heat-treatment

heat-treatment
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS •
•
John T. Connor, Secretary
A. V. Astin, Director
Heat Treatment and Properties of
Iron and Steel
Thomas G. Digges, Samuel J. Rosenberg, and Glenn W. Geil
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A
Approved for Public Release
Distribution Unlimited
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National Bureau of Standards Monograph 88
Issued November 1, 1966
Supersedes Circular 495 and Monograph 18
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 35 cents
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Contents
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1. Introduction
2. Properties of iron
2.1. Transformation temperatures
2.2. Mechanical properties
3. Alloys of iron and carbon
3.1. Iron-carbon phase diagram
3.2 Correlation of mechanical properties
with microstructures of slowly cooled
carbon steels
4. Decomposition of austenite
4.1. Isothermal transformation
a. To pearlite
b. To bainite
c. To martensite
4.2. Continuous cooling
5. Heat treatment of steels
5.1. Annealing
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a. Full annealing
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b. Process annealing
c. Spheroidizing
.
5.2. Normalizing
5.3. Hardening
a. Effect of mass
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5.4. Tempering
5.5. Case hardening
a. Carburizing
b. Cyaniding
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c. Carbonitriding
d. Nitriding
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5.6. Surface hardening
a. Induction hardening
b. Flame hardening
5.7. Special treatments
a. Austempering
b. Martempering
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c. Cold treatment
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d. Ausforming
6. Hardenability
7. Heat treatment of cast irons
7.1. Relieving residual stresses (aging)
7.2. Annealing
a. Malleabilizing
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7.3. Normalizing, quenching, and tempering7.4. Special heat treatments
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g. Practical considerations
8.1. Furnaces and salt baths
a. Protective atmospheres
b. Temperature measurement and
control
8.2. Quenching media and accessories
8.3. Relation of design to heat treatment
9. Nomenclature and chemical compositions of
steels
9.1. Structural steels
9.2. Tool steels
I
9.3. Stainless and heat resisting steels
10. Recommended heat treatments
10.1. Structural steels
10.2. Tool steels
10.3. Stainless and heat resisting steels
a. Group I—Hardenable chromium
steels (martensitic and magnetic)
b. Group II—Nonhardenable chromium steels (ferritic and magnetic)
c. Group III—Nonhardenable chromium-nickel and chromiumnickel-manganese steels (ausand nonmagnetic)
n, Properties and tenitic
uses of steels i
11.1. Structural steels
a. Plain carbon structural steels
b. Alloy structural steels
11.2. Tool steels
11.3. Stainless and heat resisting steels
a. Group I—Hardenable chromium
steels (martensitic and magnetic)
1
b. Group II—Nonhardenable chromium steels (ferritic and magnetic)
c. Group III—Nonhardenable chromium-nickel and chromiumnickel-manganese steels (ausstenitic and nonmagnetic)
d. Precipitation-hardenable stainless
steels
11.4. Nickel maraging steels
12. Selected references
Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 66-61523
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Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel
Thomas G. Digges,1 Samuel J. Rosenberg,1 and Glenn W. Geil
This Monograph is a revision of the previous NBS Monograph 18. Its purpose is
to provide an understanding of the heat treatment of iron and steels, principally to
those unacquainted with this subject. The basic principles involved in the heat treatment of these materials are presented in simplified form. General heat treatment
procedures are given for annealing, normalizing, hardening, tempering, case hardening,
surface hardening, and special treatments such as austempenng, ausforming, martempering and cold treatment. Chemical compositions, heat treatments, and some
properties and uses are presented for structural steels, tool steels, stainless and heatresisting steels, precipitation-hardenable stainless steels and nickel-maraging steels.
1. Introduction
The National Bureau of Standards receives
many requests for general information concerning the heat treatment of iron and steel
and for directions and explanations of such
processes. This Monograph has been prepared
to answer such inquiries and to give in simplified form a working knowledge of the basic
theoretical and practical principles involved in
the heat treatment of iron and steel. The
effects of various treatments on the structures
and mechanical properties of these materials
are described. Many theoretical aspects are
discussed only briefly or omitted entirely, and
in some instances, technical details have been
neglected for simplicity. The present Monograph supersedes Circular 495, which was published in 1950, and Monograph 18 (1960).
Heat treatment may be defined as an operation or combination of operations that involves
the heating and cooling of a solid metal or alloy
for the purpose of obtaining certain desirable
conditions or properties. It is usually desired
to preserve, as nearly as possible, the form,
dimensions, and surface of the piece being
treated.
Steels and cast irons are essentially alloys of
iron and carbon, modified by the presence of
other elements. Steel may be defined as an
alloy of iron and carbon (with or without other
alloying elements) containing less than about
2.0 percent of carbon, usefully malleable or
forgeable as initially cast. Cast iron may be
defined as an alloy of iron and carbon (with or
without other alloying elements) containing
more than 2.0 percent of carbon, not usually
malleable or forgeable as initially cast. For
reasons that will be apparent later, the dividing line between steels and cast irons is taken
at 2.0 percent of carbon, even though certain
special steels contain carbon in excess of this
amount. In addition to carbon, four other
elements are normally present in steels and in
cast irons. These are manganese, silicon,
phosphorus, and sulfur.
Steels may be broadly classified into two
types, (1) carbon and (2) alloy. Carbon steels
owe their properties chiefly to the carbon.
They are frequently called straight or plain
carbon steels. Alloy steels are those to which
one or more alloying elements are added in sufficient amounts to modify certain properties.
The properties of cast iron also may be modified by the presence of alloying elements—such
irons are called alloy cast irons.
2. Properties of Iron
Since iron is the basic element of steel, a
knowledge of some of its properties is a prerequisite to an understanding of the fundamental principles underlying the heat treatment
of steels.
2.1. Transformation Temperatures
If a molten sample of pure iron were allowed
to cool slowly and the temperature of the iron
were measured at regular intervals, an ideal1
Retired.
ized (equilibrium) time-temperature plot of the
data would appear as shown in figure 1. The
discontinuities (temperature arrests) in this
curve are caused by physical changes in the
iron.
The first arrest at 2,800 °F marks the temperature at which the iron freezes. The other
arrests (known as transformation temperatures or critical points) mark temperatures at
which certain internal changes take place in
the solid iron. Some of these temperatures
are very important in the heat treatment of
steel.
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Crystal structure of iron.
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FIGURE
2.
(a) Body-centered cubic (alpha and delta Iron); (b) Face-centered cubic
(gamma Iron).
Idealized cooling curve for pure iron.
The atoms in all solid metals are arranged in
some definite geometric (or crystallographic)
pattern. The atoms in iron, immediately after
freezing, are arranged in what is termed the
body-centered cubic system. In this crystal
structure the unit cell consists of a cube with
an iron atom at each of the eight corners and
another in the center (fig. 2, a). Each of the
many individual grains (crystals) of which
the solid metal is composed is built up of a
very large number of these unit cells, all oriented alike in the same grain. This high-temperature form of iron is known as delta (8)
iron.
At 2,550 °F (the A« point), iron undergoes|
an allotropic transformation (fig. 1); that is,*
the arrangement of the atoms in the crystal;
changes. The new crystal structure is face-i
centered cubic, and the unit cell again consists;
of a cube with an iron atom at each of the;
eight corners, but with an iron atom in the cen-j
ter of each of the six faces instead of one in the,'
center of the cube (fig. 2, b). This form is;
known as gamma (y) iron. At 1,670 °F (the;
A3 point) iron undergoes another allotropic*!
transformation and reverts to the bodycentered cubic system (fig. 2, a). This structure, which is crystallographically the same as
delta iron, is stable at all temperatures below
the A3 point and is known as alpha (a) iron
(fig. 5, A). The arrest at 1,420 °F (known
as the A2 point) is not caused by an allotropic
change, that is, a change in crystal structure.
It marks the temperature at which iron becomes ferromagnetic and is therefore termed
the magnetic transition. Above this temperature iron is nonmagnetic.
These various temperature arrests on cooling
are caused by evolutions of heat. On heating,
the arrests occur in reverse order and are
caused by absorption of heat. The critical
points may be detected also by sudden changes
in other physical properties, for instance, expansivity or electrical conductivity.
2.2. Mechanical Properties
Iron is relatively soft, weak*, and ductile
and cannot be appreciably hardened by heat
treatment. Its tensile strength
at, room temperature is about 40,0002 lb/in.2, its yield strength
is about 20,000 lb/in. , and its Brinell hardness
is about 80. The2 modulus of elasticity is about
29,000,000 lb/in. . The strength and hardness
can be increased, with corresponding decrease
in ductility, by cold working.
3. Alloys of Iron and Carbon
The properties of iron are affected. very
markedly by additions of carbon. It should
be realized that in discussing iron-carbcn alloys, we actually are dealing with plain carbon
steels and cast irons.
3.1. Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram
The complete iron-carbon phase (or constitutional) diagram represents the relationship
between temperatures, compositions, and structures of all phases that may be formed by iron
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and carbon under conditions of equilibrium
(very slow cooling). A portion of this diagram for alloys ranging up to 6.7 percent of
carbon is reproduced in figure 3; the upper
limit of carbon in cast iron is usually not in
excess of 5 percent. The lefthand boundary of
the diagram represents pure iron, and the
right-hand boundary represents the compound
iron carbide, Fe3C, commonly called cementite.
* Iron grown as single-crystal whiskers may exhibit astoundingly
high strengths.
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STEELS
CAST IRONS
CARBON, % BY WEIGHT
FIGURE
3.
Iron-carbon phase diagram.
The beginning of freezing of the various
iron-carbon alloys is given by the curve ABCD,
termed the liquidus curve. The ending of
freezing is given by the curve AHJECF,
termed the solidus curve. The freezing point
of iron is lowered by the addition of carbon
(up to 4.3%) and the resultant alloys freeze
over a range in temperature instead of at a
constant temperature as does the pure metal
iron. The alloy containing 4.3 percent of carbon, called the eutectic alloy of iron and cementite, freezes at a constant temperature as indicated by the point C. This temperature is
2,065 °F, considerably below the freezing point
of pure iron.
Carbon has an important effect upon the
transformation temperatures (critical points)
of iron. It raises the A4 temperature and lowers the A3. This effect on the A3 temperature
is very important in the heat treatment of
carbon and alloy structural steels, while that on
the A4 is important in the heat treatment of
certain high alloy steels, particularly of the
stainless types.
It is possible for solid iron to absorb or dissolve carbon, the amount being dependent upon
the crystal structure of the iron and the tem-
perature. The body-centered (alpha or delta)
iron can dissolve but little carbon, whereas the
face-centered (gamma) iron can dissolve a considerable amount, the maximum being about
2.0 percent at 2,065 °F (fig. 3). This solid
solution of carbon in gamma iron is termed
austenite. The solid solution of carbon in delta
iron is termed delta ferrite, and the solid solution of carbon in alpha iron is termed alpha
ferrite, or, more simply, ferrite.
The mechanism of solidification of ironcarbon alloys, especially those containing less
than about 0.6 percent of carbon, is rather complicated and is of no importance in the heat
treatment of carbon steels and cast irons. It is
sufficient to know that all iron-carbon alloys
containing less than 2.0 percent of carbon (that
is, steel) will, immediately or soon after solidification is complete, consist of the single phase
austenite. Cast irons will consist of two phases
immediately after solidification—austenite and
cementite (Fe3C). Under some conditions this
cementite formed on cooling through the temperature horizontal ECF will decompose partly
or completely into austenite and graphite
(carbon).
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CARBON.%
FIGURE
4.
Phase diagram for carbon steels.
The part of the iron-carbon diagram that is
concerned with the heat treatment of steel is
reproduced on an expanded scale in figure 4.
Regardless of the carbon content, steel exists
as austenite above the line GOSE. Steel of
composition S (0.80% of carbon) is designated
as "eutectoid" steel, and those with lower or
higher carbon as "hypoeutectoid" and "hyper-,
eutectoid," respectively.
A eutectoid steel, when cooled at very slow!
rates from temperatures within the austenitic
field, undergoes no change until the temperature horizontal PSK is reached. At this temperature (known as the A! temperature), the
austenite transforms completely to an aggregate of ferrite and cementite having a typical
lamellar structure (fig. 5, D and E). This
aggregate is known as pearlite and the Ax
temperature is, therefore, frequently referred
to as the pearlite point. Since the Ax transformation involves the transformation of austenite to pearlite (which contains cementite—
Fe3C), pure iron does not possess an Ax transformation (fig. 4). Theoretically, iron must
be alloyed with a minimum of 0.03 percent of
carbon before the first minute traces of pearlite
can be formed on cooling (point P, fig. 4). If
the steel is held at a temperature just below A1(
(either during cooling or heating), the carbide
in the pearlite tends to coalesce into globules
or spheroids. This phenomenon, known as
spheroidization, will be discussed subsequently.
Hypoeutectoid steels (less than 0.80% of carbon), when slowly cooled from temperatures
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above the A3, begin to precipitate ferrite when
the A3 line (GOS—fig. 4) is reached. As the
temperature drops from the A3 to Ax, the precipitation of ferrite increases progressively and
the amount of the remaining austenite decreases progressively, its carbon content being
increased. At the Ax temperature the remaining austenite reaches eutectoid composition
(0.80% of carbon—point S, fig. 4) and, upon
further cooling, transforms completely into
pearlite. The microstructures of slowly cooled
hypoeutectoid steels thus consist of mixtures of
ferrite and pearlite (fig. 5, B and C). The
lower the carbon content, the higher is the temperature at which ferrite begins to precipitate
and the greater is the amount in the final
structure.
Hypereutectoid s,teels (more than 0.80% of
carbon) when slowly cooled from temperatures
above the Acm, begin to precipitate cementite
when the Acm line (SE—fig. 4) is reached. As
the temperature drops from the Acm to Ax, the
precipitation of cementite increases progressively and the amount of the remaining austenite decreases progressively, its carbon content being depleted. At the Ax temperature
the remaining austenite reaches eutectoid composition (0.80% of carbon) and, upon further
cooling, transforms completely into pearlite.
The microstructures of slowly cooled hypereutectoid steels thus consist of mixtures of
cementite and pearlite (fig. 5, F). The higher
the carbon content, the higher is the temperature at which cementite begins to precipitate
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A, Ferrite (a iron). All grains are of the same composition. X100.
B, 0.25% carbon. Light areas are ferrite grains. Dark areas are pearlite. X100.
C, 0.5% carbon. Same as B but higher carbon content results in more pearlite and less ferrite. X100.
D, 0.8% carbon. All pearlite. X100.
E, Same as D. At higher magnification the lamellar structure of pearlite is readily observed. X500.
F, 1.3% carbon. Pearlite plus excess cementite as network. X100.
All etched with either picral or nital.
and the greater is the amount in the final
structure.
The temperature range between the A, and
A3 points is called the critical or transformation range. Theoretically, the critical points
in any steel should occur at about the same
temperatures on either heating or cooling very
slowly. Practically, however, they do not since
the A, and A, points, affected but slightly by
the rate of heating, are affected tremendously
by the rate of cooling. Rapid rates of heating
raise these points only slightly, but rapid rates
of cooling lower the temperatures of transfor-
L
mation considerably. To differentiate between
the critical points on heating and cooling, the
small letters "c" (for "chauffage" from the
French, meaning heating) and "r" (for
"refroidissement" from the French, meaning
cooling) are added. The terminology of the
critical points thus becomes Ac3, Ar3, Ac,, Ar„
etc. The letter "e" is used to designate the
occurrence of the points under conditions of
extremely slow cooling on the assumption that
this represents equilibrium conditions ("e" for
equilibrium); for instance, the Ae3, Ae!, and
Ae([1|.
3.2. Correlation of Mechanical Properties With
Microstructures of Slowly Cooled Carbon Steels
izo
Some mechanical properties of pearlite
formed during slow cooling of a eutectoid
(0.80% of carbon) steel are approximately as
follows:
Tensile strength—115,000 lb/in*.
Yield strength—60,000 lb/in1.
Brindell hardness number—200.
The amount of pearlite present in a slowly
cooled hypoeutectoid steel is a linear function
of the carbon content, varying from no pearlite,
when no carbon is present (the very slight
amount of carbon soluble in alpha iron may be
neglected), to all pearlite at 0.80 percent of
carbon. The balance of the structure of hypoeutectoid steels is composed of ferrite, the mechanical properties of which were given in a
preceding section. Since the mechanical properties of aggregates of ferrite and pearlite are
functions of the relative amounts of these two
constituents, the mechanical properties of
slowly cooled hypoeutectoid steels are also linear functions of the carbon content, varying
between those of iron at no carbon to those of
pearlite at 0.80 percent of carbon (fig. 6).
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4. Decomposition of Austenite
In alloys of iron and carbon, austenite is
^i oLn oSly at temperatures above the Aex
(1,330 °F). Below this temperature it decomposes into mixtures of ferrite and cementite
(iron carbide). The end product or final structure is greatly influenced by the temperature at
which the transformation occurs, and this in
turn, is influenced by the rate of cooling,
ömce the mechanical properties may be varied
over a wide range, depending on the decomposition products of the parent austenite, a knowledge of how austenite decomposes and the factors influencing it is necessary for a clear
understanding of the heat treatment of steel,
ine progressive transformation of austenite
under conditions of equilibrium (extremely
slow cooling) has been described. Practically
however, steel is not cooled under equilibrium
conditions, and consequently the critical points
on cooling always occur at lower temperatures
than indicated m figure 4.
If samples of steel, say of eutectoid carbon
content for the sake of simplicity, are cooled
from above the Aex at gradually increasing
rates, the corresponding Ar transformation
^cur!L- lower and lower temperatures (fig.
7). This transformation is distinguished from
that occurring under extremely slow rates of
cooling (Ar,) by the designation Ar\ As the
ra
£j.of c,0?lmS of this steel is increased, an
additional transformation (termed the Ar" or
0.2
0.4
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CARBON, PERCENT
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6. Relation of mechanical properties and structure
to carbon content of slowly cooled carbon steels.
FIOURE
AUSTENITE
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MARTENSITE
MARTENSITE
INCREASED RATE OF COOLING -
7. Schematic illustration showing the effect of rate
of cooling on the transformation temperatures and decomposition products of austenite of eutectoid carbon
steel.
FIGURE
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M.) appears at relatively low temperatures
(about 430 °F). If the rate of cooling is still
further increased, the Ar' transformation is
suppressed entirely and only the Ar" transformation is evident. It should be noted that
the temperature of the Ar" is not affected by
the rate of cooling, whereas the temperature of
the Ar' may be depressed to as low as about
1,050 °F in this particular steel.
The product of the Ar' transformation is fine
pearlite. As the temperature of the Ar' is
gradually lowered, the lamellar structure of
the resulting pearlite becomes correspondingly
finer and the steel becomes harder and stronger.
The product of the Ar" transformation is martensite (fig. 9, A, and 15, A), which is the
hardest and most brittle of the transformation
products of austenite and is characterized by a
typical acicular structure.
The phenomenon of the occurrence of both
the Ar' and Ar" transformations is known as
the split transformation. The resultant microstructures of steels cooled at such rates as to
undergo a split transformation consist of varying amounts of fine pearlite and martensite
(fig. 9, C). The actual amounts of these two
constituents are functions of the rates of cooling, the slower rates resulting in more pearlite
and less martensite, and the faster rates resulting in more martensite and less pearlite.
os I
TIME, SECONDS
FIGURE
8.
Isothermal transformation diagram (S-curve)
for eutectoid carbon steel.
(Metals Handbook, 1948 edition, page «08.) The hardness of the structures
formed at the various temperatures is Riven by the scale on the right.
sec before it is completed. The resultant pearlite is extremely fine and its hardness is relatively high. This region of the S-curve where
decomposition of austenite to fine pearlite
proceeds so rapidly is termed the "nose" of the
curve.
b. To Bainite
The course of transformation of austenite
when the steel is quenched to and held at various constant elevated temperature levels (isothermal transformation) is conveniently shown
by a diagram known as the S-curve (also
termed the TTT diagram—for time, temperature, and transformation). Such a diagram
for eutectoid carbon steel is shown in figure 8
and the discussion of this figure will be confined to steel of this particular composition.
If the austenite is cooled unchanged to temperatures below the nose of the S-curve
(1,050 °F), the time for its decomposition
begins to increase (fig. 8). The final product
of decomposition now is not pearlite, but a new
acicular constituent called bainite (fig. 15, E)
possessing unusual toughness with hardness
even greater than that of very fine pearlite.
Depending on the temperature, then, a certain finite interval of time is necessary before
austenite starts to transform into either pearlite or bainite. Additional time is necessary
before the transformations are completed.
a. To Pearlite
c. To Martensite
Austenite containing 0.80 percent of carbon,
cooled quickly to and held at 1,300 °F, does
not begin to decompose (transform) until after
about 15 min, and does not completely decompose until after about 5 hr (fig. 8). Thus, at
temperatures just below the Ad, austenite is
stable for a considerable length of time. The
product of the decomposition of austenite at
this temperature is coarse pearlite of relatively
low hardness. If the austenite is quickly
cooled to and held at a somewhat lower temperature, say 1,200 °F, decomposition begins
in about 5 sec and is completed after about 30
sec, the resultant pearlite being finer and
harder than that formed at 1,300 °F. At a
temperature of about 1,050 °F, the austenite
decomposes extremely rapidly, only about 1 sec
elapsing before the transformation starts and 5
If the austenite is cooled unchanged to a relatively low temperature (below about 430 °F
for the eutectoid carbon steel under consideration), partial transformation takes place instantaneously; the product of transformation is
martensite. Austenite transforms into martensite over a temperature range and the
amount that transforms is a function of the
temperature. Only minute amounts will so
transform at about 430 °F; practically all of
the austenite will be transformed at about
175 °F. The beginning of this transformation range is termed the M„ (martensite—
start) and the end of the range is termed the
Mt (martensite—finish). As long as the temperature is held constant within the Ms—Mr
range, that portion of the austenite that does
not transform instantaneously to martensite
4.1. Isothermal Transformation
J
remains untransformed for a considerable
length of time, eventually transforming to
bainite.
