Hertfordshire guide to sustainability (PDF 2.75MB)

Hertfordshire guide to sustainability (PDF 2.75MB)
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D P C ENGINEERING
WELDING FABRICATION AND
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HEMEL HEMPSTEAD, HERTS, HP1 2UJ
Contents
Why is sustainability important?............ 3
Energy Consumption in Buildings........ 7
Using Energy Efficiently................................ 9
Sustainability, Planning and Building
Regulation Requirements........................ 16
What is Zero Carbon Dioxide?............. 23
Renewable Energy....................................... 26
Water Management................................... 32
The Existing Housing Stock.................... 39
Conclusion......................................................... 43
We very gratefully acknowledge the support
of the firms whose advertisements appear
throughout this publication.
As a reciprocal gesture we have pleasure in
drawing the attention of our readers to their
announcements. It is necessary however for
it to be made clear that, whilst every care has
been taken in compiling this publication and
the statements it contains, neither the promoter
involved nor the Publisher can accept
responsibility for any inaccuracies, or for the
products or services advertised.
Designed and published by
Ten Alps Publishing,
Trelawney House, Chestergate,
Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 6DW.
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Ref: BUN (June, 2012)
This publication is available as an E-book
www.guidetosustainability.co.uk/hertfordshire
guidetosustainability
1
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guidetosustainability
Sustainability is a very
current topic, it is frequently
in the news and we are
constantly supplied with
information about the state
of the climate and the green
credentials of various
products and initiatives.
Why is
This guide will focus on what sustainability means from
a Planning and Building Control point of view. Through a
series of chapters it will look at some of the key issues and
try to explore some of the options that we have available
to us to reduce the impact that our buildings have on the
environment around us.
This first chapter will look at some of the arguments as
to why sustainability is important. There are a number of
reasons why we should build in a sustainable way, some are
altruistic, some economic and some simply practical.
Most scientists agree that our climate is changing due to
the effects of global warming. It is thought that the CO2
released into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels
by the industrialised world becomes trapped in the upper
atmosphere and forms a layer that acts like a greenhouse,
warming the earth below. The resulting temperature rises
Sustainability
Important?
have the potential to upset the balance of the earth’s
climate causing polar ice caps to melt, sea levels to rise and
established weather patterns to be disturbed. It is thought
that if temperatures are allowed to rise beyond certain levels
that the effects of climate change will be irreversible and this
could have catastrophic effects on the earth’s eco systems.
The earth contains a finite amount of oil, coal and gas
and this has been formed over millions of years. As we
extract fossil fuels from the earth the reserves reduce and
there will come a time when the reserves are exhausted.
The UK’s North Sea gas stocks have declined to the extent
that we are now a net importer of energy. No one is sure
guidetosustainability
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guidetosustainability
how much oil remains in the earth for extraction
and exploration continues to discover new oil
fields. What is clear is that the oil that is being
discovered is increasingly difficult to extract and
much of it is located in far off areas of the world.
As reserves become more difficult to exploit, the
price of oil will need to rise to make extraction
economically viable and if supplies become short,
oil rich countries may be less willing to export their
reserves. This will inevitably lead to rising energy
prices and subsequent rises in our cost of living
both directly in terms of heating and transport
fuels and indirectly through the increased cost of
manufactured and transported goods.
Since the industrial revolution the majority of the
world’s fossil fuel consumption has occurred
in the Western world. In more recent times the
developing economies notably in China and India
have added significantly to the demand for oil and
this pattern is likely to be repeated as other parts
of the world develop.
The world’s population is still expanding and as it
increases demands on the environment grow.
The World Wildlife Fund Living Planet Report
2008 calculated that currently global resource
use exceeds earth’s capacity to regenerate by
approximately 30% and at current growth rates we
would need two planets to support our demands
by 2030. To use a financial analogy we are
drawing down on earth’s capital rather than living
on the interest.
CO2 production is a concern to governments
across the globe. In the UK the government
have made commitments to make significant
reductions in UK CO2 outputs. Within the UK 45%
of CO2 production is attributed to buildings, 27%
of CO2 production comes from dwellings and 73%
of the CO2 produced in dwellings is from space
and water heating so this is a key area where
the government feel that CO2 emissions can be
reduced. Since the 1980s, efforts have been made
to improve the thermal performance of buildings,
and houses in particular, and whilst improvements
in performance have been made, there is concern
that many of these CO2 savings have been
cancelled out by increased consumption from
lighting and electronic gadgets. The Department
for Communities and Local Government are
suggesting a four step approach to reducing CO2
emissions from the UK.
These are:1. Reducing Heatloss Through the Fabric of
Buildings: the Building Regulations will be
used to ensure that our homes are as energy
efficient as possible.
2. Decarbonising the Grid: CO2 emissions can be
reduced if energy is produced in ‘cleaner’ ways.
Most electricity is currently generated using coal
or gas which produces CO2. Increased use of
renewables through wind, wave and hydro
electric power and nuclear energy will be needed
to make our energy supplies less CO2 intensive.
3. Requiring Electronic Devices to be More
Energy Efficient.
4. Changing People’s Attitude Towards
Energy Use.
Sustainability is, however, about more than
energy supplies. A widely accepted definition
of sustainable development suggests that
...’sustainable development meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own need’… and this
seems a quite reasonable aspiration.
Sustainable development encompasses much
wider issues. It should respect our heritage and
be accessible and suitable for the population that
need to use it. Sustainable development must also
consider the effects it has on its surroundings in
areas such as flooding. This guide will focus on
sustainability in terms of energy and water use but
it is important to remember that true sustainability
will only be achieved if the many other issues are
addressed.
Planning Permission and Building Regulations
consent affect buildings when they are newly
constructed or altered. Improving the sustainability
of buildings generally requires investment and
disturbance to the occupants so there needs to be
a catalyst to make these improvements happen.
It is logical to try and make improvements when
buildings are being constructed or other building
work is being carried out and for this reason
Planning Permission and Building Regulations are
appropriate pieces of legislation to drive practical
improvements in the environmental performance
of the building stock.
There are clearly a number of reasons why it
would be prudent to minimise our energy use
and CO2 production and to reduce our reliance
on fossil fuels. Planning Permission and Building
Regulations consent will not be able to solve all
of the problems highlighted above but they will
have a significant part to play in terms of reducing
energy use, CO2 production and fossil fuel
demand from our buildings.
guidetosustainability
5
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guidetosustainability
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Within the UK, buildings are one
of the largest users of energy
and accordingly the largest
generators of C02. Government
figures suggest that 45% of
CO2 production in the UK is
attributable to buildings and 27%
of CO2 is produced in our homes.
Buildings use energy for a number of processes and the
graph below gives an indication of how energy use is
broken down in a typical house.
Heating
It can be seen from the graph that, in a typical household,
space and water heating accounts for around 73% of the
energy used and that currently 80% of domestic heating is
gas fired. Heat can escape through all building elements
and to preserve energy it is important that the whole building
is insulated to reduce heat loss. The figure below shows a
representation of how heat is lost from a typical house.
The Stern review suggests that our warming climate should
reduce the demand for space heating and this, combined
with improving insulation standards, should reduce our need
for energy to heat our buildings.
Energy Consumption
in Buildings
Appliance Use
After heating, the next largest user of energy is domestic
appliances. Recent data suggests that energy consumption
by domestic appliances is increasing. Whilst many
appliances are not fixed parts of the building and are
not considered by building standards guidance as such,
the Code for Sustainable Homes has started to include
recommendations for fixed appliances and white goods.
