the sides of the film.
The fiducial along the bottom edge will be delineated and fitted the same as at the top.
Along the sides the delineation changes to
indicating the fiducials will be fitted
vertically (up-and-down).
Note: FilmQA™ Pro “senses” the position
at which a fiducial mark is being placed
and chooses the type/orientation of the
mark accordingly. To override the
automatic selection highlight the fiducial
mark and select the type/orientation from
the menu.
Note: The position of a fiducial mark is
determined by the geometric center of
the software marker, not the scribed mark
on the film.
Click on the line “Tool – Image comparer” at the end of the “Dose to plan
comparison” branch of the Case Object. This displays the the dose map (sometimes
referred to as the Client Image) overlaid on the treatment plan. Close inspection of the
55
display in the Image Panel at this stage reveals the fiducial marks on the dose map are
not aligned with the longitudinal and tranverse axes.
Note: If the case contains multiple dose maps, the correct one must be selected. Click
on “Dependence” (5th line along the branch) and choose which Dose Map to use from
the drop-down list.
By default, a large
Region of Interest
(ROI) for
quantitative
evaluation is preselected. Click the
Frame Selector
icon
to activate
the tool and adjust
the size, shape and
position of the ROI frame. Note: Keep the ROI within the area of the dose map film and
inside the fiducial marks. The ROI can include all the low dose areas where the
exposure is principally due to scattered radiation. If desired these low doses can always
be excluded from the quantitative analysis by entering a threshold value in the
slot at the bottom of the Film Evaluation Panel or Analysis Window.
Note: If the Image Movement icon on the toolbar looks like this
the tool is active
and will prevent the Frame Selector tool from being activated. Click the Client Image
Movement icon to turn the tool off - it should look like this
and then the Frame
Selector can be activated.
To align the dose map and treatment plan using fiducial registration, click the fiducial fit
icon,
on the toolbar to the left of the Image Panel. By selecting “Fit fiducials
56
horizontally, vertically and rotationally”,the dose map is automatically aligned with
the in-plane and transverse axes and thereby with the treatment plan.
To manually align the dose map and treatment plan, click the Image
Movement icon,
on the toolbar to activate the tool. A little arrow
appearing in the icon indicates the tool is active -
. Click the icon below
Image Movement icon to toggle between coarse movement
movement
, or fine
. Right click either icon to adjust the motion speed over an
even greater range. Clicking the Image movement icon,
tool. Select fine movement
to activate the
and right click the icon to choose a further adjust the
motion speed. A setting of 2% or 5% is usually best. To display the rotational pole, click
and select a position. “Move pole to center cross” is usually the best choice after a
fiducial alignment but the pole could be positioned at other locations if preferred.
Fine adjustments are best controlled by
using the rotation and translation
buttons appearing at the bottom of the
Image Panel when the Image movement
tool is on. For translational movement,
click the arrows on the large square
button or turn the circular knob for
rotation. Alternatively click either button
and use the keyboard arrows. The
display to the right of the rotation knob
shows the xy coordinates of the rotation and the rotation angle. % will be most useful.
Larger values are associated with coarse movement.
The Dose Map can be moved by click/drag of the overlay image, but the adjustments
can be better controlled by using the rotation and translation buttons that appear at the
57
bottom of the Image Window when the Image movement tool is active. For translational
movement click the arrows on the large square button or turn the circular knob for
rotation. Alternatively the motions can be controlled by clicking either of the large
buttons and using the keyboard arrows. For relative dosimetry the maximum dose value
in the treatment plan can be scale up or down. Use the spin arrows to
increase/decrease the maximum reference dose or type in a value and press enter to
accept the value.
FilmQA™ Pro provides for various quantitative comparisons of the
measured dose distribution with the Treatment Plan. Click on the
Comparison map selector icon
to choose between the gamma,
distance-to-agreement and differential delta functions.
This example focuses on the gamma analysis test - Low, et al, Med. Phys. 25, 656
(1998) – and FilmQA™ Pro calculates the gamma value for each pixel in one of two
ways (% relative error):
1. as √( DD2 + DTA2 . tolerance/distance) where DD = dose difference in %;
DTA is distance to agreement, tolerance is the dose threshold and distance is
the distance threshold; or
2. as √( DD2/tolerance2 + DTA2/distance2).
The passing criterion in the first case is gamma value ≤ tolerance value and gamma
value ≤1 for the second case.
The test criteria are set by entering the tolerance and distance values into the cells near
the bottom of the Film Evaluation Panel. The default values are 3% at 3 mm with the
minimum threshold set at 0% (i.e. 0% of the maximum value in the Treatment Plan).
58
Click on the
icon to choose the type of gamma map
select between Gamma relative error, Gamma
Normalized or Gamma Angle.
Click on the
icon and from the menu select whether
the required tolerance value is set relative to the maximum dose in the plan, relative to
the plan value for the pixel in question or relative to a user-defined value. From the
menu also select whether the seach will continue to evaluate DTA out to the radius
specified by the distance criterion used for the gamma test, or whether the search is
stopped at the radius at which a gamma value ≤1 is detected. The threshold dose can
be displayed either as % of the maximum dose in the
treatment plan or as an absolute dose value in a
selection of dose units. Click on the
icon to toggle
between % dose and absolute dose.
By default the gamma test is calculated as “Gamma
relative error” with 3% dose tolerance relative to maximum dose at a distance criterion
of 3mm and with the search to the entire 3mm radius. The default dose threshold is
zero, so evaluation is done for all pixels. Note: As film is usually scanned at ≥72 dpi, or
more, the spatial resolution of the Dose Map is almost always much greater than the
Treatment Plan. This means there are >1 measured pixels for every plan pixel. To
prevent gross overestimation of the gamma passing rate the plan pixels and measured
dose map must be put on the same basis for evaluation and comparison. That is the
measured dose map must be projected to the grid of the plan. To do this FilmQA™ Pro
generates a Projection Map, i.e. the measured dose map is recalculated by averaging
individual pixels values grouped to reproduce the spatial resolution of the plan.
59
In the example Case the gamma test passing rate is >99.6% for 3% dose tolerance at 3
mm. Passing rates >99% for the 3%/3mm criteria are common with film evaluation, but
with passing rates that high, there is little sensitivity in using the passing rate to search
for a more optimal fit
while using the coarse
3%/3mm evaluation
criteria.
For instance, by using
the fiducial marks on
the film to register the
dose measurements
with the Treatment
Plan, human error in
scribing those marks
affects the comparison of the dose distributions. This can be investigated by manually
moving the distributions relative to one another while searching for an optimum fit. In
doing this it is strongly is recommended to use the more stringent test values of 2%
tolerance at 2 mm. Even small changes <0.5 mm in the relative positions of the
distributions can have a large effect on the gamma passing rate. For the example Case
the gamma passing rate for 2%/2 mm is 95.11%
.
Optimizatiing the dose distribution comparison involves fine movement of the
Projected Dose Map in the x and y directions and rotationally relative to the treatment
plan. The tools to do this are activated by the icon to the left of the Image Window as
previously described.
The maximum dose in the Treatment Plan is shown to right of the xy translation button
and on the far right of the panel are the x and y translations and the combined xy
translation. Right click on any of the values to set the units.
60
Note: For absolute dosimetry, do NOT adjust the maximum dose in the plan image.
Maximum dose could be adjusted when doing relative dosimetry.
Small position adjustments of x = - 0.3 mm; y = -0.6mm and rotation by -0.2° move the
passing rate from 95.11% to 96.4%. Clicking the
icon assigns the analysis map
(gamma map in the example) as a Treatment Object within the Dose to plan
comparison Object. Note: If the analysis function values do not update after changes
click the
icon to force an update.
The icons under the
histogram in the
Analysis Window control
the range of values/step
sizes along the x axis of
the chart (the gamma
value axis in the
example). Click
to
change the way the
histogram is displayed.
The red color channel
icon,
indicates data for the red color channel is displayed. Click to change the color
channel.
61
Right click anywhere in the chart to access another set of
selections for the chart display and control the values along x
and y axes, format the units, show a probability histogram or
cumulative histogram and change the number of data clusters
for the histogram display.
Note: Click the command line “Display mode” and activate one
of the choices to display a histogram table in addition to the
chart. And remember that throughout the FilmQA™ Pro
application any table, chart or image can be transferred into
other Windows-based applications using point/click and
copy/paste commands.
Display options in the Film Evaluation Panel, or Analysis Window are available
along the left border. Eight tabs control the following type of analysis data:
The Statistics Tab displays statistics of any film or user-defined area of
interest displayed in the Image Panel and has been described in a previous
Section.
The Profile Tab activates the display of a user-defined profile in the Analysis
Window. The initial display is the default profile diagonally top-left to bottomright across the Selection Frame. Right click the Profile icon
and select
the profile settings listed below:
1. Line: User sets the position, length and orientation of the profile line
2. Vertical line: User sets the position and length of a vertical line
3. Horizontal line: User sets the position and length of a horizontal line
4. Multiple lines: A freehand path of multiple lines can be defined
5. Full vertical line: User sets the position of a vertical line across the
entire image
62
6. Full horizontal line: User sets the position of a horizontal line across the entire
image
7. Circle: User defines a circular path
8. Ellipse: User defines an elliptical path
9. Options: Presents options for the way in which the profile
path is displayed
10. Path range width: User defines the width of thew profile path
11. Copy path: Path can be copied for pasting on another image
in the Image Panel
12. Add current path to recent list: Saves the selected path to
file for later use
13. Delete path: Self-explanatory
The default settings display a diagonal profile 10 pixels wide for the treatment pPlan
(thick line) overlaid with the measured profile from the dose map (thin line). The icons
under the Profile Chart control
the display of the profiles
The
icon controls whether
plan and measurement profiles
are displayed together or
separately. A selection can be
made to plot and display the
difference between the profiles.
The
icon controls the range
and units on the y axis (the dose axis). A selection can be made to plot and display the
dose profiles normalized to the maximum value. Click the
icon to display the path
editor tools and the envelope slider. These are helpful to make precise and repeatable
adjustments. By turning the buttons in the path editor tool the profile path can be
translated and rotated and the path width and length can be altered. The envelope
63
slider controls translation along the x and y axes. There is an option to limit the profile
path to the envelope of the Selection Frame (Region of interest).
The Isolines Tab displays an overlay of the
isodose lines between the treatment plan and dose
map. It is a very useful display when making
manual adjustments of the rotational and
translational position of the measurements relative
to the plan.
Right click anywhere on the isolines chart to show a
menu of display choices for the chart. These
include the dose and length units as well as choices
for altering the number of contour levels displayed
and their colors. To make changes to the contour
levels click the Palette Editor icon
or right-click
the chart legend and select the Edit contour levels and palette
command to open the Contour Level Editor.

