ANEXO 02 - RULES OF THE AIR

ANEXO 02 - RULES OF THE AIR

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

RULES OF THE AIR

ANNEX 2

TO THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION

NINTH EDITION — JULY 1990

This edition incorporates all amendments adopted by the

Council prior to 13 March 1990 and supersedes, on 14 November 1991, all previous editions of Annex 2.

For information regarding the application of the Standards,

see Foreword.

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION

AMENDMENTS

The issue of amendments is announced regularly in the ICAO Journal and in the monthly Supplement to the Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio-visual

Training Aids, which holders of this publication should consult. The space below is provided to keep a record of such amendments.

RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA

No.

1-29

33

34

35

36

30

31

32

Date applicable

AMENDMENTS

Date entered

Entered by

11/11/93

10/11/94

Effective date

19/2/96

6/11/97

5/11/98

4/11/99

1/11/01

Incorporated in this edition

ICAO

ICAO

ICAO

ICAO

ICAO

ICAO

ICAO

No.

1

2

3

4

Date of issue

CORRIGENDA

Date entered

Entered by

Incorporated in this edition

Did not affect the English version

Did not affect the English version

25/10/01 — ICAO

(ii)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(v)

CHAPTER 1.

Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

CHAPTER 2.

Applicability of the rules of the air . . .

2.1 Territorial application of the rules of the air . . .

2.2 Compliance with the rules of the air . . . . . . . . .

2.3 Responsibility for compliance with the rules of the air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4 Authority of pilot-in-command of an aircraft . .

2.5 Problematic use of psychoactive substances . . .

CHAPTER 3.

General rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

3.1 Protection of persons and property. . . . . . . . . . .

7

3.2 Avoidance of collisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

3.3 Flight plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

3.4 Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

3.5 Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

3.6 Air traffic control service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

3.7 Unlawful interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

3.8 Interception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

3.9 VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

6

6

6

CHAPTER 4.

Visual flight rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

6

6

6

CHAPTER 5.

Instrument flight rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

5.1 Rules applicable to all IFR flights . . . . . . . . . . .

18

5.2 Rules applicable to IFR flights within controlled airspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

5.3 Rules applicable to IFR flights outside controlled airspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

Page

APPENDIX 1.

Signals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

1.

Distress and urgency signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

2.

Signals for use in the event of interception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

3.

Visual signals used to warn an unauthorized aircraft flying in, or about to enter a restricted, prohibited or danger area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

4.

Signals for aerodrome traffic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

5.

Marshalling signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

APPENDIX 2.

Interception of civil aircraft . . . . . . . . .

30

1.

Principles to be observed by States . . . . . . . . . .

30

2.

Action by intercepted aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

3.

Radiocommunication during interception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

APPENDIX 3.

Tables of cruising levels . . . . . . . . . . .

32

APPENDIX 4.

Unmanned free balloons . . . . . . . . . . .

33

1.

Classification of unmanned free balloons . . . . . .

33

2.

General operating rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

3.

Operating limitations and equipment requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

4.

Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

5.

Flight notification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

6.

Position recording and reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

ATTACHMENT A.

Interception of civil aircraft. . . . .

37

ATTACHMENT B.

Unlawful interference . . . . . . . . .

41

ANNEX 2

(iii)

4/11/99

No. 35

FOREWORD

Historical background

In October 1945, the Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Control

(RAC) Division at its first session made recommendations for

Standards, Practices and Procedures for the Rules of the Air.

These were reviewed by the then Air Navigation Committee and approved by the Council on 25 February 1946. They were published as “Recommendations for Standards, Practices and

Procedures — Rules of the Air” in the first part of Doc 2010, published in February 1946.

The RAC Division, at its second session in December

1946-January 1947, reviewed Doc 2010 and proposed

Standards and Recommended Practices for the Rules of the Air.

These were adopted by the Council as Standards and Recommended Practices relating to Rules of the Air on 15 April

1948, pursuant to Article 37 of the Convention on International

Civil Aviation (Chicago, 1944) and designated as Annex 2 to the Convention with the title “International Standards and

Recommended Practices — Rules of the Air”. They became effective on 15 September 1948.

On 27 November 1951, the Council adopted a complete new text of the Annex, which no longer contained Recommended Practices. The Standards of the amended Annex 2

(Amendment 1) became effective on 1 April 1952 and applicable on 1 September 1952.

Table A shows the origin of subsequent amendments together with a list of the principal subjects involved and the dates on which the amendments were adopted by the Council, when they became effective and when they became applicable.

The Standards in this document, together with the Standards and Recommended Practices of Annex 11, govern the application of the “Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services” and the “Regional

Supplementary Procedures — Rules of the Air and Air Traffic

Services”, in which latter document will be found subsidiary procedures of regional application.

Flight over the high seas. It should be noted that the

Council resolved, in adopting Annex 2 in April 1948 and

Amendment 1 to the said Annex in November 1951, that the

Annex constitutes Rules relating to the flight and manoeuvre of

aircraft within the meaning of Article 12 of the Convention.

Over the high seas, therefore, these rules apply without exception.

ANNEX 2

Applicability

On 15 November 1972, when adopting Amendment 14 to

Annex 2 relating to authority over aircraft operating over the high seas, the Council emphasized that the Amendment was intended solely to improve safety of flight and to ensure adequate provision of air traffic services over the high seas. The

Amendment in no way affects the legal jurisdiction of States of

Registry over their aircraft or the responsibility of Contracting

States under Article 12 of the Convention for enforcing the

Rules of the Air.

Action by Contracting States

(v)

Notification of differences. The attention of Contracting States is drawn to the obligation imposed by Article 38 of the

Convention by which Contracting States are required to notify the Organization of any differences between their national regulations and practices and the International Standards contained in this Annex and any amendments thereto. Contracting States are invited to keep the Organization currently informed of any differences which may subsequently occur, or of the withdrawal of any differences previously notified.

Contracting States are also invited to notify the Organization of any differences between their national regulations and practices and the special recommendations contained in

Attachment A to this Annex. A specific request for notification of differences will be sent to Contracting States immediately after the adoption of each amendment to this

Annex.

Attention of States is also drawn to the provisions of

Annex 15 related to the publication of differences between their national regulations and practices and the related ICAO

Standards and Recommended Practices through the

Aeronautical Information Service, in addition to the obligation of States under Article 38 of the Convention.

Promulgation of information. Information relating to the applicability of national rules and procedures, and changes thereto, established according to the Standards specified in this

Annex shall be notified in accordance with Annex 15.

Use of the text of the Annex in national regulations. The

Council, on 13 April 1948, adopted a resolution inviting the attention of Contracting States to the desirability of using in their own national regulations, as far as practicable, the precise language of those ICAO Standards that are of a regulatory character and also of indicating departures from the

Standards, including any additional national regulations

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Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

that were important for the safety or regularity of air navigation.

Wherever possible, the provisions of this Annex have been written in such a way as would facilitate incorporation, without major textual changes, into national legislation.

Status of Annex components

An Annex is made up of the following component parts, not all of which, however, are necessarily found in every Annex; they have the status indicated:

1. — Material comprising the Annex proper: a) Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by the Council under the provisions of the Convention.

They are defined as follows:

Standard. Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, matériel, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with the Convention; in the event of impossibility of compliance, notification to the Council is compulsory under Article 38.

Recommended Practice. Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, matériel, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as desirable in the interests of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigation, and to which Contracting

States will endeavour to conform in accordance with the Convention.

b) Appendices comprising material grouped separately for convenience but forming part of the Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by the

Council.

c) Definitions of terms used in the Standards and Recommended Practices which are not self-explanatory in that they do not have accepted dictionary meanings. A definition does not have an independent status but is an essential part of each Standard and

Recommended Practice in which the term is used, since a change in the meaning of the term would affect the specification.

d) Tables and Figures which add to or illustrate a

Standard or Recommended Practice and which are referred to therein, form part of the associated

Standard or Recommended Practice and have the same status.

Foreword

2. — Material approved by the Council for publication in

association with the Standards and Recommended Practices:

a) Forewords comprising historical and explanatory material based on the action of the Council and including an explanation of the obligations of States with regard to the application of the Standards and

Recommended Practices ensuing from the Convention and the Resolution of Adoption.

b) Introductions comprising explanatory material introduced at the beginning of parts, chapters or sections of the Annex to assist in the understanding of the application of the text.

c) Notes included in the text, where appropriate, to give factual information or references bearing on the

Standards or Recommended Practices in question, but not constituting part of the Standards or

Recommended Practices.

d) Attachments comprising material supplementary to the Standards and Recommended Practices, or included as a guide to their application.

Selection of language

This Annex has been adopted in six languages — English,

Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish. Each Contracting State is requested to select one of those texts for the purpose of national implementation and for other effects provided for in the Convention, either through direct use or through translation into its own national language, and to notify the Organization accordingly.

(vi)

Editorial practices

The following practice has been adhered to in order to indicate at a glance the status of each statement: Standards have been printed in light face roman; Notes have been printed in light face italics, the status being indicated by the prefix Note.

There are no Recommended Practices in Annex 2.

The units of measurement used in this document are in accordance with the International System of Units (SI) as specified in Annex 5 to the Convention on International Civil

Aviation. Where Annex 5 permits the use of non-SI alternative units these are shown in parentheses following the basic units.

Where two sets of units are quoted it must not be assumed that the pairs of values are equal and interchangeable. It may, however, be inferred that an equivalent level of safety is achieved when either set of units is used exclusively.

Any reference to a portion of this document which is identified by a number includes all subdivisions of the portion.

No. 32

Foreword Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

Table A. Amendments to Annex 2

Amendment

1st Edition

(1948)

Source(s)

RAC Division,

Second Session

(1947)

1

(2nd Edition)

RAC Division,

Fourth Session (1950)

5

(4th Edition)

RAC/SAR Divisions

Meeting (1958);

Air Navigation

Commission

6

7

RAC/SAR Divisions

Meeting (1958);

Airworthiness

Committee, Fourth

Meeting (1960)

Fourth North

Atlantic Regional

Air Navigation

Meeting (1961)

8

(5th Edition)

RAC/OPS Divisional

Meeting (1963);

Air Navigation

Commission

Subject(s)

Standards and Recommended Practices — Rules of the Air.

Complete revision and rearrangement of the Annex.

VFR flight; table of cruising levels; aircraft navigation lights.

Application of table of cruising levels in polar areas.

Adopted/approved

Effective

Applicable

15 April 1948

15 September 1948

27 November 1951

1 April 1952

1 September 1952

17 November 1953

1 April 1954

1 September 1954

2

3

(3rd Edition)

Second

Air Navigation

Conference (1955)

4

RAC Committee of the European-

Mediterranean

Region

Fourth Special

Meeting (1952)

Radiocommunication failure procedures; flight plan.

Air Navigation

Commission

Definitions and terminology; VFR flight outside controlled airspace; distress and urgency signals; signals for aerodrome traffic; marshalling signals.

Guidance material on the application of the definitions of danger area; prohibited area and restricted area.

Definitions; prohibition of VFR flights at night within controlled airspace; avoidance of collisions; flight plans; visual and instrument flight rules;

SELCAL; marshalling signals.

11 May 1956

15 September 1956

1 December 1956

14 November 1958

8 December 1959

1 May 1960

1 August 1960

13 December 1961

1 April 1962

1 July 1962

27 June 1962

1 November 1962

1 December 1962

9

10

Air Navigation

Commission

Air Traffic Control

Automation Panel

(ATCAP), Fifth

Meeting (1966);

Air Navigation

Commission

Definitions; provisions regarding flight level and altitudes; submission of flight plans; establishment of a single table of VFR criteria; prohibition of VFR flights at night in uncontrolled airspace and above FL 200; communications for IFR flights outside controlled airspace; replacement of quadrantal table of cruising levels by a semi-circular table; vertical separation above FL 290.

Guidance material; excerpts from the International Regulations for

Preventing Collisions at Sea.

Flight plans; deletion of guidance material regarding the International

Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea and of the associated application Standard.

29 November 1965

29 March 1966

25 August 1966

29 November 1965

7 June 1967

5 October 1967

8 February 1968

(vii)

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Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

Amendment

11

Source(s)

Fifth Air Navigation

Conference (1967)

12

(6th Edition)

Sixth Air Navigation

Conference (1969)

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Subject(s)

Air traffic services reporting office; marshalling signals.

Definitions; minimum heights/levels; controlled VFR flights; new terminology for designating controlled airspace.

Foreword

Adopted/approved

Effective

Applicable

23 January 1969

23 May 1969

18 September 1969

25 May 1970

25 September 1970

4 February 1971

24 March 1972

24 July 1972

7 December 1972

Limited European-

Mediterranean

(RAC/COM)

Regional Air Navigation

Meeting (1969);

Air Navigation

Commission

Radiocommunication failure procedures; unserviceability markings on manoeuvring areas.

Air Navigation

Commission

Authority over aircraft operating over the high seas.

Air Traffic Control

Automation Panel

(ATCAP), Fifth Meeting

(1966)

Repetitive flight plans.

Seventh

Air Navigation

Conference (1972)

Note relating to SSR Mode C transmission of pressure-altitude.

Council action in pursuance of Assembly

Resolutions A17-10 and

A18-10

Practices to be followed in the event that an aircraft is being subjected to unlawful interference.

Air Navigation

Commission

Radiocommunication failure procedures; Note concerning lease, charter and interchange of aircraft.

15 November 1972

15 March 1973

16 August 1973

13 December 1972

13 April 1973

16 August 1973

23 March 1973

23 May 1974

7 December 1973

7 April 1974

23 May 1974

Technical Panel on

Supersonic Transport

Operations (SSTP),

Fourth Meeting (1973);

Air Navigation

Commission

Air Navigation

Commission

Action by an aircraft which is being intercepted; visual signals for use in the event of interception; guidance material to assist States in eliminating or reducing interceptions; provision relating to flight at transonic and supersonic speeds; changes to reflect the concept of cruise climbs.

Time-keeping accuracy in ATS units and on board aircraft; use of SSR code 7500 in the event of unlawful interference.

Ninth Air Navigation

Conference (1976)

Definitions relating to change-over points and transition altitudes; requirement for aircraft to adhere to the centre line of ATS routes and to comply with change-over points; cruising levels; flight plans and position reports; alignment of the definition of flight level with that in Annex 3 and Annex 10, Volume II.

8 April 1974

8 August 1974

27 February 1975

4 February 1975

4 June 1975

9 October 1975

7 April 1976

7 August 1976

30 December 1976

7 December 1977

7 April 1978

10 August 1978

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(viii)

Foreword

Amendment

22

Source(s)

Air Navigation

Commission

23

(7th Edition)

Air Navigation

Commission

24 Air Navigation

Commission

Subject(s)

Unmanned free balloons; estimated time of arrival.

Interception of civil aircraft.

