MartinLogan Prodigy Specifications

MartinLogan Prodigy Specifications
u s e r ’ s
m a n u a l
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Installation in Brief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Electrostatic Panel
Front Grill Cloth
Rear Grill Cloth
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
AC Power Connection
Signal Connection
Jumper Clips
Single-Wire Connection
Bi-Wire Connection
Passive Bi-Amplification
Bass Control Switch
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Listening Position
The Wall Behind the Listener
The Wall Behind the Speakers
The Side Walls
Final Placement
The Extra “Tweak”
Enjoy Yourself
Room Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Your Room
Rules of Thumb
Dipolar Speakers and Your Room
Solid Footing
Dispersion Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Controlled Horizontal Dispersion
Controlled Vertical Dispersion
Three Major Types of Dispersion
Home Theater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Electrostatic Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Full Range Operation
MartinLogan Exclusives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Curvilinear Line Source
ForceForward Bass Alignment
Vapor Deposited Film
Transducer Integrity
Electrostatic Loudspeaker History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Warranty and Registration
Glossary of Audio Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
We know you are eager to hear your new Prodigy loudspeakers, so this section is provided to allow fast and easy
set up. Once you have them operational, please take the time
to read, in depth, the rest of the information in this manual.
It will give you perspective on how to attain the greatest
possible performance from this most exacting transducer.
If you should experience any difficulties in the setup or
operation of your Prodigy speakers, please refer to the Room
Acoustics, Placement or Operation sections of this manual.
Should you encounter a persistent problem that cannot be
resolved, please contact your authorized MartinLogan
dealer. They will provide you with the appropriate technical
analysis to alleviate the situation.
•Hazardous voltages exist inside—do not
remove cover
•Refer servicing to a qualified technician
•To prevent fire or shock hazard, do not
expose this module to moisture
•Turn amplifier off and unplug speaker
should any abnormal conditions occur
•Do not operate if there is any visual
damage to the electrostatic panel element
•Do not over drive speaker beyond its rated power
The lightning bolt flash with arrowhead symbol, within
an equilateral triangle, is intended to alert the user to
the presence of uninsulated “dangerous voltage” within the
product’s enclosure that may be of sufficient magnitude
to constitute a risk of electric shock.
The exclamation point within an equilateral triangle is
intended to alert the user to the presence of important
operating and maintenance (servicing) instructions in
the literature accompanying the appliance.
Step 1: Unpacking and Assembly
Remove your new Prodigy speakers from their packing and
assemble them (pages 4-5)
Step 2: Placement
Place each Prodigy at least two feet from any wall and angle
them slightly toward your listening area. This is a good place
to start. Please see the Placement section (pages 10–11) of
this manual for more details.
Step 3: Power Connection (AC) (see warning)
MartinLogan speakers require AC power to energize their
electrostatic cells. Using the AC power cords provided,
plug them in first to the AC power receptacle on the rear
panel of the speaker, making sure that you have made a
firm connection, and then to the wall outlet. Please see
the Operations section (pages 7–9) of this manual for
more details.
Step 4: Signal Connection
Use the best speaker cables you can. Higher quality cables,
available from your specialty dealer, are recommended
and will give you superior performance. Spade connectors
are suggested for optimum contact and ease of installation.
Attach your speaker cables to the Signal Input section on
the rear panel. Be consistent when connecting speaker
leads to the terminals on the back of the Prodigy: take great
care to assign the same color to the (+) terminal on both
the left and right channels. If bass is nonexistent and you
cannot discern a tight, coherent image, you may need
to reverse the (+) and (-) leads on one side to bring the
system into proper polarity.
For Bi-wiring/Passive Bi-amping instructions, turn to the
Operations section (Page 7–9) of this manual for proper
setup of the Prodigy system.
Step 5: Listen and Enjoy
Now, you may turn on your system and enjoy!
Installation in Brief
NOTE: Assembly of the Prodigy requires 2 people.
1: Electrostatic Panel Assembly
Remove the top two screws and washers from the
Prodigy woofer body. Back out the two screws and
washers immediately beneath the two screws that were
just removed until they protrude approximately 3/4”
from the woofer body. These screws must be in
place in order to assemble the Prodigy.
With the electrostatic panel assembly leaning slightly
towards you as you approach the woofer body, rest the
lower open notches of the rear metal plate on the
pair of protruding machine screws, making sure that
the washers are on the top side of the metal plate.
After resting the electrostatic panel assembly on the two
protruding screws, it needs to be lifted up vertically
so that the bottom aluminum trim will clear the
woofer body when pivoted into place. Slowly pivot
the electrostatic panel assembly into place.
NOTE: When the electrostatic panel assembly is in
place, the aluminum trim on both sides of the bottom
should be resting on top of the woofer body. Be careful
to ensure that these aluminum pieces do not bite into
the woofer body when the electrostatic panel assembly
is screwed into place.
Making sure the electrostatic panel assembly is being
firmly held in place (we recommend having someone else hold it), insert the top two screws and
washers and thread them into place, reach in with
the 5/32” allen wrench (included in instruction box)
and tighten all four screws until they are firmly in place.
Connect the electrostatic panel by aligning the line
on top of the connector with the dot on top of the
receptacle and gently pushing the connector into
place. To remove the electrostatic panel connector,
twist the end of the connector in the direction indicated by the arrow and gently pull it off.
NOTE: While playing, the Prodigy displays a blue light
through the electrostatic panel. The button shown in
step 1.3 will turn the light on or off, depending on
your preference.
2: Front Grill Cloth
Holding gently by the sides, attach the front grill cloth
by first gently pushing the bottom into place—
—and then the top into place. To remove the front grill
cloth reverse these steps.
NOTE: When the front grill cloth is in place, the stat
panel connector should align with the notch in the
top of the front grill cloth.
3: Rear Grill Cloth
Holding gently by the sides, attach the back grill cloth
by first gently pushing the top into place—
—and then the bottom into place. To remove the back
grill reverse these steps.
Congratulations! You have invested in one of the world’s
premier loudspeaker systems.
The MartinLogan Prodigy represents the culmination of an
intensive, dedicated group research program directed
toward establishing a world class reference monitor
utilizing leading-edge technology, without compromising
durability, reliability, craftsmanship or aesthetic design.
The new Prodigy incorporates many of the technological
advances developed by MartinLogan design and research
for the incomparable Statement evolution2. The result is the
highest resolution system in its class, available in an exquisite
cabinet that is surprisingly compact and an outstanding
performer with any music source. Prodigy includes advances
such as a new generation proprietary CLS (curvilinear line
source) electrostatic drive transducer, and a revolutionary
ForceForward drive configuration and cabinet that reduces
room interaction and resonances. A distinct benefit of these
advances is reference level performance in a broader
range of listening room arrangements. The unique, compact
cabinet combines a see-though look with elegant form,
texture and craftsmanship, which will complement any décor.
The materials in your new Prodigy speakers are of the highest
quality and will provide years of enduring enjoyment
and deepening respect. All trim pieces are constructed
from selected hardwoods. They are then grain and color
matched and finally hand finished. The cabinetry is constructed from the highest quality composite material for
acoustical integrity and is finished with our attractive
custom matte finish.
Through rigorous testing, the patented curvilinear electrostatic
panel has proven itself to be one of the most durable and
reliable transducers available today. Fabricated from a custom
tool punched high-grade steel, the panel is then coated
with a special polymer that is applied via a proprietary
electrostatic deposition process. This panel assembly houses a
membrane just 0.0005” of an inch thick. Ruggedly constructed
and insulated, as much as 300 watts of continuous power
has driven the Prodigy’s energized diaphragm into massive
excursions with no deleterious effects.
The other sections of your User’s Manual will explain
in detail the operation of your Prodigy speakers and the
philosophy applied to their design. A clear understanding
of your speakers will insure that you obtain maximum performance and pleasure from this most exacting transducer.
It has been designed and constructed to give you years of
trouble-free listening enjoyment.