Lighting
Lighting is another main user of energy in housing and even
more so in commercial buildings. Careful selection of lighting
units, including external lighting, controls and switches can
reduce energy use in this area.
Cooling
Generally speaking, cooling requires more energy than
heating and in commercial buildings, especially those
with large numbers of computers, cooling is often the
largest energy user. With the anticipated warmer summers,
increasing cooling requirements and the development
of the domestic cooling market are concerns when
trying to reduce energy use.
guidetosustainability
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guidetosustainability
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If we are to build sustainable buildings it is important that preserving energy
is considered as part of the design process. When designing a building, careful
consideration of the layout can make the most of sunlight, shelter and natural
ventilation to create buildings that are naturally comfortable for their occupants,
reducing the need for artificial heating, lighting and cooling.
Using
Energy
Efficiently
Passive solar design exploits the free
heat and light energy provided by
sunlight entering buildings through
windows, and uses air movement
for ventilation. This can be extremely
effective when combined with heavy
construction materials which heat
up and cool down slowly, good
insulation, and shading to prevent
excessive solar gain in summer.
To take full advantage of these
opportunities, designs must consider
factors like sun orientation and
potential shading by landscaping or
other buildings. When first designing
the layout of a site and the design
and layout of buildings we need
to make sure the possibilities are
thought about at the earliest stages of
planning the development.
guidetosustainability
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guidetosustainability
The extent to which the benefits of passive solar
design can be used will be influenced by the
constraints of the site on which the project must
be constructed; the orientation of a rear extension
will inevitably be fixed by the existing building,
but application of the principles of passive solar
design can still result in significant energy savings
and comfortable living spaces.
Benefits of passive solar design include:
• Simple layout and building design principles
can achieve savings of up to 10% of fuel costs
for heating and cooling.
• Passive solar developments need cost no
more than ’conventional’ developments.
• Good layout and design results in natural
comfortable spaces that are attractive to users.
• Passive solar design is not dependent
on technology and has no ongoing cost
implications.
Careful orientation is vital for passive solar energy
gains. The elevation with the largest proportion of
glazing of each building, or extension should be
orientated within 30° of south (solar orientation)
with a smaller proportion of glazing on the north
elevation. Over shading by other buildings should
be minimised.
Deep-plan buildings, e.g. offices, tend to be
highly energy dependent, with the middle of the
building needing electric lighting and mechanical
ventilation throughout the day. Large buildings
should be designed to give all occupants access
to natural light and ventilation, either by a more
complex form, or with courtyards, light-wells or
atria which introduce light and air deep into the
building.
Trees that will grow to overshadow buildings
should be deciduous so that they allow sunlight
to pass through the bare branches in winter yet
provide shading in summer. Shelterbelts, made up
of mixed species, can be located to the north of
development, or where they will give shelter from
the prevailing wind. They should be distanced
3-4 times their mature height from south-facing
elevations. Green space can also reduce storm
water run-off and helps lower the risk of urban
flooding.
With predicted increases in summer temperatures,
building design will need to ensure there is
adequate cooling to prevent uncomfortable internal
temperatures. The most sustainable way of achieving
this is through natural ventilation. At its simplest this
takes the form of windows which can be opened by
adjustable amounts. Positioning opening windows
or air vents on opposite walls draws fresh air through
the building.
Night cooling provides ventilation that is secure
enough to be left open at night. It is a very effective
way to bring down the temperature of a building
and takes the form of windows with a secure open
position, or air vents in the wall. It works best if
the building has a high thermal mass which can
absorb heat throughout the day and then disperse
heat as it cools overnight.
External shading from adjustable awnings and
shutters, or permanent sun louvres, can block out
sun when it is high in the sky in summer, but still
allow sun in when it is lower in the sky in winter
or early and late in the day. South facing windows
actually make this form of shading more effective.
Internal shading, e.g. blinds, is less effective for
reducing excessive heat gains.
In urban areas, green spaces provide some respite
in extreme heat. Planting can provide shade for
amenity areas and car parking in summer.
Passive solar energy construction does not need
to be significantly different in appearance to
conventional buildings. If it is possible to achieve
good solar orientation (see layout guidance
above), the following measures should be
included:
Glazing: a rule of thumb is to have a conventional
amount of glazing but to locate 70% of the glazing
on the south elevation. If windows are too large,
heat loss may outweigh solar gain, and occupants’
desire for privacy is likely to lead to installation
of net curtains or blinds which block out the
solar gains. There should be less glazing on the
northern elevation, although windows that provide
sufficient daylight and ventilation to the room are
recommended.
Internal Layout: locate well-used rooms requiring
warmth and light on the southern side. In a house
this will probably be the main living rooms and
largest bedrooms. Locate less well-used rooms,
those requiring heat generating appliances, and
rooms that should be cool, on the north side
of the building. In a dwelling this could be the
kitchen, bathroom, utility room and garage. In a
commercial development this could be storage
areas, or the location of working machinery which
will generate heat as a by-product.
Thermal Mass: solid heavy walls and floors
absorb heat slowly in warm conditions, and give it
out slowly again when it is cooler.
Insulation: well-insulated walls and roofs make
the most of the heat gained through passive
solar design and these will be discussed in
more detail later in the chapter.
guidetosustainability
11
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guidetosustainability
Once the orientation and form of the building have
been designed, careful consideration should be
given to the technical aspects of energy design.
Chapter 2 explored how energy was used in
buildings. A well-designed building will minimise
the energy input required to create comfortable
internal conditions and will ensure that the energy
that is required is generated and used in an
efficient way.
Heat Loss and Insulation
Much of the energy consumed by buildings is
used for heating. Buildings tend to be maintained
at temperatures that are above the external air
temperature and the heat within our buildings is
constantly trying to escape. One way that it does
this is through the materials that make up our
buildings, the fabric. Heat is lost through the walls,
roofs, floors and all other exposed surfaces of our
buildings. Where buildings are cooled, the same
principle applies but in reverse, as the hot air from
outside comes into the building and raises the
internal temperature.
Heat loss can be reduced by adding thermal
insulation to the walls, roofs and floors that enclose
our buildings. Building materials allow heat to pass
through them at different rates. Some materials
such as steel are good conductors of heat and
they allow heat to pass through them very easily,
whereas other materials such as fibreglass
offer much more resistance to the passage of
heat and these are known as insulants. A wellinsulated building will reduce the amount of heat
that escapes, this will reduce the demands on
the heating system and it will therefore be more
energy efficient than a poorly insulated building.
To help us compare how effective various types
of construction are at reducing heat loss we use a
measure called U Value. This is a measure of how
much heat is lost for every m2 of an element based
on a one degree temperature difference.
It is expressed in W/m2K, so if a house wall had
a U Value of 0.25 W/m2K, each square metre of
the wall would lose 0.25 watts for every degree
of temperature difference there was between the
inside of the house and the outside. It can be seen
from this that lower U values are an indication of
better thermal performance.
U values can be used to measure the performance
of any external part of the building and the
following paragraphs explore some of the options
available to improve the thermal performance of
the building elements.
Walls: most new walls constructed in the UK are
cavity walls. These walls are formed from two skins
of masonry tied together with a gap known as a
cavity in between. This cavity can be filled with
insulation to improve the thermal performance of
the wall. This reduces the amount of heat lost and
improves the thermal performance of the building.
Where walls are made from timber frame units or
cladding panels a similar principle applies. The
U value of the wall is related to the thickness and
quality of the insulation that is placed within the
wall and thicker, better quality insulation materials
give lower U values. When considering exposed
sites, care must be taken to ensure that water and
driving rain cannot enter the building.