In ordinary heat treatment of the plain carbon steels, austenite does not transform into
bainite. Transformation of the austenite takes
place either above or at the nose of the S-curve,
forming pearlite, or in passing through the
Ms—Mf range, forming martensite or both. It
is evident that in order for austenite to be
transformed entirely into martensite, it must
be cooled sufficiently rapidly so that the temperature of the steel is lowered past the nose of
the S-curve in less time than is necessary for
transformation to start at this temperature.
If this is not accomplished, part of the steel
transforms into pearlite at the high temperature (Ar'), and the remainder transforms
into martensite at the low temperature (Ar"
or M,—Ff temperature range). This explains
the phenomenon of the split transformation
described previously.
4.2. Continuous Cooling
Figure 9 represents a theoretical S-curve on
which are superimposed five theoretical cooling
curves. Curves A to E represent successively
slower rates of cooling, as would be obtained,
for instance, by cooling in iced brine, water, oil,
air, and in the furnace, respectively.
The steel cooled according to curve E begins
to transform at temperature tt and completes
transformation at t2; the final product is coarse
pearlite with relatively low hardness. When
cooled according to curve D, transformation
begins at t3 and is completed at tt; the final
product is fine pearlite and its hardness is
greater than the steel cooled according to curve
E. When cooled according to curve C, transformation begins at U and is only partially
complete when temperature t6 is reached; the
product of this partial transformation is very
fine pearlite. The remainder of the austenite
does not decompose until the M, temperature
is reached, when it begins to transform to
martensite, completing this transformation at
the Mf temperature. The final structure is
then a mixture of fine pearlite and martensite
(typical of incompletely hardened steel-f-frequently termed "slack quenched" steel) with a
higher hardness than was obtained with the
steel cooled according to curve D. The rate of
cooling represented by curve B is just sufficient to intersect the nose of the S-curve, consequently only a minute amount of the austenite
decomposes into fine pearlite at temperature t7;
the remainder of the austenite is unchanged
until the martensite transformation range is
reached. If the steel is cooled at a slightly
faster rate, so that no transformation takes
place at the nose of the S-curve, the steel is
completely hardened. This particular rate is
8
9. Schematic diagram illustrating the relation between the S-curve, continuous cooling curves, and resulting microstructures of eutectoid carbon steel.
FIGURE
Microstructures: A, martensite; B, martensite with a trace of very fine
pearlite (dark): C, martensite and very fine pearlite; D, (ine pearlite; E,
coarse pearlite. All etched with nital. X500.
termed the critical cooling rate and is defined
as the slowest rate at which the steel can be
cooled and yet be completely hardened. Since
this rate cannot be directly determined, the
rate indicated by curve B, producing only a
trace of fine pearlite (fig. 9, B), is frequently
used as the critical cooling rate. The hardness
cST» £5te '"V
"* obtained
- Sample
M that
^i„JL\f
?S rate
'
*»<*
indicated
no SSSU
«IS? ä ° comPIetely martensitic but
er tha
«i.
™ , cooling
n therate.
sample cooled according
the critical
«truing- to
ro
th at the rate at which a
coofcXoLw?
.
coois through the temperature
ranjre in steel
the
vicinity of the nose of the S-curve is of critical
aoove and below this temperature ranee can fo»
a
d
b
a
sS
Ä
«^PleteTErdSild
steel, ^o^
provided
thatÄ
the coo
ing throuirh the
temperature interval at the nose of fee Suive
In
Se"2SS?lSS
-^f
Äwever^S
are usually cooled rapidly
from
the auenchin«?
ivefy
oSSSoVr
Ä
„ ^äS
<aoout 500 F) aand then allowed
to cool in air.
noÄU^
ile abT
Hussions11 of
the decom<
lte
Ml
BJ lfaÄ
^
bee
°ited to a
ld
behave i?Ä
«^Po^on,
other
steels
mular mann r the
and
«mp«
^
*
?
temperatures
ana times of reactions being different Tn
hypoeutectoid steels, free ferrite phSTn^rlite
are formed if transfomationTgiSs abTelS
temperature range of the nose of theTcurv?
a
tlZTif
?rrite decreases
« SSS
™lt
£\?f £*
transformation
approaches
the
lD h
fri ZLSStS"?
^reutectoid
steeg
t™* ™ ^lte plus Peäriite are formed if
transformation occurs above the nose Thp
time for the start of the traSforniat?on'at the
nose increases as the carbon SSSUD to the
furtherlncSSim
^°n' ^ ^
Sea^w th
That is the Q
L shffted Jf?L ^S?°f•
» to ose
(w th
Sme axtf & ÄMÄ*
Lbon ******
«*
8
6
is
oTiSnt »$ f S ^I
increased to
c0rLs?rcarSLontonet.,eft With fUrther in"
The temperature of formation of bainite is
carbo ™
formation increases with the
tl
M,
ii£lv
,\bynd increasing
-M< temperatures
are
markedly lL
lowered
carbon otm
tent, as is shown for M. in figure 10 The £
temperatures of the plain carbon steels have
Slfl?1 a.deJ?uately determined; available!™
sSf7 Jl£F* £f* the M< 0f hi^h Srbon
St
«ctaally below room temperature.
Slight amounts of austenite are frequentlv
h^ed m *uenched «teels, especia lyTnfee
Ä^pttur68'even
when cLed t0
5. Heat Treatment of Steels
All heat-treating operations consist of subjecting a metal to a definite time-temperature
1000
aoo
600
400
200
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.60
CARBON,*/.
IJOO
1.20
1.40
10. -Influence of carbon on the start of the marten■site (MJ transformation of high-purity iron-carbon
alloys.
FIGURE
(Dlgges, Trans. Am. Soc. Metals M, »7 (1940).)
cycle, which may be divided into three parts:
(1) Heating, (2) holding at temperature
(soaking), and (3) cooling. Individual cases
vary, but certain fundamental objectives may
be stated.
The rate of heating is not particularly important unless a stetsl is in a highly stressed
condition, such as is imparted by severe cold
working or prior hardening. In such instances
the rate of heating should be slow. Frequently this is impracticable, since furnaces
may be at operating temperatures, but placing
the cold steel in the hot furnace may cause distortion or even cracking. This danger can be
minimized by the use of a preheating furnace
maintained at a temperature below the A,.
The steel, preheated for a sufficient period,
then can be transferred to the furnace at operating temperature. This procedure is also
advantageous when treating steels having considerable variations in section thickness or very
low thermal conductivity.
The object of holding a steel at heat-treating
temperature is to assure uniformity of temperature throughout its entire volume. Obviously,
thin sections need not be soaked as long as
thick sections, but if different thicknesses exist
in the same piece, the period required to heat
the thickest section uniformly governs the time
at temperature. A rule frequently used is
to soak y2 hr/in. of thickness.
The structure and properties of a steel depend upon its rate of cooling and this, in turn,
is governed by such factors as mass, quenching
media, etc. It must be realized that the thicker
the section, the slower will be the rate of cooling regardless of the method of cooling used
except in such operations as induction hardening to be discussed later.
5.1. Annealing
Annealing is a process involving heating and
cooling, usually applied to produce softening.
The term also refers to treatments intended to
alter mechanical or physical properties, produce a definite microstructure, or remove gases.
The temperature of the operation and the rate
of cooling depend upon the material being annealed and the purpose of the treatment.
a. Foil Annealing
Full annealing is a softening process in
which a steel is heated to a temperature above
the transformation range (Acs) and, after
being held for a sufficient time at this temperature, is cooled slowly to a temperature below
the transformation range (Art). The steel is
ordinarily allowed to cool slowly in the furnace,
although it may be removed and cooled in some
medium such as mica, lime, or ashes, that insures a slow rate of cooling.
Since the transformation temperatures are
affected by the carbon content, it is apparent
that the higher carbon steels can be fully annealed at lower temperatures than the lower
carbon steels. In terms of the diagram shown
in figure 4, steels must be heated to above the
line GOSK. The temperature range normally
used for full annealing is 25 to 50 deg F above
this line (the upper critical), as shown in
figure 11.
The microstructures of the hypoeutectoid
steel -> that result after full annealing are quite
similar to those shown for the equilibrium conditions (fig. 5, B and C). Eutectoid and
hypereutectoid steels frequently spheroidize
partially or completely on full annealing (see
later section and fig. 12, D).
O
FIQUBE
<X20
11.
0.40
OÄ) 0.80
UX>
CARBON , %
1.20
1.40
1.60
Recommended temperature ranges for heat
treating plain carbon steels.
c Spheroidizing
Spheroidizing is a process of heating and
cooling steel that produces a rounded or globular form of carbide in a matrix of ferrite. It
is usually accomplished by prolonged heating
at temperatures just below the Acj (fig. 11),
but may be facilitated by alternately heating to
temperatures just above the Ac! and cooling
to just below the Art. The final step, however,
should consist of holding at a temperature just
below the critical (Arx). The rate of cooling
is immaterial after slowly cooling to about
1,000 °F.
The rate of spheroidization is affected by the
initial structure. The finer the pearlite, the
b. Process Annealing
more readily spheroidization is accomplished.
Process annealing, frequently termed stressA martensitic structure is very amenable to
relief annealing, is usually applied to coldspheroidization.
worked low carbon steels (up to about 0.25%
This treatment is usually applied to the high
of carbon) to soften the steel sufficiently to
carbon steels (0.60% of carbon and higher).
allow further cold-working. The steel is
The purpose of the treatment is to improve
usually heated close to, but below, the Aci temmachinability and it is also used to condition
perature (fig. 11). If the steel is not to be ! high-carbon steel for cold-drawing into wire.
further cold-worked, but relief of internal
A typical microstructure of spheroidized high
stresses is desired, a lower range of temperacarbon steel is shown in figure 12, D.
ture will suffice (about 1,000 °F). Rate of
cooling is immaterial.
5.2. Normalizing
This type of anneal will cause recrystallizaNormalizing is a process in which a steel is
tion and softening of the cold-worked ferrite
heated to a temperature above the Ac3 or the
grains, but usually will not affect the relatively
Acm (fig. 11) and then cooled in still air. The
small amounts of cold-worked pearlite. Typipurpose of the treatment is to obliterate the
cal structures of cold-worked, process-annealed,
and fully annealed low-carbon steel are shown
effects of any previous heat treatment (including the coarse-grained structure sometimes
in figure 12, A, B, and C, respectively.
10
i
J
FIGURE
'>
'f
I
II
12.
Representative microstructures of carbon steels.
t affected by this treatment. X100.
w
TV m„>, ii.SiS.T.x:r#";'"tSr?r»—"
V '•??■ VAuVS
'" ""' ■""? Bre eliminated, and the rerrite grains are larger than in (B). XIOO.
8S spheroidlMd
tne'!"""• "'
ferrite >f«o
<»rtx>n is present In the form of spheroids or slightly elongated particles of cementite in a matrii of
mJiifa3j5!SMl?i??eIi(W ci,fS n?rmJ11"d »' J.«»0 F in M-ln. round (center area). Because of the rapid rate of air cooling such a small section, the
i o
relatively little free ferrite is formed. X100
free ferrite"6 XU»"" (E) *"" normaUied in 2M"ln-round (centcr area>- The slower rate of ««>"°B: due to the larger section results in coarser Dearlite and more
All etched in picral.
resulting from high forging temperatures) or
cold-working and to insure a homogeneous
austenite on reheating for hardening or full
annealing. The resultant structures are pearlite or pearlite with excess ferrite or cementite,
depending upon the composition of the steel.
They are different from the structures resulting after annealing in that, for steels of the
same carbon content in the hypo- or hypereutectoid ranges, there is less excess ferrite or
cementite and the pearlite is finer. These are
the results of the more rapid cooling.
Since the type of structure, and, therefore,
the mechanical properties, are affected by the
rate of cooling, considerable variations may
occur in normalized steels because of differences in section thickness of the shapes being
normalized. The effect of section thickness on
the structure of a normalized 0.5-percentcarbon steel is shown in figure 12, E and F.
11
L
5.3. Hardening
Steels can be hardened by the simple expedient of heating to above the Ac3 transformation,
holding long enough to insure the attainment
of uniform temperature and solution of carbon
in the austenite, and then cooling rapidly
(quenching). Complete hardening depends on
cooling so rapidly (fig. 9, A and B) that the
austenite, which otherwise would decompose on
cooling through the Arlf is maintained to relatively low temperatures. When this is accomplished, the austenite transforms to martensite
on cooling through the M,—Mf range. Rapid
cooling is necessary only to the extent of lowering the temperature of the steel to well below
the nose of the S-curve. Once this has been
accomplished, slow cooling from then on, either
in oil or in air, is beneficial in avoiding distortion and cracking. Special treatments, such as
time quenching and martempering, are designed to bring about these conditions. As
martensite is quite brittle, steel is rarely used
in the as-quenched condition, that is, without
tempering.
The maximum hardness that can be obtained
in completely hardened low-alloy and plain carbon structural steels depends primarily on the
carbon content. The relationship of maximum
hardness to carbon content is shown in
figure 13.
sample increase and the possibility of exceeding the critical cooling rate (fig. 9, B) becomes
less. To overcome this, the steel may be
quenched in a medium having a very high rate
of heat abstraction, such as iced brine, but,
even so, many steels have a physical restriction
on the maximum size amenable to complete
hardening regardless of the quenching medium.
The marked effect that mass has upon the
hardness of quenched steel may be illustrated
by measuring the hardness distribution of different size rounds of the same steel quenched
in the same medium. Curves showing the distribution of hardness in a series of round bars
of different sizes of 0.5-percent-carbon steel are
shown in figure 14. The quenching medium
used was water; the quenching temperature
was 1,530 °F. The rate of cooling decreased
as the diameters of the bars increased. Only
the %-in. round hardened completely through
the cross section, whereas with the 4-in. round
the critical cooling rate was not attained even
at the surface.
5.4. Tempering
Tempering (sometimes called drawing) is
the process of reheating hardened (martensitic)
or normalized steels to some temperature below
the lower critical (Ad). The rate of cooling
70
o 60
_i
_i
UJ
l/2"0
1!
J 50
o
o
60
IT
V>
bJ
|'30
<X
| 20
so
s
X
i to
0
0
0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.60 0.90 1.00
CARBON,%
FIGURE 13. Relation of maximum attainable hardness of
quenched steels to carbon content.
(Burns, Moore, and Archer, Trans. Am. Soc Metals 26, 14 (1938)).
a. Effect of Mass
Previous discussion of the formation of martensite has neglected the influence of mass.
It must be realized that even with a sample of
relatively small dimensions, the rate of abstraction of heat is not uniform. Heat is always
abstracted from the surface layers at a faster
rate than from the interior. In a given cooling medium the cooling rate of both the surface
and interior decreases as the dimensions of a
12
c
3/4"D
\ l"0
ri
n
1 IT
%L
40
<
X
30
D
)
20
2
10
12
RADIUS, INCHES
FIGURE 14.
Variation in hardness in different size rounds
of 0.5-percent-carbon steels as quenched from 1,530" F
in water.
(Jomlny, Hardenablllty of alloy steels, Am. Soc. Metals, D. 75,1939.)
r
\v.$ ■>•:.. ,<.;iv> • .:
■
>/*
■.
^
•
-
.*■...
P^^^S^ÄiÄi^
'»«m
15. Microsirudures and corresponding hardness of heat-treated high carbon steel.
A, As quenched In brine; martensite, Rockwell C hardness=67. X500.
B, Same as A after tempering at 400° F; tempered martensite, Rockwell C hardness=61. X500.
C, Same as (A) attcr tempering at 800° F; tempered martensite, Rockwell C hardness=45. X500.
D, Same as (A) after tempering at 1,200° F; tempered martensite, Rockwell C hardness=25. X500.
E, Quenched in lead at 650° F; bainite, Rockwell C hardncss=49. X500.
F, Heat-treated steel showing decarburized surface layer (light area) that did not respond to hardening. X100.
All etched in 1% nltal.
FIGURE
is immaterial except for some steels that are
susceptible to temper brittleness.2
As the tempering temperature is increased,
the martensite (fig. 15, A) of hardened steel
passes through stages of tempered martensite
(fig. 15, B and C) and is gradually changed
2
Temper brittleness is manifested as a loss of toughness (observed only by impact tests of notched bars) after slow cooling
from tempering temperatures of 1.100 °F or higher, or after tem?e.rÄnK '£ the temPerature range between approximately 850 ° and
1.100 °F. It is most pronounced in alloy steels that contain
manganese or chromium and usually can be prevented by rapid
quenching from the tempering temperature. The presence of molybdenum is beneficial in counteracting the tendency toward temper
brittleness.
into a structure consisting of spheroids of
cementite in a matrix of ferrite, formerly
termed sorbite (fig. 15, D). These changes
are accompanied by a decreasing hardness and
increasing toughness. The tempering temperature depends upon the desired properties and
the purpose for which the steel is to be used.
If considerable hardness is necessary, the tempering temperature should be low; if considerable toughness is required, the tempering
temperature should be high. The effect of
tempering on the hardness of fully hardened
carbon steels is shown in figure 16.
13
70
__400*F
^":;
60
600* F
\
-^800*F
30
«Id
^JO00*F
.
40
30
10
SECOND
10
I*
MMUTES
2
5
HOURS
25
TME XT TEMPERM6 TEMPERATURE
17. Effect of time at tempering temperature on
the hardness of 0.8-percent~carbon steel. (Logarithmic
time scale.)
(Bain. Function» of the allojlnc elements In steel, Am. Son, Mttalt, p. 233,
MM.)
FIGURE
400
600
800
1000
TEMPERING TEMPERATURE ,*F
1400
FISURE16. Effect of tempering temperature on the hardness of carbon steels of different carbon content.
Specimens were tempered for 1 hr. (Bain, Functions of the alloying element« in atel, Am. Soc. Metals, p. S8, US9.)
Proper tempering of a hardened steel requires a certain amount of time. At any
selected tempering temperature, the hardness
drops rapidly at first, gradually decreasing
more slowly as the time is prolonged. The
effect of time at different tempering temperatures upon the resultant hardness of a eutectoid carbon steel is shown in figure 17. Short
tempering periods are generally undesirable
and should be avoided. Good practice requires
at least y% hr (or, preferably, 1 to 2 hr) at
tempering temperature for any hardened steel.
The necessity for tempering a steel promptly
after hardening cannot be overemphasized. If
fully hardened steel is allowed to cool to room
temperature during hardening there is danger
that the steel may crack. Carbon steels and
most of the low alloy steels should be tempered
as soon as they are cool enough to feel comfortable (100 to 140 °F) to the bare hands.
Steels should not be tempered before they cool
to this temperature range because in some
steels the Mt temperature is quite low and untransformed austenite may be present. Part
or all of this residual austenite will transform to martensite on cooling from the tempering temperature so that the final structure
will consist of both tempered and untempered
martensite. The brittle untempered martensite, together with the internal stresses caused
by its formation, can easily cause failure of the
heat-treated part. When it is possible that
such a condition exists, a second tempering
treatment (double tempering) should be given
to temper the fresh martensite formed on cooling after the initial tempering treatment.
14
If structural steels are to be used in the normalized condition, the normalizing operation is
frequently followed by heating to a temperature of about 1,200 to 1,300 °F. The purpose
of this treatment, which is also designated as
tempering, or stress-relief annealing, is to
relieve internal stresses resulting on cooling
from the normalizing temperature and to improve the ductility.
5.5. Case Hardening
Case hardening is a process of hardening a
ferrous alloy so that the surface layer or case is
made substantially harder than the interior or
core. The chemical composition of the surface
layer is altered during the treatment by the addition of carbon, nitrogen, or both. The most
frequently used case-hardening processes are
carburizing, cyaniding, carbonitriding, and
nitriding.
a. Carburizing
Carburizing is a process that introduces carbon into a solid ferrous alloy by heating the
metal in contact with a carbonaceous material
to a temperature above the Ac3 of the steel and
holding at that temperature. The depth of
penetration of carbon is dependent on temperature, time at temperature, and the composition of the carburizing agent. As a rough
indication, a carburized depth of about 0.030
to 0.050 in. can be obtained in .about 4 hr at
1,700 °F, depending upon the type of carburizing agent, which may be a solid, liquid, or gas.
Since the primary object of carburizing is to
secure a hard case and a relatively soft, tough
core, only low-carbon steels (up to a maximum
of about 0.25% of carbon) either with or without alloying elements (nickel, chromium, man-
SURFACE _j
FIGURE
18.
Structure of a carburized steel.
The specimen was cooled slowly from the carburizing temperature. Etched with nital. X75.
ganese, molybdenum), are normally used.
After carburizing, the steel will have a highcarbon case graduating into the low-carbon
core (fig. 18).
