BI Redirection Handbook
1 REDIRECTION HANDBOOK SECONDARY 2 Table of Contents Definition of Emotional Disturbance Services for Students with Emotional/Behavior Problems Educational Placement Options Goal of the Behavior Intervention Program Things To Be Done Day By Day Critical elements Redirection o Overview of the Redirection Program o Behavior Intervention Redirection Program o Campus Management System o Redirector Responsibilities o Staff orientation o Portfolio o Point Sheet / Behavior Card Systems o Steps to Independence o Point Sheet Procedures o Procedures for Completing the Point Sheet o Troubleshooting Point Sheets o Behavior Card Procedures o A Monitoring Schedule o Monitoring Continuum o Observation Logs o Progress Charts o Procedures for Contacting a Redirector o Redirection Format o Intensive Redirection Format o Procedures for Debriefing o Paraprofessional Duties and Responsibilities 4 5 6 7 8- 8.2 8.3 9 10 11-12 13-14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23-24 25 26 27-29 30 31 32 33 34-35 Social Skills o Social Skills Lesson Components o Social Skills Topics 36 37-40 41-42 Room Structure o Sample BI Room Schedule o Classroom Rules o Intensive Redirection Rules o Positive and Negative Consequences 43 44 45 46 47 Reinforcement o Reinforcement Procedures o Ticket Procedures o Store Procedures o Friday Reward Procedures 48 49 50 51-52 53-57 3 o Contracts o Long Term Incentives 58 59 Consequence Flow Charts o Tardy o Profanity o Refusal to Work o Refusal to Follow Directions o Disrespectful o Walking Out of Class o Physical/Verbal Aggression 60 61-62 63-64 65-66 67-68 69-70 71-72 73 Addressing Challenging Behaviors o Persistent Misbehavior o Staffings o Staffing Agenda o BAC Procedures 74 75 76 77 78-80 Crisis Management o Guidelines for Crisis Prevention o Restraint Forms 81 82-87 88-93 Teacher Toolbox o Strategies interrupting crisis behavior 94-106 107-116 Responsibilities of the ARD Teacher 117-124 4 Definition of Emotional Disturbance IDEA includes a definition of Emotional Disturbance with criteria that must be met if students are to be served in this category. This definition is a useful guideline for all teachers who are interested in understanding the nature of students’ emotional and behavioral problems. It describes the term emotional disturbances in this way: The term means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree, which adversely affects the educational performance: a. An inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors b. An inability to build or maintain satisfactory relationships with peers and teachers c. Inappropriate types of behaviors or feelings under normal circumstances d. A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression e. A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems The term includes children who are schizophrenic. The term does not include children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they are emotionally disturbed. (Federal Register) If a student meets the criteria for the emotional disturbed category and the disability interferes with performance in school, he/she may qualify for special education services. 5 Services for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Problems Many students in public schools experience emotional and/or behavioral problems. When students’ emotional and behavioral problems are long-term and have a negative impact on educational performance, these students may qualify for services under Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act or the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). If students meet the IDEA criteria for the emotional disturbance (ED) category, then they qualify for special education services. Each student in special education has an Individualized Education Plan (IEP), which describes the students’ individual goals and objectives, both academic and social, any related services for which the student qualifies, and the instructional arrangement for the student throughout his/her school day. Many students in special education also have a Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP) included in their IEP. The purpose of the BIP is to clearly articulate behavioral goals for the student, positive teaching strategies that will be used to teach those behaviors, negative consequences for misbehavior, and methods and procedures for evaluating progress. The IEP for each student in the ED category should include a BIP. 6 Educational Placement Options for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders In accordance with the IDEA all students in the Brownsville Independent School District who qualify for Special Education are served in the least restrictive environment with their non-disabled peers. Placement decisions are made on an individual case-by-case basis. Students who are classified as ED and/or other students whose needs warrant special programming may be educated in any combination of instructional placements. These combinations may include: • General education classes. o Academic support provided by General Ed. Teacher and/or Inclusion teacher. • General education classes. o Behavioral support provided by redirection staff. • Resource Room for specific subjects. o Academic support provided by resource room teacher. • Behavior Intervention Classroom. o Support provided by redirection staff. Behavior support provided by redirection staff. Academic support provided by classroom teacher. 7 Goals of the Behavior Intervention (BI) Program All teachers and families want their students to succeed in school, both behaviorally and academically. Because their behavior often interferes with learning, students with serious emotional/behavioral problems require IEP goals that address both of these areas. BISD’s Behavior Intervention Program has several goals. These goals apply to all students in the program and are most critical for students whose needs require placement in Behavior Intervention Classes and the Redirection Program. They include: • To improve student behavior. • To develop self-awareness, self-monitoring, and self control. • To maximize academic achievement, including instruction at enrolled grade level. • To maximize integration into general education environments. To provide social skills so that they may become productive members of society. 8 Things To Be Done By Day One Acquire class roster Create Paraprofessional Schedule Review psychologicals o Note recommendations Academic Behavioral Review IEP’s/FBA’s/BIP’s o Note Goals Objectives Related services Accommodations/Modifications Campus orientation Inform all staff about redirection program Inform teachers of students they will serve Inform faculty and staff of procedures for contacting a redirector, crisis procedures, point sheet procedures Train BI paraprofessionals on procedures for redirecting students Prepare Administrator Folders Provide Campus Administration with a copy of BIP’s- BIP’s should be placed in a centralized location Student Schedule FBA/BIP Discipline to be applied (regular or other) Notes on psychological recommendations BI contact and crisis procedures Develop Monitoring Schedules Prepare interest inventory 2 Arrange classroom o Carrels o Desks o Student materials o Reinforcement area o Cooling off area o Store-Inventory items Post management system o Class rules o Positive consequences o Negative consequences o Progress charts (point Sheet, contracts, tickets, etc.) o Reinforcement procedures/schedules Decide on organizational system for Health Quest/Social Skills work folders o Notes o Daily work o Social Skills o Tests Prepare Student Portfolios (see handbook) Design Point Sheet and Percentages for Earning Reinforcement Prepare Observation Logs Copy Redirection Forms o Debriefing/discussion sheets o Intensive redirection o Contracts o Point Sheets o Incident Log 3 Behavior Intervention Secondary Critical Elements 1. WALL DISPLAYS □ Classroom Rules □ Intensive Redirection Rules □ Continuum of Positive and Negative Consequences □ Consequence Flow Charts □ Continuum of reinforcement o Daily Reinforcement o Friday Reward o Store □ BI Room Hours □ Social Skills □ Crisis Management Plan(s) o Acting Out Person o Suicidal Outcry o Medical Emergency 2. ROOM ARRANGEMENT □ Classroom is clean and neatly arranged □ Instructional Area □ Redirection/Cool Down Area □ Reinforcement Area □ Class Store Special Services expects all of these critical elements to be visibly present. This is NonNegotiable!! 3. STUDENT /STAFF GROUPING □ Monitoring Schedule of students which includes all staff o Maintained in staff binders o Rotation Schedule 4. INSTRUCTIONAL MANAGEMENT □ Scheduled Social Skills Period □ Social Skills Lesson Plans – correlated to IEP □ Documentation of classroom observations □ Student portfolios □ Data Collections 5. STUDENT MANAGEMENT □ Evidence of: o Monitoring o Redirections o Debriefings o Reinforcements o Consequences o Conferences o Staffings o Progress Charts o Monitoring of grades o Co-planning/coordination 9 Overview of the Redirection Program Redirection is a campus behavior management system designed to empower students to take responsibility for their own behaviors. Students receive instructional/behavioral support in: • General education classes • Resource • CMC/Inclusion • Unstructured time o Lunch o Hallways o Transition o Before and after school The system is designed to: • Keep students in their scheduled classes • Address the student’s social or performance skill deficits • Teach problem solving skills • Provide the students with the skills to cope/deal with stressful or negative situations (development of a plan of action) • Build self esteem • Provide students the opportunity to learn alongside their peers while practicing appropriate social skills • Allow access to programs such as ROTC, Art, Music, etc. • Prepare students to function independently in society Redirection IS: Positive behavior support A consequence Non-Confrontational Quick In the mainstream A safe place for learning replacement behaviors Redirection IS NOT: A punishment Negative consequence Confrontational CMC ISS Student hangout 10 Behavior Intervention Redirection Program = Building Integrity The design of the BI program fosters building and maintaining strong ties between students, teachers, administration and redirectors. The program is set up so that all students (whether enrolled in social skills or not) receive redirection, social skills, reinforcement and support provided by the Redirectors. Enrolling students in the BI social skills course facilitates this process. Students that are not enrolled are contacted through other means such as, redirection, between classes, during the lunch hour, after school or with approved passes. It is strongly recommended to complete both a staff orientation and a student orientation at the beginning of the year. The purpose of the orientations is to: o Ensure that all faculty/staff understand the BI Redirection Program. Staff may be informed through presentations and/or information letters. o Arrange introductions between students, Redirectors, Administrators, Counselors, Security, and Hall monitors. o Provide a copy of student BIP’s to teachers and administration. o Present and explain the BI Redirection Program. o Begin the process of building rapport. o Introduce students to other peers in the program so they can recognize they are not being singled out. Inform all teachers/administrators working with students about student orientation by requesting special permission for students to be released at a designated time on a specific day. Students will need a pass to attend. The BI population is transient throughout the day, therefore meetings between students and staff need to be arranged to address reinforcement, contracts, progress, or other program related issues. If the student is unable to meet with the staff during non-instructional time, then special requests can be made for the student to be released a few minutes before the end of a class period. This should only be allowed if a student has completed his or her work and the teacher is in agreement. 11 Campus Management System Students: • Must take courses in regular education or resource settings, as per IEP. • Follow class and campus requirements • Maintain a point sheet to aid in monitoring behavior until behavior goals have been mastered • Cooperate with the redirection team • Complete debriefings (forms are filed in the portfolio) • Aid in the development of an action plan that addresses problem areas • Utilize social skills Redirection Staff: • Follow guidelines for redirection program General Ed. /Special Ed. Teachers: • Implement classroom management plan • Provide direct instruction and grades • Maintain open communication lines with Redirectors • Contact Redirectors as needed • Complete student point sheets • Follow Behavior Intervention Plan • Implement accommodations/modifications • Follow crisis management plan • Address the reason for redirection • Attend co-planning Administration: • Implement discipline as closely as possible to the student code of conduct • Coordinate with Redirector in attending to disciplinary issues • Follow crisis management plan in accordance with Senate Bill 1196 (Refer to modules 1-7) Security: • Notifies Redirectors of any concerns • Responds to requests for assistance • Follow crisis management plan • Maintains open communication line with Redirectors 12 Office Staff: • Follows crisis management plan for contacting Redirectors • Alerts administration in the event of a crisis Campus Counselors: • Assists in developing schedules for BI student. • Attends to BI students during crisis. Nurse: • Maintains open line of communication with Redirectors • Follows crisis management plan • Provides consultations concerning medical history The Redirector must establish and preserve a “Team Approach”. 