Manual 1352 Model eXm Expansion Module

Manual 1352 Model eXm Expansion Module
Manual
Model 1352
eXm Expansion Module
Curtis Instruments, Inc.
200 Kisco Avenue
Mt. Kisco, NY 10549
www.curtisinstruments.com
Read Instructions Carefully!
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
© 2015 Curtis Instruments, Inc. ® Curtis is a registered trademark of Curtis Instruments, Inc.
© The design and appearance of the products depicted herein are the copyright of Curtis Instruments, Inc.
38442, Rev C 1/15
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
1. OVERVIEW...............................................................................1
2. INSTALLATION AND WIRING............................................4
Mounting the Module..........................................................4
Connections and Wiring Guidelines.....................................6
Wiring: Basic Configuration................................................8
Input/Output Specifications................................................10
3. CANopen COMMUNICATIONS ..........................................13
Minimum State Machine....................................................13
NMT Messages ..................................................................15
Emergency Messages ..........................................................16
Heartbeat ...........................................................................16
4 PDO COMMUNICATIONS.................................................17
5. SDO COMMUNICATIONS..................................................19
SDO Master Request (SDO-MOSI) ..................................19
SDO eXm Response (SDO-MISO) ...................................20
Types of SDO Objects .......................................................20
Communication Profile Objects .........................................21
Device Parameter Objects ..................................................26
Device Monitor Objects ....................................................30
6. DIAGNOSTICS AND TROUBLESHOOTING...................31
Troubleshooting..................................................................31
Fault Log.............................................................................33
b
appendix a
appendix
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
Vehicle Design Considerations
Specifications, 1352 eXm Module
iii
FIGURES / TABLES
FIGURES
fig. 1: Curtis 1352 eXm module......................................................... 1
fig. 2: Mounting dimensions, Curtis 1352 eXm module .................... 4
fig. 3: Basic wiring diagram................................................................. 8
.
TABLES
table 1: Connector pinout.................................................................... 7
table 2: Communication profile objects............................................. 21
table 3: Device parameter objects....................................................... 26
table 4: Device monitor objects.......................................................... 30
table 5: Troubleshooting chart............................................................ 32
table B-1: Specifications, Curtis 1352 eXm module .............................B-1
iv
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
1 — OVERVIEW
1 OVERVIEW
The Curtis 1352 eXm expansion module provides a simple, flexible, and lowcost method for adding additional and specialized I/O to a system. The eXm
utilizes the popular CANopen communication bus for all control, status, and
setup. This allows many CANopen-compatible modules—from Curtis or from
third-party vendors—to be interconnected and share I/O throughout a system.
Several eXm modules can be connected to a single CAN bus to provide a wide
range of I/O. Because of its small size and tight seal, the eXm module can be
mounted remotely near the system to be controlled, thus minimizing wiring
and improving EMC.
The eXm is part of a distributed I/O system with a master controller
coordinating the CAN communications. Curtis VCL-enabled controllers such
as the 1234/36/38, 1298, and 1310 can provide this master control using
custom software developed with Curtis VCL (Vehicle Control Language). Any
CANopen master can be programmed to control the eXm.
Fig. 1 Curtis 1352 eXm
expansion module.
The Curtis 1352 eXm expansion module is ideal for material handling,
floor cleaning, aerial platforms, and other electric vehicles as well as stationary
control systems utilizing the CANopen bus. Features include:
3 9 multi-purpose I/O pins in a compact low cost module
3 6 high-frequency PWM outputs rated at 3 amps each
3 Closed loop current, constant voltage, or direct PWM control on each
output
3 Each output can also be used as an active high digital input
3 Built-in programmable dither for hydraulic valves
More Features +
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
1
1 — OVERVIEW
3 3 analog inputs (0–30V)
3 3 virtual digital inputs with programmable thresholds (using the analog
inputs)
3 2 analog inputs are selectable for voltage input or resistive sensors
3 Built-in coil flyback diodes
3 Software and hardware watchdog circuits ensure proper software operation
3 CANopen interface
3 Controlled by a fixed PDO map and programmable over SDOs
3 IP65-rated enclosure allows the eXm to be mounted in multiple
orientations, and protects it even in harsh environments
3 Status LEDs provide external status of module.
DESCRIPTIONS OF KEY FEATURES
Versatile I/O
High frequency PWM outputs
Six identical FET drivers are designed to sink up to 3 amps through a resistive
or inductive load. High frequency PWM (>16kHz) provides smooth current
to the load. Internal flyback diodes to B+ are incorporated to reduce voltage
spikes caused when pulsing coils.
Constant current and constant voltage output modes
The eXm’s DSP runs at 32 MIPS (Million Instructions per Second), allowing
the eXm to run six fast PI (Proportional/Integral) closed loop controllers. The
eXm’s PI controllers provide an accurate constant current to the load, which is
important for precise control of proportional valves.
Each output can also be programmed for constant voltage mode. In this
mode, the battery voltage is monitored and the PWM command is corrected
to provide a constant average voltage, compensating for fluctuating battery
levels and droops.
Each output can also be set to provide a directly commanded PWM%
or turned off to be used as an input.
Programmable dither for hydraulic valves
The eXm can add a programmable level of dither to the PWM output. This
keeps the seals of a proportional valve oiled, allowing the valve to move freely
for accurate PV control. Dither is only active on drivers in Constant Current
mode.
2
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
1 — OVERVIEW
Output as an Active High digital input
Each output can be also be used as a digital input. Each input is digitally filtered
to eliminate switch “bounce” or noise in the signal. The eXm has internal resistor
pull-downs to B- to provide active high to B+ inputs (standard Curtis input
format). The inputs utilize Schmidt Trigger logic to provide signal hysteresis,
further improving noise immunity and reducing faulty readings.
Analog inputs
The eXm has three analog inputs that are scaled to read 0 – 30 volts. The analog
channels are read 1000 times/second by a 12-bit ADC, resulting in a resolution
of about 0.7 millivolts. Independently adjustable filters ensure a smooth signal.
RTD/resistive sensor inputs
Analog Inputs 1 and 2 can be used with resistive sensors, such as RTDs (Resistive Temperature Devices).
Virtual Digital Inputs
The three analog inputs are also sensed and decoded as if they were digital inputs.
A unique feature of these digital inputs is that the active high/low thresholds are
completely programmable. Thus, these inputs can be used with analog sensors
to detect conditions like over/under pressure, high/low level points, etc.
CANopen Convenience
The eXm is CANopen compliant, responding to the standard NMT, PDO,
and SDO communications as well as the DS301-required identity and standard
objects. The Curtis CANopen extensions allow additional features, such as OEM
and User default configurations and time-stamped fault logging.
The eXm will receive a single PDO and respond with a single PDO.
These PDOs are fixed, simplifying the VCL interface to the module. All programmable parameters and viewable values within the eXm are accessible by
standard SDO transfer.
The eXm provides CANopen safety and security features, such as Heartbeat and Error Message. A time period watchdog will shut down the drivers if
new PDOs are not received in proper cyclic timing.
Familiarity with your Curtis eXm module will help you install and operate it properly. We encourage you to read this manual carefully. If you have questions, please
contact the Curtis office nearest you.
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
3
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING
2 INSTALLATION AND WIRING
MOUNTING THE MODULE
+
CAUTION
The outline and mounting hole dimensions for the 1352 eXm module are shown
in Figure 2. The module should be mounted using two #10 or M5 screws.
Care should be taken to prevent contaminating the connector area
before the mating 14-pin connector is installed. Once the system is plugged
together, the eXm meets the IP65 requirements for environmental protection
against dust and water. Nevertheless, in order to prevent external corrosion
and leakage paths from developing, the mounting location should be carefully
chosen to keep the module as clean and dry as possible.
Fig. 2 Mounting
dimensions, Curtis 1352
eXm module.
6.3 (0.25) dia.,
2 plcs
100
(3.9)
87
(3.4)
Status
LEDs
65 (2.6)
130 (5.2)
39
(1.5)
Dimensions in millimeters (and inches)
If the outputs will be used at or near their maximum ratings, it is recommended that the module be mounted to a good heatsinking surface, such
as an aluminum plate.