AC Power Connection
Because your MartinLogan Prodigys use an internal power
supply to energize their electrostatic cells with high-voltage
DC, they must be connected to an AC power source. For this
reason they are provided with the proper IEC standard
power cords. These cords should be firmly inserted into
the AC power receptacles on the rear connection panel
of the speakers, then to any convenient AC wall outlet.
The Prodigys integrate a signal sensing power supply which
will switch off after a few minutes of no music signal, and
requires less than two seconds to recharge the panels when
a music signal is present.
Your Prodigy speakers are wired for the power service
supplied in the country of original consumer sale. The AC
power rating applicable to a particular unit is specified
both on the packing carton and on the serial number
plate attached to the speaker.
If you remove your Prodigy speakers from the country
of original sale, be certain that AC power supplied in any
subsequent location is suitable before connecting and
operating the speakers. Substantially impaired performance
or severe damage may occur to an Prodigy speaker if operation is attempted from an incorrect AC power source.
WARNING! The power cord should not be installed,
removed, or left detached from the speaker while
the other end is connected to an AC power source.
Signal Connection
Use the best speaker cables you can. The length and type of
speaker cable used in your system will have an audible
effect. Under no circumstance should a wire of gauge higher
(thinner) than #16 be used. In general, the longer the length
used, the greater the necessity of a lower gauge, and the
lower the gauge, the better the sound, with diminishing
returns setting in around #8 to #12.
A variety of speaker cables are now available whose
manufacturers claim better performance over standard
heavy gauge wire. We have verified this in many cases, and
the improvements available are often more noticeable
than the differences between wires of different gauge. The
effects of cables may be masked if the equipment is not of
the highest quality.
We also recommend, if possible, that short runs of speaker
cable connect the power amplifier(s) and speakers and that
high quality long interconnect cables be used to connect
the preamplifier and power amplifier. This results in the
power amplifiers being close to the speakers, which may
be practically or cosmetically difficult, but if the length of
the speaker cables can be reduced to a few meters, sonic
advantages may be obtained.
Connections are done at the Signal Input section on the
rear electronics panel of the Prodigy. Use spade connectors
for optimum contact and ease of installation. Make certain
that all of your connections are tight.
Be consistent when connecting the speaker cables to the
Signal Input terminals. Take care to assign the same color
cable lead to the (+) terminal on both the left and right
channel speakers. If bass is nonexistent and you cannot
discern a tight, coherent image, you may need to reverse
the (+) and (-) leads on one speaker to bring the system
into proper polarity.
WARNING! Turn your amplifier off before making
or breaking any signal connections!
When you first begin to play your Prodigy speakers, they
may sound a bit bass shy. This is due to the high-quality,
long-life components used in our woofer. Our custom
made, butyl surround woofer requires 30 hours of breakin at 90 dB (moderate listening levels) before any critical
listening. The break-in requirements of the crossover components (and, to a lesser degree, the stator) are equivalent.
Jumper Clips
In some countries federal law prohibits MartinLogan from
supplying jumper clips. If none are found installed under
your speakers binding posts, please refer to ‘Bi-Wire
Connection’ for connection instructions. If jumper clips
are installed please refer to ‘Single-Wire Connection’ for
connection instructions.
Single-Wire Connection
Passive Bi-Amplification
Please take note of the jumper clips installed under the
binding posts. These clips attach the high and low frequency
sections of the crossover together. Leaving these in place,
connect the (+) wire from your amplifier to either red
binding post and the (-) wire from your amplifier to either
black binding post (See Figure 1).
For those of you that desire ultimate performance, the
Prodigy may be passively bi-amplified using the existing
internal passive crossover elements.
WARNING! Only after the jumper clips are removed
may you connect individual runs of speaker cable
from your amplifiers to the high pass (ESL) and
low pass (WOOFER) Signal Input binding posts.
Damage will occur to your amplifiers if the jumper
clips are not removed.
Bi-Wire Connection
This method of connection replaces the jumper clips installed
under the binding posts with individual runs of speaker
wire from your amplifier. This doubles the signal carrying
conductors from the amplifier to the speaker, thus directcoupling each portion of the crossover to the amplifier.
To bi-wire you must first loosen the binding posts and
remove the jumper clips. Connect one set of wires to the
upper set of binding posts which connect to the panel of
the Prodigy. Then connect a second set of wires to the lower
binding posts which connect to the woofer. Next, connect
both sets of wires to the appropriate terminals on your
amplifier. Please take care to connect both (+) wires to
the (+) amplifier terminals and both (-) wires to the (-)
amplifier terminals. This is known as a parallel connection
(See Figure 2).
speaker output
Jumper clips
in place,
Bass Control
Horizontal Passive Bi-Amplification
Horizontal bi-amping allows you to use two different types,
models or brands of amplifiers (i.e. tubes on top, transistor
on the bottom). However, we recommend that you use
two identical amplifiers (i.e. same brand and model).
If you must use two different amplifiers, it is essential that
they have the same gain or that one of the two have adjustable
gain so that you can match their gain characteristics.
If the amplifiers of choice do not have the same gain
characteristics, then a sonic imbalance will occur.
Jumper clips
Figure 1. Single-Wire Connection. One Channel shown.
This method takes the bi-wiring concept one step further.
Now you will have a dedicated channel of amplification
directly connected to the high and low pass sections of the
Prodigy crossover. There are two different methods for bi-amping
with two stereo amplifiers. The first and most common is
referred to as Horizontal Bi-amping. The second method is
referred to as Vertical Bi-amping. With either method you may
use two stereo amplifiers or four mono amplifiers, or two
mono amplifiers and one stereo amplifier. Get the idea?
With either form of passive bi-amplification, your preamplifier
must have dual outputs. If your preamplifier is not so equipped,
you must either purchase or construct a “Y” adapter.
Bass Control
speaker output
Figure 2. Bi-Wire Connection. One Channel shown.
With horizontal bi-amping, one amplifier drives the high
pass (ESL) section while the second amplifier drives the
low pass (WOOFER) section. To horizontally bi-amp your
Prodigys you must loosen the binding posts and remove the
jumper clips. Connect the low frequency amplifier to the
lower set of binding posts of both speakers. Connect the high
frequency amplifier to the upper set of binding posts.
Next, connect the left and right preamplifier outputs to the
appropriate left and right inputs of both amplifiers (See
Figure 3).
Vertical Passive Bi-Amplification
The very nature of vertical bi-amping dictates that both
amplifiers be identical. With vertical bi-amping, each of
the stereo amplifiers is dedicated to one speaker. For
instance, the left channel of each amplifier drives the low
pass (WOOFER) section while the right channel drives the
high pass (ESL) section. To vertically bi-amp your Prodigys
you must loosen the binding posts and remove the jumper
clips from both speakers. Starting with one speaker, connect
the right channel to the lower binding posts and the left
channel to the upper binding posts. Repeat the same procedure
for the other speaker. Connect the left preamplifier outputs
to both inputs of the left channel amplifier and the right
preamplifier outputs to both inputs of the right channel
speaker (See Figure 4).
speaker output
Jumper clips
Low Amplifier
High Amplifier
speaker output
Bass Control
Figure 3. Horizontal passive bi-amplification. One Channel shown.
Bass Control Switch
On the rear panel of the Prodigy electronics module, beside
the Signal Input binding posts, is a two position Bass Control
switch that allows you to select the type of low frequency
response you desire.
Left Channel Amplifier
speaker output
The 0 dB (flat) position is considered the normal setting for
most rooms. However, if you feel that the bass in your system
is too weak relative to the mid and high frequencies, simply
select the +3 dB position. This switch position will increase
the output of the woofer by 3 dB centered around 50Hz.
Jumper clips
Some experimentation with these two switch settings will
allow you to find the optimal tonal balance for your specific
taste, room and equipment.
Bass Control
Figure 4. Vertical passive bi-amplification. One Channel shown.