13 Redirector Responsibilities • Provide campus wide training/in-service to ensure that all staff have an understanding of: o the redirection program o point sheet procedures/behavior card/behavior monitoring systems o when to contact a redirector o how to contact the redirector • Provide administrators with student information packet: o Behavior Intervention Student Form o Student schedule o FBA/BIP/Contract o Review psychologicals • Provide teachers with copies of IEP’s/BIP’s/Accommodations and Modifications • Coordinate with teachers:(Coordination Form) o Progress reports every three weeks o Behavioral concerns/documentation every six weeks o Review IEP/BIP/Accommodations and Modifications every six weeks • Attend, pass and maintain CPI certification o Monthly team practice o Documentation of practice sessions • Develop/implement/practice crisis management plan(s)/Follow District Policy Acting out person Outcry Medical emergency • Develop lesson plans and teach a social skills period daily • Follow a daily schedule that monitors students: o behavior o grades o attendance • Setup account through district grade monitoring system o Monitor grades weekly • Provide behavioral support in the regular ed. classroom, resource, or CMC as needed. • Maintain ongoing documentation • Maintain observation log for each student (Observation Forms) 14 • Maintain student portfolio □ Binder with dividers/tabs: o Student data/ Communication logs/Class schedule o Modifications/Progress reports o Incident log/Reinforcement log/Office referrals/debrief o Conference forms (students/parents/teachers) o ARD information = IEP/FBA/BIP/FBA questionnaire o Daily Observation Logs o Coordination Day o Progress charts/Behavior graphs o Point sheet/contract o Miscellaneous o Attendance/Tardies o Point sheets o Redirection o Intensive Redirection o ISS/OSS o Referrals • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Monitors student point sheets/behavior cards Reinforce appropriate behaviors Maintain BI Store Provide weekly rewards/reinforcers Coordinate with Redirectors on a daily basis Responds to request for redirector Follows CPI de-escalation continuum when addressing behavior. Responsible for receiving and/or escorting students to BI room Coordinates with administration concerning disciplinary actions Implements consequences Maintains home/school connection Conducts parent conferences/home visits Conducts staffings Obtain consent for FBA Conducts functional behavioral assessments Drafts behavior intervention plans Monitors and evaluates behavior intervention plans Documents behavior intervention plan implementation Coordinates with Sp. Ed./Reg. Ed. Counselors Coordinates with Behavior Specialists Communicates with outside agencies 15 Staff Orientation 1. Select a time to meet with the campus staff. (staff development, faculty meeting, department meetings) 2. Present the “Redirection Program” basics. • • • • Agenda Introduction of BI program/staff Teacher responsibilities Redirector responsibilities/Teacher support Contacting BI staff Student Orientation 1. Select a day and time during the first week of school. 2. Inform and invite the special education administrator. 3. Inform all teachers working with students about the orientation day and ensure they are in agreement to permit the student to attend. 4. Prepare student passes. 5. Distribute passes on the day of the orientation. Agenda • • • • • • Introduction of staff Icebreaker to identify students names Distribute information sheet, to be completed by students (Name, nickname, address, phone #, etc.) Conduct interest inventory with students Complete student orientation packet Discuss the following: o How the staff guides and supports students o Monitoring procedures o How to contact/request help from BI staff o Redirection procedures o Reinforcement systems (example: tickets, point sheets) o Address student questions Student orientation must be completed with each incoming student throughout the year 16 Portfolio The Redirection teacher will maintain a working portfolio for each student. Divide as follows: Tab 1: Student Data/Communication Log/Class Schedule Tab 2: Accommodations/Progress Reports Tab 3: Incident Log/Reinforcement Log/Office Referrals/Debriefing Forms Tab 4: Conference Forms (students/parents/teachers) Tab 5: ARD Information=IEP/FBA/BIP/FBA Questionnaire Tab 6: Coordination Day Tab 7: Progress Charts/Behavioral Graphs Tab 8: Point Sheet/Contract Tab 9: Miscellaneous Remember: The Portfolio is a working document intended to be used with the students! 17 Point Sheet / Behavior Card Systems Monitoring systems are the foundation of the BI program. It provides students feedback on their behavior, documents progress, determines reinforcement and is a daily line of communication between the home and school. Secondary BI units will implement the Point Sheet System or the Behavior Card System. Point Sheet Students begin on a daily point sheet monitoring system and earn the opportunity to progress to a 6 week monitoring system. This system allows the student to take responsibility for their own behavior and gives them control over the amount of monitoring they receive. Behavioral Progress Report Continuum • • • • Daily point sheet Weekly behavioral progress report Three week behavioral progress report Six week behavioral progress report Most Restrictive Least Restrictive Incoming 9th grade students will resume on the continuum where they ended the 8th grade school year. Incoming 6th grade students must begin on a daily point sheet and/or closely monitored. Students new to the district must begin on a daily point sheet. 18 Steps to Independence Daily Point Sheet/Behavior Card Remains on Daily Point Sheet/Behavior Card until criteria is met. Met Weekly Behavioral Report • Met % for 3 consecutive weeks No office referrals that relate to target behavior(s) No more than 1intensive redirection Progressions are designed to empower the students and are not intended to be punitive. Met Not met • • Three Week Behavioral Report • • • Met % for 2 consecutive three week cycles No office referrals that relate to target behavior No more than 2 intensive redirection Met • • • Not met • Met % for 3 consecutive weeks No office referrals that relate to Not met target behavior(s) No more than 1intensive redirection Not met • • Six Week Behavioral Report Meets % for six week cycle No office referrals that relate to target behavior No intensive redirection Met KEEP UP THE GOOD WORK! 19 Point Sheet Procedures • Daily point sheet (See Toolbox) o Redirector provides student with a point sheet each day at a designated time and place. o Student transports point sheet to each class o Classroom teacher completes and initials point sheet o Student meets with Redirector in the afternoon at a designated time and place to review points o Redirector provides student feedback and documents points o Student obtains parent signature and turns in completed point sheet to the Redirector the following morning o Redirector files point sheet in portfolio • Weekly Progress Report (See Toolbox) o Redirector e-mails the classroom teachers the weekly progress report o Classroom teachers complete and return the progress report o Redirector meets with the student on a designated day and time to review the progress report, provide feedback and document progress. o Redirector reinforces student o Redirector files progress report in portfolio • Three Week Progress Report (See Toolbox) o Redirector e-mails classroom teacher the Three Week Progress Report o Classroom teachers complete and return the progress report o Redirector meets with the student at the end of the three week period on a designated date, time and place to review progress report, provide feedback, and reinforce student and document progress. o Redirector files report in portfolio • Six Week Progress Report (See Toolbox) o Redirector e-mails classroom teacher the Six Week Progress Report o Classroom teachers complete and return the progress report o Redirector meets with the student at the end of the six week period on a designated date, time and place to review progress report, provide feedback, and reinforce student and document progress. o Redirector files report in portfolio 20 Procedures for Completing Point Sheets For appropriate behaviors: o A (√) is placed in the appropriate slot at the end of the period. For inappropriate behaviors: o Students are given a verbal warning paired with a circle warning. o If the student does not comply or correct the behavior within 30-60 seconds an (x) is placed within the circle warning. o If the student does comply a (√) is placed within the circle warning. __ ___ ____ _____ ___ ____ ___ ___ __ _ ___ ___ ____ _ ___ __ __ __ __ __ __ Procedures for Completing Point Sheets For appropriate behaviors: o A (√) is placed in the appropriate slot at the end of the period. For inappropriate behaviors: o Students are given a verbal warning paired with a circle warning. o If the student does not comply or correct the behavior within 30-60 seconds an (x) is placed within the circle warning. o If the student does comply a (√) is placed within the circle warning. Attach to point sheets at the beginning of the school year and as needed. 21 Troubleshooting the Point Sheet Student is refusing to carry point sheet: o Problem solve with student to determine reason for noncompliance o Develop a discrete system of delivery o Ensure that the student understands the reason for and the importance of the point sheet o Maintain a structured system where students know exactly: • The # of points required to qualify for reinforcement • The # of points that will earn them a negative consequence • The requirements needed to progress through point sheet phases o Entice students with creative/interesting reinforcers or activities o Implement structured consequences for not complying with the point sheet, such as: • Phone call home • Parent conference • Lunch detention • After school detention Point sheet is not completely filled out: o Ensure that classroom teachers understand the point sheet procedures o The designated Redirector and student will meet for problem solving with the teachers that did not complete the point sheet o Contract with student o Implement consequences for point sheet noncompliance Student does not return signed point sheet: o Conference with parent o Implement consequences Remember: All Point Sheets Should Be Individualized 22 Behavior Card Procedures • Behavior cards are used to monitor Behavior Intervention Plan goals. Each behavior card is individualized and includes the behavior goals from the students BIP. • While in the classroom, teachers monitor the targeted behavior/s. The classroom teacher will initial the behavior card at the end of the class period when the student performs the behavior/s indicated on the card. If the student does not display the behavior/s indicated, the classroom teacher will circle the period and not initial the card. • The designated Redirector and student will meet for problem solving with the teachers that did not initial the behavior card. Student/Teacher/Redirector conferences take place during lunch or at the end of the day. • Redirectors meet with students at the end of each day to evaluate the behavior card and implement structured reinforcers or consequences. • Guidelines for using behavior cards: o Develop a delivery system or a “pick up” station for distributing behavior cards on a daily basis o Review/check the behavior card throughout the day o Develop requirements for earning reinforcement/consequences on an individual basis o Ensure teachers understand the procedures for the behavior card o Chart data o Maintain a behavior card file o Update behavior card after each annual ARD. Remember point sheets and behavior cards are intended to be a positive teaching tool! 23 A Monitoring Schedule The Redirection teacher will develop and post a schedule that monitors: • student arrival • breakfast • transitions • instructional periods (resource, CMC, PE ) • assemblies • passes (restroom breaks, library, office, nurse) • lunch (campuses with multiple lunch periods will have schedules that reflect different lunch hours for Redirectors) • lunch detention • dismissal/pick up A monitoring schedule is based on individual student needs. Some students require more monitoring time than others. (See monitoring continuum) A schedule is designed so that every member of the BI Team has contact with each student. Schedules are rotated among teachers and paraprofessionals on a daily or weekly basis to maintain teacher-student connections. Teachers and paraprofessionals monitor and work with students in their scheduled classrooms. At no time are staff scheduled to remain in the BI room with the exception of social skills. Students are monitored in ISS by redirection staff. A Manifestation must be conducted nearing a 10 day removal . 