4
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING
You will need to take steps during the design and development of your
end product to ensure that its EMC performance complies with applicable
regulations; suggestions are presented in Appendix A.
The 1352 eXm contains ESD-sensitive components. Use appropriate
precautions in connecting, disconnecting, and handling the module. See installation suggestions in Appendix A for protecting the module from ESD damage.
+
CAUTION
Working on electrical systems is potentially dangerous. You should
protect yourself against uncontrolled operation, high current arcs, and
outgassing from lead acid batteries:
UNCONTROLLED OPERATION — Some conditions could cause the motor to
run out of control. Disconnect the motor or jack up the vehicle and get
the drive wheels off the ground before attempting any work on the motor
control circuitry.
HIGH CURRENT ARCS — Batteries can supply very high power, and arcing can
occur if they are short circuited. Always open the battery circuit before
working on the motor control circuit. Wear safety glasses, and use properly
insulated tools to prevent shorts.
— Charging or discharging generates hydrogen gas,
which can build up in and around the batteries. Follow the battery manufacturer’s safety recommendations. Wear safety glasses.
LEAD ACID BATTERIES
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
5
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Low Current Connections
CONNECTIONS
+
CAUTION
All connections are made through the 14-pin AMPSEAL connector. The
mating plug housing is AMP p/n 776273, and the contact pins are AMP p/n
770520-3. The connector will accept 20 to 16 AWG wire with a 1.7 to 2.7mm
diameter thin-wall insulation.
Note that the eXm pins are not sealed until the mating connector is
fully engaged and locked. The cable harness connector has a silicone rubber
seal that is an integral part of the module’s sealing.
The 14 individual pins are characterized in Table 1.
1
5
6
10
9
14
Wiring recommendations
Power and ground (Pins 1–3)
The B+ and B- cables should be run close to each other between the module
and the battery. For best noise immunity the cables should not run across the
center section of the module.To prevent overheating these pins, the wire gauge
must be sufficient to carry the continuous and maximum loads that will be
seen at each pin.
PWM drivers (Pins 9–14)
The PWM drivers produce high frequency (16kHz) pulse waves that can radiate
RFI noise. The wire from the module to the load should be kept short and
routed with the return wire back to the module.
CAN bus (Pins 4 and 5)
It is recommended that the CAN wires be run as a twisted pair. However, many
successful applications at 125 kBaud are run without twisting, simply using two
lines bundled in with the rest of the low current wiring. CAN wiring should be
kept away from the high current cables and cross it at right angles when necessary. If the eXm is at the end of the CAN bus, the bus needs to be terminated
by externally wiring a 120Ω ½W resistor across CAN High and CAN Low.
All other low current wiring (Pins 6–8)
The remaining low current wiring should be run according to standard practices.
Running low current wiring next to the high current wiring should always be
avoided.
6
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Low Current Connections
Table 1 Connector Pinout
pin
1
B-
Ground; connected to battery B- terminal.
2
B-
Redundant ground, for high-current applications.
If the combined draws from the driver pins could exceed
9A, both B- pins must be connected to the battery’s Bterminal
3
B+
Power; connected to the battery’s B+ terminal.
4
CAN L
CAN bus Low communication line.
5
CAN H
CAN bus High communication line.
6
Analog Input 1
Voltage or resistive input.
7
Analog Input 2
Voltage or resistive input.
8
Analog Input 3
Voltage input only.
9
Input/Output 5
Active High input & high-power PWM active Low output.
10
Input/Output 6
Active High input & high-power PWM active Low output.
11
Input/Output 1
Active High input & high-power PWM active Low output.
12
Input/Output 2
Active High input & high-power PWM active Low output.
13
Input/Output 3
Active High input & high-power PWM active Low output.
14
Input/Output 4
Active High input & high-power PWM active Low output.
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
name
description
7
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Standard Wiring Diagram
WIRING: BASIC CONFIGURATION
A basic wiring diagram is shown in Figure 2, and described below. The diagram
shows shows the standard power and battery connections, as well as a variety
of basic uses for the inputs and outputs.
Pin 3
Pin 11
Pin 12
Pin 13
Pin 14
Pin 9
Pin 10
Pin 2
Pin 6
Pin 1
Pin 7
Pin 8
Pin 5
Pin 4
Fig. 3 Basic wiring diagram, Curtis 1352 eXm module.
Power Connection
The battery is connected to the module’s B+ pin though a fuse, an optional
diode, and a keyswitch. The fuse protects the wiring in the event of a short or
failure. The return path of the coils is also brought back to the B+ pin to utilize
the flyback diodes connected inside the eXm between B+ and each driver output.
The keyswitch is used to turn on the system. When the keyswitch is closed,
B+ goes high and the eXm’s power supply brings up the module.
Outputs
All the drivers (Pins 9–14) are identical. Each is capable of driving a closed-loop
current-controlled proportional valve or a voltage-controlled contactor. Each
driver has independent mode, max, and dither settings.
8
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Standard Wiring Diagram
These are high-power drivers. The internal impedance to ground will cause
leakage current to flow through the output even when the output driver is off.
This leakage current can be enough (>2 mA) to light high-efficiency LEDs.
In the wiring diagram, the output at Pin 11 is shown driving a proportional valve coil. This driver is programmed for Constant Current mode and
would have some Dither applied.
The second output shown (Pin 12) is driving a basic contactor coil. This
output is in the Constant Voltage mode and can be set to run at a lower voltage
than the nominal battery voltage.
Switch Inputs
All the outputs can be used as Active High inputs (“On” when connected to
B+). It is important that the output command be set to 0% for each input used
or a direct short from B+ to B- will be generated when the driver is pulsed On,
which could damage the FET driver. In the wiring diagram, I/O 6 is shown as
an Active High input switching to B+.
Analog Inputs
The first analog input is shown being used with an RTD. This requires enabling the Analog Input 1 pull-up, which allows the input to measure resistive
sensors. Note that Analog Input 3 can only be used with sensors that provide
a voltage output.
CAN Bus
The eXm has an internal 1kΩ bus termination resistor. This internal impedance matches the system requirements for a mid-line connection or short stub
connection. If the eXm is to be used at the end of the CAN bus, an external
120Ω ½W resistor must be added externally across the CAN H and CAN L
lines at or near the eXm to provide proper termination. The higher the bit
rate (i.e., the higher the baud), the more critical this becomes. The eXm can
communicate up to 1Mbps on a properly terminated/wired bus.
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
9
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: I/O Signal Specifications
INPUT/OUTPUT SIGNAL SPECIFICATIONS
The input/output signals wired to the 14-pin connector can be grouped by type
as follows; their electrical characteristics are discussed below.
— digital inputs
—
—
—
—
digital outputs
analog inputs with virtual digital input
power
communication lines.
Digital inputs
The six digital I/O lines can be used as digital (on/off) inputs. Normal “on”
connection is direct to B+; “off” is direct to B-. Input will pull low (off) if no
connection is made.
1
5
6
9
10
14
signal name
pin
Input/Output
Input/Output
Input/Output
Input/Output
Input/Output
Input/Output
1
2
3
4
5
6
DIGITAL INPUT SPECIFICATIONS
logic
thresholds*
input
impedance*
protected
voltage range
esd
tolerance
11 All models: 12–36V models: 12–36V models: All models:
±8 kV (air
12 Low = 2.8 V about 10 kΩ -0.5 to 50 V
13 High = 6.3 V 36–80V models: 36–80V models: discharge)
about 47 kΩ -0.5 to 105 V
14 9 10
* Tolerance ±5%.
Because these six lines can also be used as driver outputs, it is important
to ensure that Output Driver Mode is set appropriately for each line. For each
pin that will be used as a digital input, Output Driver Mode must be set to
Input Only (see page 26). Otherwise, a direct short from the battery through
the internal driver FET will occur when the input is switched high and the
FET is turned on.
Digital outputs
The six digital I/O lines can also be used as outputs. They can be either digital
(on/off) or Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) outputs. Each driver is active low,
meaning the output will pull low (to B-) when On. The PWM is at a fixed
frequency (16 kHz), and can vary duty cycle from 0 to 100%.