Click on

Click on

Click in the Contour level column of the table to edit the
to change the number of contour levels
to edit the colors of the contour lines
doses assigned to the contours. After specifying the dose
levels, the slider can be used to change the maximum and
minimum dose levels and the intermediate doses are scaled
accordingly.

Click the
icon to set contour levels with the doses automatically scaled
64

Use the
to save or copy the Contour Level Palette or retrieve a saved
Contour Level Palette.
The Isomap Tab displays the isomap of the gamma
function. A legend describes the variances of the dose.
The Surface Tab displays the analysis data on a 3-D
surface.
65
The Delta Map Tab shows the passing rates (gamma
analysis in the example) for the all three color channels
below the chart. The chart in the window displays the
pass/fail data for the red, green and blue color channels
in map form. Pixels passing the gamma test in all three
channels are dispayed in black. If a pixel fails the
gamma test for a particular channel it is displayed in that
color or mix of colors. White indicates areas where all
three channels fail the gamma test.
Icons along the left hand border of the window give
access to tools available in the Image Window and
described in that Section. The Map can be exported to other applications either as an
image file or a CSV table. Use the Comparison Map Selector icon
to choose
between displays of analytic data from gamma , DTA, or dose difference maps.
The Projection Map is critical to the proper
calculation of the dose distribution comparison
functions. The dose map and treatment plan cannot
be compared without placing them in the same spatial
domain. Because film is usually scanned at ≥72 dpi or
more, the spatial resolution of the dose map is almost
always much greater than the treatment plan. This
means there are >1 measured pixels for every plan
pixel. To prevent gross overestimation of the passing
rates the plan and measured dose maps must be put
on the same basis for evaluation and comparison.
That is, the measured dose map must be projected to
the grid of the plan. To do this FilmQA™ Pro
66
generates a projection map, i.e. the measured dose map is recalculated by averaging
individual pixels values grouped to reproduce the spatial resolution of the plan. The
projection map is displayed in the projection tab. The projection map can be exported
either as an image file or a CSV table to other applications. Icons along the left hand
border of the window give access to tools available in the Image Panel and described in
that section.
The Report Tab configures and formats the
case report. Use the Color Channel icon,
to
select the channel or channels for which data is
required. Next, use the menu in the panel at the
lower left cormer of the window to select the
charts required for the Case Report. Click on the
Case Report Format icon
to select whether
the Case Report will contain one chart per page,
or select the number of charts to be tiled and
printed on each page. Then click the
icon to
update the report. It may take a few seconds
before the Report is formatted and displayed in
the panel.
In addition to the data in the charts the report
always lists the quantitative results for all three
dose distribution comparison functions – gamma, DTA and dose difference. Patient and
Case Data contained in the Case Description Object is recorded in the header of the
Case Report The Case Report can be magnified, saved and printed by using the
familiar icons under the chart. If any of the charts displayed in the report have been recalculated or altered in any way after the report was formatted the click onthe
to update the contents of the report before it is saved or printed.
icon
67
ONE SCAN PROTOCOL
This efficient protocol was developed to simplify radiochromic film calibration and to
avoid the complications of the post-exposure growth of radiochromic film response and
the scan-to-scan variability of the scanner. The protocol provides a time-saving method
for evaluating
radiotherapy
treatment plans. The
protocol combines
calibration and
measurement in a
single scan. It was
published in Medical
Physics, 39(10), pp
6339, 2012. Also by
using the One Scan
Protocol,
measurement results
can be obtained in as
little as 10 minutes.
To do this the
application and
reference films should be exposed within a narrow time window. Since the postexposure growth in these two films is so very similar when they are exposed minutes
apart it is no longer is in necessary to wait overnight or 24 hours before post exposure
changes have slowed and film can be scanned. If the time between the exposures is Δt
minutes it is only necessary to wait a further 2Δt minutes before scanning to reduce the
dose error to less than 1%. Now results can be obtained on your schedule.
Furthermore, the OneScan Protocol addresses the accuracy and integrity of the
measurement by eliminating variability due to the scanner or environmental factors
affecting the response of the film. The One Scan Protocol requires an unexposed
68
reference film, one reference film exposed to a known dose of radiation in addition to
the exposed application film. Note: All films used for the One Scan Protocol must be
from the same production lot and from the same production lot as the films used
for the primary calibration. The illustration shows an application film is shown with two
reference strips above it. The upper strip is the unexposed film and the lower strip is the
one exposed to a known dose. As a rule the exposed reference strip should receive a
dose close to the maximum dose expected in the application film.
To demonstrate the One Scan Protocol, we will use the images in the EBT3 Rapid Arc
example included with the FilmQA™ Pro installation package. The root is Program
Files/Ashland Advanced Materials/FilmQAPro/Images/Example EBT3 Rapid Arc.
Click "Add new case object" at the bottom of the case tree and select 'Film
calibration (ordinary)' from the list. Navigate to the Example EBT3 Rapid Arc folder
and open the file 0__69_2__138_3__368_8.tif. The file name embeds the calibration
dose values. The dose values are also available in the file Exposures.txt in the same
folder. The technique of having all calibration films in a single image is called an
OneScan calibration. It minimizes the number of calibration images and uses film and
your time efficiently. Because FilmQA™ Pro uses asymptotic fitting functions that
behave like film, i.e. the responses approach constant values at high dose just as the
darkening of the film gets progressively smaller with each dose increment, fewer points
are needed to correlate the response of a specific film to dose. One of the most useful
fitting functions is X(D) = A + B/(D-C) where X(D) is the response at dose D and A, B
and C are coefficients to be determined. Responses are fitted separately for each color
channel.
Since only three coefficients per channel need to be defined, as few as three dose
points are needed for the correlation. However, it is preferable to add one or two more
points to provide statistics showing the goodness of the fit, to eliminate bad dose points
and to select the best fitting function. To fit all the calibration films in a single scan cut
1½”x8” strips from an 8”x10” sheet of film. Not only does this provide an easy reference
69
to film orientation, but it is also means that a calibration with three or four exposures can
be done with less than one sheet of film. Although this example doesn't conform to the
rule, it works best to have the doses in approximate geometric progression rather than
in arithmetic progression.
Use the Frame Selector tool to draw
areas of interest in the center of
each strip. A frame can be easily
duplicated by holding down the
"Control" key and pointing/clicking
with the mouse. Calibration defines
the average response of the film so
the measurement areas should be
about 20-25 cm2. Activate the
Calibration Tool by clicking on the last line of the Film Calibration Object and click the
icon in the lower right corner of the Calibration
Window to populate the calibration table with
response values. Then click in the dose column
and enter the doses. Dose values can be entered
in random order as the doses/responses are
sorted/matched in reverse order, i.e. the smallest
dose is matched to the largest response value. By
default the red channel is used for the
synchronization. Click the color synchronization
icon
to synchronize responses of other color
channels or to sort matching order or turn off the
synchronization. As soon as all dose values are
entered the data points and fitting functions are
charted in the Calibration Window.
70
Use the Calibration Statistics icon
to
display a table of calibration statistics in the
Image Window. This table of consistency
values determined from the measured
calibration doses and the fitted values and
helps in selecting the best fitting function for the data points. Lower values in the table
signify a better fit. In most cases with doses <500 cGy, the best fitting function is the
rational (linear) function. For a higher dose ranges, e.g. 0-10 Gy the color rational linear
function is often preferred.
The fitting functions and coefficients are expressed as a response, X(D), which is a
function of dose D and the inverse dose as a function of response where response is
expressed as %, i.e. the16-bit value/65535, with dose given in cGy. Click the
icon
under the calibration equation to copy and paste a table of the coefficients for all color
channels. To show the OneScan Protocol, go to Program Files/Ashland Advanced
Materials/FilmQAPro/Images/Example EBT3
Rapid Arc and load the file Dose Film
0__313_0.tif. Now highlight the fiducial marks
(indicated by the arrows in the figure) delineating
the axes of the treatment system and the
isocenter. They are the small black marks close
to the center of each edge of the film and
correspond to the position of the cross hairs in
the light field when the film was exposed. Click
on the icon for the “Fiducial management tool”
and use the “General fiducial point”. Since the
fiducial marks are near the centers of the sides
of the Dose film the software “senses” whether a
particular point is fitted in a vertical or horizontal
direction.
71
Point the cursor and click on each fiducial mark to add highlight marks. The fiducial
fitting senses the center of the highlight marks, not the marks scribed on the film. For
precise adjustment click on a highlight, press the Control key and use the keyboard
arrows to move the mark.
When FilmQA™ Pro has finished calculating the dose map (using multi-channel
dosimetry), select the dose map and draw areas of interest at the center of the two
reference strips. Click the “Statistics” tab to show a table of dose values. Look at the
values for Frames 1 and 2. In Frame 1, they are close to zero in each color channel; but
for Frame 2, the values for the exposed reference film are all close to 310 cGy when
they should be 313 cGy. The differences between the measured and actual values are
the result of scan-to-scan variability – either from the scanner itself, or because the
reference/application films were scanned at a different ambient temperature than the
calibration films. If you stopped at this point you’d have accepted a 1% offset in your
dose map.
72
Here’s where the One Scan Protocol can be
applied. Display the image of the application
and reference films in the Image Panel and
draw an area of interest on the unexposed
reference strip. Then right click the region to
designate it a calibration region and right click
again on the frame to type in and enter the
calibration value of zero. Notice that the frame
changes color from yellow to blue to indicate
it’s a calibration region. Repeat the process
for the exposed strip and enter the value of
313 cGy. Now right click on the line “Dose
Map (Single Scan)” and select “Dose Mapping
Method” then “Recalibration using reference
regions” and then “Dose Linear Scaling”. To
complete the recalibration, go back to “Dose Map (Single Scan)” and select “Rebuild
Dose Map”. The thumbnail images of the Dose and Consistency Maps are refreshed.
73
Display the new dose map in the Image Window and look at the values in the Statistics
table. The exposed reference film is now exactly 313 cGy in each color channel. For the
unexposed film the tabulated values are not exactly zero, but only because FilmQA™
Pro doesn’t display negative dose values. Any negative calculated value is set to zero
as shown by the histogram.
74
STAR SHOT ANALYSIS
I.
(Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CPtz-0dHbR8)
SCOPE
The protocol applies to GafChromic™ EBT2, EBT3 and EBT3+ films exposed on
a linear accelerator and analyzed using FilmQA™ Pro software. It provides an
efficient method for evaluating the isocenter position of linear accelerators using
the star shot test. The exposed films are scanned on an Epson ® 10000XL or
11000XL scanner in either transmission of reflection mode. Dose calibration of
the film is not required as the analyses are performed directly from the scanned
images without transferal to dose space. The method encompasses gantry,
collimator and couch star shots.
II.
EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS

One (1) 8”x10” piece of Gafchromic™ EBT2 or EBT3 film or 8”x11” piece of
EBT3+ film per star shot test.

Adhesive tape

Two (2) plastics slabs larger than the film. Slabs sized 5x30x30 cm3 should be
available in most clinics, but other sizes could be used at the discretion of the
physicist.

Linear Accelerator

Pencil or fine-tipped marker

Ruler

48-bit RGB Epson® 10000XL or 11000XL flatbed scanner, preferably with
transparency adapter
III.

Epson® Scan software

FilmQA™ Pro software
PROCEDURE
A single sheet of film is to be exposed for each test. For EBT2 and EBT3 films
use a single 8”x10” sheet for each test. For EBT3+ film, tear a single piece along
the perforation and use the 8”x9½” sheet for the test while saving the 8”x1½”
75
strip for another use. The best way to tear EBT3+ is to grip the edge of the film
as close as possible on either side of the perforation. Push down on one side
and pull up on the other to start a tear and split the film into two pieces.
A. Gantry Star Shot
1. Tape a sheet of film at the center of the large face of one of the plastic
slabs with the edges of the film and the slab roughly parallel to one
another.
2. Place the second slab over the film and stand the two slabs on end on the
couch and under the gantry. If desired the slabs could be fixed together
with some adhesive tape, but it is not essential.
3. Using the laser lines and light field marker maneuver the slabs/film so the
film is in the transverse plane. The horizontal joint at the top of the slab
should be aligned using the light field marker. Make sure this horizontal
joint is parallel to the transverse field line and that the slabs are placed so
the longitudinal field line is close to the center of the slabs.
4. Adjust the couch height so that the vertical center of the film is close to
isocenter and use a pencil or fine-tipped marker to scribe lines on the
edges of the slab to which the film is taped The marks will later be
transferred to the film to indicate the position of isocenter. Marks on the
slabs can be removed later with eraser or an alcohol wipe.
5. Close the collimator to produce a slit beam about 2-4 mm wide parallel to
the gantry rotation axis. Note: The beam width will influence the analysis
in the following ways. As the slit becomes narrower more monitor units
may be required to obtain the same darkening of the film. Widening the slit
may reduce the accuracy and precision of the analysis because the lines
will be less sharp.
6. Set the gantry at zero degrees and use a 6MV photon beam (of other
beam at the discretion of the Physicist) to expose the film with 150 MU.
Then change the gantry angle in increments of 40° up to 160° expose the
76
film with 150 MU at each position. Note: The ideal dose to the film for
each beam is 100–200 cGy. Adjustment of MU should be made to achieve
the aim.
7. Separate the slabs. Take the one to which the film is attached and use a
fine-tip pen, a ruler and the marks on the slab (see Step 4) transfer the
transverse line indicating isocenter height to the edges of the film.
Remove the film from the slab and proceed to Scanning and Star shot
Image Analysis, Step D1. Note: The gantry star shot should look similar to
Figure 1 Because the exposure source was closer to one end of the film
than the other when each line was exposed each of the beam lines is
darker at one end than the other.
Figure 1: Gantry star shot
77
B. Collimator Star Shot
1. Tape a sheet of film at the center of one of the plastic slabs with the edges
of the film and the slab roughly parallel to one another.
2. Place the slab under the collimator with the film on top and the long edge
of the film roughly parallel to the longitudinal axis and the center of the film
roughly at isocenter.
3. Using the laser lines and light field markers adjust the couch height and
slab/film position so the film is level and at isocenter. Using a fine-tipped
marker scribe marks near the edges of the film to indicate the position of
the longitudinal and transverse cross hairs.
4. Close the collimator to produce a slit beam about 2-4 mm wide parallel to
the longitudinal rotation axis. Note: The beam width will influence the
analysis in the following ways. As the slit becomes narrower more monitor
units may be required to obtain the same darkening of the film. Widening
the slit may reduce the accuracy and precision of the analysis because the
lines will be less sharp. Note: For the collimator star shot no build-up slab
is used on top of the film. In the absence of the build-up material the effect
of scattered radiation will be reduced and exposed lines will be sharper.
The lack of a build-up layer will also reduce the dose/MU by a factor >2
depending on the beam energy.
5. Set the gantry and collimator at zero degrees and using a 6MV photon
beam (or other beam at the discretion of the physicist) expose the film with
300 MU. Then rotate the collimator in increments of 30° up to 150° and
expose the film with 300 MU at each position. Note that each exposure
should be the same with an ideal dose to the film of 100–200 cGy each
time. Adjustment of MU should be made to achieve this aim.
6. Remove the film from the slab and proceed to Scanning and Star shot
Image Analysis, Step D1. Note: The couch star shot should look similar to
Figure 2. As no build-up layer the dose/MU is lower than for the gantry
star shot and the darkening on the film is less.
78
Figure 2: Collimator star shot
C. Couch Star Shot
1. Tape a sheet of film at the center of one of the plastic slabs with the edges
of the film and the slab roughly parallel to one another.
2. Place the slab under the head of the linac with the film on top and the long
edge of the film roughly parallel to the longitudinal axis and the center of
the film roughly at isocenter.
3. Using the laser lines and light field markers adjust the couch height and
slab/film position so the film is level and at isocenter. Using a fine-tipped
marker scribe marks near the edges of the film to indicate the position of
the longitudinal and transverse crosshairs.
4. Close the collimator to produce a slit beam about 2-4 mm wide and
parallel to the longitudinal axis. Note: The beam width will influence the
79
analysis in the following ways. As the slit becomes narrower more monitor
units may be required to obtain the same darkening of the film. Widening
the slit may reduce the accuracy and precision of the analysis because the
lines will be less sharp. Note: For the couch star shot no build-up slab is
used on top of the film. In the absence of the build-up material the effect of
scattered radiation will be reduced and exposed lines will be sharper. The
lack of a build-up layer will also reduce the dose/MU by a factor >2
depending on the beam energy.
5. Set the gantry and collimator at zero degrees and using a 6MV photon
beam (or other beam at the discretion of the physicist) expose the film with
300 MU. Then rotate the couch in increments of 30° covering couch
angles from -90° to +60° and expose the film with 300 MU at each
position. Note that each exposure should be the same with an ideal dose
to the film of 100–200 cGy each time. Adjustment of MU should be made
to achieve this aim.
6. Remove the film from the slab and proceed to Scanning and Star shot
Image Analysis, Step D1. Note: The couch star shot should look similar to
Figure 2. As no build-up layer the dose/MU is lower than for the gantry
star shot and the darkening on the film is less.
D. Scanning and Star shot Image Analysis
1. Connect an Epson 10000XL scanner to the computer, turn on the scanner
and activate the FilmQA™ Pro software. The FilmQA™ Pro screen has
three windows. The Case Data Selector Window is to the left, the Image
Window in the center and Analysis Window to the right. Under the line
“Case Object Management” at the bottom of the Case tree in the left
hand window click “Add new case object” – see Figure 3
80
Figure 3: FilmQA™ Pro – Opening screen
2. Select “MLC Star shot Physics QA” from the drop down menu
Selecting “MLC Star shot Physics QA”
81
3. Expand the MLC Starshot Physics Case Object and right click on “Data
starshot #1 (empty)”. Click on “Scan Image starshot #1”. Alternately an
image could be loaded by selecting “Open image starshot #1 from file”.
Opening Epson Scan utility to scan an image
4. Next, the Epson® Driver window appears. Choose the following settings
(see Figure 6A):
Mode:
Professional mode
Document type:
Film
Film type:
Positive film
Image type:
48-bit color
Resolution:
72 dpi
If color correction icons are active (see red arrow in Fig. 4A), they must be
de-activated. Open the Configuration window (Fig. 4B) and check “No
Color Correction”. The icons should appear gray (green arrow, Fig. 4C).
82
Incorrect! Color correction
must be turned off.
Correct! Color
correction is not active
Open Configuration window
and check “No color
correction”
Figure 4A
Figure 4B
Figure 4C
5. Put the star shot film in the center of the scanner and scan it. The analysis
does not involve dosimetry so no warm-up scans are required and the film
can be placed in any orientation. Then using the fiducial management tool
select and place horizontal markers on the fiducial marks scribed on the
sides of the film and vertical markers on the ends – Figure 5. In the case
of the gantry star shot there are no pen marks at the ends. In that case,
place the software fiducials close to where the 0° beam line crosses the
edge of the film. To make fine adjustments highlight a fiducial mark, hold
down the Crtl key and use the keyboard arrows to move the mark and
center it. Figure 6 shows a gantry star shot image with the software
fiducials highlighting the scribed fiducial marks and the 0° beam line.
83
Figure 5: Gantry starshot film image and selection of vertical fiducial mark
Figure 6: Gantry starshot with software fiducial marks in place
6. Click on “Tool – starshot physics QA” to activate the analysis. The
fiducial marks should automatically align with the axes in the display, but if
they do not – as shown in Figure 7 – click on the
. icon and select “Fit
fiducials horizontally, vertically and rotationally”. The aligned image is
shown in Figure 8.
84
Figure 7
.
Figure 8
85
At this point the analysis is complete although small adjustments could be made
by refining the default settings as described in the following steps 7 and 8.