Listening Position
By now your speakers should be placed approximately
two to three feet from the front wall, the wall in front of
the listening position, and at least one to two feet from
the side walls. Your sitting distance should be further
than the distance between the speakers themselves. What you
are trying to attain is the impression of good center imaging
and stage width.
There is no exact distance between speakers and listener,
but there is a relationship. In long rooms, naturally, that
relationship changes. The distance between the speakers
will be far less than the distance from you to the speaker
system. However, in a wide room, you will still find that if
the distance from the listener to the speakers becomes
smaller than the distance between the speakers themselves,
the image will no longer focus in the center.
Now that you have positioned your speaker system, spend
some time listening. Wait to make any major changes in
your initial setup for the next few days as the speaker
system itself will change subtly in its sound. Over the first
40 hours of play the actual tonal quality will change slightly
with deeper bass and more spacious highs resulting.
After a few days of listening you can begin to make refinements
and hear the differences of those refinements.
The Wall Behind the Listener
Near-field reflections can also occur from your back wall
(the wall behind the listening position). If your listening
position is close to the back wall, these reflections can
cause problems and confuse the quality of imaging.
Actually it is better for the wall behind you to be soft
than to be bright. If you have a hard back wall and your
listening position is close to it, experiment with devices
that will soften and absorb information (i.e. wall hangings
and possibly even sound absorbing panels).
The Wall Behind the Speakers
The front surface, the wall behind your speakers, should
not be extremely hard or soft. For instance, a pane of glass
will cause reflections, brightness and confused imaging.
Curtains, drapery and objects such as bookshelves can be
placed along the wall to soften a hard surface. A standard
sheet rock or textured wall is generally an adequate
surface if the rest of the room is not too bright and hard.
Sometimes walls can be too soft. If the entire front wall
consists of only heavy drapery, your system can sound too
soft or dull. You may hear dull, muted music with little
ambience. Harder room surfaces will actually help in this case.
The front surface should, optimally, be one long wall
without any doors or openings. If you have openings, the
reflection and bass characteristics from one channel to the
other can be different.
The Side Walls
The same requirements exist for side walls. Additionally, a
good rule of thumb is to have the side walls as far away
from the speaker sides as possible, minimizing near-field
side wall reflections. Sometimes, if the system is bright or
the imaging is not to your liking, and the side walls are
very near, try putting curtains or softening material directly
to the edge of each speaker. An ideal side wall, however,
is no side wall at all.
Now you can begin to experiment. First begin by toeing
your speakers in towards the listening area and then facing
them straight into the room. You will notice that the tonal
balance changes slightly. You will also notice the imaging
changing. Generally it is found that the ideal listening
position is with the speakers slightly toed-in so that you are
listening to the inner third of the curved transducer section.
Experimenting with the toe-in will help in terms of tonal
balance. You will notice that as the speakers are toed-out,
the system becomes slightly brighter than when toed-in.
This design gives you the flexibility to compensate for a
soft or bright room.
Tilting the Speakers Backwards and Forwards
As can be seen from the diagrams in the Room Acoustics
section of this manual, the vertical dispersion is directional
above and below the stator panel itself. In some instances, if
you are sitting close to the floor, slight forward tilting of the
speakers can enhance clarity and precision.
In their final location, your Prodigys should have a stage width
somewhat wider than the speakers themselves. On well
recorded music, the instruments should extend beyond
the edges of each speaker to the left and to the right, yet a
vocalist should appear directly in the middle. The size of
the instruments should be neither too large nor too small.
Additionally, you should find good clues as to stage depth.
Make sure that the vertical alignment, distance from the
front wall, and toe-in, is exactly the same from one speaker to the other. This will greatly enhance the quality of
your imaging.
Bass Response
Your bass response should neither be one note nor should
it be too heavy. It should extend to even the deepest organ
passages, yet it should be tight and well defined. Kick-drums
should be tight and percussive—string bass notes should
be uniform and consistent throughout the entirety of the
run without any booming or thudding.
In order to reduce these effects and allow for more flexibility
in positioning, the MartinLogan design team developed
the revolutionary ForceForward Bass alignment system.
This innovative technology controls the first reflective bass
energy from the front wall—minimizing the typical 50Hz
suck-out and 100Hz peak.
Tonal Balance
Voices should be natural and full, cymbals should be
detailed and articulate yet not bright and piercing, pianos
should have a nice transient characteristic and deep tonal
registers as well. If you cannot attain these virtues, read the
section on Room Acoustics (pages 12–13). This will give
you clues on how to get closer to those ideal virtues.
Final Placement
After obtaining good wall treatments and attaining proper
angle, begin to experiment with the distance from the wall
behind the speakers. Move your speaker slightly forward
into the room. What happened to the bass response?
What happened to the imaging? If the imaging is more
open and spacious and the bass response is tightened, that
is a superior position. Move the speakers back six inches
from the initial setup position and again listen to the imaging
and bass response. There will be a position where you will
have pinpoint imaging and good bass response. That position
is the point of the optimal placement from the front wall.
Now experiment with placing the speakers farther apart.
As the speakers are positioned farther apart, listen again,
not so much for bass response but for stage width and
good pinpoint focusing. Your ideal listening position
and speaker position will be determined by:
•Tightness and extension of bass response
•Width of the stage
•Pinpoint focusing of imaging
Once you have determined the best of all three of these
considerations, you will have your best speaker location.
The Extra “Tweak”
As a final test of exact placement, use these measurements
for your speakers placement, and see what can happen to
the ultimate enhancement of your system’s performance.
These two basic formulas will determine optimum placement
of your speakers to minimize standing waves.
1. Distance from the front wall (the wall in front of the listening
position) to the center of the curvilinear transducer. To
determine distance from the front wall, measure the height
of your ceiling (inches) and multiply the figure by 0.618
(i.e. ceiling height in inches x 0.618 = the distance from
the front wall to the center of the curvilinear transducer).
2. Distance from the side-walls to the center of the curvilinear
transducer. To determine distance from the side walls,
measure the width of your room in inches and divide
by 18. Next, multiply the quotient by 5 (i.e. room width
in inches/18] x 5 = the distance from the side-walls to
the center of the curvilinear transducer).
Enjoy Yourself
The Prodigy is a very refined speaker and benefits from care
in setup. With these tips in mind you will find, over your
months of listening, that small changes can result in
measurable differences. As you live with your speakers, do
not be afraid to experiment with their positioning until
you find the optimal relationship between your room and
speaker system that gives to you the best results. Your efforts
will be rewarded.
Your Room
This is one of those areas that requires both a little background to understand and some time and experimentation
to attain the best performance from your system.
Your room is actually a component and an important part
of your system. This component is a very large variable
and can dramatically add to, or subtract from, a great
musical experience.
All sound is composed of waves. Each note has its own
wave size, with the lower bass notes literally encompassing
from 10’ feet to as much as 40’ feet. Your room participates
in this wave experience like a three dimensional pool with
waves reflecting and becoming enhanced depending on
the size of the room and the types of surfaces in the room.
Remember, your audio system can literally generate all of
the information required to recreate a musical event in
time, space, and tonal balance. The purpose of your room,
ideally, is to not contribute to that information. However,
every room does contribute to the sound, and the better
speaker manufacturers have designed their systems to
accommodate this phenomenon.
Let’s talk about a few important terms before we begin.
Standing Waves
The parallel walls in your room will reinforce certain notes to
the point that they will sound louder than the rest of the audio
spectrum and cause “one note bass”, “boomy bass” or
“tubby bass”. For instance, 100Hz represents a 10’ feet
wavelength. Your room will reinforce that specific frequency
if one of the dominant dimensions is 10’ feet. Large objects
in the room such as cabinetry or furniture can help to minimize
this potential problem. Some serious “audiophiles” will literally
build a special room with no parallel walls just to help
eliminate this phenomenon.