Aircraft exterior lights.

25

26

Air Navigation

Commission; AGA

Divisional Meeting (1981)

Definitions relating to height, instrument approach procedure, manoeuvring and movement area, taxiing, and taxiway; use of the phrase “HIJACK” in the event of interception of civil aircraft; note regarding lease, charter or interchange of aircraft; provisions related to surface movement of aircraft and taxiing; series 2 signals used by helicopters in the event of interception; units of measurement.

ATS Data Acquisition,

Processing and Transfer

Panel, Third Meeting

(1981); Air Navigation

Commission

Definitions; contents of flight plans; repetitive flight plans; ATS data interchange; pronunciations to be used by intercepting aircraft; alignment of the radiotelephony urgency signal with Annex 10,

Volume II; Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC).

27

(8th Edition)

Council; Air Navigation

Commission

Identification and interception of civil aircraft.

28 Air Navigation

Commission

Definition of “apron”; special procedures for use during unlawful interference.

29

(9th Edition)

Visual Flight Rules

Operations Panel, Third

Meeting (1986);

Secretariat; Visual Aids

Panel, Eleventh Meeting

(1987); Air Navigation

Commission; amendments consequential to adoption of amendments to

Annex 6

Operation of aircraft in mixed VFR/IFR environments; surface movement of aircraft and surface movement guidance and control; acts of unlawful interference; helicopters as intercepting aircraft.

30

31

Secondary Surveillance

Radar Improvements and

Collision Avoidance

Systems Panel, Fourth

Meeting (SICASP/4)

(1989)

Definitions; airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS).

Review of the General

Concept of Separation

Panel, Seventh Meeting

(1990); Air Navigation

Commission; Automatic

Dependent Surveillance

Panel, Second Meeting

(1992)

Definitions; air-taxiing; separation between aircraft; formation flights by civil aircraft in controlled airspace; automatic dependent surveillance

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

Adopted/approved

Effective

Applicable

2 March 1981

2 July 1981

26 November 1981

1 April 1981

1 August 1981

26 November 1981

19 March 1982

19 July 1982

25 November 1982

21 March 1983

29 July 1983

24 November 1983

22 June 1984

22 October 1984

21 November 1985

10 March 1986

27 July 1986

20 November 1986

16 March 1987

27 July 1987

19 November 1987

12 March 1990

30 July 1990

14 November 1991

26 February 1993

26 July 1993

11 November 1993

18 March 1994

25 July 1994

10 November 1994

(ix)

No. 31

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Foreword

Adopted/approved

Effective

Applicable Amendment

32

33

34

35

36

Source(s) Subject(s)

Air Navigation

Commission

Air Navigation

Commission

Note related to carriage requirements of airborne collision avoidance systems.

Communication failure procedures.

19 February 1996

19 February 1996

26 February 1997

21 July 1997

6 November 1997

Automatic Dependent

Surveillance Panel, Fourth

Meeting (1996); Review of the General Concept of

Separation Panel,

Ninth Meeting (1996); consequential to

Amendment 162 to

Annex 1

Definitions; automatic dependent surveillance systems and procedures; data interchange between automated ATS systems; ATS applications for air-ground data links; problematic use of psychoactive substances.

19 March 1998

20 July 1998

5 November 1998

10 March 1999

19 July 1999

4 November 1999

Air Navigation

Commission; Visual

Aids Panel, Thirteenth

Meeting (1997)

ATS airspace classifications; visual meteorological conditions clearance; runway-holding position.

Consequential as a result of Amendment 40 to

Annex 11; Amendments 23 and 25 to Annex 6, Part I;

Amendments 20 and 7 to

Annex 6, Parts II and III, respectively; and

Amendment 72 to Annex 3

Revised definitions of “air traffic control unit”, “approach control unit”,

“alternate aerodrome” “flight crew member”, “pilot-in-command” and

“visibility”; editorial amendments.

12 March 2001

16 July 2001

1 November 2001

No. 36

(x)

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

CHAPTER 1.

DEFINITIONS

Note.— Throughout the text of this document the term

“service” is used as an abstract noun to designate functions, or service rendered; the term “unit” is used to designate a collective body performing a service.

When the following terms are used in the International

Standards for Rules of the Air, they have the following meanings:

Acrobatic flight. Manoeuvres intentionally performed by an aircraft involving an abrupt change in its attitude, an abnormal attitude, or an abnormal variation in speed.

ADS agreement. An ADS reporting plan which establishes the conditions of ADS data reporting (i.e. data required by the air traffic services unit and frequency of ADS reports which have to be agreed to prior to the provision of the ADS services).

Note.— The terms of the agreement will be exchanged between the ground system and the aircraft by means of a contract, or a series of contracts.

ADS contract. A means by which the terms of an ADS agreement will be exchanged between the ground system and the aircraft, specifying under what conditions ADS reports would be initiated, and what data would be contained in the reports.

Note.— The term “ADS contract” is a generic term meaning variously, ADS event contract, ADS demand contract,

ADS periodic contract or an emergency mode. Ground forwarding of ADS reports may be implemented between ground systems.

Advisory airspace. An airspace of defined dimensions, or designated route, within which air traffic advisory service is available.

Advisory route. A designated route along which air traffic advisory service is available.

Aerodrome. A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.

Aerodrome control service. Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic.

ANNEX 2

1

Aerodrome control tower. A unit established to provide air traffic control service to aerodrome traffic.

Aerodrome traffic. All traffic on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome and all aircraft flying in the vicinity of an aerodrome.

Note.— An aircraft is in the vicinity of an aerodrome when it is in, entering or leaving an aerodrome traffic circuit.

Aerodrome traffic zone. An airspace of defined dimensions established around an aerodrome for the protection of aerodrome traffic.

Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). A publication issued by or with the authority of a State and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation.

Aeronautical station. A land station in the aeronautical mobile service. In certain instances, an aeronautical station may be located, for example, on board ship or on a platform at sea.

Aeroplane. A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight.

Airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS). An aircraft system based on secondary surveillance radar (SSR) transponder signals which operates independently of ground-based equipment to provide advice to the pilot on potential conflicting aircraft that are equipped with SSR transponders.

Aircraft. Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.

Air-ground control radio station. An aeronautical telecommunication station having primary responsibility for handling communications pertaining to the operation and control of aircraft in a given area.

Air-taxiing. Movement of a helicopter/VTOL above the surface of an aerodrome, normally in ground effect and at a ground speed normally less than 37 km/h (20 kt).

Note.— The actual height may vary, and some helicopters may require air-taxiing above 8 m (25 ft) AGL to reduce ground effect turbulence or provide clearance for cargo slingloads.

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Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

Air traffic. All aircraft in flight or operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome.

Air traffic advisory service. A service provided within advisory airspace to ensure separation, in so far as practical, between aircraft which are operating on IFR flight plans.

Air traffic control clearance. Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an air traffic control unit.

Note 1.— For convenience, the term “air traffic control clearance” is frequently abbreviated to “clearance” when used in appropriate contexts.

Note 2.— The abbreviated term “clearance” may be prefixed by the words “taxi”, “take-off”, “departure”, “en route”, “approach” or “landing” to indicate the particular portion of flight to which the air traffic control clearance relates.

Air traffic control service. A service provided for the purpose of: a) preventing collisions:

1) between aircraft, and

2) on the manoeuvring area between aircraft and obstructions, and b) expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic.

Air traffic control unit. A generic term meaning variously, area control centre, approach control unit or aerodrome control tower.

Air traffic service. A generic term meaning variously, flight information service, alerting service, air traffic advisory service, air traffic control service (area control service, approach control service or aerodrome control service).

Air traffic services airspaces. Airspaces of defined dimensions, alphabetically designated, within which specific types of flights may operate and for which air traffic services and rules of operation are specified.

Note.— ATS airspaces are classified as Class A to G.

Air traffic services reporting office. A unit established for the purpose of receiving reports concerning air traffic services and flight plans submitted before departure.

Note.— An air traffic services reporting office may be established as a separate unit or combined with an existing unit, such as another air traffic services unit, or a unit of the aeronautical information service.

Air traffic services unit. A generic term meaning variously, air traffic control unit, flight information centre or air traffic services reporting office.

14/11/9 2

Chapter 1

Airway. A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor.

Alerting service. A service provided to notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid, and assist such organizations as required.

Alternate aerodrome. An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or to land at the aerodrome of intended landing. Alternate aerodromes include the following:

Take-off alternate. An alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft can land should this become necessary shortly after take-off and it is not possible to use the aerodrome of departure.

En-route alternate. An aerodrome at which an aircraft would be able to land after experiencing an abnormal or emergency condition while en route.

ETOPS en-route alternate. A suitable and appropriate alternate aerodrome at which an aeroplane would be able to land after experiencing an engine shut-down or other abnormal or emergency condition while en route in an

ETOPS operation.

Destination alternate. An alternate aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed should it become either impossible or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended landing.

Note.— The aerodrome from which a flight departs may also be an en-route or a destination alternate aerodrome for that flight.

Altitude. The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level

(MSL).

Approach control service. Air traffic control service for arriving or departing controlled flights.

Approach control unit. A unit established to provide air traffic control service to controlled flights arriving at, or departing from, one or more aerodromes.

Appropriate ATS authority. The relevant authority designated by the State responsible for providing air traffic services in the airspace concerned.

Appropriate authority.

a) Regarding flight over the high seas: The relevant authority of the State of Registry.

b) Regarding flight other than over the high seas: The relevant authority of the State having sovereignty over the territory being overflown.

Chapter 1

Apron. A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking or maintenance.

Area control centre. A unit established to provide air traffic control service to controlled flights in control areas under its jurisdiction.

Area control service. Air traffic control service for controlled flights in control areas.

ATS route. A specified route designed for channelling the flow of traffic as necessary for the provision of air traffic services.

Note 1.— The term “ATS route” is used to mean variously, airway, advisory route, controlled or uncontrolled route, arrival or departure route, etc.

Note 2.— An ATS route is defined by route specifications which include an ATS route designator, the track to or from significant points (way-points), distance between significant points, reporting requirements and, as determined by the appropriate ATS authority, the lowest safe altitude.

Automatic dependent surveillance (ADS). A surveillance technique in which aircraft automatically provide, via a data link, data derived from on-board navigation and positionfixing systems, including aircraft identification, fourdimensional position and additional data as appropriate.

Ceiling. The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 6 000 metres (20 000 feet) covering more than half the sky.

Change-over point. The point at which an aircraft navigating on an ATS route segment defined by reference to very high frequency omnidirectional radio ranges is expected to transfer its primary navigational reference from the facility behind the aircraft to the next facility ahead of the aircraft.

Note.— Change-over points are established to provide the optimum balance in respect of signal strength and quality between facilities at all levels to be used and to ensure a common source of azimuth guidance for all aircraft operating along the same portion of a route segment.

Clearance limit. The point to which an aircraft is granted an air traffic control clearance.

Control area. A controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified limit above the earth.

Controlled aerodrome. An aerodrome at which air traffic control service is provided to aerodrome traffic.

Note.— The term “controlled aerodrome” indicates that air traffic control service is provided to aerodrome traffic but does not necessarily imply that a control zone exists.

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Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

Controlled airspace. An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided in accordance with the airspace classification.

Note.— Controlled airspace is a generic term which covers

ATS airspace Classes A, B, C, D and E as described in

Annex 11, 2.6.

Controlled flight. Any flight which is subject to an air traffic control clearance.

Controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC). A means of communication between controller and pilot, using data link for ATC communications.

Control zone. A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the earth to a specified upper limit.

Cruise climb. An aeroplane cruising technique resulting in a net increase in altitude as the aeroplane mass decreases.

Cruising level. A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight.

Current flight plan. The flight plan, including changes, if any, brought about by subsequent clearances.

Danger area. An airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the flight of aircraft may exist at specified times.

Data link communications. A form of communication intended for the exchange of messages via a data link.

Estimated off-block time. The estimated time at which the aircraft will commence movement associated with departure.

Estimated time of arrival. For IFR flights, the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will arrive over that designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is intended that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is associated with the aerodrome, the time at which the aircraft will arrive over the aerodrome. For VFR flights, the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will arrive over the aerodrome.

Expected approach time. The time at which ATC expects that an arriving aircraft, following a delay, will leave the holding point to complete its approach for a landing.

Note.— The actual time of leaving the holding point will depend upon the approach clearance.

Filed flight plan. The flight plan as filed with an ATS unit by the pilot or a designated representative, without any subsequent changes.

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Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

Flight crew member. A licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during a flight duty period.

Flight information centre. A unit established to provide flight information service and alerting service.

Flight information region. An airspace of defined dimensions within which flight information service and alerting service are provided.

Flight information service. A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights.

Flight level. A surface of constant atmospheric pressure which is related to a specific pressure datum, 1 013.2 hectopascals

(hPa), and is separated from other such surfaces by specific pressure intervals.

Note 1.— A pressure type altimeter calibrated in accordance with the Standard Atmosphere: a) when set to a QNH altimeter setting, will indicate altitude; b) when set to a QFE altimeter setting, will indicate height above the QFE reference datum; c) when set to a pressure of 1 013.2 hPa, may be used to indicate flight levels.

Note 2.— The terms “height” and “altitude”, used in

Note 1 above, indicate altimetric rather than geometric heights and altitudes.

Flight plan. Specified information provided to air traffic services units, relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft.

Flight status. An indication of whether a given aircraft requires special handling by air traffic services units or not.

Flight visibility. The visibility forward from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight.

Ground visibility. The visibility at an aerodrome, as reported by an accredited observer.

Heading. The direction in which the longitudinal axis of an aircraft is pointed, usually expressed in degrees from North

(true, magnetic, compass or grid).

Height. The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from a specified datum.

IFR. The symbol used to designate the instrument flight rules.

IFR flight. A flight conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules.

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Chapter 1

IMC. The symbol used to designate instrument meteorological conditions.

Instrument approach procedure. A series of predetermined manoeuvres by reference to flight instruments with specified protection from obstacles from the initial approach fix, or where applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route to a point from which a landing can be completed and thereafter, if a landing is not completed, to a position at which holding or en-route obstacle clearance criteria apply.

Instrument meteorological conditions. Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, less than the minima specified for visual meteorological conditions.

Note.— The specified minima for visual meteorological conditions are contained in Chapter 4.

Landing area. That part of a movement area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft.

Level. A generic term relating to the vertical position of an aircraft in flight and meaning variously, height, altitude or flight level.

Manoeuvring area. That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, excluding aprons.

Movement area. That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area and the apron(s).

Pilot-in-command. The pilot designated by the operator, or in the case of general aviation, the owner, as being in command and charged with the safe conduct of a flight.