1
5
6
10
9
14
signal name
pin
Input/Output
Input/Output
Input/Output
Input/Output
Input/Output
Input/Output
1
2
3
4
5
6
DIGITAL OUTPUT SPECIFICATIONS
pwm &
frequency
output
current*
protected
voltage range
esd
tolerance
11 All models: All models:
12–36V models: All models:
-0.5 to 50 V
±8 kV (air
12 0–100% Sink 3 A
duty cycle
discharge)
13
36–80V models:
at 16 kHz
-0.5 to 105 V
14
9 10
* Tolerance ±5%.
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
10
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: I/O Signal Specifications
The drivers can be set for Constant Current, Constant Voltage, or Direct
PWM control mode.
In Constant Current mode, the driver command of 0 to 100%
is interpreted as a current from 0 to Max Output setting (up
to 3 amps). Internal current shunts are measured and fed back
to a closed loop PI controller to provide a steady current over
changing loads and supply voltages.
In Constant Voltage mode, the driver command of 0 to 100%
is interpreted as a voltage from 0 to Max Output (up to 80
volts). The battery voltage is constantly monitored and fed
back to a closed loop PI controller to provide a steady voltage, compensating for battery droop and discharge. If the
command is higher than the driver can output, the PWM
will max out at 100%.
In Direct PWM mode, the driver command of 0 to 100% is
directly output on the driver.
Each driver is monitored and will detect a short in the load, a failed internal
driver FET, and/or an open in the load wiring. At near 0% and 100% PWM,
it is not possible to discern each fault and some faults will not be detected.
If the driver outputs are connected to inductive loads, the coil should
have a return line to the B+ pin of the eXm. This connection provides a path
for the internal freewheel diodes to clamp the turn-off spike. Failure to make
this connection with inductive loads can cause permanent damage to the eXm
module as well as propagate failures of other electronics in the system due
to the high voltage spike caused when an inductive load turns off without a
freewheel path.
Analog inputs
The three analog inputs can easily be configured for use with potentiometers,
pressure sensors, temperature sensors, and resistive sensors (like RTDs). Each
input is read 1000 times per second by a 12-bit ADC and filtered to provide
a clean signal. The voltage reading is returned over the PDO in hundredths of
a volt, so 30 volts at an analog input will be read back over the PDO-MISO
as 3000.
1
5
6
10
9
14
signal name
pin
Analog Input 1
Analog Input 2
Analog Input 3
ANALOG INPUT SPECIFICATIONS
operating
voltage
6
0 to 30 V 7
8
input
impedance*
protected
esd
voltage range tolerance
20 kΩ;
- 1 V to B+
10 kΩ with
pull-up enabled
± 8 kV (air
discharge)
* Tolerance ±5%.
Analog Inputs 1 and 2 have a pull-up resistor that can be programmed to
provide a low voltage at the input. This allows the ADC to read resistive values,
11
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: I/O Signal Specifications
as the external resistance to ground will provide a divider with the internal pullup. The pull-up is 10 kΩ to ≈ 4.4 volts. The pull-up is turned on by setting the
correct bit in the Analog Source Enable parameter. The eXm will send back a
reading of the external resistance in ohms. The maximum resistance that can
be measured is 6.5 kΩ. An open pin will read 65535 (FFFFh).
These analog inputs can also be used simultaneously as virtual digital
inputs. These virtual digital inputs are created by comparing the filtered analog
signal to the the High and Low Threshold parameters. These parameters also
provide hysteresis. Once the signal goes above the High Threshold and is sensed
as On, it must pass below the Low Threshold to be be considered Off; simply
going below the High Threshold is not enough. The same is true for a Low to
High transition. Note that the thresholds are always set in voltage; therefore if
the Analog Source Enable (pull-up) is set to On for any channel, the thresholds
must be below 4.4 V in order to be active.
1
5
6
9
10
14
Power
The power pins are each capable of carrying up to 9 A. Every application must
use B+ (pin 3) and at least one of the B- connections (pins 1 and 2).
Since the eXm’s six drivers can sink a maximum combined load of 18 A,
you will need to determine the application’s maximum total loading on B-. To
prevent the pin from overheating, the proper wire gauge must be used and, if
the load is greater than 9 amps, both B- pin connections are required.
If it is determined that both B- pins are required, you must also determine the load on B+. This requires either knowledge of the expected PWM or
actual in-application measurements. The combined average current recirculating
through the B+ pin cannot exceed 9 amps. This can be an issue if the inductive
loads are specified at a lower voltage than the battery supply as the applied
PWM would normally be reduced to not exceed the average applied voltage or
current. The lower PWM in turn raises the average current flowing through the
B+ pin as the load current recirculates for a great portion of the PWM period.
Communications lines
Pins 4 and 5 provide the CAN connections.
1
5
6
10
9
14
signal name pin
CAN SIGNAL SPECIFICATIONS
supported
protocol/devices
data rate
CANH
5
CANopen up to 1 Mbps
CANL
4
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
protected
esd
voltage range tolerance
Continuous=
- 36 V to (MaxV + 10 V)
Transient=
± 200 V
± 8 kV (air
discharge)
12
3 — CANopen COMMUNICATIONS
3 CANopen COMMUNICATIONS
The eXm adheres to the industry standard CANopen communication protocol
and thus will easily connect into many CAN systems, including those using
the Curtis AC and Vehicle System controllers (1234/36/38, 1298, and 1310).
Any CANopen-compatible master can be programmed to control the eXm.
The eXm’s PDOs are fixed (see section 4). There is one incoming PDO-MOSI for the driver commands and one response PDO-MISO for the input status.
Expedited SDOs (see section 5) are used to access all eXm parameters and allow
monitoring of non-runtime variables and flags.
The time between incoming PDOs is monitored and if excessive, will flag a
fault. This allows the eXm to know that the system is still under master control.
The eXm will also produce a cyclic heartbeat message, which is the CiA-preferred
method of slave node error control.
Emergency messages are sent sporadically whenever an error status flag
within the eXm changes state.
MINIMUM STATE MACHINE
The eXm will run the CANopen minimum state machine as defined by CiA.
The CANopen minimum state machine has four defined states: Initialization,
Pre-Operational, Operational, and Stopped.
Power-On
Reset
Reset
Module
Initialization
Reset
Communication
Transmit
Boot-up
Pre-Operational
Stopped
Operational
When the eXm powers up, it goes to the Initialization state; this is also
known as the Boot-up state. No CAN communications from the eXm are
transmitted in this state although the eXm listens to the CAN bus. When the
eXm has completed its startup and self-tests, it issues an initialization heartbeat
message and automatically goes to the Pre-Operational state.
In the Pre-Operational state, the eXm can receive and respond to SDOs
and NMT commands, and will send its heartbeat. It will not receive or send
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
13
3 — CANopen COMMUNICATIONS
PDOs. When the master issues a goto Operational State NMT command, the
eXm will go to full normal operation.
In the Operational state, the eXm will start receiving and responding to
PDOs and process all other necessary CANopen messages.
If the master sends a Stop NMT command or the eXm detects an internal fault, the eXm will go to the Stopped state. In the Stopped state the eXm
will listen for NMTs and produce its heartbeat message only. PDOs and SDOs
(including any timeouts) are ignored.
At any point, if the master sends a Reset Communication or Reset Module (warm boot), the eXm will go to the Initialization state as if there were a
power-cycle.
Baud Rates
The eXm will run at one of five selectable baud rates: 125k, 250k, 500k, 800k,
and 1M. Rates below 125k are not supported.
The baud rate can be changed by an SDO. Changes in the baud rate
require an NMT rest or key-cycle to make the new rate active.
Node Addresses
The node address of the eXm can be 1 to 127 and is used by CANopen to route
messages to the eXm and to denote messages from the eXm. The node address
is part of the COB-ID and therefore also plays a part in message priority and
bus arbitration.
Changes to the node address require an NMT reset or power-cycle.
Standard Message Identifiers
The eXm will produce—and respond to—the standard message types with the
following CANopen identifiers.