A variety of heat treatments may be used
subsequent to carburizing, but all of them involve quenching the steel to harden the carburized surface layer. The most simple treatment
consists of quenching the steel directly from
the carburizing temperature; this treatment
hardens both the case and core (insofar as the
core is capable of being hardened). Another
simple treatment, and perhaps the one most
frequently used, consists of slowly cooling from
the carburizing temperature, reheating to
above the Ac3 of the case (about 1 425 °F)
and quenching; this treatment hardens the case
only. A more complex treatment is to double
quench—first from above the Ac3 of the core
(about 1,650 °F for low-carbon steel) and
■MO, for^ ib-ove the Ac3 of the case (about
i,4Z5 b ); this treatment refines the core and
hardens the case. The plain carbon steels are
a most always quenched in water or brine; the
fl y uteels are usually quenched in oil. Although tempering following hardening of carburized steel is sometimes omitted, a low-temperature tempering treatment at about 300 °F
is good practice.
It is sometimes desirable to carburize only
certain parts of the surface. This can be
accomplished by covering the surface to be
protected against carburizing with some material that prevents the passage of the carburizing agent. The most widely used method
is copper plating of the surfaces to be
protected Several proprietary solutions or
pastes, which are quite effective in preventing
carbunzation, are also available.
The commercial compounds commonly used
tor pack (solid) carburizing contain mixtures
of carbonate (usually barium carbonate), coke
(diluent), and hardwood charcoal, with oil tar
or molasses as a binder. Mixtures of charred
leather, bone, and charcoal are also used.
The carburizing action of these compounds
is diminished during use and it is necessary to
add new material before the compound is
reused. Addition of one part of unused to
three to five parts of used compound is common practice. The parts to be carburized are
packed in boxes (or other suitable containers)
made of heat-resistant alloys, although rolled
or cast steel may be used where long life of
the box is not important. The lid of the box
should be sealed with fire clay or some other
refractory to help prevent escape of the carburizing gas generated at the carburizing temperature. The depth and uniformity of case is
affected by the method of packing and design
of the container.
Liquid carburizing consists of case hardening steel or iron in molten salt baths that
contain mixtures principally of cyanides (poisonous), chlorides, and carbonates. The case
prod"eH hy this method contains both carbon
and nitrogen, but principally the former. The
temperatures used range from about 1,550 to
1,650 °F or higher, depending upon the compositions of the bath and the desired depth of
case. At 1,650 °F a case depth of about 0.010
to 0.015 in. can be obtained in 1 hr; about
0.020 to 0.030 in. can be obtained in 4 hr.
Considerably deeper cases can be obtained at
higher temperatures with longer periods of
time. After carburizing, the parts must be
quenched just as in solid carburizing, but it is
usual to do this directly from the molten bath.
In all present-day commercial gas carburizing, two or more hydrocarbons are used in
combination for supplying the carbon to the
steel. The hydrocarbons used are methane,
ethane, propane, and oil vapors. The steel
parts are placed in sealed containers through
which the carburizing gases are circulated; the
temperatures used are in the neighborhood of
15
J
0.140
lated. Molten cyanide should never be permitted to come in contact with sodium or
or potassium nitrates commonly used for baths
for tempering as the mixtures are explosive.
Furthermore, care is necessary in preparing
a salt bath and the work pieces should be completely dry before placing in the molten bath.
The advice of salt manufacturers should be
obtained and followed in the operation and
maintenance of salt baths.
0.120
c Carbooitriding
1,700 °F. Average expectation for depth of
case in gas-carburized steel is illustrated in figure 19. After carburizing, the parts must be
quench hardened.
Carbonitriding, also termed gas cyaniding,
dry cyaniding, and nitrocarburizing, is a process for case hardening a steel part in a gascarburizing atmosphere that contains ammonia
in controlled percentages. Carbonitriding is
used mainly as a low-cost substitute for cyaniding and, as in cyaniding, both carbon and nitrogen are added to the steel. The process is
carried on above the Acx temperature of the
steel, and is practical up to 1,700 °F. Quenching in oil is sufficiently fast to attain maximum
surface hardness; this moderate rate of cooling
tends to minimize distortion. The depth to
which carbon and nitrogen penetrate varies
with temperature and time. The penetration
of carbon is approximately the same as that
obtained in gas carburizing (fig. 19).
b. Cyaniding
d. Nitriding
A hard, superficial case can be obtained
rapidly on low-carbon steels by cyaniding.
This process involves the introduction of both
carbon and nitrogen into the surface layers of
the steel. Steels to be cyanided normally are
heated in a molten bath of cyanide-carbonatechloride salts (usually containing 30 to 95%
oi sodium cyanide) and then quenched in brine,
water, or mineral oil; the temperature of operation is generally within the range of 1,550
to 1,600 °F. The depth of case is a function
of time, temperature, and composition of the
cyanide bath; the time of immersion is quite
short as compared with carburizing, usually
varying from about 15 min to 2 hr. The maximum case depth is rarely more than about
0.020 in. and the average depth is considerably
less.
Steels can be cyanided also by heating to
the proper temperature and dipping in a powdered cyanide mixture or sprinkling the powder on the steel, followed by quenching. The
case thus formed is extremely thin.
Cyaniding salts are violent poisons if allowed
to come in contact with scratches or wounds;
they are fatally poisonous if taken internally.
Fatally poisonous fumes are evolved when
cyanides are brought into contact with acids.
Cyaniding baths should be equipped with a
hood for venting the gases evolved during heating and the work room should be well venti-
The nitriding process consists in subjecting
machined and heat-treated steel, free from surface decarburization, to the action of a
nitrogenous medium, usually ammonia gas, at
a temperature of about 950 to 1,050 °F,
whereby a very hard surface is obtained. The
surface-hardening effect is due to the absorption of nitrogen and subsequent heat treatment
of the steel is unnecessary. The time required
is relatively long, normally being 1 or 2 days.
The case, even after 2 days of nitriding, is generally less than 0.020 in. and the highest hardness exists in the surface layers to a depth of
only a few thousandths of an inch.
Liquid nitriding (nitriding in a molten salt
bath, generally composed of a mixture of
sodium and potassium salts) employs the same
temperature range as gas nitriding.
Special low-alloy steels have been developed
for nitriding. These steels contain elements
that readily combine with nitrogen to form
nitrides, the most favorable being aluminum,
chromium, and vanadium. Molybdenum and
nickel are used in these steels to add strength
and toughness. The carbon content usually is
about 0.20 to 0.50 percent, although in some
steels, where high core hardness is essential, it
may be as high as 1.3 percent. Stainless steels
also can be nitrided.
Because nitriding is carried out at a relatively low temperature, it is advantageous to
8
12
16
20
CAR8URIZCNG TIME , HOURS
FIGURE
24
28
19.
Relation of time and temperature to carbon
penetration in gas carburizing.
(Metals Handbook, 193» edition, p. 1041.)
/
16
y
i
use quenched and tempered steel as the base
material. This gives a strong, tough core with
an intensely hard wear-resisting case—much
harder, indeed, than can be obtained by quench
hardening either carburized or cyanided steel.
Although warpage is not a problem during
nitriding, steels increase slightly in size during
this treatment. Allowance can be made for
this growth in the finished article. Protection
against nitriding can be effected by tin, copper,
or bronze plating, or by the application of certain paints.
5.6. Surface Hardening
It is frequently desirable to harden only the
surface of steels without altering the chemical
composition of the surface layers. If a steel
contains sufficient carbon to respond to hardening, it is possible to harden the surface layers
only by very rapid heating for a short period,
thus conditioning the surface for hardening
by quenching.
a. Induction Hardening
In induction hardening, a high-frequency
current is passed through a coil surrounding
the steel, the surface layers of which are heated
by electro-magnetic induction. The depth to
which the heated zone extends depends on the
frequency of the current (the lower frequencies
giving the greater depths) and on the duration
of the heating cycle. The time required to
heat the surface layers to above the Ac3 is
surprisingly brief, frequently being a matter of
only a few seconds. Selective heating (and
therefore hardening) is accomplished bv suitable design of the coils or inductor blocks. At
the end of the heating cycle, the steel is usually
quenched by water jets passing through the
inductor coils. Precise methods for controlling the operation, that is, rate of energy input,
duration of heating, and rate of cooling, are
necessary. These features are incorporated in
induction hardening equipment, which is usually entirely automatic in operation. Figure
20 shows the hardened layer in induction hardened steel.
b. Flame Hardening
Flame hardening is a process of heating the
surface layers of steel above the transformation temperature by means of a high-temperature flame and then quenching. In this process
the gas flames impinge directly on the steel
surface to be hardened. The rate of heating
is very rapid, although not so fast as with induction heating. Plain carbon steels are
usually quenched by a water spray, whereas the
rate of cooling of alloy steels may be varied
from a rapid water quench to a slow air cool
depending on the composition.
FIGURE 20. Macrograph of induction
Original size, 4-in. diameter (Osborn).
hardened gear teeth.
Any type of hardenable steel can be flame
hardened. For best results, the carbon content should be at least 0.35 percent, the usual
range being 0.40 to 0.50 percent.
5.7. Special Treatments
a. Austempering
Austempering is a trade name for a patented
heat-treating process. Essentially, it consists
of heating steel to above the Ac3 transformar
tion temperature and then quenching into a hot
bath held at a temperature below that at which
fine pearlite would form (the nose of the
S-curve, fig. 8), but above the Ms temperature
(fig. 10). The product of isothermal decomposition of austenite in this temperature region
is bainite. This constituent combines relatively high toughness and hardness. A typical
microstructure of austempered steel is shown
in figure 15, E.
The austempering process has certain limitations that make it impracticable for use with
many steels. In order to assure a uniform
structure (and hence uniform properties), it
is essential that the entire cross section of the
steel be cooled rapidly enough so that even the
center escapes transformation at the nose of
the S-curve. In carbon steels the time required
to start transformation at the nose of the
S-curve is extremely short, so that only relatively small sections (about %-in. maximum
thickness) can be successfully hot quenched
in austempering baths. The time required for
transformation of the austenite of alloy steels
17
:u
to fine pearlite is usually longer, and hence
larger sections can be successfully austempered
(about 1 in. maximum). However, the time
required for transformation to bainite frequently becomes inordinately long with many
alloy steels and the process of austempering,
therefore, is generally impracticable for these
steels.
b. Martempering
Martempering consists of heating a steel to
above its Acs transformation and then quenching into a bath held at a temperature approximately equal to that of its M.. The steel is
maintained in the hot bath until its temperature is essentially uniform and then is cooled
in air.
Severe internal stresses develop in steel during
hardening. Steel contracts during cooling but
undergoes a marked expansion when the
austenite transforms to martensite. Since a
quenched steel must cool from the surface
inward, various portions transform at different times. The steel is thus subjected to a
variety of differential expansions and contractions, resulting in considerable internal stress.
By equalizing the temperature throughout the
section before transformation takes place, and
then cooling slowly through the martensite
(M,—Mf) range, the internal stresses are considerably reduced. This is the prime objective of martempering.
Modified martempering differs from standard martempering only in that the bath
temperature is lower, ranging from just below
the M, point to about 200 °F. With the faster
cooling at these lower bath temperatures, steels
of lower hardenability can be hardened to sufficient depth. However, greater distortion of
sensitive parts is likely with the modified
process.
c. Cold Treatment
The Mf temperature of many alloy steels is so
low that complete transformation of austenite
to martensite does not occur on quenching to
room temperature or on cooling after tempering. This retained austenite may be partially
or completely transformed by cooling below
atmospheric temperatures and such treatment
is called "cold treatment." The beneficial
effects of cold treatment have not been fully
explored. It is known that the retained
austenite of highly alloyed steels is frequently
difficult to transform. Cooling these steels to
low temperatures (to the temperature of solid
CO* or even lower) immediately after the
quench is sometimes effective in transforming
the retained austenite, but with the concomitant danger of cracking. When the cold treatment is applied after tempering, the retained
austenite is considerably more resistant to
18
J
transformation. If cold treatment is used, the
steel should always be tempered afterwards.
Repeated alternate heating to a temperature
slightly below that used in tempering and cooling to a subzero temperature in a refrigerated
iced brine, carbon dioxide, liquid air, or liquid
nitrogen is commonly used for transforming
the retained austenite (dimensional stabilization) of steel gages, especially those of the ballbearing type composition (AISI 52100).
d. Ausforming
In this process, medium-carbon alloy steels
are first austenitized and then cooled rapidly
to the temperature range above M. in the "bay"
of the S-curve, between the pearlite and bainite
transformation bands. While held at a temperature within this bay the steels are plastically deformed and subsequently transformed at
lower temperatures to martensite or bainite.
The steels are then tempered. This "ausforming" or "hot-working" technique has been
employed to provide higher yield and tensile
strength values than those obtainable for these
steels by the normal quench and temper
treatments.
6. Hardenability
Hardenability is the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness
induced in steel by quenching. It is increased
by increasing carbon and by the addition of all
the common alloying elements (except cobalt),
provided that these elements are completely
dissolved in the austenite at quenching temperatures. The elements most frequently used
for this purpose are manganese, chromium, and
molybdenum. Hardenability is also enhanced
by increased grain size' and homogeneity of
the austenite. However, a coarse-grained
austenite increases the tendency of a steel to
' The grain «lie that influences hardenability is that grain size of
the austenite that exists at the quenching temperature. It is usually
measured under the microscope in terms of the number of grains
per square inch at a magnification of X100. The common range
of grain size numbers is as follows (note that the larger the number, the finer is the grain sixe; I.e.. the more grains there are per
square inch):
American Society for Testing and Materials
Grain size
no.
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
8.0
8.5
4.0
4.5 .
5.0 .
5.5
6.0 .
6.5 .
7.0
Grains/in'
at X100
— 0.50
— 0.707
— 1.0
— 1.41
— 2.0
— 2.8S
— 4.0
5.66
—
8.0
— 11.3
16.0
22.6
— S2.0
45.8
64.0
Grain size
7.6
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.6
14.0
Grains/ina
at X100
_ 90.5
.- 128.
.- 181.
- 256.
.- 362.
.- 612.
724.
1020.
1450.
2050.
2900.
4100.
6800.
8200.
distort and crack during heat treatment.
Coarse-grained steels also are less tough than
fine-grained steels.
A clear distinction must be drawn between
the maximum hardness obtainable in a steel
and its hardenability. In straight carbon and
low-alloy steels, the maximum hardness is a
function of carbon content only (fig. 13),
whereas hardenability is concerned primarily
with the depth of hardening.
Numerous methods have been proposed and
used for determining the hardenability of steel.
The selection of a method depends largely upon
the information desired and the range in hardenability of the steels.
For a fundamental study, hardenability is
often measured in terms of the critical cooling
rate (fig. 9, B), but the standard end-quench
(Jominy) test is widely used commercially.
In the end-quench test a bar of steel 1 in. in
diameter by 4 in. long, previously normalized
and machined to remove the decarburized surface, is heated to the hardening temperature
for 30 min. It is then quickly transferred to a
fixture that holds the bar in a vertical position
and a jet of water under controlled conditions
immediately is directed against the bottom end
only. The end of the bar is thus cooled very
quickly while cross sections remote from the
end are cooled more slowly, the rate of cooling
being dependent upon the distance from the
quenched end. After cooling is completed, two
diametrically opposite flats about *4 in- wide
are ground the length of the bar and Rockwell
hardness measurements are made at intervals
of y16 in. on one or both of the flat surfaces so
prepared. The relationship of hardness to distance from the quenched end is an indication of
the hardenability (fig. 21).
The conditions of the end-quench test have
been standardized and the rates of cooling at
various distances from the quenched end have
been determined and are shown at the top of
figure 21. It is thus possible to correlate hardness with cooling rate, which is a function of
the distance from the water-cooled end. The
cooling rates at various positions in the crosssections of different size rounds, when quenched
in still oil and in still water also have been
determined. Correlations can be made, therefore, between the hardness obtained at various
positions on the end-quench bar and positions
of equivalent hardness of round bars quenched
in still oil or water (assuming that points of
equal hardness have the same cooling rate).
Figure 22 shows this relationship between the
distances on the end-quenched bar and various
locations for equivalent hardnesses in round
bars quenched in still oil; figure 23 shows corresponding relations for bars quenched in still
water.
If the hardenability (end-quench) curve of
a steel is known, it is possible to ascertain
COOLING RATE AT 1300'F , "F/SEC
32
16
10.2
7:0
4,8
3.9
34
32
3JO
315
3.6
3.3
4.3
8.4
5.6
|22| 12.4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
310 125
„ 4901195
55
I
111 TIT
C
60
\\
j 50
u
*
§40
fit
B
J» 30
z
1| 20
A
,
FIGURE
-..!._ _1_
1
1
I . .,..1 ,
1 .
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
DISTANCE FROM QUENCHED END . 1/16 IN.
0 -LLL
21.
36
40
Hardenability curves for different steels with
the same carbon content.
A, Shallow hardoning; B, Intermediate hardening; C, deep hardening.
The cooling rates shown In this figure are according to the results of Boegehold and Weinman, N.D.B.C. Report OSRD No. 3743, p. 42 (June 1, IM4).
4.0
/
3.5
SURFACE/
5 3.0
/ 3'4 /
/ RADIUS/
M
a.
<
CD
u. 2.0
o
a.
'
V
/
K
/
5 '"u
0.5
/
t
/
' ,
/
/
y
/CENTER
^1/2 RADIUS
/
1
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
DISTANCE FROM WATER QUENCHED END ,1/16 IN.
22. Relation between distances on the end-quench
bar and various locations for equivalent hardness or
cooling rates in round bars quenched in still oil.
FIGURE
(Metals Handbook, 1948 edition, p. 492.)
from this curve and the curves given in figures
22 and 23 whether or not a selected size round
made from the steel will have a desired hardness at its surface, % radius, V2 radius, or
center, when quenched either in still oil or
water. Conversely, the hardness values as
determined at various positions in rounds after
quenching in oil or water can be used to advantage in approximating the degree of hardenability of a steel suitable for replacement of
similar parts.
The standard end-quench test is most useful
for steels of moderate hardenability, that is,
the low-alloy steels. For shallow hardening
steels, such as plain carbon, a modification of
this test (the L-type bar) is used.
19
4.0
3.5
/SURFACE
/J^
/ 1/2
/RADIUS
at 3.0
u
12.0
fe
/
/
B 1.5
<
/CENTER
/ '//
5 |.o
f
05
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
IS
20
DISTANCE FROM WATER QUENCHED END. 1/16 IN.
23. Relation between distances on the end-quench
bar and various locations for equivalent hardnesses or
cooling rales in round bars quenched in still water.
FIGURE
(Metals Handbook, 1948 edition, p. 4M.)
7. Heat Treatment of Cast Irons
ill
Cast irons are of three general types, gray,
white, and nodular. The terms gray and white
are descriptive of the characteristic appearances of the fractures and nodular is descriptive of the shape of the graphite particles.
In gray iron a large proportion of the carbon
is present as graphitic or uncombined carbon
in the form of flakes. The small proportion of
carbon that is present as combined carbon or
cementite is in the form of pearlite just as in a
steel. Depending on the amount of combined
carbon, the matrix of cast iron may be similar
to a hypoeutectoid steel with varying amounts
of free ferrite and graphite flakes dispersed
throughout (fig. 24, A, B, and C). If the
amount of combined carbon is about 0.8 percent, the matrix will be entirely pearlitic; if the
amount is greater, the matrix will be similar to
a hypereutectoid steel.
In white iron most, if not all, of the carbon
is present as cementite (fig. 24, D). The
dividing line between white and gray cast iron
is not clearly defined and iron possessing characteristics of both are called mottled cast iron.
Whether a cast iron will be gray or white
depends on two factors—composition and rate
of cooling. Certain elements tend to promote
the formation of graphitic carbon; the most
important of these are silicon, nickel, and
sulfur. Others tend to promote the formation
of combined carbon; the most important of
these are chromium, molybdenum, vanadium,
and manganese. Rapid solidification and cooling, such as result from thin sections cast in
sand or larger sections cast against chills, promote the formation of white iron. Iron so
produced is frequently termed chilled iron.
20
I
T
Because of variations in the rate of solidification and cooling, castings may be white at the
surface layers, mottled immediately below, and
gray in the interior.
In nodular cast iron, also known as "ductile
iron," "nodular graphite iron," "spherulitic
iron," and "spheroidal graphite iron," the graphite is present in the form of nodules or
spheroids (fig. 24, E and F) bestowing considerable ductility to the cast iron. These nodules form during solidification due to the treatment of the molten iron, just prior to casting,
with a few hundredths percent usually of either
magnesium or cerium; the sulfur content must
be below about 0.015 percent for the treatment
to be effective with these elements. Nodular
iron and gray iron have the same total carbon
content. The mechanical properties of nodular
iron can be varied by alloying.
Cast irons may be given a variety of heat
treatments, depending on the compositions and
desired properties. The principles of the heat
treatments applied to cast iron are similar to
those already discussed for steels.
7.1. Relieving Residual Stresses (Aging)
The heat treatment that relieves residual
stresses is commonly called "aging," "normalizing," or "mild annealing;" the term "stress relieving" is more accurately descriptive. This
treatment can be accomplished by heating the
cast iron to between 800 and 1,100 °F., holding
at temperature from 30 min. to 5 hr, the time
depending on the size and temperature, and
cooling slowly in the furnace. Such treatment
will cause only a slight decrease in hardness,
very little decomposition of cementite, and only
a slight change in the strength of the metal.
7.2. Annealing
Sometimes, it is desirable to soften castings
in order to facilitate machining. The temperature range most commonly used for this purpose is 1,400 ° to 1,500 °F, although temperatures as low as 1,200 ° to 1,250 °F have been
used satisfactorily. Highly alloyed irons are
sometimes annealed at temperatures as high as
1,800 °F. In all annealing, care should be
taken to prevent oxidation of the casting and
cooling should be slow.