The diameter of the analysis circles: In general, the larger circle should
extend almost to the end of the beam lines, but be within fiducial marks. In the
gantry starshot the beam lines extend the film edge so the larger circle could
be 15 cm, or more, in diameter. The smaller circle should be ¼ to ½ the
diameter of the large circle. Smaller is generally better, but if too small the
maxima along the circular profile become less distinct as the dose to the film
“fills in” the decreasing space between the beam lines.

The width of the analysis circles: To a point the method benefits from
having wider analysis lines because image pixel noise is dampened through
an averaging process. But for the larger analysis circle the wider lines must
not extend past the end of the beam lines or be wide enough for the fiducial
marks to interfere. For the smaller circle the analysis line should not be broad
enough to be close to the area where the beam lines come together. A path
width of about 10 – 20 pixels at scan resolution of 72 dpi is ideal.

The minimum angle between the beam lines: In general, the error in
determining the intersection of two lines is in inverse proportion to the angle
between them. So the analysis can benefit by restricting the analysis to only
those lines crossing at more than a specified angle. The nine beam lines in
the gantry starshot are at 20° intervals so restriction to an intersection angle
>25° leaves 27 of the 36 beam intersection points in the analysis. In the
collimator starshot the six beam lines are at 30° intervals and restricting the
analysis to beam lines crossing at >30° leaves 9 of 15 intersection points for
the analysis.
7. In the following gantry starshot example, the analysis circles have radii of
about 250 pixels (approx. 88 mm at 72 dpi) and 125 pixels (approx. 44
mm) and an analysis path width of about 20 pixels (approx. 7 mm). The
result, depicted in Figure 9, shows the smallest circle encompassing all
86
intersection points has a radius of 1.3mm and the centroid formed by the
intersection points is 0.8mm from isocenter. Adjust the diameter and width
of the circles by suing the sliders at the bottonm of the Image window.
Figure 9
8. As shown in figure below, right-click the
icon underneath the chart in
the Analysis Window and select the option to restrict the analysis to
intersection angles >25°.
87
The result (Figure 10) shows that 27 of 35 intersection points were used.
The radius of the minimum circle encompassing all intersections is
reduced to 0.7 mm. The intersection-point centroid is still 0.8 mm from
isocenter.
Figure 10
The blue arrows move the image clipping region in the desired direction
selected. These buttons (right) set the size and
scale of the display chart and the position of the
information displayed (clipping region).
A summary of the
star shot analysis
(shown right)
includes the
smallest circle
enclosing all beam
intersections, the detected isocenter based on the intersection of the
beam lines and the distance between the detected isocenter, the isocenter
determined from the fiducial marks related to the laser lines or light-field
markers, and angles of the detected beam lines. To copy the summary to
a Windows clipboard, select the “Copy Summary” icon
.
88
E. Analysis Circle Profile
1. Click on the “Profile” tab (see below) to display a profile along the paths of
the two analysis circles as well as the intersection points determined by
the analysis.
Click to display profiles
Profiles along analysis paths and intersection points
Profiling along the analysis path
verifies the quality of the detected
intersection points between the
beam lines and analysis circles.
The Star Shot Peak Profile (left)
shows the color channel values
along both analysis path circles
and the locations of the detected
beam line points (minima when
darker otherwise maxima).
Smoothness of the profile data can
be increased by widening the
average range of the path circles. The detected results depend on the radii of
the chosen analysis path circles. Each circle has a range used to average the
89
pixel data. This tab will display the profile data along the analysis circles and
the detected minima points (center of the beam lines).
The “Profile Normalization” button,
toggles between normalized data and
color channel value data. The “Copy” button,
copies current chart settings
to the reporting tool.
F. Report
The Report feature of FilmQA™ Pro is accessed under the Report tab along
the border between the Analysis Window and Image Panel. Cick on the
“Report” tab indicated in Figure 11 to display a report. In the “Report Items”
section at the bottom left of the Analysis Window choose the features to be
displayed in the report In this example all four items have been selected. Use
the icons under the report to print or save it to file.
Figure 11
1. To force “updates” of all report data, click
right clicking, the option to manually update,
2. “Magnification”,
(automatically updates). By
can be selected.
zooms the viewing size of the report page. The option
does NOT change the image resolution.
90
3. “Report Options”,
, opens a pop-up window so the user can:

“Open/Save Document Template” – Loads or saves report settings

“Show Report Parameters” – Shows or hides report parameter controls

“Number of Viewed Pages” – Selects fixed or floating number of pages
per page section. Default is set as float.
4. “Print”,
sends the report to a printer. Printer selection dialog will appear.
5. “Save”,
saves the report as a portable document file, PDF, or as an
image file using one of the many graphic formats.
6. The “Copy” button,
copies current chart settings to the reporting tool.
7. “Single Page Output”,
selects the number of images displayed on one
page.
8. “Image Origination Size”,
changes the image size to display more
information.
7. Other Adjustments
After following the steps and instructions laid out it is very unlikely you will
ever have to use adjustments other than those described in the main section
of this protocol. However in the rare event other adjustments are necessary,
below is a brief overview of adjustments to optimize the analysis.
The analysis tool operates by establishing response profiles along two
specified circular paths around the isocenter. While you may select from a
range of response channels the red channel will provide the sharpest contrast
for radiochromic film images. The analysis tool searches along the circular
paths to find the centers of the beam lines exposed on the film. The search
algorithm seeks the response maxima where the paths cross the beam lines
while avoiding false maxima induced by measurement noise. In general the
larger analysis circle should approach the maximum allowed by the length of
the beam lines exposed on the film and the smaller circle should be 40-60%
of the diameter of the larger one. In most cases the effect of measurement
91
noise is reduced by using relatively wider path widths with the provision not to
include areas beyond the length of the exposed beam lines nor encroach
upon the area of higher
exposure where the beams
cross near the isocenter.

