7 08-09
NUMBER: 7 8–09
S.M. REF.: Listed in Table 1
ENGINE: DD15
DATE: July 2009
SUBJECT: PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
ADDITIONS, REVISIONS, OR UPDATES
Publication Number
Platform
Section Title
Change
Page Number(s)
DDC-SVC-MAN-0002
DD15 Workshop Manual
1.17 Piston and
Connecting Rod
Assembly
The Piston and
Connecting Rod
Assembly procedure
has been revised.
1–96
NOTE: Page numbers are based on the most recent version of the individual publication and may be adjusted throughout the annual print cycle.
Table 1
PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
The connecting rods are forged from a high strength powdered steel. A connecting rod bushing is
pressed into the connecting rod eye.
1. Connecting Rod Bolt
6. Oil Control Ring
2. Connecting Rod Bushing
7. Compression Ring
3. Retaining Ring
8. Fire Ring
4. Piston Pin
9. Connecting Rod
5. Piston
Each piston has a fire ring (6), compression ring (7), and an oil control ring (8).
1. Piston
8. Oil Control Ring
2. Piston Bowl
9. Piston Boss
3. Piston Dome
10. Piston Skirt
4. Top Land
11. Cover Plate
5. Second Land
12. Retaining Ring
6. Fire Ring
13. Piston Pin
7. Compression Ring
14. Cooling Galley
REMOVAL AND CLEANING OF PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
Remove the piston and connecting rod assembly as follows:
1. Shut off the engine, apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, and perform any other
applicable safety steps.
2. Drain the engine cooling system.
3. Drain the engine oil.
4. Remove the oil pan.
5. Remove the camshaft housing.
6. Remove the cylinder head and gasket.
7. Use Scotch Brite pads to remove any carbon deposits from the upper surface of the cylinder
liner.
8. Remove the piston spray nozzles (1) from the base of the cylinder bores. Discard the nozzles.
9. Position the crankshaft for the piston and connecting rod assembly to be removed at bottom
dead center.
10. Remove the bearing cap and lower bearing shell from the connecting rod.
NOTICE
The connecting rod assembly is a cracked rod design. Ensure
when the bearing cap is removed that it is placed on it's side.
Damage to the bearing cap will occur if it is placed on end; the
connecting rod assembly will need to be replaced if the cap is
damaged.
11. Remove the piston and connecting rod assembly through the top of the cylinder liner.
12. Assemble the connecting rod bearing cap and lower bearing shell to the connecting rod after
removal. If not already marked, match-mark the rod and cap (on the tang side) with the cylinder
number from where they were removed.
NOTE:
When removed, the bearing cap and the bearing shell must be reinstalled on the original connecting
rod before another connecting rod bearing cap is removed.
DISASSEMBLY OF PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
Piston assembly components should be segregated by cylinder and match-marked during disassembly
to ensure they are assembled in the same position and orientation.
NOTICE:
Stamping cylinder numbers on the piston assembly will damage
the components.
Disassemble piston and connecting rod assembly as follows:
1. Place the piston, dome down, on the table.
2. Using the required snap ring pliers, remove the retaining rings from the piston boss.
3. Slide out the piston pin and remove the connecting rod from piston assembly.
INSPECTION OF PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
Inspect as follows:
1. Inspect the connecting rod and bearing cap for damage; replace as necessary.
2. Inspect the piston, pin and rings for damage; replace as necessary.
ASSEMBLY OF PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
Assemble as follows:
1. Using the required snap ring pliers, install one of the retaining rings into a recess in the piston.
Orient the snap ring gap (1) to either the 12 o'clock or 6 o'clock position.
2. Liberally lubricate the piston pin bore bushings, the piston pin, and the bushings in the small
end of the connecting rod with 80/90w oil (or equivalent).
3. Position the long end of the connecting rod (2) on the same side as the valve relief (1) in
the top of the piston.
4. Install piston pin into the pin bores through the rod until it rests against the previously installed
snap ring.
5. Using the required snap ring pliers, install the other retainer ring into the recess in the piston to
lock the pin in place. Orient the snap ring gap to either the 12 o'clock or 6 o'clock position.
INSTALLATION OF PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
Install as follows:
1. If the rings have been removed, install them into the grooves of the piston and rotate 120° apart.
2. Allowable new piston ring end gaps for (A), (B) and (C) are listed in the table below.
Ring
DD15 Ring End Gap
(A) Fire Ring
0.6 - 0.75 mm (0.02362 - 0.02953 in.)
(B) Compression Ring
0.7 - 0.9 mm (0.02756 - 0.03543 in.)
(C) Oil Control Ring
0.4 - 0.6 mm (0.01575 - 0.02362 in.)
3. Add clean engine oil to a clean pan at least 305 mm (12 in.) in diameter, until the level reaches
approximately 76 mm (3 in.).