Roofs: these can take a number of forms. In
simple pitched roofs insulation can be placed in
the loft above the ceiling to reduce heat loss. With
sloping ceilings or with flat roofs the insulation
layer can be placed above, between or below the
roof timbers depending on the space available.
Generally speaking with sloping ceilings and
flat roofs higher quality insulation materials are
needed to achieve suitable levels of insulation and
thicker, better quality insulation will give lower U
values. It is important to ensure the insulated roofs
have adequate ventilation or vapour controls to
prevent timber decay.
Ground Floors: although heat rises, significant
amounts of heat can be lost through ground floors.
To restrict heat loss, floors should include an
insulation layer. This can be provided in a number
of ways: with concrete floors, flooring grade
insulation can be placed below the concrete
or screed and with suspended timber floors,
insulation can be placed between the floor joists.
As with walls and roofs, thicker, better quality
insulation will give lower U values.
Windows and Doors: well-fitted high
performance windows and doors can make a
significant difference to the performance of a
building as a large proportion of a building’s heat
is lost in this area. Double or triple glazed windows
with low emissivity coatings can reduce heat
losses and should be specified wherever possible.
Cold Bridging and Junctions: as insulation levels
of the various building elements improve the heat
loss, the junctions between them becomes more
significant. To reduce this issue, care should be
taken to ensure that the insulation layers all link
together so that the building is enclosed in an
insulated envelope.
guidetosustainability
13
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guidetosustainability
Good insulation can make a huge difference to
the amount of energy required to heat or cool a
building. It is permanent and does not require
energy to run it, cannot be switched off and is key
to energy efficient design.
Air Tightness
If the fabric of a building is well insulated and
the junctions are carefully detailed, another large
area of heat loss could be through air leakage. If
a building is not airtight, warm or cooled air will
escape and energy will be required to heat or cool
the replacement air to ensure that comfortable
conditions are maintained inside the building.
Some air movement and ventilation are essential
to ensure comfortable living conditions for the
building users, but excessive ventilation is not
energy efficient.
Careful sealing of the building and controlled
ventilation are a key part of energy efficient
design. When designing and constructing a
building care should be taken to ensure that all
junctions are designed to limit air leakage and all
service entries should be carefully sealed. Airtight
membranes can be included within the building to
reduce leaking air and buildings can be air tested
on completion to ensure that they are reasonably
airtight.
Heating and Ventilation
Even with the highest standards of energy efficient
design most buildings will still require heating
or cooling input. By maximising the benefits of
passive solar design, building insulation and air
tightness, the energy input required by the building
should be minimised and to build sustainably
we must ensure that this energy is created and
controlled in the most efficient manner possible.
Once demand has been minimised, the most
sustainable way of heating and cooling a building
is by using renewable energy. A number of on site
renewable energy options are explored in some
detail in Chapter 6 of this guide and the choice of
how the building demands are met will be largely
site dependent. If renewable technologies are
not appropriate or feasible it is still important to
ensure that the building’s requirements are met in
the most efficient way possible. Condensing gas
or oil boilers are very effective and can often be
combined with renewable technologies to create
highly efficient buildings.
As buildings become more airtight, ventilation
design becomes more important as we can no
longer rely on draughts and air leakage to provide
the air that we need. For energy efficient design,
controlled ventilation is required to ensure that
adequate air is delivered where it is needed
and this will ensure comfortable environmental
conditions but avoid wasting energy heating or
cooling unwanted air. Proprietary whole house
ventilation systems are now available, some
of which include heat recovery units to ensure
optimum internal conditions with minimum
energy input.
Building Controls
To ensure that energy is used efficiently, building
controls have a vital part to play if we are to build
sustainably. Without adequate controls, energy
can be wasted heating and lighting spaces that
are not occupied, or worse still, cooling buildings
which are overheated because occupants cannot
turn the heating down.
The level of controls that are needed will be
determined largely by the size and use of the
building. The simplest controls are time switches
that allow users to program heating systems to
turn on and off to suit their lifestyles. Thermostats,
room stats and radiator valves improve control
of heating systems as they will shut down the
boiler to stop heat being wasted once a set
temperature has been reached. Where multiple
thermostats or radiator valves are installed they
allow different parts of a building to be kept at
different temperatures and allow some parts of
the building to be unheated if, for example, they
are not in use.
More complex buildings can be fitted with
complete building management systems. These
monitor internal and external temperature and,
using computer software, ensure that the building
services are used to their optimum efficiency.
Lighting can also be controlled through a variety
of systems: Passive InfraRed (PIR) sensors can be
used in toilets and rooms that are not always used
and the simplest controls can be provided by local
switches that allow users to switch off lights that
are not required.
The best sustainable buildings will combine all
of the factors mentioned above; their designs will
minimise energy use, optimise renewables and
will generate and use energy efficiently to create
sustainable comfortable spaces.
guidetosustainability
15
Sustainability,
Planning
and Building
Regulation
Requirements
Planning Permission and Building Regulation consent are required
for all significant developments and sustainability is a key theme
that runs throughout these pieces of legislation. This chapter
will summarise some of the key areas that should be taken into
account when considering a development.
National Planning Policy Framework
The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) sets out the Government’s planning policies
and how these are expected to be applied. At the heart of the NPPF is a presumption in favour
of sustainable development. The NPPF goes on to provide more detailed policies in respect of
housing, the economy, transport, climate change, renewable energy, flooding and the environment.
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guidetosustainability
Regional and Local Planning Policy
The principles of sustainable development in Planning terms
are set by the National Planning Policy, however, the detailed
requirements for a particular development site will be set at
regional and local level. The Local Planning Authority relevant to
the development site will have a Local Plan or Local Development
Framework which will contain requirements and advice about the
sustainability requirements that will be imposed on
the development.
The Hertfordshire Building Futures Partnership
Building Futures is an evolving web-based guide, designed
to provide practical, user-friendly and up to date guidance for
planning officers, developers and the general public on how
to make development in Hertfordshire more sustainable and
of a higher quality in design terms. The site may be found at
www.hertslink.org/buildingfutures/
The intention of the local authorities of Hertfordshire has been
to create a guide which is relevant to the Hertfordshire context,
rather than metropolitan locations, which most central government
guidance tends to focus on.
The Hertfordshire Building Futures Partnership is currently
developing a new Retrofit Resource for homeowners and
commercial landlords that will support efforts toward making
homes and commercial properties in Hertfordshire more resource
efficient and resilient to the likely impacts of climate change.
Building Regulations
As well as meeting Planning Permission requirements
developments will also have
to comply with the Building Regulations
and sustainability requirements appear in several areas.
Part L of the Building Regulations covers energy use. The energy
use of new buildings is assessed using a Standard Assessment
Procedure (SAP) for housing and Simplified Building Energy Model
(SBEM) for non-domestic buildings. These are standard methods of
calculating the design energy use of a building approved by the
government.
SAP and SBEM assess a building’s performance in terms of
thermal insulation, air tightness, heating and ventilation efficiency,
fixed electrical consumption and overheating potential. They take
account of any energy provided from renewable sources and
produce two figures:
TER – the carbon emission rating required by the Building
Regulations
guidetosustainability
17
D
L
DL ELECTRICAL
AND PLUMBING
SERVICES
At DL Electrical and Plumbing we do
what’s best for our customers, the job
you want, at the time you want, for the
price you want.
Call today for a
free quotation
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Bathrooms
Kitchens
Boiler Breakdowns
And much more
Call: 01279 503339
or 07748 104066
www.dlelectricalandplumbing.co.uk
18
guidetosustainability
DER (Domestic) or BER (Non-Domestic) – the
anticipated carbon emission rate for the
building as designed.