In general, softening for machinability is
accompanied by a decrease in strength and in
the amount of combined carbon, and by an increase in graphite content. Irons that contain
carbide-forming elements (such as chromium,
molybdenum, vanadium, and manganese) are
more resistant to softening than the ordinary
gray iron and, therefore, must be annealed at
considerably higher temperatures. Completely
annealed ordinary gray cast iron has a Brinell
1
- ' c^-^"»
• • •• Y * /^ «*
warn*?*
y.*
Safe"
T4*
■*■ . • .JT
?
-A.
;:\,V .
FIGURE
24.
Microstructure of cast irons.
A., Oray iron. The dark flakes are graphite. Unetched. X100.
B, Same as (A). Etched with picral. X100.
C, Same as (B). The matrix consists of pearlite with a small amount of free ferrite (white) and is similar to a hypoeutectoid steel. The appearance of the
graphite flakes is not affected by the etchant.
X500.
D, White iron. The white needles are cementite; the dark areas are pearlite; the dark spheroidal areas are the eutectic (Ledeburlte). Etched with picral.
X500.
E, Nodular iron. The dark nodules are graphite; the white matrix is ferrite. Etched with picral. X100.
F, Pearlitic nodular iron. Nodular graphite (dark) in a pearlitic matrix. Etched with picral. X100.
G, Malleable iron. The dark nodules are graphite; the white matrix is ferrite. Etched with picral. X100.
H, Pearlitic malleable iron. Nodular graphite (dark) in a pearlitic matrix. Etched with picral. X100.
21
hardness of 120 to 130, and completely annealed alloy irons may have a Brinell hardness
of 130 to 180, depending on the composition.
The matrix of nodular iron can be made
completely ferritic by heating at 1,300 °F for 1
to 5 hr, depending on composition, size of casting, and amount of pearlite in the as-cast structure; cooling from the annealing temperature
can be at any convenient rate. If massive or
primary carbides are present in the as-cast
structure, they may be converted to spheroidal
graphite by heating at 1,600 to 1,700 °F for
1 to 5 hr. Slowly cooling from this temperature range to about 1,275 PF and holding from
3 to 5 hr will convert the matrix to ferrite.
Nodular iron with a ferritic matrix has the
desirable combination of maximum machinability, toughness, and ductility. The hardness of ferritic nodular iron varies with the
alloy content from a low of about 130 Brinell
to a high of about 210 Brinell.
a. Malleabilizing
/
Malleabilizing (also termed graphitizing) is
a process of annealing white cast iron in such
a way that the combined carbon is wholly or
partly transformed to graphite in the nodular
form (fig. 24, G and H) instead of the flaky
form that exists in gray cast iron. The nodular form of carbon is called temper or free
carbon. In some instances, part of the carbon
is lost in the malleabilizing process.
White iron that is to be malleabilized should
contain all its carbon in the combined form.
Any carbon present as graphitic carbon (and
hence in the form of flakes) will not be affected
by the graphitizing treatment and is undesirable in the final structure.
The temperatures used in malleabilizing
usually range from about 1,500 to 1,650 °F.
Time at temperature is quite long, frequently
being as much as two to three days. Holding
at this temperature causes the decomposition
of the cementite into austenite plus rather
rounded forms of graphite. If the iron is then
cooled very slowly through the critical range
(less than 10 °F/hr), the resultant structure
will consist of ferrite plus temper carbon.
Cooling less slowly through the transformation
range, or using an iron containing an alloying
element that retards graphitization, results in
a final product containing various amounts of
pearlite plus ferrite with, of course, temper
carbon. Irons having a pearlitic structure
plus temper carbon are known as pearlitic
malleable irons (fig. 24, H). As might be expected, pearlitic malleable irons are susceptible
to heat treatment in the same manner as steels.
7.3. Normalizing, Quenching, and Tempering
When heated to above the critical temperature (line SK, fig. 3), cast iron consists of aus22
tenite plus excess cementite or graphite and the
austenite. can be transformed in the same manner as in steel. Although irons that are almost
completely graphitic (the common soft gray
irons) can be hardened, this is not customary.
Such irons must be held at temperatures well
above the critical for long periods of time in
order to assure the solution of carbon in the
austenite.
For optimum results, the graphite flakes
should be small and uniformly distributed and
the matrix should be pearlitic with not too
much free ferrite (combined carbon from about
0.50 to 0.80%). Castings should be heated uniformly to the quenching temperature, which
usually ranges from 1,500 to 1,600 °F. The
quenching medium commonly used is oil; water
is used to a limited extent and some alloy
castings may be quenched in air. The iron as
quenched, generally has a lower strength than
as cast, but the strength is increased by tempering in the range of 350 to 1,200 °F. Softening proceeds uniformly as the tempering temperature is increased above about 350 to
1,200 °F.
A pearlitic matrix can be produced in nodular iron as cast or by normalizing. The
normalizing treatment consists of heating to
1,600 to 1,650 °F, holding at temperature for
solution of carbon, followed by cooling in air.
The mechanical properties of the normalized
irons vary with the composition, fineness, and
amounts of pearlite; heavy sections are lower
in hardness and higher in ductility than light
sections. The Brinell hardness numbers range
from about 200 to 275.
Martensitic or bainitic structures are produced in nodular iron by quenching from 1,600
to 1,700 °F in oil or water. The irons as
quenched have high strengths but low ductility.
However, the ductility of the as-quenched iron
can be materially increased (strength and
hardness decreased) by tempering at about
1,000 to 1,300 °F.
7.4. Special Heat Treatments
Subject to the same limitations as steels, cast
irons can be flame-hardened, induction-hardened, austempered, martempered, or nitrided.
8. Practical Considerations
Satisfactory heat treatment of steel (and
iron) requires furnaces that have uniform controlled temperatures, means for accurate temperature measurement, and for protecting the
surface of the material from scaling or decarburizing. Proper quenching equipment is
needed also.
8.1. Furnaces and Salt Baths
may be secured by covering the work with cast
iron borings or chips.
Since the work in salt or lead baths is surrounded by the liquid heating medium, the
problem of preventing scaling or decarburization is simplified.
Vacuum furnaces also are used for annealing
steels, especially when a bright non-oxidized
surface is a prime consideration.
There are many different types and sizes of
furnaces used in heat treatment. As a general rule, furnaces are designed to operate in
certain specific temperature ranges and attempted use in other ranges frequently results
in work of inferior quality. In addition, using
a furnace beyond its rated maximum temperature shortens its life and may necessitate
b. Temperature Measurement and Control
costly and time-consuming repairs.
Fuel-fired furnaces (gas or oil) require air
Accurate temperature measurement is essenfor proper combustion and an air compressor
tial to good heat treating. The usual method
or blower is therefore a necessary jwunct
is by means of thermocouples; the most comThese furnaces are usually of the muffle type,
mon base-metal couples are copper-Constantan
that is, the combustion of the fuel takes place
(up to about 700 °F), iron-Constantan (up to
outside of and around the chamber m which
about 1,400 °F), and Chromel-Alumel (up to
the work is placed. If an open muffle is used,
about 2,200 °F). The most common noblethe furnace should be designed so as to prevent
metal couples (which can be used up to about
the direct impingement of flame on the work.
2,800 °F) are platinum coupled with either the
In furnaces heated by electricity the heating
alloy 87 percent platinum—13 percent rhodium
elements are generally in the form of wire or
or the alloy 90 percent platinum—10 percent
ribbon. Good design requires incorporation of
rhodium. The temperatures quoted are for
additional heating elements at locations where
continuous operation.
maximum heat loss may be expected. Such
The life of thermocouples is affected by the
furnaces commonly operate up to a maximum
maximum temperature (which may frequently
temperature of about 2,000 °F. Furnaces
exceed those given above) and by the furnace
operating at temperatures up to about 2,500 F
atmosphere. Iron-Constantan is more suited
usually employ resistor bars of sintered
for use in reducing and Chromel-Alumel in
carbides.
oxidizing atmospheres. Thermocouples are
Furnaces intended primarily for tempering
usually encased in metallic or ceramic tubes
may be heated by gas or electricity and are
closed at the hot end to protect them from the
frequently equipped with a fan for circulating
furnace gases. A necessary adjunct is an
the hot air.
instrument, such as a millivoltmeter or potenSalt baths are available for operating at
tiometer, for measuring the electromotive
either tempering or hardening temperatures.
force generated by the thermocouple. In the
Depending on the composition of the salt bath,
interest of accurate control, the hot junction of
heating can be conducted at temperatures as
the thermocouple should be placed as close to
low as 325 °F to as high as 2,450 °F. Lead
the work as possible. The use of an automatic
baths can be used in the temperature range of
controller is valuable in controlling the temper650 to 1,700 °F. The rate of heating in lead or
ature at the desired value.
salt baths is much faster than in furnaces.
if temperature-measuring equipment is not
available, it becomes necessary to estimate
a. Protective Atmospheres
temperatures by some other means. An inexpensive, yet fairly accurate method involves the
It is often necessary or desirable to protect
use of commercial crayons, pellets, orpaints
steel or cast iron from surface oxidation (scalthat melt at various temperatures within the
ing) and loss of carbon from the surface layers
range 125 to 1,600 °F. The least accurate
(decarburization, fig. 15, F). Commercial furmethod of temperature estimation is by obser■ naces, therefore, are generally equipped with
vation of the color of the hot hearth of the fursome means of atmosphere control. This usunace or of the work. The heat colors observed
ally is in the form of a burner for burning
are affected by many factors, such as the concontrolled amounts of gas and air and directing
ditions of artificial or natural light, the charthe products of combustion into the furnace
muffle. Water vapor, a product of this comacter of the scale on the work, etc.
bustion, is detrimental and many furnaces are
Steel begins to appear dull red at about
equipped with a means for eliminating it. For
1,000 °F, and as the temperature increases the
furnaces not equipped with atmosphere control,
color changes gradually through various shades
a variety of external atmosphere generators
of red to orange, to yellow, and finally to white.
are available. The gas so generated is piped
A rough approximation of the correspondence
into the furnace and one generator may supply
between color and temperature is indicated in
several furnaces. If no method of atmosphere
figure 25.
control is available, some degree of protection
23
_f—
2700 -z -
1500
•C
2600 ~z ".
~ m— 1400
2500 _Z i
2400 -^
— 1300
Color of
Hot Body
2300 ~E
2200 ~E — 1200
~
Whit«
2100 -E
2000—E
— 1100
1900 -E
- — I000Y,"0W
leoo -Ei
1700 -^
-—
Orange
900
1600 -E
1800—^ —
Light Cherry
800
1400 ~E
Full Cherry
1300 -E — 700
1200 -E
Dark Cherry
1100 — — 600
Dark Red
looo—E
500
900 —
800 -^
__
— 400
700 -E
600 -;
Temper
Colors
■~
:— 300
Blue
Purple
Brown
800 —i
400 -E: — 200
Straw
300 —
200 -E— loo
100 -E
-
25. Temperature chart indicating conversion of
Centrigrade to Fahrenheit or vice versa, color temperature
scale for hardening-lemperalure range, and lemperingtemperature range.
FIGURE
24
It is also possible to secure some idea of the
temperature of the piece of a carbon or lowalloy steel in the low temperature range used
for tempering from the color of the thin oxide
film that forms on the cleaned surface of the
steel when heated in this range. The approximate temperature-color relationship for a time
at temperature of about one-half hour is indicated on the lower portion of the. scale in
figure 25.
8.2. Quenching Media and Accessories
Quenching solutions act only through their
ability to cool the steeL They have no beneficial chemical action on the quenched steel and
in themselves impart no unusual properties.
Most requirements for quenching media are
met satisfactorily by water or aqueous solutions of inorganic salts such as table salt or
caustic soda, or by some type of oil. The rate
of cooling is relatively rapid during quenching
in brine, somewhat less rapid in water, and
slow in oil.
Brine usually is made of a 5- to 10-percent
solution of salt (sodium chloride) in water.
In addition to its greater cooling speed, brine
has the ability to "throw" the scale from steel
during quenching. The cooling ability of both
water and brine, particularly water, is considerably affected by their temperature. Both
should be kept cold—.well below 60 °F. If the
volume of steel being quenched tends to raise
the temperature of the bath appreciably, the
quenching bath should be cooled by adding ice
or by some means of refrigeration.
There are many specially prepared quenching oils on the market; their cooling rates do
not vary widely. A straight mineral oil with
a Saybolt viscosity of about 100 at 100 °F is
generally used. Unlike brine and water, the
oils have the greatest cooling velocity at a
slightly elevated temperature -about 100 to
140 °F—because of their decreased viscosity
at these temperatures.
When steel is quenched, the liquid in immediate contact with the hot surface vaporizes; this
vapor reduces the rate of heat abstraction
markedly. Vigorous agitation of the steel or
the use of a pressure spray quench is necessary
to dislodge these vapor films and thus permit
the desired rate of cooling.
Shallow hardening steels, such as plain carbon and certain varieties of alloy steels, have
such a high critical cooling rate that they must
be quenched in brine or water to effect hardening. In general, intricately shaped sections
should not be made of shallow hardening steels
because of the tendency of these steels to warp
and crack during hardening. Such items
should be made of deeper hardening steels capable of being hardened by quenching in oil or
air.
A variety of different shapes and sizes of
tongs for handling hot steels is necessary. It
should be remembered that cooling of the area
contacted by the tongs is retarded and that
such areas may not harden, particularly if the
steel being treated is very shallow hardening.
Small parts may be wired together or quenched
in baskets made of wire mesh.
Special quenching jigs and fixtures are frequently used to hold steels during quenching
in a manner to restrain distortion.
When selective hardening is desired, portions
of the steel may be protected by covering with
alundum cement or some other insulating material. Selective hardening may be accomplished also by the use of water or oil jets
designed to direct the quenching medium on the
areas to be hardened. This also is accomplished by the induction and flame-hardening
procedures previously described, particularly
on large production jobs.
Z
T
3
o
£
3
8.3. Relation of Design to Heat Treatment
Internal strains arise from many causes, but
the most serious are those developed during
quenching by reason of differential cooling and
from the increase in volume that accompanies
the martensitic transformation. These stresses
are frequently sufficient to distort or crack the
hardened steel. Since temperature gradients
are largely a function of the size and shape of
the piece being quenched, the basic principle of
good design is to plan shapes that will keep
the temperature gradient throughout a piece at
a minimum during quenching.
Because of the abruptness in the change of
section, some shapes are impractical to harden,
without cracking or distortion, by quenching in
water, but a certain latitude in design is permissible when using an oil-hardening or airhardening steel. Other things being equal,
temperature gradients are much lower in
shapes quenched in oil than in water, and are
still less in air. Thus a certain design may
be perfectly safe for one type of steel, or one
type of coolant, and unsafe for another.
Errors in design reach farther than merely
affecting the internal strains during hardening.
A sharp angle or notch serves to greatly concentrate the stresses applied during service,
and the design of the part may be entirely responsible for concentrating the service stresses
at a point already weakened by internal strains
produced during hardening. Concentration of
service stresses frequently parallels concentration of heat-treating strains and is frequently
caused and cured by the same combination of
circumstances.
A part is properly designed, from a standpoint of heat treatment, if the entire piece can
be heated and cooled at approximately the
same rate during the heat-treating operations.
26. Examples of good and bad designs from sland?oint of hardening by heat treatment (Palmer and Luerssen,
W steel simplified, p. 392, 1948).
FIGURE
A, End view of an undercutting form tool incorrectly designed.
B, The same tool better designed from the viewpoint of heat treatment.
Heavy sections have been lightened by drilling holes, thus insuring more
uniform cooling. The fillet at (a) minimizes danger of cracking at the sharp
re-entrant angle. Where a fillet is not allowable, treatment as shown at
(b) is helpful.
C, Cracking will tend to occur at the sharp roots of the keyways.
D, Fillets at the roots of the keyways will reduce the tendency toward
cracking. The incorporation of the two additional keyways, even though
unnecessary in actual service, helps balance the section and avoid warping.
E, A blanking die with the center rib heavier than the surrounding areas.
This may cause warping on quenching.
F, The same die with holes drilled in the centerrib to equalize the amount
of metal throughout the die, thus eliminating warpage difficulties.
Q, A stem pinion with a keyway about one-half the diameter of the stem.
The base of the keyway is extremely sharp, and the piece is further weakened
by a hole drilled through the center of the stem near the keyway. The base
of the keyway should be filleted and hole re-located.
H, A dangerous design consisting of a thin collar adjoining a thick section.
When hardening such pieces, the thin section often warps or cracks at the
Junction with the hub. Extremely generous fillets and drilling holes through
the hub to lighten its mass will be helpful.
J, When hardening, the concentration of strains at the Junction of the two
holes In the center are apt to cause failure. Such holes should be plugged
before hardening.
K. A blanking die poorly designed. Crack will occur from point of fork
prong to setscrew hole. The position of the setscrew hole should be changed
to eliminate cracking.
25
Perfection in this regard is unattainable because, even m a sphere, the surface cools more
rapidly than the interior. The designer should,
however, attempt to shape parts so that they
will heat and cool as uniformly as possible.
The greater the temperature difference between any two points in a given part during
quenching, and the closer these two points are
together, the greater will be the internal strain
and, therefore, the poorer the design.
When large and small sections are unavoidable in the same piece, the thick part frequently
can be lightened by drilling holes through it.
Where changes in section are encountered,
angles should be filletted generously. Some
examples of poor and good design are shown
in figure 26.
9. Nomenclature and Chemical
Compositions of Steels
9.1. Structural Steels
In order to facilitate the discussion of steels,
some familiarity with their nomenclature is
desirable.
A numerical index, sponsored by the Society
of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) is
used to identify the chemical compositions of
the structural steels. In this system, a fournumeral series is used to designate the plain
carbon and alloy steels; five numerals are used
to designate certain types of alloy steels. The
first two digits indicate the type of steel, the
second digit also generally (but not always)
gives the approximate amount of the major
alloying element and the last two (or three)
K? ar? mtende^ to indicate the approximate
middle of the carbon range. However, a deviation from the rule of indicating the carbon
range is sometimes necessary.
The series designation and types are summarized as follows:
1
h
Serie*
denotation
Type*
lOxx
Nonsulphurized carbon steels
llxx ___. Resulphurized carbon steels (free machining)
12xx
Rephosphorized and resulphurized carbon
steels (free machining)
13xx
Manganese 1.75%
»23xx
Nickel 3.50%
»25xx
Nickel 5.00%
31xx
Nickel 1.25%, chromium 0.65%
33xx
Nickel 3.50%, chromium 1.55%
40xx
Molybdenum 0.20 or 0.25%
41xx
Ch r
0 i2io™0 2Ö% 0r °'95%' molybdenum
43xx
Nickel 1.80%, chromium 0.50 or 0.80%,
molybdenum 0.25%
44xx
Molybdenum 0.40%
45xx
Molybdenum 0.52%
46xx
Nickel 1.80%, molybdenum 0.25%
26
~T
47xx
Nickel 1.05%, chromium 0.45%, molybdenum 0.20 or 0.35%
48xx
Nickel 3.50%, molybdenum 0.25%
60xx
Chromium 0.25, 0.40 or 0.50%
50xxx — Carbon 1.00%, chromium 0.50%
51xx
Chromium 0.80, 0.90, 0.95, or 1.00%
Blxxx — Carbon 1.00%, chromium 1.05%
52xxx — Carbon 1.00%, chromium 1.45%
61xx
Chromium 0.60, 0.80 or 0.95%, vanadium
0.12%, 0.10% min., or 0.15% min.
81xx
Nickel 0.30%, chromium 0.40%, molybdenum 0.12%
86xx
Nickel 0.55%, chromium 0.50%, molybdenum 0.20%
87xx
Nickel 0.55%, chromium 0.05%, molybdenum 0.25%
88xx
Nickel 0.55%, chromium 0.50%, molybdenum 0.35%
92xx
Manganese 0.85%, silicon 2.00%, chromium 0 or 0.35%
93«
Nickel 3.25%, chromium 1.20%, molybdenum 0.12%
94xx
Nickel 0.45%, chromium 0.40%, molybdenum 0.12%
98xx
Nickel 1.00%, chromium 0.80%, molybdenum 0.25%
* Not included in the current list of standard steels.
Listings of the AISI type numbers and chemical composition limits of the standard structural steels (complete as of January 1966) are
given in table 1. The SAE type numbers (not
shown in the table) are the same as the AISI
numbers, except that the latter may be given a
letter prefix to indicate the method of manufacture. These prefixes and their meanings
are as follows: B denotes acid bessemer carbon
steel, C denotes basic open hearth or basic
electric furnace carbon steels, E denotes electric furnace alloy steels. A few of the AISI
steels are not included in SAE listings.
Small quantities of certain elements are
present in alloy steels that are not specified as
required. These elements are considered as
incidental and may be present to the maximum
amounts as follows: copper, 0.35 percent;
nickel, 0.25 percent; chromium, 0.20 percent;
molybdenum, 0.06 percent.
The list of standard steels is altered from
time to time to accommodate steels of proven
merit and to provide for changes in the metallurgical and engineering requirements of
industry.
Many of the alloy structural steels are manufactured to meet certain specified limits in
hardenability as determined by the standard
end-quench test. Such steels, table 2, are designated by the letter "H" following the AISI
number. The chemical composition limits of
these steels have been modified somewhat from
the ranges or limits applicable to the same
grades when specified by chemical composition
only. The hardenability of an "H" steel is
guaranteed by the manufacturer to fall within
a hardenability band having maximum and
minimum limits as shown by two limiting hardenability curves for that particular steel.