Pressure-altitude. An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of altitude which corresponds to that pressure in the

Standard Atmosphere.*

Problematic use of substances. The use of one or more psychoactive substances by aviation personnel in a way that: a) constitutes a direct hazard to the user or endangers the lives, health or welfare of others; and/or b) causes or worsens an occupational, social, mental or physical problem or disorder.

Prohibited area. An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited.

* As defined in Annex 8.

Chapter 1

Psychoactive substances. Alcohol, opioids, cannabinoids, sedatives and hypnotics, cocaine, other psychostimulants, hallucinogens, and volatile solvents, whereas coffee and tobacco are excluded.

Radiotelephony. A form of radiocommunication primarily intended for the exchange of information in the form of speech.

Repetitive flight plan (RPL). A flight plan related to a series of frequently recurring, regularly operated individual flights with identical basic features, submitted by an operator for retention and repetitive use by ATS units.

Reporting point. A specified geographical location in relation to which the position of an aircraft can be reported.

Restricted area. An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft is restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions.

Runway. A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft.

Runway-holding position. A designated position intended to protect a runway, an obstacle limitation surface, or an ILS/

MLS critical/sensitive area at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles shall stop and hold, unless otherwise authorized by the aerodrome control tower.

Safety-sensitive personnel. Persons who might endanger aviation safety if they perform their duties and functions improperly including, but not limited to, crew members, aircraft maintenance personnel and air traffic controllers.

Signal area. An area on an aerodrome used for the display of ground signals.

Special VFR flight. A VFR flight cleared by air traffic control to operate within a control zone in meteorological conditions below VMC.

Taxiing. Movement of an aircraft on the surface of an aerodrome under its own power, excluding take-off and landing.

Taxiway. A defined path on a land aerodrome established for the taxiing of aircraft and intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome and another, including: a) Aircraft stand taxilane. A portion of an apron designated as a taxiway and intended to provide access to aircraft stands only.

b) Apron taxiway. A portion of a taxiway system located on an apron and intended to provide a through taxi route across the apron.

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Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

c) Rapid exit taxiway. A taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle and designed to allow landing aeroplanes to turn off at higher speeds than are achieved on other exit taxiways thereby minimizing runway occupancy times.

Terminal control area. A control area normally established at the confluence of ATS routes in the vicinity of one or more major aerodromes.

Total estimated elapsed time. For IFR flights, the estimated time required from take-off to arrive over that designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is intended that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is associated with the destination aerodrome, to arrive over the destination aerodrome. For VFR flights, the estimated time required from take-off to arrive over the destination aerodrome.

Track. The projection on the earth’s surface of the path of an aircraft, the direction of which path at any point is usually expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic or grid).

Traffic avoidance advice. Advice provided by an air traffic services unit specifying manoeuvres to assist a pilot to avoid a collision.

Traffic information. Information issued by an air traffic services unit to alert a pilot to other known or observed air traffic which may be in proximity to the position or intended route of flight and to help the pilot avoid a collision.

Transition altitude. The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is controlled by reference to altitudes.

Unmanned free balloon. A non-power-driven, unmanned, lighter-than-air aircraft in free flight.

Note.— Unmanned free balloons are classified as heavy, medium or light in accordance with specifications contained in

Appendix 4.

VFR. The symbol used to designate the visual flight rules.

VFR flight. A flight conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules.

Visibility. Visibility for aeronautical purposes is the greater of: a) the greatest distance at which a black object of suitable dimensions, situated near the ground, can be seen and recognized when observed against a bright background; b) the greatest distance at which lights in the vicinity of

1 000 candelas can be seen and identified against an unlit background.

Note.— The two distances have different values in air of a given extinction coefficient, and the latter b) varies with the background illumination. The former a) is represented by the meteorological optical range (MOR).

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Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

Visual meteorological conditions. Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, equal to or better than specified minima.

Note.— The specified minima are contained in Chapter 4.

VMC. The symbol used to designate visual meteorological conditions.

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14/11/9

CHAPTER 2.

APPLICABILITY OF THE RULES OF THE AIR

2.1

Territorial application of the rules of the air

2.1.1

The rules of the air shall apply to aircraft bearing the nationality and registration marks of a Contracting State, wherever they may be, to the extent that they do not conflict with the rules published by the State having jurisdiction over the territory overflown.

Note.— The Council of the International Civil Aviation

Organization resolved, in adopting Annex 2 in April 1948 and

Amendment 1 to the said Annex in November 1951, that the

Annex constitutes Rules relating to the flight and manoeuvre of aircraft within the meaning of Article 12 of the Convention.

Over the high seas, therefore, these rules apply without exception.

2.1.2

If, and so long as, a Contracting State has not notified the International Civil Aviation Organization to the contrary, it shall be deemed, as regards aircraft of its registration, to have agreed as follows:

For purposes of flight over those parts of the high seas where a Contracting State has accepted, pursuant to a regional air navigation agreement, the responsibility of providing air traffic services, the “appropriate ATS authority” referred to in this Annex is the relevant authority designated by the State responsible for providing those services.

Note.— The phrase “regional air navigation agreement” refers to an agreement approved by the Council of ICAO normally on the advice of a Regional Air Navigation Meeting.

Note 2.— A pilot may elect to fly in accordance with instrument flight rules in visual meteorological conditions or may be required to do so by the appropriate ATS authority.

2.3

2.3.1

Responsibility for compliance with the rules of the air

Responsibility of pilot-in-command

The pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall, whether manipulating the controls or not, be responsible for the operation of the aircraft in accordance with the rules of the air, except that the pilot-in-command may depart from these rules in circumstances that render such departure absolutely necessary in the interests of safety.

2.3.2

Pre-flight action

Before beginning a flight, the pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall become familiar with all available information appropriate to the intended operation. Pre-flight action for flights away from the vicinity of an aerodrome, and for all IFR flights, shall include a careful study of available current weather reports and forecasts, taking into consideration fuel requirements and an alternative course of action if the flight cannot be completed as planned.

2.2

Compliance with the rules of the air

The operation of an aircraft either in flight or on the movement area of an aerodrome shall be in compliance with the general rules and, in addition, when in flight, either with: a) the visual flight rules, or b) the instrument flight rules.

Note 1.— Information relevant to the services provided to aircraft operating in accordance with both visual flight rules and instrument flight rules in the seven ATS airspace classes is contained in 2.6.1 and 2.6.3 of Annex 11.

2.4

Authority of pilot-in-command of an aircraft

The pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall have final authority as to the disposition of the aircraft while in command.

2.5 Problematic use of psychoactive substances

No person whose function is critical to the safety of aviation

(safety-sensitive personnel) shall undertake that function while under the influence of any psychoactive substance, by reason of which human performance is impaired. No such person shall engage in any kind of problematic use of substances.

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ANNEX

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No. 34

CHAPTER 3.

GENERAL RULES

3.1

Protection of persons and property

3.1.1

Negligent or reckless operation of aircraft

An aircraft shall not be operated in a negligent or reckless manner so as to endanger life or property of others.

3.1.2

Minimum heights

3.1.6

Parachute descents

Parachute descents, other than emergency descents, shall not be made except under conditions prescribed by the appropriate authority and as indicated by relevant information, advice and/or clearance from the appropriate air traffic services unit.

Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from the appropriate authority, aircraft shall not be flown over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an open-air assembly of persons, unless at such a height as will permit, in the event of an emergency arising, a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface.

Note.— See 4.6 for minimum heights for VFR flights and

5.1.2 for minimum levels for IFR flights.

3.1.3

Cruising levels

The cruising levels at which a flight or a portion of a flight is to be conducted shall be in terms of: a) flight levels, for flights at or above the lowest usable flight level or, where applicable, above the transition altitude; b) altitudes, for flights below the lowest usable flight level or, where applicable, at or below the transition altitude.

Note.— The system of flight levels is prescribed in the

Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Aircraft Operations

(Doc 8168).

3.1.4

Dropping or spraying

3.1.7

Acrobatic flight

No aircraft shall be flown acrobatically except under conditions prescribed by the appropriate authority and as indicated by relevant information, advice and/or clearance from the appropriate air traffic services unit.

3.1.8

Formation flights

Aircraft shall not be flown in formation except by prearrangement among the pilots-in-command of the aircraft taking part in the flight and, for formation flight in controlled airspace, in accordance with the conditions prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority(ies). These conditions shall include the following: a) the formation operates as a single aircraft with regard to navigation and position reporting; b) separation between aircraft in the flight shall be the responsibility of the flight leader and the pilots-incommand of the other aircraft in the flight and shall include periods of transition when aircraft are manoeuvring to attain their own separation within the formation and during join-up and break-away; and c) a distance not exceeding 1 km (0.5 NM) laterally and longitudinally and 30 m (100 ft) vertically from the flight leader shall be maintained by each aircraft.

Nothing shall be dropped or sprayed from an aircraft in flight except under conditions prescribed by the appropriate authority and as indicated by relevant information, advice and/or clearance from the appropriate air traffic services unit.

3.1.5

Towing

No aircraft or other object shall be towed by an aircraft, except in accordance with requirements prescribed by the appropriate authority and as indicated by relevant information, advice and/or clearance from the appropriate air traffic services unit.

ANNEX

2

3.1.9

Unmanned free balloons

An unmanned free balloon shall be operated in such a manner as to minimize hazards to persons, property or other aircraft and in accordance with the conditions specified in Appendix 4.

7

3.1.10

Prohibited areas and restricted areas

Aircraft shall not be flown in a prohibited area, or in a restricted area, the particulars of which have been duly published, except in accordance with the conditions of the

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Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

restrictions or by permission of the State over whose territory the areas are established.

3.2

Avoidance of collisions

Note.— It is important that vigilance for the purpose of detecting potential collisions be not relaxed on board an aircraft in flight, regardless of the type of flight or the class of airspace in which the aircraft is operating, and while operating on the movement area of an aerodrome.

Chapter 3

3.2.2.4

Overtaking. An overtaking aircraft is an aircraft that approaches another from the rear on a line forming an angle of less than 70 degrees with the plane of symmetry of the latter, i.e. is in such a position with reference to the other aircraft that at night it should be unable to see either of the aircraft’s left (port) or right (starboard) navigation lights. An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way and the overtaking aircraft, whether climbing, descending or in horizontal flight, shall keep out of the way of the other aircraft by altering its heading to the right, and no subsequent change in the relative positions of the two aircraft shall absolve the overtaking aircraft from this obligation until it is entirely past and clear.

3.2.1

Proximity

An aircraft shall not be operated in such proximity to other aircraft as to create a collision hazard.

3.2.2.5

Landing

3.2.2.5.1

An aircraft in flight, or operating on the ground or water, shall give way to aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land.

3.2.2

Right-of-way

The aircraft that has the right-of-way shall maintain its heading and speed, but nothing in these rules shall relieve the pilot-in-command of an aircraft from the responsibility of taking such action, including collision avoidance manoeuvres based on resolution advisories provided by ACAS equipment, as will best avert collision.

3.2.2.5.2

When two or more heavier-than-air aircraft are approaching an aerodrome for the purpose of landing, aircraft at the higher level shall give way to aircraft at the lower level, but the latter shall not take advantage of this rule to cut in in front of another which is in the final stages of an approach to land, or to overtake that aircraft. Nevertheless, power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to gliders.

Note 1.— Operating procedures for use of ACAS are contained in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume I, Part VIII,

Chapter 3.

Note 2.— Carriage requirements for ACAS equipment are addressed in Annex 6, Part I, Chapter 6.

3.2.2.5.3

Emergency landing. An aircraft that is aware that another is compelled to land shall give way to that aircraft.

3.2.2.6

Taking off. An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall give way to aircraft taking off or about to take off.

3.2.2.1

An aircraft that is obliged by the following rules to keep out of the way of another shall avoid passing over, under or in front of the other, unless it passes well clear and takes into account the effect of aircraft wake turbulence.

3.2.2.2

Approaching head-on. When two aircraft are approaching head-on or approximately so and there is danger of collision, each shall alter its heading to the right.

3.2.2.3

Converging. When two aircraft are converging at approximately the same level, the aircraft that has the other on its right shall give way, except as follows: a) power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to airships, gliders and balloons; b) airships shall give way to gliders and balloons; c) gliders shall give way to balloons;

3.2.2.7

Surface movement of aircraft

3.2.2.7.1

In case of danger of collision between two aircraft taxiing on the movement area of an aerodrome the following shall apply: a) when two aircraft are approaching head on, or approximately so, each shall stop or where practicable alter its course to the right so as to keep well clear; b) when two aircraft are on a converging course, the one which has the other on its right shall give way; c) an aircraft which is being overtaken by another aircraft shall have the right-of-way and the overtaking aircraft shall keep well clear of the other aircraft.

Note.— For the description of an overtaking aircraft see

3.2.2.4.

d) power-driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are seen to be towing other aircraft or objects.

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3.2.2.7.2

An aircraft taxiing on the manoeurvring area shall stop and hold at all runway-holding positions unless otherwise authorized by the aerodrome control tower.

Chapter 3

Note.— For runway-holding position markings and related signs, see Annex 14, Volume I, 5.2.9 and 5.4.2.

3.2.2.7.3

An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all lighted stop bars and may proceed further when the lights are switched off.

3.2.3

Lights to be displayed by aircraft

Note 1.— The characteristics of lights intended to meet the requirements of 3.2.3 for aeroplanes are specified in Annex 8.

Specifications for navigation lights for aeroplanes are contained in the Appendices to Parts I and II of Annex 6.

Detailed technical specifications for lights for aeroplanes are

contained in Part III of the Airworthiness Technical Manual

(Doc 9051) and for helicopters in Part IV of that document.

Note 2.— In the context of 3.2.3.2 c) and 3.2.3.4 a) an aircraft is understood to be operating when it is taxiing or being towed or is stopped temporarily during the course of taxiing or being towed.

Note 3.— For aircraft on the water see 3.2.6.2.

3.2.3.1

Except as provided by 3.2.3.5, from sunset to sunrise or during any other period which may be prescribed by the appropriate authority all aircraft in flight shall display: a) anti-collision lights intended to attract attention to the aircraft; and b) navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an observer and other lights shall not be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for these lights.

Note.— Lights fitted for other purposes, such as landing lights and airframe floodlights, may be used in addition to the

anti-collision lights specified in the Airworthiness Technical

Manual (Doc 9051) to enhance aircraft conspicuity.

3.2.3.2

Except as provided by 3.2.3.5, from sunset to sunrise or during any other period prescribed by the appropriate authority: a) all aircraft moving on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an observer and other lights shall not be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for these lights; b) unless stationary and otherwise adequately illuminated, all aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to indicate the extremities of their structure;

9

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

c) all aircraft operating on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to attract attention to the aircraft; and d) all aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome whose engines are running shall display lights which indicate that fact.