Reflective Surfaces (near-field reflections)
The hard surfaces of your room, particularly if close to your
speaker system, will reflect some waves back into the room
over and over again, confusing the clarity and imaging of
your system. The smaller sound waves are mostly affected
here, and occur in the mid and high frequencies. This is
where voice and frequencies as high as the cymbals occur.
Room Acoustics
Resonant Surfaces and Objects
All of the surfaces and objects in your room are subject to
the frequencies generated by your system. Much like an
instrument, they will vibrate and “carry on” in syncopation
with the music, and contribute in a negative way to the
music. Ringing, boominess, and even brightness can occur
simply because they are “singing along” with your music.
Resonant Cavities
Small alcoves or closet type areas in your room can be
chambers that create their own “standing waves” and can
drum their own “one note” sounds.
Clap your hands. Can you hear an instant echo respond back?
You have near-field reflections. Stomp your foot on the floor.
Can you hear a “boom”? You have standing waves or large
panel resonances such as a poorly supported wall. Put your
head in a small cavity area and talk loudly. Can you hear a
booming? You’ve just experienced a cavity resonance.
Rules of Thumb
Hard vs. Soft Surfaces
If the front or back wall of your listening room is soft, it
might benefit you to have a hard or reflective wall in
opposition. The ceiling and floor should follow the same
basic guideline as well. However, the side walls should be
roughly the same in order to deliver a focused image.
This rule suggests that a little reflection is good. As a matter
of fact, some rooms can be so “over damped” with carpeting,
drapes and sound absorbers that the music system can
sound dull and lifeless. On the other hand, rooms can be
so hard that the system can sound like a gymnasium with
too much reflection and brightness. The point is that balance
is the optimum environment.
Breakup Objects
Objects with complex shapes, such as bookshelves, cabinetry
and multiple shaped walls can help break up those sonic
gremlins and diffuse any dominant frequencies.
Solid Coupling
Your loudspeaker system generates frequency vibrations
or waves into the room. This is how it creates sound.
Those vibrations will vary from 20 per second to 20,000
per second. If your speaker system is not securely planted
on the floor or solid surface, it can shake as it produces
sound and, consequently, the sound can be compromised. If your speaker is sitting on the carpet and only foot
gliders are used, the bass can be ill defined and even
boomy. The use of spikes is recommended to insure
secured footing for your speakers. (See ‘Solid Footing’ for
spike information and installation instructions).
Dipolar Speakers and Your Room
MartinLogan electrostatic loudspeakers are known as dipolar
radiators. This means that they produce sound from both
their fronts and their backs. Consequently, musical information is reflected by the wall behind them and may arrive,
either in or out of step, with the information produced by
the front of the speaker.
In a typical speaker system the low frequencies can either
be enhanced or nulled by the position from the front wall.
The ForceForward bass alignment in your Prodigy system
was designed to reduce these peaks and nulls, allowing easy
placement for smooth low frequency response. Listening to
the difference of the bass response as a result of the changes
in distance from the front wall will allow you to get the
best combination of depth of bass and tonal balance.
Now that you know about reflective surfaces and resonant
objects, you can see how the midrange and high frequencies
can be affected. The timing of the initial wave as it radiates
to your ears, and then the reflected information as it arrives
at your ears later in time, can result in confusion of the
precious timing information that carries the clues to imaging.
Consequently the result is blurred imaging and excessive
brightness. Soft walls, curtains, wall hangings, or sound
dampeners (your dealer can give you good information
here) can be effective if these negative conditions occur.
detailed. It is best not to implement the spikes, however,
until you are secure in the positioning, as the spikes can
damage the floor if the speaker is moved.
MartinLogan ETC spikes are also available with a common
1/4" x20 thread insert that may be used on your other
audio equipment (racks, speakers, etc.), which are available from your local MartinLogan dealer or on our website
Spike Installation Instructions:
1. Carefully lay your speaker on its side to gain access to
the bottom.
2. Remove existing feet or spikes. Thread new spikes into
holes and visually adjust to an equal height.
3. Tighten jam nut snugly by hand. Do not over tighten
the nut.
4. Right the speaker.
Caution: Make sure your hands and any cabling are clear
of the spikes. Do not slide speaker as spikes are sharp and
can damage your floor or carpet.
5. Adjust to level by rotating spikes. Tighten the jam nut
securely when satisfied that speaker is level.
Solid Footing
After living and experimenting with your Prodigys, you will
then want to implement the enclosed 3/8"x16 thread special
version ETC (Energy Transfer Coupler) Spikes (See Figure 5).
With the use of these spikes, the Prodigy will become
more firmly planted on the floor and, consequently, bass
will tighten and imaging will become more coherent and
Figure 5. The ETC Spike.
Room Acoustics
Controlled Horizontal Dispersion
Your Prodigys launch a 30 degree dispersion pattern when
viewed from above. This horizontal dispersion field gives a
choice of good seats for the performance while minimizing
interactions with side walls (See Figure 6). Make sure both
speakers stand exactly at the same vertical angle, otherwise
the image can be skewed or poorly defined. The wave
launch of both speakers is extremely accurate in both the
time and spectral domain. Consequently, small refined
adjustments can result in noticeable sonic improvements.
Controlled Vertical Dispersion
As you can see from the illustrations, your Prodigy speakers
project a controlled dispersion pattern. Each Prodigy is a four
foot line source beginning 20" inches above the floor level
(See Figure 7). This vertical dispersion profile minimizes
interactions with the floor and the ceiling.
Figure 6. MartinLogan Prodigys deliver a 30 degree wave launch dispersion
pattern distributed horizontally.
Dispersion Interactions
Three Major Types of Dispersion
In the field of loudspeaker design, it is a known fact that as
the sound wave becomes progressively smaller than the
transducer producing it, the dispersion of that wave
becomes more and more narrow, or directional. This fact
occurs as long as the transducer is a flat surface. Large flat
panel speakers exhibit venetian blind effects due to this
phenomenon. This is why most manufacturers opt for
small drivers (i.e. tweeters and midrange) to approximate
what is known as a point source wave launch.
Historically, most attempts to achieve smooth dispersion
from large flat panel transducers resulted in trade-offs.
After exhaustive testing of these different solution attempts,
we found an elegantly simple, yet very difficult to execute
solution. By curving the radiating surface, we create the
effect of a horizontal arc. This allows the engineers at
MartinLogan to control the high frequency dispersion
pattern of our transducers. That is why you see the gentle
curve on our products.
Figure 7. Your Prodigy speaker system is a 48” inch line source when viewed
vertically. Actual height above floor is from 16” inches to 64” inches.
Figure 8– 9. As can be seen here, point source
concepts invite a great deal of room interaction.
While delivering good frequency response to a
large listening audience, imaging is consequently
confused and blurred.
Figure 10–11. Even though they suffer from
“venetian blind” effect, angled multiple panel
speakers can deliver good imaging, but only
to specific spots in the listening area.
Figure 11–12. A controlled 30-degree cylindrical
wave-front, which is a MartinLogan exclusive,
offers optimal sound distribution with minimal
room interaction. The result is solid imaging with
a wide listening area.
Dispersion Interactions
It had long been the practice of stereo buffs to connect their
television to the stereo system. The advantage was the use
of the larger speakers and more powerful amplifier of the
stereo system. Even though the sound was greatly improved, it
was still mono and limited by the broadcast signal.
In the late 1970’s and early ‘80’s two new home movie
formats became widely available to the public: VCR and
laser disc.
Surround Speakers.
We recommend that the surround speakers play down
to 80 Hz or below. The surround speakers contain the
information that makes it appear that planes are flying over
your head. Some may suggest that this is the place to save
money and purchase a small inexpensive speaker. If you
choose to do so, be prepared to upgrade in the future as
discrete six channel digital encoding becomes available
and the demands on the surround speakers increase.
By 1985, both formats had developed into very high quality
audio/video sources. In fact, the sonic performance of some
video formats exceeded audio-only formats. Now, with
theater quality sound available at home, the only element
missing was the "surround sound" presentation found in
movie houses.