TABLE
1. Composition limits of standard steels
NONRESULPHURIZED CARBON STEELS«
Designation
number
AISI
Designation
number
Chemical composition limits, percent
C
Mn
P(max)
S(max)
Chemical composit on limits, percent
Mn
C
AISI
S(max)
P(max)
•C
•C
C
C
•C
C
1006
1006
1008
1010
1011
1012
0.06 max
.08 max
.10 max
0.08/0.18
.08/0.18
.10/0.15
0.36 max
0.25/0.40
.25/0.50
.30/0.60
.60/0.90
.30/0.60
0.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
0.050
.050
.050
.060
.050
.050
C
C
C
C
C
C
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1048
0.40/0.47
.40/0.47
.43/0.50
.43/0.50
.43/0.50
.44/0.62
0.60/0.90
.70/1.00
.30/0.60
.60/0.90
.70/1.00
1.10/1.40
0.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
0.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
•C
C
C
C
C
C
1013
1016
1016
1017
1018
1019
.11/0.16
.13/0.18
.18/0.18
.16/0.20
.16/0.20
.16/0.20
.60/0.80
.30/0.60
.60/0.90
.30/0.60
.60/0.90
.70/1.00
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.050
.050
.060
.050
.060
.060
C
C
C
C
C
C
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1056
.46/0.63
.48/0.55
.45/0.66
.47/0.66
.48/0.55
.60/0.60
.60/0.90
.60/0.90
.86/1.15
1.20/1.50
.70/1.00
.60/0.90
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
C
C
C
C
C
C
1020
1021
1022
1028
1024
1026
.18/0.23
.18/0.23
.18/0.28
.20/0.26
.19/0.25
.22/0.28
.30/0.60
.60/0.90
.70/1.00
.30/0.60
1.36/1.66
0.30/0.60
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.060
•C
C
•C
•C
•C
•C
1059
1060
1061
1064
1065
1066
.56/0.65
.66/0.65
.56/0.65
.60/0.70
.60/0.70
.60/0.70
.60/0.80
.60/0.90
.76/1.05
.50/0.80
.60/0.90
.85/1.15
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.050
.060
.060
.050
.050
.060
C
C
C
C
•C
C
1026
1027
1029
1030
1034
1036
.22/0.28
.22/0.29
.26/0.31
.28/0.34
.32/0.38
.32/0.88
.60/0.90
1.20/1.60
0.60/0.90
.60/0.90
.60/0.80
.60/0.90
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.050
.060
.050
.060
.050
.050
•C
C
•C
•C
•C
C
1069
1070
1072
1074
1075
1078
.65/0.75
.66/0.76
.66/0.76
.70/0.80
.70/0.80
.72/0.86
.40/0.70
.60/0.90
1.00/1.30
.50/0.80
.40/0.70
.30/0.60
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.050
.050
.050
.060
.050
.050
C
C
C
C
C
C
1086
1037
1038
1089
1040
1041
.30/0.37
.32/0.38
.86/0.42
.37/0.44
.37/0.44
.36/0.44
1.20/1.60
0.70/1.00
.60/0.90
.70/1.00
.60/0.90
1.85/1.65
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.050
.050
.060
.050
.050
.050
C
C
•C
C
C
1080
1084
1086
1090
1096
.76/0.88
.80/0.93
.80/0.98
.86/0.98
.90/1.03
.60/0.90
.60/0.90
.30/0.60
.60/0.90
.30/0.50
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
1
RESULPHURIZED CARBON STEELS»
Designation
number
AISI
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
1108
1109
1110
1116
1117
1118
1119
1182
Designation
number
Chemical composition limits, percent
C
Mn
0.08/0.13
.08/0.13
.08/0.13
.14/0.20
.14/0.20
.14/0.20
.14/0.20
.27/0.84
0.60/0.80
.60/0.90
.30/0.60
1.10/1.40
1.00/1.30
1.30/1.60
1.00/1.30
1.35/1.65
P(max)
0.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
0.08/0.13
.08/0.13
.08/0.13
.16/0.23
.08/0.13
.08/0.13
.24/0.33
.08/0.13
ACID BESSEMER RESULPHURIZED CARBON STEELS«
Designation
number
AISI
B 1111
B 1112
B 1113
0.13 max
.13 max
.13 max
Mn
0.60/0.90
.70/1.00
.70/1.00
P
0.07/0.12
.07/0.12
.07/0.12
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
1137
1189
1140
1141
1144
1145
1146
1161
0.32/0.39
.35/0.43
.37/0.44
.87/0.46
.40/0.48
.42/0.49
.42/0.49
.48/0.65
1.85/1.65
1.35/1.66
.70/1.00
1.35/1.65
1.35/1.66
.70/1.00
.70/1.00
.70/1.00
P(max)
0.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
S
0.08/0.13
.12/0.20
.08/0.13
.08/0.13
.24/0.33
.04/0.07
.08/0.13
.08/0.13
REPHOSPHORIZED AND RESULPHURIZED CARBON STEELS ■•
AISI
S
0.08/0.16
.16/0.23
.24/0.33
Mn
C
Designation
number
Chemical composition limits, percent
C
AISI
S
Chemical composition limits, percent
C
C
C
C
JC
1211
1212
1213
1216
12L14
Chemical composition limits, percent
C
0.13 max
.18 max
.13 max
.09 max
.15 max
Mn
0.60/0.90
.70/1.00
.70/1.00
.76/1.05
.80/1.20
P
0.07/0.12
.07/0.12
.07/0.12
.04/0.09
.04/0.09
S
0.08/0.15
.16/0.23
.24/0.33
.26/0.35
.25/0.35
t Lead *= 0.16/0.36 percent. See footnotes at end of table.
27
TABLE
1. Composition limits of standard steels—Continued
OPEN HEARTH AND ELECTRIC FURNACE ALLOY STEELS •
1
Dodcnation
number
AISI
Chemical composition limits, percent
C
Mn
P(nutt)
S(maz)
Si
Ni
Cr
Mo
1830
1885
1840
1846
0.28/0.33
.33/0.38
.38/0.43
.43/0.48
1.60/1.90
1.60/1.90
1.60/1.90
1.60/1.90
0.035
.036
.035
.036
0.040
.040
.040
.040
0.20/0.35
.20/0.85
.20/0.85
.20/0.85
•8140
.38/0.43
0.70/0.90
.036
.040
.20/0.85
1.10/1.40
0.66/0.75
E 8310
.08/0.13
.45/0.60
.026
.025
.20/0.86
8.26/8.75
1.40/1.76
4012
4023
4024
4027
4028
4087
•4042
4047
•4068
.09/0.14
.20/0.26
.20/0.26
.26/0.80
.26/0.80
.86/0.40 .
.40/0.46
.45/0.50
.60/0.67
.75/1.00
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.76/1.00
.085
.036
.086
.085
.085
.085
.035
.085
.085
.040
.040
0.085/0.060
.040
.035/0.060
.040
.040
.040
.040
.20/0.86
.20/0.85
.20/0.26
.20/0.86
.20/0.86
.20/0.86
.20/0.86
.20/0.86
.20/0.35
4118
4180
•4186
4187
4140
4142
4146
4147
4160
4161
.18/0.23
.28/0.88
.88/0.38
.86/0.40
.88/0.43
.40/0.45
.48/0.48
.45/0.60
.48/0.68
.66/0.64
.70/0.90
.40/0.60
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.76/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.76/1.00
.086
.035
.035
.035
.036
.085
.085
.086
.085
.086
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.20/0.85
.20/0.85
.20/0.85
.20/0.86
.20/0.86
.20/0.85
.20/0.86
.20/0.80
.20/0.85
.20/0.85
4820
•4337
E 4337
4340
E 4840
.17/0.22
.35/0.40
.86/0.40
.88/0.43
.88/0.43
.46/0.65
.60/0.80
.65/0.85
.60/0.80
.66/0.85
.085
.036
.025
.035
.025
.040
.040
.026
.040
.026
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.86
.20/0.26
.20/0.86
4419
•4422
•4427
.18/0.23
.20/0.25
.24/0.29
.45/0.65
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.035
.085
.086
.040
.040
.040
.20/0.85
.20/0.36
.20/0.86
4616
•4617
4620
4621
4626
.13/0.18
.16/0.20
.17/0.22
.18/0.28
.24/0.29
.45/0.65
.46/0.66
.46/0.65
.70/0.90
.46/0.65
.035
.036
.035
.035
.035
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.20/0.35
.20/0.85
.20/0.85
.20/0.86
.20/0.85
1.65/2.00
1.66/2.00
1.66/2.00
1.66/2.00
.70/1.00
4718
4720
.16/0.21
.17/0.22
.70/0.90
.60/0.70
.035
.035
.040
.040
.20/0.86
.20/0.35
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
4816
4817
4820
.13/0.18
.15/0.20
.18/0.23
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.50/0.70
.036
.035
.035
.040
.040
.040
.20/0.85
.20/0.36
.20/0.36
8.25/3.75
3.25/8.76
8.26/2.75
5015
•6046
.12/0.17
.43/0.50
.30/0.60
.76/1.00
.035
.036
.040
.040
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.30/0.40
.20/0.35
•6115
6120
6130
6182
6135
6140
6145
6147
6160
6165
6160
.18/0.18
.17/0.22
.28/0.33
.30/0.85
.83/0.38
.38/0.43
.48/0.48
.45/0.52
.48/0.53
.60/0.60
.55/0.65
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.60/0.80
.60/0.80
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.76/1.00
.035
.036
.035
.036
.036
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.20/0.35
.20/0.86
.20/0.85
.20/0.86
.20/0.85
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.85
.20/0.85
.20/0.85
.20/0.86
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.80/1.10
.75/1.00
.80/1.06
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.85/1.16
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
0.95/1.10
.95/1.10
.95/1.10
0.25/0.45
.25/0.45
.25/0.45
0.025
-.025
.025
0.040
.025
.025
0.20/0.35
.20/0.85
.20/0.36
0.40/0.60
.90/1.16
1.30/1.60
6118
•6120
6150
.16/0.21
.17/0.22
.48/0.63
.50/0.70
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.035
.035
.035
.040
.040
.040
.20/0.85
.20/0.85
.20/0.35
.60/0.70
.70/0.90
.80/1.10
•8115
.13/0.18
.70/0.90
.035
.040
.20/0.85
0.20/0.40
.30/0.60
0.08/0.15
8616
8617
8620
8622
8625
8627
8630
8637
8640
8642
8645
•8650
8655
•8660
.13/0.18
.15/0.20
.18/0.23
.20/0.25
.23/0.28
.25/0.30
.28/0.33
.35/0.40
.38/0.43
.40/0.45
.43/0.48
.48/0.53
.50/0.60
.55/0.65
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.75/1.00
.76/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.20/0.35
.20/0.85
.20/0.85
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.36
.20/0.36
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.16/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
•E 50100
E 61100
E 62100
28
V
0.16/0.25
.20/0.30
.20/0.80
.20/0.30
.20/0.80
.20/0.80
.20/0.30
.20/0.30
.20/0.30
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.66/2.00
0.40/0.60
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.70/0.90
.08/0.15
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.16/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.26/0.35
.40/0.60
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.20/0.30
.20/0.30
.20/0.30
.20/0.30
.20/0.30
:::::....::::
:::::::::::::
.45/0.60
.35/0.45
.35/0.45
.20/0.30
.20/0.30
.20/0.80
.20/0.30
.15/0.25
.36/0.55
.35/0.65
.30/0.40
.15/0.25
::::::::::.:.
.20/0.30
.20/0.30
.20/0.30
0.10/0.15
.10 min
.15 min
-'—
y_l
TABU
1. Composition, limit« of »tandard steels—Continued
OPEN HEARTH AND ELECTRIC FURNACE ALLOY STEELS '«-(continued)
Designation
number
AISI
Chemical compoeition limit*, percent
C
Mn
P(nuut)
S(msx)
Si
Ni
Cr
Mo
8720
*8786
8740
»8742
.18/0.23
.88/0.88
.88/0.43
.40/0.46
.70/0.90
.76/1.00
.76/1.00
.76/1.00
.036
.036
.036
.036
.040
.040
.040
.040
.20/0.86
.20/0.85
.20/0.36
.20/0.36
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.70
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.20/0.30
.20/0.30
.20/0.80
.20/0.30
8822
.20/0.26
.76/1.00
.036
.040
.20/0.86
.40/0.70
.40/0.60
.80/0.40
9266
9260
•9262
.60/0.60
.66/0.66
.66/0.66
.70/0.96
.70/1.00
.76/1.00
.086
.086
.086
.040
.040
.040
1.80/2.20
1.80/2.20
1.80/2.20
•E 9810
.08/0.18
.46/0.66
.026
.026
.20/0.86
8.00/3.50
1.00/1.40
.08/0.16
•9840
•9860
.38/0.48
.48/0.68
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.086
.036
.040
.040
.20/0.86
.20/0.36
.86/1.15
.86/1.16
.70/0.90
.70/0.90
.20/0.30
.20/0.80
V
:::::::::::::
.25/0.40
_
__._.
BORON STEELS •
Then steel« can be expected to ha« 0.0006 percent minimum boron content.
Designation
number
Chemical composition limit«, percent
AISI
Mn
P(maz)
8(max)
Ni
Cr
Mo
60B44
60B46
60B60
60B60
0.48/0.48
.48/0.50
.48/0.63
.56/0.66
0.76/1.00
.76/1.00
.76/1.00
.76/1.00
0.035
.036
.086
.086
0.040
.040
.040
.040
0.20/0.36
.20/0.36
.20/0.86
.20/0.85
61B60
.56/0.65
.76/1.00
.086
.040
.20/0.36
81B45
.48/0.48
.76/1.00
.086
.040
.20/0.86
0.20/0.40
.36/0.55
0.08/0.15
94B17
94BS0
.15/0.20
.28/0.33
.76/1.00
.76/1.00
.036
.036
.040
.040
.20/0.85
.20/0.35
.30/0.60
.80/0.60
.30/0.50
.80/0.60
.08/0.15
.08/0.15
0.40/0.60
.20/0.35
.40/0.60
.40/0.60
.70/0.90
NITRIDING STEEL •
Designation
number
AISI
Chemical composition limits, percent
C
0.88/0.48
Mn
0.50/0.70
P(max)
0.036
S(max)
0.040
Si
0.20/0.40
Al
0.95/1.30
Cr
1.40/1.80
Mo
V
0.30/0.40
• Standard steel« for wire rods only.
• Silicon: When silicon is required, the following; ruses and limits are commonly used:
Standard steel designation«
Silicon rang-« or limits
Up to C 1015 exel
0.10% max.
C 1015 to C 1025 incl
0.10% max, 0.10/0.20%, or 0.16/0.80%
Over C 10250.10/0.20% or 0.16/0.80%
Copper: When required, copper Is specified as an added element to a standard steel.
Lead:
When required, lead Is specified as an added element to a standard steel.
k
Silicon: When silicon is required, the following ranges and limits are commonly used:
Standard steel designations
Silicon ranges or limits
Up to C 1110 incl
0.10% max.
C1116 and over
0.10% max, 0.10/0.20%, or 0.15/0.80%.
Lead:
When required, lead is specified as an added element to a standard steel.
• Silicon: Because of the technological nature of the process, acid bessemer steels are not produced with specified silicon content.
Lead:
When required, lead is specified as an added element to a standard steel.
■ Silicon: It is not common practice to produce these steels to specified limits for silicon.
Lead:
When required, lead is specified as an added element to a standard steel.
• Grade shown In the above list with prefix letter E generally are manufactured by the basic electric furnace process. All others are
normally manufactured by the basic open hearth process but may be manufactured by the basic electric furnace process with adjustments in
phosphorus and sulphur.
The phosphorus and sulphur limitations for each steelmaking process are as follows:
Process
Percent maximum
P
S
Basic electric furnace
0.025
0.025
Basic open hearth
0.035
0.040
Acid electric furnace
0.050
0.060
Acid open hearth
0.060
0.050
Minimum silicon limit for acid open hearth or acid electric furnace alloy steel is 0.15 percent.
.
Small quantities of certain elements are present in alloy steels which are not specified or required, These elements are considered as
incidental and may, be present to the following maximum amounts: Copper, 0.35 percent: nickel 0.25 percent: chromium, 0.20 percent.
and molybdenum, 0.06 percent.
Where minimum and maximum sulphur content Is shown It is indicative of resulphurized steels.
29
T
TABLE
2. Standard H-steels
OPEN HEARTH AND ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELS
Designation
number
Chemical composition limiti. percent
AISI
Mn
1S30 H
1836 H
1840 H
30
Ni
Cr
.20/0.85
1.00/1.46
0.45/0.86
.20/0.85
3.20/3.80
1.30/1.80
0.27/0.83
.82/0.38
.87/0.44
1.45/2.05
1.45/2.05
1.45/2.05
0.20/0.86
.20/0.35
.20/0.85
8140 H
.87/0.44
0.60/1.00
8810 H
.07/0.18
.30/0.70
Mo
4027
'4028
4087
4047
H
H
H
H
.24/0.30
.24/0.30
.84/0.41
.44/0.61
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.20/0.36
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.86
4118
4180
4187
4140
4142
414S
4147
4160
4161
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
.17/0.23
.27/0.83
.84/0.41
.87/0.44
.89/0.46
.42/0.49
.44/0.61
.47/0.64
.66/0.66
.60/1.00
.30/0.70
.60/100
.65/1.10
.66/1.10
.66/1.10
.65/1.10
.66/1.10
.66/1.10
.20/0.36
.20/0.85
.20/0.36
.20/0.36
.20/0.85
.20/0.35
.20/0.86
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
4820
4887
4840
E4S40
H
H
H
H
.17/0.23
.84/0.41
.87/0.44
.37/0.44
.40/0.70
.66/0.90
.65/0.90
.60/0.95
.20/0.86
.20/0.85
.20/0.85
.20/0.86
4419 H
.17/0.23
.86/0.76
.20/0.36
4620 H
4621 H
4626 H
.17/0.23
.17/0.28
.28/0.29
.86/0.76
.60/1.00
.40/0.70
.20/0.36
.20/0.36
.20/0.35
1.66/2.00
1.56/2.00
.65/1.05
4718 H
4720 H
.15/0.21
.17/0.28
.60/0.96
.46/0.75
.20/0.35
.20/0.85
0.86/1.25
0.86/1.25
4816 H
4817 H
4820 H
.12/0.18
.14/0.20
.17/0.28
.80/0.70
.30/0.70
.40/0.80
.20/0.36
.20/0.35
.20/0.85
3.20/3.80
3.20/3.80
8.20/3.80
6120
6180
6182
6186
6140
6146
6147
6160
6165
6160
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
.17/0.23
.27/0.83
.29/0.86
.82/0.88
.87/0.44
.42/0.49
.45/0.62
.47/0.64
.60/0.60
.65/0.65
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.50/0.90
.60/0.90
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.60/1.05
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.66/1.10
.20/0.85
.20/0.35
.20/0.36
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.36
.60/1.00
.76/1.20
.66/1.10
.70/1.15
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.80/1.26
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
6118 H
6160 H
.15/0.21
.47/0.64
.40/0.80
.60/1.00
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.40/0.80
.75/1.20
8617
8620
8622
8626
8627
8630
8637
8640
8642
8645
8655
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
.14/0.20
.17/0.23
.19/0.26
.22/0.28
.24/0.30
.27/0.83
.84/0.41
.87/0.44
.89/0.46
.42/0.49
.60/0.60
.60/0.95
.60/0.95
.60/0.95
.60/0.95
.60/0.95
.60/0.96
.70/1.05
.70/1.06
.70/1.06
.70/1.05
.70/1.06
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.85
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
0.85/0.76
.35/0.75
.85/0.76
.35/0.76
.35/0.65
.85/0.75
.85/0.75
.86/0.76
.85/0.75
.86/0.76
.86/0.75
.86/0.65
.85/0.66
.35/0.65
.86/0.65
.35/0.65
.85/0.66
.85/0.65
.86/0.65
.86/0.65
.85/0.66
.35/0.65
8720 H
8740 H
.17/0.28
.37/0.44
.16/0.26
.15/0.26
.16/0.26
.16/0.25
.16/0.25
.15/0.25
.15/0.25
.16/0.26
.16/0.25
.16/0.26
.16/0.26
.60/0.95
.70/1.05
.20/0.35
.20/0.35
.35/0.75
.85/0.76
8822 H
.85/0.65
.35/0.65
.19/0.26
.20/0.80
.20/0.80
.70/1.05
.20/0.35
.85/0.75
.85/0.66
9260 H
.80/0.40
.65/0.65
.65/1.10
1.70/2.20
0.20/0.80
.20/0.80
.20/0.80
.20/0.80
1.56/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.66/2.00
1.66/2.00
0.80/0.70
.75/1.20
.76/1.20
.76/1.20
.76/1.20
.75/1.20
.76/1.20
.76/1.20
.66/0.96
.08/0.15
.16/0.26
.16/0.26
.16/0.26
.15/0.26
.15/0.26
.16/0.26
.16/0.26
.25/0.86
.86/0.65
.66/0.95
.66/0.96
.66/0.95
.20/0.80
.20/0.80
.20/0.80
.20/0.30
.46/0.60
.20/0.80
.20/0.80
.15/0.25
.30/0.60
.80/0.60
.80/0.40
.15/0.26
.20/0.80
.20/0.30
.20/0.80
0.10/0.15
.16 min.