Note.— If suitably located on the aircraft, the navigation lights referred to in 3.2.3.1 b) may also meet the requirements of 3.2.3.2 b). Red anti-collision lights fitted to meet the requirements of 3.2.3.1 a) may also meet the requirements of

3.2.3.2 c) and 3.2.3.2 d) provided they do not subject observers to harmful dazzle.

3.2.3.3

Except as provided by 3.2.3.5, all aircraft in flight and fitted with anti-collision lights to meet the requirement of

3.2.3.1 a) shall display such lights also outside the period specified in 3.2.3.1.

3.2.3.4

Except as provided by 3.2.3.5, all aircraft: a) operating on the movement area of an aerodrome and fitted with anti-collision lights to meet the requirement of 3.2.3.2 c); or b) on the movement area of an aerodrome and fitted with lights to meet the requirement of 3.2.3.2 d); shall display such lights also outside the period specified in

3.2.3.2.

3.2.3.5

A pilot shall be permitted to switch off or reduce the intensity of any flashing lights fitted to meet the requirements of 3.2.3.1, 3.2.3.2, 3.2.3.3 and 3.2.3.4 if they do or are likely to: a) adversely affect the satisfactory performance of duties; or b) subject an outside observer to harmful dazzle.

3.2.4

Simulated instrument flights

An aircraft shall not be flown under simulated instrument flight conditions unless: a) fully functioning dual controls are installed in the aircraft; and b) a qualified pilot occupies a control seat to act as safety pilot for the person who is flying under simulated instrument conditions. The safety pilot shall have adequate vision forward and to each side of the aircraft, or a competent observer in communication with the safety pilot shall occupy a position in the aircraft from which the observer’s field of vision adequately supplements that of the safety pilot.

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

3.2.5

Operation on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome

An aircraft operated on or in the vicinity of an aerodrome shall, whether or not within an aerodrome traffic zone: a) observe other aerodrome traffic for the purpose of avoiding collision; b) conform with or avoid the pattern of traffic formed by other aircraft in operation; c) make all turns to the left, when approaching for a landing and after taking off, unless otherwise instructed; d) land and take off into the wind unless safety, the runway configuration, or air traffic considerations determine that a different direction is preferable.

Chapter 3

authority, all aircraft on the water shall display lights as required by the International Regulations for Preventing

Collisions at Sea (revised 1972) unless it is impractical for them to do so, in which case they shall display lights as closely similar as possible in characteristics and position to those required by the International Regulations.

Note 1.— Specifications for lights to be shown by aeroplanes on the water are contained in the Appendices to

Parts I and II of Annex 6.

Note 2.— The International Regulations for Preventing

Collisions at Sea specify that the rules concerning lights shall be complied with from sunset to sunrise. Any lesser period between sunset and sunrise established in accordance with

3.2.6.2 cannot, therefore, be applied in areas where the

International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea apply, e.g. on the high seas.

Note 1.— See 3.6.5.1.

Note 2.— Additional rules may apply in aerodrome traffic zones.

3.3

Flight plans

3.2.6

Water operations

Note.— In addition to the provisions of 3.2.6.1 of this

Annex, rules set forth in the International Regulations for

Preventing Collisions at Sea, developed by the International

Conference on Revision of the International Regulations for

Preventing Collisions at Sea (London, 1972) may be applicable in certain cases.

3.2.6.1

When two aircraft or an aircraft and a vessel are approaching one another and there is a risk of collision, the aircraft shall proceed with careful regard to existing circumstances and conditions including the limitations of the respective craft.

3.2.6.1.1

Converging. An aircraft which has another aircraft or a vessel on its right shall give way so as to keep well clear.

3.2.6.1.2

Approaching head-on. An aircraft approaching another aircraft or a vessel head-on, or approximately so, shall alter its heading to the right to keep well clear.

3.2.6.1.3

Overtaking. The aircraft or vessel which is being overtaken has the right of way, and the one overtaking shall alter its heading to keep well clear.

3.3.1.1

3.3.1

Submission of a flight plan

Information relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight, to be provided to air traffic services units, shall be in the form of a flight plan.

3.3.1.2

A flight plan shall be submitted prior to operating: a) any flight or portion thereof to be provided with air traffic control service; b) any IFR flight within advisory airspace; c) any flight within or into designated areas, or along designated routes, when so required by the appropriate

ATS authority to facilitate the provision of flight information, alerting and search and rescue services; d) any flight within or into designated areas, or along designated routes, when so required by the appropriate

ATS authority to facilitate co-ordination with appropriate military units or with air traffic services units in adjacent States in order to avoid the possible need for interception for the purpose of identification; e) any flight across international borders.

3.2.6.1.4

Landing and taking off. Aircraft landing on or taking off from the water shall, in so far as practicable, keep well clear of all vessels and avoid impeding their navigation.

3.2.6.2

Lights to be displayed by aircraft on the water.

Between sunset and sunrise or such other period between sunset and sunrise as may be prescribed by the appropriate

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10

Note.— The term “flight plan” is used to mean variously, full information on all items comprised in the flight plan description, covering the whole route of a flight, or limited information required when the purpose is to obtain a clearance for a minor portion of a flight such as to cross an airway, to take off from, or to land at a controlled aerodrome.

3.3.1.3

A flight plan shall be submitted before departure to an air traffic services reporting office or, during flight,

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transmitted to the appropriate air traffic services unit or airground control radio station, unless arrangements have been made for submission of repetitive flight plans.

3.3.1.4

Unless otherwise prescribed by the appropriate

ATS authority, a flight plan for a flight to be provided with air traffic control service or air traffic advisory service shall be submitted at least sixty minutes before departure, or, if submitted during flight, at a time which will ensure its receipt by the appropriate air traffic services unit at least ten minutes before the aircraft is estimated to reach: a) the intended point of entry into a control area or advisory area; or b) the point of crossing an airway or advisory route.

Note 2.— For flight plans submitted during flight, the information to be provided in respect of this item will be the time over the first point of the route to which the flight plan relates.

Note 3.— The term “aerodrome” where used in the flight plan is intended to cover also sites other than aerodromes which may be used by certain types of aircraft, e.g. helicopters or balloons.

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

3.3.2

Contents of a flight plan

A flight plan shall comprise information regarding such of the following items as are considered relevant by the appropriate

ATS authority:

3.3.3

Completion of a flight plan

3.3.3.1

Whatever the purpose for which it is submitted, a flight plan shall contain information, as applicable, on relevant items up to and including “Alternate aerodrome(s)” regarding the whole route or the portion thereof for which the flight plan is submitted.

3.3.3.2

It shall, in addition, contain information, as applicable, on all other items when so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority or when otherwise deemed necessary by the person submitting the flight plan.

— Aircraft identification

— Flight rules and type of flight

— Number and type(s) of aircraft and wake turbulence category

— Equipment

— Departure aerodrome (see Note 1)

— Estimated off-block time (see Note 2)

— Cruising speed(s)

3.3.4

Changes to a flight plan

Subject to the provisions of 3.6.2.2, all changes to a flight plan submitted for an IFR flight, or a VFR flight operated as a controlled flight, shall be reported as soon as practicable to the appropriate air traffic services unit. For other VFR flights, significant changes to a flight plan shall be reported as soon as practicable to the appropriate air traffic services unit.

Note 1.— Information submitted prior to departure regarding fuel endurance or total number of persons carried on board, if incorrect at time of departure, constitutes a significant change to the flight plan and as such must be reported.

Note 2.— Procedures for submission of changes to repetitive flight plans are contained in the PANS-RAC, Part II

(Doc 4444).

— Cruising level(s)

— Route to be followed

— Destination aerodrome and total estimated elapsed time

— Alternate aerodrome(s)

— Fuel endurance

— Total number of persons on board

— Emergency and survival equipment

— Other information.

Note 1.— For flight plans submitted during flight, the information provided in respect of this item will be an indication of the location from which supplementary information concerning the flight may be obtained, if required.

11

3.3.5

Closing a flight plan

3.3.5.1 Unless otherwise prescribed by the appropriate

ATS authority, a report of arrival shall be made in person, by radiotelephony or via data link at the earliest possible moment after landing, to the appropriate air traffic services unit at the arrival aerodrome, by any flight for which a flight plan has been submitted covering the entire flight or the remaining portion of a flight to the destination aerodrome.

3.3.5.2

When a flight plan has been submitted only in respect of a portion of a flight, other than the remaining portion of a flight to destination, it shall, when required, be closed by an appropriate report to the relevant air traffic services unit.

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Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

3.3.5.3

When no air traffic services unit exists at the arrival aerodrome, the arrival report, when required, shall be made as soon as practicable after landing and by the quickest means available to the nearest air traffic services unit.

3.3.5.4 When communication facilities at the arrival aerodrome are known to be inadequate and alternate arrangements for the handling of arrival reports on the ground are not available, the following action shall be taken.

Immediately prior to landing the aircraft shall, if practicable, transmit to the appropriate air traffic services unit, a message comparable to an arrival report, where such a report is required. Normally, this transmission shall be made to the aeronautical station serving the air traffic services unit in charge of the flight information region in which the aircraft is operated.

3.3.5.5

Arrival reports made by aircraft shall contain the following elements of information: a) aircraft identification; b) departure aerodrome; c) destination aerodrome (only in the case of a diversionary landing);

Note.— Such time check is normally obtained from an air traffic services unit unless other arrangements have been made by the operator or by the appropriate ATS authority.

3.5.3 Wherever time is utilized in the application of data link communications, it shall be accurate to within 1 second of

UTC.

3.6

Air traffic control service

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3.6.1

Air traffic control clearances

3.6.1.1

An air traffic control clearance shall be obtained prior to operating a controlled flight, or a portion of a flight as a controlled flight. Such clearance shall be requested through the submission of a flight plan to an air traffic control unit.

Note 1.— A flight plan may cover only part of a flight, as necessary, to describe that portion of the flight or those manoeuvres which are subject to air traffic control. A clearance may cover only part of a current flight plan, as indicated in a clearance limit or by reference to specific manoeuvres such as taxiing, landing or taking off.

d) arrival aerodrome; e) time of arrival.

Note.— Whenever an arrival report is required, failure to comply with these provisions may cause serious disruption in the air traffic services and incur great expense in carrying out unnecessary search and rescue operations.

3.4

Signals

3.4.1

Upon observing or receiving any of the signals given in Appendix 1, aircraft shall take such action as may be required by the interpretation of the signal given in that

Appendix.

Note 2.— If an air traffic control clearance is not satisfactory to a pilot-in-command of an aircraft, the pilot-incommand may request and, if practicable, will be issued an amended clearance.

3.6.1.2

Whenever an aircraft has requested a clearance involving priority, a report explaining the necessity for such priority shall be submitted, if requested by the appropriate air traffic control unit.

3.6.1.3

Potential reclearance in flight. If prior to departure it is anticipated that depending on fuel endurance and subject to reclearance in flight, a decision may be taken to proceed to a revised destination aerodrome, the appropriate air traffic control units shall be so notified by the insertion in the flight plan of information concerning the revised route (where known) and the revised destination.

3.4.2

The signals of Appendix 1 shall, when used, have the meaning indicated therein. They shall be used only for the purpose indicated and no other signals likely to be confused with them shall be used.

Note.— The intent of this provision is to facilitate a reclearance to a revised destination, normally beyond the filed destination aerodrome.

3.6.1.4

An aircraft operated on a controlled aerodrome shall not taxi on the manoeuvring area without clearance from the aerodrome control tower and shall comply with any instructions given by that unit.

3.5

Time

3.5.1 Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC) shall be used and shall be expressed in hours and minutes and, when required, seconds of the 24-hour day beginning at midnight.

3.5.2

A time check shall be obtained prior to operating a controlled flight and at such other times during the flight as may be necessary.

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3.6.2

Adherence to flight plan

3.6.2.1

Except as provided for in 3.6.2.2 and 3.6.2.4, an aircraft shall adhere to the current flight plan or the applicable portion of a current flight plan submitted for a controlled flight

Chapter 3

unless a request for a change has been made and clearance obtained from the appropriate air traffic control unit, or unless an emergency situation arises which necessitates immediate action by the aircraft, in which event as soon as circumstances permit, after such emergency authority is exercised, the appropriate air traffic services unit shall be notified of the action taken and that this action has been taken under emergency authority.

3.6.2.1.1

Unless otherwise authorized or directed by the appropriate air traffic control unit, controlled flights shall, in so far as practicable: a) when on an established ATS route, operate along the defined centre line of that route; or b) when on any other route, operate directly between the navigation facilities and/or points defining that route.

3.6.2.1.2

Subject to the overriding requirement in

3.6.2.1.1, an aircraft operating along an ATS route segment defined by reference to very high frequency omnidirectional radio ranges shall change over for its primary navigation guidance from the facility behind the aircraft to that ahead of it at, or as close as operationally feasible to, the change-over point, where established.

3.6.2.3

Intended changes. Requests for flight plan changes shall include information as indicated hereunder: a) Change of cruising level: aircraft identification; requested new cruising level and cruising speed at this level, revised time estimates (when applicable) at subsequent flight information region boundaries.

b) Change of route:

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

1) Destination unchanged: aircraft identification; flight rules; description of new route of flight including related flight plan data beginning with the position from which requested change of route is to commence; revised time estimates; any other pertinent information.

2) Destination changed: aircraft identification; flight rules; description of revised route of flight to revised destination aerodrome including related flight plan data, beginning with the position from which requested change of route is to commence; revised time estimates; alternate aerodrome(s); any other pertinent information.

3.6.2.4

Weather deterioration below the VMC. When it becomes evident that flight in VMC in accordance with its current flight plan will not be practicable, a VFR flight operated as a controlled flight shall: a) request an amended clearance enabling the aircraft to continue in VMC to destination or to an alternative aerodrome, or to leave the airspace within which an

ATC clearance is required; or

3.6.2.1.3

Deviation from the requirements in 3.6.2.1.1

shall be notified to the appropriate air traffic services unit.

3.6.2.2

Inadvertent changes. In the event that a controlled flight inadvertently deviates from its current flight plan, the following action shall be taken: a) Deviation from track: if the aircraft is off track, action shall be taken forthwith to adjust the heading of the aircraft to regain track as soon as practicable.

b) Variation in true airspeed: if the average true airspeed at cruising level between reporting points varies or is expected to vary by plus or minus 5 per cent of the true airspeed, from that given in the flight plan, the appropriate air traffic services unit shall be so informed.

b) if no clearance in accordance with a) can be obtained, continue to operate in VMC and notify the appropriate

ATC unit of the action being taken either to leave the airspace concerned or to land at the nearest suitable aerodrome; or c) if operated within a control zone, request authorization to operate as a special VFR flight; or d) request clearance to operate in accordance with the instrument flight rules.

c) Change in time estimate: if the time estimate for the next applicable reporting point, flight information region boundary or destination aerodrome, whichever comes first, is found to be in error in excess of three minutes from that notified to air traffic services, or such other period of time as is prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority or on the basis of air navigation regional agreements, a revised estimated time shall be notified as soon as possible to the appropriate air traffic services unit.