24 REDIRECTION **Schedule may change due to student class changes* * Lunch periods for each Redirector will vary weekly * Name 1st Period O.C.C. 313 Solis 2nd Period 3rd Period 4th Period 5th Period English 319 Hinojosa P.E. Gym Martinez Lunch O.C.C. 313 I.Solis Science 103 Rocha Math 219 Resendez LUNCH History 205 J.Mancilla s Reading 317 Y.Garcia O.C.C. 313 Solis P.E. GYM Martine z O.C.C. 313 I.Solis O.C.C. 313 Solis O.C.C. 313 Solis Math 219 Resendez ESL III 200 E.Rodrigue z Science 324 P.Rudnik Math 219 Resendez ESL III 320 Pinales Gym Alaniz Reading 317 Garcia Lunch Lunch History 217 Hesseling History 221 Showalter Reading 218 Vacancy Math 321 Guerra Science 203 Myers Science 324 Rudnik LUNCH Alvaro O.C.C. 313 Solis LOTC 316 Hinojosa Science 324 P.Rudnik ESL III 320 Pinales LUNCH Jose O.C.C. 313 I.Solis Science 324 Rudnik Reading 218 Vacancy Math 321 Guerra LUNCH Ofelia O.C.C. 313 I.Solis P.E. Gym Cerda Math 219 Resendez Reading 317 Garcia LUNCH Andy O.C.C. 313 Solis LOTC 316 Hinojosa Reading 317 Garcia Lunch Science 206 Avalos Josua O.C.C. 313 I.Solis English 319 Hinojosa Health 323 E.Salinas LUNCH History 102 J.Sauceda Juan David Delfino Fernando Carmen Celeste David Math 219 Resendez History 205 Mancillas Reading 317 Garcia LUNCH 6th Period Science 206 Avalos 7th Period 8th Period Math 219 Resendez Reading 317 Garcia P.E. Gym Martinez English 319 Hinojosa English 319 Hinojosa Science Avalos 206 Math 219 Resendez Reading 301 Schrock English 319 Hinojosa LUNCH Choir Fabela History 102 J.Sauced a Reading 317 Garcia Art 205 Hernande z Reading 317 Y.Garcia English 319 Hinojosa P.E. Alaniz History 217 Hesselin g Reading 218 Anzaldu a History 217 Hesselin g History 217 Hesselin g Math 105 Torres Math 219 Resende z LOTC 317 Hinojosa Math 327 Rodriguez Math 327 Rodriguez History 322 J.Lopez P.E. Gym Alaniz English 320 Pinales English 319 Hinojosa Science 207 Lozano English Art 200 332 E. Rodriguez Hack Science 202 J.Gracia Reading Y.Garcia 317 25 Monitoring Continuum In Class Monitoring Most Restrictive Least Restrictive Monitored full period Monitored 75% of period Monitored 50% of period Monitored 25% of period Check 2 times during period Check once during period Spot check Weekly conference 3 week conference 6 week conference Monitoring Transitions Most Restrictive Least Restrictive Escort 5 minutes before the bell Escort during transition Shadow during transition Check 5 minutes after the bell Check during instructional period Check at the end of the period Spot check Weekly conference 3 week conference 6 week conference Remember: Some students may need to be monitored from the moment they arrive at designated drop off point to the moment they are picked up at the end of the day. 26 Observation Logs Observation logs are maintained for each student on a daily basis. The Redirectors are responsible for completing the observation log for each student on their monitoring schedule. The log is used to document: • • • • Monitoring times Student behavior Student behavioral/academic progress Teacher concerns Monitoring schedules are designed so that Redirectors have contact with all students throughout the day. Because schedules are rotated periodically, observation logs are rotated as well. A system for rotating/handling the observation logs needs to be in place. The system for handling this documentation may be as follows: • • • A designated area/time to drop off and pick up observation logs A filing system to drop off and pick up the observation logs A designated meeting place for exchanging observation logs in between classes or rotation schedules. Address each time slot on the observation log. Provide written explanations for incomplete time slots on the observation log. 27 Progress Charts Behavior is a primary focus in the BI Unit. Behavior is tracked and progress is recorded. The posting of progress charts contributes to meeting student behavior goals. Progress charts serve as: • • • • A visual representation of progress A reminder of behavioral goals Student feedback A reference to determine students: o Strengths and weaknesses o Requirements for reinforcement o Behavioral patterns o Discipline/Attendance record Students 29 Arturo 36 Chris 36 8/31 9/1 9/2 31 T 28 T 32 35 36 Carlos 17 R 29 T 9/5 9/6 9/7 9/8 9/9 9/12 9/13 9/14 9/15 9/16 / O IR ISS 30 34 18 R ISS ISS HSS 29 34 36 36 36 35 34 35 35 34 36 35 36 IR 31 13 R IR IR 33 31 34 29 15 R ISS ISS ISS Tota l 8/30 Tota l 8/29 3 weeks Dates Jack 34 33 29 32 19 IR 32 32 34 36 34 34 35 36 31 Taylor 32 32 36 35 34 36 33 32 31 34 33 21 IR 29 32 Mikey / / 33 30 20 T 32 19 IR IR 27 31 33 34 X 28 8T HSS HSS IR 32 31 33 32 32 32 27 29 Daniel 19 T 19 T 24 T Joe / 33 36 X 36 35 X 32 34 34 35 X X 36 36 Andy 31 36 36 36 35 34 33 36 36 36 / 33 32 33 26 # = Points earned (highlight if reaching % criteria) IR = Intensive Redirection / = Excused absence OSS = Out of School Suspension O = Lost/No point sheet X = Unexcused Absence = Behavior card completed ISS = In School Suspension R = Referral T = Tardy Tota l Progress Chart Meeting the required weekly % of points qualifies student for Friday Reward. 30 Procedures for Contacting a Redirector 1. Classroom teacher signals the office through the intercom and requests a Redirector. 2. The office staff notifies the Redirector as to where they are needed through a 2way radio. (It is the Redirector’s responsibility to train the office staff on the contact procedures.) 3. The redirection team responds by promptly reporting to the crisis. 4. The redirection teacher assesses the situation, while the redirection teams remains in the background on alert. 5. If necessary, the Redirection Team will request additional support from administration and/or security. In the event of a crisis, follow CPI procedures and the campus crisis management plan. Review the BIP after each crisis. If necessary, update FBA and draft a new BIP. 31 Redirection Format Continuum of Steps Step 1: Eye contact/visual cue Step 2: Verbal directive If compliant: • Praise (Verbal, Non-verbal & Immediate reinforcement) If non-compliant: Set limits o State what the inappropriate behavior is o State the desired/appropriate behavior o State the positive and negative consequences o Allow the student time to make a choice If compliant: • Praise If non-compliant: • Continue on to step 3 Step 3: Redirection in the hall • Set Limits (see above) • Provide/review/practice skill • Offer choices/Cool down time If compliant: • Praise • Return to classroom to implement skill If non-compliant: • Continue on to step 4 Step 4: Escort to BI room • Begin I ntensive R edirection 32 Intensive Redirection Format Continuum of Steps Intensive redirection takes place in the redirection room and occurs when the student is in the anxiety or defensive stage of the crisis development escalation model. Steps for Intensive Redirection Step 1: Escort to BI room “cool down area” requesting assistance when necessary Step 2: Prompt student to use cool down steps Step 3: Set timer for 5 minutes of compliance • Document on Intensive Redirection Taking Control Chart Step 4: Check for compliance at the end of the 5 minute period (Give a simple directive to assess compliance) If compliant: Continue to Step 5 If non-compliant: Continue in 5 minute intervals until student has gained composure and is compliant. Step 5: Guide the student in the completion of the Debriefing Form Step 6: Develop a plan of action with the student (Contract, plan of apology, a negotiation process, etc.) Step 7: Provide, review or practice appropriate behaviors/social skills Step 8: Implement consequence (Therapeutic Rapport/CPI Coping Model) This step CAN NOT be skipped. Step 9: Return student to regular schedule to implement the plan of action. (The goal is for the student to return to his regular schedule within one class period.) Intensive redirection is complete as soon as the student is compliant and a new plan of action has been developed. Intensive redirection is not ISS. DO NOT require student to do ANYTHING while ‘cooling off’. The Redirector is responsible for documentation that supports the implementation of each of these steps. 33 Procedures for Debriefing The redirection debriefing form needs to be completed whenever a student: o has been verbally or physically aggressive o receives an office referral o requires intensive redirection The purpose of the form is to allow the student to: o reflect on their actions/decisions o take responsibility for their behavior o acknowledge and accept the consequences for their actions o gain the knowledge and skills needed to make better decisions in the future The debriefing form correlates with the Crisis Prevention and Intervention (CPI) model for therapeutic rapport. The debriefing should generate quality student/teacher conversations that are reflected on the debriefing form. 34 Paraprofessional Duties and Responsibilities Classroom Organization and Duties • • • • • • • Creating and maintaining filing systems for materials and students. Preparing displays, schedules, and bulletin boards Duplicating materials Typing instructional materials Creating seating arrangements for various small group activities Taking Attendance Locating instructional materials Student Assessment: • • • • • • Observing and recording academic behavior and progress Checking student work Keeping anecdotal records on student performance Completing informal observation of student performance Administering teacher – made tests Becoming familiar with the student’s I.E.P. Direct Instruction: • • • • • • • • • • Reinforcing subjects which have been taught by the teacher such as reading, math, spelling, vocabulary, P.E., and Adapted P.E. Assisting small groups of students Working one-to-one with students Presenting information to a whole class Providing appropriate feedback to students Listening to students read Modifying written materials (i.e., tape-record stories) Helping students work on projects or assignments Helping students select library books Actively participate Personal Care Management: • • • • Assisting students with tasks such as mobility, feeding, dressing, toileting, etc. Providing specialized care for students under the supervision of the school nurse. Maintain an inventory of supplies and initiate requests for supplies Ensure that all required health, hygiene, and dietary needs are available for oncampus and off campus activities. 35 Behavior Management: • • • • • • Monitoring and supervising students in P. E., recess, lunchroom, etc. Monitoring student behavior with tracking charts, contracts, BIPs. Monitoring small and large groups Assisting teachers with strategies to reinforce appropriate behavior Checking that students complete tasks and meet deadlines Helping build self-esteem in students Working with Parents: • • Directing parents to appropriate resources and personnel Directing parent concerns to classroom teachers Working with staff: • • • • • Co-Planning Planning and be prepared, asking questions Working with assigned teacher(s) Providing on-going communication regarding students Following the chain of command (teacher, administrator, special education supervisor, special education director) Miscellaneous Duties: • • • Completing documentation and paperwork for supplemental duties Performing other duties as assigned by administration, i.e., monitoring the lunchroom, assisting with bus duties and supervising students in community setting Appropriate professional attire 36 Social Skills Today our young people are faced with an increasing difficult world. Substance abuse, economic pressures, family problems and the lure of gangs and delinquency threaten our students both emotionally and physically. In order to deal with these issues, students must have sufficient tools and skills. Social skills instruction helps students learn the skills that are required so that they can successfully cope with these pressures and interact with others in socially acceptable ways. Social skills also help the students to be able to make healthy, safe choices in a variety of social situations. And to learn that actions have consequences, positive and/or negative. Typically, students in the behavior intervention unit lack appropriate social skills. Social skills are a planned lesson and must be taught on a daily basis. Lesson plans should correlate with the student’s behavior intervention plans and needs. Research indicates that children with social skill deficits may develop the following behaviors: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Aggressive / anti- social behavior Juvenile delinquency Abusive behaviors Mental health disorders Loneliness and despondency School failure/dropout Drug and alcohol abuse Unemployment 37 Social Skills Lesson Components Objective Rational Modeling Role Play Rehearsal Practice Coaching Feedback Generalization 38 Social Skills Lesson Components Objective – A social skill lesson is much like any other lesson. The objective is stated and written on the board at the beginning of the lessons. Rationale – Here the teacher explains to the students the importance of learning the skill. The personal benefits and relevance are made clear. Modeling – First, demonstrate and ask for the students to help you. Emphasis must be on the skill steps. Have students state how the steps were demonstrated. Role Play - To start with an indirect approach, the teacher could start with lessons such as having the students write a true story or a movie about themselves at school or at home, with other kids. The story or movie should incorporate the skill of the week. Role Play and Rehearsal – Follow these steps to role play and rehearse with the students: (The more you follow all the components that have been outlined for you, the easier the lessons will become. It will seem awkward for the students at first. Keep rehearsing and it will soon become a routine for them.) 1. Select a volunteer or encourage a student to help you 2. Student must state: • Who is involved in the situation • What is happening • What he/she will 3. Select another student to role play with the first Student and follow step # 2 4. Instruct the other students ( observers ) to carefully watch the role play. Pay close attention to skill steps. 