TABLE
2. Standard H-steels—Continued
BORON H-STEELS
Then steels e«n be expected to have 0.0006 percent minimum boron content
Designation
number
AISI
60B40
60B44
60B46
60B60
60B60
Chemical composition limit«, percent
C
H
H
H
H
H
0.S7/0.44
.42/0.49
.48/0.60
.47/0.64
.66/0.66
Hn
Si
0.66/1.10
.66/1.10
.66/1.10
.66/1.10
.66/1.10
0.20/0.86
.20/0.86
.20/0.86
.20/0.86
.20/0.85
Ni
V
Ho
Cr
0.80/0.70
.SO/0.70
.18/0.48
.80/0.70
.SO/0.70
61B60 H
.66/0.66
.66/1.10
.20/0.85
81B45 H
.42/0.49
.70/1.06
.20/0.85
0.15/0.46
.80/0.60
0.08/0.16
94B17 H
94BS0 H
.14/0.20
.27/O.SS
.70/1.06
.70/1.06
.20/0.86
.20/0.85
.25/0.65
.26/0.66
.26/0.66
.26/0.55
.08/0.16
.08/0.15
.60/1.00
-
* Sulphur content 0.086/0:050 percent.
The phosphorus and sulphur limitations for each steehnakino; process are as follows:
Maximum percent
P
S
Basle electric furnace-.
-0.026
0.025
Basic open hearth-0.086
0.040
Acid electric furnace-.
-0.060
0.060
Acid open hearth
-0.060
0.060
Minimum silicon limit for acid open hearth or add electric furnace alloy steel is 0.15 percent.
Small quantities of certain elements are present In alloy steels which are not specified or required. These elements are considered as
incidental and may be present to the following: maximum amounts: Copper, 0.86 percent; nickel, 0.26 percent; chromium, 0.20 percent; and
molybdenum, 0.06 percent.
9.2. Tool Steels
Technically, any steel used as a tool may be
termed a tool steel. Practically, however, the
term is restricted to steels of special composition that are usually melted in electric furnaces
and manufactured expressly for certain types
of services.
The current commonly used tool steels have
been classified by the American Iron and Steel
Institute into seven major groups and each
commonly accepted group or subgroup has been
assigned an alphabetical letter. Methods of
quenching, applications, special characteristics,
and steels for particular industries were considered in this type classification of tool steels
which is as follows:
Group
TABLE
Designation
AISI
3.
Identifying dements, percent
Mn
C
The AISI identification and type classification of tool steels is given in table 3. Each
■j major group, identified by a letter symbol, may
contain a number of individual types that are
• identified by a suffix number following the let-
Si
Cr
Ni
V
W
Co
Mo
WATER HARDENING
■ 0.90/1.40
•.«0/1.40
•.«0/1.40
1.10
Wl
WJ
W4
WS
0.25
0.25
.50
'
SHOCK RESISTING
SI
S2
84
85
86
87
0.50
.50
.55
.16
.45
.50
0.80
.80
1.40
1.00
2.00
2.00
1.25
2.50
1.50
0.50
.40
.40
1.40
1.50
3.25
COLD WORK; OIL HARDENING
Symbol and typ«
Water hardening __ W
Shock resisting
S
fO—Oil hardening
Cold work
i A—Medium alloy
ID—High carbon—high chromium
Hot work
H—(H 1 to H 19 incl. chromium
base, H 20 to H 39 incl.
tungsten base, H 40 to H 59
incl. molybdenum base)
!T—Tungsten base
High speed
M—Molybdenum base
Special purpose _. L—Low alloy
F—Carbon tungsten
Mold steels
P
Identification and type classification
of tool steels
01
02
0>
07
0.00
.90
1.4S
1.20
1.00
l.«0
1.00
0.60
0.50
.75
1.75
0.25
COLD WORK; MEDIUM ALLOY AIR HARDENING
AS
A3
A4
AS
A«
A7
A8
All
A10
1.00
1.2S
1.00
1.00
0.70
2.25
.55
.60
1.35
2.00
3.00
2.00
1.80
1.25
6.00
5.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
5.25
5.00
6.00
4.75 >>1.00
1.25
Too Too"
1.80
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.25
1.40
1.50
See footnotes at end of table.
ter symbol. The percentages of the elements
shown in the table for each type are not to be
considered as the mean of the composition
31
Ir
TABLE
3. Identification, and type classification
of tool steels—Continued
3. Identification and type classification
of tool steels—Continued
TABLE
Identifying dement», percent
Dengution
AISI
Mn
Si
Cr
Ni
Mo
Co
Deoftttion
AISI
Identifying element!, percent
C
Mn
COLD WORK; HIGH CARBON-HIGH CHROMIUM
Dl
D2
D3
D4
D5
D7
1.00
1.60
1.25
2.25
l.SO
2.36
:::::: ------
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
3.00
HOT WORK CHROMIUM BASE
H10
Hll
H12
H13
H14
HIS
Hit
0.40
.36
.36
.36
.40
.66
.40
.
3.26
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
7.00
4.26
0.40
.40
.40
1.00
1.60
--_
6.00
7.00
4.26
2.00
Cr
Ni
V
W
Mo
1.50
(.00
6.00
6.00
5.60
4.00
1.75
8.00
6.00
5.00
5.00
4.50
5.00
8.75
8.00
3.50
8.00
».60
8.00
6.00
6.00
3.75
«.60
8.75
6.26
Co
HIGH SPEED; MOLYBDENUM BASE
1.00
1.00
:::::: Töö"
Si
2.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
4.26
Ml
M2
M3>
M3<
M4
MS
M7
M10
M16
M30
M33
M34
M36
MM
M41
M43
M43
M44
0.80
.80
1.05
1.20
1.30
0.80
1.00
.86
1.60
0.80
.to
.to
.:::::
:;:::::
------ ..:::::
.80
.80
1.10
1.10
1.26
1.15
_
„
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
3.75
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.25
3.75
3.76
4.26
::::::
1.00
2.00
2.40
3.00
4.00
1.60
2.00
2.00
5.00
1.25
1.16
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1.15
2.00
2.25
"Tso"
2.00
1.50
2.00
6.00
6.00
6.75
1.50
1.75
5.25
12.00
"Töö
5.00
8.00
8.00
6.00
8.00
5.00
8.00
8.26
12.00
HOT WORK; TUNG8TEN BASE
8PECIAL PURPOSE; LOW ALLOY
H20
H21
H22
H23
H24
H26
H2t
0.36
.36
.36
.30
.46
.26
.60
2.00
3.60
2.00
12.00
3.00
4.00
4.00
1.00
0.00
».00
11.00
12.00
16.00
16.00
18.00
LI
L2
L3
L6
L7
1.00
•0.60/1.10
1.00
0.70
1.00 0.36
0.66
.00
.66
4.00
4.00
4.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
1.60
«00
Fl
F2
F3
8.00
6.00
8.00
1.00
1.25
1.25
0.70
.80
.76
.80
.80
.76
.76
1.20
1.60
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.60
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
1.60
2.00
2.00
4.00
8.00
0.20
.20
».25
.40
1.25
3.50
3.50
0.75
HIGH SPEED; TUNGSTEN BASE
Tl
T2
T4
T6
T6
T7
T8
TO
T15
1.50
SPECIAL PURPOSE; CARBON TUNGSTEN
HOT WORK; MOLYBDENUM BASE
H41
H42
H43
1.25
1.00
1.50
0.75
1.40
MOLD STEELS
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
20.00
14.00
14.00
18.00
12.00
6.00
8.00
12.00
5.00
PI
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P20
P21»
0.10
.07
.10
.07
.10
.10
.35
.20
i
2.00
0.60
5.00
2.25
1.50
1.25
5.00
0.50
1.25
0.20
3.50
4.00
0.40
SPECIAL PURPOSE; MOLD STEELS—OTHER TYPES
ranges of the elements. Steels of the same
type, manufactured by various producers, may
differ in analysis from the values listed and
may contain elements not listed in the type
identification.
20
0.30
0.75
0.25
• Varying carbon contents may be available.
At producer's option.
«Clan 1.
d
Class 2. '
•Al. 1.20%
b
9.3. Stainless and Heat Resisting Steels
The stainless and heat resisting steels possess relatively high resistance to oxidation and
to attack by corrosive media at room and elevated temperatures. They are produced to
cover wide ranges in mechanical and physical
properties. They are melted exclusively by the
electric furnace process.
A three-numeral system is used to identify
stainless and heat resisting steels by type and
according to four general classes. The first
digit indicates the class and last two digits
indicate type. Modification of types are indicated by suffix letters. The meaning of this
AISI system is as follows:
32
iL
Serie»
Dengnatitm
2xx
3xx
4xx
4xx
5xx
Classes
Chromium-nickel-manganese steels; nonhardenable, austenitic and nonmagnetic
Chromium-nickel steels; nonhardenable,
austenitic and nonmagnetic
Chromium steels; hardenable, martensitic
and magnetic
Chromium steels; nonhardenable, ferritic
and magnetic
Chromium steels; low chromium heat resisting.
The chemical composition ranges and limits
of the standard stainless and heat resisting
steels are given in table 4.
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33
10. Recommended Heat Treatments
10.1. Structural Steels
A listing of recommended heat treatments
for many of the steels listed in tables 1 and 2
are given in tables 5 and 6. Treatments for
the standard steels that are omitted can be estimated by interpolation (also see fig. 11).
Where different quenching media are suggested, the smaller sections may harden satisfactorily in the slower quenching medium.
The upper end of the heat treating ranges
should always be used for large size sections.
The inclusion of normalizing and annealing
temperatures does not imply that these treatments are necessarily a prelude to hardening.
For hardening, the general rule is to place
the cold steel in a furnace containing a slightly
oxidizing atmosphere or neutral salt bath at
TABLE
!
r
i
the hardening temperature and let it heat
naturallly, hold y% hr/in of thickness, and then
quench; it is sometimes advisable to warm intricate sections or complex shapes before putting them into the high temperature unit and
to remove from the quenching medium while
still warm. Usually, the quenched piece should
be allowed to cool until it feels comfortable to
the bare hand and then immediately tempered.
To minimize cracking, it is sometimes desirable
to temper the quenched piece before it reaches
room temperature; a double temper (i.e.,
repeating the treatment) is recommended for
this condition.
For carburizing, most of the steels may be
given either (1) a single, (2) double, or (3)
triple treatment as is indicated in table 5. The
time at the carburizing temperature will vary
depending upon the temperature used and the
desired thickness of the case. The relation
between time, temperature and case depth is
illustrated in figure 19.
5. Recommended heat treatments for carburizing grade steels
AISI or SAE number
Carburizing
temperature
100J to 1024; 1108 to 1119; 1211
to 1216
1.660/1,700
Cooling method
Brine or water..
Water or on...
Cool «lowly
,
do
Reheat
Cooling medium
2d reheat
Cooling medium
Tempering
temperature
°F
1,400/1.450
1,400/1,450
1,650/1,700
Brine or water .
do
Water or oU...
1,400/1,450
Brine or water.
1,876/1,425
1,876/1,426
1,62$/1,676
OU.
..do
-.do
1,376/1,425
OU.
do
Cool dowry.
do
1.426/1.476
1,426/1,476
1,600/1,650
OU-do.
-do
1,426/1,475
Oil.
OU
—.do
Cool »lowly.
,
do
1,460/1,500
1,450/1,500
1,625/1,676
OU
do.
do.
1,450/1,500
OU.
1,475/1.626
1,476/1,626
1,650/1,700
OU.
.do.
..do.
1,476/1,526
OU.
1,426/1,475
1,876/1,425
1,626/1.675
Oil.
.do
..do
1,875/1,425
Oil.
—.do
Cool «lowly,
—do.,.;.
1,860/1,400
1,850/1,400
1,660/1,600
OU.
-do.
.do.
1,360/1,400
Oil.
Oil
—do
Cool «lowly.
do
1,426/1,476
1,426/1,475
1.600/1,650
Oil
do...
do...
1,425/1,476
Oil-
do
Cool «lowly..
—do—...
1,460/1,600
1,450/1,500
1,600/1,660
OU or water,
.do
Oil.
1.450/1,600
Oil or water.
Oil...
do
Cool «lowly.
— .do.—
1.450/1,500
1,450/1,500
1,650/1,600
ÖÜ."
-do—
-.do...
1.450/1.500
OU.
250/300
OU
»810.
1,660/1,700
,
do
Cool «lowly...
do
250/300
fOil
4012 to 4024; 4118
1.660/1,700
1,660/1,700
4419,4422 and 4427; 8822
on.
4620
t
—.do
Cool »lowly,
--do
1,660/1,700
4820; 4616 to 4626; 4718 and
4720
do
Cool «lowly.
do
on..
1,660/1.700
6016; 6116 and 6120
250/300
250/300
OU
1,650/1,700
,
4816 to 4820..
250/300
1.660/1,700
250/800
250/300
250/300
fOU.
6118 and 6120
1,650/1,700
8116; 8615 to 8622; 8720; 8822;
9310 and 94B17.
34
T
1,650/1,700
300/400
250/300
TABLE
6. Recommended heat treatments for heat treating grade steels
(No tempering treatment! are riven, aa theae temperature« depend upon the deaired hardness)
ABI or
SAE
number
Normalizing
temperature
Annealing
temperature
Hardening
temperature
1030
1040
1060
1060
1070
°F
1,626/1,726
1,600/1,700
1,660/1.660
1.600/1,600
1.600/1,600
1,526/1,676
1,476/1,626
1,460/1.600
1.426/1,476
1.426/1,476
1.650/1,600
1,600/1.550
1,475/1.625
1,450/1,600
1,460/1,600
1080
1090
1132
1140
1161
1,476/1.676
1.476/1,676
1,626/1,726
1,600/1,700
1,660/1.660
1,376/1,426
1,876/1,426
1,626/1.676
1.476/1.625
1,460/1,600
1,400/1.460
1.400/1.460
1.660/1.600
1.600/1,660
1,475/1,625
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
1330
1340
3140
4028
4042
1,600/1.700
1.660/1.660
1.660/1.660
1.600/1.700
1,660/1,660
1.600/1.660
1.475/1.626
1,476/1,626
1,625/1.675
1,475/1.626
1,526/1.576
1,600/1.650
1,476/1.626
1,660/1.600
1,600/1,660
Oil or water.
Do.
00.
Oil or water.
4063
4130
4140
4160
4340
1.660/1.660
1,600/1.700
1.600/1.700
1,600/1,700
1,600/1.700
1,460/1,600
1,625/1,676
1.600/1,660
1.475/1,625
1.500/1.650
1.475/1.626
1,660/1,600
1,626/1.676
1,600/1.660
1,600/1,660
Do.
On or water.
Quenching
medium
AlSIor
SAE
number
Normalizing
temperature
Annealing
temperature
Hardening
temperature
5046
5130
6146
6160
60100
•F
1,600/1,700
1,600/1,700
1,600/1,700
1,600/1.700
1,600/1,700
'F
1.476/1.625
1.600/1.560
1.475/1.526
1.460/1,500
1,400/1.460
•F
1,600/1.560
1.550/1.600
1,526/1,575
1,500/1,660
1,450/1,600
Oil.
00 or water.
Oil.
Do.
Do.
51100
62100
6160
8630
8645
1,600/1,700
1,600/1.700
1,600/1.700
1,600/1,700
1,660/1.700
1,400/1.460
1.400/1,450
1,600/1.660
1,500/1.660
1.475/1,626
1,475/1.625
1.600/1.560
1,560/1,600
1,525/1.576
1,600/1,550
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
8660
8735
8742
9260
9840
9860
1.600/1,700
1.600/1.700
1,600/1.700
1.600/1,700
1,600/1,700
1,600/1.700
1,460/1.600
1,600/1.650
1.600/1.660
1,500/1,550
1,476/1,625
1,476/1,626
1,476/1,626
1,625/1,676
1,626/1,576
1.560/1,600
1.600/1.650
1.600/1,560
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Of
Water or brine.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
on.
on.
Quenching
medium
Do.
Do.
10.2. Tool Steels
Recommended heat treatments for the different types of tool steels are summarized in
table 7.
The time the steel is at the normalizing
temperature, after being heated uniformly
through, varies from about 15 min for a small
section to about 1 hr for large sizes; cooling
from the normalizing temperature is in still
air. For annealing, the upper range in temperature is recommended for large and the
lower limit for small sections. The time the
steel is at the annealing temperature, after
being heated uniformly through, ranges from
about 1 hr for thin sections of carbon or low
alloy to about 4 hr for heavy sections of high
alloy steel. Cooling from the annealing temperature through the transformation range
should not exceed about 75 °F/hr for the carbon and low alloy and 50 °F/hr for the high
alloy steels.
For hardening, the protective atmosphere,
rate of heating, hardening temperature, time
at temperature, and rate of cooling vary with
the composition of the steels. A general rule
is to heat the plain carbon and low alloy steels
rapidly in a furnace having a slightly oxidizing
atmosphere or in a neutral salt bath at the
hardening temperature, hold % hr/in of thickness, and ther quench. The high alloy steels,
such as the T and M types, are usually preheated to minimize distortion and cracking and
then heated rapidly in a furnace containing a
highly carburizing atmosphere or in a molten
bath at the hardening temperature, held at
temperature for time as indicated in the table,
and then quenched. Tools should be tempered
immediately after quenching; a double temper
is recommended for the high alloy steels.
The carburizing steels (type P) may be (1)
quenched directly from the carburizing temperature; (2) quenched directly from the carburizing temperature followed by reheating to and
quenching from the recommended hardening
temperature; (3) slowly cooled from the carburizing temperature followed by reheating to
and quenching from the recommended hardening temperature or (4) slowly cooled from the
carburizing temperature, reheated to the carburizing temperature and quenched, followed
by reheating to and quenching from the recommended hardening temperature. For most
purposes, method (3) is generally suitable.
Tempering should follow in all cases.
10.3. Stainless and Heat Resisting Steels
The response of stainless and heat resisting
steels to heat treatment depends upon their
composition. The general methods employed
are similar to those used with other steels and
no special equipment is needed. Heat treatment may be performed in any conventional
electric, gas fired, oil fired, salt bath, or induction furnace in which the required temperatures can be obtained. Precautions should be
taken to avoid exposure of the steel to the direct flame of the burners. Conditions that will
result in carburization of the surface of the
steel should be avoided. In general, oxidizing
furnace atmospheres are preferred. Bright,
scale-free heat treatment is possible by the
use of specially prepared and controlled atmospheres.
35
TABLE
7. Recommended heat treatments for tool steels
Annealing
AISI
type
Normalizing
temperature
Temperature
Wl
W2
W4
WS
°F
01
02
06
07
A2
AS
A4
A6
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
(BHN)
169/202
169/202
169/202
163/202
(•)
C)
C)
1.450/1,600
1.400/1,460
1.400/1,460
188/229
192/217
192/229
<•)
1.400/1,460
1.475/1,626
1.600/1.660
192/229
192/229
187/223
1.600/1,600
1.600/1,660
1,600/1,660
1.400/1,460
1.876/1,426
1.400/1,460
188/212
183/212
183/217
1,600/1,660
1,460/1,600
1,660/1,600
1.550/1.600
»60/1,400
1 »60/1,400
1 »60/1,876
1 600/1,660
1 660/1,600
1 660/1.600
1, 410/1,460
1,460
Dl
D2
OS
D4
D6
D7
H10
Hll
H12
H13
H14
H16
H19
H20
H21
H24
H25
H26
H41
H42
H48
Tl
T2
T4
T6
T6
T7
T8
T9
T15
U !
HI
M2
H3 Class 1
MS Clan 2
M4
M6
M7
MIO
M15
M80
M33
M34
MS5
M36
M41
M42
M43
M44
W
W
C)
w
c)
w
8c)
c)
w
(•)
(•)
(•)
(«)
n
w
(•)
(•)
11w
LI
L2
1,600/1,650
L3
L6
L7
1,600/1,650
1,600/1,650
1,600/1,650
Fl
F2
F3
36
BrineU
hardness
number
°F
1.376/1,460
1.400/1,460
1.375/1,460
1.400/1,460
'1,460/1,700
'1,460/1,700
'1,460/1,700
'1,460/1,700
81
84
86
86
87
Hardening
1.600/1,660
1,650
1,650
1,650
Quenching
temperature
Quenching
medium
°F
1.400/1,600
1.400/1,600
1.400/1.500
1.400/1,600
Brine or water do
—do
-do
1.106/1,200
1,100/1.200
1,300/1,400
1,400
1,200/1,800
1.660/1,800
* 1,660/1,660
«1,600/1.700
«1.650/1,750
« 1,600/1,700
1,676/1.760
1.700/1,760
Oil
Brine or water,
do
Oil.
do...
doAir or oil.