3.6.2.2.1 Additionally, when an ADS agreement is in place, the air traffic services unit (ATSU) shall be informed automatically via data link whenever changes occur beyond the threshold values stipulated by the ADS event contract.

13

3.6.3

Position reports

3.6.3.1 Unless exempted by the appropriate ATS authority or by the appropriate air traffic services unit under conditions specified by that authority, a controlled flight shall report to the appropriate air traffic services unit, as soon as possible, the time and level of passing each designated compulsory reporting point, together with any other required information.

Position reports shall similarly be made in relation to additional points when requested by the appropriate air traffic services unit. In the absence of designated reporting points,

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Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

position reports shall be made at intervals prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority or specified by the appropriate air traffic services unit.

3.6.3.1.1 Controlled flights providing position information to the appropriate air traffic services unit via data link communications shall only provide voice position reports when requested.

Note.— The conditions and circumstances in which SSR

Mode C transmission of pressure-altitude satisfies the requirement for level information in position reports are indicated in the PANS-RAC, Part II (Doc 4444).

Chapter 3

3.6.5.2.2

If in instrument meteorological conditions or when conditions are such that it does not appear feasible to complete the flight in accordance with 3.6.5.2.1 (see Note 1), the aircraft shall: a) unless otherwise prescribed on the basis of regional air navigation agreement, maintain the last assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 20 minutes following the aircraft’s failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan;

3.6.4

Termination of control

A controlled flight shall, except when landing at a controlled aerodrome, advise the appropriate ATC unit as soon as it ceases to be subject to air traffic control service.

3.6.5

Communications

3.6.5.1 An aircraft operated as a controlled flight shall maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel of, and establish two-way communication as necessary with, the appropriate air traffic control unit, except as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority in respect of aircraft forming part of aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome.

Note 1.— SELCAL or similar automatic signalling devices satisfy the requirement to maintain an air-ground voice communication watch.

Note 2.— The requirement for an aircraft to maintain airground voice communication watch remains in effect after

CPDLC has been established.

3.6.5.2

Communication failure. If a communication failure precludes compliance with 3.6.5.1, the aircraft shall comply with the communication failure procedures of Annex 10,

Volume II, and with such of the following procedures as are appropriate. In addition, the aircraft, when forming part of the aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome, shall keep a watch for such instructions as may be issued by visual signals.

3.6.5.2.1

If in visual meteorological conditions, the aircraft shall: a) continue to fly in visual meteorological conditions; b) land at the nearest suitable aerodrome; and b) proceed according to the current flight plan route to the appropriate designated navigation aid serving the destination aerodrome and, when required to ensure compliance with c) below, hold over this aid until commencement of descent; c) commence descent from the navigation aid specified in b) at, or as close as possible to, the expected approach time last received and acknowledged; or, if no expected approach time has been received and acknowledged, at, or as close as possible to, the estimated time of arrival resulting from the current flight plan; d) complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the designated navigation aid; and e) land, if possible, within thirty minutes after the estimated time of arrival specified in c) or the last acknowledged expected approach time, whichever is later.

Note 1.— As evidenced by the meteorological conditions prescribed therein, 3.6.5.2.1 relates to all controlled flights, whereas 3.6.5.2.2 relates only to IFR flights.

Note 2.— The provision of air traffic control service to other flights operating in the airspace concerned will be based on the premise that an aircraft experiencing communication failure will comply with the rules in 3.6.5.2.2.

Note 3.— See also 5.1.2.

3.7

Unlawful interference

An aircraft which is being subjected to unlawful interference shall endeavour to notify the appropriate ATS unit of this fact, any significant circumstances associated therewith and any deviation from the current flight plan necessitated by the circumstances, in order to enable the ATS unit to give priority to the aircraft and to minimize conflict with other aircraft.

c) report its arrival by the most expeditious means to the appropriate air traffic control unit.

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14

Note 1.— Responsibility of ATS units in situations of unlawful interference is contained in Annex 11.

Chapter 3

Note 2.— Guidance material for use when unlawful interference occurs and the aircraft is unable to notify an ATS unit of this fact is contained in Attachment B to this Annex.

Note 3.— Action to be taken by SSR-equipped aircraft which are being subjected to unlawful interference is contained in Annex 11, the PANS-RAC (Doc 4444) and the

PANS-OPS (Doc 8168).

Note 4.— Action to be taken by CPDLC-equipped aircraft which are being subjected to unlawful interference is contained in Annex 11, the PANS-RAC (Doc 4444), and

guidance material on the subject is contained in the Manual of

Air Traffic Services Data Link Applications (Doc 9694).

3.8

Interception

Note.— The word “interception” in this context does not include intercept and escort service provided, on request, to an aircraft in distress, in accordance with Volumes II and III

of the International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and

Rescue Manual (Doc 9731).

3.8.1

Interception of civil aircraft shall be governed by appropriate regulations and administrative directives issued by

Contracting States in compliance with the Convention on

International Civil Aviation, and in particular Article 3(d) under which Contracting States undertake, when issuing regulations for their State aircraft, to have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft. Accordingly, in drafting

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

appropriate regulations and administrative directives due regard shall be had to the provisions of Appendix 1, Section 2 and Appendix 2, Section 1.

Note.— Recognizing that it is essential for the safety of flight that any visual signals employed in the event of an interception which should be undertaken only as a last resort be correctly employed and understood by civil and military aircraft throughout the world, the Council of the International

Civil Aviation Organization, when adopting the visual signals in Appendix 1 to this Annex, urged Contracting States to ensure that they be strictly adhered to by their State aircraft.

As interceptions of civil aircraft are, in all cases, potentially hazardous, the Council has also formulated special recommendations which Contracting States are urged to apply in a uniform manner. These special recommendations are contained in Attachment A.

3.8.2

The pilot-in-command of a civil aircraft, when intercepted, shall comply with the Standards in Appendix 2,

Sections 2 and 3, interpreting and responding to visual signals as specified in Appendix 1, Section 2.

Note.— See also 2.1.1 and 3.4.

VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima

VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima are contained in Table 3-1.

3.9

15

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

Airspace class

Distance from cloud

Flight visibility

Table 3-1*

(see 4.1)

A***B C D E

ABOVE 900 m (3 000 ft)

AMSL or above 300 m

(1 000 ft) above terrain, whichever is the higher

1 500 m horizontally

300 m (1 000 ft) vertically

F G

At and below 900 m

(3 000 ft) AMSL or 300 m

(1 000 ft) above terrain, whichever is the higher

Clear of cloud and in sight of the surface

8 km at and above 3 050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL

5 km below 3 050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL

5 km**

* When the height of the transition altitude is lower than 3 050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL, FL 100 should be used in lieu of 10 000 ft.

** When so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority: a) lower flight visibilities to 1 500 m may be permitted for flights operating:

1) at speeds that, in the prevailing visibility, will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision; or

2) in circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low, e.g. in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at low levels.

b) HELICOPTERS may be permitted to operate in less than 1 500 m flight visibility, if manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision.

***The VMC minima in Class A airspace are included for guidance to pilots and do not imply acceptance of VFR flights in Class A airspace.

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16

CHAPTER 4.

VISUAL FLIGHT RULES

4.1

Except when operating as a special VFR flight, VFR flights shall be conducted so that the aircraft is flown in conditions of visibility and distance from clouds equal to or greater than those specified in Table 3-1.

4.2

Except when a clearance is obtained from an air traffic control unit, VFR flights shall not take off or land at an aerodrome within a control zone, or enter the aerodrome traffic zone or traffic pattern: a) when the ceiling is less than 450 m (1 500 ft); or b) when the ground visibility is less than 5 km.

4.3

VFR flights between sunset and sunrise, or such other period between sunset and sunrise as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, shall be operated in accordance with the conditions prescribed by such authority.

4.4

Unless authorized by the appropriate ATS authority,

VFR flights shall not be operated: a) above FL 200; b) at transonic and supersonic speeds.

4.5

Authorization for VFR flights to operate above FL 290 shall not be granted in areas where a vertical separation minimum of 300 m (1 000 ft) is applied above FL 290.

4.6

Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from the appropriate authority, a VFR flight shall not be flown: a) over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an open-air assembly of persons at a height less than 300 m (1 000 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m from the aircraft; b) elsewhere than as specified in 4.6 a), at a height less than 150 m (500 ft) above the ground or water.

Note.— See also 3.1.2.

4.7

Except where otherwise indicated in air traffic control clearances or specified by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights in level cruising flight when operated above 900 m

(3 000 ft) from the ground or water, or a higher datum as specified by the appropriate ATS authority, shall be conducted at a flight level appropriate to the track as specified in the

Tables of cruising levels in Appendix 3.

4.8

VFR flights shall comply with the provisions of 3.6: a) when operated within Classes B, C and D airspace; b) when forming part of aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes; or c) when operated as special VFR flights.

4.9 A VFR flight operating within or into areas, or along routes, designated by the appropriate ATS authority in accordance with 3.3.1.2 c) or d) shall maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel of, and report its position as necessary to, the air traffic services unit providing flight information service.

Note.— See Notes following 3.6.5.1.

4.10

An aircraft operated in accordance with the visual flight rules which wishes to change to compliance with the instrument flight rules shall: a) if a flight plan was submitted, communicate the necessary changes to be effected to its current flight plan, or b) when so required by 3.3.1.2, submit a flight plan to the appropriate air traffic services unit and obtain a clearance prior to proceeding IFR when in controlled airspace.

ANNEX

2

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CHAPTER 5.

INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES

5.1

Rules applicable to all IFR flights

5.1.1

Aircraft equipment

Aircraft shall be equipped with suitable instruments and with navigation equipment appropriate to the route to be flown.

5.1.2

Minimum levels

Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except when specifically authorized by the appropriate authority, an IFR flight shall be flown at a level which is not below the minimum flight altitude established by the State whose territory is overflown, or, where no such minimum flight altitude has been established: a) over high terrain or in mountainous areas, at a level which is at least 600 m (2 000 ft) above the highest obstacle located within 8 km of the estimated position of the aircraft; b) elsewhere than as specified in a), at a level which is at least 300 m (1 000 ft) above the highest obstacle located within 8 km of the estimated position of the aircraft.

Note 1.— The estimated position of the aircraft will take account of the navigational accuracy which can be achieved on the relevant route segment, having regard to the navigational facilities available on the ground and in the aircraft.

Note 2.— See also 3.1.2.

5.1.3

Change from IFR flight to VFR flight

5.1.3.1

An aircraft electing to change the conduct of its flight from compliance with the instrument flight rules to compliance with the visual flight rules shall, if a flight plan was submitted, notify the appropriate air traffic services unit specifically that the IFR flight is cancelled and communicate thereto the changes to be made to its current flight plan.

5.1.3.2

When an aircraft operating under the instrument flight rules is flown in or encounters visual meteorological conditions it shall not cancel its IFR flight unless it is anticipated, and intended, that the flight will be continued for a reasonable period of time in uninterrupted visual meteorological conditions.

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18

5.2

Rules applicable to IFR flights within controlled airspace

5.2.1

IFR flights shall comply with the provisions of 3.6

when operated in controlled airspace.

5.2.2

An IFR flight operating in cruising flight in controlled airspace shall be flown at a cruising level, or, if authorized to employ cruise climb techniques, between two levels or above a level, selected from: a) the Tables of cruising levels in Appendix 3, or b) a modified table of cruising levels, when so prescribed in accordance with Appendix 3 for flight above FL 410, except that the correlation of levels to track prescribed therein shall not apply whenever otherwise indicated in air traffic control clearances or specified by the appropriate ATS authority in Aeronautical Information Publications.

5.3

Rules applicable to IFR flights outside controlled airspace

5.3.1

Cruising levels

An IFR flight operating in level cruising flight outside of controlled airspace shall be flown at a cruising level appropriate to its track as specified in: a) the Tables of cruising levels in Appendix 3, except when otherwise specified by the appropriate ATS authority for flight at or below 900 m (3 000 ft) above mean sea level; or b) a modified table of cruising levels, when so prescribed in accordance with Appendix 3 for flight above FL 410.

Note.— This provision does not preclude the use of cruise climb techniques by aircraft in supersonic flight.

5.3.2 Communications

An IFR flight operating outside controlled airspace but within or into areas, or along routes, designated by the appropriate

ATS authority in accordance with 3.3.1.2 c) or d) shall

ANNEX

2

Chapter 5

maintain an air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel and establish two-way communication, as necessary, with the air traffic services unit providing flight information service.

Note.— See Notes following 3.6.5.1.

5.3.3 Position reports

An IFR flight operating outside controlled airspace and required by the appropriate ATS authority to:

— submit a flight plan,

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

— maintain an air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel and establish two-way communication, as necessary, with the air traffic services unit providing flight information service, shall report position as specified in 3.6.3 for controlled flights.

Note.— Aircraft electing to use the air traffic advisory service whilst operating IFR within specified advisory airspace are expected to comply with the provisions of 3.6, except that the flight plan and changes thereto are not subjected to clearances and that two-way communication will be maintained with the unit providing the air traffic advisory service.

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No. 34

APPENDIX 1. SIGNALS

(Note.— See Chapter 3, 3.4 of the Annex)

1.

DISTRESS AND URGENCY SIGNALS

Note 1.— None of the provisions in this section shall prevent the use, by an aircraft in distress, of any means at its disposal to attract attention, make known its position and obtain help.

transmitted by hand but its transmission by means of an automatic instrument is recommended.

Note 2.— For full details of telecommunication transmission procedures for the distress and urgency signals, see Annex 10,

Volume II, Chapter 5.

3270 The radiotelephone alarm signal consists of two substantially sinusoidal audio frequency tones transmitted alternately. One tone shall have a frequency of 2 200 Hz and the other a frequency of 1 300 Hz, the duration of each tone being 250 milliseconds.

Note 3.— For details of the search and rescue visual signals, see Annex 12.

1.1

Distress signals

3271 The radiotelephone alarm signal, when generated by automatic means, shall be sent continuously for a period of at least thirty seconds but not exceeding one minute; when generated by other means, the signal shall be sent as continuously as practicable over a period of approximately one minute.

The following signals, used either together or separately, mean that grave and imminent danger threatens, and immediate assistance is requested:

1.2

Urgency signals

a) a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signalling method consisting of the group SOS

(. . . — — — . . . in the Morse Code);

1.2.1

The following signals, used either together or separately, mean that an aircraft wishes to give notice of difficulties which compel it to land without requiring immediate assistance: b) a radiotelephony distress signal consisting of the spoken word MAYDAY; a) the repeated switching on and off of the landing lights; or c) a distress message sent via data link which transmits the intent of the word MAYDAY; b) the repeated switching on and off of the navigation lights in such manner as to be distinct from flashing navigation lights.

d) rockets or shells throwing red lights, fired one at a time at short intervals; e) a parachute flare showing a red light.