With any good surround system you will need a high quality
subwoofer (the .1, in a 5.1 channel surround system). Most movie
soundtracks contain large amounts of bass information as
part of the special effects. Good subwoofers will provide a
foundation for the rest of the system.
Fortunately, "Dolby” and ”DTS" encoded movies (which
include almost all movies) have the same surround sound
information encoded on home releases as the theater films.
All that is required to retrieve this information is a decoder
and additional speakers and amps to reproduce it.
Home theater is a complex purchase and we recommend
that you consult your local MartinLogan dealer as they are
well versed in this subject.
Each piece of a surround system can be purchased
separately. Take your time and buy quality. No one has
ever complained that the movie was too real. The following
list and descriptions will only give you a brief outline of the
responsibilities and demands placed on each speaker.
Front Left and Front Right
If these speakers will also be the same two used for your
stereo playback then they should be of very high quality
and able to play loud (over 102 dB) and reproduce bass
below 80 Hz.
Center Channel.
This is the most important speaker in a video system, as
almost all of the dialogue and a large portion of the front
speaker information is reproduced by the center channel.
It is important that the center speaker be designed by
the same manufacturer as the front speakers, and that it is
recommended for use as a center speaker. This is not the
place to cut corners.
Home Theater
Figure 13. Prodigy speakers as front channels, MartinLogan Cinema as
the center channel, MartinLogan Scripts as side surround (effects) channels.
How can sound be reproduced by something that you are
able to see through? Electrostatic energy makes this possible.
Where the world of traditional loudspeaker technology
deals with cones, domes, diaphragms and ribbons that
are moved with magnetism, the world of electrostatic
loudspeakers deals with charged electrons attracting and
repelling each other.
To fully understand the electrostatic concept, some background
information will be helpful. Remember when you learned
in a science or physics class that like charges repel each
other and opposite charges attract each other? Well, this
principle is the foundation of the electrostatic concept.
An electrostatic transducer consists of three pieces: the stators,
the diaphragm and the spacers (See Figure 14). The diaphragm
is what actually moves to excite the air and create music.
The stator’s job is to remain stationary, hence the word stator,
and to provide a reference point for the moving diaphragm.
The spacers provide the diaphragm with a fixed distance in
which to move between the stators.
As your amplifier sends music signals to an electrostatic
speaker, these signals are changed into two high-voltage
signals that are equal in strength but opposite in polarity.
These high voltage signals are then applied to the stators.
The resulting electrostatic field, created by the opposing
high voltage on the stators, works simultaneously with
and against the diaphragm, consequently moving it back
and forth, producing music. This technique is known as
Figure 14. Cut away view of an electrostatic transducer.
Notice the simplicity due to minimal parts usage.
push-pull operation and is a major contributor to the sonic
purity of the electrostatic concept due to its exceptional
linearity and low distortion.
Since the diaphragm of an electrostatic speaker is uniformly
driven over its entire area, it can be extremely light and
flexible. This allows it to be very responsive to transients,
thus perfectly tracing the music signal. As a result, great
delicacy, nuance and clarity is possible. When you look at
the problems of traditional electromagnetic drivers, you
can easily see why this is so beneficial. The cones and
domes which are used in traditional electromagnetic
drivers cannot be driven uniformly because of their design.
Cones are driven only at the apex. Domes are driven at
their perimeter. As a result, the rest of the cone or dome
is just “along for the ride”. The very concept of these
drivers requires that the cone or dome be perfectly rigid,
damped and massless. Unfortunately, these conditions are
not available in our world today.
To make these cones and domes move, all electromagnetic
drivers must use voice coils wound on formers, spider
assemblies, and surrounds to keep the cone or dome in
position (See Figure 15). These pieces, when combined
with the high mass of the cone or dome materials used,
make it an extremely complex unit with many weaknesses
and potential for failure. These faults contribute to the
high distortion products found in these drivers and is a
tremendous disadvantage when you are trying to change
motion as quickly and as accurately as a loudspeaker
must (40,000 times per second!).
Figure 15. Cut away view of a typical moving coil driver.
Notice the complexity due to the high number of parts.
Electrostatic Advantages
Full Range Operation
The most significant advantage of MartinLogan’s exclusive
transducer technology reveals itself when you look at
examples of other loudspeaker products on the market today.
The Prodigy uses no crossover networks above 250 Hz
because they are not needed. The Prodigy consists of a single,
seamless electrostatic membrane reproducing all frequencies
above 250 Hz simultaneously. How is this possible?
First we must understand that music is not composed of
separate high, mid and low frequency pieces. In fact,
music is comprised of a single complex waveform with all
frequencies interacting simultaneously.
The electrostatic transducer of the Prodigy essentially acts
as an exact opposite of the microphones used to record
the original event. A microphone, which is a single working
element, transforms acoustic energy into an electrical signal
that can be amplified or preserved by some type of storage
media. The Prodigy’s electrostatic transducer transforms
electrical energy from your amplifier into acoustical energy.
Due to the limitations of electromagnetic drivers, no
single unit can reproduce the full range of frequencies.
Instead, these drivers must be designed to operate within
narrow, fixed bandwidth of the frequency range, and then
combined electrically so that the sum of the parts equals
the total signal. While nice in theory, we must deal with
real-world conditions.
In order to use multiple drivers, a crossover network is
enlisted to attempt a division of the complex musical signal
into the separate pieces (usually highs, mids, and lows) that
each specific driver was designed to handle. Unfortunately,
due to the phase relationships that occur within all crossover
networks and during the acoustical recombination process,
nonlinearities and severe degradation of the music signal
take place in the ear’s most critical zone (See Figure 16).
The Prodigy’s electrostatic transducer can single-handedly
reproduce all frequencies above 250 Hz simultaneously.
You have in one transducer the ability to handle in elegant
simplicity the critical frequencies above 250 Hz.
The crossover phase aberrations that are associated with
traditional tweeter, midrange, and woofer systems are
eliminated. The result is a dramatic improvement in imaging
and staging performance, due to the minutely accurate
phase relationship of the full-range panel wave launch.
Conventional Loudspeaker
MartinLogan Prodigy
crossover point (2–5kHz)
Critical Zone: 250Hz–20kHz
crossover point (100–400Hz)
crossover point (250Hz)
Figure 16. This diagram illustrates how a conventional
speaker system must use multiple crossover networks
that have negative effects on the musical performance.
Electrostatic Advantages
Curvilinear Line Source (CLSTM)
Since the beginning of audio, achieving smooth dispersion
has been a problem for all loudspeaker designers. Large panel
transducers present even more of a challenge because the
larger the panel, the more directional the dispersion
pattern becomes.
Full range electrostats have long been one of the most
problematic transducers because they attain their full
range capabilities via a large surface area. It looked as if
they were in direct conflict to smooth dispersion and
almost every attempt to correct this resulted in either poor
dispersion or a serious compromise in sound quality.
After extensive research, MartinLogan engineers discovered
an elegantly simple solution to achieve a smooth pattern
of dispersion without degrading sound quality. By curving
the horizontal plane of the electrostatic transducer, a
controlled horizontal dispersion pattern could be achieved,
yet the purity of the almost massless electrostatic diaphragm
remained uncompromised. After creating this technology,
MartinLogan developed the production capability to bring it
out of the laboratory and into the market place.
You will find this proprietary MartinLogan technology used
in all of our products. It is one of the many reasons behind
our reputation for high quality sound with practical usability.
This is also why you see the unique “see through” cylindrical
shape of all MartinLogan products.
ForceForwardTM Bass Alignment
Vapor Deposited Film
The diaphragm material used in all MartinLogan speakers
employs an extremely sophisticated conductive surface
that has been vapor deposited on the polymer surface at
an atomic level. A proprietary compound is vaporized then
electrostatically driven into the surface of the polymer film
in a vacuum chamber. This process allows an optically
transparent surface adding no mass to the diaphragm that
is extremely uniform in its surface resistivity characteristics.