1.460/1,600
« 1,400/1,476
«1,460/1,600
1.460/1,626
1.660/1,626
Oil
192/217
1,100/1,200
1,100/1.200
1.100/1,200
1.100/1,200
202/229
207/229
200/241
228/266
217/248
286/262
192/228
212/248
286/269
1,860/1,460
1,460
1,160/1,260
1.100/1,200
1.100/1,200
1.400/1.600
1.460
1.460
1.200
1,600/1,660
1,600/1,660
1.600/1,660
1,600/1,660
1,600/1,650
1,600/1,660
207/248
217/265
217/266
217/266
223/265
236/262
1,400/1,600
1.400/1,600
1,400/1,600
1,400/1,600
1.400/1,600
1.400/1,600
,660/1,660
650/1,650
660/1,660
650/1,660
600/1,650
600/1,660
600/1,660
600/1,660
600/1.650
1.600/1,650
1.600/1,650
1,600/1,650
1,600/1,660
1.600/1,650
1.600/1,600
1.550/1,650
1,500/1,600
192/229
192/229
192/229
192/229
207/286
212/241
207/241
207/236
207/236
207/236
213/265
217/241
207/235
217/241
207/235
207/235
207/235
1.600
1.400/1,500
1,400/1,600
1.400/1,600
1.400/1.500
1,500/1,600
1,500
1,600/1,600
1,600/1,600
1,600/1,600
1,600/1,600
1.600/1,600
1,600/1,600
1,500/1,600
1.350/1,550
1,860/1,650
1,350/1,650
600/1,660
600/1,650
600/1,650
600/1,650
600/1,650
600/1,660
600/1,660
600/1,650
600/1,660
217/256
223/255
229/269
235/275
248/293
217/255
229/255
235/277
241/277
1.600/1,600
1.600/1,650
1,600/1,650
1,600/1,650
1,600/1,650
1 .500/1,600
1 ,500/1,600
1 ,600/1,600
1 .600/1,650
1 .600/1,650
1 ,600/1,650
1 ,600/1,650
1
1.600/1,650
1',600/1,650
1 ,600/1,650
1 ,600/1,650
1
1,600/1,650
1',600/1,650
207/235
212/241
223/265
223/255
223/256
248/277
217/265
207/235
241/277
235/269
248/269
248/293
1,426/1,475
1.400/1,460
179/207
163/196
1,450/1,600
174/201
1,400/1,450
1.450/1,500
183/212
183/212
1,400/1,475
1,450/1,500
1,450/1,500
183/207
207/235
212/248
235/269
235/269
235/269
235/269
Tempering
Preheating
temperature
Temperature
°F
850/650
350/660
860/660
350/650
400/1,200
300/800
350/800
360/800
400/600
400/1,160
do.
do.
Water..
300/600
800/600
800/600
826/560
1,700/1,800
1.760/1,860
1,600/1,600
1,460/1,660
1.626/1,600
1.760/1,800
1.800/1,860
1,800/1.876
1.460/1.600
Air....
do.
—.do.
—do..
do..
—do.,
—do..
do..
do..
850/1,000
S50/1.000
800/800
800/800
800/800
800/1,000
350/1,100
960/1,100
360/800
1.776/1,860
1.800/1,876
1.700/1,800
1.776/1,860
1,800/1,876
1.860/1,960
Air.do.
Oil..
Air.
.do.
.do.
400/1,000
400/1,000
400/1,000
400/1,000
400/1,000
300/1,000
on
1,860/1,900 Air
1,826/1,875
do
1.826/1,876
do
1,825/1,900
do.
1.860/1,960
do
«2,060/2.160 Air or oil
2,000/2,200
do
•2,000/2,200
do
•2.000/2,200 .....do.
•2,000/2,200
do
•2.200/2,325
-do.
•2,000/2,260
.do.
•2,100/2,800
.do.
•2,160/2,300 Air, oil, or salt.
■■2,000/2,176
do.
«2,060/2,225
do
«2,000/2,176
do
1,000/1,200
1,000/1,200
1.000/1,200
1.000/1,200
1,100/1,200
1,060/1,250
1,000/1,800
1,100/1,260
1.100/1.260
1,100/1.250
1.200/1,500
1,050/1,200
1.050/1,250
1,060/1,250
1,060/1,200
1,050/1,200
1.060/1,200
600/1,600
600/1,600
600/1.600
600/1,600
600/1,600
600/1,600
500/1,600
600/1,600
500/1,600
•2,300/2,376
•2,800/2,876
•2,800/2,875
•2,825/2,400
•2,825/2,400
•2,300/2,850
•2,800/2,876
•2,275/2,825
•2,200/2,300
Oil, air, or salt.
do
do
do.
do
do
do
do
—do
1,000/1,100
1,000/1,100
1,000/1,100
1,000/1,100
1,000/1,100
1,000/1,100
1,000/1.100
1.000/1,100
1,000/1,200
1,360/1,650
1,350/1,560
1.360/1,600
1.350/1,600
,360/1,660
,400/1,600
,850/1,650
,350/1,660
,500/1,600
.860/1,650
,350/1,650
,350/1,650
1,350/1,650
1,350/1,650
1,360/1,650
1.350/1.550
1.350/1,650
1,350/1,550
•2,160/2,226
•2,175/2,250
2,200/2,250
2,200/2,250
•2,200/2,260
•2,160/2,200
•2,150/2,240
•2,150/2,226
•2,175/2,260
•2,200/2,260
•2,200/2,260
•2,200/2,260
•2,225/2,276
•2,225/2,275
2,176/2,220
2,175/2,210
2,175/2,220
2,190/2,240
Oil, air, or salt.
—do
do
do
do
do
do
do
do
do
do
do...
do
do..
do
do
do
do
1,000/1,100
1,000/1,100
1.000/1,100
1,000/1,100
1,000/1,100
000/1,100
000/1,100
000/1,100
000/1,200
000/1,100
000/1,100
000/1,100
000/1,100
000/1,100
000/1,100
000/1,100
1,000/1,100
1,000/1,100
C)
C)
C)
<")
(»)
1,200
1,200
1,200
1,450/1,550
1,450/1,650
1,550/1,700
1,426/1,600
1,600/1,600
1,460/1,550
1,600/1,600
Oil or water.
Water
Oil
Water
Oil
do
do
1,450/1,600
1,450/1,600
1,450/1,600
Water or brinedo.
Water, brine, or oil..!
300/600
300/1,000
300/600
300/1,000
800/600
350/500
350/500
350/500
Rockwell
hardness
number
(Be)
64/60
64/60
64/60
64/60
TABLE
7. Recommended heat treatments for tool steel»—Continued
CARBURIZING GRADES
AISI
type
Annealing
Normalizing
temperature
Temperature
°F
(«)
(«)
(«)
C)
(«)
(«)
PI
n
n
P4
P6
P6
PM
P21
Hardness
°F
1,350/1,650
1.350/1.500
1.350/1.500
1.600/1,650
1,550/1,600
1,650/1,600
1,400/1,460
1,650
1,660
Carburizing
temperature
(BHN)
81/100
103/123
109/137
116/128
105/110
190/210
150/180
°F
1,650/1,700
1,650/1,700
1.650/1.700
1,775/1.825
1,650/1.700
1,650/1,700
1,600/1,650
C>
Hardening
Temperature
°F
1,450/1,475
1,525/1.550
1,475/1.626
1.775/1.825
1.550/1.600
1,450/1.500
1.500/1,600
'1,300/1,500
403
410
414
416
416
420
4SI
440
440
440
501
502
Se
A
B
C
°F
1,560/1,650
1,500/1,660
•1,200/1,300
1,650/1,660
1,650/1,650
1,650/1,660
•1,150/1,225
1,626/1,675
1,626/1,675
1,626/1,676
1,525/1,600
1,526/1,600
HARDENABLE CHROMIUM STEELS (MARTENSITIC AND MAGNETIC)
Hardening D
Hardness
98
97
76/83
75/85
RB/24
78/83
80/90
81/89
Temperature
•F
1,700/1,850
1,700/1,850
1,800/1,900
1,700/1,850
1,700/1,850
1,800/1,900
1,800/1,960
1,850/1,950
1,850/1,950
1,850/1,950
1,600/1,700
C)
RB
RB
R.
RB
RB
RB
RB/24
R,
91/95
94/98
95/99
80/90
72/80
RB
RB
RB
RB
RB
Temperature
'F
1,850/1.500
1,400/1,500
1,860/1,500
1,850/1,500
1,800
1,450/1,600
Hardness,
Tempering
Stress relieving
Hardness
39/43
39/43
42/47
40/44
39/43
53/56
42/46
55/58
57/69
60/62
35/45
Temperature
Temperature
Hardness
°F
450/700
450/700
450/700
450/700
450/700
300/700
450/700
300/700
300/700
300/700
R.
R.
R.
R.
R.
R.
R.
R.
R.
R.
R.
40/37
40/37
44/40
40/37
40/37
53/48
42/36
56/61
58/53
60/55
R.
R.
R.
R.
R.
R.
R.
R,
R.
R.
•r.
AISI
type
RB
1,000/1,100
1,000/1,400
1,100/1,300
1,000/1,400
1,000/1,400
34
34
29
34
34
R./86
R./86
R./99
R./86
R^86
RB
RB
RB
RB
RB
1,000/1,200
35 R./99
RB
400/1,200
Annealing
temperature '
45/25 R.
Annealing
temperature »
AISI
type
Of
70/80
80/90
80/90
80/90
80/90
80/90
Hardness
GROUP III. NONHARDENABLE CHROMIUM-NICKEL AND
CHROMIUM-NICKEL-MANGANESE STEELS
(AUSTENITIC AND NONMAGNETIC)
Annealing •
406
480
480 F
430 FSe
442
446
do
64/58
64/58
64/58
64/58
64/58
61/58
64/58
40/30
Preheating not necessary.
* Do not normalize.
Do not soak.
• Time at hardening temperature, 2 to 5 min.
' Double tempering recommended.
'Normalising not required.
k
Do not anneal.
1
Solution treatment.
I Aging treatment—precipitation hardening steel.
GROUP II. NONHARDENABLE CHROMIUM STEELS
(FERRITIC AND MAGNETIC)
AISI
type
°F
350/500
350/500
350/500
350/500
350/500
350/450
350/500
• 950/1,026
Water or brine
Oil
do
Air
Oil
Re of case
4
Annealing *
Temperature
Temperature
8. Recommended heat treatments for stainless and heat resisting steels
GROUP I.
AISI
type
Quenching medium
b
* Normalizing:
0.60 to 0.75% C, 1600 °F;
.75 to .90% C. 1450 °F:
.90 to 1.10% C. 1600 °F;
1.10 to 1.40% C, 1600 • to 1700 °F.
Annealing:
0.60 to 0.90% C, 1360 * to 1400 °F
.90 to 1.40% C. 1400 • to 1460 °F.
TABLE
Tempering
201
202
301
302
302 B
303
303 Se
304
804 L
305
308
1,850/2,050
1,850/2,050
1,850/2,050
1,850/2.060
1,850/2,050
1,850/2,050
1,850/2,050
1,860/2,060
1,850/2,060
1,860/2,050
1,850/2,050
309
309S
310
310 S
314
316
316 L
317
821
347
348
<
°F
1,960/2,050
1,900/2,060
1,900/2,100
1,900/2,100
2,100
1,860/2,050
1,850/2,060
1,850/2,050
1,750/2,050
1,850/2,050
1,850/2,050
• Cool slowly to 1,100 °F.
Although these steels harden appreciably on air cooling, quenching in oil is preferable.
Full annealing impractical; may be air cooled from indicated temperature.
Generally used in annealed condition only.
• Air cool.
' Cooling may be in air or by quenching in water. The resultant hardness of all of these steels will be in the range of approximately
Rockwell B 80 to 90.
b
c
d
37
The stainless steels may be divided into three
general groups as follows:
30
HARDNESS, ROCKWELL C
35
40
a. Group I—Hardenable Chromium Steels (Martensitic
and Magnetic)
45
r
-
\
These steels respond to heat treatment in a
manner similar to most lower alloy steels and
will, by suitable thermal treatment, develop a
wide range of mechanical properties. The
tempering range of 700 ° to 1000 °F. should be
avoided because it is conducive to temper
brittleness.
b. Group II—Nonhardenable Chromium Steels (Ferritic
and Magnetic)
These steels are essentially nonhardenable by
heat treatment They develop their maximum
softness, ductility and corrosion resistance in
the annealed condition.
\
c Group III—Nonhardenable Chromium-Nickel and
Chromium-Nickel-Manganese Steels (Austenitic and
Nonmagnetic)
These steels are essentially nonmagnetic and
cannot be hardened by heat treatment. Cold
working develops a wide range of mechanical
properties and some of these steels, in the
severely cold worked condition, may become
slightly magnetic. They are annealed by
rapidly cooling (air or water) from high temperatures to develop maximum softness and
ductility as well as corrosion resistance.
Recommended heat treatments for the steels
listed in table 4 are given in table 8.
11. Properties and Uses of Steels
11.1. Structural Steels
The strength properties of heat treated
(quenched and tempered) structural carbon
and alloy steels are closely related to their
hardness and are surprisingly similar for a selected hardness provided that the steels originally were hardened throughout their cross
sections. The relations of tensile strength,
yield strength, elongation, and reduction of
area to hardness are shown in figure 27. The
tempering temperatures necessary to secure
certain hardness levels in steels are affected by
alloying elements, and two different steels may
have to be tempered at two different temperatures to secure the same hardness. When
this has been accomplished, however, the
strength and ductility of the two steels will be
quite similar. It must be emphasized that
these relationships are valid only if the heat
treated structures are tempered martensite. A
steel that has been incompletely hardened (that
is, quenched at too slow a rate to prevent the
formation of some fine pearlite) may have,
after tempering, a hardness and tensile
strength equal to that of a completely hardened
and tempered steel, but its yield strength and
ductility will be inferior.
38
£40
280
320
360
400
BRINELL HARDNESS NUMBER
440
27. Tensile strength, yield strength, elongatton,
and reduction of area as a function of hardness m structural steels.
FIGURE
V»lid only for steels originally hardened throughout and then temperejl;
Although drawn as lines, the relationship between these properties Is not
exact, and some deviations may be expected.
|
i
The modulus of elasticity of steel is the same
as that of iron (about 29,000,000 lb/in.1). It >
is not affected by heat treatment or by the ad- '
dition of alloying elements. Since stiffness, or
the resistance to deformation under load, is a
function of the modulus of elasticity, it follows
that the stiffness of steel cannot be changed by
heat treatment or by alloying elements, provided that the total stress is below the elastic
limit of the steel in question. Either heat
treatment or alloying elements can raise the
elastic limit and thus apparently improve the
stiffness in that higher allowable unit stresses
may be imposed on the steel.
a. Plain Carbon Structural Steels
The plain carbon steels are the least costly
and may be used for a variety of purposes.
The lower carbon grades (up to about 0.25% of
carbon), frequently termed machinery steels,
are used in the hot- and cold-worked conditions
and for carburizing.Except when carburized,
they are not very responsive to hardening by
heat treatment because of the low carbon content. The medium carbon steels (about 0.30 to
0.60%) are the forging grades and are commonly used in the heat-treated condition. The
higher carbon grades are the spring and tool
steels.
Carbon iqteels are essentially shallow-hardening, usually requiring a water or brine
quench, although very small sections may be
successfully hardened in oil. Even with the
most drastic quench, they cannot be hardened
throughout even in moderate (about %-in.)
cross sections. Large cross sections (about
4 in.) cannot be fully hardened even on the
surface except by induction or flame hardening.
b. Alloy Structural Steels
From the viewpoint of heat treatment, the
advantages accruing from the use of alloy
steels are threefold: (a) Increased hardenability, (b) retention of fine-grained austenite,
and (c) retardation of softening during
tempering.
All of the alloying elements commonly used
in structural alloy steels are effective to varying degrees in displacing the S-curve to the
right as compared with plain carbon steels of
similar carbon contents. Consequently, they
can be hardened throughout in larger sections
and, generally, by means of a milder quenching
medium, such as oil. Because of the slower
rates of quenching that can be employed in
hardening these steels, they are less likely to
distort or crack during hardening than the
plain carbon steels.
The hardenability of alloy steels varies
widely, depending on the composition. Certain elements and combinations of elements are
very effective in increasing hardenability. Of
the five alloying elements most generally used,
and within thesteeIs
amounts
normally present in
^structural
' nickel enhances hardenability but mildly, vanadium, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum moderately to
strongly, depending upon the amount of alloy
dissolved m the austenite at the hardening temperature. Combinations of chromium, nickel,
Ämovbd?nu/?' such M are Present in the
4300 series (table 1), result in very deep haroening steels.
The alloy elements that form stable carbides,
principally vanadium and molybdenum (and
chromium to a lesser degree), are very effective m inhibiting grain growth in austenite.
These steels may be overheated to a considerable degree during heating for hardening without suffering grain growth. This is desirable
since martensite formed from fine-grained
austenite is tougher than that formed from
coarse-grained austenite.
Alloying elements, particularly those that
form the more stable carbides, tend to retard
the softening effects of tempering so that alloy
steels must frequently be tempered at higher
temperatures than carbon steels in order to
secure the same hardness. This is beneficial
in conferring increased toughness, i.e., resistance to shock.
It is pertinent to note that manganese and
nickel lower the annealing and hardening temperatures, and that chromium, molybdenum,
and vanadium raise these temperatures. Combinations of these alloys may therefore, raise,
lower or have no effect on the heat-treating
temperatures, depending on the combinations
of elements and their amounts.
The low carbon (up to about 0.25% of carbon) alloy steels are used mainly as carburizing steels. The medium carbon (about 0.30
to 0.60% of carbon) alloy steels find wide use
as stressed members in an almost infinite variety of structural parts. Although some of
these alloy steels containing high carbon are
used for certain special applications, the maximum amount of carbon present in the alloy
structural steels in generally about 0.5 percent.
11.2. Tool Steels
Practical experience has shown that in a
majority of instances the choice of a tool steel
is not limited to a single type or even to a particular family for a working solution to an
individual tooling problem. It is desirable to
select the steel that will give the most economical overall performance; the tool life obtained
with each steel under consideration should be
judged by weighing such factors as expected
productivity, ease of fabrication, and cost.
Hardness, strength, toughness, wear resistance, and resistance to softening by heat are
prime factors that must be considered in selecting tool steel for general applications. Many
other factors must be considered in individual
applications; they include permissible distortion in hardening, permissible decarburization,
hardenability, resistance to heat checking, machinability, grindability, and heat treating
requirements.
The straight carbon tool steels can be used
for a variety of purposes, depending upon the
carbon content and heat treatment. The lower
carbon ranges are used for tools where toughness and resistance to shock are of primary
importance; these steels are usually tempered
at temperatures of 500 to 700 °F or even
higher. The higher carbon ranges are used
where the main requirements are hardness, resistance to abrasion, or ability to hold a keen
edge; these steels are usually tempered at temperatures of 300 to 500 °F.
An addition of 0.20 to 0.50 percent of chromium or of vanadium is frequently made to the
carbon tool steels. The chromium-bearing carbon steels have a greater depth of hardening
and are slightly more wear-resistant than the
chromium-free steels of the same carbon content. Vanadium decreases slightly the depth
of hardening but increases toughness. (This
may appear contradictory to previous state39
7
/
ments that alloying elements increase hardenability. In the case of the carbon-vanadium
tool steels, the normal hardening temperatures
are too low to allow the solution of vanadium
carbide in the austenite. The presence of undissolved carbides decreases hardenability).
The cutting ability, or the ability to hold an
edge, is closely related to the hardness. For
most purposes, therefore, cutting tools are used
in a highly hardened condition. Excessive
heat, whether caused by heavy cutting or careless grinding, will "draw the temper" (that is,
decrease the hardness) and ruin the tool, necessitating rehardening and retempering. Since
hardened carbon steels soften rapidly under the
influence of heat, the carbon steels cannot be used
as cutting tools under conditions where an appreciable amount of heat is generated at the
cutting edge. Their uses are limited to conditions entailing light cuts on relatively soft
materials, such as brass, aluminum, and unhardened low carbon steels.
The ranges for the carbon content and some
typical applications of carbon tool steels are
as follows:
0.60 to 0.75 percent of carbon—Hot forming
or heading dies for short runs, machinery
parts, hammers (sledges and pinch bars), concrete breakers and rivet sets.
0.75 to 0.90 percent of carbon—Hot and cold
sets, chisels, dies, shear blades, mining drill
steel, smiths' tools, set hammers, swages, and
flatteners.
0.90 to 1.10 percent of carbon—Hand chisels,
small shear blades, large taps, granite drills,
trimming dies, drills, cutters, slotting and milling tools, mill picks, circular cutters, threading
dies, cold header dies, jewelers' cold striking
dies, blanking, forming and drawing dies, and
punches.
1.10 to 1.40 percent of carbon—Small cutters,
small taps, drills, reamers, slotting and planing tools, wood-cutting tools, turning tools, and
razors.
Suitable tempering temperatures for carbon
tool steels are as follows:
300.to 375 °F—Lathe tools and milling cutters,' scrapers, drawing mandrels, dies, bonecutting tools, engraving tools, gages, and
threading dies.
375 to 500 °F—Hand taps and dies, hand
reamers, drills, bits, cutting dies, pen knives,
milling cutters, chasers, press dies for blanking
and forming rock drills, dental and surgical
instruments, hammer faces, wood-carving tools,
shear blades, and hack saws.
500 to 700 °F—Bending dies, shear blades,
chuck jaws, forging dies, tools for wood cutting, hammers and drop dies, axes, cold chisels,
coppersmith tools, screwdrivers, molding and
planing tools, hack saws, butcher knives, and
saws.
40
T
The high-speed steels are intended for use
under heavy cutting conditions where considerable heat is generated. These steels are very
complex, containing large amounts of alloying
elements. The high-speed steels, which harden
from a very high temperature (2,150 to
2,400 °F), develop what is termed "secondary
hardness" after tempering at about 1,050 to
1,100 °F and maintain their cutting edge at
considerably higher temperatures than do carbon tool steels.
Dies, depending on their use, can be made
of a variety of steels. When intended for use
at low temperatures, even carbon steel may be
satisfactory sometimes. For use at elevated
temperatures, certain minimum amounts of alloying elements are necessary and for the
higher ranges of hot-working temperatures,
steels of the high-speed steel type are frequently used.