Note.— Article 41 of the ITU Radio Regulations (Nos. 3268,

3270 and 3271 refer) provides information on the alarm signals for actuating radiotelegraph and radiotelephone auto-alarm systems:

1.2.2

The following signals, used either together or separately, mean that an aircraft has a very urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or of some person on board or within sight: a) a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signalling method consisting of the group XXX;

3268 The radiotelegraph alarm signal consists of a series of twelve dashes sent in one minute, the duration of each dash being four seconds and the duration of the interval between consecutive dashes one second. It may be b) a radiotelephony urgency signal consisting of the spoken words PAN, PAN; c) an urgency message sent via data link which transmits the intent of the words PAN, PAN.

ANNEX

2

21

No. 34

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

2.

SIGNALS FOR USE IN THE EVENT OF INTERCEPTION

2.1

Signals initiated by intercepting aircraft and responses by intercepted aircraft

Appendix 1

Series

1

INTERCEPTING Aircraft Signals

DAY or NIGHT — Rocking aircraft and flashing navigational lights at irregular intervals (and landing lights in the case of a helicopter) from a position slightly above and ahead of, and normally to the left of, the intercepted aircraft (or to the right if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter) and, after acknowledgement, a slow level turn, normally to the left, (or to the right in the case of a helicopter) on the desired heading.

2

3

Note 1.— Meteorological conditions or terrain may require the intercepting aircraft to reverse the positions and direction of turn given above in Series 1.

Note 2.— If the intercepted aircraft is not able to keep pace with the intercepting aircraft, the latter is expected to fly a series of racetrack patterns and to rock the aircraft each time it passes the intercepted aircraft.

DAY or NIGHT — An abrupt break-away manoeuvre from the intercepted aircraft consisting of a climbing turn of 90 degrees or more without crossing the line of flight of the intercepted aircraft.

DAY or NIGHT — Lowering landing gear (if fitted), showing steady landing lights and overflying runway in use or, if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter, overflying the helicopter landing area. In the case of helicopters, the intercepting helicopter makes a landing approach, coming to hover near to the landing area.

Meaning

You have been intercepted.

Follow me.

You may proceed.

Land at this aerodrome.

INTERCEPTED Aircraft Responds

DAY or NIGHT — Rocking aircraft, flashing navigational lights at irregular intervals and following.

Note.— Additional action required to be taken by intercepted aircraft is prescribed in

Chapter 3, 3.8.

Meaning

Understood, will comply.

DAY or NIGHT — Rocking the aircraft.

Understood, will comply.

DAY or NIGHT — Lowering landing gear,

(if fitted), showing steady landing lights and following the intercepting aircraft and, if, after overflying the runway in use or helicopter landing area, landing is considered safe, proceeding to land.

Understood, will comply.

2.2

Signals initiated by intercepted aircraft and responses by intercepting aircraft

Series

4

5

6

INTERCEPTED Aircraft Signals

DAY or NIGHT — Raising landing gear (if fitted) and flashing landing lights while passing over runway in use or helicopter landing area at a height exceeding 300 m (1 000 ft) but not exceeding 600 m (2 000 ft) (in the case of a helicopter, at a height exceeding 50 m (170 ft) but not exceeding 100 m (330 ft)) above the aerodrome level, and continuing to circle runway in use or helicopter landing area. If unable to flash landing lights, flash any other lights available.

DAY or NIGHT — Regular switching on and off of all available lights but in such a manner as to be distinct from flashing lights.

DAY or NIGHT — Irregular flashing of all available lights.

Meaning

Aerodrome you have designated is inadequate.

Cannot comply.

In distress.

INTERCEPTING Aircraft Responds

DAY or NIGHT — If it is desired that the intercepted aircraft follow the intercepting aircraft to an alternate aerodrome, the intercepting aircraft raises its landing gear (if fitted) and uses the Series 1 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft.

If it is decided to release the intercepted aircraft, the intercepting aircraft uses the

Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft.

DAY or NIGHT — Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft.

DAY or NIGHT — Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft.

Meaning

Understood, follow me.

Understood, you may proceed.

Understood.

Understood.

14/11/91 22

Appendix 1

4.2.5

Directions for landing or take-off

4.2.5.1

A horizontal white or orange landing T (Figure

1.7) indicates the direction to be used by aircraft for landing and take-off, which shall be in a direction parallel to the shaft of the T towards the cross arm.

Note.— When used at night, the landing T is either illuminated or outlined in white coloured lights.

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

Figure 1.9

Figure 1.7

4.2.5.2

A set of two digits (Figure 1.8) displayed vertically at or near the aerodrome control tower indicates to aircraft on the manoeuvring area the direction for take-off, expressed in units of 10 degrees to the nearest 10 degrees of the magnetic compass.

4.2.7

Air traffic services reporting office

The letter C displayed vertically in black against a yellow background (Figure 1.10) indicates the location of the air traffic services reporting office.

Figure 1.10

Figure 1.8

4.2.8

Glider flights in operation

A double white cross displayed horizontally (Figure 1.11) in the signal area indicates that the aerodrome is being used by gliders and that glider flights are being performed.

4.2.6

Right-hand traffic

When displayed in a signal area, or horizontally at the end of the runway or strip in use, a right-hand arrow of conspicuous colour (Figure 1.9) indicates that turns are to be made to the right before landing and after take-off.

Figure 1.11

25 14/11/91

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

5.

MARSHALLING SIGNALS

5.1

From a signalman to an aircraft

Note 1.— These signals are designed for use by the signalman, with hands illuminated as necessary to facilitate observation by the pilot, and facing the aircraft in a position:

a) for fixed-wing aircraft, forward of the left-wing tip

within view of the pilot; and

b) for helicopters, where the signalman can best be seen by

the pilot.

Note 2.— The meaning of the relevant signals remains the same if bats, illuminated wands or torchlights are held.

Note 3.— The aircraft engines are numbered, for the signalman facing the aircraft, from right to left (i.e. No. 1 engine being the port outer engine).

Note 4.— Signals marked with an asterisk are designed for use to hovering helicopters.

5.1.1

Prior to using the following signals, the signalman shall ascertain that the area within which an aircraft is to be guided is clear of objects which the aircraft, in complying with

3.4.1, might otherwise strike.

Note.— The design of many aircraft is such that the path of the wing tips, engines and other extremities cannot always be monitored visually from the flight deck while the aircraft is being manoeuvred on the ground.

Arms above head in vertical position with palms facing inward.

2.

This bay

3.

Proceed to next signalman

Right or left arm down, other arm moved across the body and extended to indicate direction of next signalman.

Appendix 1

1.

To proceed under further guidance by signalman

Signalman directs pilot if traffic conditions on aerodrome require this action.

4.

Arms a little aside, palms facing backward and repeatedly moved upward-backward from shoulder height.

Move ahead

14/11/91 26

Appendix 1

5.

Turn a) Turn to your left: right arm downward, left arm repeatedly moved upwardbackward. Speed of arm movement indi-cating rate of turn.

b) Turn to your right: left arm downward, right arm repeatedly moved upwardbackward. Speed of arm movement indi-cating rate of turn.

Arms repeatedly crossed above head

(the rapidity of the arm movement should be related to the urgency of the stop, i.e. the faster the movement the quicker the stop).

6.

Stop a) Engage brakes: raise arm and hand, with fingers extended, horizontally in front of body, then clench fist. b) Release brakes: raise arm, with fist clenched, horizontally in front of body, then extend fingers.

7.

Brakes

27

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

a) Chocks inserted: arms down, palms facing inwards, move arms from extended position inwards.

b) Chocks removed: arms down, palms facing outwards, move arms outwards.

8.

Chocks

9.

Start engine(s)

Left hand overhead with appropriate number of fingers extended, to indicate the number of the engine to be started, and circular motion of right hand at head level.

10.

Cut engines

Either arm and hand level with shoulder, hand across throat, palm downward. The hand is moved sideways with the arm remaining bent.

11.

Slow down

Arms down with palms toward ground, then moved up and down several times.

14/11/91

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

12.

Slow down engine(s) on indicated side

Arms down with palms toward ground, then either right or left hand waved up and down indicating the left or

right side engine(s) respectively should be slowed down.

13.

Move back

Arms by sides, palms facing forward, swept forward and upward repeatedly to shoulder height.

Right arm raised at elbow with thumb erect.

15.

All clear

Arms extended horizontally sideways.

*16.

Hover

Appendix 1

14.

Turns while backing a) For tail to starboard: point left arm down, and right arm brought from overhead, vertical position to horizontal forward position, repeating right arm movement. b) For tail to port: point right arm down, and left arm brought from overhead, vertical position to horizontal forward position, repeating left arm movement.

*17.

Move upwards

Arms extended horizontally to the side beckoning upwards, with palms turned up.

Speed of movement indicates rate of ascent.

*18.

Move downwards

Arms extended horizontally to the side beckoning downwards, with palms turned down. Speed of movement indicates rate of descent.

14/11/91 28

Appendix 1

*19.

Move horizontally

Appropriate arm extended horizontally sideways in direction of movement and other arm moved in front of body in same direction, in a repeating movement.

Arms crossed and extended downwards in front of the body.

*20.

Land

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

5.2

From the pilot of an aircraft to a signalman

Note 1.— These signals are designed for use by a pilot in the cockpit with hands plainly visible to the signalman, and illuminated as necessary to facilitate observation by the signalman.

Note 2.— The aircraft engines are numbered in relation to the signalman facing the aircraft, from right to left (i.e. No. 1 engine being the port outer engine).

5.2.1

Brakes

Note.— The moment the fist is clenched or the fingers are extended indicates, respectively, the moment of brake engagement or release.

a) Brakes engaged: raise arm and hand, with fingers extended, horizontally in front of face, then clench fist.

b) Brakes released: raise arm, with fist clenched, horizontally in front of face, then extend fingers.

5.2.2

Chocks a) Insert chocks: arms extended, palms outwards, move hands inwards to cross in front of face.

b) Remove chocks: hands crossed in front of face, palms outwards, move arms outwards.

5.2.3

Ready to start engine(s)

Raise the appropriate number of fingers on one hand indicating the number of the engine to be started.

29 14/11/91

APPENDIX 2.

INTERCEPTION OF CIVIL AIRCRAFT

(Note.— See Chapter 3, 3.8 of the Annex)

1.

Principles to be observed by States

1.1

To achieve the uniformity in regulations which is necessary for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft due regard shall be had by Contracting States to the following principles when developing regulations and administrative directives: a) interception of civil aircraft will be undertaken only as a last resort; b) if undertaken, an interception will be limited to determining the identity of the aircraft, unless it is necessary to return the aircraft to its planned track, direct it beyond the boundaries of national airspace, guide it away from a prohibited, restricted or danger area or instruct it to effect a landing at a designated aerodrome; c) practice interception of civil aircraft will not be undertaken; d) navigational guidance and related information will be given to an intercepted aircraft by radiotelephony, whenever radio contact can be established; and e) in the case where an intercepted civil aircraft is required to land in the territory overflown, the aerodrome designated for the landing is to be suitable for the safe landing of the aircraft type concerned.

Note.— In the unanimous adoption by the 25th Session

(Extraordinary) of the ICAO Assembly on 10 May 1984 of

Article 3 bis to the Convention on International Civil Aviation,

the Contracting States have recognized that “every State must refrain from resorting to the use of weapons against civil aircraft in flight.”

1.2

Contracting States shall publish a standard method that has been established for the manoeuvring of aircraft intercepting a civil aircraft. Such method shall be designed to avoid any hazard for the intercepted aircraft.

Note.— Special recommendations regarding a method for the manoeuvring are contained in Attachment A, Section 3.

1.3

Contracting States shall ensure that provision is made for the use of secondary surveillance radar, where available, to identify civil aircraft in areas where they may be subject to interception.

14/11/91 30

2.

Action by intercepted aircraft

2.1

An aircraft which is intercepted by another aircraft shall immediately: a) follow the instructions given by the intercepting aircraft, interpreting and responding to visual signals in accordance with the specifications in Appendix 1; b) notify, if possible, the appropriate air traffic services unit; c) attempt to establish radiocommunication with the intercepting aircraft or with the appropriate intercept control unit, by making a general call on the emergency frequency 121.5 MHz, giving the identity of the intercepted aircraft and the nature of the flight; and if no contact has been established and if practicable, repeating this call on the emergency frequency 243 MHz; d) if equipped with SSR transponder, select Mode A, Code

7700, unless otherwise instructed by the appropriate air traffic services unit.

2.2

If any instructions received by radio from any sources conflict with those given by the intercepting aircraft by visual signals, the intercepted aircraft shall request immediate clarification while continuing to comply with the visual instructions given by the intercepting aircraft.

2.3

If any instructions received by radio from any sources conflict with those given by the intercepting aircraft by radio, the intercepted aircraft shall request immediate clarification while continuing to comply with the radio instructions given by the intercepting aircraft.

3.

Radiocommunication during interception

If radio contact is established during interception but communication in a common language is not possible, attempts shall be made to convey instructions, acknowledgement of instructions and essential information by using the phrases and pronunciations in Table 2.1 and transmitting each phrase twice:

ANNEX

2

Appendix 2

Phrases for use by INTERCEPTING aircraft

Pronunciation

1

Meaning Phrase

CALL SIGN KOL SA-IN

FOLLOW

DESCEND

FOL-LO

DEE-SEND

What is your call sign?

Follow me

Descend for landing

YOU LAND YOU LAAND Land at this aerodrome

PROCEED PRO-SEED You may proceed

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

Table 2.1

Phrases for use by INTERCEPTED aircraft

Pronunciation

1

Meaning Phrase

CALL SIGN KOL SA-IN

(call sign)

2

(call sign)

VILL-KO WILCO

Will comply

CAN NOT

REPEAT

AM LOST

KANN NOTT

REE-PEET

AM LOSST

My call sign is (call sign)

Understood

Unable to comply

Repeat your instruction

Position unknown

MAYDAY

HIJACK

3

MAYDAY

HI-JACK

I am in distress

I have been hijacked

LAND LAAND I request to land at

(place name) (place name) (place name)

DESCEND DEE-SEND I require descent

1. In the second column, syllables to be emphasized are underlined.

2. The call sign required to be given is that used in radiotelephony communications with air traffic services units and corresponding to the aircraft identification in the flight plan.

3. Circumstances may not always permit, nor make desirable, the use of the phrase “HIJACK”.

31 14/11/91

APPENDIX 3.