This uniform surface resistivity controls the electrostatic
charge on the diaphragm surface and regulates its migration.
As a result, no discharging or “arcing” can occur.
Transducer Integrity
All MartinLogan transducers begin with two pieces of
high-grade, cold rolled steel. These steel pieces are then
custom perforated and insulated with a unique composite
coating. This proprietary coating insulates the stator to
three times its actual needed working voltage and gives
the Prodigy a wide margin of safe operation. In addition to
the electrical insulation properties, this coating also provides
the Prodigy with a durable, attractive finish that dampens the
steel to prevent ringing. These pieces are then sandwiched
with our exclusive vapor deposited diaphragm and spacers
into a curved geometry, and bonded together with aerospace adhesives whose strength exceeds that of welding.
The result of these advanced technologies is a transducer
that is attractive, durable, highly rigid, well dampened,
and neutral.
Acheiving smooth bass response in your room has long been
one of the most "troublesome" issue in dealing with the
placement of any loudspeaker. The reflected low-frequency
energy from the front wall re-combines with the energy
projected forward into the room causing "booming" or
"lean" bass, typically a null at 50Hz and a peak at 100Hz.
With the introduction of the Prodigy, the MartinLogan
engineering and design teams have resolved this issue with
an innovative technology, ForceForward. Two horizontally
opposed, phase timed proprietary MartinLogan drivers
work together to reduce the destructive reflected energy
from your front wall, resulting in easy placement for clean,
pure, powerful bass response.
MartinLogan Exclusives
In the late 1800s, any loudspeaker was considered exotic.
Today, most of us take the wonders of sound reproduction
for granted.
The outcome would dictate the way that future generations
would refer to loudspeakers as being either “conventional”,
or “exotic”.
It was 1880 before Thomas Edison had invented the first
phonograph. This was a horn-loaded diaphragm that was
excited by a playback stylus. In 1898, Sir Oliver Lodge
invented a cone loudspeaker, which he referred to
as a “bellowing telephone”, that was very similar to the
conventional cone loudspeaker drivers that we know
today. However, Lodge had no intention for his device to
reproduce music because in 1898 there was no way to
amplify an electrical signal! As a result, his speaker had
nothing to offer over the acoustical gramophones of the
period. It was not until 1906 that Dr. Lee DeForrest
invented the triode vacuum tube. Before this, an electrical
signal could not be amplified. The loudspeaker, as we know
it today, should have ensued then, but it did not. Amazingly,
it was almost twenty years before this would occur.
Bell Laboratory’s electrostat was something to behold.
This enormous bipolar speaker was as big as a door.
The diaphragm, which was beginning to rot, was made of
a pig intestine that was covered with fine gold leaf to conduct
the audio signal.
When Rice and Kellogg began playing the new electrically
cut records through the electrostat, they were shocked
and impressed. The electrostat performed splendidly.
They had never heard instrumental timbres reproduced
with such realism. This system sounded like real music
rather than the honking, squawking rendition of the
acoustic gramophone. Immediately, they knew they were
on to something big. The acoustic gramophone was destined
to become obsolete.
Due to Rice and Kellogg’s enthusiasm, they devoted a
In 1921, the electrically cut phonograph record became a
considerable amount of time researching the electrostatic
reality. This method of recording was far superior to the
design. However, they soon encountered the same difficulties
mechanically cut record and possessed almost 30 dB of
that even present designers face; planar
dynamic range. The acoustical gramospeakers require a very large surface
phone couldn’t begin to reproduce all
Rice and Kellogg had
area to reproduce the lower frequencies
of the information on this new disc. As
narrowed the field of
of the audio spectrum. Because the
a result, further developments in loudspeakers were needed to cope with “contestants” down to the management at Bell Labs considered
large speakers unacceptable, Rice and
this amazing new recording medium.
cone and the electrostat.
Kellogg’s work on electrostatics would
never be put to use for a commercial product. Reluctantly, they
By 1923, Bell Telephone Laboratories made the decision
advised the Bell management to go with the cone. For the
to develop a complete musical playback system consisting
next thirty years, the electrostatic design lay dormant.
of an electronic phonograph and a loudspeaker to take
advantage of the new recording medium. Bell Labs
assigned the project to two young engineers, C.W. Rice
During the Great Depression of the 1930s, consumer audio
and E.W. Kellogg.
almost died. The new electrically amplified loudspeaker
never gained acceptance, as most people continued to
Rice and Kellogg had a well equipped laboratory at their
use their old Victrola-style acoustic gramophones. Prior to
disposal. This lab possessed a vacuum tube amplifier with
the end of World War II, consumer audio saw little,
an unheard of 200 watts, a large selection of the new
if any, progress. However, during the late 1940s, audio
electrically cut phonograph, records and a variety of
experienced a great rebirth. Suddenly there was tremendous
loudspeaker prototypes that Bell Labs had been collecting
interest in audio products, and with that, a great demand
over the past decade. Among these were Lodge’s cone, a
for improved audio components. No sooner had the cone
speaker that used compressed air, a corona discharge (plasma)
become established than it was challenged by products
speaker, and an electrostatic speaker.
developed during this new rebirth.
After a short time, Rice and Kellogg had narrowed the field
of “contestants” down to the cone and the electrostat.
Electrostatic Loudspeaker History
In 1947, Arthur Janszen, a young Naval engineer, took part
to around 70 watts. As a result, many people continued
in a research project for the Navy. The Navy was interested
to use box speakers with cones.
in developing a better instrument for testing microphone
arrays. The test instrument needed an extremely accurate
In the early 1960s Arthur Janszen joined forces with the
speaker, but Janszen found that the cone speakers of the
KLH loudspeaker company, and together they introduced
period were too nonlinear in phase and amplitude response
the KLH 9. Due to the large size of the KLH 9, it did not
to meet his criteria. Janszen believed that electrostats
have as many limitations as the Quad. The KLH 9 could
were inherently more linear than cones, so he built a model
play markedly louder and lower in frequency than the
using a thin plastic diaphragm treated with a conductive
Quad ESL. Thus a rivalry was born.
coating. This model confirmed Janszen’s
beliefs, for it exhibited remarkable phase
Janszen continued to develop electroThese developments allow
and amplitude linearity.
static designs. He was instrumental
the consumer to own the
in the design of the Koss Model One,
Janszen was so excited with the results
the Acoustech, and the Dennesen
highest performance loudthat he continued research on the
speakers. Roger West, the chief
electrostatic speaker on his own time. speaker products ever built. designer of the JansZen Corporation
He soon thought of insulating the stators to
became the president of Sound Lab.
prevent the destructive effects of arcing. By 1952, he had
When JansZen Corporation was sold, the RTR loudspeaker
an electrostatic tweeter element ready for commercial
company bought half of the production tooling. This tooling
production. This new tweeter soon created a sensation
was used to make the electrostatic panels for the Servostatic, a
among American audio hobbyists. Since Janszen’s tweeter
hybrid electrostatic system that was Infinity’s first speaker
element was limited to high frequency reproduction, it
product. Other companies soon followed; each with their
often found itself used in conjunction with woofers, most
own unique applications of the technology. These include
notably, woofers from Acoustic Research. These systems
Acoustat, Audiostatic, Beverage, Dayton Wright, Sound
were highly regarded by all audio enthusiasts.
Lab, and Stax, to name a few.
As good as these systems were, they would soon be
surpassed by another electrostatic speaker.
In 1955, Peter Walker published three articles on electrostatic
loudspeaker design in Wireless World, a British electronics
magazine. In these articles, Walker demonstrated the benefits
of the electrostatic loudspeaker. He explained that electrostatics
permit the use of diaphragms that are low in mass, large in
area, and uniformly driven over their surfaces by electrostatic
forces. Due to these characteristics, electrostats have the
inherent ability to produce a wide bandwidth, flat frequency
response with distortion products being no greater than the
electronics driving them.