5. Begin role play with a quick phrase such as, “Action” 6. Watch carefully to make sure students respond appropriately. Do not allow any physical contact or verbal abuse. If problems occur: see Coaching Step #1 – 4 39 Practice – Continue selecting volunteers and follow the same procedures until all students have had an opportunity to role play. Coaching – Watch the role play carefully to make sure that students respond appropriately and effectively, allow him/her to complete the role play. If he/she fails to use the appropriate skill steps: (that is, if he/she begins to use inappropriate or ineffective behavior) 1. Discuss the importance of being good observers of each other’s behavior. This can be done by reminding students that they can learn a lot from each other, and that they can help each other learn new ways of getting along. • Instruct group members that an important part of the social skills group is being able to give each other ideas about what they are doing well (behaviors that other kids like), and ideas about what they are not doing well (actions that other students may not like, or that could be changed). 2. Teach students five steps for giving feedback: • Use a nice voice. • Look at the person. • Wait for an appropriate time. • Start by saying something positive (something that the person is doing well ). • Provide a suggestion for changing a particular behavior. 3. Encourage students to use statements that are common in their vocabulary. This increases the chance that they will use similar statements in other situations. It also increases the chance that the receiver of the feedback will take it seriously. For example, a statement such as “That was great the way you dept your cool when Rex tried to get into a fight!” • Model what giving feedback looks like, using several examples. • Have students practice by giving feedback to leaders following modeling examples. • Suggest that students provide feedback during discussions, role plays, and other times during group. • Discuss opportunities that students have outside of the group when they give feedback using the techniques learned in group. • Throughout all group sessions, provide ample opportunities for students to give each other appropriate feedback. 40 Generalization - There are five basic steps to promoting generalization with the use of reinforcement, prompting, and modeling: 1. Recognize opportunities for students to use the positive social skills that were taught in social skills training. 2. Reinforce all attempts that students make to use skills with a statement such as, “Nice Job for using (or trying to use) the steps of joining in!” 3. If students fail to attempt a skill, prompt them with a statement such as, “This is a good time for you to try the steps of problem solving.” Next: • If students fail to attempt the steps after the prompt, reinforce them with a statement such as, “I like the way you tried using the steps of selfcontrol!” • If students use the steps appropriately, reinforce them with statement such as, “Great job using the steps of problem solving!” 4. If students fail to attempt the skill or perform it inappropriately, model it by acting out the steps. Next: 5. If students fail to attempt the skill, or their attempts are Skill unsuccessful, provide feedback and instruction on how to use the skill with a statement such as, “When you lose a game, first stop and count to five. Then think about your choices and the consequences.” Prompt students to use skills at a later date with a statement such as, “Why don’t you try to use the steps of self-control later when you have the problem again?” 41 Social Skills Topics Orientation – Why you are here / How you are special Being Responsible Mainstreaming Following Directions Team Building Task Completion Bus Behavior Cafeteria/P.E. Behavior Setting Goals Building Self-Esteem / Self – Confidence Impulse Control (Self-Control / Failure / Disappointment) Coping Skills (Relaxation / Stress Reduction) Coping Skills (Dealing with Feelings) Coping Skills (Family Violence / Holiday Stress) Telling the Truth / Fact and Fantasy Making Friends Making and Keeping Friends Communication Skills (Verbal and Non-verbal) Communication Skills (Accepting Negative and Positive Feedback) Accepting Responsibility Interpersonal Relations (Conflict Resolution) Interpersonal Relations (Attitude and Getting Along with Others) Personal Hygiene Social Eating Peer Pressure (Positive and Negative) Peer Pressure (Refusal Skills) Being Assertive (Passive, Aggressive, Assertive) Being Assertive (Verbal Requests) Classroom Behaviors Necessary for Mainstreaming Decision Making / Problem Solving Building Violence Prevention Skills Drug Awareness 42 Social Skills • • • • • • Social skills are incorporated into the SE Health Quest course on a daily basis. A new social skill is introduced at the beginning of every week. The social skill is taught, practiced and reinforced throughout the week. Students are tested on the social skill at the end of the week. The social skills are posted in a designated area of the classroom as they are presented. Social skills are reviewed and re-emphasized throughout the year whenever a student exhibits a skill or performance deficit. 43 Room Structure The redirection room is a structured environment where: • Students receive social skills instruction • Behaviors are redirected • Students are reinforced • Students cool down The redirection room is NOT: • ISS • Content mastery center • A place to socialize Redirection room is a SAFE ZONE. The following items must be posted: • • • • • • • • • BI Room Hours Classroom Rules Continuum of Positive and Negative Consequences Intensive Redirection Rules Continuum of Reinforcement Social Skills Student Progress Charts Crisis Management Plan Consequence Flow Charts The BI Room should only be open for social skills, scheduled reinforcement and redirection. 44 SAMPLE BI ROOM SCHEDULE 8:00 – 8:40 Daily 12:00 – 1:00 Lunch Monday, Wednesday, Friday 3:45 – 4:20 End of the day 45 Classroom Rules Follow Directions Respect Others/Speak Appropriately Be Prepared/On Time Complete Assignments 46 Intensive Redirection Rules Remain Seated Remain Quiet Raise Your Hand Complete Debriefing 47 Positive & Negative Consequences Consequence charts need to be posted. It is essential that all students have a clear understanding of the consequences associated with particular behaviors. The posting and implementation of consequence charts will also assist Redirectors in maintaining a fair and consistent BI program. Positive Consequences: 1. Earn positive reactions from others 2. Earn points 3. Earn privileges 4. Earn tickets 5. Purchase store merchandise 6. Friday rewards 7. Reduced monitoring Negative Consequences: 1. Warning 2. Points are not earned 3. Not eligible for privileges 4. Not eligible for Friday reward 5. Increased monitoring 6. Parent notification 7. Office referral 8. Designated discipline procedures 48 Reinforcement One of the most important and effective strategies in changing behavior is the use of positive reinforcement. When positive reinforcement is used consistently positive behaviors increase. As the student progresses through the program, the goal is to decrease the amount of tangible reinforcers earned and increase non-tangible reinforcers. By decreasing extrinsic motivation and increasing intrinsic motivation, students will have a smoother transition to post-secondary life The reinforcement system needs to be comprised of systematic reinforcement schedules that include hourly, daily, weekly and long term reinforcers. Some students may require an individualized reinforcement system. If this is the case, the reinforcement plan needs to be outlined in the BIP. Visible evidence of reinforcement strategies is essential. Reinforcement schedules should be presented visually to ensure a clear understanding of the system and because not all students process information that is presented verbally. The posting of visual reinforcement schedules also contributes to an overall classroom climate that is pleasant and motivating. 49 Required Reinforcement BI Store Immediate Positive Reinforcement Friday Reward 50 Ticket Procedures Students earn tickets throughout the day when they demonstrate appropriate behaviors. Example: • In class on time • Prepared for class • On task • Completed assignments • Good participation • Being polite • Helping others • Good grades • Demonstrating social skills • Complying with directives • Cooling down appropriately • Initialed behavior card • Accepting consequences Tickets are always earned. Never taken away. There are three ways tickets may be disbursed: • Redirectors initial and hand them out and students are responsible for saving them • Redirectors hand them out, students sign and return to redirectors who then save them • Redirectors verbally gives tickets and documents on daily observation log Students should be earning an average of 20 tickets per day or 3 tickets per period. Students who are spot checked receive tickets between periods. The tickets are exchanged for tangibles from the Class Store on a weekly basis. Tickets may also, in coordination with the store, be used for: 1. Raffles 2. Privileges 3. Access to computers and/or game systems 51 Store Procedures The Redirection teacher will maintain a class store. The students will have the opportunity to trade tickets for tangible items a minimum of once a week. 1. Post Store Schedule Example: Lion’s Pride Open Friday 12 – 1 pm 2. Stock store/Price items (garage sale dots work well) Example: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Pens Pencils Notebooks Folders Highlighters Post its Bottled water Blank CD’s CD cases Glow sticks Key chains Colored computer paper Nutritional snacks Hygiene items Mp3 players Flash drives Skateboards Remember— Network in the community. 3. At the predetermined time the students are allowed to go to the BI room and exchange their tickets for a tangible item. Conduct interest inventory. 52 BI Store Open Friday’s 12:00 - 1:00 Blank CD’s Water CD Player Gift Certificates Snacks Tickets will be earned daily and may be used to buy store merchandise. 53 Friday Reward Procedures One of the most important and effective strategies in changing student behavior is the use of positive reinforcement. Friday Reward is a key element in a class-wide management system. The steps for implementing the Friday Reward are: • Create and post a Friday Reward chart. • Determine the criteria for earning Friday Reward. The criteria should be based on the students’ IEP. • On the first day of the week, inform the students what the Friday Reward will be or you may allow the students to vote on a reward of their choice or from the reward menu. • Remember to change the reward choices often to maintain high student interest. • Discuss with the students the criteria for earning Friday Reward. • Post the reward choice (include a picture if possible) to serve as a reminder of what they are working for throughout the week. • Post or tally daily points on the Friday Reward chart so the students may monitor their progress. • On Friday total the points on the chart to determine which students have met the criteria for the reward. 54 Friday Reward Friday Reward Criteria: • • Students on daily point sheets/behavior cards qualify for Friday Reward when they have met the criteria. Students on three or six progress reports qualify for Friday Reward if they do not receive any office referrals for the week. Post required criteria to qualify for Friday Reward. (See reinforcement schedules) Friday • • • • • • reward activities include, but are not limited to: Celebrations Video game tournaments Luncheons/Breakfasts Pizza Movies Desserts Friday Reward takes place on Fridays during social skills class. Students who are not scheduled for social skills, participate in Friday Reward before/after school or during lunch. Post Friday Reward Activity 55 Reinforcement Schedule Students on Point Sheets 150 POINTS = Participate in Friday Reward Movies Video games Celebrations Food Friday reward time should not exceed 45 minutes. 56 Reinforcement Schedule Students on Progress Reports No Office Referrals = Participate in Friday Reward Movies Video games Celebrations Food This is only for students monitored by progress reports. 