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••
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~n lllti.strattb mag atin t of 1Practict an~ t!t~t-or~
FOR ALL WORK MEN, PROFE SSION AL AND AMAT EUR.
[All Biql•u .......~d.]
SATURDAY, APRIL 18, 1889.
VoL. I.-No. 4.]
keep the bottom of plane full -fi in.,
to have s11fficient metal in case of possible
BY J. H . I
curvature of the casting in cooling.
The shape of the pattern is seen in lo'igs. 1
1-A.N !RoN TRYING PL..ufE.
and 2. The sides will be nailed on the
IlrDoDUCTIO Y-P.a:rrERN ;ro.a SToclt- H OW TO
Mu& PATT.EkY-CA SriNG-T.BOIW I'G UP SOLB bottom, ~rfectly squa.re therewith, and the
.AlfD 8JDE8-FILIN G-FirriNG WOOD BLOCit· merest trifle of taper should be given to
ING-PLA.NE IRON-FlLING ldOUrH-WBD GB- their inside faces, so that their thickness at
P OLI.SB INO-Ll:VEIL
the upper edge shall show slack by the
IN this series of papers I propose to describe callipers, when by com_pa.rison they are tight
the constructio n of many of those common at tlie bottom ed£i~ '!'his taper is for clean
tool.a which, though more or less ~ly to delivery in moul · g.
purchase, amateurs can very well contnve to
A striP> A, is glued across the inside face
construct for their
own use. There are
many such in our
workshops - tools
which workmen
them.selves seldom
think of yurchasing,
and wh1ch require
no ve~ffreatamount
of s ·
in their
l'.ig. a.
construction ,
but
chiefty cons1derable
patience and much
care. I think it well,
in the absence of a
very strict classification, to divide
these tools into four
main sections, as
f ollows :-first,
HOME-MADE TOOLS.
[PRICE ONE PENNY.
pattern. Theyaretak enoutsubse quentlysidc wa.ys from the mould. Clean the pattern off
with fine glass paper, varnish, and rub down.
Be careful to take the pattern to a
foundry where soft and clean castings are
made. A bard, rough casting will be quite
useless for the purpose. Stipulate that if
the surfaces show olowholes when filed or
planed, that the casting shall be replaced
free of cost. This precaution is nece/lSary in
order to guard against any loss that might
otherwise be brought' about through the
occurrence of a. defect of this kind which
will sometimes happen in the process
of casting.
The most difficult
task now followsthat of trueing up
the sole and sides of
the casting. 'l'hese,
especially the sole?
must be strai~htana
free from winding.
For use on the shooting board it is also
necessary that the
sides be truly at
ri~ht angles thereWith.
It will much facilitate matters if.a. '
light cut can be
•
I
•
<----- -'I -3-------·>
•
Fig. 1.
•
- •%---~
I
I
k..,.. _________ J._ t l,"' - - - ...................... -1
'
1 ....-z:
le:--------- -- . . -;----.. ----------- ----------- -- --.. -----l
I z
•
I
I
17 - ---------- --------- .. ---------- ---- - - - - - - - - - __.,.
Jlome.JIIa4e Toola. Fig. 1.-lron TryiDg Plane : Lougitudtna! SeCUOD. Fig. 2.-Ditto: Tranaverae Section. Fig. 8.-Ditto: Enlarged Section o! Mouth.
planes ; second, tools used in measurement ; third, miscellaneous tools; fourth,
pneral ahop tools. This will be snfficient
for our J.>UI])Ose, and in carrying out my
plan, aa mdtcated above, I shall keep this
ana.ngemen t in view and follow it.
Let our first example be an iron trying
plane, & tool which no wood worker who
upiret to do the verr best class of work
an well afford to be w1thout. Such a plane
coeta &bout thirty shilling& in the shops,
bot it e&n be made for five ehillinga.
Fir.; we want a pattern for the stock.
Thia ahould be made of mahogany, planed
Yery true and free from winding to & thick, • • of {',1 in. bare, say i; in. bare. But
of the bottom, just behind the mouth, to
form a. good bedding for the iron, and also
as a. shoUlder for the abutment of the hinder
piece of blocking ; and two pieces, B, c, at
back and front, to terminate and stiffen the
ends, and to act as abutments for the blocking.
Two pieces, D, are fitted against the sides to
take the resistance of the tightening wedge
if a wedge l1J used. If a leve1· is employea1
no such pieces will be required. These will
not be fastened into the pattern, since they
would then prevent delivery by pulling_up
the overlying aand in the mould. They
must each he fitted with a vertical sliding
dovete.il, so that they will be left behind in
the mould on the withdrawal of the main
taken off all over in the planing machine.
But to pay for planing would run up the
cost of the plarie by about ten shillings.
Hence, in most instances, the nmateur
or caoinet maker will have to true the
stock by filing only-not o. very severe task
after all, provided he is fairly skilful iu
the use of the file.
Briefly, then, remove the outside hard
skin eithep by grind~, or with an old,
nearly worn-out file. Having done so, take
a. bastard file and go all over the surfaces
carefull;r_nntil they a.re very approximat ely
level. Their accuracy would oo ~est tested
on a fitter's surface pie.-, aupp<?emg the use
of one can be obta.ined, . But if not, then a
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.,
so
LATHES AND TURNING APPLIANCES.
steel straigbtedge of sufficient length will blowholes, the selection of dry, hard wood for
answer the purpose, trying the plane length- the blocking pieces, good fitt\ng of the same,
ways, crosswa~ and diagonallY, i. the latter without such severe driving as would tend to
for winding. It is quite poss1b1e to use a break the casting, good bedding of the iron
very true mahogany straighted!{e for this and wedge on its seat, and the most scrupupurpose ii a steel one is not available. As lous nicety in the width of the mouth.
If we elect to use a lever instead of a
the later stages of filing are a pproached, the
coincidence of the surfaces of the plane and wedge, the pieces, D, in Fig. 1 are omitted,
of the surface plate, or straightedge, is care- and the wedtre is made of brass, cast from a.
fuJ.ly tested by smearing a thin film of red pattern. It 1S pivoted, and tightened on the
lead and oil made to the consistence of thin uon byme.ans of a screw of coarse pitch and
paste over the plate or straightedge, and lnrge, coarsely milled lead.
This method is preferable to the wedge,
observing the extent of its transference to
the faces of the plane. Finer files will after- but involves more work and slightly more
wards be used, finishing with a dead smooth expense. In the next article, liowever, I
will describe a smoothing plane fitted in
file. Scraping is hardly necessary.
The most troublesome portion of the·work this manner, and therefore give no details
is now accomplished. The next task is the of such fitting here.
fitting of the wood blocking. This blocking
(To be contimttd.)
u1ay lieconvenientlymadeof rosewood, beech,
oak, or hard Honduras mahogany. Whatever wood is used it must be perfectly dry. LATHES AND TURNI~G AP PLIANCES.
It ought to have lain in the shop under the
BY F. A. )!.
bench for two or three ye11.rs at least. Then,
H
being once fitted, there is no reasonable like!I.-INTRODUCTORY (contin?ted).- ow TO
lihood of shrinkage and splitting occurring.
TEST A LATHE.
The pieces may be fitted flush with the
inside faces of the sides of the casting, THERE is an enormous difference in the
or they may preferably be shouldered over price of lathes of apparently simil:tr design,
the edges and made flush with the out- so that the supposed purcha8er I hope to
side faces. The latter plan is shown in help by these directions is by no means
Figs. 1 and 2. The fittmg of the blocks dehvered from his perplexities when he has
into the interior and over the edges fixed upon the kind or design of lathe he
should be quite finished before the upper wishes to possess. Why, for instance, should
outlines are cut. No hard driving must be he pay three times as much to one maker as
done, else the iron will probably become is asked by another 1 Ask the expensive
broken. Gentle tapping only must be given, maker and he will answer, scornfully, he
and red lead or chalk may be rubbed over does not wish to enter into competition
the iron to indicate where conb.ct of the with such work as that you have menblocking occurs. When fitted, drill and tioned1 and that if his men ~ot such a thing
countersink four holes in each side to secure in the1r shop they would quickly "throw it
the blocks in place permanently with wood on the scrap hea-p ." Ask the cheap manuscrews. The hinder block will have a. handle facturer wherein the " 'ork of the dearer
fitted into a mortise recessed therein, and maker surpasses his, and he will descant on
the end which comes next the mouth will be the worthlessness of polish and lacquer, and
be\"etled to a.n angle of 45• for the bedding hint at the enormous profits made by some
of the iron. This bedding face must be very people, till the prospective customer becomes
free from winding, else the iron will rock, bewildered. Having passed through all these
and so cause the shavings to choke the troubles and perplexities I should like, if
mouth of the plane. The end of the front possible, to help those whoarestill'Sutl'erm~.
FirstJ then, let me say that, while there IS
block will be bevelled back as shown for the
certainly a. great deal of real rubbish in
clearance of the shavings.
At this stage it will be desirable to procure the market, you may avoid that if you
the iron, which should properly be a go to a reputable maker and attend to
"gauged" or parallel iron, .because, unlike the following directions. Secondly, it is
the common or tat?ered iron, its wearing probable that amongst respectable makers,
backwards by regrmding does not cause whether cheap or dear, you will get your
that enlargement of the mouth of the plane money's worth. The profit is not very
different with the one or the other, except
which occurs with the tapered iron.
The filing of the mouth, about which I that if you buy a lathe of which a great
have said nothing, will be undertaken now many have been made, it will cost a good
that we suppose we have the iron bedded deal less than ii only a few of that kind had
on its block, and both front and back blocks been produced, so that it is no doubt true
screwed in place, as shown. It must be that makers of cheap lathes are contented
filed, at both back and front edges, perfectly with less profit than makers of expensive
sq_ua.re with the edges of the plane, and amateurs' lathes, of which only a few are
mth reference to its own iron and wedge, r equired. "Perhaps the reason for the great
in such a manner that the slightest possible discrepancy in ~he price of lathes will appear
for the shavings shall be fromthefolloWIDglittlestory :-AnAmeNcan
clearance open~·
permitted. See · . 3 showing a aection of applied to Henry Maudslay, some years ago,
' the mouth enlars . The wedge is fitted at for an accurat~ screw some three feet long,
about the same tLme, the strips, D, being tiled expressing himself1 naturally, with great
emphasis on the h1gh degree of perfection
.
underneath to make ~ood contact.
With this, the essential work of the plane required. The "SCrew was made, but what
is completed, and the clea.ninl{ up wiili .waa the horror of the American when he
glass paper and the J>OlisbiDg Only remains. found the cost was to be £100 I H e refused
If the wood is of a ligh~ colour, etaining will to- pay, anci a commission of experts was
improve ita appearance. The poliabing Jlot a ppointed to. report upon the matter, and
only adds to the beauty of the appearance of decide the true value of the screw. To them
the tool. but also protects .the woOd to eom.e Mandalay explained the process of manulaeture, the precautions taken to ensure
extent from atmospheric infiuene»
The ID;ain poin~, then, to )le reptd~ ~ a.ctnl'IIC)'1 and the several methods for
the making of thil plalie ar~ ~~ ~; .C9~0i:l em ployed, when they deCided
the patt\lm, & eoft, olean ~•. &~:fw#i)
. . . Wt tltll charge was not ueeaaive and the
. ..
..
.
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:
(Work-April 13, 1889.
.
whole amount mu~t be paid. Let us hope
the American was consoled by the thought
he could at any rate say he bad a screw that
would "lick creation." Now suppose that
screw bad been cut up in a tapping machine
(as I am told the leadiu~ screws of some
of the cheapest slide latues are treated),
and what would have been its value 1 Five
shillings, perhaps ! This story is given from
memory, not as history, but because I hope
it may explain wherein lies the difference
between on expensive lathe by one of our best
makers and a cheap one. Lay the five shilling
screw beside the £100 one and, except for a
little extra finish, you mi~ht not be able
to tell them apart; but, ii tested by the
microscope or measuring machine, the thread
of the good screw would be found to advance
regularly by an equal distance each turn, not ·
varying by theone-thousandthyart of an inch,
and it would be the parent o other screws
almost equally correct, whilst the cheap screw
would be o.tHicted with drunkenness ; the
thread would advance too fast or too slowly,
and every screw cut by its means would partake of the same faults. An expensive lathe
surpasses a cheap one in jinislt. True, but
that is of small consequence. It s urpasses
it in exactness of fitting of the slides and
other parts-this is important. It surpasses
it in dt1rability, wbicli is most desirable;
but chiefest of all it surpasses it in acC1tracy
of adjustnumt. The true value of a lathe
cannot be estimated until, besides its design
and ~eneral arrangement, all these four
qualities have been considered.
Before proceeding to show ""bat kind
of accuracr is required and how a lathe may
be tested, 1t may help ii I give a piece of
experience with that same boy's lathe
referred to at the beginning of this paper.
It had certain serious faults of design and
construction which will serve as examples
in introducing the subjecl These faults
did not become apparent o.t first, but when
the boy turner grew older he became somewhat disgusted with what ha«i at first seemed
absolute perfection. The first fault to be
discovered was that when a long piece of
work had to be hollowed out, such as a deep
cup, and had been chucked by one end
on the "taper-screw" chuck, the backcentre point could not be bro~1ght up to
support the end while the outside was
turned. If this was attempted, the point,
instead of entering the little central bole
made for it with the earner of a chisel,
would scratch a. circle round that hole of
about ! -in. in diameter. By degrees it
dawned upon the mind that this was not
a necessity but a fault of construction ; the
centre line of the mandrel did not point
straight dovm the bed, but only met the
point of t he back-centre when this was
brought close up to the "live" or "runnin~"
centre. Here then is an important point m
lathe construction : the holes through the
two headstocks must be in one st~ht line,
and that straight line must be pa el with
the bed, so tliat, ii these holes were of the
same size, the head.s tocks might be clamped
upon the bed in any position, and a bar fitting the holes mi!{ht be passed through both.
My readers Will now understand more
easily bow they may test a lathe and try its
accuracy. Take the plain lat"M first, and
begin with the moving headstock. Loosen
the holding-down bolt and slide it on the
bed, from end to end, to see that it moves
freely- it is pretty sure to do so ; now try
whether it is at all loose· put both hands on it,
front and back, and pull and push alternately,
listening for a little knock that would prove
the tenon underneath did not perfectly fill
Work-.April U, 1889.]
A
the space between the bed ; slide it along to
anotlier place and try again. If there is
a decided knock at any part of the bed,
so that you can see the point of the back·
· centre makes a little movement across the
bed, the lathe may do for wood turning, or,
if fitted with slide rest and the knock is not
much, it will do for metal · but it would not
do for accurate work as a sllde lathe because
its centre line does not preserve any certain
direction. Suppose, however, that you are
satisfied with the fit of the moving headstock. you should next make sure that the
cylinder of the headstock' that holds the
back-centre point fits, and slides in and out
without shake ; screw it half-way out, push
forward the headstock and fix the holdingdown bolt so that the point of the back.centre almost touches tliat of the runningcentre ; take the back-centre point in your
fingers and, without having fixed the. pinchinz screw of the cylinder, try to displace its
pomt. If the cylinder fits the headstock
and the centre-point the cylinder, it will
feel quite firm, but if it is loose its proximity
to the other centre-point will show how
much it moves. The next thing to ascertain,
since the cylinder of the poppet or headstock
has a fixed direction, is whether that is the
correct one 1 Screw out the back-centre
point until it begins to feel loose. fix it with
the pinching screw, and slide .'!P the headstock till tlie centres meet. Now observe
very carefully whether they come together
exactly, lookin~ at them from above and
then from the s1de ; if they do so, screw in
the cylinder as far as it will go, move up
the points to touch, fix the pinching screw,
and look again. If they still correspond,
the moving headstock is true, but it requires
a trained eye to detect slight divergencies.