Message Type
NMT
EMERGENCY
PDO-MISO
PDO-MOSI
SDO-MISO
SDO-MOSI
HEARTBEAT
Message Identifier
0000 – 00hXx
0001 – 01hXx
0011 – 03hXx
0100 – 04hXx
1011 – 0BhXx
1100 – 0ChXx
1110 – 0EhXx
The 11-bit identification field is a fixed part of the CANopen specification
called the Communication OBject IDentification (COB-ID). This field is used
for arbitration on the bus. The COB-ID with the lowest value gets priority and
wins arbitration. Consequently, NMT messages have the highest priority of the
standard message types, and the heartbeat has the lowest priority.
14
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
3 — CANopen COMMUNICATIONS
The standard organization of the COB-ID puts the message type in the
upper four bits, and the Node ID in the bottom seven bits:
11
10
9
8
Message Type
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Node ID
NMT MESSAGES
NMT (Network Management Transmission) messages are the highest priority
message available. The NMT message puts the eXm into one of the four defined
states. These messages have 1 byte of data sent by the master; the slave does not
respond with any data to an NMT. The eXm state value is transmitted with
each heartbeat message.
Value
00h
04h
05h
7Fh
State
Initialization (or “boot-up”)
StoppedXx
OperationalXx
Pre-OperationalXx
The NMT message identifier consists of the standard message type (NMT)
in the top four bits; the bottom seven bits must be set to zero.
The first data byte of the NMT command is the command specifier:
Value
01h
02h
80h
81h
82h
Command Specifier
Enter the Operational state
Enter the Stopped stateXx
Enter the Pre-Operational stateXx
Reset the eXm (warm boot)Xx
Reset the CAN busXx
The second byte of the NMT command defines whether this NMT is for
all slaves on the bus (data byte = 00h) or for a specific node (data byte = Node
ID of the eXm)
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
15
3 — CANopen COMMUNICATIONS
EMERGENCY MESSAGES
Emergency messages are the second highest priority in CANopen and the
highest priority that a slave (like the eXm) can transmit. These messages are
sent sporadically whenever there is a change of state in the eXm’s fault flags.
An Emergency Message consists of 8 data bytes.
To prevent fast-changing fault bits from flooding the bus, a minimum
time between messages can be programmed.
Data bytes 1 and 2 define the error category. The eXm will use the devicespecific category (FFXXh) per DS301. Therefore the upper byte is FFh when
a fault is present, and the lower byte is equal to the Curtis fault code. When
no faults are present and/or the last fault has just been cleared, the emergency
message will use the error code value of 0000h.
Data byte 3 is the CANopen-required error register. Curtis products define
this as 01h if there is a fault present and 00h when all faults are clear.
Data bytes 4 through 8 define the specific fault. The eXm will place the
current 16-bit hourmeter (Object 3140h) into data bytes 4 and 5, with the MSB
in byte 5. Note that bytes 6, 7, and 8 are not used by the eXm and are always
000000h. See Diagnostics (section 6) for more detail.
Emergency Message Format indicating an error: byte 1
Curtis FFh
Code
byte 8
01h
Error Category
Object 3140h
000000h
Hourmeter
Emergency Message Format indicating all error(s) cleared:
byte 1
0000h
Error Category
byte 8
00h
Object 3140h
000000h
Hourmeter
HEARTBEAT
The heartbeat message is a very low priority message, periodically sent by each
slave device on the bus. The heartbeat message has a single byte of data and
requires no response. Once the eXm is in the Pre-Operational state, the next
heartbeat will be issued and will continue until communication is stopped.
The heartbeat message has only one data byte. The top bit is reserved and
should be set to zero. The bottom 7 bits hold the current NMT device state as
defined previously.
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Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
4 — PDO COMMUNICATIONS
4 PDO COMMUNICATIONS
The Curtis eXm is easily controlled and monitored through two fixed communication packets. Each data packet contains 8 bytes. One is received by the
eXm from another module (usually the system master) and in response, the
eXm sends out its packet of data. CANopen calls these packets Process Data
Objects (PDOs). PDO messages have a medium priority.
The PDO communication packets conserve bus bandwidth by bundling
the values of a group of objects into a single message. The content of these
PDOs is fixed, thus simplifying the interface.
The Curtis CANopen implementation requires that the incoming PDO
(Master Out – Slave In) be responded to by an outgoing PDO (Master In – Slave
Out) PDO. The eXm will respond to the PDO-MOSI with its PDO-MISO
within 16 ms.
The eXm normally requires that the PDO-MOSI be cyclic from the master. The cycle time must be less than the programmed PDO Timeout. If the
PDO-MOSI is not received within the programmed time, the eXm will flag a
fault and the eXm will disable all output drivers. If the PDO Timeout parameter
is set to 0, the timeout fault is disabled and the eXm will respond to any PDO
incoming at any rate without faulting. Take care using this setting as the last
PDO commands will stay on the eXm indefinitely.
PDO-MOSI (received from the system master)
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5
Byte 6
Byte 7
Byte 8
Output 1 Output 2 Output 3 Output 4 Output 5 Output 6 Not Used Not Used
CommandCommandCommandCommandCommandCommand
PDO-MISO (sent in response to the system master)
Byte 1
Inputs VirtualAnalogAnalogAnalogAnalogAnalog Analog
1–6
Inputs
Input 1 Input 1 Input 2 Input 2 Input 3
Input 3
Status
Low Byte High Byte Low Byte High Byte Low Byte High Byte
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5
Byte 6
Byte 7
Byte 8
Output Command Bytes
The drivers are closed-loop controlled, either for current or voltage. This byte sets
the output command as a percent of the programmed maximum value; 0 – 255
= 0% – 100%. The maximum output is set by the Output Max Value parameter
in either current or volts, depending on the Driver Mode parameter setting.
Inputs 1–6 Status Bytes
The eXm monitors the inputs connected to the 6 drivers. The status of
these inputs appears in this byte with Input 1 being the LSB. A status of 1 (bit
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
17
4 — PDO COMMUNICATIONS
set) means the input is active (pulled high to B+). The upper 2 bits are unused
and set to 0.
Analog Input High/Low Bytes
These bytes respond with either the voltage reading (in hundredths of a volt)
or the resistance (in ohms) depending on whether the input’s Analog Source
is enabled. If the Analog Source is enabled for an analog input, the internal
pull-up is activated allowing the measurement of resistive sensors at the input.
In this case the PDO reading will naturally be in ohms. Analog Input 3 does
not have an Analog Source (pull-up) and thus will always read in volts.
Virtual Inputs Byte
The analog inputs also produce a “virtual” digital input response. The lower
3 bits represent the status of the three virtual inputs associated with the three
analog inputs; Analog Input 1 is the LSB. The upper 5 bits are unused and set
to 0. If the analog input is above the High Threshold parameter the bit will be
set to 1. If the input is below the Low Threshold, it will be set to 0. If the input
is between the two thresholds, the bit will retain its previous state (hysteresis).
18
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
5 — SDO COMMUNICATIONS
5 SDO COMMUNICATIONS
CANopen uses Service Data Objects (SDOs) to change and view all internal
parameters, or “objects.” The SDO is an 8-byte packet that contains the address
and sub-address of the parameter in question, whether to read or write that
parameter, and the parameter data (if it is a write command). SDOs are sent
infrequently and have a low priority on the CAN bus.
SDOs are designed for sporadic and occasional use during normal runtime
operation. There are two types of SDOs: expedited and block transfer. The eXm
does not support large file uploads or downloads (using the block transfer), so
all SDOs in this specification are expedited SDOs.
The SDOs in the eXm are used to set up and parameterize the module.
They are also used to retrieve basic module information (such as version or
manufacture date), review the fault log, and monitor a few key internal variables
(mostly for system debug purposes).
SDO Master Request (SDO-MOSI)
An SDO transfer always starts with a request message from the master. Each
SDO request message consists of one control byte, a two-byte CAN Object
index, a one-byte CAN Object sub-index, and up to 4 bytes of valid data. This
format is CANopen compliant.
SDO-MOSI (received from the system master)
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5
Byte 6
Byte 7
Byte 8
Control CAN ObjectSub-index
DataDataData Data
Index
The first data byte contains R/W message control information.