57 Reinforcement Schedule 5 Behavior Cards With a minimum of 6 initials per card = Participate in Friday Reward Movies Video games Celebrations Food 58 Contracting The contracting equation is: Behavior = Reward Behavior contracts will include the following: • • • • • • The dates the agreement begins and ends. Behaviors targeted for change (measurable). Amount and/or kind of reward/reinforcer to be earned. Schedule of reinforcers delivery. Signatures of all those involved (student, teacher, parent). Schedule for review of progress (daily is best). Contracts will be closed out every 3 weeks. Contracts will be reviewed on Friday’s and closed out every 3 weeks. Sept. 9th Oct. 21st Nov. 11th Dec 2nd Dec 21st 59 Long Term Incentive 1st Semester Teacher buys lunch combo On December 18th for Perfect Attendance August 24th From – December 21st 60 Consequence Flow Charts 61 Tardy 1st Offense Warning 2nd-5th Offense Lunch Detention 6th Offense Shadow for 3 Days 7th Offense Escort for 3 Days 8 or More Escort 5 minutes before the bell 62 Tardy 1st Offense 2nd-5th Offense 6th Offense 7th Offense 8 or More 63 Profanity 1st Offense Lunch Detention 2nd-3rd Offense 2 days lunch detention Call parents 4th Offense Office referral 1 day ISS 3 days monitoring in class Teacher/ parent conference 5th Offense Office referral 3 days ISS 3 days monitoring in class Parent/administrator conference 6 or More Office referral ISS Call parents Increased monitoring 64 Profanity 1st Offense 2nd-3rd Offense 4th Offense 5th Offense 6 or More 65 Refusal to work 1st Offense Warning 2nd-4th Offense Complete work in lunch detention 5th Offense Intensive redirection Phone call home 6th Offense Intensive redirection Conference with parents 7 or More Office referral ISS 66 Refusal to work 1st Offense 2nd-4th Offense 5th Offense 6th Offense 7 or More 67 Refusal to follow directions 1st Offense Warning 2nd Offense Student / Teacher Conference 3rd Offense Call home Lunch detention 4th Offense Increased monitoring 5 or More Administrator/parent/ teacher/student conference 68 Refusal to follow directions 1st Offense 2nd Offense 3rd Offense 4th Offense 5 or More 69 Disrespectful attitude/tone/gestures 1st Offense Warning Redirection 2nd-3rd Offense Lunch detention 4th Offense Parent / teacher conference 5th Offense ISS BISD police 70 Disrespectful attitude/tone/gestures 1st Offense 2nd-3rd Offense 4th Offense 5th Offense 71 Walking out of class 1st Offense Warning / Redirection 2nd Offense Redirection Teacher/Teacher conference 3rd Offense 2-3 days of monitoring Phone call to parent 72 Walking out of class 1st Offense 2nd Offense 3rd Offense 73 Physical Aggression Verbal Aggression Threats Stealing Drugs Weapons Inappropriate Use of technology/social media Office Referral *(See Student Code of conduct) 74 ADDRESSING CHALLENGING BEHAVIORS 75 Persistent Misbehavior In the event that a student displays persistent misbehavior: Review the psychological Ensure that modifications are being implemented appropriately Conference with student Conference with parent Teacher/parent/administrator conference Review the FBA (revise if necessary) Review the BIP and its implementation (revise if necessary) Develop a teacher/student contract Increase monitoring Increase/change reinforcers Change consequences Contact outside agencies (Probation officer, Tropical Texas, etc.) Refer family to outside agencies Consult with Sp. Ed. counselor Consult with Behavior Specialist Consult with Sp. Ed. Supervisor Staffing Alternative placement should never be considered until the above actions have been taken and documented. 76 Staffings Staffings are held when BI students are experiencing considerable difficulty. The purpose of a staffing is to review all pertinent information and develop a specific plan of action. Staffings should include the following: Redirector Sp. Ed. Administrator Sp. Ed. Counselor Behavior Specialist Regular Ed. Teacher(s) Staffings may also include but are not limited to the following: Nurse Sp. Ed. Supervisor Regular Ed. Counselor Parent Outside agencies Prior to consideration of placement at BAC for persistent misbehavior, a staffing must be held. 77 Staffing Agenda Introductions Review data: Psychological FIE Functional Behavioral Assessment Questionnaires Office referrals/Consequences Functional Behavioral Assessment Behavior Intervention Plan/Documentation Point sheets/Behavior Cards/Incident logs/Observation logs Implementation of Modifications Miscellaneous Target behavior(s) Develop a plan of action Student Date Attendance 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1. Targeted Behaviors: 2. 3. Brief description of plan of action ______ ____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 78 79 Major points to follow as per Special Services Guidelines: Please be advised that the decision to proceed with removals will be made by home campus administration, but, it is highly recommended that first time discretionary offenders not be sent to BAC. Instead: Review IEP Schedule of Services Review and/or revise FBA and/or BIP Campus Administrator(s) should give the ARD Teacher, classroom teachers, and other school staff an opportunity to implement interventions and strategies. Campus administrator may consider other campus-based disciplinary options. Refer to BI Handbook for procedures relating to removal of students in the BI Program. Note: Any timeline exceeding 7 days from Infraction date to Hearing date and MDR without an approved extension letter signed by BAC Administrator will be referred to Special Services for review. STEP 1- Staffing- “Staffing Checklist” http://www.bisd.us/SpecialServices/ STEP 2 – Home campus will submit preliminary packet following BAC packet checklist for Special Services approval and then BAC approval to continue with hearing process. STEP 3 – The Placement ARD will be collaboratively scheduled by home campus and BAC. Please ensure that all items below are addressed prior to the ARD: Schedule of Services (SOS) Instruction Accommodations Placement ARD Requirements 8 BAC 45 minute courses Must match SOS and State Testing Page Individual Education Plan State Testing Worksheet Current dates of implementation needed Must match Instructional Accommodations FBA Revised draft to be presented at Placement ARD BIP Revised draft to be presented at Placement ARD 80 Needed immediately after Placement ARD: Rewards/Incentives (Tangibles) as stated in student Behavior Intervention Plan Summary of ARD Assessment Decision Form Provide Review 360 intervention documentation to BAC packet Provide Staffing Checklist to the BAC packet Additional Notes: ARDs and Amendments while the student is at BAC: For all ARDS and Amendments, BAC representative will assist home campuses in providing invitation to parents. Home Campus: • • • • • Annual ARD 8th Grade Transition ARD Promotion/Graduation ARD Special ARD (State Testing or Change of Instructional Placement) Amendments to Schedule of Services and State Testing* *(Home campus will collaborate with BAC to ensure that appropriate courses correlate with student’s Graduation plan and campus course availability) • • • • Failure ARD Special “Return” ARD MDR/Placement ARD to JJAEP (if necessary) Amendments (other than those listed above) BAC: Note: BAC Case Manager will collaborate with Home Campus SE Case Manager and will participate along with the student via phone. Failure to notify DAEP of amendments addressing changes to Schedule of Services and state testing within reasonable time may jeopardize graduation requirements and accurate testing for SE students. Re-evaluations at BAC: The Home Campus Diagnostician will be responsible for administering all re-evaluations. Special Education Transportation: Special Education Transportation will continue if it is already a related service at the home campus. No other type of transportation is provided while the student is at BAC. BISD does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability or genetic information in employment or provision of services, programs or activities. BISD no discrimina a base de raza, color, origen nacional, sexo, religión, edad, discapacidad o información genética en el empleo o en la provisión de servicios, programas o actividades. 81 Crisis Management 82 GUIDELINES FOR THE PREVENTION OF A CRISIS 1. Establish an atmosphere of trust. 2. Teach the rules. 3. Consequences for rule infractions should be known ahead of time and consistently enforced. 4. Rule infractions should be dealt with unemotionally. 5. Students should be allowed to save face: not lose self-respect. 6. Do not make threats. Power struggles should be avoided. 7. Expectations should be clearly defined, and teachers should check to see if they are understood by the students. 8. Model calm, composed behavior. (Especially in stressful situations) 9. Avoid fault finding. The “What” of behavior should be discussed (not the “Why”). Questions such as “What are you doing?” are preferable to “Why are you doing that?” 10. Do not argue with students. Remember, it is not always necessary to have the last word to be right. 11. Attempts should be made to intervene with the behavior before conflict develops. 12. Use Common Sense! 83 84 BI CRISIS MANAGEMENT PLAN Definition of Crisis: A Crisis exists when a student poses a serious threat to the safety of themselves/other students/faculty/staff/property. The CRISIS MANAGEMENT PLAN will be implemented using the BISD approved modelCPI (Crisis Prevention Institute) when the BI staff or the administration deems it an emergency situation. The plan will be implemented quickly, quietly and efficiently. Disruption of the school schedule should be kept to a minimum. The plan will be practiced with the BI students before a crisis occurs and reviewed as necessary. 1. Safety of student in crisis is aided by removing other students, furniture and school items from immediate area. At least two CPI trained adults will remain with the student in crisis. If additional assistance is needed, the administration will assist in bringing in other members of the Crisis Team. Office staff will receive advanced instruction in what to do when BI staff calls for immediate assistance. 2. Other BI students will be led from the classroom in an orderly manner with the staff member assigned by the BI Teacher or the administration. The BI students will never be sent from the room without a staff member. 3. Places for other BI students to go during a crisis (examples of possible choices): I. II. III. IV. V. Content Mastery Center Nurses office Room # ____ Library Cafeteria 4. A box with independent level activities, pencils, crayons, etc. will be prepared in advance and left ready to take with the students going to the new location. 5. When student in crisis is back in control, one of the staff members helping with the crisis will go get the rest of the class. 6. If the student coming out of a crisis requires a change of scenery or a quiet place, the regular education counselor’s office may be used.(or any other area deemed appropriate by the administration or the BI teacher) 85 If unable to reach parent/guardian or anyone on the emergency phone list, a staff member will be assigned to stay with the child until arrangements are made. The inability to reach anyone on the emergency list will be documented and the BI teacher will contact parents for possible reasons and new emergency contacts. 7. If more than one BI student is in serious crisis simultaneously, additional help will be required from other CPI trained staff members. The administration/BI teacher will direct these requests. 8. DUTIES BI Staff: Exhaust all CPI techniques. Implement Crisis Plan as practiced. Follow BI teacher directions quietly and efficiently. Remain calm and neutral. If student is restrained, all appropriate forms (Written Notification of Use of Restraint: Internal Tracking Form, Special Ed Written Summary of Restraint Form, and PEIMS Child Restraint Form 435) should be completed and given to the appropriate campus personnel. On the day of the restraint an attempt must be made to verbally notify parents Parents must receive written notification within one school day of the event Office Staff: If BI staff calls asking for immediate assistance, an administrator must be found and sent immediately. BI Crisis situations and information should not be discussed with anyone other than the administration, BI staff, and those involved. (Only to the extent necessary to maintain the safety and security of the student(s)). If a parent calls the office for more information, only the BI teacher or administrator should answer their questions. Remain calm and neutral. Nurse: Respond to call from BI staff in timely manner. Staff will advise if it is urgent. Document checking the student after physical restraint. 86 R egular Education/ Special Education Counselor: Will be advised of the crisis situation and called in only if needed. Counselor’s office will be used only if needed. Follow up discussion between the student who was in crisis and the counselor may be recommended. Behavior Specialist: Will be called in only when needed. Can provide recommendations or new strategies when needed. Other CP I trained staff: Will be called in only if needed. Adm inistration: Implement their duties in the crisis plan when necessary. Confidentiality is the LAW!!! 87 I have read and understand m y roles and responsibilities in the (CP I ) Crisis M anagem ent P lan. Signatures: BI Staff: ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Office Staff: ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Nurse: ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Reg. Ed./Sp. Ed. Counselor: ________________________________ ________________________________ Behavior Specialist: ________________________________ ________________________________ Other CPI trained staff: ________________________________ ________________________________ Administrator: 88 Written Notification of Use of Restraint: Internal Tracking Form Student Name:___________________________________ Date:____________________________ Name of Staff Members Administering Restraint: Date of Restraint Training:* ________________________________________ _________________________________ ________________________________________ _________________________________ ________________________________________ _________________________________ *Personnel called upon to use restraint who have not received prior training must receive training within 30 school days. Administrator Notification (must occur the same day that the restraint occurred) Type of Notification: � Verbal � Written Date of notification: _________ Time: _________ Name of Administrator Notified:___________________ Parent Notification (good faith effort must be made to verbally notify parent the same day as the restraint occurred, written notification must be placed in mail or otherwise provided to parent within one day of the use of restraint) Type of Notification: � Telephone – Date:__________ � In-person – Date:__________ � Written – Date: _________ Comments: __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ _____ Name of Person Notifying Parent of Use of Restraint: __________________________________________ White Copy: Administrator Yellow Copy: Special Education Eligibility Folder Pink Copy: Teacher Updated Summer 2015 89 This form can be found on the Special Services website under forms. Updated Summer 2015 90 This form can be found on the Special Services website under forms. Updated Summer 2015 91 This form can