We may now turn our attention to the
fixed heil.dstock ; its accuracy is even more
-important than that of the movable one.
Usually there is a hole in the front end of
the mandrel into which the running-centre
fits, but in small lathes this centre. forms
part of a chuck which screws upon the
mandrel. Now this hole is usually turned
out, by a tool fixed in the slide rest, to a
·cone, each side of which is abont 1°, so that
the two sides of the cone would form with
each other an angle of 2°. It appears to be
almost impossible to ~et this hole perfectly
true. To t est it, wipe 1t out carefully ; wipe
the centre and press it firmly in; now turn
the latL'.: rapidly and bring the point of a.
tool very carefully forward to touch the end
of the revolving centre, when it is almost
certain to be found slightly out of truth ;
turn the centre round to several positions
in tl-.s mandrel and try again till you find
the position in which it seems to run truly.
:Mark both it and the mandrel so that you
can put it in always the same way, then
turn the centre half round in t he mandreli.e., to its worst position-and observe how
far from truth it is. You can measure t his
error approximately by bringing up the
corner of the hand rest till it just touches
the end of the revolving centre ; then turn
it half round from the touching point, when
the distance between the two will be the
areatest. Try first to slip in a piece of news:paper ; if that will go, double it and try
aga~n. Th!l Time• paper is abo?t 1 o•uo of
an mch thtck, say· rl-o, eo that if you can
get in two thicknessea, as is very probable,
the point of the running-centre, instead of
running truly, is describing a circle· having
a radiua of -ill of an inch , I n such a ca.ae
u thi•·t he ho1e ebould be very carefully rebored. N "xt proceed to take out the mandnl aDd aanune the rubbing surfaces, both
5I
SillfPLE CEILING IN w OOD .
inside and outside, to see that they are per·
fectly hard, smooth, and evenly polished,
showing that they touch all over. If the
mandrel be fitted with a back-centre, it
should pass through a plain, not a screwed,
hole, which hole should point straight t o
the centre of the collar. To ascertain whether
it does so, take out t he back-centre, t urn up
a roller of wood to fit the hole, and, pa.'!Sing
it throu~h the back-centre hole from the
left as far as the hole in the collar, look
whether it takes up a position in the middle
of that hole. If this were not the case,
advancing the back-centre point to take up
any wear of the wearing surfaces would
throw the mnndrel out of line with the
lathe bed and cause it to jam in its collar.
The last and most important point to examine, i~ ~hether the _centr~ line. of the
mandrel 1s 10 one stra1ght hne w1th the
centl'e line of the moving headstock1 and
parallel with the bed. Be~in, as witn the
moving hendstock, by releastng the holdingdown bolt and t rylllg whether you can
twist it sideways on the bed; if it prove
loose, it ma.y come true if pressed against
one or other side of the opening in the bed,
but this would be a bad fault. Supposing
it is tight, and remembering that you haye
already satisfied yourself that the point of
th e running-centre corresponds with that of
the fixed or "dead" centre, therefore one
point of the centre line of the mandrel is
right· but we must also ascertain that a
uco11J point in this central line is true
before we shall know that the heads are in
line. To ascertain this, prolong the mandrel
by fixing a roller of wood in a chuck ; let
the wood be about.12 or 18 in. long, and
melt a little wax on the end of it. Now,
while the wood is revolving in the lathe,
bring up the point of the back-centre to touch
the wax; if tlie latheistrueit will make a dot;
if it is tolerably true, a circle which will be
ID. in diameter i but if the
small-say
circle be i in. or more, the lathe is not fit for
boring, nor for accurate work, unless it can
be !14justed. This last test is easily applied,
and IS more likely than any other to show
whether the lathe has been conscientiously
made. Now, since it is only a plain lathe
we are testing, you can conclude by putting
on the band, so as to give eight turns of the
mandrel to one of the crank, and, after·
oiling all the centres and bearings, r un the
lathe by the foot, to try whether at that
speed it goes easily and continues t urning
some little t ime after you take off your foot.
We come now to the 8lide lathe fitted
with a long leading screw and a saddle to
carry the slide rest. All the foregoing test."
must be tried for this cla.ss of lathe, and
that with additional care ; besides these,
we must test whether the lathe is true
enough to turn UJ> a face-plate q11ite fiat,
and to slide up a shaft parallel. Take the
largest face· plate supplied with the lathe and
try1 with a straightedge ·laid across, whether
it IS perfectly flat ; then screw it on after
carefullywip10g the screw threads and faces
of the chuck and mandrel. Put a point
t ool in the rest and bring it up carefully t.o
the revolving plate, to try whether it is per·
fectly true. Let the tool be so fixed in the
rest that, when the cross-slide of the saddle
is fully drawn back, the tool will point to
the face of the plate close to tlie outer
edge. Adjust its distance from the plate till
you can just get a card or a .bit o( paper in
between the two ; then screw the slide forward till the tool point is opposite the inner
edge of tht3 plate near the hole where the
end of the mandrel nose ap~rs, and try
with the card or paper again-. The last teat
n
is the one for parallel turning. Wipe the
holes for the centres and put them in,
taking care that th~ running-centre is true.
Then take u bar about an inch in diameter,
as long, or nearly as long, as the lathe will
take in ; centre it, and, putting it in the
lathe, turn up about an mch at one end ;
then, after adjusting the tool point till it
just touches the turned part, take off the
handles of the slide rest, take the bar out
from between the centrus, rack the saddle
to t he left till the tool point comes opposite
the running-centre, turn the bar end for
end, and put it between the centres nga.in.
Now gently rack the saddle to the riglit to
bring the tool point on to the turned end,
and see whether it touches it just as it did
at the other end. If you can get a. bit of
paper between, it would not be very bad, as
the test is a severe one, but every thickness
of paper you can get m detracts from the
value of the lathe.
There are u.suaUy screws put throu~h the
tenon of the fixed hea.dstocli of an engmeer's
slide lathe, \Vhich screws afford means of
adjustment; but it must be remembered
that it will not do to move these screws to
suit any 011-e of these tests, since by so doing
the adJustment would be thrown out in
other directions.
I trust my readers will not have been
pnv.led by' the foregoing nttempt at explaiuincr how lathes can 'be tested. If they
will folfow out my directions in testing their
own, or a friend's lathe, they will, I think,
obtain a considerable insight into the principles of lathe work which will be useftll to
them afterwards, and they will at any rate
perceive that the value of a lathe lies not in
Its appearance but in its accuracy; also that
if they buy a cheap lathe it may content
them pretty well, for a time, till they become better workmen, and then they a.re
sure to become dissa-tisfied, so that the
.quality of lathe t hey buy might well be
made to depend upon the perfection of
workmanship to which they mean to attain.
I will now redeem my promise to name
some books on Turning, smaller and cheaper
than Holtza.p~el's voluminous \\"Ork.
Mr. J. H. Evans ha.s written and published a book on " Ot oamental Turmng"
only, at 2ls., which is very. good.
Next to this come.' "Lathes and Turning," by W. H. Northcott, of the London
Lathe and Tool Company; it costs 18s., a.nd
covers the whole· ground of pla.in and complex turning. I recommend ·my readers to
buy that book~nd to inspect the lathes and
tools made a.t .romeroy Street.
" The Lathe and its Uses," by the Rev. J .
L~ costs 10s. 6d. ; it contains matter not
comprised in other book~ but ia rather
marred by some bad engraVlDgs.
After these come a numl:)er of smaller
books, such a.s "Lathe Work/' by P . N.
H a.sluck, price tss., and "Turnmg for Amateurs," an elementary work well suited for
beginners, by the Rev. J. Lukin, 3s.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
(To be contin-ued.)
A. SlllPLE CEILING · IN WOOD.
With H ints for Wall Panellinq on ~
.'
Same Pla,._
BY RTBAX PJU01
'
ll-P.&IOI:L.UD Clm.Droe m Wux&
IN my· former p_art I confi.ned myself to
speaking only of aimple lol)gitudln&J arrangements of mould.inJ!e 11i'Ja\& follOwed the
direCtion of ~re~:• ·,'&f 'IRttih means
~e CJ!Iiling can
be
what
mar
•' .
A
52
SIMPLE CEILING IN
Woon.
I
(Work-Apr ill3, 1889.
be formed with little labour. But far aP,art, those distan~es to depend on the ea~h two ~oards to .f:.~ve room for expansion,
greater decorative results are to be obtained w1dth of the veneen.ng boards employed.
as 1t was 10 t~e ceilmg ; these spaces t<:> be
by the additional employment of transverse
.My next proceedmg would be to screw ! afterward~ h1dden~ as then, bf mouldtngs
or even of diagonal mouldin~s. _I
la1d over tne~. In F1g. ? I have
ha~e ~yse~f at~empted somethmg m
B
A
B
A
B
drawn a sect10t;1_ of panelltng _thus
th1s duectton m the small entrance
~
,
;
. ~ ~
arranged. The !me, A, A, sho11 s the
hall-or rather the vestibule to the
"
c
"
surface of the wall ; B, B, D, are the
hall-of'my hou'se. The arrangeme nt
~pright laths · ~. c, c, are the ven~erthere carried out is shown in Fig. 5. Pig. 7.- WallPaneW ng. Horizontal Section, BhowingConatructton. 1ng boards, wbtch for wall panellmg
The lines of the real joists, A, A, are
sh~~ld be somewh:tt ~touter than _for
crossed by imitation joists, B, B, which
cethng work, say f m. tnstead of! m.;
latter are for effect only, and form
and D,J?, D, are the mouldings.
no part of the construction. The
~n .I' Jg. ~ I ~ave shown some of
real joists rest on a projecting ornath1s ~nellmg m a completed state.
mental brick mouldmg of the walls,
It w1ll be seen that it is finished
c c- the walls themselves in this
above by a cornice, which is supv~stibule being, as was hinted in
posed to be composed entirely of .
Ch.apter l.,?f uncovered but.care~~Y
wood mouldings. The smaU capitals
finiShed bnckwork. In thiS ceiling
~t e, e, e, are turned and then sawn
the four compartme nts are of course
m half; but a worker who has. no
alike, but in the illnstration I have
lathe, but who can carve, mtght
(for economy of space, that I may
make a richer cornice with carved
furnish as many su.,.gestions as poscaps. In the lower part of the panelsible) shown how four different patling I have indicated an arrangeterns may be formed by the addiment of cross pieces which fol'm a
tion of some little woulcling or turned
kind of dado, and not an unsightly
work.
one.
By using mouldings crossing diaWhen panelling walls on this
gonaUy, we may attain truly elabosystem, it will, I think, be found
rate effects, nearly approachin g in
desirable, for the sake of effect, to
richness to the" artesonado " ceilings
keep the longitudina l divisions
of Spain. Some partial idea of the
wider apart than in panelling ceilappearance of these may be gained
ings. Were I dealing with a room
fl'om Fig. 6, which shows one reto which I had made a ceiling of
peating compartme nt of a ceiling of
this kind, I should, if possiLle, get
the kind, sketched by myself, at the
my veneerin~ boards 13 in. wide,
Cafe del Comercio, Murcia., the
so that I m1gbt arrange to hring
house havinrr formerly been the
one of my larger upright mouldmansion of a,? Conde." Rich ceilin~
int,'S under each alternate joist only,
are an important feature in Spanisn
and one of my smaller uprights
domestic architectur e. One learns
under the intermedia te joists; for,
there to expect them, and to feel
taken with the ribbed ceiling, the
some disr,'USt when remembering the
wall,; would otherwise look t oo
poverty of our own ceilings at home.
much cut up and crowded. If,
It was durinf" a residence in Eastern
however, I '<>ere panelling a room
Spain that conceived the idea of
with an ordinary plaster ceiling, I
trying somethinq of the sort myself
should fear no such danger, and
whenever I shoUld build in En~land.
make my veneering boards - or
Thejoist3 used by Spanish builders
panels, if you will-of the more
are much thicker than those comusual 11 in. stuff.
monly used in this count!}:. Those
Not much bench work is called
seen in the illustration (Fig. 6) are
for in the construction of these ceilprobably cut half through at t heir
ings and wall panellings. Cutting
1~tersections1 and still have suffit o length, fitting. and fixing up, is
ctent strengtll left to carry the heavy
nearly all that has to be done. All
quarry floor above them.
the stuff can be bought ready preFrom what ha•; already been said,
pared. The veneering boards will
it will be ~<cea that any one with
be bought ready planed on one side ;
but a limited knowledge of the
and steam-struc k mouldings, which
jo~n.er's ~raft ?ould p~t up a wooden
can be bought far more cheaply than
ceilmg hke mme. No very accurate
such mouldinrrs could be worked at
workrilansh ip is required-a . mere
home will otcourse be used. The
dabbler in carpentry could do it.
princfpal firms who sell such things
And for that reason I would suggest
tssue price lists which show fullthat any person. who. may wish to
sized sections of a sufficient variety
panel a room mth hts own hands,
of mouldings, and these may be had
and who has not th~ skill or tools
at prices n>nging from a couple of
to ca;rry out the work m the orthodox
shillings to as many pounds for the
fashion, should proceed on somewhat
hundred feet run. The wood in
similar lines.
.
~
which ther seem to b~ usually kept
Had I the _panellmg of a room
in stock 1s yellow pme. Such a.
before .me, thts would be my way
mouldin~ as that needed for the
of settmg to work. I should fir8t
large uprtgbt in Figs. 7 and 8 (width,
surround my room with two hori2 in. ; projection, t of an inch)
zontal bands of lath, one at the top
would cost about 7s. 6d. That reand the other .at the bottom of the
1 quired for the smaller upright.swould
~ails; and between theae1 at prol_>Cr
be proportiona tely less. For wall
mt~rvals,_I should~ upnght laths,
1'1&'. 8. -A Simple Ketho4 of Wall Pa.nemnr.
panelling a atparate circular bead •
whtc.h. mt~ht be satd to represent
down tlie centre of the moulding
the JOIS~s m a panelled ceiling. That the veneering boards to the vertical laths-two is not recommended. Needle points would
laths mtg~t be perfectly ~ it would be boa.rd.e to each alternate lath, back to back. scarcel,Y be strong enough to hold it in
well to drive wOoden plugs into the wall8 They would be fixed by one edge onl:y, the place m such a situation · it would be
to ~hich to nail them ; the uprights muet otheF edge merely lying loose on the mter- better to ha Ye the monldi~g all in one
be m plumb and fixed at eqqal distances mediate lath. Space would be left between piece. It will be necessary to screw
•
The Work Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
Wort-A.pril 13, 1SS9.)