Action
Read
Write
Byte 1
Value
42h
22h
The next two data bytes hold the CAN Object index. The least significant
byte of the index appears first, in byte 2, and the most significant byte appears
in byte 3. For example, if the index is 3021h, byte 2 holds the 21h and byte 3
holds the 30h.
Data byte 4 holds the CAN Object sub-index. When there is only one
instance of a parameter or value type, this value is 0. If there are several related
parameters or values, the sub-index is used.
The last four data bytes hold the data that is to be transferred. In the case
of a single-byte transfer, the data is placed into data byte 5, with bytes 6 through
8 being undefined (set to 0). In the case of a 16-bit transfer, the lower 8 bits
appear in data byte 5 and the upper 8 bits appear in data byte 6; bytes 7 and 8
are undefined (set to 0). The case of a 32-bit transfer follows the same strategy,
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
19
5 — SDO COMMUNICATIONS
with the least significant byte placed in data byte 5 and the most significant byte
placed in data byte 8.
SDO eXm Response (SDO-MISO)
An SDO request is always acknowledged with a response message from the
eXm. The eXm can issue two kinds of response messages: a normal response
or, in case of an error in the request SDO, an Abort SDO Transfer message..
SDO-MISO (sent by the eXm in response to the system master)
Byte 1
Control
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5
Byte 6
Byte 7
Byte 8
CAN Object
Sub-index Data: either the requested Read values,
Index
or the actual Write values, or an error code
The first data byte of the response contains an acknowledge code, which
depends on the type of transfer that was initially requested.
Action
Read Response
Write Acknowledge
Abort SDO
Byte 1
Value
40h
60h
80h
Data bytes 2, 3, and 4 hold the CAN Object index and sub-index of the
request SDO.
If the SDO was a read command (a request for data from the eXm),
data bytes 5 through 8 will be filled with the requested values, with the least
significant byte is data byte 5 and the next least significant in byte 6 and so
forth. All unused bytes are set to 0.
If the SDO was a write command, data bytes 5 through 8 will return back
the actual value written in bytes 5 – 8. In this way, if the eXm needs to limit or
round-down the SDO write request, the master will know—because the return
value will be different than the sent value.
If the SDO-MOSI did not properly read or tried to access a parameter
improperly, an Abort SDO Transfer will be sent. Data bytes 5 through 8 will
be filled with a 32-bit error code.
06020000h = Object does not exist
06010002h = Attempt to write to a read only object.
TYPES OF SDO OBJECTS
Three types of SDO objects are described in the following pages: Communications Profile Objects (address range 1000h), Device Parameter Objects (address
range 3000h), and Device Monitor Objects (address range 3100h).
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Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
5 — SDO: Communication Profile Objects
COMMUNICATION PROFILE OBJECTS
The objects found in the 1000h CAN Object address range are shown below
in Table 2. Explanations follow the table.
Table 2 Communication Objects
range
name
access index sub-index CAN value description
Device Type
RO 1000h
00h
00000000h
Predefined type of CAN module
(I/O)
Error Register
RO 1001h
00h 1 or 0
= 1 if an there is an error
= 0 if there are no errors
Manufacturer’s Status RO
Register
The value of the Status Register
1002h
00h
4 bytes
Fault Log
RO 1003h
00h
Array
RW
10h
Contains an array of 16 fault code
and time stamps as reported by the
Emergency Message. See Section 6.
Node ID
RW 100Bh
00h
1 – 127
Node ID of this eXm.
Store Parameters
RO
1010h
00h
1
Must cycle power or send an NMT
Reset eXm or NMT Reset CAN
for new ID to take full effect.
Length of this object.
RW
01h
0 – 3 Index to read and write special
commands.
Restore Default RO 1011h
00h
1
Parameters
RW
01h
0 – 2 Index to read and write special
commands.
Length of this object.
Emergency COB ID RO 1014h
00h
00000080h – 11-bit Identifier of the Emergency
000000FFh Message. Only the lowest 11 bits are
valid. All other bits must be 0.
Emergency Message RW 1015h
00h
0 – 1 Sets the minimum time that must
Inhibit Time
0 – 1000
elapse before another Emergency
Resolution = 4 Message can be sent by the eXm.
Setting the parameter to 0 disables
the Emergency Message.
Heartbeat Rate
RW 1017h
00h
0 – 1 s
0 – 1000
Sets the cyclic repetition rate of the
Heartbeat Message.
Resolution = 4 A setting of 0 disables the Heartbeat.
Identity Object RO 1018h
00h
6
Length of this structure =
6 sub-indexes
Curtis ID as defined by CiA
01h
00004349h
02h
05480FA1h
05481771h
Product Code
2 upper bytes = 1352
2 lower bytes = model number,
-4001 or -6001
03h
01030204h
Format is major version in upper 2
bytes and minor version in lower 2
bytes. The bytes are split upper byte
for HW and lower byte for SW;
example: HW version 1.2 with SW
version 3.4 = 01030204h
04h
0 to 999999 Serial Number up to 99,999
05h
1 to 99365
06h
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
Date Code up to 99, Dec 31
A to Z
ASCII code of the manufacturer’s
41h – 5Ahlocation.
21
5 — SDO: Communication Profile Objects
Table 2 Column Definitions
Access: RO = Read Only access; RW = Read/Write access
Index: The CAN address that is used to access this parameter.
Sub-index: Some parameters have several values associated with them. In these
cases, a Sub-index is used to access each part of the parameter.
Range, CAN Value, and Resolution:
The Range is the natural value (volts, amps, hours) that we think of
when adjusting the settings. Settings will be in tenths, hundredths, or
thousandths, as applicable. Examples:
10.3 volts = 103 2.01 amps = 201 10.5% = 105
0.025 sec = 25 65000 hrs = 65000
(in tenths of a volt)
(in hundredths of an amp)
(in tenths of a percent)
(in milliseconds, thousandths of a second)
(no scaling on time)
The CAN Value is the actual value that must be written or is read over
the CAN bus. The CAN Value is stated on the second line (in italics)
and provides the equivalent data value that must be sent to archive the
setting desired. For example, to set the Heartbeat Rate to 1 second, a
value of 1000 must be sent.
The Resolution (if present) provides the step-size for the CAN values.
For example, the Heartbeat Rate cannot be set to 1.003 seconds (CAN
value of 1003) because it has a resolution of 4. If a Heartbeat Rate of
803 is sent to the eXm, the eXm will truncate and write the value 800
internally and respond with an SDO Acknowledge of 800 (the value
written with a even step size of 4).
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Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
5 — SDO: Communication Profile Objects
Table 2 Parameter Definitions
Manufacturer’s Status Register, Store Parameters, and Restore Parameters require
further explanation.
Manufacturer’s Status Register
The Manufacturer’s Status Register reflects the present fault flags. Each fault
has its own bit in the Status Register. Unlike the LED Status of the Emergency Message, which can only relay the highest priority fault, the 32-bit Status
Register shows all present faults.
Fault
Internal_Fault
EEPROM_Fault
Over_Voltage
Under_Voltage
Over_Temperature
Under_Temperature
Driver_Current_Limit
Driver_Open_Detect
PDO_Timeout
SDO_Fault
CAN_Bus
Bit Location
LSB: Bit 0
Bit 1
Bit 2
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 5
Bits 6 – 11
Bits 12 – 17
Bit 18
Bit 19
Bit 20
Bits 21 – 31
Description *
Internal hardware or Software fault
EEPROM did not write, or checksum failure
Supply is over the set voltage limit Supply is under the set voltage limit
Temperature is over the 95°C limit
Temperature is under the -50°C limit
Driver 1 – 6 is over the current limit
Driver 1 – 6 output pin is disconnected
Too much time between PDOs
SDO was aborted
CAN Bus error frame faults
Reserved (presently unused)
*See Section 6: Diagnostics and Troubleshooting for more detailed descriptions
and probable causes of these faults.