To show compliance with the Building
Regulations the DER or BER must be lower than
the TER.
The government are committed to tightening
the energy standards within the Building
Regulations and this will be achieved by
progressively lowering TER values until Zero
Carbon status is achieved (see Chapter 5), the
current programme proposes that this level is
achieved by dwellings in 2016.
Part G of the Building Regulations includes
guidance on water use in dwellings and,
using a standard calculation method, it has
to be demonstrated that the design water
consumption of each house or flat does not
exceed 125 litres per person per day.
Part H requires soakaways and infiltration
drainage to be used for rainwater disposal
wherever possible to reduce the storm loading
on the sewer system and the subsequent
flooding risk.
As well as Planning and Building Regulation
requirements there are other areas that need to
be considered. The more common assessment
tools include:
The Code for Sustainable Homes: this takes
a holistic look at the sustainable credentials of
new houses. Assessments are made against
nine separate categories ranging from energy
and water use through to ecological impact. A
scoring system is used to combine the results
into a Code Rating between 1, the entry level,
and 6, the highest level, which is a zero carbon
home. All new houses should receive a rating
against the Code for Sustainable Homes and
this should allow purchasers to make more
informed choices.
guidetosustainability
19
“The Local Planning
Authority relevant to
the development site
will have a Local Plan
or Local Development
Framework which will
contain requirements
and advice”
BREEAM: this is a system broadly
similar to the Code for Sustainable
Homes that is applied to non-domestic
buildings. It produces a rating that
allows the relative sustainability of nondomestic buildings to be compared.
Energy Performance Certificates:
all buildings must have energy
performance certificates when they
are built or sold. The certificates give
an indication of the likely energy use
of a building and have a rating system
similar to the one used on domestic
appliances, an A rated building being
more efficient than an E rated building.
The certificates also contain information
about a building’s potential energy
rating if basic improvements were
carried out. Energy Performance
Certificates are intended to provide
purchasers with energy information
about the building they are purchasing
and to highlight the benefits that could
be achieved if they invested in building
improvements.
In summary, there is a wide range
of legislation that affects new
development, much of it is interrelated
and it all seeks to improve the
environmental performance of the
buildings that we construct and use.
guidetosustainability
21
22
guidetosustainability
What is
Zero
Carbon Dioxide?
The government have made a commitment that all new homes constructed after
2016 will be zero carbon. The Code for Sustainable Homes offers two definitions of
zero carbon.
At code level 5 homes should, over a year, have zero net emissions of carbon
dioxide in respect of the energy used for heating, lighting and ventilation.
At code level 6, the highest level achievable under the Code for Sustainable Homes,
homes should have zero net emissions of carbon dioxide in respect of heating,
lighting, ventilation and all other energy used in the house including appliances.
At the current time it is not clear which definition
the government will use but it is clear that
meeting either definition will present everyone
with a significant challenge.
In 2008 the government commissioned a
study from The Green Building Council which
concluded that ‘requiring all CO2 emissions
to be mitigated on-site would be physically
impossible on the vast majority of new
dwellings’. In response to this a new approach
to zero carbon where energy efficiency, on-site
renewables and a new concept of ‘Allowable
Solutions’, made up of low and zero carbon
energy generated was devised.
This new method acknowledges that we will
only be able to move to zero carbon housing
through a properly coordinated programme of
improvements.
The first step is to build homes to the highest
practicable standards of energy efficiency
and research is currently being undertaken to
see how far we can realistically push up air
tightness and thermal insulation standards. It
is important to maximise the benefits in this
area as good energy efficiency can significantly
reduce the amount of energy that we will need
to generate to power our homes.
When energy efficiency has minimised the
energy requirements for new homes it is
proposed that as much as possible of the
homes’ remaining energy needs are met by
renewable energy sources installed on site.
Chapter 6 provides more details of the small
scale renewable technologies that can be used
to generate both heat and electricity for homes
and these should meet a significant portion of
the energy requirements of an efficient home.
It is acknowledged that having maximised
the benefits of energy efficiency and on
site renewables, energy will still need to be
imported to the site. If we are to move to zero
carbon housing we will need low carbon
energy to be produced through projects
such as wind farms and tidal schemes so
that this can be imported to the site, and the
government’s ambition of building zero carbon
housing can be achieved.
guidetosustainability
23
UNICORN
WINDOWS LTD
Quality Scaffolding Services
For Your Construction and
Maintenance Projects
We cover all aspects of scaffolding and
specialise in temporary roofing.
With many years experience, whether you
choose us for commercial or domestic
scaffolding, you will be
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24 hour call out service for
any scaffolding emergencies.
Contact us on
01525 211 131
Top Quality PVCu Windows,
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Where Quality & Service Are Not A Myth
www.unicornwindows.co.uk
Email: [email protected]
For A Totally Obligation Free
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0800 092 5212
Head Office & Factory:
Unit 3, Youngs Industrial Estate
Stanbridge Road, Leighton Buzzard, Beds LU7 4QB
Tel: 01525 854272
At Solarcroft we do not use sales staff... all advice and guidance will be
provided by our qualified technical team who do not work on commission.
To find out more about how you could benefit from a Solar PV and/or Solar
Thermal System...
Call us now on 0845 567 1001
or see our FAQ’s section below.
SOLARCORFT IS THE RENEWABLES DIVISION OF
BIRCHCROFT PLC
www.solarcroft.com
24
guidetosustainability
Micro-Generation Systems are an established supplier of
Renewable Energy Systems from design through to
installation and commissioning.
We work both in the domestic and commercial sectors and
have won several awards for our commercial activities.
We are accredited for PV and Solar thermal solar panels, Air
and Ground source heat pumps as well as Biomass boilers.
For professional expert advice on any aspect of
incorporating renewables energy in your project please
contact on the details below.
Solar House, P.O. Box 291, Hertford, SG13 1DU.
Tel: 01992 558 290
www.m-g-systems.co.uk
We understand the excitement that goes
hand-in-hand with planning that new
space to your home. A space where you,
your family and friends can enjoy.
Well guess what? – We too enjoy using
our experience to help our clients
through this process – a process which
we want to be enjoyable, smooth and
hassle free!
If you would like to talk over a project
which is in the planning department
process or you just need ideas of what’s
possible, we’d love to have a no
obligation chat with you.
Just email us on:
[email protected]
Or visit:
www.clarke2renovate.com
or call : 01462 711000
guidetosustainability
25
renewable
energy
One way of reducing the CO2 impact of a development
is to look to maximise the use of renewable energy.
This is energy that does not rely on diminishing fossil
fuels but uses the natural resources around us to create
useful energy with low environmental impact.
Large scale renewable energy installations such as wind farms and
tidal barrages can feed significant amounts of renewable electricity
into the National Grid and going forward these are likely to make a
significant contribution to our moving to a low carbon economy. At a
more local level, nearly all sites have some potential to create energy
through the use of micro renewables and this should not be ignored.
The selection of the most appropriate technology is the key to the
successful implementation of a micro renewable installation and in
this chapter we will explore some of the more common solutions that
are available.
Solar Thermal (Water Heating): with this technology, heat from
the sun is used to heat domestic water. Generally, solar panels are
mounted on the roofs of buildings and these capture heat from the
sun and transfer it to a liquid (a mixture of water and antifreeze) which
is then circulated through a coil in the hot water cylinder to heat the
domestic hot water.
A wide range of panels are now available and they generally fall into
two categories:
1. Flat Plate Collectors: these tend to be the least expensive and
lowest profile systems; they can also be the least visually intrusive.