•
·
A
SIMPLE CEILING IN fVooD.
through the centre, but the holes can be
This was not very costly 'vork apart our ceilings and panellings upon projecting
countersunk so a.s to let the heads well in, from the trouble, for a. hundred feet of central headings, etc., if an attempt were
and they can be puttied over and coloured moulding go a long way (they will cornice made to produce a decorative effect by
like the surrounding wood work. But for a room 25 feet square}, and some of the staining the wood work of different shades.
where such round Deadings are wanted in moulding which we used did not cost
The process of ebonising is of such simceilings (a.s at e, Figs. 1 and 2), they
plicity, that any one with moderate
may lie had of various diameters, from
care can do it successfully. My plan
t of an in. to 2 in., at prices from
is to boil the logwood chips in an
about 3s. to 16s. The top of t he corearthen pipkin, till I have a decoction
nice, Fig. 7, will need a hMvier and
sufficiently strong to show of a deep
bolder moulding. I purchased one that
orange-red colour, wherever it is laid
is very effective for such a purpose,
on the pine wood. This I brush over
which sho'vs a. projection of nearly 3 in.,
the wood whilst quite bot, and I go
for a.bout 25s.
over it twice in order that no part may
I may mention that I got my mouldbe missed. In a few minutes the wood
ings from Messrs. Joseph Sandel and
is .fit to receive the solution of iron.
CO., Waterloo Bridge Road, Lambeth,
which I also brush on hot and apply
S.E., London. I found them quite satistwice over. I ma.ke my solution by
factory:: good material and little waste.
dissolving any odd scraps of iron in
Wh1lst speaking of these mouldings
vinegar.,. a nd dilute it before using with
I may suggest another way in wh ich
about naif water. The wood when
they may be made serviceable in h,ometouched by the iron at once turns to a
made house fittings. One of my fr1ends
deep black, but with rather a purple
bought an old·fasbioned house in which
tinge; this tinge, however, disappears
none of the rooms bad any cornices
with polishing. Before the pohsh is
beneath the ceilings. My friend was of
apJ>lied, the wood should remain for a
a mechanical turn like myself, and promgbt to get thoroughly dry, and thin
posed to decorate his house with hill
PLAN
SEOTION
boards, or anything ha.ble to warp,
own bands-and a little help from me.
.
should be weighted.. The polishing. as
We all know how mean and unfinished
ment ioned above, is done with beeswax
a room looks with no cornice, and to Ftg. 6.-SiJigle Compa.rtment in Plan, and Beiltion alollg' and turpentine. Pouring some turpen·
remedy the defect we got some of these
A, B. in l'la.n. car' del comercto, lllurcta, Spain.
tine into a saucer, I scrape into it
steam·struck pine moUldings, of three
as much wax as it will moisten freely,
or four different patterns. We ebonised more than 3s. 6d. a hundred. To return and then place the saucer near enough to
them with decoction of logwood and solu- to my wooden ceiling. I would mention the fire to melt the wa.x · but this needs
tion of iron, and polished them with bees- one especial advantage which I find it to care, as the mixture is highly inflammable.
w~x and turpentine. This is quickly done possess over a. ceiling of plaster-it does not The polish thus made should be of the conmth mere narrow
sistency of cream.
strips of mould, . - - -- -------..,.--..,.:8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
It has to be aping, and after we
plied with a. hard
had papered the
brush. and hard
walls we nailed up
brushing ; a little
these mould in~ in
~@]
~~
of the mixture and
P.lace of cormces.
...,
._
a. liberal amount
They look very
of brisk rubbing is
well ; t he black
the way to get a.
line between wall
brilliant polish.
and ceiling has a.
C
C
It is, however,
good effect, more
rather for cabinet
eSJ:l~Cialy if the pre~~
~~
work t hat great
vailmg colour of
~
~
brilliancy becomes
the wall paper is
a. desideratum. For
green or red.
the purpose that
But in two rooms
we have before us
we did something
-the ebonising of
more than t his. In
A
A
mere mouldings for
one- the diningour cornices, ceilroom-we used a
ings, or wall panellarge moulding of
lin~ - no higher
some 2~ in. in
pobsh is needed
depth and projecthan is to be attion, which had a
tained with a very
deep rounded holmoderate amount
low running along
of rubbing.
its centre. We cut
C
C
I trust that t he
from pine board a
hints I ha.ve thrown
quanttty of square
out in-this and the
ornament.~. some·
preceding paper on
thinglikethe''dog's
the treatment of
tooth" at cl, Fig. 51
ceilings will b e
~edthem,~a
•
I
~
53
~~M~
ntted them into
this hollow at interval.a of about a
. foot. This had a
Ft«. 1!.- Woo4 CeWna' ot Hall, wi\h Four A.ltel'JIAU.,e Dealcu
ury h andsome
eft'ect. In the other room we used two require the periodical nuisance of whiteband& of moulding, one (H in. wide) washing.
against the ceiling, and a second (! of an
On looking over the above, it appears to
in. wide) a foot below thus forming a. me desirable that in the matter of ebonising
frieze round t he room. The paper of the some more particular directions should be
lower walla was green, that between the given ; for not only is tba.t process applimooldinge crimson and maroon. This, too, cable, as a.bove remarked, to cornice mould' wu •ucce~~~ful.
ings, but it might. weU be employed both in
The Work Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
many, and such as
they may adopt
with ad vant1fk.e. .
for l'&D.ela.
Generally speak• ' •
ing the ceiling in ~
rooms in English houses o1rers a wide ex- '
pause of wliitened surface to the view
utterly devoid of ornamentation: The only
excuse for the illvariable whiteness lies in
the ~ditional Ught :~~ is P.-ined by reflect1on from.. the ~iling. TlUs would not
be ·materi.ally le!faeneli~ b'y the &4o.Ption of a
wa.rmer·tint or lrtencillcil porderuig.
•
FRIEND LY HINTS TO AMATEU R Woon WoRKER s.
54
FRIENDLY HINTS TO AMATEUR
WOOD WORKERS .
BY
DAVID
DENNING.
I.-DIPFICOLT il!S OF AUATBUIIS-IIlA'M'ERS Oli'I'EN
OVERLOOKED -UNSEASONED 'VOOI>-HOW TO
SEASON I l ' - WARPINO OR CASTING- WHY
'VOOD SHOULD BE TORNl!l) WHEN DRTJNG0ASTINO OP DRY WOOD-ROW TO DISTINOOlSB
SE.\SONED W OOD - SoURCES OP SUPPLYlllAitiNO GLOE- APPE.u\ANOE 01' GooD GLOB
-FRACTURE OF GLOE A TEST OP QOALITYSOAKINC GLUE-THE GLU.t:·POT-l'll .ELTil'iG
GLUE-GLUIN G 01'-HOW TO UsE GLUE.
FEw who have paid any attention to amateur workers' v.roductions can have failed to
notice the d1fference between them and
those of the professional ; and without any
desire to disparage the formeri it can seldom
be said that they surpass the atter in those
~oints by 'vhich superiority is determined.
Even where they are not actually faulty
either from carelessness or want of knowledge in some constructive detail, there is,
if one may so call it, a want of breadth, a
niggling kind of work, which proclaims the
more or less unskilful artisan. It is, of
course, not to be expected that the amateur
can have acquired the same facility in
workin~ with the tools of any craft as the
professional worker who spends a great portion of his life in handling them. In any
special pursuit the latter has undoubted
advantages not only by seeing how others
work, but from constant Op{>Ortunity of acquiring the manual dextenty which can
only be the outcome of practice. The amateur seldom ha.s opportunity of watching
skilled craftsmen at workb uut must to a.
great extent depend on w at be can pick
up by reading, with, perhaps, an ocular
demonstrati on now and again by some
friendly expert. True, the sources of his
information are now much more accessible,
so far as books are concerned, than they
were a. few years ago, but for all that he
must rely to a. great extent on his own versatility and ingenuity as well as on his
power to "read between the lines" of any
technical book or article he may be studying ; for, speaking for myself-and I imagine
the experience of other technical writers is
not dissimilar- it is impossible .to convey
often what one feels must be necessary information to the novice in any particular
branch of work. One may do one's best
with pen and ink, both verbally and with
illustration, but notbin~ can equal practical
demonstrati on; and it 1S much to the credit
of those who, without special opportunitie s
of acquiring skill and knowledge of modes
of working, have worked so assiduously
that they can produce anything worth looking_at.
Now, with this little preamble, which, it is
hoped, no amateur will take amiss, or regard
in anr way as intending to discou~e him or
decry his efforts, !should like to ment10n a. few
matters in connection with amateur joinery
or cabinet wo.rk, merely premising tha.t
though I am not an amateur at thiS, I am
in other mechanical pursuits, so that the
difficulties to be encountered by the amateur
in it may fairly be taken as understood by
analogy by the writer. Let me then point
out to you, my amateur wood-worki ng readers, a few little matters the neglect of which
is often a source of blemish or weakness in
your productions. I do so in- all friendliness, and I trust that none will object to
the remarks. I do not intend to perplex
)'OU with complicated technicology, or the
msistence of hard-and-fa st lines of w,Qrk:ing1
but rather to reiterate those prin!li.Plea
-.
r
•
which though well known and perhaps obvious ' o.re o.pt to be overlooked in actual
practlce by those who are not continually
.
putting them into operation.
First of all may be taken into consideration the material-w ood-not so much with
regard to kind of timber or quality of figure
and those other features which gtve to the
various sort.s their value, M to wood that is
fit for working. Now, I suppose every one
knows that wood ought to be thoroughly
seasoned before it can be prudently made
up. If it is not there is little chance of
anything made from it being satisfactory ;
but it must not be forgotten that even
thoroughly seasoned wood may not be dry
enou"'b. for use. It is too often thought
that 'Ir wood is seasoned nothing more is
nt:eessary, hence the cOmJ?laints one so fre·
quently hears of the difficulty in obtaining
seasoned stuff. As a rule1 however, there is
no difficulty in obtainmg well-seasoned
boards of the ordinary kind of timber in
any of the larger towns, but cl?·yness is
another matter altogether. How can it be
expected that timber which has been exposed to all weathers, or at the most has
only been covered on top, can in our climate be thoroughly dry 7 Well, when you
get wood from the yard do not work it up
at once, but let it stand awhile-it _may be
for days or weeks or only hours-m some
warm, dry place before using it. There
will then be fewer complo.ints of " unseasoned" wood having been supplied. Unless wood is thoroughly dry it is bound to
shrink when made up, and unless due
allowance has been made for this shrinkage
it will certainly split.
Again, it is useful to note during the
drying process, even while in the rough,
boards are apt to cast or twist, or, in untechnical words, to become uneven, some
woods being much more prone to this bad
habit tho.n others. As o. rule, those with
straight, even grain, like American walnut
or Honduras mahoaany, are more reliable
than those with ifnely-marked, elaborate
figuring, such as pollard oak, which is a
timber that requires the utmost care if used
in the solid. It twists and casts in a manner which would surprise any one unaccustomed to its vagaries. Whatever the wood
is, planks should be turned occasionally
when drying, unless there is an equal air
space on each side, for if they are laid on
the floor, or leaning ago.inst a wall, it will
very likely be found that they become
rounded, or convex on one side and correspondingly concave on th~ oth~r. This is
owmg to the wood becommg e1ther dryer
on tlie concave side or absorbing moisture
on the other.
As an effective illustration of this, take a
piece of thin board- any will do for the
purpose-and leave it in some damp place
for a. few days, or wet it woll on both sides,
allowing the water to soak in. If both
sides be equally wet, the wood will remain
leve~ but if damper on one side than the
other, it will swell on that side. When the
moisture has soaked in, hold one side to the
fire and just watch how the wood curls.
Hold the other side to the fire, and the
board curls over in the opposite direction.
If while the wood is wet-i.e.1 after the
water has soaked in thoroughly ·-lt be nailed
to a dry piece the grain of wh1ch runs transversely, in order that the experiment may
be better t ried, and then held to the fire,
the wood, instead of bending, which it will
be unable to do, owing to the rigidity of the
board to which it is fastened, will1 as it
driea, nat urally contract, and the cnances
The Work Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
•
[Work-Apri1 13, 1SS9.
are, will split. Of course, in nailing it
down the nails must be put in near the
edges, for were it just fMteuecl by one or
two in the centre, it would merely contract
from the edges to this. Now, the heat of
the fire merely accelerates the natuml process, the movements in the boards being
the same, whether the drying process takes
months or minutes, so we see pretty well
what course must be adopted if we wish to
have good workable stuff free from '·shakes"
-i.e., without cracks, and Hat.
Sometimes the wood worker will find,
whatever precautions are taken, that the
wood will cast, and if it is really d1·y and tbe
defect is only slight, it mny be rectitied by
laying the board, hollow side downwards,
on a cold ftoor1 and lea.vin~ it for a time, or
by exposing tne convex s1de to the heat of
a fire. In either case watchfulnes s is necessary to prevent the curve forming the reverse way. Very thin wood may oft~n be
flattened by simply placing it under weights,
but this process is not altogether to be de·
pcnded on. When boards are very badly
cast and twisted, the only reliable way to
level them, with any del{ree of certainty
that they will remain so, IS to plane them
down. Please note, nothing has been said
about unseasoned wood being dried for it is
assumed that every precaution will be taken
to use only that which is seasoned ; but to
sum up, take equal precaution to see that it
is eh·!!· If this be attended to, most of the
defects commonly- and no doubt often correctly-attri buted to unseasoned wood will
be found non-existent.
Perhaps it may be thought by some of
my readers that something should be sairl.
about distinguishi ng when wood is seasoned
or not. Much might be written about th is,
but after all it would simply amount to
saying that experience is the best and
almost the only guide. A fair idea may
often be gathered by noticing the weather
stains1 but as these depend to a great extent
on wnere and ho'v the timber has been
stored, unless the buyer is well acquainted
with the material they are not to be regarded as " a. fixed quantity," but rather as
the unknown X of algebraists. It is true
that to the experienced eye weather stains
often indicate much, and where they are
very marked the wood will generally be at
least fairly seasoned-n ot necessarily dry,
mind-but it will frequently be found that
thoroughly seasoned ~vood has lit~!~ or no
stain. Hence the difficulty of gtvmg reliable data on this score.
As a sound and indisputable general rule
for the amateur to follow the best advice
that can be given him is to buy from reliable
dealers only, and to put confidence in their
judgment . As for the sources whence the
amateur can draw his supply, it may be Said
tbo.t timber merchants' yards seem the most
no.tural especially for the coarser kinds of
woods, but it stands to reason that many ~f
them will not cut planks nor: allow the1r
stock to be turned over for selection when
the purchase is only a. small _one. When
there is any: diffic~~y ID gett_mg su1t~ble
stuff in small quant1t1es from t1mber yard:;,
cabinet makers who actually make furmture- many of them do noli-can generally
be applied to with success j only as the
bulk of the wood they use IS selected for
the purpose of furniture making, and therefore often abo"e the average quality of that
found in a. builder's timber-yard , prices are
proportionately higher: Speakinl{. roughly,
woOd at very low pnces generally mt1lllS
wood of inferior quality. Amateurs have
been known to complain of one-inch thick
Work-A.pril 13, 1889.]
SIGN WRITING AND LETTERING.
mahogany at one shilling per foot being
dear, but what would such h~D to mahogany
in veneers at three to fours · ings per foot 1
Yet possibly any of these figures might
indicate better value t.~an some mahogany
at only sixpence per foot.
With th1s the remarks on timber must be
concluded for the present, and a little may
be said about another matter of almost
equal importance to the wood worker-viz.,
glue and its application.