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23
5 — SDO: Communication Profile Objects
Store Parameters
Store Parameters controls when and if the changes made to a parameter (by
SDO Write) are backed up (stored) into EEPROM. An SDO read of Save All
Parameters sub-index 01h will return the present EEPROM Store Parameters
functionality (see Read data column). An SDO write to sub-index 01h will
change the EEPROM Store Parameters functionality (see Write Data column).
Note that when you write to Store Parameters, the data value is always
saved in EEPROM (even NO_SAVE). This allows the eXm to power up in the
desired mode.
Store Parameters Function Write
Data
Read
Description
Data
NO_SAVE
0
0
SAVE_ON_COMMAND
1
1
AUTO_SAVE
2
2
BOTH_SAVE
3
3
SAVE_COMMAND
“save”
N/A
65766173h
BACKUP_COMMAND
“bkup”
N/A
70756B62h
Device will not save parameter
changes to EEPROM. Device will save changes
to EEPROM on command.
Device will save each change
to EEPROM automatically. Device will save each change
to EEPROM automatically and
all parameters on a “save”
command. Text string that commands all
parameters to be saved from
working RAM to Normal
runtime EEPROM.
Text string that commands all
parameters to be saved from
working RAM to the Backup
EEPROM.
For increased security, a text string is required for SAVE_COMMAND and
BACKUP_COMMAND. At first glance, the ASCII looks “backward.” This is
because CANopen defines that the LSB goes first and MSB is sent last. Therefore
“save” (which is data bytes 5, 6, 7 and 8) is written as “evas” when converting it
to hex (data bytes in proper descending order). The ASCII hex values for each
character are 65h (“e”), 76h (“v”), 61h (“a”), and 73h (“s”), which results in hex
65766173h.
The “save” string will cause the eXm to write all RW parameters from
the working RAM locations into the normal runtime EEPROM locations. The
Normal EEPROM block is accessed during SDO write requests. The “bkup”
string will write into the secondary Backup EEPROM block. This block can not
written to by normal SDO write requests and can only be written to in bulk
by the “bkup” command.
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Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
5 — SDO: Communication Profile Objects
Restore Default Parameters
Restore Default Parameters allows the master controller to restore all EEPROM
backed-up SDO objects to their Factory (hard-coded in software), Backup
(stored in a secondary/backup EEPROM section), or Normal settings (stored
in EEPROM and accessed by standard SDO). Restore Default Parameters is
also used to restore (Reset) the hourmeter value.
Writing a special text string to this sub-index (01h) will initiate a restore to
Factory, Backup, or Normal settings for all EEPROM backed-up SDO objects.
Once this parameter is written to, the next reset (by NMT or cycling power)
will cause the system settings to be pulled from the desired EEPROM locations
and put into the working RAM locations (Write String column, below).
An SDO read of Restore Default Parameters Sub-index 01h will return
the present settings of Restore Default Parameters (Read Data column, below).
Restore Default Parameters Function Write
String
Read
Data Description
RESTORE_FACTORY_DEFAULTS
“fact”
0
74636166h
RESTORE_DEFAULTS_ “load”
1
FROM_BACKUP_EEPROM
64616F6Ch
RESTORE_NORMAL_DEFAULTS “norm”
2
6D726F6Eh
RESET_HOURMETER
“hour” N/A
72756F68h
Restore all parameter values from built-in defaults. These
are hard-coded in the software
(Factory).
Restore all parameter values
from the Backup set EEPROM
data bank. Restore all parameter values
from the Normal set EEPROM
data bank.
Reset the hourmeter to the
value loaded into the parameter
Reset Hour Meter (3040h).
Note that the working parameter values in the eXm RAM will only be
restored on the next reset or power cycle after the Restore Default Parameters
parameter has been written to.
A Restore Defaults from Backup EEPROM command (“load”) will pull the
data values from the Backup EEPROM, place them in RAM, and over-write the
settings in the Normal EEPROM. Whatever changes were made to the Normal
EEPROM will be lost. A Restore Normal Defaults command (“norm”) will allow
the eXm to restore from the Normal EEPROM on the next reset or power cycle.
The hourmeter has a special function to reset it. Writing the string “hour”
to this index will cause the eXm to reset the hourmeter to the value saved in the
Reset Hour Meter parameter (3040h). Note that only the hours can be set to a
programmed value; the minutes will always be reset to 0.
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
25
5 — SDO: Device Parameter Objects
DEVICE PARAMETER OBJECTS
The parameters found in the 3000h CAN Object address range are shown in
Table 3. All these parameters have Read/Write (RW) SDO access, except for
the sub-index 00h in a parameter array, which is Read Only (RO) as indicated.
Table 3 Device Parameter Objects
range
name
index
sub-index
CAN value
description
Output Driver Mode 3000h
00h
6
Length of this array (RO).
01h – 06h
0 – 7
0 – 7
Note: a
setting of 4
is non-valid.
Binary value that sets each driver
to Input Only (0), Constant Current (1),
Constant Voltage (2), or Direct PWM (3)
mode.
Adding 4 to Modes 1, 2, or 3 will enable
the Driver Open Check (= 5, 6, 7).
Not applicable to Input Only mode.
Output Max Value
Length of this array (RO).
3001h
00h
6
01h – 06h
Voltage Mode Sets the maximum output that will be
0.0 – 80.0 V
commanded when the PDO command
0 – 800
is 100%. Could be a current, a voltage,
Current Mode
or a PWM % depending on the Mode
0.00 – 3.00 A
setting.
0 – 300
The value and range will be
Direct Mode
automatically changed when
0.0 – 100.0 %
the Driver Mode is changed.
0 – 1000
Dither Period
26
3002h
00h
6
Length of this array (RO).
01h – 06h
4 – 200 ms
4 – 200
Resolution = 2
Sets the time between dither pulses
for each output.
A Dither Period of 4 ms to 200 ms
provides a frequency range
of 250 Hz to 5 Hz.
Dither Amount
Length of this array (RO).
3003h
00h
6
01h – 06h
0 – 0.50 A
0 – 50
Sets the amount (+/-) of dither
that will be added/subtracted
to the command. Only active when
the driver is in Constant Current mode.
Driver Proportional
Length of this array (RO).
3004h
00h
6
Gain
01h – 06h
1 – 100%
0 – 1000
Proportional gain factor of the
PI Current Controller.
Driver Integral Gain 3005h
Length of this array (RO).
00h
6
01h – 06h
1 – 100%
0 – 1000
Integral gain factor of the
PI Current Controller.
Nominal Battery
3010h
00h
12 – 80V
120 – 800
Set to the nominal system/battery
voltage. Used in the fault detection logic.
Analog Source 3020h
00h
0 – 3
Enable 0 – 3
Turns on/off the current sources
on Analog 1 or 2.
LSB is for Analog 1 and next
is for Analog 2.
Upper 6 bits are not used.
(Use bit = 1 to turn on source.)
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
5 — SDO: Device Parameter Objects
Table 3 Device Parameter Objects, cont’d
range
name
index
sub-index
CAN value
description
High Threshold 3021h
00h
3
Length of this array (RO).
01h – 03h
0 – 30 V
Sets the value that the analog input
0 – 300
must go above to set the virtual digital
input High.
Low Threshold 3022h
00h
3
Length of this array (RO).
01h – 03h
0 – 30 V
Sets the value that the analog input
0 – 300
must go below to set the virtual digital
input Low.
Filter Gain
3023h
00h
3
Length of this array (RO).
01h – 02h
64 s – 4 ms
Sets the amount of filtering on the
1 – 16384
Analog Inputs. Higher gains provide
faster filtering. Filtering affects the
analog reading and the Virtual Digital
Input responsiveness.
Debounce Time
3024h
00h
6
Length of this array (RO).
01h – 06h
0 – 1000 ms
Debounce time of the digital inputs
0 – 1000
in milliseconds.
Resolution = 8
Baud Rate
3030h
00h
0,1,2,3,4
0,1,2,3,4
Sets the CAN baud rate at 125k, 250k,
500k, 800k and 1M respectively. Must
reset eXm for new rate to take effect.
PDO Timeout
3031h
00h
0 – 1 s
Sets the time interval within which the
0 – 1000
PDO-MOSI must be received; otherwise
Resolution = 4
a fault will be flagged.