The manufacture of dies usually involves
such considerable expense in machining that
cost of material and heat treatment form but
a relatively small proportion of the total. It
is imperative, therefore, that die steels be selected carefully and properly heat treated.
The so-called "nondeforming" tool steels (type
O).. are favorites for dies that are not required
to operate at elevated temperatures. These
steels usually contain about 0.9 percent of carbon and 1.2 percent to 1.6 percent of manganese. With the lower manganese content they
also contain about 0.5 percent each of chromium and tungsten. The expansion of these
steels during hardening is much less than is
experienced with carbon steels, and the shrinkage that occurs during the initial stage of
tempering is almost sufficient to return the
steel to its original size when it has been tempered at the proper temperature.
The high carbon-high chromium steels (type
" D) are frequently used for dies. This type
contains about 12 percent of chromium and 1.5
or 2.2 percent of carbon, the lower carbon steel
being air hardening. These steels also are nondeforming, are more resistant to wear, and
may be used at higher temperatures than the
manganese nondeforming steels. They have
the disadvantage of requiring higher hardening
temperatures (about 1,800 °F).
11.3. Stainless and Heat Resisting Steels
Steels for high-temperature service must
resist scaling and have high creep strength,
that is, resistance to deformation under prolonged stress at elevated temperatures. Resistance to scaling is aided by the presence of
chromium, aluminum, or silicon, and heatresistant steels invariably contain one or more
of these elements. Resistance to creep is aided
by elements that form stable carbides, such as
tungsten, vanadium, molybdenum, and chromium.
The stainless steels, often called corrosionresistant steels, contain appreciable amounts of
chromium (12% or more), either with or without other elements, the most important of
which is nickel. The heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant steels all belong to the same
family, the terminology frequently being dictated by the temperature of use. By common
consent, this dividing temperature is taken at
about 1200 °F.
The three general groups of stainless steels
have markedly different characteristics, as
follows:
t. Group I—Hardenable Chromium Steeb (Martensitic
and Magnetic)
The significant characteristic of these is that
the steels respond to heat treatment in a manner similar to most lower alloy steels. The
steels possess a pearlitic structure on slow cooling and a martensitic (hardened) structure on
rapid cooling from within the austenitic field.
The chromium content varies from about 12 to
18 percent and the carbon content from less
than 0.1 to over 1.0 percent; the higher chromium content demands the higher carbon.
The mechanical properties of this group of
steels are markedly improved by heat treatment and heat treatment is essential to realize
their corrosion-resistant properties. The only
exceptions are the low carbon, low chromium
steels (types 403, 410, 416) which are corrosion resistant in the annealed condition,
although heat treatment decidedly improves
mechanical properties.
Finishing of the martensitic steels has an
important effect on corrosion resistance, since
maximum corrosion resistance is obtained only
with highly finished surfaces. Grinding should
be done carefully, using a sharp wheel, light
cute, and plenty of coolant. Grinding burrs
and embedded scale serve as focal points for
corrosion.
As a group, the martensitic steels resist
many types of corrosive environments, including the atmosphere, fresh water, mine water,
steam, food acids, carbonic acid, crude oil, gasoline, blood, perspiration, ammonia, and
sterilizing solutions.
Type 410 is a general purpose steel suitable
tor numerous applications where severe corrosion is not a problem. Types 416 and 416L
are free-machining varieties of type 410. The
mgher hardness of type 420 makes it suitable
ior such uses as cutlery, surgical instruments,
valves ball bearings, magnets, etc. Type 420F
is its free-machining counterpart. Where still
greater hardness is required, type 440A, B, or
^ may be used; the last is the hardest of all the
stainless steels. Types 420 and 440 should be
used only m the hardened and stress-relieved
conditions; Type 431 is a structural steel ca-
Pable of being used in the strength range of
200,000 psi.
b. Group II—Nonhardenable Chromium Steels (Ferritic
and Magnetic)
The distinguishing characteristic of this
poup is that these steels are ferritic at all
temperatures and, therefore, incapable of being
hardened by heat treatment. They can, however, be strengthened by cold working.
The ferritic steels develop coarse grained
structures when subjected to temperatures
above 1650 °F for varying lengths of time.
This gram growth, frequently objectionable
because of concomitant brittleness, cannot be
eliminated by heat treatment alone. It can be
corrected to some extent by cold working, followed by annealing.
The ferritic steels have lower strength at
elevated temperatures than the martensitic
steels, but resistance to scaling and corrosion
is generally better. As a class, the ferritic
stainless steels resist corrosion from food products, organic acids, salt water, nitric acid,
many fused salts and molten nonferrous
metals.
Type 430 finds extensive use in automobile
trim, chemical equipment, food containers, and
furnace parts. If ease of machining is important, type 430F or 430F Se may be substituted. Where greater resistance to corrosion
or oxidation is required, type 446 may be used.
c. Group III—Nonhardenable Chromium-Nickel and
Oirommm-Nickel-Manganese Steels (Austenitic and
Nonmagnetic)
The steels in this group are austenitic at
room temperature and, hence, both nonhardenable by heat treatment and nonmagnetic.
They can, however, be strengthened appreciably by cold work. Depending upon the
amount of cold work, the tensile strength
varies from about 80,000 psi for fully annealed
material to as high as 300,000 psi for severely
work hardened steel; the highest strengths can
be secured only with small cross sections. A
stress-relieving treatment of about 1 hr at 750
to 800 °F after severe cold working improves
elastic properties without any adverse effect
upon ductility. Cold work causes partial transformation of austenite to ferrite, with consequent appearance of magnetism, in some of
these steels.
The austenitic steels have excellent coldforming properties and are extremely tough
and ductile, even at low temperatures. Their
toughness makes machining of all but the freemachining varieties difficult.
As a group, the austenitic steels are the most
corrosion resistant of all the stainless steels.
Iney have excellent resistance to acetic, nitric,
and citric acids (liquid), foodstuffs, sterilizing
41
solutions, most of the organic chemicals and
dyestuffs, and a wide variety of inorganic
chemicals. Typical applications are for outdoor trim, kitchen equipment, dairy utensils,
soda fountains, and light weight transportation
such as aircraft.
This group of steels should not be discussed
without some mention of intergranular embrittlement. If maintained in the temperature
range of about 800 to 1,400 °F, or if slowly
cooled through this range after annealing, some
of these steels precipitate carbides at the grain
boundaries. This is not deleterious unless the
steel is either simultaneously or subsequently
exposed to acidified corrosive conditions, causing intergranular corrosion. When this occurs,
the steels lose their metallic ring and become
quite brittle.
Type 302, with its higher carbon content,
is more prone to carbide precipitation than is
304, which in turn is more susceptible than
304L.
Prolonged exposure of these steels at temperatures within the range of 1000 to near
1600 °F may also promote the formation of a
sigma phase constituent, resulting in increased
hardness and decreased ductility, notch toughness and corrosion resistance.
Type 301, because of its lower alloy content,
is quite susceptible to work hardening and is
used largely in the cold rolled or cold drawn
form of sheet, strip, and wire. Types 201 and
202 are similar to types 301 and 302 in properties. The former were developed primarily
to conserve nickel.
Types 305, 308, 309, and 310 contain progressively higher amounts of chromium and
nickel and are, therefore, superior to the lower
alloy steels in corrosion and heat resistance.
Types 316 and 317 contain molybdenum.
The incorporation of this element increases
resistance to corrosion, particularly of the "pitting" type.
Types 321 and 347 were developed specifically to resist intergranular corrosion. This
property of the titanium-bearing steel (type
321) is generally enhanced by a stabilizing
heat treatment. This treatment is not particularly necessary for the niobium-bearing steels
(types 347 and 348).
d. Precipitation-Hardenable Stainless Steels
The precipitation-hardenable stainless steels
constitute a group of proprietary steels for
which standard specifications have not been
published by AISI. They may be grouped into
three types; martensitic, semi-austenitic and
austenitic. These steels are of increasing commercial importance because they can be
strengthened by heat treatment after fabrication without resorting to very high temperatures or rapid quenches. They possess prop42
i
7
erties that make them particularly useful for
structural parts and jet-engine components in
high-performance aircraft as well as many
non-military applications. Desirable characteristics include ease in hot working, machining, forming, and joining. High strength can
be obtained by relatively-low elevated-temperature aging treatments or by refrigeration
plus aging treatments. Ultrahigh strengths
can be produced by a combination of cold working and aging. These steels usually possess
good properties at ambient and moderately elevated temperatures (temperatures below those
of the aging treatments) along with good corrosion and oxidation resistance. The austenitic
types also retain very good impact properties
at subzero temperatures.
Martensitic Types—The martensitic types
are austenitic at annealing temperatures but
transform to martensite of fairly low hardness
on cooling to room temperature, either by air
cooling, or by oil or water quenching. Elements contributing to the precipitation-hardening phases remain in supersaturated solid-solution in the steels on cooling. Precipitation
occurs on the subsequent aging of the steels
within the temperature range of 800 to 1100 °F
(Figure 28). The martensitic matrix is also
tempered by the aging treatment. The cooling
method, aging temperatures and times at temperature depend upon the specific composition
of the steel. Manufacturer's literature should
be consulted for specific recommendations.
The ductility and impact strength of these
hardened martensitic steels are relatively low
compared to those of either the semi-austenitic
or austenitic types. Increasing the aging temperature raises the ductility and impact
strength with an accompanying loss in the
yield and tensile strengths. These steels, in
the annealed condition, lack formability as
compared with that of the semi-austenitic or
austenitic types of precipitation-hardenable
stainless steels.
Semi-Austenitic Types—The semi-austenitic
steels are austenitic as annealed within the
temperature range of 1850 to 1950 °F and air
cooled to room temperature (large sections
may be water quenched). They are normally
supplied by the mill in the annealed condition
or in an annealed plus severe cold-worked condition. By careful control of composition and
annealing treatment, an austenite can be produced which has a stability intermediate between that of the martensitic and austenitic
types of precipitation-hardenable stainless
steels. These steels are readily amenable
to forming operations after the annealing
treatment.
Some representative heat treatments for
these steels are shown in figure 28. The series
of treatments (temperatures and times at tern-
MARTENSITIC TYPES
Anneal 1850-1950 °F
Air cool
Anneal 1900 °F
Oil or water quench
900-1150 "F, Vi-4hr
Air cool
900-1100 °F, 1 hr
Air cool
SEMI-AUSTENITIC TYPES
Anneal 1875-1950 °F
Air cool
1375-1400 °F, 1 %-3 hr
Air cool to 60 °F
1710-1750 "F, 10 min"
Air cool to 60 °F
Severe cold work
at mill
850-1100 °F, lVi-3hr
Air cool
-100 °F, 3-8 hr
850-900 °F, 1-3 hr
Air cool
850-1100 °F, 1-3 hr
Air cool
Cold work
850 °F, 3 hr
Air cool
AUSTENITIC TYPES
Anneal 1650, 1800,
or 2050 °F
Oil quench
1350 °F, 16 hr
Air cool
Anneol 2050 °F
Water quench
1300 °F, 24 hr
Water quench
1300 °F, 12hr
Water quench
1200 "F, 24 hr
Water quench
FIGURE
28. Heat treating ranges^ for precipitation-hardenable stainless steels.
(a) Ranges of temperatures, heating periods and cooling rates (quenching mediums) shown include those for several commercial steels,
neat treatment procedures and values depend upon the composition of the specific steel selected. These steels are generally provided
In the annealed (solution-treatd) condition by the mills,
in the annealed (solution-treated) condition by the mills.
perature) to be followed depend upon the specific composition of the steel and the desired
final properties. After the forming operations,
these steels are usually given a destabilizing
treatment at temperature ranges of 1375 to
> 1400 °F or 1710 to 1750 °F in which some of
the carbon is rejected from the solid solution
as a carbide. This facilitates the transformation of the austenite to martensite during the
cooling to 60 °F or -100 °F and results in a
strengthening of the matrix. However, the
final high strengths of these steels are obtained
by the subsequent aging treatments at temperatures ranging form 850 to 1100 °F. The
aging treatments temper the martensite and
increase the strength of the steels by precipitation of solute elements from solid solution as
hardening phases (usually nickel-aluminum
compounds). Cold working of the steel following the transformation of the austenite to
martensite and prior to the aging treatment
produces very high strengths.
If these semi-austenitic steels are severely
cold-worked (usually at the mill) following the
annealing treatment most of the austenite is
transformed to martensite by the cold working. Then no destabilizing treatment is needed
prior to the aging treatment which produces
very high strengths. However, the retained
ductility is usually very low.
43
~_j-
'<
I
These initially semi-austenitic steels through
the hardening and aging treatments develop
the highest room-temperature tensile properties (tensile strengths up to nearly 300,000
psi) of the three types of precipitation-hardenable stainless steels. Manufacturer's literature
should be consulted for heat treatment procedures as they depend very strongly on the
specific composition of the steel and its intended use.
Austenitie Types—The austenitic steels are
austenitic in both the annealed and hardened
conditions. They are normally supplied by the
mill in the annealed condition. Annealing
temperatures (Figure 28) vary from 1650 to
2050 °F, depending upon the composition of
the steel. The steels are cooled rapidly from
the annealing temperatures either by oil or
water quenching. These steels are subjected
to the forming or cold working operations
prior to hardening. The hardening treatment
(Figure 28) consists of aging within the temperature range of 1200 to 1400 °F which precipitates carbides and other hardening phases.
Cold working of these steels prior to aging
increases the strength with the properties
depending upon both the degree of cold-working and the aging treatment. As the heat
treatment procedure for these steels depends
upon the composition of the steel and its intended use, the manufacturer's literature
should be consulted for details of chemical composition, recommended annealing and aging
treatments, and typical properties and uses.
In general the austenitic steels have lower
room-temperature properties than either the
martensitic or semi-austenitic types. However, they retain very good tensile and impact
properties at subzero temperatures. Moreover, they retain be1 ter tensile, creep and rupture properties at temperatures up to their
aging temperatures than the other two types
of precipitation-hardenable stainless steels.
11.4. Nickel Maraging Steels
A series of high-strength iron-base alloys of
very low carbon content (0.03%) with yield
strengths of 250,000 psi or greater in combination with excellent fracture toughness have
been developed in recent years. These are the
nickel maraging steels which do not require
rapid quenching, as the hardening and
strengthening are obtained by an iron-nickel
martensite transformation and an age-hardening reaction. The iron-nickel martensite is
only moderately hard (approximately Rockwell
C 25) and very tough compared to that of untempered carbon steel martensites. The transformation of austenite to martensite is not
sensitive to cooling rates. Thus rapid quenching is not required and section-size effects are
small. No significant tempering occurs upon
44
!|i
-y-
the reheating of the iron-nickel martensite.
Moreover, no appreciable reversion of martensite to austenite occurs during the reheating of
the steel for the aging reaction (precipitation
of intermetallic compounds* in the presence of
suitable alloying elements).
The maraging steels are proprietary steels
for which standard specifications have not been
published by AISI. Four grades are commercially available: 25 Ni (25% Ni, 1.3-1.6% Ti);
20 Ni (20% Ni, 1.3-1.6% Ti); 18 Ni (17-19%
Ni, 7-9.5% Co, 3-5% Mo, and 0.2-0.8%Ti); and
12 Ni (9-15% Ni, 3-5% Cr, 2-4% Mo, and
0.08-0.55% Ti). All of these steels contain appreciable amounts of aluminum. The 25 Ni
and 20 Ni grades have a niobium content of
0.30 to 0.50%.
The maraging steels can be heat treated in
conventional furnaces without protective atmo
spheres. They can be formed or machined tt
final dimensions in the annealed condition anc
will retain close tolerances during the aging
treatment. Oxidation during aging is usuallj
insignificant. Heat treating ranges are showr
in figure 29. As the heat treatment proce
dures depend upon the specific composition Oü
the steel, the manufacturer's literature shoulc
be consulted for the chemical composition ant
recommended heat treatment of the selectet
steel.
a. 25 Ni Maraging Steel
The 25 Ni steels remain austenitic upon ai
cooling to room temperature after annealinj
(solution-anneal) at 1500 °F. The steels ii
this condition are relatively soft and readil;
fabricated. As indicated in figure 29, two pre
cedures are available for conditioning the steel
for transformation to martensite. The steel
may be given an aging treatment at 1300 _°]
which reduces the stability of the austenitx
presumably by precipitation of nickel-titaniur
compounds in the austenite. This raises tb
martensite transformation temperature so th|
the austenite will transform to martensite 6
cooling to room temperature. In the otht
procedure, the martensitic transformation ca
be induced by cold working the annealed stee
to a reduction of 25% or more. After eith«
treatment, cooling at -100 °F for sever
hours secures complete transformation. Ft
strength properties (250,000-270,000 psi yie
strength) are then obtained by the agir
treatment at 900 °F for 1 to 3 hours.
b. 20 Ni Maraging Steel
The annealed 20 Ni steels have a martensit
transformation temperature above room tei
perature and hence they transform to marter.
• Currently, there is a question as to whether or not order
occurs during the aging treatment and contributes to the streng
ening of the steel.
25 Ni MARAGING STEEL
«• 18 Ni Manging Steel
sl<Sfa^H,ireatmcn' J>r°<«tares for the 18 Ni
ansa?ÄrpF?i*™s s a?
«ig ana prior to the aging treatment.
20 Ni MARAGING STEEL
Anneal 1500-F, Ihr per i„. ,hickne$$
Air cool
1
<•• 12 Ni Miraging Steel
Cold work, 50%
~100 °F» Several hours <■)
c
torn good impart resistance*sSK to™
»00 °F, 1-3 hr
Air cool
18 Ni MARAGING STEEL
In preparing this monograph the anfhr.«
AnneallSOO-F, Ihr per in. thickness
Air cool
———I
IZZI
Cold work, 50%
12 Ni MARAGING STEEL
800-1000 °F, 1-6 hrs
Air cool
Known whose work and study have transformed he art of heat treating fate FidST
The dvarious
y photomicrographs
roly
ri a used were nS
ofStandtds.^
t he sSr °? v $' ° ft"»«rsK
« of
f
thG
Nati naI
Burea
12. Selected References
(•) U.ual.y recommended, but may be omitted.
äSäT^"SMS
j-to*. to.'Sus tars«!
,ÄTÄS?Ä as?
American Iron and Steel Institute Steel Products
Manuals, as follows: Carbon steel- <5mv,; « • i. J ^
f
'he annealing? S ntet W°?ed f<"10™«
-100 "Pan/sCS'aX gerati°n "
Ä^^totot-S-to^a5
^^to^iCiffSTto'JS
45
J'
I'
American Society for Metals, Metals handbook
(1948) and Vol. 1 and 2 (1961 and 1964, respectively),
Am. Soc. Metals, Metals Park, Ohio.
Edgar C. Bain, Functions of the alloying elements in
steel, Am. Soc. Metals, Metals Park, Ohio (1939) 312
pages.
R. M. Brick and Arthur Phillips, Structure and properties of alloys (McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New
York, N.Y., 1949) 485 pages.
Malcolm S. Burton, Applied metallurgy for engineers
(McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., 1956)
407 pages.
_,
•
. .
J. M. Camp and C. B. Francis, The making, shaping
and treating of steel, 7th edition U.S. Steel Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa. (1957) 1048 pages.
Walter Crafts and John L. Lamont, Hardenabihty
and steel selection (Pitman and Sons, New York, N.Y.,
1949) 279 pages.
John C. Everhart, et al., Mechanical properties of
metals and alloys, NBS Circ. C447 (1943) 481 pages.
J. P. Gill, et al., Tool steels, Am. Soc. Metals, Metals
Park, Ohio (1944) 577 pages.
M. A. Grossmann, Principles of heat treatment, Am.
Soc. Metals, Metals Park, Ohio (1953) 303 pages.
A. W. Grosvenor, Editor, Basic metallurgy, Vol. 1,
Am. Soc. Metals, Metals Park, Ohio (1954) 697 pages.
J. H. Hollomon and L. D. Jaffe, Ferrous metallurgical design (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.,
1947) 346 pages.
1
Samuel L. Hoyt, Metal Data (Reinhold Publishing
Corp., New York, N.Y., 1952) 526 pages.
I
Carl A. Keyser, Basic engineering metallurgy, 2d V
edition (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,
1959) 507 pages.
Frank R. Palmer and George V. Luerssen, Tool steel
simplified, Carpenter Steel Co., Reading, Pa. (1948)
564 pages.
G. A. Roberts, J. C. Hamaker Jr. and A. R. Johnson,
Tool steels, 3rd edition, Am. Soc. Metals, Metals Park,
Ohio (1962) 780 pages.
George Sachs and Kent Van Horn, Practical metallurgy, Am. Soc. Metals, Metals Park, Ohio (1940) 567
pages.
)
Carl H. Samans, Engineering metals and their alloys, J
(Macmillan Co., New York, N.Y., 1949) 913 pages. |
Bradley Stoughton, Allison Butts, and Ardrey M. /
Bounds, Engineering metallurgy (McGraw-Hill Book
Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., 1953) 479 pages.
E. J. Teichert, Ferrous Metallurgy, vol. I—Introduction to ferrous metallurgy, 484 pages; vol. II—The
manufacture and fabrication of steel, 487 pages; vol.
Ill—Metallography and heat treatment of steel, 577 I
pages (McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., f
1944).
Carl A. Zapffe, Stainless steels, Am. Soc. Metals,
Metals Park, Ohio (1949) 368 pages.
ft U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I9«6—O Ml-!«
46
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