The mi~ing, or in colloquial language the
" making," of glue is one of those little
matters which the amateur sometinles seems
to think ·will take care of themselves. No
more serious mistake could be made, for
glue must not only be good before it is made,
but it must be made properly, neither too
thick nor too thin, and when this has been
satisfactorily arranged, it must be properly
used. Any one can stick two pieces of wood
together with glue, but wh~ther the joint
will be clum.sy or neat, durable or only of a.
temporary character, depends almost entirely
on the care and ability with which it has
been made. Given good glue rightly mixed
and used, the joint, say between two boards,
may be so strong that it will be easier to
break the wood tlian to sepa1-ate the pieces
where they are joined.
To begin with the raw material, the ~lue
in the cake as sold in the shops, a few hmts
may be given which will be of service to the
novice, to whom, however, it would be use·
less to give those finer distinctions and tests
by which an expert in glue may fairly estimate its quality. The slightest observation
will have shown any one who knows what
~lue is that there are very marked dift'erences
m colour in different makes. Some are almost
black except when viewed by transmitted
light, while some are almost like amber or
gelatine in colour and transparency. Neither
extreme is good where strength of joint is a
primary object. The black, opaque, uncleanlooking stutf proclaims its quality sufficiently
even if retail prices do not indicate to the
buyer that he can hardly expect much at
considerably less than the best qualities are
sold for in bulk. The very light-coloured
glue is often fairly good and of medium
price, but the bleaching to which it is subJected in order to obtain the captivating, and
at the same time unnatural, transparency and
light colour sometimes impai.r s its tenacity.
For some purposes, such as gluing down thin,
light-coloured veneers, it is very good, simply
because it does not darken the tone of the
wood, a.~ some consider the darker glue does.
This, however, ma.y as a moot point be almost
considered as beyond the amateur's ken. It
is very seldom such extremely delicate
veneer is used a.~ to necessitate colourless
glue, much of which, if not all, is of continental origin by the way. Those who are
familiar with many Teutonic and Gallic
p roductions will understand that they are
often excellent imitations of En;;lish productions of ti1e same type, but tna.t after all
t here is something not quite right about
t hem. So it is 'vith glue. I have at various
t imes tested, or had tested, many samples of
continental glues which were nice to look at
and offered at tempting prices by plausible
O erma.n bagmen, but I never met with a
ea.mple which could be compared with the
best British glue for strength and economy
in 118e. I say Brituh advisedly, for the best
glue for general purposes is Scotch, and it is
worthy of every care and attention that the
worker can bestow. In colour it i~ a clear,
wholeaome, ruddy brown, not a muddy-lookiD&'_compound, nor yet refined to gelatine.
The lllAilner in which glue breaks when
struck, or rather the appearance of the fractured edges, is often a good indication, as is
likewise the feel when 1t is held or rubbed
between a moistened finger and thumb; but
to go fully into these details would gtve a
quite too technical character to these hints.
It will be more within their scope to give a
few directions for mixing now that a few
leading qualifications of ~ood glue have
been indicated, and in domg so it will be
seen that there are other points to be observed.
The first thing in making glue is to break
the cakes into pieces of moderate size. If
the glue shivers easily lil;:e a piece of glass
would do it may be looked on as tOo brittle
to be perfect, and 1Jer contm it should not be
tough and leathery. Any way, the pieces
must be covered w1th cold water and allowed
to remain in soak till they are soft. Mind,
~ood glue should not dissolve in cold water;
1t should merely swell up and soften. If the
water dissolves it os it soaks in and does not
seem to penetrate to more than a sli noht
depth there is something wrong. fhe
quantity of water which glue will absorb is
a. fairly correct estinlate of its value being
arrived at. Roughly speaking, a glue which
will absorb more water than another is the
preferable of the two.
When the glue is thoroughly softened
by soaking in water it must be liquefied by
heat in an ordinary glue-pot1 the general
features of which are too well Known to call
for any remark. With regard to size, however, it may be said that a. large pot does not
require heating so frequently as a small one,
which naturally chills more quickly. This
leads me on to say that ~lue should always
be used as hot as poss1ble, merely warm
enough to be sticky will not do1 it must be
as hot as it can be made. W1th the outer
pot kept well supplied with water it is not
possible to burn theglue1 and it is to prevent
this that a double pot 1s required. In its
absence a very ~ood substitute may be found
in an ordinary Jam-pot or similar jar and a
small saucepan, the water in the latter, the
glue in the former. Never attempt to heat
glue in a single pot, or the contents will
assuredly be spoiled.
With reference to gluu1g, while the glue is
being rubbed on the wood, especially if a
large surface has to be covered, of course it
has a tendency to harden by cooling. 'fo
counteract this and to make the glue adhere
it is generally advis.1.ble to warm the work
to which it is applied, bnt in doing this bear
in mind what has been said about heat bending boards. Occasionally both the surfaces
to be joined should be glued before they are
put together, which they should be while the
~lue is still hot on them. Do not wait till
1t conge'lls. If one may so express it, the
glue is first stuck to each surface, and then
the glue coalesces when they are brought in
contact. When practicable-and it generally
is so except in the case of large veneers-the
glued pieces should be worked against each
other with gradually increasing pressure, not
only to expel any a1r between them, but to
squec~e out as much of the glue as can be
got rid of. On the extent to which this is
managed much of the stability of the joint
will depend. The thinner the film of glue
between the pieces the more firmly will they
adhere· nothmg is gained by leaving a thick
layer of glue. I ndeed, the reverse is the case,
and it is hardly too ruuch to say that the
effort should be to press out all the glue.
Of course, to do this is not JlOSSible, but
what remains will be so small m quantityif the contiguous surfaces are true and bear
uniformly on each other-that were it not
The Work Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
55
for the thin hair line which marks the joint,
and the different figurings on the pieces, it
would be next to impossible to detect the
presence of glue. To prevent the joint from
opening, and to keep the surfaces in contact till
the glue has set and can dispense with any
auxiliary support, it is necessary to keep
pressure on the parts. With large thin
pieces such as ' 'eneers, joined superficially,
not by the edges, the pressure is applied by
means of a hot caul, which' partially liquefies
the glue in the joint and forces most of it
out at the ed "'CS.
From all t'fris it will be gathered that no
benefit is gained by too lavish a use of the
~lue when rubbing it on the surfaces to be
JOined-unless it be by the glue vendors
profiting by the woste. The consistency of
the glue when made has not been mentioned yet) though it is a.n important matter.
I mean, ox course, its consistency when hot.
The expert will adapt the thickness or consistency to the work he has in hand ; but
for the novice to do so would imply so much
knowled~e that he might fairly cla1m to rank
as a skilled worker. It must therefore
suffice to state that the glue should run
from the brush like thick oil, not paraffin
oil, but colza or olive oil, or to use other
comparisons, which may perhaps be better
understood, like melted butter or thin
golden syrup. This may not seem verr
definite, but after all it is only an idea
which can be given. A drop of suitably
prepared ~lue if placed on a cold surface
should qUJckly become a. jelly. If too thin
it will be some time in hardening sufficiently
to be handled, and if it is so thick as to
harden almost directly and be unworkable
with the brush, it is obvious that more
water is required. Another important factor in fornul)g a strong joint is to use only
freshly-made glue. Tlie tenacity of glue is
diminished every time it is heated up. In
practice it is not necessary to make glue
every time it is used, but certainly no one
who knows anything ab'out the way in
which the strength deteriorates would think
of constantly reheating the same lot. In
the practical workshop this tendency to
diminish in strength 1s of little moment,
comparatively, as the glue-pot is in constant
requisition j but with the amateur who, perhaps uses 1t only at long intervals and in
small qua.ntities·it should not be overlooked.
Therefore no larger quantity should be
mixed at a time than is likely to require
heating up more than a few trmes. It is
owing to neglect or ignorance of this quality
in glue, as well as tlie mistaken notion that
the more the better in a. joint, that domestic
gluing up is so often a failure.
(To be continued.)
•••
SIGN WRITING A.ND LETTE.RING.
BY HENR:Y L. BBNWELL.
m.- F BJ:EHAND D uwrnG - Oll'l'LiliiNG
0BNA-
DN'1'8 AND D EVlOIIS- BLAOKllOA.llD P&Aor1CL
I
the student has been closely following the directions laid down in the last
chapter, for as " lettering" is nothing .less
than a special class of drawing, more 011 less
advanced, according to t lie proficiency
attained by the pupil-in the higher orders
of ornamental lettering, a goOd deal of
practice, after the plan laid d,own in these
preliminary lesson!J, ia. &.n absolute neceseitz.
Before l Te&ve 'tlie· aubjrct of freehand
~ra.~, I ·~._onlcl;4~k· ·to give one little
TRUST
'
SiGN WRITING AND LETTERING.
•
hint for obtaining facility
in describing the circle, one
of the best examples of freehand drawing tlie pupil in
lettering coula have placed
before liim for practice. Of
course, a perfectly true circle
is quickest done with the
aid of compasses, and these
are always used in actual
work, but it is, nevertheless,
possible to produce one just
liS accurate with the hand,
ff11ided br. the eye alone.
l'his entails a. close application to practice, repeated
!l'lg. 26.
:Fig.l2.
[Work-April 13, 1889 •
in fact, always be able to
carry, "in his mind's eye,"
ns it were, the accurate formation of a.ll lines, curves,
and objects incidentally portrayed in the usual routine
of his work. And secondly,
having advanced so far, he
must next attain a perfect
freedom and command over
the hand, so that it is capable of giving a truthful
rendering of the eye's invisible, out-let us hopeartistic will. Thus, to explain still further, we have
l'ig. 15.
'
Fig. la .
and repeated again :
but in course of time
success is an ensured
certainty, and the man
or boy who can off·
hand, draw a circle in
this way, is competent to undertake any
branch of work that
may be placed before
him. In fact, I do not
know of any better method of educating
the hand and the eye1 and of enabling the
former to obey the aicta.tes of the latter,
than repeated practice in drawing the circle
in all sizes, and without any extraneous
aid.
In order to make my method of study in
the first few chapters more clear to the
reader, and so enable him to pursue his
studies as I would suggest, I ha.d perhaps
better explain how I am endeavouring to
train him for accomplishing the work I hope
to expound later on.
Now, the true essence of proficiency in
t.he sign writer's art lies. firstly,
in traming the eye to that degree of perfection that it can
instantly detect the perfect
from imperfect, the truthful
from the untruthful in form,
and is capable of at once jud~­
ing the result of any work 1t
rests upon. The worlrina.n must,
before us a blank
signboard, on which
is to be written the
name "JONES," and
the usual lines being
"mapped" upon it,
we face it, and in our
" mind's eye" we see
the letters on the
board, and at once
proceed to put in a.
chalk or pencil mark around them-transforming the invisible into the visible, seen
fig. 11.
l'ig.lf.
by'fahQ.
· my own m
· d'lVI'd ual method of
· 1s IS
:procedure, but I, of course. do not say it
IS followed by others, or, in fact, by anybody ; but I do insist that, before a man
proceeds to "chalk in" his work, he must,
to a certain degree, picture t o himself the
size, shape, and construction of the letters,
and the hand obeys the eye accordingly.
And, regarding myself, I go even further, for I actually see the letters there
before I d!'aw them, so that the work
resolve.'! itself into a species
of tracing. But this is theory
and open to contention, so I
will say no more on the subject.
I have, I think, now explained the o~ject of these
opening chapters, viz., the proper and methodical training of
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Ftga. 19, :30.-Indez
Work-April13, 1889.]
SIGN WRITING AND LETTERING.
'
the hand and eye, and we trust the student will follow us with due appreciation,
a.S it is a. matter most other writers on the
subject have entirely overlooked.
The illustrated examples of freehand
drawing and outline subjects which I give
have been selected, to the best of my ability,
'for the special purpose we have in view,
but as I have so urgently advised the
novice to diligently practise the circle, I
had better make some remarks on the best
method of proceeding to work in this direction.
r It is, of course, much easier to draw a
small circle than a large one. The beginner
should therefore make a start by describing
a circle three inches in diameter, persevering
until he is able to draw it, time after time,
tolerably correct. This is best done on
a large slate with slate pencil, but the slate
should not be allowed
to lay down upon the
·
table. On the other
hand, it should be
held in a nearly upright J!OSi tiou, propped
up mth books, held
by the left hand, or,
better still1 placed on
a small nome-made
easel, which is easily
constructed.
Having made satisfactory progress with
the small circles, proceed as follows :Describe a circle
three inches in diameter, and then continue to construct
larger ones outside
this, and all at a given
distance front each
other, until the whole
surface of the slate is
covered. (See Fig. 12.)
Practice in larger circles may afterwards
be transferred to the
blackboard with both
chalk and brush, but
the student must by
no means bore himself with this or any
one class of work, but should change
about from one subject to another,
so as to infuse variety and interest
into his work.
We will next turn our attention
to a few subject.'! which the sign
writer is frequently called upon to
paint, and this being so it is, of
course, necessary he should know
how to draw them with accurac:y.
I give some examples with th1s
chapter, a serie.<; of outline drawings .only, as copies for repeated
practice.
In commencing practice use drawing paper tightly pinned upon the
drawing board, and one of ROwney's
twopenny HB. pencils,
which is the best for beginners, as it gives a good
bold stroke, and the lead
is thick and very ea!ly to
work with. In drawing
these examples compasses
and rule are now permissible. Nevertheless,
I "'ould still recommend that they be drawn
in freehand for a timein f~ in order to set
I
Fig. 23.-Crown.
Fig. 21.-The Royal Arms.
57
a good example, I have myself done some
of these drawings with the unalded
hand, and with the pen I am writing
with, merely using Rowney's liquid Indian
ink instead of ordinary writing ink ; and,
be it known, it is much more difficult to
execute freehand drawing with a pen than
it is with a pencil. It is good practice,
hov,~ever1 to follow the pen~il lines over with
I ndmn mk, and as a suttable pen I use
Gillott's school pen No. 351 F., and Cassell's
series of drawing books.
Having tired of J.>encil and paper the
student must next bnng his blackboard into
requisition, a description of which hill<
already been given. He will also require
a box of Rowney's white demonstration
chalks- this is a tapered chalk four inches
long1 and is more expensive than the ordinary
blacKboard chalk, which, however, would be
of no use for our purpose - a camel-hair
writer, a thin piece of
" planed " board to
act as a palette, and
somewhite(zinc) paint
thinned out to the
proper
consistency
with a little sweet oil,
and some old dusters
or bits of rags.
We now commence
at the beginning again,
and proceed to draw
the straight lines,
curves, circles etc.,
with the chalk, but
on a larger scale. This
last remark reminds
me that I have
omitted to say-as I
should have done in
the first chapter-that
it is not necessary for
the student to continue to draw his
copies exactly thesame
size as they are given
in these pages, although for the purpose of the eye trainmg, as just laid down,
he should for some
time endeavour to
draw them to the same scale, and
ascertain by measurement how far
he is out when his drawing is completed. After that it is also necessary to become proficient in both
reducing and enlarging, and we
would therefore advise that the student should, after awhile, make each
succeeding dra\ving lar~er than the
preceding one, and ta.kmg this last
as his copy for the next one. He
can thus go on until he reaches the
limits of a full-sized sheet of drawing paper, so that when he comes
to fractise upon the blackboard he
wil gradually have worked up to
the enlargements almost without
being aware of it. He
should keep a.ll these intermediate drawings as
copies to ·practise from
on his bl&Ckboard, and
it will be a good plan
to work backwards until a.t last he actually
makes a-n enlarged
draWing on the blackbo$rd 1rom the dra.wr
1'1&'. 22.- Prince or Walea·a Plume.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
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PAINTING.