By 1956, Walker backed up his articles by introducing a
consumer product, the now famous Quad ESL. This speaker
immediately set a standard of performance for the audio
industry due to its incredible accuracy. However, in actual
use, the Quad had a few problems. It could not be played
very loud, it had poor bass performance, it presented a
difficult load that some amplifiers did not like, its dispersion
was very directional, and its power handling was limited
Electrostatic speakers have progressed and prospered
because they actually do what Peter Walker claimed they
would. The limitations and problems experienced in the
past were not inherent to the electrostatic concept. They
were related to the applications of these concepts.
Today, these limitations have been addressed. Advancements
in materials due to the U.S. space program give designers
the ability to harness the superiority of the electrostatic
principle. Today’s electrostats use advanced insulation
techniques or provide protection circuitry. The poor dispersion
properties of early models have been addressed by using
delay lines, acoustical lenses, multiple panel arrays or, as in
our own products, by curving the diaphragm. Power handling
and sensitivity have also been increased.
These developments allow the consumer the opportunity to
own the highest performance loudspeaker products ever
built. It’s too bad Rice and Kellogg were never able
to see just how far the technology would be taken.
Electrostatic Loudspeaker History
How do I clean my speakers?
Just use a dust free cloth or a soft brush to remove the
dust from your speakers. We recommend a specialty cloth
(available through the XStatic shop at
that cleans your speakers better than anything else we
have ever tried. Do not spray any kind of cleaning
agent on or in close proximity to the electrostatic
What is the advantage of ESL?
Since the polyester film diaphragm is uniformly driven
over its entire surface—unlike a tweeter that is only driven
at its edges—it is the only technology that can be made
large enough to play bass, yet is still light enough for
high frequencies. This unique property allows for the
elimination of high frequency crossover points and
their associated distortions.
What size of an amplifier should I use?
We recommend an amplifier with 100 to 200 watts per
channel for most applications. Probably less would be
adequate for our smaller hybrids or when used in home
theater where a subwoofer is employed. Our hybrid
designs will perform well with either a tube or transistorized
amplifier, and will reveal the sonic character of either
type. However, it is important that the amplifier be stable
operating into varying impedance loads: a stable amplifier
will be able to deliver twice its rated wattage into 4 Ohms
and should again double into 2 Ohms.
Could you suggest a list of suitable electronics and
cables that would be ideal for MartinLogan speakers?
The area of electronics and cable choice is probably
the most common type of question that we receive. It is
also the most subjective. We have repeatedly found
that brands that work well in one setup will drive someone
else nuts in another. We use many brands with great
success. Again, we have no favorites; we use electronics
and cables quite interchangeably. We would suggest
listening to a number of brands—and above all else,
trust your ears. Dealers are always the best source for
information when purchasing additional audio equipment.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is there likely to be any interaction between my speakers
and the television in my Audio/Video system?
Actually, there is less interaction between a television
and an electrostatic speaker than between a television
and a conventional system. However, we do recommend
that you keep your speakers at least one foot away from
the television because of the dynamic woofer they
employ. In the case of our center channel speakers, however,
they are fully shielded and can go anywhere.
Will my electric bill go ‘sky high’ by leaving my speakers plugged in all the time?
No. A pair of MartinLogans will draw about 5 watts
maximum. There is some circuitry to turn off the static
charge when not in use; however, the actual consumption
will remain close to the same. The primary purpose of
the sensing circuitry is to prevent dust collection on the
electrostatic element.
If the diaphragm is punctured with a pencil, stick, or
similar item, how extensive would the damage to the
speaker be?
Our research department has literally punctured hundreds
of holes in a diaphragm, neither affecting the quality of
the sound nor causing the diaphragm to rip. However,
you will be able to see the actual puncture and it can
be a physical nuisance. If this is the case, replacing the
electrostatic transducer will be the only solution.
Will exposure to sunlight affect the life or performance
of my speakers?
We recommend that you not place any loudspeaker in
direct sunlight, as the ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun
can cause deterioration of grill cloth, speaker cones,
etc. Small exposures to UV will not cause a problem.
In general, the filtering of UV rays through glass will
greatly reduce the negative effects on the electrostatic
membrane itself.
Will excessive smoke or dust cause any problems with
my electrostatic speakers?
Exposure to excessive contaminants such as smoke
or dust may potentially affect the performance of the
electrostatic membrane, and may cause discoloration
of the diaphragm membrane. When not in use for
extended periods, you should unplug the speakers and
cover them with the plastic bags in which the speakers
were originally packed.
It is a good idea to vacuum the electrostatic portion of
each speaker once or twice a year. This will be most
effective if the speaker has been unplugged for six
hours or overnight. You need not worry about the vacuum
pressure damaging the "delicate" membrane. It is
extraordinarily durable.
A problem has recently developed with my MartinLogan
speakers. The right speaker seems to be hissing even
when the amplifier and such are not connected. I was
wondering if this sounds like any problem you have
encountered previously and have a simple solution for
or might it be something which will need to be looked
into more carefully.
Your speakers are dusty. The electrostatic charge on
the element has attracted some airborne dust or pollen.
First unplug the speakers for six hours or overnight.
This will allow the charge to dissipate. Now vacuum
the front of the panel with a very strong vacuum.
Don’t worry about damaging the membrane. You won’t.
This should take care of your problem
By the way, since 1993, all of our speakers have been
built with a charging circuit board that only charges the
electrostatic element when music plays. At other times
they are not charged, and cannot collect dust. You can get
the same benefit by simply unplugging them whenever
they are not in use. An easy way to do that is with a
power strip that has a switch.
Could my children, pets, or myself be shocked by the
high-voltage present in the electrostatic panel?
No. High voltage with low current is not dangerous. As a
matter of fact, the voltage in our speakers is 10 times
less than the static electricity that builds up on the surface
of your television screen.
How do MartinLogan speakers hold up over a long term
in the humidity of tropical climates?
We should tell you that MartinLogan indeed has a very
substantial number of customers in tropical regions of
the world. Our speakers have been serving them nicely for
many years. This concern may have come from our earlier
design of speakers, which were charged continuously.
Since 1993, all of our speakers have been designed so that
they only charge the panel while music is being played.
This improvement has made a tremendous difference
in the consistent performance of our product. There may
be a little more maintenance involved in humid regions
when not in an air conditioned environemnet. Simply
enough, the concern is to keep the electrostatic panels
dust free. Humidity will combine with any dust on the
panel to make it slightly conductive. This will result in a
slight pathway for the charge to leave the membrane of
the speaker. The solution is simple. They only require
occasional vacuuming with a strong vacuum hose. You
will have best results when the speakers have been
unplugged for six hours or overnight. We are confident
that they will serve you very well.
Should I unplug my speakers during a thunderstorm?
Yes, or before. It’s a good idea to disconnect all of your
audio/video components during stormy weather.
Frequently Asked Questions
No Output
•Check that all your system components are turned on.
•Check your speaker wires and connections.
•Check all interconnecting cables.
Lack of Bass or Too Much Bass
•Check your speaker wires. Is the polarity correct?
•Are both woofers playing?
•Check the bass control switch, is it set to flat?
Weak Output, Loss of Highs
•Check the power cord. Is it properly connected to the speaker?
Poor Imaging
•Check placement. Are both speakers the same distance
from the walls? Do they have the same amount of
toe-in? Try moving the speakers away from the back
and side walls.
•Check the polarity of the speaker wires. Are they
connected properly?
Exaggerated Highs, Brightness
•Check the toe-in of the speakers. Read Placement (pages
10–11) for more information.
Muddy Bass
•Check placement. Try moving the speakers closer to the
front and side walls.
•Check the type of feet that are being used. Try attaching
the coupling spikes.
Popping and Ticking Sounds, Funny Noises
•These occasional noises are harmless and will not hurt your
audio system or your speakers. All electrostatic speakers
are guilty of making odd noises at one time or another.
•These noises may be caused by dirt and dust particles
collecting on the speaker, by high humidity, or by AC
line fluctuations that may occur in your area.