Right-click the
icon in the
bottom right corner of the
Image Window (see right) to
reveal a menu of analysis
options:
1. Number of regression points: To find the center of the beams the
analysis paths are split into a number of segments over which the
response maxima are sought. Default is 1½% (percent of the total
analysis path length). The optimum is unlikely to be outside the range
from 1-2%. Very short paths are unlikely to be helpful since they may
be shorter than the beam width. Very long paths are unlikely to be
helpful since they may cover two or more beams.
2. Analysis color channel: Follow the protocol and the red channel is all
you will need for radiochromic film. In an extreme case where the
response of radiochromic film is very high – say at doses >>10Gy – the
green channel response has a higher contrast and may be preferred.
The gray channel is available for non-radiochromic film images.
3. Star shot lines are darker than background: Follow the protocol and
this is always the case for radiochromic film. If you selected to scan as
a color negative in the Epson® Scan utility, you would need to change
the selection to “Star shot lines are brighter than background”.
4. Detection mode: the method used to detect the analysis path
extrema. Six detection choices are available: average all, closest to
found extremum point, search local extremum, most inner detected
point, refit detection range and center of extremum detection range.
92
5. Extrema cut-off limit: the tolerance for extrema inclusion. Choices are
0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 70 and 100%.
6. Profile start angle: The start of the circular analysis paths must not
coincide with the center of a beam line. The default is -26° since it is
very unlikely that a beam line will fall at that angle, but another starting
point could be selected.
7. Options: (See Figure B-2)

Show analysis path control: Hides the sliders used to specify the
diameter of the analysis circles and the analysis profile path width.
Show sensitivity slider: Allows the number of regression points to
be adjusted with a slider - see the Section on this topic above.

Show profile start angle: Displays/hides the starting angle.

Show analysis path: Displays/hides the analysis paths.

Show analysis points: Displays/hides the analysis points – i.e. the
detected centers of the beams.
Figure B-2
93
FLATNESS AND SYMMETRY ANALYSIS
Click on “Add New Case Object” under
the “Case Object Management” heading.
A drop-down menu will appear and give
you several options. Select “Flatness and
Symmetry Physics QA” (Shown left).
There are two types of objects to select:
‘Flatness and Symmetry Physics QA’ can
hold any number of images to be
analyzed and uses the images directly.
‘Flatness and Symmetry Physics QA
(Dose Map)’ analyzes only a single
image that will be converted into a dose
map. Next, acquire the image by either
reading it from a saved file or scanning it directly.
For the automated image
registration, select the “Fiducial
Tool”,
and mark the positions on
the image (Shown right). The
minimum number to determine both
x & y shift and rotation is three
fiducials. When all the fiducials are
marked, select “Flatness and
Symmetry Physics QA” in the case
tree. The isocenter is automatically
fitted to the marked fiducials.
94
The flatness and symmetry tool automatically assigns the horizontal and vertical
analysis path lines. Use the analysis configuration tool,
to make the analysis include
used analysis path lines. The detected results may depend on the average width of the
chosen analysis path lines (average perpendicular to the path direction) and the color
channel used to analyze the image data.
The “Profile” tab (Shown right) displays a chart of
the profiles along the selected analysis path lines
(for this example, center cross) and a table with
the numerical analysis data according to the
selected analysis protocols for flatness, symmetry
and penumbra.
The profile data can be normalized in different
ways, use the Profile Normalization Tool,
select the various normalization behaviors.
to
95
The maximum or CAX value can be normalized
between 0 and 1. If the base line of the profile is
disturbed (left and right values are different), the
base line can be equalized using a linear
adjustment. If you choose to “Show Analysis
Data”, the flatness region as well as the
penumbra areas are marked in the chart as
shown right.
When the analysis is completed,
select the “Report” tab to
summarize the results for the
record. Enable items that should
be included in the report and add
information to identify the test in
the footer of the report.
96
PICKET FENCE ANALYSIS
Click on “Add New Case Object” under
the “Case Object Management” heading.
A drop-down menu will appear and give
you several options. Select “MLC Picket
Fence Physics QA” (Shown left). Next,
acquire the image by either reading it
from a saved file or scanning it directly.
For automated image registration, select the fiducial tool,
and mark the fiducial
positions on the image as shown right. Any number of fiducials can be used to identify
the isocenter. However, the minimum number to determine both x, y shift and rotation is
three fiducials. When all fiducials are marked, select the tool, “MLC Picket Fence
Physics QA” in the case tree.
The isocenter
(blue/black dashed
lines) is automatically
fitted to the marked
fiducials as shown right.
97
The picket fence analysis tools automatically detects the beam lines and displays the
detected beam line points at the analysis path lines as shown above in the center
section. The beam line detection uses the selected region of the interest (green
dashed rectangle) to analyze the image data. Select the frame icon,
to make this
region of interest editable. Click and drag the border lines so that only beam lines are
covered.
The “Beam Profile” tab shows the profile along the analysis path lines and the detected
extrema. The
button allows the detection parameters to be changed. Default settings
are optimized for the use of EBT2 and EBT3 films. The most important parameters are
the following:

Analysis Color Channel: Signal used to generate profile. Red channel is
most sensitive for EBT2/3 film. Red/Blue ratio compensates for EBT 2/3 film
thickness variations.

Beams are darker then background: Beam lines are described by profile
minima – otherwise maxima are used.

Beam Alignment: Allows to synchronize beam lines (angle and distance)

Detection Mode: Method used to detect extrema along the profile curve.

Number of Analysis Lines: More lines stabilize the results but consume
more computer performance

Analysis Path Width: Wider range delivers smoother profiles. Path range
cannot exceed visible beam line area.
Underneath the center registration image, the beam line statistics are displayed.
Information includes minimum, average and maximum distance of the detected beam
lines as well as the minimum, average and maximum of the slant angle.
98
The next step is the MLC Design. For this example, the Varian Millennium 80 MLC is
used. Select the MLC Design using the
icon.
If the targeted MLC design is not available, then use “Create MLC Template Manually”
to input new data. When the MLC design is selected, the overlay is displayed in the
center section. Use the blue arrow keys to adjust the image position relative to the MLC.
99
Adjustments are complete when the leaf borders on the film line up with the overlaid
MLC leaf borders (solid blue lines, dotted blue line are leaf center lines).
The space around the leaf center line is used to create profiles to detect the leaf
openings as extrema. Select the “Leaf Analysis” tab to commence the analysis.
The upper part of the leaf analysis shows the profiles along the center lines for the
selected leaf and beam ranges (bottom row). One can only select leafs located inside
the region of interest determined by the center section (green dashed rectangle) and for
detected beams (red number labels). The leaf openings are determined as intersections
of the profiles with a threshold value (red line in the upper chart). This detection
threshold can be adjusted using the
buttons. The profile values might vary due
to distortion of the measurements. Another factor is the measurement actually
determines dose equivalent value. The distortion and dose equivalent value can bias
the shape of the scanned profile.
100
To account for such deviation, FilmQA™ Pro offers the following profile normalization
options:

Normalize global minimum and maximum to 0 and 1: Global extrema for
each leaf center profile are normalized to 0 and 1 to account for small drifts
across the image.