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s!lould put his other cha.wiiigS·· q~t of' ~ascribed, and the colours to .be used give13
111g_ht.
.
• • · -.1 • •
m a later chapter. · The Prince of Wales
I will no:w· suppose that the ·~~ - baa · F eathers (FiR.- 22), being a much easier
been practising for som'll hoqi'S on the subj ect, had 'better ~rlui.JIS ~ attemJj~
black:Doard with cbs.lk, and has ~ first. The 9rown (F~. ~} Ill more
each subjec~ several tilpea !>!'61· . Jife ahQ~d cui~ and ~ little practice will be nec~sa.ry
now take his ·camelJhair wnter, an4 h:&Vlilg to ilra.w 1t to the · correct shape. fu.. 24
worked a little white paint on to his ex• is a centre ribbon ornament, and ~lgs.
temporised ll&lette, and· having 6.oroughly 25 and 26 two scroll work corner J.>leces.
cleaned the Chalk: marks from ·his toa.rd, he The student should not confine h1mself
should proceed to draw all the f reehand entirely to the examples given her~ b~t
subjects with his brush and pa.int, com- should draw anything that comes m his
mencing with straight lines and curves.
if it is likely to b6 of use to him. He
His ii.r8t object is, of course, to be ·able
· find plenty of other subjects in books
to make a line, with his camel-hatr writer, and illust rated advertisements, and even
of the same thickness tb{ou,ghont. H e on tli.e poster hoardings in the street. H e
may n ow use a mabl stick to rest his should 8.lso go round , sketch ·book in hand,
wrist upon, or may rest his ri$ht hand and jot down any little bits of good work
on the left wrist, the left hand bemg placed which he may take a fancy to over th e
against the board. If his hand is steady shop fronts and other places of business.
and firm enou~h, however, h e had better H e may afterwards make finished drawings
dispense with e1ther in all his preliminary of them at home for future use and practice.
work, ~ he will then be the better able to Making use of his brains in this way will
appreciate the hellJ of a mahl stick wh en f~~ve of great assistance to the student in
it comes to the" gnm reality." Here again
· course of self·tuition.
(To be continued.)
I may say I have never had one, although,
possibly, better work wpuld have been
the result if I had. It, however, shows
they are not absolute necessities for a yonng
man with a. steady hand and of sober h abits.
CRYSTOLEUM PAINTING.
The workman should make his lines, ~
BY 0. BECB'.ERLEGGE.
far ~ possible, with the _point of the brush
and not with the side. He must work with ll. -How TO RRl'IDER PHOTO TRANSPABBNTa. bold, unhesitating hand, if he wishes to
pAINTING- SOITdBLB CoLOURING FOB POB·
give a. firm and finished appearance to his
TRAIT- TliEATliENT OF DETAILS- SECOND
P AJl'.'Ti:NG-DRAPERIES AND BACitGR011NDwork. Any timidity or hesitancy on his
FI:XiSHJNO &''ID liiOONTING -LANDSCAPES part will only end in a very dubious result,
COLOURL'iG FOLIAGE, C LOUDS, ETC.- CON·
and at once betray the hand of the novice.
CLVSIOY.
The white paint should be of just such a
consistency as to flow freely and evenly OUR next business will be to make the
from the pencil, and at the same t im.e picture transparent. To secure this end
gving suflicient covering power on the board. several modes are adoE~;d. There is a
rhe orush is held in much the same way crystoleum wax sold. T · has to be melted
as a pen in ordinary writing ; it should in a bath, and the picture soaked in it until
not, however, be grasped too tight, as the the transparency iS obtained. I have no
strain on the sinews of the hand tends to doubt this is a good plan, but I have not
cramp it, which very soon tires it and so adopted it, as it necessitates bath, lamp, etc.,
and there is the danger of overheating the
renders it unsteady.
As soon as the board is covered all over wax, when it is said to turn yellow. I have a
with paint marks, it must immediately be shrewd guess that the so-called prepared
wiped clean with a piece of rag, which has wax: is nothing more or less than ~ratfin
previously been steeped in a little common wax. The plan I adopt is one which dis·
turpentine. It is as well to have the paint penses with the bath, etc., and saves the
in a tin dipper, which will be described e:r:J>~nse of w~x. Take !1- little of the J.>OPPY:
hereafter.
oil and pour it on the picture. When it has
Coming next to the series of outline stood an hour or two the picture ,vill be
subjects given with this chapter1 I would beautifully clear. Drain off all the oil and
impress upon the student tlie o.esirabilitr. it will be ready for painting. I have also
of practising these on the blackboard until tried copal varnish, using it as the oil, but
he is absolutely perfect, and able to turn I have the most confidence in the former.
out a passable specimen of each one. Fig. 13 Some recommend sweet oil, by which I
is a plain board with a screw head at each presume olive is intended, but of that I
corner; Fig 14 a plain shield ; and Figs. 15, have no pt:actical knowledge. It seems to
16, 17, 18, a. series of four scrolls. Next we me ·that almost any clear oil or varnish
have a pair of hands (Figs. 19 and 20) that will dry would answer the purpose.
one pointing in a' horizontal direction a na
Well, having got our work up to this
the other downwards. The Royal Arms point let us proceed to the painting. I
(F ig. 21) will, no doubt, prove the most Will suppose it is your own portrait. Acdif:licult subject to tackle, but as t he sign cording to your complexion, hair, etc., so
writer is so frequently called upon to paint must lie your colours.
Presuming I am giving instructions to
it, he must take it very seriously in hand,
and, after he has ~ed some little ex- on~ quite unused to paint, let me mix the
perience in the mampulation of his brush, palllt for you.
he will find it not ~ difficult as it at first
EYEs. - Blue, cobalt ; black vandyke
!'-PJ.>88r8, and he will. soon ~ able to" draw brown ; grey, cobalt and bi;;k · brown
1t l;D: proper proportiOJl!l Wlth the greatest burnt sienna.
'
'
HA.I:&.- Very light, Naples and Indian
fll.Cllity. H e sho~d firstly ~w the subject
on the board Wlth chalk m a somewhat yellow; medium light burnt sienna· darl.:
ske~hy manner, allowi.J?g his hand .a burnt sienna and vandyke brown. '
'
rovmg freedom, and relyiiig m ore on his
-Ci!'"DK and LIPs - Carmine and verpencil brush for afterwards putting in the• · milion.
'
!iJles in a firm, masterly way. This anhi~' ,.. Co.H PLEXION. - Light, whit~ carmine,
lS only t reated here purely as . an O.!ltli~, and ~aplea yellow ; da,·k, white, Indian
e:r~~ple; the met hod of ~hading ~~: ~no",. ~and)rke brown.
:flf•
.,
[Work-Aprill3, 1889.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
~
Srr.v:m. - White and black. GoLD.Naples and I ndian yellow, burnt sienna. Of
course, it will be understood that a variety
of tints can be p roduced by the paints
named. We must, therefore, use our judgment as to the quantities-as, for example,
two persons may: be dark, but the colour ,
ma.y be very difi'e rent ; in one case the
yellow may prevail, in another the brownso for hair. We must, of course, bring our
judgment and taste to bear on these
matters. I will make a few remarks on ~
Ui.ndscape paintiug further on.
L et us now proceed to details. With a.
ve17 fine pointed brush put a point of
light in the eye-any picture, even an •
engraving, will suggest where it should be I
pl&ced. This representing the reflected light ·
in the ey~ gives brilliancy and character.
Then the rris, blue or brown, as it may be
necessary/· the white of the eye, white and
a. tin~e o Naples yellow. Next work on
the hps and cheeks ; the latter1 carmine
only, using judgment as to deptn of tone.
AJ3 Opie said once, "mix ;vour colours with
your brains." Then put m the hair, using
only t ransparent colours, as I have indicated. L inen, lace, etc. white with just a
trace of blue to take otf the rawness ; Jewellery, as before indicated, whether it be
silver or gold. Flowers and foliage, as per
nature. All this to be painted on t he
transparent photo. There must be no
attempt at shading, either now or a.t the
subseq_uent stage. The photo, if it is a good
one, Will provide all that, and if it is not a
good one you cannot improve it. All your
various studies can be brought up to this
p,oint, supposing you have several on hand.
fhey must now stand over till they are
hard, which will•be by the next day.
We must now proceed to the second
When the first paint is dry,
painting.
remove any dust that may have settled on
the glass. Take the second glass and rub it
so that there may be no dust, fiuft~ or grease
on it. Provide a strip of gummed ,Paperthe margin off stamps will do admirablylet them be, say i of an inch wide, place the
second glass on the first and fasten them
together on the edge by the gummed paper.
Now take your colour for the face and hands,
mixing it with a little poppy oil ; it will be
under:;tood that the paint m every instance
is brought into a fit consistency for work by
mixing it with this mediwn. Pass the
colour over face and hands, simply taking
care to keep to the outline. By turning it
over during the operation you can easily see
whether you have come too far, or not far
enough. Any alteration can easily be made
-the entire paint removed, if needs bewithout doing any injury to the picture.
Draperies must be {lainted in the same
way, our judgment gmding us in the tint.
The background -v~oill now claim our attention. The tint will, of course, depend to a
great extent on the main subject. A nice
effect will be produced if the several colours, ·
bluel yellow, and red, be placed in patches
on t ne glass, and then mixed all up together. •
A soft prismatic effect will be the result, one
tint gradually fadin~ away into another.
When the work lS done as near to your
satisfaction as possible, cut out a piece of
cardboard the size of the glass, and with
strips of gummed paper bind the edges all
around to keep out dust, etc. I t ma.y then
be mounted in a plush frame, or, if preferred,
a narrow gilt frame will look exceedingly
nice if a narrow fold of plush is glued in the
rebate of the frame so as to project. say, ~ of
an in. in the place of the usual fiat. This
narrow beading of p lush will cover the
1
Work-Aprill3, 1889. )
WHY D o.Es A TooL CuT?
hydrogen, combined either with an element,
or with a group of elements, which almost
always contains oxygen, nnd in thi.s case the
substances are termed oxi-acids." (Roscoe.)
.Acetic Acid.-.I<'rench : .Acide .Aceti9ue.
Chemical formula., C2 H. 0~. Common vmegar is dilute acetic acid prepared by the
acetous fermentation of alcoholic liquids.
Crude acetic acid (named also pyroligneous
acid). is prepared on a large scale by the dry
distillat10n of wood, Glacial acetic acid is
obtained by heating acetate of soda with
stron~ sulphuric acid. This acid is a. colourless hquid, with a. peculiar, shar_p, p~ngent
odour, and strong acid flavour. It will mix
with alcohol, ether, or water in any proportion. When concentrated by distillation, it
boils at ll8° c., and solidifies at 17° c. to
an icelike mass, hence its name. It will
blister the skin, and dissolve camphor and
several resins. It forms with bases some
important acetates, described under their
respective names.
Acetate of Copper.-French: Acitate de
C'lliv·te. There are two substances commonly named acetate of copper. One of
these-ordinary verdigris-is only a. subacetate of copper obtained by spreading the
marc of grapes (vintage refuse) on copper
plates ex~osed to the air during several
weeks. 'Ibis forms a. bluish-green Sa.lt, not
entirely soluble in water. The true acetate
of copper (sometimes known by the names :
crystals of Venus, crystallised verdi~is, and
distilled verdigris) is made by dissolving
common verdigris in hot acetic acid, and
setting asid~ the filtered solution to cool.
The salt forms beautiful dark-green crystals,
which o.re soluble in water in the proportion
of one part of the salt to fourteen parts of
water. Mr. Smee says : "A solution of
acetate of copper is difficult to decompose
requiring the intensity of several cells.'1
Acetate of copper is used in making up
brassing solutions. It is very ;>oisonous.
.Acetat~ofLead.-French: AcetatedePlon~b.
Described M plombic acetate, Saturn's sugar,
and sugar of lead. This salt of lead is made
in large quantities for commercial purposes
by dissolving litharge in strong acetic acid.
I t is generally met with in the shape of
heavy white crystals, or a. mass of them, resembling loaf sugar ; this, coupled with its
sweetish flo.vour, ha.'! ensured for it the name
of sugar of lead. Sugar of lead isfoisonous.
It is soluble in one and a. hal parts of
water, aud in alcohol. " In a. solution of
acetate of lead, zinc is the only metal that
receives a coating of lead by simple immersion." (G. Gore.) This property has led to
NOTES FOR ELECTRO-PLA.TERS.
the performance of a beautiful and simple experiment illustrating the arborescent formaBY GEORGE EDWINSON BONNEY.
tion of metallic crystals. A small piece of
L - INTI!oouorzoN-Aoro-AOETio Aoro-AoETATB zinc is suspended by a. fine brass wire from
0 1!' COPP.£1\-ACETATB 0 1' LEAD-AOBTATE 01' the bung of a. pickle bottle nearly filled
SILVEit-AOETATE 011' ZINo--AOETATB 011' IRON with a solution of lead acetate in distilled
-ACETATE OF .MERCURY-ACETATE OJ' AI.UMINA
water. As the zinc dissolves, crystals of
-ACETATE OF COBALT-ACET"'I'.& 01' NICKEL.
lead take the place of the dissolved zinc,
THE following notes have been collected and arrange themselves around the wires in
from various sources of information, and the form of Ye$etation, and is then named a.
have proved of some use to me in my work. lead tree. This salt is also used in making
I now offer to share the benefits I have up solutions for the electro-deJ?OSition of
received from them with my fellow-workers. lead. (See Lead, Electro-depositwn of.)
They are here arranged nearly in alphabetical
Acetate of Silver.-French: Acetate d'
order for ea~y reference1 and may thus be Argent. Mr. Gore has tried a. solution of
regarded as an Electro·pla.ter's Dictionary.
this salt, and says : " For depositing pur.Acid.-The acids in general use among poses, a solution composed of water twenty
electro-platers are : acetic acid, hydrochloric parts, cyanide of potassium four parts, and
acid, nitric acid~ nitrous acid, sulP.huric acid, acetate of silver one part, conducts very
and tmlphurous acid1 all descr1bed under freely, and yields a. fine white de_posit of
their respective heaaings. "Most of the silver." The salt may be made e1ther by
acids are soluble in water ; they possess an adding a. solution of acetate of v.ota.sh or of
acid ta.rste, and have the pr·operty of turning soda to a solution of nitrate of Silver M Ion$
blue litwus solution . red. All acids contain as a precipitate occurs, decanting the liquid,
strips of paper which bind the picture
together. If m the progress of our work we
t find the details painted on the first glass are
J either too hard or not di~tinct enough, it
• can easily be remedied b1, cutting down the
gummed paper on ·one side and opening the
glasses, and retouching or softening the first
colours M may be desired. Do not cut down
the two edgesl M you may find some little
difficulty in oringing the two glasses in
I exact co!Tespondence. By leaving one side
secure the glMses will find their true posir tion.
1
Should we purpose painting a landscape,
I then let the fore~rround with its details be
i painted on the first glass ; middle distance,
clouds, sky, etc., on the second glass. I can
only" indicate, of course, in a genera.! way
what colours to use, M every subject must
be treated accordin,. to its nature.