2. Evacuated Tube Systems: these tend to be more expensive, but as
they are generally more efficient, smaller arrays can be installed
to meet the building’s energy requirements.
26
guidetosustainability
In new build developments, panels can be recessed or designed into
roofs to minimise visual impact.
The effectiveness of Solar Water Heating depends largely on the
amount of sun that is available. Panels should ideally be installed
on unobstructed roof slopes that face south, southeast or southwest.
In the UK, climate back up systems are required, usually from the
central heating boiler, to cope with dull days or times of high hot water
demand. Solar water heating systems in the UK can typically provide
between 55% and 70% of the hot water requirement and for a 3
bedroom house 3-4m1 of panels are normally required.
With the panels installed, there are a number of ways of connecting the
panels to the domestic hot water system. The system designer must
ensure that suitable controls and safety devices are in place and the
most common systems use a dual coil hot water cylinder. The solar
panels are connected to a coil in the bottom of the hot water cylinder
and the back up system connects to a coil in the upper part of the
cylinder.
Solar Electric (Photo Voltaic): this technology captures energy from
the sun and using semiconductor material, converts it to electricity.
This can then be fed through an inverter into the buildings’ electricity
system or, subject to suitable connections and licences, fed into the
National Grid.
Most systems use roof mounted panels which are ideally sited on an
unobstructed south, southeast or southwest facing roof. For new build
or re-roofing projects, photovoltaic slates or tiles could be considered
as these integrate into the roof of the building and are less visually
intrusive.
The amount of electricity generated by the panels is dependent on the
sunlight available and the area of panels installed.
Heat Pumps (ground source and air source): heat pumps extract
heat from their surroundings and using a compressor upgrade it to a
higher temperature. They are generally driven by electricity and work on
the same principle as a domestic fridge. The efficiency of a heat pump
is measured by its coefficient of performance (COP) and generally,
for every unit of energy fed into a heat pump, 3-4 units of heat are
produced, depending on the COP of the heat pump chosen.
All heat pumps require a source of heat and the most common heat
pumps use either ground or air as their heat source.
Ground source heat pumps extract heat from the ground around
the building. An underground network of pipes are installed either in
vertical or horizontal loops depending on the nature of the site.
A mixture of water and antifreeze is then circulated through the pipes;
the heat is extracted from the liquid and compressed by the heat
pump to produce useful heat that can be fed into heating and hot
water systems.
Air source heating systems work on a similar principle, but instead of
using an underground network of pipes, they take their heat directly
from the surrounding air. This can significantly reduce installation costs,
but the resulting systems tend to have a lower COP and are therefore
less efficient.
guidetosustainability
27
If you want the FACTS come to the experts
01442 236664
CCTV SURVEYS INCLUDING FULL WRITTEN REPORT, DRAINAGE
LAYOUT, DVD AND RECOMMENDATIONS
• Sinks, baths and showers unblocked
• High pressure water jetting
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• Mechanical root cutting and removal
• In-Situ pipe relining
• Preventative maintenance
Email: [email protected]
www.drain-spec.co.uk
DRAIN-SPEC ARE NOT A FRANCHISE COMPANY, BUT A RELIABLE
FAMILY OWNED BUSINESS
FAST RELIABLE SERVICE AT COMPETITIVE RATES
Wilson and Sons Ltd
Building Alterations
and Restorations
T: 07767 211822
01992 463159
E: [email protected]
W: www.wilsonandsonsltd.co.uk
28
guidetosustainability
It is generally thought heat pumps work best
when they are operating at relatively low
temperatures. This makes them especially
compatible with low temperature heating
systems such as under floor heating and with
well insulated buildings that have a high thermal
mass.
Because they require electricity to run them, heat
pumps are not strictly speaking a renewable
energy source, so to gain environmental benefits
it is important that an efficient heat pump is
selected and that the building is designed to
maximise the benefits that the heat pump offers.
Another advantage of heat pumps is that they
can often be reversed to provide summer cooling
if required.
Biomass: this system uses plants, generally
trees, as a fuel source. Timber is burnt to produce
heat which is then used to heat buildings, either
directly through a central heating system or to
heat water. Plants respire using a process known
as photosynthesis. As plants grow they take in
carbon dioxide and emit oxygen, the carbon
dioxide is held within the plant until, when used
in a biomass heating system, it is burnt. Providing
that another tree is planted to absorb the carbon
dioxide emitted by the tree being burnt, a sealed
carbon cycle is created and the energy can be
considered renewable.
Biomass can be used in buildings in a number
of ways. At its simplest, a log burning stove uses
biomass to produce direct heat. At the more
complex end, biomass boilers using wood
pellets can provide effective heating for very
large buildings. Issues to be borne in mind when
considering biomass include the availability of the
fuel and the storage of the fuel, which is bulky.
Also, biomass is not the most controllable of fuels,
as some biomass devices cannot automatically
shut down and restart.
Wind Turbines (small scale): wind turbines use
the power in the wind to rotate blades which turn
an electricity generator. The electricity generated
is then passed through an inverter into the
building’s electricity system or, subject to suitable
connections and licences, fed into the National
Grid.
The amount of electricity generated depends on
the wind available and generally the higher that
the turbine is located the more reliable the wind
source will be. Large scale, well located wind
turbines have proved to be a very effective way
of generating electricity. In domestic situations,
building mounted turbines have suffered with
the effects of turbulence caused by adjoining
trees, buildings and structures. When considering
small scale wind power it is important to get an
accurate local appraisal carried out to establish
how much electricity the turbine will realistically
generate in the proposed location.
When considering any renewable installation it
is important to think about the effects it will have
on the supporting building, such as the additional
loading panels will place on roofs etc, along
with any ongoing maintenance requirements
for cleaning etc. When choosing a technology it
is also important to think about potential future
developments and to try and avoid things like
placing panels where the sun could be blocked
out by growing trees or future extensions, as far
as possible.
In some circumstances it may be appropriate to
use more than one type of renewable energy
source and the technologies can often be used in
combination to produce highly efficient buildings.
guidetosustainability
29
R. TAYLOR
& SON LTD
FENCING
& GATES
ALL TYPES SUPPLIED & ERECTED
267 Baldwins Lane, Croxley Green, Rickmansworth, Herts, WD3 3LH
Tel: 01923 778437 Fax: 01923 770314
Email: [email protected]
www.tayfix.com
We offer a variety of Building & Construction services,
our main services include:
Groundworks & Civil Engineering
- Groundworks - Drainage - Bulk Excavation - Concrete Works - External Works & Pavings
Building & Construction
- General Building - New Builds - Brickwork - Extensions - Renovations
Soft Strip & Demolition
- Soft Strip - Demolition - Site Clearance
Plant Hire & Labour Supply
- Mini Excavators - JCB’s - Tracked Excavators - CSCS Certified Labourers - CSCS Certified
Tradesmen
Professional Services
- Project Management - Estimating - Quantity Surveying - Site Engineering - Plant Hire
www.mcgoverngroup.co.uk
Tel: 01727 370592 Fax: 01727 370593
12 Aubrey Avenue, St Albans, Hertfordshire AL2 1LX
30
guidetosustainability
S&S
Building Construction Ltd
Loft Conversion Specialists – Hounslow
Are you beginning to out grow your current property? Before
you think about moving or having an extension, consider
converting your loft into an extra room. At S & S Building
Construction Ltd, we provide a complete service from
design through to completion including the installation of
electrics, plumbing and heating.
The benefit of a loft conversion means you get a larger
property without the enormous costs of moving house,
so why not get in touch with us, your local loft conversion
specialists, to discover what we can do for you.