Equalize all local minima and maxima to 0 and 1: Normalization changes
for each beam and leaf extrema pair and equalizes all profile sections. All
maxima are at 1 and all minima are at 0.
101

Truncate at smallest local minimum and maximum values and normalize
to 0 and 1: Truncate lower part of the profile at highest minimum and upper
part of the profile at lowest maximum and then normalize resulting profile to 0
and 1. This approach is very advantageous especially when the leaf openings
vary over a wide range (i.e. the dose varies a lot between the leaf openings).
Use the
button to select the normalization mode for the profiles you require.
Relative analyzed leaf width range (%): Width of the averaging region around leaf
center relative to leaf width used to generate the profile. Whenever the profile data or
analysis method is changed, FilmQA™ Pro calculates the leaf opening width values for
the selected beam and leaf index range as shown below.
The color of the depicted
opening depends on the
width and bias of the
specific leaf opening.
Threshold value for
these color changes can
be assigned using the
context menu of the
chart.
102
When the analysis is complete, select the “Report” tab to summarize the results of the
case. Enable items that should be included in the report and add information to identify
the test in the footer of the report.
103
EDITORS
The Bitmap Color Translation Editor is the first editor and allows the user to create,
edit and delete color translations to the image. The bitmap color translation editor can
be accessed under the statistics and profile panels.
The “preview” panel displays the image before and after the color
translation is applied. Right click inside the image to change the color
channel and image size.
The “color translation matrix” controls the factors in matrix, M,
which describes the image color translation. The new color, Xnew,
is calculated by: Xnew =
Xold where X = red,
green or blue
The column indicates the contributions to that particular color channel to
the translated color. The row indicates the contributions of the original
color to the translated color. The “offset” row indicates the offset of the
translated color.
104
The “color translation list” shows a list of color translations that are available at the
working panel. The user can view, select and delete color translations on the list
The “image selector” is a drop down list to select the
image being tested with the color translation effect. The
“color translation name” window
permits the user to create, view or
change the name of the color translation selected.
The “displayed color selector”,
shows colors and its effect in the “preview” panel.
(Note: The selection does NOT affect the translation properties but changes how the
test image is viewed only.) To turn off all effects and changes, click on the icon and
select “normal view”. The “color translation” icon,
to be displayed on the test image. The “new” icon,
enables/inhibits the color translator
begins a new translation and
resets the matrix to default values. The next icon does exactly what the picture
represents. It is the redo and undo icon,
. The “balance” icon,
normalizes the color
translation matrix. To transpose and invert the matrix, select the “modify” icon,
select a color translation, click on
. To
and select one saved on file. Adding or deleting a
color translation is easy as selecting these icons,
. If the user would like to “save” or
“open” a color translation, then select either these icons,
.
The Color Translation Maps Editor plots the image from one color, Cold, to another
Cnew. The simplest example would be a case where the color translation is linear (i.e.
the matrix of coefficients and the new color components are only a weighted linear
combination of the old color values). In this particular instance, the user would edit the
matrix of coefficients through the Bitmap Color Translation Editor.
1. Right click on the film calibration object in the “Case Data Selector”. Go to
“Export”, select “Add calibration as color mapping” and choose the preferred
dose map (see Figure 1).
105
Figure 1
2. Enter the name and description of the color map. If necessary, the color icon
can be changed (see below).
106
3. Color translations can be mapped to any image. When such translations are
needed, one can access them via the “Color Translation Tool”,
in the
Image Panel.
4. Select “Manage color translation maps” to open the “Color Translation Maps
Editor” which allows you to manage such non-linear (non-matrix) translations.
107
The “Preview” panel allows you to view the
image before and after the translation is
applied. Right click inside the panel to change
the displayed color channel and the image size.
Drop-down list of images
to test and preview the
color translation editor



The “Color Translations Panel” lists all the
color translations available. One can view,
select, and delete the color translations in
this list.
Window to change the name,
description of the color map and to
view its source
The “Displayed Color Selector” icon,
allows you to select the displayed colors
and effects in the test image of the “Preview Panel.
– Identifies when the color translator is enabled or de-activated.
– Buttons to “Delete”, “Save” and “Open” the color translators
108
CONFIGURATION
FilmQA™ Pro has an extensive library of functional subroutines to execute an array of
tasks in radiochromic film dosimetry and QA tests. While not every function in the library
is activated and given default availability, it is very simple to add inactive tools,
treatment objects, plans readers, etc. to the active list as demonstrated by the following
example.
Click “Panel” on the menu
bar and select “Treatment
object management” and
then “Object type
management” from the
context menus. A window
opens with a comprehensive
list of Treatment Objects. Hover the cursor over any item in the list to explain its
purpose or action. Those shown on the right side of the panel are activated; those to the
left are inactive.
109
To add a treatment object to the active list, click on the object to highlight it. Then click
the
icon between the two lists to transfer the object and finally click
the process by clicking the
. Reverse
icon to remove an item from the active list. Two
particularly useful Treatment Objects that might not be activated are:

Film Calibration from Multiple Bitmap no Background: This is the “Mosaic”
calibration object with which multiple images may be opened or scanned to
perform film calibration

Image Comparison: With this object it is possible to compare any two images.
The Dose-to-plan Comparison object is a special case of Image Comparison in
which one of the images is the treatment plan.
After activating one of the Tools, Treatment Objects,
Plan Readers, Calibration Functions, etc. you can
maintain it in the activated list each time the
application is opened by saving the FilmQA™ Pro
configuration. Click “File” on the menu bar and then
“Configuration” and either “Save” or “Save As” to
save the current configuration.
To reset any of the Tools, Treatment Objects, Plan Readers, Calibration Functions, etc.
(return to the default
configuration), click on the
function management line and
“Reset to default”.
You can use any of the
programming languages in the
Microsoft .net environment to
write your own Tools, Treatment Objects, Plan Readers, Calibration Functions, etc. and
add them (*.dll) to the function library.
110
TROUBLESHOOTING
Installation Issues:
1. Make sure security programs or virus scanners are disabled prior to installing.
2. If program does not load, check if .NET Framework 4.0 is installed. Client version
will NOT work. The full version must be installed.
3. When using Windows 7, make sure that .NETFramework 4.0 is installed. If
.NETFramework 4.0 is installed then check whether the write permission is
enabled for the FilmQA™ Pro folder. By default, Windows 7 does NOT enable
write permission for program folders if the User Account Control is on.
4. When downloading the FilmQA™ Pro, please “Save” the program [*.msi
(Windows Installer Package)] on your computer. If the FilmQA™ Pro needs to be
reinstalled and the program is not located on your computer, downloading
FilmQA™ Pro off the site again will require another license key.
Scanning Issues:
1. If using EPSON V700 Photo scanner and “transparency” mode is found in the
menu settings, remove insert inside top cover and rescan. “Transparency” mode
should be available in the drop down menu now.
2. Orientation plays an important factor especially during calibration. Remember to
keep the same orientation when scanning.
3. To reduce lateral effects, film should be placed in the “sweet spot”. The “sweet
spot” is the center of the glass panel which provides the best image resolution.
The “sweet spot” on the glass panel differs between scanners. The EPSON V700
has a smaller “sweet spot” in comparison to the EPSON 10000XL. For the
EPSON 10000XL, the dimensions of the “sweet spot” are 25cm x 43 cm (9.8 in x
16.9 in).
4. Do not place the film in the calibration area of the scanner. The calibration area is
2 cm (0.78 in) from the top.
111
Film Issues:
1. When using the EPSON V700 Photo scanner, remove film after scanning is
complete. Unlike the EPSON 10000XL, the lamp stays on and could affect the
film if in contact with light for longs periods of time.
Operating Issues:
1. If the error “Valid License Is Not Granted” occurs, make sure you have generated
a license request (LicenseRequestData_xxx_20120605.txt) and submit it to
amicke@ashland.com. When the license key is emailed back to you, copy the file
(BaseLicenseGrant_xxx.txt) into the FilmQA™ Pro folder.
2. If using Windows XP and programs load but cannot add case objects, install
Microsoft Visual C++ 2010. Any version older than 2010 will NOT work.
3. If FilmQA™ Pro won’t open completely, erase “FilmQAPro.ini” under either
c:\Program Files\Ashland Advanced Materials\FilmQA Pro 20** or c:\Program
Files\ISP Advanced Materials\FilmQA Pro 20**.
4. If the icons are removed and replaced with a “red boxed X”, then windows
resources are exhausted. Check resources allocations first. If no processes are
utilizing more memory than necessary, erase “FilmQAPro.ini” under either
c:\Program Files\Ashland Advanced Materials\Film QA Pro** or c:\Program
Files\ISP Advanced Materials\FilmQA Pro 20**. Also check the available memory
in your system using TaskManager → Performance → Physical Memory →
Available should be >2 GB before you start FilmQA™ Pro.
5. When calculating the calibration function, performing a background is not
necessary. In earlier versions of FilmQA™ Pro, background compensated for
lateral scanner effects. However, the new multi-channel technique to calculate
dose values mitigates this effect in most cases.
6. If an exception error (change header name) occurs when saving a fixed
calibration, there is a problem with scanner information. Either the scanners are
different or the driver is corrupted. Reinstalling the scanner drivers should correct
the problem. If not, then save the calibration file as a treatment object.
112
7. During a “Film Calibration – Mosaic” if many large strips are being used, the
images may need to be cropped. Too many strips could result in no image or an
image that doesn’t reflect all the selected regions of interest.
8. While FilmQA™ Pro supports most image formats, importing lower resolution
image formats (i.e. JPEG) is not recommended. Too much information is lost with
those images. For quantitative analysis, importing a TIFF file is recommended.
9. Throughout FilmQA™ Pro, absolute dose is used. Relative dose is not ideal and
was not incorporated in to the software. Furthermore, MU, or monitor unit, is not
used because the measure of machine output is dependent under particular
conditions.
113
Appendix A
Calibration Protocol for Radiochromic Film
I.
PURPOSE
To define an efficient protocol for calibration of radiochromic dosimetry film.
II.
SCOPE
The calibration protocol applies to Gafchromic™ EBT2 and EBT3 films at doses up to
about 10 Gy. The resulting calibration is intended for use with a radiochromic film
dosimetry protocol. The calibration protocol requires a minimum time to elapse
between exposure of the films and scanning. The time is shortest and the protocol is
most efficient when the calibration films are exposed within a narrow time window.
An explanation is given in Appendix C. The calibration exposures may be done on a
single film or multiple films. In either case it is assumed that the doses delivered in
the film plane are known. Note: The calibration is only valid when applied to
application films from the same production lot as the calibration films.
III.
INTRODUCTION
The efficiency of this protocol stems from the use of fitting functions that behave
similarly to film. For example, consider the rational function X(D,n) = a + b/(D-c)
where X(D,n) is the scanner response in the nth color channel measured for film
exposed to dose D and a, b and c are constants. Figure 1 shows an example for
calibration data (seven dose points) from EBT3 film fit to this function. The function
behaves as film is expected to behave, i.e. as dose increases the response values
decrease because the film gets darker. The values asymptote to almost constant
values at very high dose.
114
Figure 1
Contrast this to the behavior when the same data is fitted to polynomial functions (in
this case 4th order) as shown in Figure 2. Obviously the polynomial functions don’t
behave like film – film doesn’t get lighter in color and more transparent at high
doses. Also, polynomial functions are unacceptable because they oscillate between
dose values. The fit with the polynomial function could be improved with additional
dose points, but it takes more time and doesn’t address the fundamental problem.
50000
40000
30000
Response
20000
10000
0
0
1000
2000
3000
-10000
-20000
-30000
-40000
Dose, cGy
Figure 2
4000
5000
115
The benefit of using the type of rational function described above is that you can
actually reduce the number of dose points required for calibration. Figure 3 shows the
fit when four of the data points were removed. It is almost identical to the fit in Figure 1
with seven data points. The function has three constants a, b and c and is fully defined
with three data points – two films exposed to known doses plus one unexposed film.
Figure 3
IV.
EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS

Gafchromic™ EBT2 or EBT3 radiochromic films

Adhesive tape

Radiation source – usually a linear accelerator, but it could be a source delivering
photons between about 10kV and 25MV

48-bit RGB Epson® flatbed scanner, preferably model 10000XL or 11000XL with
transparency adapter

Epson® Scanner Software

FilmQA™ Pro Software

The use of a phantom to provide electron equilibrium (e.g. water equivalent
plastic blocks) is optional.
116
V.
PROCEDURE
The film sizes could be 1.5” x 8” strips, or 8” x 10” sheets or anything between. If
multiple films are used they must have the same lot number. When cutting strips be
certain that the orientation is known with respect to the sheet from which they were
obtained.
The radiation source is provided as the means for delivering known exposure doses
to the calibration and application films. For calibration exposure, it is assumed the
user can control the source to deliver the known doses to the film.
The protocol requires a minimum of two non-zero exposure doses, plus a dose of
zero. A greater number of exposure doses could be used, but this is not necessary.
The calibration will be valid for doses between zero and the highest exposure dose
for the calibration. The calibration will be valid for other EBT2 or EBT3 film from the
same production lot scanned on the same scanner as the calibration films. The
protocol requires the calibration films to be scanned together in a single scan with
the exposed areas all located along the central axis of the scanner (see Figure 4).
The exposures could be made on a single film, or on separate films. In any event,
the films should be sized to fit together on the scanner.
The protocol requires a minimum time to elapse between exposure and scanning. It
is most efficient if the exposures are made within a narrow time window, t. The
elapsed time between the last film and film scanning must be a minimum of 4t.
1. Position a calibration film in the center of the radiation field to be delivered by the
exposure source with the plane of the film perpendicular to the beam. Frequently
the film will be exposed in a phantom or between slabs of plastic to achieve
electron equilibrium, but this is not mandatory. The essential requirement is that
the user knows the exposure doses delivered in the plane of the film.
117
2. Expose the calibration film to a known dose about 30% greater than the highest
dose expected for an application film. One way is to use a linear accelerator to
expose a 10 cm x 10 cm, but the choice is up to the user. The goal is to create a
large area of uniform exposure on the film. Note the time of the exposure.
Remove the film and keep it where it is not exposed to light.
3. Repeat Step 1using another film from the same production lot. Using the same
exposure source and exposure conditions and setup, expose the film to a known
dose about 20% of that used for the first film. Note the time of exposure. The
time window within which the calibration films are exposed is related to the speed
with which the scanning and calculations can be completed. Your efficiency
increases by minimizing the time window. If the exposures are t min. apart, film
scanning can be done 4t min. later, or any time thereafter. Remove the film and
keep it where it is not exposed to light.
4. While unnecessary, additional calibration films could be generated by repeating
Step 3 with different exposure doses.
5. Turn on the scanner, connect a computer and open FilmQA™ Pro. From the
drop-down menu (Figure 1) under “Case Object Management” select “Film
Calibration (ordinary)”. Note: The calibration will be valid for other films from the
same production lot scanned on the same scanner.
118
Figure 1
6. Expand the Film Calibration case object, right click on “Data Calibration Film
(empty)” and select and click “Scan Image Calibration Film” (Figure 2). The
Epson Driver Window will appear. Choose the settings shown in Figure 3C. If the
color correction icons are active (red arrow in Figure 3A), they must be deactivated. Open the Configuration window (Figure 3B) and check “No Color
Correction”. The icons should appear gray (green arrow below, right). Note:
Resolution of 72 dpi is suggested.
Figure 2
119
Incorrect! Color correction
must be turned off.
Correct! Color
correction is not active
Open Configuration window
and check “No color
correction”
Figure 3A
Figure 3B
Figure 3C
7. Place the calibration films and an unexposed film from the same lot on the
scanner as shown in Figure 4. The time between film exposure and scanning is
related to the time window within which the calibration strip and application film
were exposed. Your efficiency increases when you minimize the time window.
For exposures t min. apart, film scanning can be done 4t min. later, or any time
thereafter.
Start of scan
Calibration Region
Keep
first
2 cm clear
Position
exposed
areasofon
film
the film in the center (left-toright) of the scan window
with the 8” edge
perpendicular to the scan
direction
Figure 4
Scan Direction
Directiontionecti
on
120
8. Use the Frame Tool to mark areas of interest in the centers of the calibration
strips (Figure 5).
Select areas of interest in
center of calibration strips
Figure 5
9. Click the “123” icon on the bottom right corner (Figure 6A). Select the “Color
reciprocal linear vs. dose” fitting function (Figure 6B) and type in the dose values
into the calibration table.
“123” icon
Figure 6A
Figure 6B
10. Right click the “Film Calibration (ordinary)” data object, select “Save as fixed
calibration as Treatment Object” from the dropdown menu (Figure 7) and save
the calibration. The fit of the dose-scanner response function is valid and usable
between zero and the highest dose exposed on the calibration films. It is
121
applicable to other films from the same production lot scanned on the same
scanner.
Figure 7
122
APPENDIX B
An Efficient Protocol for Radiochromic Film Dosimetry
I. PURPOSE
To define a radiochromic film dosimetry protocol to measure radiation dose
distributions for comparison with a radiotherapy treatment plan.
II. SCOPE
The protocol applies to Gafchromic™ EBT2 and EBT3 films exposed on a linear
accelerator. The object is to provide a time-efficient method for evaluating
radiotherapy treatment plans. It requires an unexposed calibration film, at least one
calibration film exposed to a known dose of radiation and the exposed application
film to be evaluated. It also requires the calibration film(s) and the application film to
be exposed within a time window. An explanation is given in Appendix C. The
application film is usually required for validation of a treatment plan and may be
exposed as a single treatment field, or as a composite of multiple treatment fields. In
either case it is assumed that the planned radiation dose distribution in the plane of
the exposed application film is known.
III. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS

Gafchromic™ EBT2 and EBT3 film

Adhesive tape

Phantom material to provide electron equilibrium, e.g. water equivalent plastic
blocks

Linear Accelerator

Treatment plan

48-bit RGB Epson® flatbed scanner, preferably model 10000XL or 11000XL with
transparency adapter
123