•Dirt and dust may be vacuumed off with a brush attachment
connected to your vacuum cleaner, or you may blow
them off with compressed air.
The Prodigy hybrid speaker system consists of a broad-range
single element electrostatic transducer integrated with a quickresponse woofer. This approach takes advantage of the benefits
that both technologies have to offer. Dispersion is a controlled
30 degrees. This was achieved by curving the electrostatic
transducer element itself, an elegantly simple solution.
System Frequency Response
28-22,000 Hz ± 3dB
Horizontal: 30 Degrees
Vertical: 4’ Line Source
91 dB/2.83 volts/meter
Nominal: 4 ohms
Minimum: 1.0 ohms at 20kHz
Crossover Frequency
250 Hz
Custom-wound audio transformer, air core coils,
polypropylene capacitors
Woofer Type
1 × 10” aluminium cone and 1 × 10”high rigidity fiber cone
driver per channel, cast basket, high excursion, with extended
throw-driver assembly. Non-resonance chamber format.
Bass Control Switch
+3 dB at 50Hz
Power Handling
300 watts per channel
Recommended Amplifier Power
80 –300 watts per channel
Warranty and Registration
Your Prodigy speakers are provided with an automatic Limited
90 Day Warranty coverage.
You have the option, at no additional charge, to receive a
Limited 5 Year Warranty coverage. To obtain the Limited
5 Year Warranty coverage you need to complete and return
the Certificate of Registration, included with your speakers,
and provide a copy of your dealer receipt, to MartinLogan
within 30 days of purchase.
MartinLogan may not honor warranty service claims unless
we have a completed Warranty Registration card on file!
If you did not receive a Certificate of Registration with
your new Prodigy speakers you cannot be assured of having
received new units. If this is the case, please contact your
authorized MartinLogan dealer.
Should you be using your MartinLogan product in a country
other than the one in which it was originally purchased,
we ask that you note the following:
1. The appointed MartinLogan distributor for any given
country is responsible for warranty servicing only on
units distributed by or through it in that country in
accordance with its applicable warranty.
2. Should a MartinLogan product require servicing in a
country other than the one in which it was originally
purchased, the end user may seek to have repairs performed
by the nearest MartinLogan distributor, subject to that
distributor’s local servicing policies, but all cost of
repairs (parts, labor, transportation) must be born by
the owner of the MartinLogan product.
3. If, after owning your speakers for six months, you
relocate to a country other than the one in which
you purchased your speakers, your warranty may be
transferable. Contact MartinLogan for details.
133 lbs. each (29.5kg)
16.5” inches W × 28” inches D × 67” inches H
(41.9 cm W × 71.1 cm D × 170.2 cm H)
General Information
AC. Abbreviation for alternating current.
DC. Abbreviation for direct current.
Active crossover. Uses active devices (transistors, ICs, tubes)
and some form of power supply to operate.
Diffraction. The breaking up of a sound wave caused by
some type of mechanical interference such as a cabinet
edge, grill frame or other similar object.
Amplitude. The extreme range of a signal. Usually measured
from the average to the extreme.
Arc. The visible sparks generated by an electrical discharge.
Bass. The lowest frequencies of sound.
Bi-Amplification. Uses an electronic crossover, or line-level
passive crossover, and separate power amplifiers for the
high and low frequency loudspeaker drivers.
Capacitance. That property of a capacitor which determines
how much charge can be stored in it for a given potential
difference between its terminals, measured in farads, by
the ratio of the charge stored to the potential difference.
Capacitor. A device consisting of two or more conducting
plates separated from one another by an insulating material
and used for storing an electrical charge. Sometimes called
a condenser.
Clipping. Distortion of a signal by its being chopped off.
An overload problem caused by pushing an amplifier beyond
its capabilities. The flat-topped signal has high levels of
harmonic distortion which creates heat in a loudspeaker
and is the major cause of loudspeaker component failure.
Crossover. An electrical circuit that divides a full bandwidth
signal into the desired frequency bands for the loudspeaker
dB (decibel). A numerical expression of the relative loudness
of a sound. The difference in decibels between two
sounds is ten times the Base 10 logarithm of the ratio of
their power levels.
Glossary of Audio Terms
Diaphragm. A thin flexible membrane or cone that vibrates
in response to electrical signals to produce sound waves.
Distortion. Usually referred to in terms of total harmonic
distortion (THD) which is the percentage of unwanted
harmonics of the drive signal present with the wanted signal.
Generally used to mean any unwanted change introduced
by the device under question.
Driver. See transducer.
Dynamic Range. The range between the quietest and the
loudest sounds a device can handle (often quoted in dB).
Efficiency. The acoustic power delivered for a given electrical
input. Often expressed as decibels/watt/meter (dB/w/m).
ESL. Abbreviation for electrostatic loudspeaker.
Headroom. The difference, in decibels, between the peak
and RMS levels in program material.
Hybrid. A product created by the marriage of two different
technologies. Meant here as the combination of a dynamic
woofer with an electrostatic transducer.
Hz (Hertz). Unit of frequency equivalent to the number of
cycles per second.
Imaging. To make a representation or imitation of the original
sonic event.
Impedance. The total opposition offered by an electric circuit
to the flow of an alternating current of a single frequency.
It is a combination of resistance and reactance and is
measured in ohms. Remember that a speaker’s impedance
changes with frequency, it is not a constant value.
Inductance. The property of an electrical circuit by which
a varying current in it produces a varying magnetic field
that introduces voltages in the same circuit or in a nearby
circuit. It is measured in henrys.
Resistor. A device that is used in a circuit primarily to
provide resistance.
Inductor. A device designed primarily to introduce inductance
into an electrical circuit. Sometimes called a choke or coil.
Resonance. The effect produced when the natural vibration
frequency of a body is greatly amplified by reinforcing
vibrations at the same or nearly the same frequency from
another body.
Linearity. The extent to which any signal handling process
is accomplished without amplitude distortion.
Sensitivity. The volume of sound delivered for a given
electrical input.
Midrange. The middle frequencies where the ear is the
most sensitive.
Stator. The fixed part forming the reference for the moving
diaphragm in a planar speaker.
Passive crossover. Uses no active components (transistors,
ICs, tubes) and needs no power supply (AC, DC, battery)
to operate. The crossover in a typical loudspeaker is of the
passive variety. Passive crossovers consist of capacitors,
inductors and resistors.
THD. The abbreviation for total harmonic distortion.
(See Distortion.)
Phase. The amount by which one sine wave leads or lags a
second wave of the same frequency. The difference is
described by the term phase angle. Sine waves in phase
reinforce each other; those out of phase cancel.
Transducer. Any of various devices that transmit energy
from one system to another, sometimes one that converts
the energy in form. Loudspeaker transducers convert electrical
energy into mechanical motion.
Pink noise. A random noise used in measurements, as it has
the same amount of energy in each octave.
Transient. Applies to that which lasts or stays but a short
time. A change from one steady-state condition to another.
Polarity. The condition of being positive or negative with
respect to some reference point or object.
Tweeter. A small drive unit designed to produce only
high frequencies.
RMS. Abbreviation for root mean square. The effective
value of a given waveform is its RMS value. Acoustic
power is proportional to the square of the RMS sound
Wavelength. The distance measured in the direction of
progression of a wave, from any given point characterized
by the same phase.
Resistance. That property of a conductor by which it opposes
the flow of electric current, resulting in the generation of
heat in the conducting material, usually expressed in ohms.
TIM. The abbreviation for transient intermodulation distortion.
(See Distortion.)
White noise. A random noise used in measurements, as it
has the same amount of energy at each frequency.
Woofer. A drive unit operating in the bass frequencies only.
Drive units in two-way systems are not true woofers but
are more accurately described as being mid/bass drivers.
Glossary of Audio Terms
2101 Delaware Street, Lawrence, Kansas 66046, USA
tel 785.749.0133
fax 785.749.5320
©2000 MartinLogan, All rights reserved
Rev. #022800
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