A dry open road, Naples yellow, white
and tinge of red. Foliage, Wlth a glint of
sunshine on it, soft greens, yellow predominating ; sombre &reens, blue, burnt sienna ;
sky, cobalt, and wnite with a tinge of either
red or yellow towards the horizon. Instead
of putting on these in distinct wMhes, as
would be done in a water-()olour drawing,
a dab of the colour should be put on the
horizon and theu mixed together on the
glass; thls willgivesoftmysterious blendings
of colour, the soft light melting into the
blue above it. Very distant hills1 blue and
red; prominent spurs should be ht up with
the colour of the horizon, but just a. shade
lower in tone. Water must take its tone
from the sky. Clouds! various shades of
grey made w1th white b ue, and red in different proportion, with a. little Naples yellow. In all these cases the shadows in
clouds, mountains, etc., must be put on first,
the lighter tints behind them.
Any one following these instructions will
be able to produce work which will give
satisfaction. Fr·om briefer notes than these
I acquired the art, and I know that persons
have been able to turn their knowledge of
the art to commercial advantage who have
acquired that knowledge simply by reading
instructions even briefer than those I have
given. Should any little difficulty a.ris.,_ I
shall be happy to answer a. question. vn
reading what I have written, I find I have
omitted to mention that the eye-brow and
nostrils must be painted on the first glass.
For the eye-brow use colour as per hair;
soften it towards the eye with a. dry brush,
stroking downwards.
t
The Work Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
•
59
and washing the salt in the usual way, or
by digestiug the oxide or the carbonate of
silver in hot and strong acetic acid.
Acetate of Zinc.-French: Acetau de Zinc.
This salt may be made, either by diesolvin~ zinc in strong acetic acid to saturation,
or by adding a. solution of lead acetate to a.
solution of zinc sulphate, M long as it produces a. precipitate ; filter, evaporate the
liquid, and set nside to crystallise. 1'his salt
is sometimes mentioned in some formulro
for brassing solutions.
Acetate of Iron.-This has been recommended as an antidote to poisoning by
cyanide solutions. There are two acetates
of iron-an acetate of the _protoxide of iron
(crystals of small greenish-white needles),
and acetate of sesquioxide of iron "a. darkbrownish-red, uncrystallisable llquid, of
powerful Mtringent taste." (Fownes.) The
ordinary "steel drops" sold by chemists
will serve every purpose required here..
Acetate of Mercury.-A solution of this
salt will deposit its metal on iron by simple
immersion. Prepared similar to acetate of
silver.
Acetate of A lumina.-A gummy mass used
in calico printing.
.Acetate of Cobalt.-A violet-coloured deliquescent salt.
Acetate of Nickel.-A green salt of this
metal, soluble in water. Of no special
interest to the electro-plater.
(To be CO'I~tinued.)
WHY DOES A TOOL CUT!
BY J . R.
ll.-8ENSI'I'I:VJINBSS 01' TooLS-hiPAIRTNG WEDGE
FORlol-GEINDillG CHISELS-FACETS .UADR Ill
SHARPBNillG--GBINDING, WHEN NKCESSAR1'D RILLS-LrP D BlLIJ-T WIBT DRILir-REAHERS
-TAPS AND DIES-WJ:IBN BUOB T OOLS CEASE
TO OPERATE-SAWS AND FILES-WOUK DONII
BY Tooir-l TS TEAOHI..NG-PBBSBNTATION OJ'
TooL.
I WILL now briefly illustrate the principles
laid down iri my previous article by examples taken from common tools. Of these,
the kinds used for wood working are more
sensitive to ill-treatment than those used for
working metal, and of the latter those which
are OJ?erated by hand than those actuated by
ma.chme. The reason is, of course, that the
more delicate the nature of the work, the
more readily is the action of the tool felt.
There are numbers of tools in daily use in
the machines of our factories which are badly
formed, so causing a. great WMte of powe~~
that would not and could not be tolerated it
they were hand worked, because the hand
and arms soon rebel against the excess of
energy required to operate badly formed
tools. The stresses on the machine-worked
tools on the other hand a.re only- a.pparen t in
excess of friction, the evils of which: are not
so evident to some workmen M excess of
muscular effort. .
Take first those cases in which tools do
not cut because the wedge form is impaired.
The chise~ and all chisel-like tools, should
be ground with one facet only, not with
several. This appliea alike to the chisel for
wood working and for metal cutting, to
the gouge, t he axe, adze, knife, razor, planeiron, spokeshave, and others of similar type.
The reason why it must be so in order to
develop the full efficiency of these tools is
apparent from the illustrations.
Thus, comparing Figs. 6 and 7, which are
slightly exaggerated for the p~e of illustration, Fig. 6 shows ~o.w a chisel-like tool
ought to..,be ground, ~ con~vity of the
facet eza.otly corresponding With the cnrve
WHY DoEs
6o
A
TooL CuT?
[Work-AprillS, 1889,
of the stone U{>On which it is ground. To wedge form. Among these are included the sectional forms are similar to those which
grind it like th1s requires some practice in common drills, the screw taps and dies, the are shown in Fig. 14.
the case of broad chisels and plane-irons, reamers, and other forms. Thus the common
But then these remove material in fair
the tendency in unskilful hands bein~ to drill, Fig. 11, by reason of the overhang of quantity because of the strength and coercion
produce a succession of facets like F1g. 7i its cutting face, A, makes an angle greater exercised in operating them, and because
due to the slipping up and down of the too than 90° with the face of the work, and it is they are all hacked off, as at a, <t, preventing
on the revolvmg stone. But the advantages simply a. scrape, though, by reason of the excessive friction between the tool and the
of Fig. 6 are very great.
coercion exerc1sed upon it, it really removes work. Each of these tools ceases to o;)erate
First the necessity for regrinding is tolerable chips or shavings. But the lip when the primary conditions become VItiated
delayed much longer than in Fi~. 7, where dril~ Fig. 12, is a cutting tool, being a true chiefly in their case by the wearing back of
the facet is on the whole convex: mstead of wedge.
the keen edges obliterating the angles of
clearance, to which the efficiency
concave. Fig. 6 approaches to the
hollow razor form, Fig. 8, and for
_../
/'
of Fig. 14 is largely due. Because
_.;/
,
their form is unfavourable for
some little time the grinding
//
/
cutting,and becausetheysoreadily
angle and the sharpening angle
will coincide ; after awhile it be- ~
lose their pristine edges, very great
L..___.
care is necessary to avoid all concomes necessary to tip the facet ~
in sharpening, Fig. 9, and the
r·1
Fig. 7.
tact with rough cast or forged surg. s.
/
faces, as the case may be.
sharpemng angle is gradually
,/,./
Saws and files operate not as
!'endered ·more obtuse until re~inding becomes necessary. But
\Vedges but as a. m\tltitudinous
m Fig. 7 the sharpening angle is
~
assemblage of scrapes..The minute
L__
teeth have abundant plearance, a.
obtuse from the commencement,
and regrinding is soon required.
l1ighly important matter ; but as
8
:Moreover, since the a.n~le is so
Fig. •
the front faces of the teeth lean
obtuse, a greater expen iture of
Plg. s.
back beyond the perpendicular
ener~ is necessary to remove the
they cannot Eenetrate as wedges.
sha.vmgs than in the former case,
Fig. lll.
One thing 'v ich tends to sweetness of working by diminishing
because the latter has less penethefrictionisthediagonal sharpentration than the former. This
is apparent from the dotted lines,
ing of the tooth faces in the case
of the saws, and the diagonal
which show the effective angles
of the two by comparison.
arrangement of the lines of teeth
in the files. By these devices the
A good workman, therefore, always endeavours to preserve the
material is attacked in detail, just
wedge-like form to his tools as
as when using a broad wood-working chisel we move it diagonally
long as possible, regarding the
across the face of t.he material to
grinding of t he hollow facet as a
matter of cardinal importance.
ease the labour of cutting, or just
Chisels are often badly sharpas the shears or scissors divide
material in detail.
ened by tilting up the face for
the purpose of turnin~ back the
The vast difference in the
;
wire edze. The result 1s that the
Bg-.n.
amount of work done by a. tool
1
face is hke Fig. 10.
that cuts efficiently and one that
This again detracts from the
~....
only scrapes, should read an inwedge form. Worse than that1 it
',
structive lesson both on the im.,,
porta.nce of correct tool formation
vitiates a. very important pomt
in chisels worked by hand ; it
\
and the maintenance of the same,
____twhich is seriously inlpa.i red by
destroys the guidance afforded
-- ...-every departure from the wedgeby a perfectly flat face. The
..like form.
chisel must be tilted before it
will cut,
and
being
so placed,
..., 13'
_,,-"'
The wood-worker's chisel, axe,
·
1
h
.ng,
"
there IS no onger t at contact of
and adze, keen-and acute, remove
--.
material .in lar~e quantity. The
broad faces which is conducive
to the _guidance of the tool, and
screw tap, the d1e, the reamer, the
file, the saw, remove only fine
the difficulty of cutting surfaces
and ends is much increased
~
~ scrapings or "swarf" even when
thereby.
I
working a.t their best. The turN o matter how flat the general
j
ner's roughing tool cuts off great
shavings to a considerable depth;
area of the chisel face is, if there
is a second facet, however narrow
. ,,-the broad finishing tool and the
at. the cuttin~ edge, that deter/ ,/''
scrape remove only thin parings.
'
In the one the wedge-like action
mmes the action of the tool. The
is perfect, and seen at its best, in
tool angle is measured between
that and the sha.~ned facet on
the other that action is nearly or
thfe bevelled face. ence the need
..;,
Fig.l.z.
l'.ie;.l~.
quite absent.
..
Much might be said about the
o care in these little matters
where
amate
t
to
f
ll
Pig,
·~~--:'Ohlsel
.
Grounci
Correetly.
Fig.
7.Dltto,
Incorre""'-.
....~.
e.. to
urs are so ap
a
~WoJ· Ft
. g...., _ 1'nfiuence of the method of preDO<nilOil or Razor. Pig. 9. -0btuse Sharpening of Chleet
10
m ot:~~~se, with all too'· the
. Clilsel TUte4 by Ba4 Bharpelllng. Fig. 11.-Common Dr111. Pig: 12:- senta.tion of the tool to the wor;k
~
Llp Drill Fig. 18.-Twtat Drill Ptg, 14.-Bectlou of Reamers a.nd Taps. as affecting results. But th1s
would really be resolvable into
labour . of cutting becomes in~reas~ da.sb the '!V~dge form is unavoidably
But much superior as a cutting tool is the conformity with or departure from correct
Y legitimate ~ ~hat is as their twist drill Fig. 13, whose angle, A, is acute tool angles, so I need sa.y nothing on this
lmpa.tre
keen ~dges become dulled, m other words , or wedge-like. The angle of the ·spirals point just at present.
the1r angles ~o~e ~ore obtuse. Wht~n rema.ips constant througliout the life of the
The whole subject of tool formation is one
t e a.moun~ of thiS 18 slight only,_we -rebOrt drill .Figs. 12 and 13, therefore have the of a highly interesting and practical charac~0 slw:rpemng
which ~ absent in F~. 11. All ter, and one which every workman should
. .When, by repeated sh!!orpen"
1
mg, the too af!J.le ,becomes very o~~ we · e have su.ffic1ent clearance, or relief study. I have simply endeavoured to touch
ref!l;d'~ mater
m greater quant1t.y by &.Ilgles. Vecyiew reamers or taps have any the fringe of the subject by showing why
f!rt ~ng.
top rake, and they: :are not therefore wedges some tools cut while others do not. In
There are many serviceab!e teols wh~ch EYe!>- in the ,beSt designed forms the top o; subRequent issues I shall have more to say
we tre ac~ustom~. '6o •lass ~v1th. the_cutting ·~uttmg f~.~ perpendicular to the work, as about some of the common tools, their
too s, which canliet be said, literally and m the .reiiiiittt two of whose sections a.re principles of action, and the manner in
strictly, to cilt \>ecause they ha.ve ~ot .t~~ .1 ll~own
:m..~~ - ·1~ ~d the taps, whose which they are used.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
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8 -"""'
a:
:r&·ra;ke,
. ..• _-.:,,)
-
'
''0:"'>" '.•
.
,#" . . . .
(
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\
OUR GUIDE TO GOOD THIXGS.
17.-BruTA.'IXIA Co:uPAxY 'S NEw LATHB
FOil FACE l'LATES.
61
OuR GuJ.DE TO GooD THINGS.
'Work-April 13, 1889.]
Does
IN No. 2 (pago 1i) of this mngo.zino instruc-
tioJUI were gi \'C'n fo1· making o. home-made dog
chuck or face plate, and the method to bo fol).pwed in making lathe dogs for it was described
~ " 'ell. '!'hero may be some workmen, cspcciully
:aruntou.rs, who, though they may contrive to mnko
[the chuck, may not have eitbor thoskill 01· tho time
to make tho dogs, nnd it is in tho interest of
,such ns these nnd many others who may be
desirous of purchasing lutho dogs ready to
hand, that 1 give in Fig. 1 illustrations of
some excellent things of this kind that hn ,.o
been recently manufactured by the llritannin
Company, Colchester, nnd may no'v be hau
from tho Comp1my direct or through nny denie1·
in tuols. Tho three varieties tigured clcnl'!y
show the purpose for which they nro intended
and the way'm which each is to bo used, so
nny dctnilcll-.dcscdption is unneces.."'lry. 'l'ho
price of tho>dog in tho <'entre is ls. Gd. ; of tho
one on the right, 3s. 9d. ; nnd of the ono on
the left, iis. They m·e well mndo of black
iron, and the scre ws externally nnd internally
are carcfuUy cut.
ple:ISuro. Each chuck bns t"•o sots of jnws. The
jtiW in Fig. 4 i~ fom1cd revorsoll~· to thoso ~hown in
the chuck in Fig. 3, boiug intomlud for drill work.
20.-Jox~ER's J>AuALLEL
Gan• VJCB.
Vices of this )>Rltorn nro nppnrently not so
widely known nnd usud na they ought to bo, nnd
mttuy o. ctu·pcuwr uud joinur still koops to tho old
wooden bench ''ico with its wooden sct·ow,
although by tho ndoption of tho J.>nmUol Grip
Yico nlllch timo is snved, becnuso by tho lnttor
wood cun bo seiz\.'<1 nnd secured instnntly by
Fig. 2.-0hamfer Plane.
18.-i\hLUUISII'S CHA:UFEl\
PLAXI!.
bonch. Liko all the grip vicoe, its holding force
is so grrnt t~nt if n ~on~ pioc~ of wo?d bo clutched
hy ono end m tho vtco 1!8 wotght w11l bo t•owor·
lOlls to ultor its position in tho vico in tho smnlloet
dogrco. Its coat is 13s. Od.
21.-PAnALLIIL·JAWBD PLume.
When pliers of tho old style aro oponod it will
bo noticcu thnt, ae a mnttor of courso, thoro muKt
bo 11 grantor divergcnco of the jnwK ut their ox·
tromitius thnn ncuror tho axi" ubout which thoy
mo,·o, und this occueione n cortnin umount of in·
convcnionco whon trying to hold 11 picco of
motnl with thom without injuring tho cornon1
or surfuce. I n this tool, howover, tmrallclisrn
of the jr1ws is maintained by a sim('IO mcchunicnl nrrungement contnincd within thu
jaws themselves. In the pliers boforo mo thu
surface grill of tbo jnws is i in. by A in. ut
t.he ext1·ountics, nnd the jaws open to the
extent of i in. 'l'hus o. llrm, solid hold is
effected on tho o\>jcct grasped, nnd from tho
nuturo of tho mcclmnicnl constl'Uction of lho
~liora, the power nppliod is from twico to four
tunes tluLt of tho force exerted by the old
kind of pliers. It is true that pliers of this
kind have been in uso for somo littlo timo, hut
not so long as to be gonomlly known nnd
used, They uro mllllo in thrco
sizes - namely, 4t in., 6! in.,
•and 64 in. in length. Sold
respectively nt 3s., 3s. 9d., nnd
6s. por pair.