Epson ® Scanner Software

FilmQA™ Pro Software
IV. PROCEDURE
Films used in this protocol are of two sorts, strips and sheets. Strips are used for
calibration exposures and about 4 x 20.3 cm. These strips can be cut from sheets of
film taking care to keep track of orientation so all films can be scanned in the same
orientation. Sheets are used for plan exposures and can be 20.3 x 25.4 cm sheets or
smaller sizes large enough to accept the plan exposures. If pieces are cut from
whole sheets keep track of film orientation so all films can be scanned in the same
orientation. The strips, intended for calibration exposures, are referred to as
calibration films. The sheets, intended for exposure of the treatment plan, are
referred to as application films.
The linear accelerator is provided as the source of radiation exposure for the
calibration and application films. For calibration exposure, it is assumed the user
knows the relationship between the number of monitor units delivered by the
accelerator and the dose delivered to the film placed at a known location in the
phantom.
1. Position the phantom on the couch as required for a particular case. The film is to
be located in a known plane at a known distance from the source and
surrounded by a known amount of the phantom material.
2. Place an application film from a known production lot in the phantom with the
center of the film located close to the center of the area to be exposed. Use small
pieces of adhesive tape to hold the film in place. If desired, mark the edges of the
film to show the axes of the accelerator as indicated by the laser markers. Place
phantom material above the film as required.
124
3. Expose the phantom/film to the chosen radiotherapy treatment plan and note the
time. Remove the application film from the phantom. Keep it where it is not
exposed to light.
4. Choose a calibration film strip from the same production lot as the application
film. Place it in the phantom with the center of the strip close to the center of the
exposure area. Fix the film with adhesive tape and place phantom material above
the film as required.
5. Expose the strip to a known dose between 10% and 30% greater than the
highest dose expected on the application film. One way is to expose a 10 cm x
10 cm open field, but the choice is up to the user with the goal of creating a large
area of uniform exposure on the film. The time window within which the
calibration strip and application film are exposed is related to the speed with
which the dose measurement and comparison to plan can be completed. Your
efficiency increases by minimizing the time window. If the exposures are t min.
apart, film scanning can be done 4t min. later, or any time thereafter. An
explanation is given in the Appendix C. Remove the calibration film from the
phantom. Keep it where it is not exposed to light.
6. Turn on the scanner, connect a computer and open FilmQA™ Pro. From the
drop-down menu (Fig. 1) under “Case Object Management” select “Open Case
Object from File”. Go to the folder containing the file with the relevant fixed
calibration object , e.g. XXXXXXX.CaseObj, and open the file (assuming the
primary calibration has been done for the production lot of film using FilmQA™
Pro and the data have been saved as a Calibration Object).
125
Figure 1
7. Add a new case object choosing “Add Dose Map Single Scan” (Figure 2)
Figure 2
126
8. Expand the Dose Map selection. Right click “Data - dose film” choosing “Scan
Image ‘dose film’” from the drop down menu. The Epson® Driver Window will
appear. Choose the settings shown in Figure 3C. If the color correction icons are
active (red arrow in Figure 3A) they must be de-activated. Open the
Configuration window (Figure 3B) and check “No Color Correction”. The icons
should appear gray (green arrow below, right). Note: Resolution of 72 dpi is
suggested.
Incorrect! Color correction
must be turned off.
Correct! Color
correction is not active
Open Configuration window
and check “No color
correction”
Figure 3A
Figure 3B
Figure 3C
9. Place the application film, the calibration film(s) and an unexposed calibration
film on the scanner as shown in Figure 4. The time between film exposure and
scanning is related to the time window within which the calibration strip and
application film were exposed. Your efficiency increases when you minimize the
time window. For exposures t min. apart, film scanning can be done 4t min. later,
or any time thereafter.
127
Calibration area
Keep first 2 cm
clear of film
Start of scan
Scan Direction
Direction
Position the films in the center
(left-to-right) of the scan window
Figure 4
10. Use the Frame Tool to select areas of interest in the centers of the calibration
strips.
Select areas of interest
in center of calibration
strips
Figure 5
128
11. Right click the areas of interest (Figure 6A) to name the region types as
“Calibration Region”. Then right click the regions, select “Calibration Value”
(Figure 6B), type in the dose, press “enter” and then “OK” (Figure 6C).
Figure 6A
Figure 6B
Figure 6C
12. Right click on “Dose map single scan” and select “Dose mapping method”,
“Recalibration using reference regions” and “Dose linear scaling” (Figure 7A).
Again right click on “Dose map single scan” and select “Rebuild Dose Map”
(Figure 7B).
129
Figure 7A
Figure 7B
13. Compare the measurements with the plan. Add a New Case Object – “Dose to
Plan Comparison” (Figure 8A). Then right click “Data Treatment Plan”, navigate
to the right folder and open the treatment plan (Figure 8B). Now click on the
Image Comparer tool. The treatment plan and dose map appear in the window.
Figure 8A
Figure 8B
Use the tools along the left hand border to select an area of interest around the
treatment plan and then align the dose map to the plan. This can be done by
either highlighting the fiducial marks defining the axes of the treatment system or
by moving the dose map manually. Select coarse or fine manual motion and
move the dose map directly with the cursor or use the tools at the bottom of the
frame to move step-by-step. Add and position a rotation pole to rotate the dose
map relative to the plan.
130
Tabs to display
different maps and
other types of
analysis data
Tools to manipulate
the dose map and plan
Tools to move the
dose map relative to
the plan
Tabs to access
different types
of analysis and
display types
of data
Figure 9
Tabs on the left edge of the right frame (Figure 9) change the display type in the right
window: Statistics, Profile, Isolines, Isomap, Map, Projection or Report. Under the
display in the right window, select the type of display map (Differential, distance-toagreement, gamma) the tolerance and distance values, and the color channel, etc.
Figure 10 is a screenshot from FilmQA™ Pro depicting an iso-dose plot of measurement
(thin lines) versus the treatment plan (thick lines). Figure 11 is another screenshot
showing a gamma analysis agreement map. In the colored areas, the differences
between dose measurement in a particular color channel and plan are outside the
chosen criteria, in this case 2% at 2mm.
Figure 10
Figure 11
131
APPENDIX C
Post-Exposure Change
Exposure of radiochromic film to ionizing radiation starts a solid-state polymerization in
crystals of the active component. Polymer grows within the crystal matrix of the
monomer. Interatomic distances in the polymer are shorter than in the monomer
causing the gap between the end of the growing polymer chain and the next monomer
molecule to increase as polymerization progresses. Consequently the rate of
polymerization decreases with time. Based on measurement, the response is linear with
log(time-after-exposure) as shown in the figure below. This means that an error in the
dose-response function could result if calibration films are scanned at different timesafter-exposure. Since the calibration protocol requires exposed films to be scanned
together at the same time the time-after-exposure for the films will be different.
However, if the timing difference is small, i.e. the films are exposed within a narrow time
window, any error caused by the timing difference will diminish rapidly as the ratio of the
timing difference to the time-after-exposure decreases.
Scanner Response
Post Exposure Changes in
EBT2/EBT3 Film
69cGy
163cGy
y = -475.61x + 41669
R² = 0.9676
y = -478.84x + 32849
R² = 0.9914
Log10(time-after-exposure, minutes)
132
From the data in Figure B-1, it is calculated that at time-after-exposure of 30 minutes, a
5-minute timing difference could contribute to a dose error of about 0.3%, while a 10
minute timing difference could contribute to a dose error about 0.6%. As time-afterexposure increases from 30 to 60 minutes the dose error contributed by a given timing
difference decreases by a factor of two. To ensure that time-after-exposure differences
have a small contribution to dose error i.e. (<0.5%), film scanning should be delayed for
a time period at least 4X longer than the interval between exposure of the first and last
calibration films. For example, if exposures are within a 5 minute time window, scanning
should be delayed for 20 minutes, or done at any time thereafter.
133
Index
A
B
Beam Line Detection
Bitmap Color Translation Editor
C
Calibration
Case Data Selector
Case Description
Client Image Movement
Color Translation Editor
Colors
Configuration
Cursor Panel
D
Data
Delta Map
Dependency
Dose Map
97
103
N
Number Format Buttons
28
14
14
55
104
11
108
22
11
65
15
41
E
F
File
Film Evaluation Panel
Fitting Function
Flatness
Fonts
G
Generating a Response Curve
Getting Started
H
Help
Histogram Range
I
Image Comparer Panel
Image Histogram Region
Image Panel
Info Panel
Installation
Introduction
J
K
L
M
Menu Bar
Mosaic
O
OneScan Protocol
Ordinary
P
Padding
Patient Data
Picket Fence
Plan to Dose Comparison
Profile Panel
Projection Panel
29, 31
7
S
Selection Frame Tool
Star Shot
Statistics Panel
Symmetry
T
Task
Triple-Channel Dosimetry
Troubleshooting
14
24
U
V
50, 54
24
19
22
2
1
23
67, 120
29
11
14
96
50
25, 61
65
Q
R
Region of Interest (ROI)
8
7, 22
36
93
11
7, 34
31
W
X
Y
Z
19, 32
19
74
23
93
13
43, 120
108
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