be found on the Special Services website under forms. Updated Summer 2015 92 (Cover Letter: Written Summary of Restraint Use) Date: Dear Your child was involved in an emergency situation on (date) that resulted in the use of physical restraint. Attached is a summary of the incident and a written description of the physical restraint used, including the behaviors your child exhibited before physical restraint was used. During the time of restraint, your child was observed by staff trained in the use of physical interventions for any signs of physical distress. The use of restraint ended as soon as the emergency situation no longer existed. This information is provided for your review and to seek your input into this situation. The attached information will be filed in your child’s special education eligibility folder so that the Admission, Review and Dismissal (ARD) Committee may use this information in considering the need for changes in your child’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) and/or Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP). Please call (insert name and phone number) if you would like to schedule an ARD Committee meeting to review your child’s IEP or BIP. Commissioner’s Rule for Special Education, Section 89.1053. Procedures for the Use of Restraint and Time-Out, states that restraint of a student with a disability may be used only in a clearly defined emergency situation. Schools must inform parents when it becomes necessary to use restraint in an effort to protect the student, other students or prevent serious property damage. Please contact (insert name and phone number) if you would like to schedule a conference to discuss the behaviors leading up to the use of physical restraint. If you have other questions, please contact me at (insert phone number). Sincerely, Campus Administrator cc: Special Education Eligibility Folder Enclosure Updated Summer 2015 93 Fecha Estimado/a Su hijo/a estuvo involucrado en una situación de emergencia el (fecha) que resultó en el uso de contención física. Adjuntamos un resumen del incidente y una descripción por escrito de la contención física usada, incluyendo los comportamientos presentados por su hijo antes de haberse usado la contención física. Durante el período de contención física, su hijo estuvo bajo la observación del personal capacitado en el uso de intervenciones físicas para ver si presentaba alguna manifestación de agotamiento físico. El uso de contención física finalizó en cuanto dejó de existir la situación de emergencia. Le proporcionamos esta información para su consideración y para que nos dé su opinión en relación con esta situación. La información adjunta se archivará en la carpeta de elegibilidad de educación especial de su hijo para que el comité de admisión, revisión y retiro (ARD) pueda usar esta información al tomar en cuenta la necesidad de cambios en el programa educativo individualizado (IEP) y/o el plan de intervención debido a la conducta (BIP). Por favor llame a (inserte nombre y número de teléfono) si desea programar una reunión con el comité ARD para revisar el IEP o el BIP de su hijo. Los Reglamentos del Comisionado para la Educación Especial, Sección 89.1053. Procedimientos para el Uso de Contención Física y Separación, indica que la contención física de un estudiante con alguna discapacidad puede ser usado sólo en una situación de emergencia claramente definida. Las escuelas deben informarle a los padres cuando es necesario usar la contención física para intentar proteger al estudiante, a los otros estudiantes o para prevenir daños graves a la propiedad. Por favor comuníquese con (inserte nombre y número de teléfono) si desea programar una reunión para hablar sobre la conducta que llevó al uso de la contención física. Si tiene otras preguntas, comuníquese conmigo llamando al (inserte número de teléfono). Muy atentamente, Administrador de la escuela cc: Carpeta de Elegibilidad para la Educación Especial Anexos Updated Summer 2015 94 TOOLBOX Updated Summer 2015 95 Feelings Chart 5 How I feel I need some help! 4 I’m really upset. 3 I’ve got a problem. 2 Things are pretty good. 1 Feeling great! Updated Summer 2015 What I can do 96 Tips for Teachers Who Supervise Paraprofessionals • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • If your paraprofessional is new, gradually phase him/her into full responsibility. Constant communication regarding daily planning, schedules and routines is important. Include paraprofessionals in teacher in –services training Provide time for paraprofessionals to meet with you. Even if it means only 15 minutes each day. Communication is very important. Schedule the time. Clearly delineate responsibilities. Paraprofessionals need to know “What are they expected to do”. Provide opportunities for recognition Offer on going training. Provide networking opportunities, paraprofessionals can visit model classrooms throughout the district. Discuss the disabilities, challenges, or special needs of each student. Keep your paraprofessional informed about special events, field trips, etc. Handle all concerns immediately. Prepare for the first day of class. Plan for the first two weeks before school starts Explain and demonstrate classroom management strategies Don’t let concerns/problems/issues go unresolved. Sit down and discuss them. Seek assistance from an administrator or supervisor to keep things going smoothly. Encourage new ideas and remain open to suggestions. Don’t ASSUME! Don’t expect the paraprofessional to do something you wouldn’t do. Rotate unpleasant tasks such as changing diapers with the paraprofessional. They are a support for you and for students, not a maid. Updated Summer 2015 97 Incident Log Student __________________________ Date Refusal to work Disruptive A = Redirection B = Intensive Redirection C = Contract D = Phone call home E = Parent conference F = Office referral Updated Summer 2015 Left class Campus:_______________________ Disrespectful Profanity G =ISS H =OSS I = Police report J = BAC K = JJAEP Physical Aggression Drugs Other Action Taken 98 Reward Log Student: ______________________________ Date Type A= Computer time B= Board Games C= Card Games D= Listening to music E= Extra tickets Updated Summer 2015 Period/Time Campus:________________ For G= PS2, Nintendo DS, Wii H= Trading in BI store I= Food Item J= Friday fun K= Token/coin F= Other ___________ 99 Special Services Behavior Intervention Unit Tangible Incentives Receipt Log School: __________________ Teacher: __________________ Room#___________ Include tangible behavioral incentive items with the value of over $1.00 given to students purchased using Special Education funds (ear buds, cologne, perfume, nail polish, etc.). Item Name Name of Student/ID# Student’s Signature Distribution Date 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Teacher’s Signature:__________________________ Date:_______________ Due Date: For clearance at the end of the year to Cluster Supervisor Updated Summer 2015 100 Special Services Behavior Intervention Unit Inventory School: __________________ Teacher: __________________ Room#___________ Include tangible behavioral incentive items with a value of over $1.00 purchased using Special Education funds (gaming systems, ear buds, cologne, perfume, nail polish, etc.). Item Name Ex: Cologne Beginning Quantity Due to SPED Supervisor by 1st Friday in September 3 Purchased Quantity 5 Number Distributed End of Year Balance Attach Tangible Incentives Receipt Log Due to SPED Supervisor at EOY Clearance 7 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Teacher’s Signature:____________________________ Date:_______________ Updated Summer 2015 101 Weekly Behavioral Progress Report Student_____________________ Reg.Ed.Teacher_______________ Sp.Ed. Teacher________________ (Circle) 123456 six weeks Date____________ Subject__________ Period___________ 1. Are there any behavioral difficulties that need to be addressed at this time? □ Yes □ No 2. Does the student need more assistance or monitoring in your class? □ Yes □ No 3. Is there anything I can do to help you with this student at this time? □ Yes □ No 4. Has the student___________________________________? □Yes □ No (Insert Target BIP Behavior) 5. Has the student __________________________________? □Yes □ No (Insert Target BIP Behavior) 6. Has the student__________________________________? □Yes □ No (Insert Target BIP Behavior) Comments_________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Please return by_________________________________. (Insert Date) Updated Summer 2015 102 Three Week Behavioral Progress Report Student_____________________ Reg.Ed.Teacher_______________ Sp.Ed. Teacher________________ (Circle) 123456 six weeks Date____________ Subject__________ Period___________ 1. Are there any behavioral difficulties that need to be addressed at this time? □ Yes □ No 2. Does the student need more assistance or monitoring in your class? □ Yes □ No 3. Is there anything I can do to help you with this student at this time? □ Yes □ No 4. Has the student___________________________________? □Yes □ No (Insert Target BIP Behavior) 5. Has the student __________________________________? □Yes □ No (Insert Target BIP Behavior) 6. Has the student__________________________________? □Yes □ No (Insert Target BIP Behavior) Comments_________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Please return by_________________________________. (Insert Date) Updated Summer 2015 103 Six Week Behavioral Week Progress Report Student_____________________ Reg.Ed.Teacher_______________ Sp.Ed. Teacher________________ (Circle) 123456 six weeks Date____________ Subject__________ Period___________ 1. Are there any behavioral difficulties that need to be addressed at this time? □ Yes □ No 2. Does the student need more assistance or monitoring in your class? □ Yes □ No 3. Is there anything I can do to help you with this student at this time? □ Yes □ No 4. Has the student___________________________________? □Yes □ No (Insert Target BIP Behavior) 5. Has the student __________________________________? □Yes □ No (Insert Target BIP Behavior) 6. Has the student__________________________________? □Yes □ No (Insert Target BIP Behavior) Comments_________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Please return by_________________________________. (Insert Date) Updated Summer 2015 104 Updated Summer 2015 105 Updated Summer 2015 106 Updated Summer 2015 107 Strategies Interrupting Crisis Behavior: Pre-Correcting Problem Behavior Pre-Correction is a proactive strategy designed to prevent or interrupt predictable problem behavior from occurring and increase the likelihood of expected behavior taking place. Essentially, the teacher anticipates problem behavior based on the student(s) previous behavior patterns or knowledge of student behavior in general. Given this information, the teacher takes measures to disrupt this behavior pattern. For example, the teacher knows that when the students come back from an assembly, they are likely to be noisy and unruly. So the teacher meets them at the door and has a task ready for them as soon as they enter the room. In general, pre-correction strategies require knowing what sets off the behavior (triggers) and the likely problem behavior. Given this information, the teacher can develop strategies to offset the problem behavior and facilitate acceptable behavior. Pre-correction procedures, used in conjunction with correction procedures, provide educators with a very effective and efficient method for preventing and managing a wide range of problem behavior that occurs in classroom and school settings. The combined uses of these two procedures involve seven basic steps: 1. Identifying the Context (trigger) and the Predictable Problem Behavior 2. Specifying Expected Behaviors 3. Modifying the Context TBSI 4. Conducting Behavior Rehearsals 5. Providing Strong Reinforcement for Expected Behaviors Module 5 6. Prompting Expected Behaviors 7. Monitoring the Plan Case Study The complete seven-step, pre-correction procedure is illustrated in an example involving a student who comes in from recess shouting, laughing, and pushing other students. Every day the teacher spends a considerable amount of time trying to get him settled so she can hand out materials and explain the math class. It often takes 5-7 minutes to gain control of him and have the class engaged with the math activity. The teacher examined the situation closely and developed the following precorrection plan. Updated Summer 2015 108 Strategies Interrupting Crisis Behavior: Pre-Correcting Problem Behavior Pre-Correction Checklist and Plan Teacher: S. Endow Student: Dominic Date: 4/2/01 Class: Grade 3 1. Context Transition from recess to the classroom Problem Behavior Shouting, laughing, pushing; down time before he complies with directions and becomes on task. 2. Expected Behavior Enter room quietly, hands to self, go straight to desk and begin entry task on chalkboard. 3. Context Modification Teacher meets students at door, has them wait a few seconds until everyone is in line, reminds them to go straight to their desks and begin the math puzzle that is on the chalkboard. 4. Behavior Rehearsal Teacher reminds Dominic just before recess to come into the room quietly, go to his desk and start the math activity and Dominic was asked to repeat the expectations. 5. Strong Reinforcement Dominic was told that if he could follow the rules coming into class after recess, the teacher would be very pleased and that he could earn some free time on the computer (one of his favorite choice activities). 6. Prompts The teacher meets the class at the door and gestures for everyone to be quiet and points to the math activity on the board. She catches Dominic and says, “Let’s get started real quickly on the math puzzle.” 