To srwe repetition of nnmes
nnd at the snme time to let
ovcry render know whcro tho
22.- Crnct:L A a. SAw B£1\'Cil
nl·ticlcs mcnlionC<lmny be obPOlt \VOilK · llliNCH AND
tained, if he <:annot get them
DIUVI~O·\VIIEBL.
nearer home, I may say at
Mnybo thoro is mnny A
once thnt tho chamfer plane
n ow under consideration und
Fig. 6.-Clrcular.so.w Bench for
wo1·kmnn who dosu·es, boyonrt
Work-Bench.
ull measure, to hn vo a snmll
every other nrticlo yot to bo
circular snw for light work,
desc1·ibcd in this notice is sup.
but who hns not u latbo which
plied by lllcSSL'l!. Hichnrd Molho cnn furnish with one or
hnitih a nu ::ions, 85 nnd 87,
Fetter Lane, E.C., who buve
othe-r of the circulru·-snw ri~~
submitted specimens to ml) for
Fig. s.-Small Three·J&we4
described and iJlustmtcd m
Chuck,
No. 1 (pages 8 and 9), or
exnminatiun. Tho nmke nnd
notion of tho plnno may bo
•
something similar. At nU
!,'lllhcred from Fig. 2, in which
events, he hns his work-bench, .
tho cut to the left gives n
Fig. 4.- Jaw o! Chu ck.
and on this ho mny oa$ily
view of tho plnno when looked
place the hnndy Jittlo iron
nt from above, and thnt to tho
circulnr-Mt.w bench figured in
1·ight of the bottom of tho
tho. s.ccompanying illustrn·
The merit of this
tion, cutting two or three
plane.
holes in the .top of tho wood.
plane is t.hnt tho cutting cdgo
•>i the iron goes nenl'ly up to
bonch, ao that tbo SRw itsolf
1
tho strip of bruss thnt is p ~rtJn'g-::
may be actuated by tbo drivscl'eweu on to tho front of the
Wheel!or
ing-wheol shown in tho en·
plnno, so tbnt evon in the cnse
Circular
F1g. 11.-Joiner a Parallel Ortp Vice.
graving (placed immediately
of a stop cbam!cr the cluLm!cr
Saw.
below the illustration of tho
circulo.l'·BRW bench) which is
mny be can·icd nearly close
placed under the bonch, and
home to the stop. By means
of the fence thnt is uttnched to tho
turned by means of the treadle.
The construction of the Mw-tnblo
bottom it mny ho regulatou by loosenieg tho sc1·ows nud permitting the
is apparent from the illustration in
fonce to tnwol either way as mny
Fig. 6. It is made in halves, which
be requi1·ctl as far ns tho slots will
are supported on the framing bolow,
and which are removable, to allow
permit. Chamfers ranging from i' in.
of the oo.ey removal or 1-eplacoment
llp to 1 in. within may be readily cut.
This plune is made in beech in two
of the ao.w when necesBRry.
'l'he
fence is movable, and can bo fixed
sizes, H in. nnd 6 in. in length, sold
at 4s. 6d. and Gd. Gd. Tho tl.nco of the
at various distances from tho saw, as
larger pluno is of boxwood. It works
may be required, by moans of tbo
thumb-screws, which pn88 through
well nnd easily when in use, and
ahould be found in the stock of every
slots in piocoa of metal projecting
from the fence at right angfoa to
woodworker,bcingprofornbleinevery
Plg. 1.-Ilr1ta.nn1& Company's Now Lathe Dogs for Pace Pla teL
way to the spokcshu vc-like toola of
it, and whioh work in pJ;Ojections
tbie class, which, although they are good nnd the third of o. turn uf tho hand, while with the from the frame whioh aup~rte the to.l>le, being
ll8rvicoable in them30lves, are not nearly as handy former tho jaws must be opened, perhaps with properly bored 11nd cut wtth a screw-thread to
ae the tool just described.
mnny n turn, to o. sufficient extent to receive receive the screws. The w e on which the saw
whatever it is wished to place between them, nnd revolves, is ehown projecting from the frnmo,
19.-SMA.LL THREB·IAWID .CHUCK.
then tightened with more turning-a marvellous and eecured by o. heu~ons.l-nut working on the
This littlo Three-jawed Chuck which is illus. contrast to the rnpid and effectual action of the sorow-tjlread with whioh ite end ia furnished,
trated in Fig. 3 is of French origin, and being grip vice, whose rnck cnn bo thrown out of gear as s}lown in the illustration.
much better finished thnn chucke of tbia kind at oneo by an upward motion of.the hand, and the
The BRw-table ie 13 in. lontf by (i in. broad, and
uaunlly ore, will doubtlese be welcomed br thoso front jnw pulled out, pressed a~inst the wood, ita upper au~ ia j ust ll Ul. above the level of
who require a small npplirinco of thie kmd for and then trghtened in an irresisttble and unmov· the work.benoh. ~bottOm of t¥Jrame p,rojects
light work, although 1te price is 32s. The able grip by o. similar movement of the hand bey.?nd th e face qf tAe UpPer M, an.d ~ bolted
general character and formation of the chuck is down wnrd. The pattern shown in Fig. 6 is fiXed to the W(lrk-benoh. li1hi • w1a e·in. m diameter,
exhibited in Fig. 3; and in Fig. 4 ie shown one of to the bench from beneath as indier1ted, and the and proj~ots 2 .in; above the aazfa~ of th~ "!'w·
the j&we of tho chuck, those being removable at top of the jawe. are level with the surface ot the table. The GrlylDg•Wh..-1 fieedl n o defOI'lptton,
The Work Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
OuR GuiDE TO Goon THINGS.
as its construction is self-evident from the illustration given. The prico of the saw-table, including saw, is £1 15s. ; and that of the driving·
wheel £1 10s.; or both are supplied together for
£3 3s. The weight of the driving-wheel, it may
be said, is 60 lbs., 11nd cnn be used to drive any
small bench lathe. Those who may desire to
have the saw-table placed otherwise than on the
work-bench can obtain it mounted on a strong
and serviceable table or bench, which is 2ft. 10iD.
high, having a top 18 in. by 14 in. I must not
omit to say that the iron &'\w-table is reve1-sible,
and cnn be r eversed when required in a very
short space of time. I have described the fence
placed on one side for work parallel to the plane
of the saw. On the other side are fences or
flanges arranged at an angle of 45° for cutting
mitres. Thus the whole affair is rendered of
utility for a great va1·iety of work, and will be
prized by the workman who is engaged in light
trades, such ns picture-fl:ame making, etc., as
well as by the amateur.
The whole, indeed, may be said to form a very
handy little applill.Ilce, well worthy of the atten·
tion of the amateur, and even of the professional
1vorkman, for carrying out such work as comes
fairly within the capability of the circular saw
with w hi eh it is furnished.
23.-NEW AnJUS'l'ADLE CALLIPERS.
To all callipers whose legs are drawn further
apart or brought closer together by means of a
screw, the chief objection has been the length of
time thnt is taken up in worldng the screw, in
order to bring the points of the l egs into the
required r elative positions. A new and desirable
make of callipers, however, has been recently
introduced in which anr delay of this kind is
entirely obviated. The legs are fastened together
by a steel stud at the top, and further connected
b~ a stron.g steel .spring, eecured in place by
Wlres or pms passmg trans,·ersely through the
legs, and which by its contraction causes ex-'
tension of the legs to their utmost limit. At th1>
distance of 1 inch from the stud that pRSses
through both legs, and acts as a rivet to hold
them together, nre two more studs, one on each
leg, projecting t in. beyond the surface of the
side to which each is attached. In one of these
a bar cut with a scrcw.thread for the greater
part of its le_ngth is fixed by a pin with sufficient
play to permtt the end of the bar, which is ~tbout
2! in. long, to move freely in a plane parallel to
the surfaces of the legs for about t in. Along
the bar, ~·hen the l egs ~re bel~ tightly together,
a broad ptece of metal hke a thick conicnl washer
and a steel tube with a broad milled flunge at th~
outer end, move freely up and down. This
steel tube is in reality an eccentric, which may be
thrown out of, or brought into, gear with the
screw-thrca_d cut on the bar by !L slight pressure
on the milled flang~. Thus supposing, for
example, that the callipers are adjusted to take
a .measurem~nt of ! in. in diameter, and it is
Wl&hed to mcrease the distance between ·the
points to 2 in., all that need be done is to release
the eccent~c, allow the legs to fly apart under
th~ exte_nding power of the spring to the reqwred distance as nearly as posaible and then to
bring the eccentric and washer as' I may call
it, in close contact with the stud through which
the ~ works, and fin&J.ly regulate the distance
rcqwred between the points with the utmost
~:ractneaa by the aid of the eccentric, which falls
1 mto gear on the screw-thread as soon as it is
brought. into position and feels the pressure of
the sprmg. The specinlen pair of callipers
before me. opens to the extent of ~! in., and costa
6~. Callipers of all shapes for mside and outmde. measurement are now made in this
and
are m eYery way preferable to -ordinary c lipers
for the reason stated.
TBl! EDITOR.
":fi•
*•*' The i:.Onaon Lathe and Tool COmpany
write :-"In des~bing the Simultaneous· Grip
Chuck and the Independent G1ip Chuck we
shoul~ per~aps have s~ted that these chucks are
AII!e~can. It was too•late tQ note tliis in the de~ptio?, ~f thtf 'chuokll in" Our Guide to Qood
Tbtnga m No. 3, but the earliest opportunity
has lleen taken ohupply'ing the omission.
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[Work-April13, 1889.
SHOP:
Trade Notes and Memornnila.
A CoRNER FOR TaOSE WHO W .L~T TO TALK IT.
• • • All Conlmtmlcatlons will be arku.o1cl"'lucd, but A nswers
canuot be g£1.-en to quutions 1c.·l&ich tlo 1tot bettr ou. sub.
J<clsthal/«lrly conu within tlu scope of the Magn;lne.
BnUdi.Dg CoDStruotlon.-G. C. (Kennington).E,•ery branch of the building trades will be trented
in 'YORK, not. pct·haps, in a. set series of lessons
on the subject beginning with excavating and lay.
ing the foundations, and end.ing with the finishing
tOtiChes impart.ed by the paperhanger and decorator: but in fapers that will den! sufficiently
and readably. it may use the word, with nHiou:
parts of the subject. Thus in Nos. 3 and 4 you
will find chatty articles very much to the point
and purpose on "A Simple Ceiling in ·w ood,"
which I am sure will be suggesu,·e and helpful to
many. In many of the De,·onshire farmhouses
there is nothing but the " planchiug," as the 1\oor
boards are called, between the rooms above and
the rooms below. Note, please. how these very
papers show how to make the joists themsch•es
omamental, and how to co,·er the chinks between
the floor boards, and if it is desired. to stop as far
as possible the transmission of sound !t·om one
room to another. Suppose you write again and
nrrord some tangible ideo. of the "series of lessons"
for which you seem to wish.
Wood Carvtng.-E. B. (Eton).-I fear it is not
possible to give the inLerestlltK little pamphlet you
kindly send in Won.rr. I t would sen·o as intro·
ductory !natter to a study In wood carving. and
as a set·les of remarks advocating the adoption of
this art either as a tmde or as n. hobby. Why could
not a skilled cat·,-er, as you appear to be, send in
some studies In wood carving, witb matter dcscl'ip·
tlve ot the method to be followed in produciug the
etl'ects depicted by the drawings l
Keys for Pianos, Organs, and Harmon iuma.-G. D. (Upper Holloway).-Certainly your
request sball be complied· with whenever opportunitY otl'ers, and the subject of building these
instruments is sure to come to the surface in W'ORJ<
ere long. Meanwhile, why not advertise in our
pages? There is nothing like ad,·ertlslng tor nurs.
mg. helping, and making a business in the present
day. Success, be it what itmo.y, must be purchased
by preliminary sacrifice. Even omelets, you know,
cannot be made without breaking eggs.
Photography and Fretwork.-D. H. (Wands·
worth).-See replies in respect to papers on the
ftrstrnamed subject in No. 3. 'With regat·d to the
second, why not send i.n specimens of your work 1t
you are a designer of fretwork patterns? I baveon
my staff very efficient wl'iters on fret cutting.
Photography and Saddlery.- A. H . (Theale),
-You will see what I lta,•esaid aboYe about papers
on photography. With reference to the second
subject please write again, giving more defln•te informaUon und proposed mode ot treatment, as it is
now under consideration as one to be dealt with a.t
no very distant time.
Wire Thread Fret Saw.-G. c. {Ntmhead)
writes:- "It is really a singular fact that there is
nothing new under the ~un. In your admirable
little welcome arrival, \VORK, I sec you notice a
'New Wire 'l'hread Fret Saw: Perhaps yon will
be surprised to hear that the Chine~e fret workers
and the jade stone orttament makers of Canton use
precisely the same wire jagged or tooth saw tor
their work, and hn.ve done so !rom time imme.
moria!. I have seen these skilled ingenious workers
plying their trades many timPs, and as far back as
the year 1872." -[I am much obliged to rou for th"
interesting nature of your communlcatton, and so,
doubtless,. will be many ot the readers of WORK
It is true that there is nothing new under the sun·
but there Is a time when anything and everything
under the eun must be new to the person who
comes acrosa it tor the tlrst time. Tlius the wire
thread sa.w was new to me, and will be new to
many besides myselt.-ED.)
Wire Thread Fret Saw.-G. D. (Rhayader)
writes:- " Your new Wire Thread Fret Saw is not
a. new thing; I have seen it used twenty·fl,·e years
ago."-[Will you kindly write again and tell me ror
what purpose it was used-it tor fret cutting, and
under what circumstancesi Also In what s1zes it
was made, and it it was an article commonly and
constantly on aale.-ED.]
Our Advertial.Dg Pagee.-L. S. L. (Kirkcaldy),
-These in no way Impair "fie utility of 'WoRK, but,
.o n the contrary, add to it. Your suggestion how·
ever, shall he noted. Every suggestion, indeed, I
may ea.y, Is carefully considered. It you will send
in the article you name•in your letter, on appt·oval
it wlll be read with a view to acceptance U
suitable.
'
Theory - d Practloe.-W. B. B. (Brannox
Town).-The title was very carefully considered ;
and although it may sejlm to you that Theory
should precede Practice! the arrangement ot the
worde 'l>)'as made.purpoee y, because, illtbough both
Practlea and Theor,v, wtU llnd a. place in the Maga'~-there will be more of the former t.ba.n ot the
at..,..
1z 1 n
• • • Manu aft61Ders a.re hd<t over for 'ID«nt
0/Bpace.
.
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The Work
Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
SOME TOPICS 011' THE HOUR.-Pro!essional dltferenccs as to Quantities.- Wall Papers.- Fireproof
Construction.-1'he lJangers to Health ot Stoves.
NOTES.- Hastlngs wants a harbour at a cost ot
£60,000.-The Department of Science and Art will
hold Examinations from May 6th to 31st.- 'l'he new
Post Oft!cetor Birmingham will cost £70,000.- Filter.
ing of sewage is being successlully experimented
in at Acton.