Tel: 0208 570 2450 | 07956 992222
74 Kingsley Rd, Hounslow, Greater London TW3 1QA
Email: [email protected]
Web: www.ssbuilding.co.uk
guidetosustainability
31
Water
Management
Water is a key element for living and in terms of sustainability, water
management can be considered in two main areas; clean water use
and management of rainwater.
Clean Water Use: as the UK population grows and our standard of living improves
the demands placed on our water systems increase. The problems this can cause are
exaggerated when the large populations live in concentrated areas as happens in
large towns and cities, especially when most of these are located in the South East of
the UK as this area has the lowest levels of annual rainfall.
The UK does not currently have a national water grid so even with our temperate
climate and relatively high annual rainfall careful water management will be required to
meet our future water demands.
Treating water so that it is suitable for drinking also requires relatively high levels of
energy input, and as much of this energy will produce CO2, good water management
makes sense if we are looking to reduce our CO2 output.
32
guidetosustainability
When looking to manage water consumption a
key factor is reducing use. A number of options are
available to help achieve this and these include:
1. Aerating Taps: these work by mixing air into
water as it comes out of the tap. They have the
effect of increasing the surface area of the water
meaning that you need less for things like hand
washing. Aerated taps are best suited to wash
hand basins and other areas where things are
washed in the water stream. They are less well
suited to sinks and baths as here a fixed quantity
of water tends to be needed to fill the bath or
bowl.
2. Aerating Shower Heads: these work on a
similar principle to aerating taps. The design
of the shower head reduces the flow of water
required to give a comfortable pressure for the
user in the shower thereby reducing consumption.
3. Small and Shaped Baths: the amount of water
used by a bath is largely determined by its
volume. By fitting smaller or carefully shaped
baths, water consumption can be reduced
without significant effects on the user’s comfort.
4. Efficient White Goods: a significant amount of
water is used by appliances such as washing
machines and dishwashers. A lot of modern
appliances incorporate water saving technologies
to reduce their water consumption.
5. Dual Flush WCs: these have two different flush
volumes so that water is not wasted when only
a small flush is required. Typical dual flush toilets
have a 4 litre and 2 litre flush and this can add up
to a significant water saving over the course of a
day.
6. Greywater: greywater systems collect water that
has been used for washing and, after filtering,
reuse it for things such as toilet flushing where
drinking water is not required. Greywater can
significantly reduce the amount of water used
but it is essential that greywater is not allowed to
contaminate the drinking water supply.
7. Rainwater Harvesting: this involves collecting
rainwater for things such as watering plants and
garden. At its simplest, a water butt can be added
to a rainwater down pipe or more complex tank
and pump systems can be installed depending
on the amount of water that is required.
guidetosustainability
33
JAMES
ELECTRICAL
INSTALLATIONS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extensions
Loft conversions
Kitchens
Bathrooms
Rewires
Repairs and faults
Replacement
consumer units
(fuse boards)
• Certificates given
to meet part P
regulations
R&D Electrical Services
R&D Electrical Services are a fully qualified family run team of
electricians with a combined experience of over 80 years.
We are fully qualified to City and Guilds 17th Edition & are
a member of ELECSA & Trust a Trader & are Part P registered.
We specialise in all types of electrical installation.
Domestic, commercial and industrial, no job is too big or small.
Mobile 07725 822134
Home 01279 777296
Email [email protected]
• PAT Testing, Fault Finding & Tracing
• Complete, Partial Re-Wires, Fuse Board Upgrades
• Power To Outbuildings, Extra Power Points
• External Water Proof Sockets, Discreet Wiring
• New Circuits, Down Lights, Security Lighting
• Garden Lighting, Driveway Lighting
• Passive Infra-red Sensors, Dimmer Controls
• Lighting Repairs, Shaver Sockets, Extractor Fans
• Storage, Convector & Panel Heaters
• Under Floor & Under Tile Heating
• Wiring For Media & Plasmas
• Trunking Systems (Skirting & Dado)
07885 656518
www.r-delectricalservices.co.uk
[email protected]
E.D.ELSON LTD.
BUILDERS MERCHANTS
EST 1968
• TRADE • RETAIL
• WHOLESALE
• 24 HOUR FREE DELIVERY
• COMPETITIVE PRICES
• HIAB TRUCKS AVAILABLE FOR FAST UNLOADING
01727 790 750
Mon-Fri 7.30-5.00pm
1 BRICK KNOLL PARK ASHLEY ROAD
ST ALBANS AL1 5UG
FAX: 01727 845318
www.edelsonltd.co.uk
34
guidetosustainability
From April 2010 the UK Building Regulations
require that all new housing constructed has
a design water use per person of not more
than 125 litres per person per day. A standard
calculation method will be used to work out
how much water each house will consume
when used in a typical way. The Code for
Sustainable Homes takes this requirement
further and points are awarded for reducing
design water consumption down to as low as
80 litres per person per day. The allowance in
the Building Regulations is likely to be reduced
in the future as houses are expected to meet
more demanding standards.
Rainwater Management: current weather
patterns mean that rainfall tends to fall in short
sharp bursts, and as a result of this we get
large volumes of water to deal with in relatively
short spaces of time. As our country becomes
more developed more areas are covered
in hard surfaces such as roads and paving
and the water from these surfaces has to be
drained.
When the volume of water flowing exceeds the
capacity of drainage systems flooding occurs
and the risk of this needs to be minimised.
There are several methods available to reduce
the risk of flooding and some of the more
common methods are explored below.
1. Infiltration Drainage: this relies on the
ability of the ground to absorb water. Most
subsoils will soak up some water, more
porous soils such as sands and gravels
can generally absorb larger amounts of
water than less porous soils like clays. If
water can be absorbed by the ground
close to where it falls it does not need to
be drained away and the risk of flooding
is reduced. Porous paving and soakaway
drains are common types of infiltration
drainage that can be used to reduce the
loading on our drainage systems.
“Treating water so
that it is suitable
for drinking also
requires relatively
high levels of energy
input, and as much
of this energy will
produce CO2”
2. Attenuation: a lot of our drainage
infrastructure, sewers and culverts etc. is
old and was not designed for the drainage
loads that we now need it to carry. To
reduce the risk of flooding we need to
ensure that the amount of water that
goes into our drains does not exceed their
capacity. One way of achieving this is to
use attenuation where a control pipe is
used to limit the water flowing off a site
to a level that can be coped with by the
surrounding drainage system. The water
that cannot escape is held on the site in a
tank or pond until it can safely flow away
after the storm has passed over. Balancing
ponds and storm tanks are common types
of attenuation drainage.
If we are to build in a sustainable way it is
essential that clean water use and rainwater
run off are properly managed.
guidetosustainability
35
ELEC
Eddie’s Local
Electrical Contractors
Electrical Services
Solar Panel PV
Installation and
Maintenance
We are a well-established family run business who carry out all electrical work, including certification, within
Greater London and Hertfordshire. Our prices are competitive and our work is completed to a high professional
standard. We can provide references. Our electricians are fully qualified, approved, reliable, honest and
professional.
As a Napit approved contractor, we have been designated as competent tradesmen and work to all government
building regulations. We are also members of TrustMark, a consumer protection scheme that protects our
customers.
We also provide solar panel installation services and are an MCS approved installer, ensuring our work meets
strict government standards. As MCS approved installers all of our solar PV installations are eligible for the
Feed-In-Tariff and we can help our customers apply for this on the solar PV installations we carry out. This means
any solar panel installation we do for you will earn you an income as well as provide you with free renewable
energy. We are members of REAL Assurance, following a strict code set out by the Renewable Energy Association
which governs the way we work and deal with our customers.