TABLES OF CRUISING LEVELS

The cruising levels to be observed when so required by this Annex are as follows: a) in areas where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreement and in accordance with conditions specified therein, a vertical separation minimum (VSM) of 300 m (1 000 ft) is applied between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive:*

210

230

250

270

290

110

130

150

170

190

TRACK**

–90

10

30

50

70

90

FL

From 000 degrees to 179 degrees***

IFR Flights

Altitude

Metres Feet FL

VFR Flights

Altitude

Metres Feet

300

900

1 500

2 150

2 750

3 000

5 000

7 000

9 000

35

55

75

95

– –

– –

1 050

1 700

3 500

5 500

2 300

2 900

7 500

9 500

0

20

40

60

80

100

FL

From 180 degrees to 359 degrees***

IFR Flights

Altitude

Metres Feet FL

VFR Flights

Altitude

Metres Feet

600

1 200

1 850

2 450

4 000

6 000

8 000

3 050 10 000

45

65

85

105

– –

– –

1 350

2 000

4 500

6 500

2 600 8 500

3 200 10 500

3 350

3 950

4 550

5 200

5 800

11 000

13 000

15 000

17 000

19 000

6 400 21 000

7 000 23 000

7 600 25 000

8 250 27 000

8 850 29 000

115

135

155

175

195

215

235

255

275

3 500

4 100

4 700

5 350

5 950

11 500

13 500

15 500

17 500

19 500

6 550 21 500

7 150 23 500

7 750 25 500

8 400 27 500

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

280

300

3 650

4 250

4 900

5 500

6 100

6 700 22 000

7 300 24 000

7 900 26 000

8 550 28 000

9 150

12 000

14 000

16 000

18 000

20 000

30 000

125

145

165

185

205

225

245

265

285

3 800

4 400

5 050

5 650

6 250

12 500

14 500

16 500

18 500

20 500

6 850 22 500

7 450 24 500

8 100 26 500

8 700 28 500

310

330

350

370

390

410

450

490 etc.

9 450 31 000

10 050 33 000

10 650 35 000

11 300 37 000

11 900 39 000

12 500 41 000

13 700 45 000

14 950 49 000 etc. etc.

320

340

360

380

400

430

470

510 etc.

9 750 32 000

10 350 34 000

10 950 36 000

11 600 38 000

12 200 40 000

13 100 43 000

14 350 47 000

15 550 51 000 etc. etc.

* Except when, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, a modified table of cruising levels based on a nominal vertical separation minimum of 300 m (1 000 ft) is prescribed for use, under specified conditions, by aircraft operating above FL 410 within designated portions of the airspace.

** Magnetic track, or in polar areas at latitudes higher than 70 degrees and within such extensions to those areas as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities, grid tracks as determined by a network of lines parallel to the Greenwich Meridian superimposed on a polar stereographic chart in which the direction towards the North Pole is employed as the Grid North.

*** Except where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, from 090 to 269 degrees and from 270 to 089 degrees is prescribed to accommodate predominant traffic directions and appropriate transition procedures to be associated therewith are specified.

Note.— Guidance material relating to vertical separation is contained in the Manual on Implementation of a 300 m (1 000 ft)

Vertical Separation Minimum Between FL 290 and FL 410 Inclusive (Doc 9574).

10/11/94

No. 31

32

ANNEX

2

Appendix 3

b) in other areas:

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

210

230

250

270

290

110

130

150

170

190

330

370

TRACK*

–90

10

30

50

70

90

FL

From 000 degrees to 179 degrees**

IFR Flights

Altitude

Metres Feet FL

VFR Flights

Altitude

Metres Feet

300

900

1 500

2 150

2 750

3 000

5 000

7 000

9 000

35

55

75

95

– –

– –

1 050

1 700

3 500

5 500

2 300

2 900

7 500

9 500

0

20

40

60

80

100

FL

From 180 degrees to 359 degrees**

IFR Flights

Altitude

Metres Feet FL

VFR Flights

Altitude

Metres Feet

600

1 200

1 850

2 450

4 000

6 000

8 000

3 050 10 000

45

65

85

105

– –

– –

1 350

2 000

4 500

6 500

2 600 8 500

3 200 10 500

3 350

3 950

4 550

5 200

5 800

8 850

10 050

11 300

11 000

13 000

15 000

17 000

19 000

6 400 21 000

7 000 23 000

7 600 25 000

8 250 27 000

29 000

33 000

37 000

115

135

155

175

195

215

235

255

275

300

340

380

3 500

4 100

4 700

5 350

5 950

6 550 21 500

7 150 23 500

7 750 25 500

8 400 27 500

9 150

10 350

11 600

11 500

13 500

15 500

17 500

19 500

30 000

34 000

38 000

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

280

310

350

390

3 650

4 250

4 900

5 500

6 100

12 000

14 000

16 000

18 000

20 000

6 700 22 000

7 300 24 000

7 900 26 000

8 550 28 000

9 450

10 650

11 900

31 000

35 000

39 000

125

145

165

185

205

225

245

265

285

320

360

400

3 800

4 400

5 050

5 650

6 250

10 950

12 200

12 500

14 500

16 500

18 500

20 500

6 850 22 500

7 450 24 500

8 100 26 500

8 700 28 500

9 750 32 000

36 000

40 000

410

450

490 etc.

12 500 41 000

13 700 45 000

14 950 49 000 etc. etc.

420

460

500 etc.

12 800 42 000

14 000 46 000

15 250 50 000 etc. etc.

430

470

510 etc.

13 100 43 000

14 350 47 000

15 550 51 000 etc. etc.

440

480

520 etc.

13 400 44 000

14 650 48 000

15 850 52 000 etc. etc.

* Magnetic track, or in polar areas at latitudes higher than 70 degrees and within such extensions to those areas as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities, grid tracks as determined by a network of lines parallel to the Greenwich Meridian superimposed on a polar stereographic chart in which the direction towards the North Pole is employed as the Grid North.

** Except where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, from 090 to 269 degrees and from 270 to 089 degrees is prescribed to accommodate predominant traffic directions and appropriate transition procedures to be associated therewith are specified.

Note.— Guidance material relating to vertical separation is contained in the Manual on Implementation of a 300 m (1 000 ft)

Vertical Separation Minimum Between FL 290 and FL 410 Inclusive (Doc 9574).

10/11/94

No. 31

APPENDIX 4.

UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS

(Note.— See Chapter 3, 3.1.9 of the Annex)

1.

Classification of unmanned free balloons

Unmanned free balloons shall be classified as: a) light: an unmanned free balloon which carries a payload of one or more packages with a combined mass of less than 4 kg, unless qualifying as a heavy balloon in accordance with c) 2), 3) or 4) below; or b) medium: an unmanned free balloon which carries a payload of two or more packages with a combined mass of 4 kg or more, but less than 6 kg, unless qualifying as a heavy balloon in accordance with c) 2), 3) or 4) below; or c) heavy: an unmanned free balloon which carries a payload which:

1) has a combined mass of 6 kg or more; or

2) includes a package of 3 kg or more; or

3) includes a package of 2 kg or more with an area density of more than 13 g per square centimetre; or

4) uses a rope or other device for suspension of the

surface.

payload that requires an impact force of 230 N or more to separate the suspended payload from the balloon.

Note 1.— The area density referred to in c) 3) is determined by dividing the total mass in grams of the payload package by the area in square centimetres of its smallest

Note 2.— See Figure 4.1.

2.

General operating rules

2.1

An unmanned free balloon shall not be operated without appropriate authorization from the State from which the launch is made.

2.2

An unmanned free balloon, other than a light balloon used exclusively for meteorological purposes and operated in the manner prescribed by the appropriate authority, shall not be operated across the territory of another State without appropriate authorization from the other State concerned.

ANNEX

2

33

2.3

2.4

The authorization referred to in 2.2 shall be obtained prior to the launching of the balloon if there is reasonable expectation, when planning the operation, that the balloon may drift into airspace over the territory of another State. Such authorization may be obtained for a series of balloon flights or for a particular type of recurring flight, e.g. atmospheric research balloon flights.

An unmanned free balloon shall be operated in accordance with conditions specified by the State of Registry and the State(s) expected to be overflown.

2.5

An unmanned free balloon shall not be operated in such a manner that impact of the balloon, or any part thereof, including its payload, with the surface of the earth, creates a hazard to persons or property not associated with the operation.

2.6

A heavy unmanned free balloon shall not be operated over the high seas without prior co-ordination with the appropriate ATS authority.

3.

Operating limitations and equipment requirements

3.1

A heavy unmanned free balloon shall not be operated without authorization from the appropriate ATS authority at or through any level below 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressurealtitude at which: a) there are clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than four oktas coverage; or b) the horizontal visibility is less than 8 km.

3.2

A heavy or medium unmanned free balloon shall not be released in a manner that will cause it to fly lower than

300 m (1 000 ft) over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or an open-air assembly of persons not associated with the operation.

3.3

A heavy unmanned free balloon shall not be operated unless: a) it is equipped with at least two payload flighttermination devices or systems, whether automatic or operated by telecommand, that operate independently of each other;

No. 31

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 4

14/11/91

Figure 4.1

Classification of unmanned free balloons

34

Appendix 4

b) for polyethylene zero-pressure balloons, at least two methods, systems, devices, or combinations thereof, that function independently of each other are employed for terminating the flight of the balloon envelope;

Note.— Superpressure balloons do not require these devices as they quickly rise after payload discharge and burst without the need for a device or system designed to puncture the balloon envelope. In this context a superpressure balloon is a simple non-extensible envelope capable of withstanding a differential of pressure, higher inside than out. It is inflated so that the smaller night-time pressure of the gas still fully extends the envelope. Such a superpressure balloon will keep essentially constant level until too much gas diffuses out of it.

c) the balloon envelope is equipped with either a radar reflective device(s) or radar reflective material that will present an echo to surface radar operating in the 200

MHz to 2 700 MHz frequency range, and/or the balloon is equipped with such other devices as will permit continuous tracking by the operator beyond the range of ground-based radar.

3.4

A heavy unmanned free balloon shall not be operated in an area where ground-based SSR equipment is in use, unless it is equipped with a secondary surveillance radar transponder, with altitude reporting capability, which is continuously operating on an assigned code, or which can be turned on when necessary by the tracking station.

3.5

An unmanned free balloon that is equipped with a trailing antenna that requires a force of more than 230 N to break it at any point, shall not be operated unless the antenna has coloured pennants or streamers that are attached at not more than 15 m intervals.

3.6

A heavy unmanned free balloon shall not be operated below 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude between sunset and sunrise or such other period between sunset and sunrise

(corrected to the altitude of operation) as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, unless the balloon and its attachments and payload, whether or not they become separated during the operation, are lighted.

3.7

A heavy unmanned free balloon that is equipped with a suspension device (other than a highly conspicuously coloured open parachute) more than 15 m long, shall not be operated between sunrise and sunset below 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude unless the suspension device is coloured in alternate bands of high conspicuity colours or has coloured pennants attached.

4. Termination

The operator of a heavy unmanned free balloon shall activate the appropriate termination devices required by 3.3 a) and b) above: another State’s territory.

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

a) when it becomes known that weather conditions are less than those prescribed for the operation; b) if a malfunction or any other reason makes further operation hazardous to air traffic or to persons or property on the surface; or c) prior to unauthorized entry into the airspace over

5.

Flight notification

35

5.1

Pre-flight notification

5.1.1

Early notification of the intended flight of an unmanned free balloon in the medium or heavy category, shall be made to the appropriate air traffic services unit not less than seven days before the date of the intended flight.

5.1.2

Notification of the intended flight shall include such of the following information as may be required by the appropriate air traffic services unit: a) balloon flight identification or project code name; b) balloon classification and description; c) SSR code or NDB frequency as applicable; d) operator’s name and telephone number; e) launch site; f) estimated time of launch (or time of commencement and completion of multiple launches); g) number of balloons to be launched and the scheduled interval between launches (if multiple launches); h) expected direction of ascent; i) cruising level(s) (pressure-altitude); j) the estimated elapsed time to pass 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude or to reach cruising level if at or below

18 000 m (60 000 ft), together with the estimated location;

Note.— If the operation consists of continuous launchings, the time to be included is the estimated time at which the first and the last in the series will reach the appropriate level (e.g. 122136Z-130330Z).

k) the estimated date and time of termination of the flight and the planned location of the impact/recovery area. In the case of balloons carrying out flights of long

14/11/91

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

duration, as a result of which the date and time of termination of the flight and the location of impact cannot be forecast with accuracy, the term “long duration” shall be used.

Note.— If there is to be more than one location of impact/recovery, each location is to be listed together with the appropriate estimated time of impact. If there is to be a series of continuous impacts, the time to be included is the estimated time of the first and the last in the series (e.g. 070330Z-072300Z).

5.1.3

Any changes in the pre-launch information notified in accordance with 5.1.2 above shall be forwarded to the air traffic services unit concerned not less than 6 hours before the estimated time of launch, or in the case of solar or cosmic disturbance investigations involving a critical time element, not less than 30 minutes before the estimated time of the commencement of the operation.

b) launch site;

5.2

Notification of launch

Immediately after a medium or heavy unmanned free balloon is launched the operator shall notify the appropriate air traffic services unit of the following: a) balloon flight identification; c) actual time of launch; d) estimated time at which 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressurealtitude will be passed, or the estimated time at which the cruising level will be reached if at or below 18 000 m

(60 000 ft), and the estimated location; and e) any changes to the information previously notified in accordance with 5.1.2 g) and h).

5.3

Notification of cancellation

The operator shall notify the appropriate air traffic services unit immediately it is known that the intended flight of a

Appendix 4

medium or heavy unmanned free balloon, previously notified in accordance with 5.1, has been cancelled.

6.

Position recording and reports

6.1

The operator of a heavy unmanned free balloon operating at or below 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude shall monitor the flight path of the balloon and forward reports of the balloon’s position as requested by air traffic services.

Unless air traffic services require reports of the balloon’s position at more frequent intervals, the operator shall record the position every 2 hours.

6.2

The operator of a heavy unmanned free balloon operating above 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude shall monitor the flight progress of the balloon and forward reports of the balloon’s position as requested by air traffic services.

Unless air traffic services require reports of the balloon’s position at more frequent intervals, the operator shall record the position every 24 hours.

6.3

If a position cannot be recorded in accordance with

6.1 and 6.2, the operator shall immediately notify the appropriate air traffic services unit. This notification shall include the last recorded position. The appropriate air traffic services unit shall be notified immediately when tracking of the balloon is re-established.

6.4

One hour before the beginning of planned descent of a heavy unmanned free balloon, the operator shall forward to the appropriate ATS unit the following information regarding the balloon: a) the current geographical position; b) the current level (pressure-altitude); c) the forecast time of penetration of 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude, if applicable; d) the forecast time and location of ground impact.