If set to 0, the PDO timeout fault
is disabled.
Reset Hour Meter 3040h
00h
0 – 65535
The Hour Meter will be set to this value
when “hour” is sent to the Restore
Default Parameters object.
Output Driver Mode
The eXm allows four distinct output control modes:
Input Only: The driver output is disabled. This mode is used when the
output is used as an input.
Constant Current: The eXm continually samples the output load current
and automatically adjusts the output PWM (500 times per second) to
maintain the commanded current. The load current will stay constant
over varying battery voltage, load resistance variation, and temperature.
Current mode allows Dither, which puts a small variation on the current command. Dither is used to keep proportional valves accurate and
moving freely. The frequency and the amount of dither can be adjusted.
Constant Voltage: The eXm continually samples the battery voltage and
automatically adjusts the output PWM to maintain an average output
voltage to the load. The load voltage is constant over varying battery
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
27
5 — SDO: Device Parameter Objects
voltage, as long as there is enough voltage to supply the commanded
output.
Direct PWM: The eXm simply outputs the commanded PWM.
The active modes (Constant Current, Constant Voltage and Direct PWM) can
also have an additional system check enabled called Open Detect. To enable this
function, add 4 to the active mode setting (i.e., Constant Current Mode = 1;
Constant Current Mode with Open Detect = 1+ 4 = 5). Open Detect checks
that the driver output pin is connected to a load whenever the command is
zero. When there is no PWM, the output pin is basically connected to B+
through the load. If the load opens (wire is disconnected or load fails), the
Open Detect will signal a fault (Driver Open Fault) and shut down that driver
until the load is reconnected.
PI Controller
Constant Current and Constant Voltage Modes use a Proportional/Integral (PI)
closed-loop controller. These controllers work to minimize the error between
the command and the actual output. To do this, the error is magnified by the
Driver Proportional and Integral Gains. Normally, the factory settings of these
gains is sufficient to control the load. However, there may be times when they
need to be adjusted to increase or decrease the responsiveness of the eXm.
If you find that the eXm over-reacts to changes in battery or load, lower
these gains. If it is too slow to react, increase them. If the gains are set too
high, the output may oscillate. Normally, the Proportional and Integral gains
are increased or decreased together. It is not recommended to have one gain
very high while the other is very low.
Changing Modes
Because each Driver Mode has its own scaling (amps, volts, or %), changing the
mode also automatically changes the range of the Output Max Value parameter.
For safety, whenever the Driver Mode parameter is written to, the Output Max
Value parameter is set to minimum and the present command (as set by the
PDO-MOSI) is set to 0. This is done because the eXm has no idea what the
desired output should be after a mode change, and the last setting of Output
Max Value could be out-of-range or unsafe. Therefore the Output Max Value
parameter must be written to with the desired setting after a mode change. The
next PDO-MOSI will then reset the command to the desired output value.
28
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
5 — SDO: Device Parameter Objects
Analog Filter Rates
The filter applied to each analog input provides an exponential response, and
the Filter Gain parameter responds exponentially as well.
Typically an exponential filter is known by its Time Constant (TC), which
is how long it takes the filter to respond to a step input and reach 63% of its
final value. It takes approximately 5 TCs before the filtered signal reaches its full
output. The table below provides a way to estimate filter response.
Step Input
FILTER VALUE
100%
Filtered Response
63%
TIME
Time
Constant
Exponential Filter Response
Setting
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
16384
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
TC
Time to 100%
64.s320.s
32.s160.s
16.s80.s
8.s40.s
4.s20.s
2.s10.s
1.s5.s
512.ms
2.5 s
256.ms
1.25 s
128.ms640.ms
64.ms320.ms
32.ms160.ms
16.ms80.ms
8.ms40.ms
4.ms20.ms
29
5 — SDO: Device Monitor Objects
DEVICE MONITOR OBJECTS
The following monitor objects are found in the 3100h CAN Object address
range, as shown in Table 4.
These objects all have Read/Write (RW) SDO access, except for the
sub-index 00h in a parameter array, which is Read Only (RO) as indicated.
Table 4 Device Monitor Objects
range
name
index
sub-index
CAN value
description
Heatsink Temperature 3110h
00h
-40 – 100 °C
-400 – 1000
Battery Voltage
3120h
00h
0 – 120 V
0 – 1200
Driver Current
3130h
00h
01h – 06h
Driver PWM
3131h
00h
01h – 06h
Hour Meter
3140h
00h
30
6
Temperature of the eXm drivers.
The battery voltage as read by the eXm.
Length of this array (RO).
0.00 – 3.00 A Present current sunk by
0 – 300
Drivers 1 through 6.
6
0 – 100 %
0 – 1000
0 – 65535 hrs
0 – 65535
Length of this array (RO).
Present PWM % of Drivers 1 though 6.
Present value of the hourmeter.
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
8 — DIAGNOSTICS & TROUBLESHOOTING
6 DIAGNOSTICS AND TROUBLESHOOTING
When an error occurs in the eXm, an emergency message is produced on the
CAN bus according to the CANopen standard. This message is sent once. When
the fault clears, a No Fault emergency message is transmitted; see page 16.
At each new fault, the fault code and hourmeter time are logged in a
16-error-deep FIFO buffer.
Additionally, the highest priority fault code will be flashed on the red
and yellow status LEDs. The red LED enumerates the digit place and the
yellow LED enumerates the value. For example, a code 23 would be displayed
as one red flash, followed by two yellow flashes, followed by two red flashes
and finished with three yellow flashes. The eXm’s two LEDs will display this
repeating pattern:
red
✱
(first digit)
yellow
✲ ✲
(2)
red
✱✱
yellow
✲ ✲ ✲
(second digit)(3)
The numerical codes used by the yellow LED are listed in the troubleshooting
chart (Table 5).
During normal operation, the yellow LED flashes continuously.
On power-up, the integrity of the code stored in memory is automatically
tested. If the software is found to be corrupted, the red Status LED will flash
rapidly. Should this occur, contact your Curtis representative as the unit will
require a new code download.
TROUBLESHOOTING
Table 5 provides the following information for each fault: name of fault, code,
description, effect of fault, possible causes, and how the eXm can recover from
the fault.
Whenever a fault is encountered and no wiring or vehicle fault can be
found, cycle power to see if the fault clears. If, after attempting to correct the
possible causes, the fault code persists, replace the unit. If replacing the eXm
does not resolve the problem, the eXm is likely good and should be re-installed
so that further debug can be carried out by a qualified technician.
Note: An EEPROM fault (code 12) can occur in either of the two
EEPROM blocks: Normal or Backup. If the fault is in the Normal runtime
EEPROM block, an SDO Write to any parameter in the 3000h address range
should clear the fault. If the fault is in the Backup EEPROM block, an SDO
Write issuing the Backup_Command to the Store Parameters object should
clear that fault. If neither procedure will clear the fault, the eXm may have a
bad EEPROM and will need to be replaced.
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
31
8 — DIAGNOSTICS & TROUBLESHOOTING
Table 5 TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
CODEFAULT
DESCRIPTION
EFFECT
CAUSE(S)
RECOVERY
Fast
Corrupt Code
Red
LED
Internal code in memory is corrupt.
eXm is shut down.
Faulty memory chip.
software detected.
Requires repair or new
software download.
11 Internal Fault
Critical circuits or
software detected.
eXm in Stopped
ESD or EMI glitch.
state.
NMT Reset Bus
received, or cycle power.
12 EEPROM Fault
EEPROM did not
properly write, or
Checksum did not
match.
eXm in Stopped
ESD or EMI glitch
state & all drivers during a write.
disabled.
May need to reload or
store defaults. See note
following table.
21 Overvoltage
Battery over limit.
Limit = (Nominal Battery * 1.25) + 5V.
All drivers disabled.
Battery overcharged or regen.
Battery returns to
normal range for >1 sec.
22 Undervoltage
Battery under limit.
Limit = (Nominal Battery * 0.70) - 5V.
All drivers disabled.
Battery discharged or
drooping.
Battery returns to
normal range for >1 sec.
23 Overtemp
Heatsink over All drivers disabled.
allowed temperature. Ambient temperature
too hot, or poor heat sinking.