7. Monitoring Plan The teacher uses her watch to measure how long it takes Dominic to reach his des and begin work after he passes through the door. Walker, Colvin & Ramsey (1995) pp. 176-183. Updated Summer 2015 109 Strategies Interrupting Crisis Behavior: Utilizing Effective Correction Procedures for Attention-Getting Behavior The need for attention has been identified as one of the most common explanations for problem behavior in the classroom, such as student talk-outs, interruptions, off task behavior, clowning around behavior, and repeated requests for assistance. However, a relatively common experience for teachers is that when they address these relatively minor problem behaviors, the students react and exhibit worse behavior. Then the teacher has to deal with the more serious behavior which could possibly lead to crisis behavior. To prevent this kind of escalation it is critical for teachers to have simple, efficient and non-inflammatory procedures for correcting minor attention-getting behavior. The goal of these strategies is to interrupt the chain of behavior and assist the student to engage in the present activities in the classroom. Use a correction plan that contains a series of steps in which the least intrusive step is used first and more intrusive measures come into play only if the problem behavior persists. For example: 1. Remove attention from the student who is displaying inappropriate attention getting behavior, and acknowledge other students nearby who are exhibiting the expected behavior. 2. Redirect the student to the expected behavior with a gesture or verbal prompt, and be sure to acknowledge subsequent cooperation and displays of expected behavior by the student. 3. Secure the student’s attention and clearly inform him or her of the expected behavior, provide immediate opportunities for practice, and acknowledge the changed behavior when it occurs. 4. Deliver a brief warning by providing an opportunity for the student to choose between displaying the expected behavior and experiencing a penalty or loss of privilege. 5. Deliver the penalty or loss of privilege in a matter-of-fact matter (for example, timeout or loss of some recess time) and do not argue with the student about details of the penalty. CAUTION: Do not become engaged in a power struggle with the student in using these procedures. If the student begins to escalate delay responding and utilize the procedures suggested in the topic, Managing Agitation. Colvin & Lazar (1997) p.79. Colvin, (1999), Defusing Anger and Aggression Video (Vignette # 1). Updated Summer 2015 110 Strategies Interrupting Crisis Behavior: Managing Off-Task Behavior Off-task behavior is one of the most common minor problem behaviors teachers have to deal with in the classroom. This behavior can readily escalate to more serious behavior if it is not managed carefully. There are two broad reasons for students to display off-task behavior; (a) to obtain attention from the teacher or other students, and (b) to avoid the task because they cannot do the work or are bored with it. If the teacher believes that the off-task behavior is motivated by attention needs then follow the procedures listed in utilizing Effective Correction Procedures for Attention-Getting Behavior. If the motivation is avoidance then the teacher needs to assess the student’s skill level and proceed accordingly. For example, if the student can demonstrate mastery of the topic, new or more challenging work needs to be provided. However, if the student does not have the skills for the task then more instruction is needed such as more explanations or easier practice examples need to be provided. Note: In trying to determine the motivation for off-task behavior, whether it is attention-getting or avoidance, it is better to start with the hypothesis that the explanation is avoidance, that is assess the student’s skill level. The student’s subsequent behavior will provide the necessary feedback. Colvin & Lazar (1997) pp.57-61. Colvin (1999), Defusing Anger and Aggression Video (Vignette #1). Colvin, Ainge & Nelson (1997),pp.47-51. Updated Summer 2015 111 Strategies Interrupting Crisis Behavior: Managing Agitation Sometimes students are already agitated when they enter a situation and as soon as a demand is placed on them or their behavior is corrected, they can escalate to quite serious explosive behavior. For example, Jamie’s body language and tone of voice indicate he is upset. The teacher asks him to sit down and begin his work. He then uses profanities and storms out of the classroom. However, this escalation may have been defused if the teacher had used techniques to settle the student down before the direction to begin work was given. There are two basic steps for addressing agitation; (a) identify the signs of agitation and, (b) utilize techniques for defusing agitation. Signs of Agitation Students show agitation by either increasing distracting behavior or decreasing active, engaged behavior. Here are some examples of increases in distracting behavior: darting eyes, nonconversational language, “busy” hands, moving in and out of groups, frequent off-task and on-task behavior, starting and stopping activities and moving around the room. On the other hand, students may be agitated and not show it. These students display agitation by displaying decreases in behavior and less engagement in activities such as: staring into space, subdued language, contained hands, lack of interaction and involvement in activities, withdrawal from groups, lack of responding in general and avoidance of eye contact. Techniques for Defusing Agitation Once the teacher recognizes that the student is agitated, the primary goal is to use strategies to calm the student down and carefully assist him or her to become engaged in the class activity. Because these strategies are essentially supportive in nature, it is very important to use them early, (before the behavior becomes serious), otherwise the teacher may reinforce the serious behavior. The key is timing. Use the following techniques at the earliest indications of agitation: 1. Teacher support: Communicate concern to the student. 2. Space: Provide the student with an opportunity to have some isolation from the rest of the class. 3. Choices: Give the student some choices or options. 4. Preferred activities: Allow the student to engage in a preferred activity for a short period of time to help regain focus. Updated Summer 2015 112 Strategies Interrupting Crisis Behavior: Managing Agitation 5. Teacher proximity: Move near or stand near the student. 6. Independent activities: Engage the student in independent activities to provide isolation. 7. Movement activities: Use activities or tasks that require movement, such as running errands, cleaning the chalkboard, or distributing papers. 8. Involvement of the student: Where possible involve the student in the plan. In this way there is more chance of ownership and generalization to other settings. 9. Relaxation activities: Use audiotapes, drawing activities, breathing and relaxation techniques. 10. Use passive activities: Use activities that have low demand on the students such as reading to the class, or have them watch an instructional video tape. Since agitation is a very common predictor of serious or crisis behavior, it is very important for teachers to develop a sharp eye in identifying agitation as early as possible and implement strategies that are designed to calm the student down and reorient the student to the current class activity. Walker, Colvin & Ramsey (1995), pp. 72-119. Colvin (1999), Defusing Anger and Aggression Video (Vignette #3). Colvin, Ainge & Nelson (1997),pp.47-51. Updated Summer 2015 113 Strategies Interrupting Crisis Behavior: Managing Provocative or Challenging Behavior Sometimes a student will break a rule deliberately to challenge the teacher. Quite often the teacher will address the problem and give the student a direction, which the student will refuse to follow. In this way the student sets the stage for confrontation. For example, a student wears a T-shirt that has a rude message on it. The teacher addresses the issue telling the student that the shirt is a violation of the school dress code and that he needs to go to the restroom and turn it inside out. The student refuses to follow the direction and a confrontation scene is established. In other words the stage is set for escalation. The student’s behavior will escalate or become defused depending for the most part on how the teacher addresses the problem. There are three clear steps for defusing this kind of challenging behavior. 1. State the rule or expectation that is being challenged in a calm yet firm manner. 2. Request explicitly for the student to take care of the problem. 3. Lead the student to consider options or present options on how to take care of the problem. For example, in the case of the student with the offensive T-shirt, the teacher would take him aside and say, “Joe, that T-shirt is not acceptable in a public school. It has a rude message.” (State the Rule). “I need you to take care of it please.” (Ask the student to take charge of the problem). “What is your plan?” If the student does not come up with a plan the teacher could say something like, “You can turn it inside out, get a shirt from the gym or wear a jacket. I don’t care but I need you to take care of it please.” (Review options). Colvin, Ainge & Nelson (1997),pp.47-51. Colvin (1999), Defusing Anger and Aggression Video (Vignette #2). Updated Summer 2015 114 Strategies Interrupting Crisis Behavior: Responding to Disrespectful Behavior Another common strategy students use to engage staff is to use disrespectful behavior. These behaviors include negative comments towards staff, insults, profanity, and verbal abuse. If the teacher takes these behaviors personally and reacts strongly then the student could likely react as well and exhibit even more serious behavior such as serious threats or even assault. Again the question arises, “Could this situation have been defused versus escalated.” The key in managing these behaviors is to realize that the student is trying to control the situation by “pressing buttons” to obtain an emotional reaction from the teacher. Four steps are suggested for defusing these situations and avoiding escalation to crisis behavior: 1. Delay responding: Clearly the student is setting up the teacher for a reaction. By delaying responding, pausing slightly, the teacher communicates to the student that he or she is in control of his or her behavior and will not simply react. 2. Studiously avoid using escalating prompts: These are reactive teacher behaviors that are likely to escalate the student such as agitation, frustration, cornering the student, touching, grabbing, nagging, discrediting remarks and challenging the student. 3. Calmly respond to the problem behavior in a firm but controlled tone: For example, the teacher might say, “Michael, that language is unacceptable and I am going to follow-up on this shortly.” 4. Deliver an appropriate negative consequence: Provide independent task for the class to perform. Approach the student privately. Deliver a negative consequence that has been preplanned and specified within the class rules. Such consequences may include response cost techniques, loss of privileges, detention, etc. Here are some additional guidelines for approaching a student who is being disrespectful or possibly dangerous: Move slowly and deliberately toward the problem situation, speak privately, calmly and respectfully, minimize body language, keep a reasonable distance, establish eye-level position where possible, be brief, focus on expected behavior, withdraw if the problem escalates and acknowledge cooperation where appropriate. In general, effective management of disrespect is largely determined by how we respond. If we are controlled and respectful we are more likely to defuse the situation and avoid escalation to crisis behavior. Colvin (1999), Defusing Anger and Aggression Video (Vignette # 3). Colvin (In Preparation), Classroom Management Systems, p.13. Updated Summer 2015 115 Strategies Interrupting Crisis Behavior: Establishing Limits and Defusing Defiance One of the most troublesome behaviors that teachers face in a classrooms is noncompliance, defiance or insubordination. This behavior of refusing to follow directions is problematic for three important reasons; (a) teachers need cooperation from students in order to teach and (b) non-compliance quickly disrupts the teaching/learning process and (c) non-compliance can easily escalate to serious or crisis behavior. Teachers need strategies that can help them establish limits with their students (i.e., break-up sustained non-compliance), establish cooperation and to avoid escalation to serious behavior. Three main steps are involved in defusing non-compliance and establishing cooperation: (a) pre-teach, (b) deliver the choices to the student in a non-confrontational manner, and (c) follow-through based on the student response. 1. Pre-teach the procedures: The purpose of this step is to make sure that the student understands the procedures. Carefully rehearse and explain the procedures to the class or individual students. For younger students it is important to model the procedures. The pre-teaching should occur at a neutral time or time when the student is relatively calm. 2. Present choices in a non-confrontational manner by: (a) Present the expected behavior and a negative consequence as a decision (place responsibility on the student). (b) Allow a few seconds for the student to decide (to allow the student to calm down, process the choices and to save face). (c) Withdraw from the student and attend to other students. This also helps the student to save face, leaves them with the decision and helps the teacher to disengage and manage the rest of the class. 