6.5

The operator of a heavy or medium unmanned free balloon shall notify the appropriate air traffic services unit when the operation is ended.

14/11/91 36

ATTACHMENT A.

INTERCEPTION OF CIVIL AIRCRAFT

(Note.— See Chapter 3, 3.8 of the Annex and associated Note)

Note.— In the interest of completeness, the substance of the provisions in Appendix 2 to the Annex is incorporated in this

Attachment.

1.

In accordance with Article 3 d) of the Convention on

International Civil Aviation the Contracting States of ICAO

“undertake, when issuing regulations for their state aircraft, that they will have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft”. As interceptions of civil aircraft are, in all cases, potentially hazardous, the Council of ICAO has formulated the following special recommendations which

Contracting States are urged to implement through appropriate regulatory and administrative action. The uniform application by all concerned is considered essential in the interest of safety of civil aircraft and their occupants. For this reason the Council of ICAO invites Contracting States to notify ICAO of any differences which may exist between their national regulations or practices and the special recommendations hereunder.

2.

General

2.1

Interception of civil aircraft should be avoided and should be undertaken only as a last resort. If undertaken, the interception should be limited to determining the identity of the aircraft, unless it is necessary to return the aircraft to its planned track, direct it beyond the boundaries of national airspace, guide it away from a prohibited, restricted or danger area or instruct it to effect a landing at a designated aerodrome.

Practice interception of civil aircraft is not to be undertaken.

2.2

To eliminate or reduce the need for interception of civil aircraft, it is important that: a) all possible efforts be made by intercept control units to secure identification of any aircraft which may be a civil aircraft, and to issue any necessary instructions or advice to such aircraft, through the appropriate air traffic services units. To this end, it is essential that means of rapid and reliable communications between intercept control units and air traffic services units be established and that agreements be formulated concerning exchanges of information between such units on the movements of civil aircraft, in accordance with the provisions of Annex 11;

ANNEX

2

37

b) areas prohibited to all civil flights and areas in which civil flight is not permitted without special authorization by the State be clearly promulgated in aeronautical information publications (AIP) in accordance with the provisions of Annex 15, together with the risk, if any, of interception in the event of penetration of such areas.

When delineating such areas in close proximity to promulgated ATS routes, or other frequently used tracks, States should take into account the availability and over-all systems accuracy of the navigation systems to be used by civil aircraft and their ability to remain clear of the delineated areas; c) the establishment of additional navigation aids be considered where necessary to ensure that civil aircraft are able safely to circumnavigate prohibited or, as required, restricted areas.

2.3

To eliminate or reduce the hazards inherent in interceptions undertaken as a last resort, all possible efforts should be made to ensure co-ordinated actions by the pilots and ground units concerned. To this end, it is essential that

Contracting States take steps to ensure that: a) all pilots of civil aircraft be made fully aware of the actions to be taken by them and the visual signals to be used, as specified in Chapter 3 and Appendix 1 of this

Annex; b) operators or pilots-in-command of civil aircraft implement the provisions in Annex 6, Parts I, II and III regarding the capability of aircraft to communicate on

121.5 MHz and the availability of interception procedures and visual signals on board aircraft; c) all air traffic services personnel be made fully aware of the actions to be taken by them in accordance with the provisions of Annex 11, Chapter 2 and the PANS-RAC

(Doc 4444); d) all pilots-in-command of intercepting aircraft be made aware of the general performance limitations of civil aircraft and of the possibility that intercepted civil aircraft may be in a state of emergency due to technical difficulties or unlawful interference; e) clear and unambiguous instructions be issued to intercept control units and to pilots-in-command of potential intercepting aircraft, covering interception manoeuvres, guidance of intercepted aircraft, action by

14/11/91

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

intercepted aircraft, air-to-air visual signals, radiocommunication with intercepted aircraft, and the need to refrain from resorting to the use of weapons;

Note.— See paragraphs 3 to 8.

f) intercept control units and intercepting aircraft be provided with radiotelephony equipment compatible with the technical specifications of Annex 10, Volume I so as to enable them to communicate with intercepted aircraft on the emergency frequency 121.5 MHz; g) secondary surveillance radar facilities be made available to the extent possible to permit intercept control units to identify civil aircraft in areas where they might otherwise be intercepted. Such facilities should permit recognition of discrete four-digit codes in Mode A, including immediate recognition of Mode A, Codes

7500, 7600 and 7700.

Attachment A

level, until no closer than absolutely necessary to obtain the information needed. The element leader, or the single intercepting aircraft, should use caution to avoid startling the flight crew or the passengers of the intercepted aircraft, keeping constantly in mind the fact that manoeuvres considered normal to an intercepting aircraft may be considered hazardous to passengers and crews of civil aircraft.

Any other participating aircraft should continue to stay well clear of the intercepted aircraft. Upon completion of identification, the intercepting aircraft should withdraw from the vicinity of the intercepted aircraft as outlined in Phase III.

Phase III

The element leader, or the single intercepting aircraft, should break gently away from the intercepted aircraft in a shallow dive. Any other participating aircraft should stay well clear of the intercepted aircraft and rejoin their leader.

3.

Interception manoeuvres

3.1

A standard method should be established for the manoeuvring of aircraft intercepting a civil aircraft in order to avoid any hazard for the intercepted aircraft. Such method should take due account of the performance limitations of civil aircraft, the need to avoid flying in such proximity to the intercepted aircraft that a collision hazard may be created and the need to avoid crossing the aircraft’s flight path or to perform any other manoeuvre in such a manner that the wake turbulence may be hazardous, particularly if the intercepted aircraft is a light aircraft.

3.2

Manoeuvres for visual identification

The following method is recommended for the manoeuvring of intercepting aircraft for the purpose of visually identifying a civil aircraft:

Phase I

The intercepting aircraft should approach the intercepted aircraft from astern. The element leader, or the single intercepting aircraft, should normally take up a position on the left (port) side, slightly above and ahead of the intercepted aircraft, within the field of view of the pilot of the intercepted aircraft, and initially not closer to the aircraft than 300 m. Any other participating aircraft should stay well clear of the intercepted aircraft, preferably above and behind. After speed and position have been established, the aircraft should, if necessary, proceed with Phase II of the procedure.

Phase II

The element leader, or the single intercepting aircraft, should begin closing in gently on the intercepted aircraft, at the same

14/11/91 38

3.3

Manoeuvres for navigational guidance

3.3.1

If, following the identification manoeuvres in Phase

I and Phase II above, it is considered necessary to intervene in the navigation of the intercepted aircraft, the element leader, or the single intercepting aircraft, should normally take up a position on the left (port) side, slightly above and ahead of the intercepted aircraft, to enable the pilot-in-command of the latter aircraft to see the visual signals given.

3.3.2

It is indispensable that the pilot-in-command of the intercepting aircraft be satisfied that the pilot-in-command of the intercepted aircraft is aware of the interception and acknowledges the signals given. If repeated attempts to attract the attention of the pilot-in-command of the intercepted aircraft by use of the Series 1 signal in Appendix 1, Section 2 are unsuccessful, other methods of signalling may be used for this purpose, including as a last resort the visual effect of the reheat/afterburner, provided that no hazard is created for the intercepted aircraft.

3.4

It is recognized that meteorological conditions or terrain may occasionally make it necessary for the element leader, or the single intercepting aircraft, to take up a position on the right (starboard) side, slightly above and ahead of the intercepted aircraft. In such case, the pilot-in-command of the intercepting aircraft must take particular care that the intercepting aircraft is clearly visible at all times to the pilotin-command of the intercepted aircraft.

4.

Guidance of an intercepted aircraft

4.1

Navigational guidance and related information should be given to an intercepted aircraft by radiotelephony, whenever radio contact can be established.

Attachment A

4.2

When navigational guidance is given to an intercepted aircraft, care must be taken that the aircraft is not led into conditions where the visibility may be reduced below that required to maintain flight in visual meteorological conditions and that the manoeuvres demanded of the intercepted aircraft do not add to already existing hazards in the event that the operating efficiency of the aircraft is impaired.

4.3

In the exceptional case where an intercepted civil aircraft is required to land in the territory overflown, care must also be taken that: a) the designated aerodrome is suitable for the safe landing of the aircraft type concerned, especially if the aerodrome is not normally used for civil air transport operations; b) the surrounding terrain is suitable for circling, approach and missed approach manoeuvres; c) the intercepted aircraft has sufficient fuel remaining to reach the aerodrome; d) if the intercepted aircraft is a civil transport aircraft, the designated aerodrome has a runway with a length equivalent to at least 2 500 m at mean sea level and a bearing strength sufficient to support the aircraft; and e) whenever possible, the designated aerodrome is one that is described in detail in the relevant aeronautical information publication.

4.4

When requiring a civil aircraft to land at an unfamiliar aerodrome, it is essential that sufficient time be allowed it to prepare for a landing, bearing in mind that only the pilot-incommand of the civil aircraft can judge the safety of the landing operation in relation to runway length and aircraft mass at the time.

4.5

It is particularly important that all information necessary to facilitate a safe approach and landing be given to the intercepted aircraft by radiotelephony.

5.

Action by intercepted aircraft

The Standards in Appendix 2, Section 2 specify as follows:

“2.1

An aircraft which is intercepted by another aircraft shall immediately: a) follow the instructions given by the intercepting aircraft, interpreting and responding to visual signals in accordance with the specifications in Appendix 1; b) notify, if possible, the appropriate air traffic services unit;

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

c) attempt to establish radiocommunication with the intercepting aircraft or with the appropriate intercept control unit, by making a general call on the emergency frequency 121.5 MHz, giving the identity of the intercepted aircraft and the nature of the flight; and if no contact has been established and if practicable, repeating this call on the emergency frequency 243 MHz; d) if equipped with SSR transponder, select Mode A, Code

7700, unless otherwise instructed by the appropriate air traffic services unit.

“2.2

If any instructions received by radio from any sources conflict with those given by the intercepting aircraft by visual signals, the intercepted aircraft shall request immediate clarification while continuing to comply with the visual instructions given by the intercepting aircraft.

“2.3

If any instructions received by radio from any sources conflict with those given by the intercepting aircraft by radio, the intercepted aircraft shall request immediate clarification while continuing to comply with the radio instructions given by the intercepting aircraft.”

6.

Air-to-air visual signals

The visual signals to be used by intercepting and intercepted aircraft are those set forth in Appendix 1 to this Annex. It is essential that intercepting and intercepted aircraft adhere strictly to those signals and interpret correctly the signals given by the other aircraft, and that the intercepting aircraft pay particular attention to any signals given by the intercepted aircraft to indicate that it is in a state of distress or urgency.

39

7.

Radiocommunication between the intercept control unit or the intercepting aircraft and the intercepted aircraft

7.1

When an interception is being made, the intercept control unit and the intercepting aircraft should: a) first attempt to establish two-way communication with the intercepted aircraft in a common language on the emergency frequency 121.5 MHz, using the call signs

“INTERCEPT CONTROL”, “INTERCEPTOR (call sign)” and “INTERCEPTED AIRCRAFT” respectively; and b) failing this, attempt to establish two-way communication with the intercepted aircraft on such other frequency or frequencies as may have been prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, or to establish contact through the appropriate ATS unit(s).

14/11/91

Annex 2 — Rules of the Air

7.2

If radio contact is established during interception but communication in a common language is not possible, attempts must be made to convey instructions, acknowledgement of instructions and essential information by using the phrases and pronunciations in Table A-1 and transmitting each phrase twice.

Attachment A

The use of tracer bullets to attract attention is hazardous, and it is expected that measures will be taken to avoid their use so that the lives of persons on board and the safety of aircraft will not be endangered.

8.

Refraining from the use of weapons

Note.— In the unanimous adoption by the 25th Session

(Extraordinary) of the ICAO Assembly on 10 May 1984 of

Article 3 bis to the Convention on International Civil Aviation,

the Contracting States have recognized that “every State must refrain from resorting to the use of weapons against civil aircraft in flight.”

9.

Co-ordination between intercept control units and air traffic services units

It is essential that close co-ordination be maintained between an intercept control unit and the appropriate air traffic services unit during all phases of an interception of an aircraft which is, or might be, a civil aircraft, in order that the air traffic services unit is kept fully informed of the developments and of the action required of the intercepted aircraft.

Table A-1

Phrases for use by INTERCEPTING aircraft

Phrase Pronunciation

1

CALL SIGN KOL SA-IN

FOLLOW

DESCEND

FOL-LO

DEE-SEND

Meaning

What is your call sign?

Follow me

Descend for landing

YOU LAND YOU LAAND Land at this aerodrome

PROCEED PRO-SEED You may proceed

Phrases for use by INTERCEPTED aircraft

Phrase

CALL SIGN KOL SA-IN

(call sign)

2

(call sign)

WILCO

Pronunciation

1

CAN NOT

REPEAT

AM LOST

VILL-KO Understood

Will comply

KANN NOTT Unable to comply

REE-PEET

AM LOSST

Meaning

My call sign is (call sign)

Repeat your instruction

Position unknown

MAYDAY

HIJACK

3

MAYDAY

HI-JACK

I am in distress

I have been hijacked

LAND LAAND I request to land at

(place name) (place name) (place name)

DESCEND DEE-SEND I require descent

1. In the second column, syllables to be emphasized are underlined.

2. The call sign required to be given is that used in radiotelephony communications with air traffic services units and corresponding to the aircraft identification in the flight plan.

3. Circumstances may not always permit, nor make desirable, the use of the phrase “HIJACK”.

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ATTACHMENT B.

UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE

1.

General

The following procedures are intended as guidance for use by aircraft when unlawful interference occurs and the aircraft is unable to notify an ATS unit of this fact.

2.

Procedures

2.1

Unless considerations aboard the aircraft dictate otherwise, the pilot-in-command should attempt to continue flying on the assigned track and at the assigned cruising level at least until able to notify an ATS unit or within radar coverage.

2.2

When an aircraft subjected to an act of unlawful interference must depart from its assigned track or its assigned cruising level without being able to make radiotelephony contact with ATS, the pilot-in-command should, whenever possible: a) attempt to broadcast warnings on the VHF emergency frequency and other appropriate frequencies, unless considerations aboard the aircraft dictate otherwise.

Other equipment such as on-board transponders, data links, etc., should also be used when it is advantageous to do so and circumstances permit; and b) proceed in accordance with applicable special procedures for in-flight contingencies, where such procedures have been established and promulgated in

Doc 7030 — Regional Supplementary Procedures; or c) if no applicable regional procedures have been established, proceed at a level which differs from the cruising levels normally used for IFR flight in the area by 300 m (1 000 ft) if above FL 290 or by 150 m

(500 ft) if below FL 290.

Note.— Action to be taken by an aircraft which is intercepted while being subject to an act of unlawful interference is prescribed in 3.8 of this Annex.

— END —

ANNEX

2

41 14/11/91

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