Temperature returns to
normal range (<95°C).
24 Undertemp
Heatsink below
All drivers disabled.
allowed temperature. 31 Driver 1 Fault Driver is in over-
Driver disabled.
32 Driver 2 Fault current (>3.5 amps). 33 Driver 3 Fault 34 Driver 4 Fault
35 Driver 5 Fault
36 Driver 6 Fault
41 Driver 1 Fault Driver output pin
Driver not functional.
42 Driver 2 Fault is low when driver 43 Driver 3 Fault is Off. This implies 44 Driver 4 Fault the pin has been
45 Driver 5 Fault left open.
46 Driver 6 Fault
Ambient temperature
too cold.
Temperature returns to
normal range (>-50°C).
Driver output pin is disconnected, or the
load is open.
Driver pin is reconnected.
51 PDO Timeout
PDO from master
not received within
the time-out period.
Master has died, or CAN bus cable loose.
New PDOs received
within proper timing.
52 SDO Fault
SDO attempted to SDO aborted
be set out of range,
message sent. or is Read Only, or
is not present.
Master has tried to access a non-valid
SDO.
Automatically cleared.
All drivers disabled.
53 CAN Bus Fault Too many CAN bus eXm in Stopped
errors detected.
state. 32
Driver pin is shorted Send a 0% PDO
to B+, or load is command to the faulted
shorted.driver.
Noise on the CAN NMT received, or bus
bus, loose connection, reception & transmission
or poor termination. restored.
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
8 — DIAGNOSTICS & TROUBLESHOOTING
FAULT LOG
The eXm stores the last 16 faults with a time-stamp. The Fault Log is stored
in non-volatile memory with the last fault always at the top of the log and the
oldest fault at the end. If the buffer is full when a new fault occurs, the oldest
fault is pushed of the log, the previous faults all move down, and the newest
fault is placed at the top.
The Fault Log is accessed by SDO reads of the Standard Object at Index
1003h (called the Pre-defined Error Field in DS301). Reading the Fault Log
Length sub-index 00h will return a value of 16 (the depth of the fault log).
Reading from the sub-index 1 though 16 (01h – 10h) will return the faults plus
time stamps in order from newest to oldest.
Faults are stored in the Fault Log as 32-bit data fields in this format:
byte 5 byte 6
byte 7 & 8
Fault
Code FFh
Hourmeter *
Fault
Time Stamp
* Note that the MSB of the hourmeter
is in Byte 8.
The first byte is the fault code; see Table 5. The next byte simply indicates a
fault and is consistent with the Emergency Message. If the SDO read of a fault
log sub-index returns a 0 in the fault data, the fault log is clear at that location,
and no fault was recorded.
The time-stamp uses the internal 16-bit running hourmeter. If several
error messages have occurred within one hour, the order of the fault messages
will indicate which came first.
The Fault Log can be cleared by writing 0 to the Fault Log Length object
(sub-index 00h). After clearing, all the data bytes in sub-indexes 01h through
10h will be 0.
Sub-
IndexIndexDescription
Name
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
Fault Log Length 1003h 00h Length of the log (always 16)
Fault 1
01h Newest faultXx
Fault 2
02h Previous fault
Fault 3
03h and so on . . .Xx
Fault 4
04h and so on . . .Xx
.....
Xx
Fault 16
10h Oldest fault.Xx
33
APPENDIX A: EMC & ESD DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
APPENDIX A
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC)
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) encompasses two areas: emissions and
immunity. Emissions are radio frequency (RF) energy generated by a product.
This energy has the potential to interfere with communications systems such
as radio, television, cellular phones, dispatching, aircraft, etc. Immunity is the
ability of a product to operate normally in the presence of RF energy. EMC
is ultimately a system design issue. Part of the EMC performance is designed
into or inherent in each component; another part is designed into or inherent
in end product characteristics such as shielding, wiring, and layout; and, finally,
a portion is a function of the interactions between all these parts. The design
techniques presented below can enhance EMC performance in products that
use Curtis control products.
Emissions
Signals with high frequency content can produce significant emissions if connected to a large enough radiating area (created by long wires spaced far apart).
PWM drivers can contribute to RF emissions. Pulse width modulated square
waves with fast rise and fall times are rich in harmonics. (Note: PWM drivers
at 100% do not contribute to emissions.) The impact of these switching waveforms can be minimized by making the wires from the controller to the load as
short as possible and by placing the load drive and return wires near each other.
For applications requiring very low emissions, the solution may involve
enclosing the system, interconnect wires and loads together in one shielded
box. Emissions can also couple to battery supply leads and circuit wires outside the box, so ferrite beads near the controller may also be required on these
unshielded wires in some applications. It is best to keep the noisy signals as far
as possible from sensitive wires.
Immunity
Immunity to radiated electric fields can be improved either by reducing overall
circuit sensitivity or by keeping undesired signals away from this circuitry. The
controller circuitry itself cannot be made less sensitive, since it must accurately
detect and process low level signals from sensors such as the throttle potentiometer. Thus immunity is generally achieved by preventing the external RF
energy from coupling into sensitive circuitry. This RF energy can get into the
controller circuitry via conducted paths and radiated paths. Conducted paths
are created by the wires connected to the controller. These wires act as antennas
and the amount of RF energy coupled into them is generally proportional to
their length. The RF voltages and currents induced in each wire are applied to
the controller pin to which the wire is connected.
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
A-1
APPENDIX A: EMC & ESD DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The Curtis 1352 includes bypass capacitors on the printed circuit board’s
sensitive input signals to reduce the impact of this RF energy on the internal
circuitry. In some applications, additional filtering in the form of ferrite beads
may also be required on various wires to achieve desired performance levels. A
full metal enclosure can also improve immunity by shielding the 1352 from
outside RF energy.
ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD)
Curtis products, like most modern electronic devices, contain ESD-sensitive
components, and it is therefore necessary to protect them from ESD (electrostatic
discharge) damage. Most of the product’s signal connections have protection
for moderate ESD events, but must be protected from damage if higher levels
exist in a particular application.
ESD immunity is achieved either by providing sufficient distance between conductors and the ESD source so that a discharge will not occur, or by
providing an intentional path for the discharge current such that the circuit
is isolated from the electric and magnetic fields produced by the discharge. In
general the guidelines presented above for increasing radiated immunity will
also provide increased ESD immunity.
It is usually easier to prevent the discharge from occurring than to divert
the current path. A fundamental technique for ESD prevention is to provide
adequately thick insulation between all metal conductors and the outside environment so that the voltage gradient does not exceed the threshold required for
a discharge to occur. If the current diversion approach is used, all exposed metal
components must be grounded. The shielded enclosure, if properly grounded,
can be used to divert the discharge current; it should be noted that the location
of holes and seams can have a significant impact on ESD suppression. If the
enclosure is not grounded, the path of the discharge current becomes more
complex and less predictable, especially if holes and seams are involved. Some
experimentation may be required to optimize the selection and placement of
holes, wires, and grounding paths. Careful attention must be paid to the control
panel design so that it can tolerate a static discharge. MOV, transorbs, or other
devices can be placed between B¬and offending wires, plates, and touch points
if ESD shock cannot be otherwise avoided.
A-2
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
APPENDIX B: SPECIFICATIONS
APPENDIX B
SPECIFICATIONS
Table B-1 SPECIFICATIONS: 1352 eXm MODULE
Nominal input voltage
Electrical isolation to heatsink
12 – 80 V, in two models
500 V ac (minimum)
Storage ambient temperature range
Operating ambient temp. range
-50°C to 90°C (-58°F to 194°F)
-40°C to 50°C (-40°F to 122°F)
Enclosure protection rating
IP65
Weight
0.4 kg (0.3 lbs)
Dimensions (L× W×H)130 × 100 × 39 mm (5.2" × 3.9" × 1.5")
87 mm (3.4") between mounting holes
6.3 mm (0.25") mounting hole ID
MODEL NUMBER
VOLTAGE (volts)
1352-4001
12 – 36
1352-6001
36 – 80
Curtis 1352 eXm Manual, Rev. C
B-1
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