4. Place the piston and connecting rod assembly into pan, with the dome of the piston on the
bottom of the pan.
5. Coat the upper connecting rod bearing shell with clean engine oil.
6. Coat the piston liberally with the engine oil, saturating the piston rings and ring lands.
7. Coat the inside diameter of the piston installer/ring compressor tool (J–47386) with clean
engine oil.
8. Clamp J–47386 around the piston rings.
9. Once the ring compressor is "clamped," ensure the piston can rotate freely. If rotation is
hindered, remove the compressor and reposition the piston and rings, or inspect for ring damage.
10. Lubricate the inside of the cylinder liner with oil.
11. Position the throw of the crankshaft journal to bottom dead center for the cylinder being
installed with the piston and connecting rod assembly.
NOTICE:
Failure to remove the oil nozzle from the engine block could result
in damage to the oil nozzle during installation of the piston and rod
assembly. A damaged, bent or loosened nozzle may cause a loss
of main gallery pressure. In these cases piston overheating or lack
of adequate lubrication may result in severe engine damage.
12. Ensure the valve relief located on the top of the piston is orientated towards the exhaust
side of the engine during installation and the rod has the serial number printing towards the
exhaust side of the engine.
13. Align the ring compressor guide pins over the two bolt holes on the top of the cylinder block.
NOTICE:
DO NOT force the piston into the liner. Considerable force on
the piston could scratch or otherwise damage the inside of the
cylinder liner. Therefore, care must be taken during the installation
of the piston to prevent damage.
14. If equipped, insert the ring compressor guide pins into the two head bolt holes on the top of
the block.
15. With care and moderate pressure, press the piston into the liner.
16. Remove the ring compressor.
17. Push or tap the piston and connecting rod within the liner until the upper rod bearing is firmly
seated on the appropriate crankshaft journal.
18. Lubricate the lower bearing shell with clean engine oil.
19. Install the bearing cap. The number on the cap and rod must be on the same side.
20. Torque the connecting rod bolts alternately to 100 N·m + 90° + 90° torque turn.
21. Check connecting rod side clearance by moving the rod from side to side on the crank journal.
If there is no clearance, check for proper bearing cap installation.
22. Install the remaining piston and rod assemblies in the same manner.
NOTICE:
Ensure when installing the piston spray nozzles that damage to
the nozzles does not occur. Damaged oil spray nozzles could
result in a loss of oil pressure and cause engine damage.
23. Install new piston spray nozzles (1) at the base of the cylinder bores. Torque each piston
spray nozzle bolt to 30 N·m (22 lb·ft).
24. Using a dial gauge and holder, measure the piston protrusion at top dead center relative to
cylinder block deck.
25. Allowable piston protrusion is listed in the following table:
Allowable Piston Protrusion
DD15 Engine
Minimum
-0.213 mm (-0.009094 in.)
Maximum
0.2075 mm (0.008169 in.)
26. If piston protrusion is between -0.213 mm (-0.009094 in.) minimum and 0.2075 mm (0.008169
in.) maximum then continue to next step. If not within specification, check piston, piston pin,
piston pin bushings, connecting rod and crankshaft.
[a]
Inspect piston, piston pin bushings and piston pin for wear or damage. If damaged repair
as necessary.
[b]
Inspect connecting rod, check for bent rod, Pin bushing wear or damage. If damaged
repair as necessary.
[c]
Inspect rod bearings for wear or damage if damage is found replace rod bearings. If
damaged repair as necessary.
[d]
Inspect crank shaft for damage to rod journal or evidence of spun bearing. If damaged
repair as necessary.
27. Install a new cylinder head gasket. Refer to section 1.2.
28. Install the cylinder head. Refer to section 1.2.
29. Install the lubricating oil pump inlet pipe and screen assembly, and the lubricating oil pump.
30. Install the oil pan. Refer to section 3.2.4.
31. Complete any other engine assembly as necessary.
32. Prime engine lubrication system. Refer to section 3.6.
33. Close the drain cocks and fill the engine with the recommended coolant.
NOTE:
Coolant system maintenance is very important. Bleed off all the air from the system and top off.
34. Perform the following steps for verifying repairs made to the piston and connecting rod
assembly:
[a]
If new parts such as pistons, rings, cylinder liners or bearings were installed, operate
the engine on the run-in schedule.
[b]
If used parts such as pistons, rings, cylinder liners or bearings were installed, verify proper
piston and connecting rod assembly installation.
ADDITIONAL SERVICE INFORMATION
Additional service information is available in Power Service Literature.
Detroit Diesel®, DDC®, Series 60® and the spinning arrows design are registered trademarks of Detroit Diesel Corporation.
© Copyright 2009 Detroit Diesel Corporation. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.
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