3. Follow through: If the student chooses the expected behavior, briefly acknowledge the choice and continue with the class activity. If the student does not choose the expected behavior follow through with the negative consequence. Example Students are engaged in working on some math problems except for Sarah who is wandering the room. The teacher followed the usual procedures of attending to the students on task and providing some prompts for Sarah to sit down and begin her work. The teacher then said, “Sarah. Look it really is time for get started on you math.” Sarah says, “No way. I am not doing any dumb math.” The teacher pauses, acknowledges a student on task then approaches Sarah and says as privately as possible, “Sarah, you are asked to start your math (expected behavior) or you are going to have to do it at recess (negative consequence). You have a few seconds to decide.” The teacher leaves Sarah and moves to assist or check on the work of some other students. When the teacher returns to Sarah she has moved to her desk and opened a book mumbling that she still doesn’t like math. The teacher, approaches her says very quietly, “Thank you Sarah for getting started on your math.” The teacher then leaves Sarah. In general the key to managing non-compliance and for setting limits lies in the teacher’s delivery. Present the expected behavior and a negative consequence as a choice, give the student some time to decide and then withdraw for a few seconds. Updated Summer 2015 116 Strategies Interrupting Crisis Behavior: Managing Threats and Intimidating Behavior Students may escalate to a point of serious confrontational behavior involving threats and intimidation. The teacher may follow the procedures for establishing limits and the student reacts instantly by delivering a serious threat to the teacher. At this point imminent danger is a critical consideration. The primary concern here is to avoid escalating the student or putting the student in a position that he or she feels compelled to follow-through with the threat. The key here is to disengage and get assistance. Teachers should not feel compelled or pressured to manage this situation by themselves. Their safety is the controlling variable, which means that the teacher’s response is designed to disengage. There are three critical steps for the teacher to follow in response to a threat: 1. Pause: Look at the student, look down. Communicate that you are thinking. It is very important to delay responding. 2. Disengage: Look at the student and say something like, “Just a second,” and pull away. Keep in mind that when a student makes a threat they give you some time to respond. 3. Seek assistance: Withdraw from the student and seek assistance from another teacher and follow your school procedures. The most important consideration in defusing this situation is to prevent further escalation. The student threat will be followed up, typically through an office referral. Colvin, Ainge & Nelson (1997),pp.47-51. Colvin (1999), Defusing Anger and Aggression Video (Vignette # 6). Colvin (2000), Managing Threats Video. Updated Summer 2015 117 Responsibilities of the ARD Teacher Updated Summer 2015 118 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ARD TEACHER Yearly Responsibilities I. Beginning of The Year A. Develop a Student Working Folder on each student. (see checklist) 1. A “student working folder” contains confidential information as identified on the “checklist” 2. The word “working” implies that the ARD teacher will use each student’s folder regularly for purposes such as: • Documenting progress of I.E.P. goals and objectives; • Maintaining logs of communication with parents, regular education teachers, special education teachers, related service providers and others (as necessary); • Locating current information (i.e., accommodations/modifications, specific goals and objectives, data collection sheets, anecdotal notes, etc.) quickly and efficiently; • Using information in folders, in conjunction with formal and informal assessments, to draft I.E.P. goals and objectives; • Taking the folder to ARD meetings to review I.E.P. goals and objectives, review BIPs, report progress, verify demographic information, etc. 3. Purpose of a student working folder: It is a teacher resource file used to collect important data necessary in developing the student’s I.E.P. It should not be an auditable file, but is open to record requests. The file should be adapted by the teacher for their use and an on going document. Tabs or sections can be used in organizing the data. 4. NOTE: Every ARD teacher will maintain and monitor this “student working” folder regularly on each special education student. B. Review student’s eligibility folders. Updated Summer 2015 119 C. Ensure that the student has appropriate goals and objectives for all instructional and related services. If appropriate, an ARD or ARD Amendment should be held for revisions. D. Print copies of the schedule of services for all assigned students. 1. Check schedule with IEP 2. If there is a discrepancy, discuss with the campus diagnostician and administrator to make changes that affect instructional arrangement, modifying course content, increasing or decreasing time spent in special education and/or assessment decisions that will require an ARD or ARD amendment. E. Make copies of the accommodation/modification page, BIP and the IEP and deliver to each teacher working with the student. 1. Paperwork should be given to the teachers prior to the first day of school. 2. Keep documentation of the delivery of this paperwork in the working folder. F. It is strongly recommended that the ARD teacher make an initial contact with parent(s) during the first two weeks of the school year in order to establish a positive relationship with the parent(s). G. Within the first three weeks, review the student’s IEP, schedule of services, and deliberations to ensure that all services are in place. 1. Includes related services, modifications, adaptive P.E., assistive technology support, training for staff, or any other support or service addressed in the ARD. 2. If services have not been provided by the third week, notify the service provider, campus special education administrator, and the cluster supervisor. 3. Confirm all information within the student file on IEPPlus. Updated Summer 2015 120 II. During the Year A. Monitor each student’s progress on a regular basis. 1. Areas to be checked: a. Grades b. Behavior c. Attendance 2. Monitor student progress once each three week period. 3. If a student is failing then monitor one time a week and collaborate with the student’s teachers and parents. 4. Assure that Progress Reports for instructional and related services are collected and sent home every six (6) weeks. 5. Progress must be documented for every goal and objective each grading period. 6. Notify Lead Teacher/Department Head if IEP report cards can’t be sent home due to another teacher or related service personnel failing to turn in their progress report with copy to campus administrator. B. The ARD teacher is responsible for checking the ARD schedule. 1. All annual ARDs must be held before the annual due date to comply with state and federal guidelines. 2. The ARD teacher is responsible for inviting related/instructional services personnel at least two weeks before the ARD. Related/Instructional services personnel need enough time to plan for the ARD and prepare the IEP related to their area. 3. The ARD teacher is responsible that all individuals involved in the preparation of the IEP have completed their area of the IEP. 4. The ARD teacher is responsible for finalizing all ARD meetings for security. 5. The ARD documents should be finalized immediately following the ARD and copies given to the parents. If the parent is not Updated Summer 2015 121 provided a copy at the end of the meeting, this must be noted in the deliberations with the date of delivery. C. Be aware of the need for a BIP or to revise a BIP for any student whose behavior interferes with their learning or the learning of others. 1. Collect pertinent information for the functional behavioral assessment. 2. Present a draft of the FBA/BIP to the ARD Committee for revision/approval. III. End of the Year 1. Complete the Teacher Clearance Forms 2. Complete all end of year clearance procedures as per assigned campus. 3. Make sure that all ARDs and Amendments held during the year are finalized and filed in the eligibility folder. Updated Summer 2015 122 ARD Meeting Responsibilities of the Teacher I. Prior to an ARD Meeting A. The ARD teacher is responsible for collecting data to determine the student’s strengths and weaknesses to write an appropriate PLAAFP (Present levels of academic achievement and functional performance). Data that may be used include, but not limited to: progress reports from previous IEP, report card, state testing reports, information from Gradespeed, work samples, test samples, information provided by the general education teacher, discipline referrals, absence reports and information provided by the parents. If appropriate, administer or update a criterion referenced test (Brigance) one month prior to the annual ARD. All the data is used to write an appropriate PLAAFP and draft IEP goals and objectives. B. Contact related services/instructional staff who provide services two (2) weeks prior to scheduled ARD. C. Draft goals and objectives prior to the ARD meeting. D. Collect information that is needed to assist the ARD Committee. • Attendance information • Discipline referrals • Copies of report cards • Most recent progress reports from all regular and special education teachers. • Information results for last state assessment • Transcript (H.S. Only) E. Determine if staffing is needed. F. Complete all pages to the ARD document. 1. Review and change: - PLAAFP. The PLAAFP must include all areas that student receives services i.e. speech, OT, PT, counseling, Limited English Proficient, etc. Updated Summer 2015 123 2. The special education teacher must contact the related services personnel at least two weeks before the ARD so they can enter the PLAAFP, goals and objectives (if appropriate), and schedule of services. 3. “Draft” appropriate goals and objectives for all areas of need. 4. “Draft” Schedule of Services of the ARD document. It is important to receive input from all teachers working directly with the student (general education, speech, VI, AI teachers, etc.) 5. Related Services personnel are responsible for entering the frequency and duration of services on the schedule of services. Teachers must not change or delete these services. If the teacher opens an ARD, deletes the ARD due to mistakes, and re-opens a new ARD, the teacher must email the related services personnel again so they can re-enter their services. 6. Determine appropriate State and Local Assessments for all grade levels. 7. Review the results of the previous state assessments. 8. The ARDC must follow the participation requirements for STAAR, STAAR-A, STAAR ALTERNATE 2 G. Send home a “Draft” copy of the suggested IEP before the ARD meeting. 1. Parents should receive a copy of the proposed IEP which is clearly marked as “Draft” 2. A memo which explains that their input is being solicited and that goals and objectives may be added or deleted upon their recommendation at the ARD meeting. 3. Meet with the parent(s) if necessary. II. ARD Meeting Responsibilities A. Follow the ARD agenda provided in this manual or other agenda as needed. Updated Summer 2015 124 B. Present all information collected: competencies, attendance, review IEP, current progress, discipline, referrals, and recommendations for appropriate services. C. Teacher should be prepared for an active role during the meeting. D. Strive to involve the parent in all decisions. E. Decisions should be made in the best interest of the student that allow for parent and school to reach consensus. F. ARDs should be finalized and a copy of the ARD document be provided to the parent at the end of the ARD. If the parent is not provided a copy at the end of the meeting, this must be noted in the deliberations with the date of delivery. G. Provide copies of the IEP goals, objectives and accommodations to all staff working with the student ASAP (within 3 days). H. The special education teacher is responsible to turn in the original ARD forms to the diagnostician or clerk for filing in the eligibility folder. ARD documents must be filed in the eligibility folder within 5 days of the meeting. III. Amendment to the ARD A. Teachers, Speech Pathologist, and Diagnosticians need to review ARD documents for accuracy before the meeting is finalized. B. If corrections are needed, the ARD teacher will need to prepare an ARD amendment, with parent consent, or hold another ARD meeting. IV. Graduating Students (High School Only) A. Summary of Performance (SOP) needs to be drafted prior to and fully developed at the graduation ARD. This document needs to include recommendations on how to assist the child with a disability in meeting the child’s academic achievement and functional performance. This document will include recommendations on how to assist the child with a disability in meeting the child’s postsecondary goals and must consider the views of the student/parent and recommendations from adult service agencies as appropriate. Updated Summer 2015 125 NOTES Updated Summer 2015
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Our goal for these students is to have them in... also means dealing with minor behaviors in the general education...