288 Mays Lane, Barnet EN5 2AP
Telephone: 020 8449 0279 • Mobile: 07913 050 780
36
guidetosustainability
SPECIALISTS IN DOMESTIC AIR TIGHTNESS
Home Integrity Testing specialise in domestic Air
Tightness Testing and Consultancy to the building
industry throughout the UK. We pride ourselves in
providing a professional service focusing on
customer satisfaction and positive results.
Our range of services include:
• BINDT registered air tightness testing to ATTMA TS1 using
UKAS accredited instrumentation
• Pre-test inspection and consultancy
• Nationwide coverage
• Flexible approach and pricing packages
• Authoritative reports and expert advice
(before, during and after testing)
• Leakage path identification
• Testing of residential dwellings for the public to:
• Identify draughts and cold spots
• Improve home comfort
• Lower heating bills
For further details on our products and services, please contact us:
Tel: 0845 257 4480 Email: [email protected]
Home Integrity Testing Ltd, 13 Furse Avenue, St Albans, Hertfordshire AL4 9NF
➧
Home Integrity
Testing Ltd
GROOME
& SONS LIMITED
Building Contractors
We specialise in New Buildings, Renovations,
Kitchens and much much more:
Our services include:
• General building work • New Buildings
• Extensions • Renovations • Kitchens
• Bathrooms • Roofing • Patios
• Driveways • Loft Conversions
All Guaranteed, Fully Insured & VAT Registered.
Groome & Sons is a family run business with
over 25 years experience in the trade. We
have worked hard over this time to build up
a reputation based on quality workmanship
and reliability.
Telephone: 01920 413367
Mobile: 07958 231815
Fax: 01920 413778
Web: www.slgroome.co.uk
121 St Margarets Road, Stanstead Abbotts, Ware,
Hertfordshire SG12 8ER
UK
ECOENERGY
UK Eco Energy Ltd are a professional company based in Hertfordshire. As a
company we are constantly evolving when it comes to using the latest and most
energy efficient products available in the market place today. We also pride ourselves
on using the most innovative techniques and finding solutions to the most
challenging situations.
We specialise in Plumbing and Heating offering the following:
• Boiler installations
& servicing
• Radiators
• Bathroom suites
• Kitchen sinks & appliances
• Under floor heating
• Showers
• Landlord Gas safe certificates
• Solar
• Heat pumps
UK Eco Energy, Eco House, 143 North Road, Hertford Herts. SG14 2BX
Tel: 01992 53 80 80 • www.ukecoenergy.co.uk
guidetosustainability
37
We can design and install luxury bespoke bathrooms, refurbish a
Examples of our work recently carried out
Generating Your Own Energy
Airsource Heat Pumps absorb heat from the outside air, which can
then be used in your home.
Solar Water Heating systems use heat from the sun to warm domestic
saving options that would be best suited to your project.
WHAT WE DO
• Bathroom Design and Installation
• All plumbing and related building work
undertaken. No job too small
• Full central heating systems installed
• Home Energy Generation
• Airsource Heat Pumps
• Solar water heating
...............................................................................................................
Contact us to discuss your requirements
and obtain a free, no obligation quote:
GEORGE GARNER 07989 863240 or 01992 308081
visit us at www.parklaneplumbing.org
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guidetosustainability
The Existing
Housing
Stock
There are currently around 26 million dwellings in the United
Kingdom. In an average year new house building accounts for
less than 1% of total housing so it is clear that, even if we are
successful in reaching the demanding targets proposed for
new housing over the next few years, it will have a relatively
modest effect on our overall energy use unless we take steps
to improve our existing housing stock. To put it another way
90% of our homes for 2020 have already been built.
Refurbishment of existing houses presents a wealth of challenges and
opportunities and there are a number of areas where improvements can be
made.
1. Building Insulation: the first area to consider is the insulation levels
in our homes. Significant energy savings can be made by improving
insulation to walls and lofts. Insulation materials are relatively
inexpensive and government incentives are sometimes available
to encourage home owners to carry out this type of work. Top up
insulation can often be added to lofts and homes with cavity walls can
have insulation injected.
In the UK 43% of homes have solid walls and these are more
difficult to insulate as the walls have to be lined with insulation. This
can significantly reduce room sizes if placed inside and can cause
problems with roof overhangs and junctions if installed externally.
The construction industry has been challenged to come up with new
products to overcome these issues and research into products such
as thin insulating gel materials which may overcome this problem is
currently being carried out.
guidetosustainability
39
RR
REGAL RENOVATIONS
Restoration - Design - Build
We have over 30 years experience in renovation and restoration of period
properties. The service we can provide could be as small as a patio, to a fully built
property.
This property is Mole Cottage, the
oldest recorded building in
Cobham, Surrey. As you can see an
amazing transformation and
returned to its
original splendour.
AFTER
BEFORE
This is a barn conversion in Hertfordshire.
We created 5 separate dwellings, each one
individual and unique offering stylish and
contemporary living
space.
AFTER
BEFORE
Contact us today for a free, no obligation quote
Steve Garner 07768 985586 or Blair Wallace-Stocks 07939 772924
www.regalrenovations.co.uk
Historical Restoration - Extensions - New Builds - Barn Conversions
Electrical & Plumbing works - Decorating - Tiling - Interior Design
40
guidetosustainability
2. Doors and Windows: another area where
houses lose a lot of heat is through the
doors and windows. Heat is lost directly
through the door and windows themselves
and also through any gaps around them.
Modern windows have to be draught
proofed, double glazed and have a heat
reflective coating on the glass. When all of
these improvements are combined a well
fitted modern window saves approximately
2/3rds of the heat that would be lost
through an equivalent single glazed
window. As heat loss through doors and
windows account for a large part of the
total heat loss from the house it is clear
that replacement doors and windows can
make significant improvements to the
performance of existing buildings.
3. Air Tightness: As well as the heat that
is lost though the fabric of the building
a significant amount of heat is lost
through draughts and other air leakage
into houses, for example, around service
entries and windows etc. Effective draught
proofing work can make significant energy
savings.
4. Efficient Services: As well as minimising
the heat loss from our buildings if we are
to improve the performance of existing
houses we must also make sure that
we generate the heat that we need as
efficiently as possible. The most sustainable
way to generate heat is arguably to use
a renewable energy source (see below).
Where this is not possible or where the
renewable system needs a back up we
should consider energy efficiency when
replacing boilers and heating systems.
In recent years heating systems have
become much more efficient and modern
condensing boilers can achieve efficiency
ratings of well over 90%. Combination
boilers can reduce losses from standing
hot water cylinders and, where hot water
cylinders are still required, the design of
hot water cylinders has also improved
significantly in recent years. Improved
heating systems can help to reduce
demand for fossil fuel.
5. Renewable Energy Sources: Chapter 6
provided details of some of the renewable
energy sources that can be used in
buildings. Many of these systems can be
installed onto existing houses and whilst
the systems can be expensive to install
the energy savings can also be significant.
Renewable energy sources have the
potential to significantly reduce CO2
production from existing houses.
“In the UK 43% of
homes have solid
walls and these are
more difficult to
insulate”
6. Controls: as energy becomes more scarce
and expensive it is important that we use
it carefully. Modern heating and ventilation
controls allow houses to use energy
more effectively. Zoning and thermostatic
controls can ensure that we only use the
energy that we need and this can reduce
our overall energy demand.