LITTLESTONR-ON·SEA, bet,veen Dungeness and
Folkestone, is to become a new Sussex watering.
place.
THE charge for ascending to the top ot the Eiffel
Tower is to be 6 francs ; tor ascending to the second
platform, which Is 700 feet high, 3 Iro.nes: and 2
francs to the first platform. 200 feet bigb. Visitors
can use the lifts or walk upstairs.
TaE new Berlin Cathedral will cover 7cl053 square
m etres, or 900 more than C'-ologne Cathe raJ. The
building will cost 22 miUion marks, and contain
room for about 2,500 persons.
THE Metropolitan Police Receh·er invites tenders
tor 11,500 pat re ot boots, due August 1, 1889; and
13,000 pairs, due February 1, 1890.
THE Spiral Wood·Cutting Company (Limited)
has lately been registered. Capital .£1,500, divided
into 1,500 shares of £1 CJU:h. Objects:· To acquire
letters patent of a.n invention of n. new and !toproved tool for spiral turning, and to carry on the
business of spiral turning in wood ot every description.
PARCELS not weighing more than 7 lbs. ca-n now
be sent to Mauritius by the parcel post at a minimum charge of Ss. 2d.
OF t.h e suburban bridges freed in recent years,
Kingston cost £15,600; Walton. £7.012 (the amount
of the claim bein~ £29,510); Staines, .1!20.12S (the
amount of the chum being o£80,500); Kew, £67,300
(the claim being £73,8321; Hampton Court. .£.18,1»8
(the claim being o£81,600); 'l'ottenham Mills, £1.750
(the claim being £i.U5); Hellyer's Fel'l·y, £1,568;
Cbingtord Ferry, £4,082.
IT is proposed that the eum of £2,000 per annum
tor two years be given out of the City's cash in aid
of the objects of the Cit:,- and Guilds of London
Institute, for the advancement of 'l'ccbnico.l Educa·
Lion, the first payment to be made forthwith, und
the second p'\yment on January 1st, 1890.
THE City of London School Committee intend to
ascertain bow best the space at their disposal can
be utilised for the erecLion of a building suitable
for the education of boys In carpentering and other
useful pursuits.
AN artistic piece of wall decoration has been
completed in the Nurses' Refectory, Guy's Hospital. It Is the work of Mr. H. J. Dt'&per, who in
1886 gained the Royal Academy students' prize ot
MO offered for a design for the decoration of a
public building.
WORK
u
l'ubii•Md nt L4 B•ll• Su'""'~• Ltu!qttl• Hill, London, cd
D o'clock evert~ lYtdJW'IM.v mornino, and lhoulct bt obtai11ab~ erMrV-
wh.ero U&Toughout tM ll?tittd KitcsJdom OtL J'ridaJI (ft the latut.
TER:US OF SUBSCRIPTION.
8 month!, treo by poe'
••
•• la. 8d.
G tnonthe,
..
•• •• •• sa. ad.
12 mont.he.
••
. • •• • • 6s. e.:~.
Postol Or~ore or Po1< Olllce Orders l"'YAhle•• theGooeral
Poat. Oll!t".c , Loutlon, lO CA.BSKLL and Collt•ANY, Liw.tc.ed.
T•lt.Jl8 J'OB TBS I.!iSZ"RTIOX
o•
AOV'B:BT18:Bli&N1'8 IS UCB
W 'JIKE.LY J&SO'L
£ • • d.
12 o o
•
5 10 0
~uartcrPago
• • •
•
I U 5
Eighth of a l'ago •
•
1 17 5
OoO.Sixtceotb o! a PASe
•
1 o o
ln COlumn, per iocb
•
o 10 o
.Promlnonl Po•lt!IYIIII ., 4 urlt1 •I lmml.,..,
One Pose
Bnlf Pago •
-
bJI 1ptef4 «n'O"-!Ilmeut.
SmAll propatd Adverc.faement.s, auch as SituAtions Wuted,
.. Twenty Words or le&Jt, Ono SblUiDs, and One
Pt•nny LlC:r 'Vord oxtrft. lfovc:r Twent-y.
E~cba.ugt', eu~
Braaa Door Plate, 9 in. by 4i in., free, +'· 6d.
See Specimens and Testimonials.-Gu.. K.as' ENGRAVING
WoRKS, Readiog.
Rubber Stampe.-AII who wl$'h to make, buy, or
seU. P roofs, quotations, and price lists free.-Plt&STRtl>GS,
Manu(acturer, Bristol.
[t R
Ml.oroacopea and ObJeota.-Siides for Exhibitiog
from ss. dozen. Microscopes and aU requisites. List.-
HaNav EBBAGII, 344, Caledonian Road, London.
[2 a
TweDty Fretwork Pattel'DII, free, 6d. Swiss
Saw!t u. td. ~r gross, (ree. Fretwork Instructions) Tool
o.nd rattem Llst.s, with specimen de~ign. gratis. Post card
inquiry sullicieal-ELLtCOTT, Launcestoa.
(t s
Pattel'llll.-too Fretwork,
tS.
200
Turning,
goo
Stencils,
each parcel, free. Obtain commission }'ly introducing
ilsts.-COLLINS, Summerlay's Place, !lath.
(2$
~o•, Fitti.Dp, Btri.Dga, and evel"f requi•ite
•6,
supplied. Stamp for list.-\VI NDER, banjo specialist,
jeffreys Street, Kenti$h Town Rood, London, N. W. f 3 s
Eleotrlo Alarm Cloolr., rings the electric bell at
any hour until stopped ; price completet..z6s., carriage paid.
Electric bciJsJ.. 3s. ; pameuhtrs frec...- .tSARN&TT AND Co ••
21, BrightoD vrove, Newcastle-oD·l'yuo.
14 •
ADVERTISEMENTS.
W ork-April 13, 1R89.)
•
X TRAC T
ONO'S
THE GREAT CURATIVE
Has no equal for allaying In1Ja.mmation a.nd Hemorrha.ges, Rheumatism, Gout, Hemorrhoids, Wounds, Burns,
Bruises, Cuts, &c. &c.
IN'
USE
OVER
FORTY
YEARS!
POND•S EXTRACT is til e only P 1'0Jn'ietctry Cm·ative tll at is honoure1l tuitl' qeuerca Boycd Patronage.
W e sttppl f! JJIRECT the follow ing l llustriotts P ersonages:
I
HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN
ov
Rou MANIA.
Her Highn~ss Princes~ of Nassa.11:
H er Serene H 1ghness P1·mcess of W1ed.
His Serene Highness Prince N icholas of Nassau.
H er R oyal H ighness the Duchess of Cumberla.nd .
PA.lfPHLET WITH MEDICAL TESTIMONIALS, &e., POST FREE ON APPLICATION.
Sold in Bottles only a.t 131d., 2s. 3d., 4s. 6d., a.nd Ss. 6d.
Can be obtruned of aJl Chemists, or of the
SOLE PROPRIETORS :
POND'S EXTRACT COMPANY, LIMITED, 64, Great Russell Street, London, W.C.
SONS,
&
R MELHUIS·H
LA.NE, LONDON, E. C.
MELLIN'S FOOD
SAWS, PLANES, AND EDGE TOOLS
NOT FARINACEOUS. Rich In Flesl•, Nerve, Brain,
0
·
85 c:f: 87, FETTER
Fully Wnrl'nul ell or Exchnngetl.
PRIZE MEDAL FOR EXCELLENCE OF TOOLS AHO MACHINES.
A ll G'oocls over 1Os. in value Carriage Paid.
Combination Hand Saw, Square, a.nd 2-ft. Measure.
For Infants and I nvalids.
i:l"'
!:!f.
nnd Done }' ormers.
is ~ fact th:\t fuin:.ccous foods c:a.n.not be dige1ted by Infants. This is
IT tho
into
oDly food in which the swch has bcco wholly
chan~;;ed
aolublo substancca wl1ieh can Q.t once be converted in the lody into livingblood. This rcm:ark:.bfe rcsuh i.s :.uainc:d outside the body, by imitating cr.actly, in
t he pr~ess of manuf:\cture, the n:.turn.l conditions of hc:thhy and perfect digestion.
MELLIN'S FOOD h:u been examined phy<ioiOjtic•.lly by the high ..t Mcdicol
Authorities, and tested chcmic:.lly by the mos.t distingua~hcd Analysts, and has alw~ys
been c.lassed by them A 1. h b:a.s rained many awards of the highest merit at Public
Exhlbitions.
No Food in the m~rkct can ~how s:uch a YUl collection or &mA-fidt testimonials. and
many o! th~ allude in an emotion:. I r_ct sincere manner to the fact t.lut ... MEI.LJN-s
FOOD ha.s e~Lved Baby from Death."
USED IN ALL CHILDREN'S HOSPITALS.
6/·
Pr4s!«lus, Pnmjlrl<l a..d SamJl<, )oslfru"" n!Jli<ati#n 14 tJu .lnttentor
an1t. .lln n.u{actu.,.er,
G. MELLIN, Marlborough Works, Stafford St., Peckham, London, S.E.
Y ou will tiod th is book of 172 pages one of the most complete
'
best, and cheapest Lists produced.
X echaatca. The Practical Dlcttoaary or. By
EoWARn H. K:otiC HT. Three Vol.s.,. ,,84op:tges. cloth,
£ 3 )S. Supplcmem:uy Volume. embra.ciog Kcceot J n•
vent ions a.od Di~ovcries, .£1 u.
CASSHU.. & CON ftA:fY, I.. UIITBD. L w.ti.r-# IIIU,Uitd' " ·
STANDARD
QUALITY.
A PURE AND PERFECT ARTICLE FOR
'{I;eet<h, <Sumz, Zs ~l'eatrh.
TooTH-POLISH.
" PURl LINE " will Purify and S.•u•ify 1hc Tttlh wilb
ENGI EER'S TOOLS
AS SUPPLIED TO THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT.
a Pu.rty Whiccne.u; Poli•h the en~ me I : Prevent Tartar·
~'!OY all li'!i!'g Ccrm~ ; and k•cp chc mout~ in ~
ddac~ condu.on of Cumf•~rl, Hc:.lth, Puricy .. and
J'nguncc. N on·l(rilly and A boolulcly P ure and 1H >rmlaa &o ......
Priu 0 111 Shilb'"r 1, lln11d1o"'' EMHtll Box .
0/•11 Cltt~Witll, PeifmHtn, &e. P o1/ /f'tt by
n fa good policy to buy auoh tool• ; they colt but little more than the
Propridtr : !. iiiSOl,
A LL LETTERS TO BRITANNIA CO., COLCHBSTBR, BNGLAND.
m. Clapham Roa~ LoadoD,s.w.
common quality.
Call and tupect large atock at
BRITANN IA
c 0.,
100, HOUNDSDITCH, LONDON.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
A .DVERTISEllfENT S.
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[Work-April 13. 18S'J.
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NOT ICE TO INV ALID S.
Men and women in search of Health,
Strength, and Energy, should know that
HARNES S' ELECTRO PATHIC BELT will strengthen every ne_rve and !D~scle of the body.
It is aJso unquestio nably the best known Cure for Rhen~mH• c and Neavo us
.
AITeclious, Liver autl Khl n ey Diseases, Ladies' A.ilme uts, &c.
HARNESS' ELECTROPATHIC BELT
Assists the Digestion, promotes the Circulatio n, sti.m ulates the organic action, and imparts
NEW LIFE and VIG O UR to the Debilitate d Constituti on.
DOOK of TESTJJIONI AI.S, Descriptive Pamplllet, and Advice, jrte of clrarge o" applicali<m"to
The MEDIC AL BATT ERY CO., LTD., 52,0x ford St., Londo n, W.
Our readers ore in,·itod to C311 and pcrsooully inspcet the Belts before purch.sin.:.
NOTE OIILY ADDRESS AS ABOVE.
PICTURE
(C•r~:tr ~/ R oolhb.n< P/au.)
ETCHING S.
Fourtll Edition
..;;;;...~-::--~· Enlarcect &Del noviaod,
The ~hmc Jlakrr's lnslrnclioo Book,
"'"'J.'ltl. and
•so Ota,rronu,
l iru,,.,,,
FRAME
=-:::;.:=.:~~ t nstru( l i<ln' lnJ nlnln)t, 111ulnrt.
M•Junt Cutting. &c. AI:-.O I •ice'l of ~J ..uhl·
in,:'<. and E'uy RcqYiSito for 1hi: Tr~o.
M.AKING
....._ _ •
=
133
L ondon Warehouse: 24, KING EDWARD ST., NEWGATE ST.
8
r.u ~·.,..
S TAMP S.
A L o\RCI! o\NO CHOICE >TOCK IJV
ALL Tllll IJEST o\RTISTS.
ENGRAV INGS.
A Cre.:.t Variety (rom the MoSt Popubt SuUjecU.
4
u::;i:~:1~:..·.~'~·~1l' SPORTIN G.
kinds .at LO~'~'Iht l'•lces. =-=~==.,;;;.
GEO. REES, 115, Strand (Corner of Savoy St.);
,v o ..tdl"a
D~1•t.,
41, 42, 43. Russell St.. Covent Garden. London.
OF
COD
PUI C,E
L:I: 'VE R
O:J:L
With Hypophosphites of Lime and Soda
Is three times as efficacious as the plain oil.
.
It is almost as palatable as milk.
It does not nauseate or produce a loathing for food like the plain oil.
The Hypophos phites and Oil a re so skilfully combined that they are much
mor e potent m b\lilding up flesh and strength than if taken s eparately, and it
is, doubtless, to-day the b est remedial agent for the cure of
CONS UMPT ION, CHRO NIC COUGHS,
BRON CHITI S, ANA::MIA,
WAST ING DISEA
OF CHILD REN,
. SES
And GENE RAL DEBI LITY th at exists.
Pltyslctan s universal ly p rescrlbe i t i11. prete1·ence to the platn otl, h aving seen
Us 1•emm•kab te ctwative effects.
Scott's E mulsion of" Cod Live r Oil can be bought o£ noy Chemist at 2a. 6d. nod 4s. 6cl.
A Free Sample t-oa. Bottle will be aent to anyone who will write for it if they will pa.y carriage on receipt.
Address- SCOTT and BOWNE, LIMITED, 47, Fa.rringdon Street, London, E.O.
COLOU RS- EXQUI SITE.
Testimon ials from
'
I
SUBFA CE-LIK E PORCE LAIN.
t he Queen o f Sweden, the Marchion ess of Salisbury , &c.
FOR ALL SURF!OES OF WIOKER, WOOD, METAL, GLASS, E!RTHENWARE, OHIN!, .to.
"Simply P erfeotion. "-Jne Quem.
M ade in over lOO <;Jolours. Sold in Tins, 4td., ls. 3d., and 2s. 6d. F or Baths (to r esist Hot
W ater), l a. 6d. and 3s. Post free, 7d., la. 6d., 3s.; l s. 9d. and 3s. 6d.
READ Y FOR USE.
SOLD
ASP INAL L'S
A CHILD CAN APPLY IT.
EVERV'VV~ERE.
ENA MEL
WOR KS,
Telegrama-EDW.ABD ASPJNAU., LONDON.
LOND ON,
COLOUR CARDS FREE.
- - PatliTIID .uro P o• uaun BY O.&~~m 1t OolllP~r. LrliJTIID, L4 Bn•.w S•DT.e.oa, LoNDON, K.O.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project © 2012 toolsforworkingwood.com
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S.E.
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