When considering work on existing buildings
a decision has to be made about when it is
best to carry out improvement works. When it
involves replacing things such as windows or
boilers that have not necessarily reached the
end of their useful life, a balance needs to be
struck between the energy costs of the early
replacement of an element and the energy
savings that the new element could deliver.
Other factors may also need to be considered
if for example the building is Listed or in a
Conservation Area and of course the budget
that is available to carry out improvements.
All of these considerations will influence
decisions about what work is carried out
and when. However, it is clear that if we are
to significantly change UK energy demands
improvements will have to be made to our
existing housing stock.
guidetosustainability
41
NEWSTYLE OF TRING
WINDOWS, CONSERVATORIES AND GENERAL BUILDERS
For all your property maintenance needs!
• Established in 1996 we are a family run
business who pride ourselves on quality
workmanship, customer care and service.
• Free inspection and estimates undertaken.
• All types of domestic building work,
specialists in replacement windows
and bespoke conservatories.
• FENSA registered. BFRC “A” rated windows.
No gimmicks , no nonsense, just good old fashioned value for money!
For further information please contact us at:
Unit 21, Silk Mill Industrial Estate, Brook Street, Tring, Herts HP23 5EF
T. 01442 822860
E. [email protected]
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guidetosustainability
Conclusion
The introduction to this guide suggested that there were a number of
reasons why sustainability is an important issue. The guide has looked at
the specific issue of what sustainability means from a Planning and Building
Control point of view and hopefully the information provided within it has
been useful and informative.
In terms of sustainability, as well as preserving resources, the Planning
process touches on a wide range of other sustainability related issues.
Anyone proposing development should for example make themselves
aware of their responsibilities in respect of issues such as archaeology,
biodiversity and protected species as these will often affect development. It
can easily be argued that one of the key aims of the whole Planning process
is to ensure that development is sustainable.
On a global scale the scope of sustainability of course goes far beyond the
influences of the Planning and Building Control systems into major geopolitical issues such as allocation and use of natural resources and the
desirability of economic growth and prosperity. Much has been written about
this elsewhere and these issues will no doubt continue to be discussed.
Whilst acknowledging that the Planning and Building process is a small part
in the larger sustainability jigsaw it is hoped that this guide has shown that
our buildings make a significant contribution to our environmental footprint
and that through careful design and construction we can minimise their
environmental impact whilst still producing quality buildings.
guidetosustainability
43
DESIGNER ELECTRICAL SERVICES
Looking for
reliable, qualified
electricians in
Hertfordshire or
North London?
We can offer the following services:
. Test & Inspection, PAT Testing, Rewires, Fuse board
changes and upgrades
. Telecom and Data installation, Aerial Installation,
Garden and Street Lighting
. Commercial and office lighting, Landlords certificate,
Emergency lighting, General maintenance
. Boiler Control Wiring
. LED Lighting Schemes
T. 01923 265750 M. 07976 403102
E. [email protected]
20 The Graylings, Abbots Langley,
Hertfordshire WD5 0JQ
44
guidetosustainability
Bathroom Plus
Bathroom Specialists
The Portakabin
Rignals Industrial Estate
Galleywood
Essex
CM2 8QX
Mobile: 07816 686543
Email:
[email protected]
ADR
DECORATING
S E RV I C E S
We are a modern company but traditionally trained to full city
and guilds advanced standard. To extensive knowledge of paint
finishes and wall coverings.
Why choose ADR Decorating, affordable excellence, a painting
and decorating service of exceptional quality at a price to suit
you, that's what makes ADR Painting & Decorating special
No job to small
From Victorian town houses, modern apartments, new builds
to your place of business. Our services include all ranges of
interior and exterior decoration. To the highest standards.
Based in Cheshunt and happy to do projects anywhere in the
Hertfordshire area.
Our services include:
• Domestic and Commercial painting and decorating
• Repairs and insurance work
• Commercial work includes hotels, offices and schools
• Private work includes external work
Contact us on:
Mob: 07852 316520/07903 159517
Home Tel: 01992 628665
Email: [email protected]
Web: www.adrdecorating.co.uk
guidetosustainability
45
Boss
Installations Ltd
Established 1995
Specialist Kitchen & Bathroom Fitters,
Decent Home Specialists & General Builders
●
Carpentry
●
Flooring
●
Plumbing
●
Brickwork
●
Decorating
●
Tiling
●
Electrics
●
Roofing
●
Plastering
●
Extensions
We also undertake Voids work for Local Authority
07966 165 907 / 07854 954810
or 02084 210030
[email protected]
www.bossinstallations.co.uk
46
guidetosustainability
guidetosustainability
47
OUTSTANDING JOB OUTSTANDING SERVICE
20 yrs exp.
• Family run business
• Domestic & commercial
• Liability cover fully insured
£10 million
• Free estimates
• Very competitive rates
• 24 hours 7 days a week
• Specialists in temporary
roofing
01707 877710
07737 790322
48
guidetosustainability
Contacts
Broxbourne Borough Council
St Albans City and District Council
Building Control,
Broxbourne Borough Council,
Bishops’ College, Churchgate,
Cheshunt, Hertfordshire EN8 9XE
Telephone: (01992) 785566
Fax: (01992) 643386
Email: [email protected]
Building Control, District Council Offices,
Civic Centre, St Albans,
Hertfordshire AL1 3JE
Telephone: (01727) 819289
Fax: (01727) 845658
Email: [email protected]
Dacorum Borough Council
Building Control, Civic Centre, Marlowes,
Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire HP1 1HH
Telephone: (01442) 228000
Fax: (01442) 228581
Email: [email protected]
East Hertfordshire District Council
Building Control Consultancy,
East Herts District Council, Wallfields,
Pegs Lane, Hertford SG13 8EQ
Telephone: (01992) 531462
Fax: (01992) 531439
Email: [email protected]
Hertsmere Borough Council
Building Control, Civic Offices,
Elstree Way, Borehamwood,
Hertfordshire, WD6 1WA
Telephone: (020) 8207 7456
Fax: (020) 8207 7470
Email: [email protected]
North Hertfordshire District Council
Building Control, PO Box 480,
M33 0DE
Telephone: (01462) 474355
Fax: (01462) 474229
Email: [email protected]
Stevenage Borough Council
Building Control, Stevenage Borough Council,
Daneshill House, Danestrete,
Hertfordshire SG1 1HN
Telephone: (01438) 242264
Fax: (01438) 242922
Email: [email protected]
Three Rivers District Council
Building Control, The Town Hall,
Watford, Hertfordshire WD17 3EX
Telephone: (01923) 727125
Fax: (01923) 278304
Email: [email protected]
Watford Borough Council
Building Control, The Town Hall,
Watford, Hertfordshire WD17 3EX
Telephone: (01923) 278303
Fax: (01923) 278304
Email: [email protected]
Welwyn Hatfield Borough Council
Building Control, Council Offices,
The Campus, Welwyn Garden City,
Hertfordshire AL8 6AE
Telephone: (01707) 357391 Fax: (01707) 357255
Email: [email protected]
We very gratefully acknowledge the support of the firms whose advertisements appear throughout
this publication.
As a reciprocal gesture we have pleasure in drawing the attention of our readers to their announcements.
It is necessary however for it to be made clear that, whilst every care has been taken in compiling this
publication and the statements it contains, neither the promoter involved nor the Publisher can accept
responsibility for any inaccuracies, or for the products or services advertised.
Designed and published by Ten Alps Publishing, Trelawney House, Chestergate, Macclesfield, Cheshire
SK11 6DW. Tel: (01625) 613000. www.tenalpspublishing.com Ref: BUN (June 2012)
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