kodak The DCS Story 17 years of Kodak Professional digital camera systems 1987-2004

kodak The DCS Story  17 years of Kodak Professional digital camera systems  1987-2004
The DCS Story
17 years of Kodak Professional digital camera systems
1987-2004
Jim McGarvey
June 2004
Electro-Optic Camera (1988)
By 1987, Kodak had developed the world's first
megapixel CCD imager, the M1. A US Government
customer contracted with the Federal Systems Division
(FSD) to incorporate the M1 into a standard 35 mm
camera body to create the first megapixel portable
digital camera, truly the prototype of the digital
camera system (DCS) product line. It was designed for covert use, with the black box in a camera bag
and the ribbon cable to the camera body concealed inside the neck strap. Images were downloaded
from the internal hard drive by docking the black box on an Exabyte tape archive unit. (The first
digital camera dock!) The Canon F1 film camera body had no electronic interface, so the shutter
release was detected by monitoring the battery current. The imager package was mounted to a TE
cooler to reduce noise, but cooling was limited to prevent fogging the cover glass and was not very
effective. Only one unit was built. The black box electronics were wire wrapped.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Stock Canon F1 body with motor drive
Monochrome KAF-1400 (M1) imager (1320 x 1035, 6.8 µm) with thermoelectric cooler
10bit A/D Logarithmic amplifier
10-Mbyte buffer for 6-image burst; buffer image count display
Internal 100-Mbyte SCSI hard drive holds 60 images; disk image count display
Docking archive unit with 2000-MByte Exabyte 8 mm SCSI tape drive and battery charger
Raw image files in Unix TAR format; Time/Date stamp
Intervalometer; log histogram. Pixel value readout.
Image delete. Image recover; disk erase; disk format
Alphanumeric LCD with menus, status, and error messages
Three-color LED disk, buffer, battery status indicators on camera back
Intel 80C196 uController, PL/M
Internal lead acid camcorder battery
Tactical Camera (1989)
When FSD marketing saw the electro-opitcal (EO) camera,
they saw an opportunity to create digital cameras for the
military. Based on the EO camera design, the Tactical camera
was made more rugged by eliminating the internal hard drive
and using the buffer memory to store images until they could
be unloaded to external SCSI storage. With a motor drive, the
camera would capture a "movie" at 5 fps and play it back just
as fast from memory. Two demo units were built and
demonstrated to many government customers.
•
•
•
•
•
Selectable 1280 x 1024 or 640 x 512 resolution
20-Mbyte buffer for 12/48 image burst at 5 fps
RS-170 NTSC video output with superimposed image data
Zoom and pan high res image
All other features of EO camera, except TE cooler, hard drive, archive unit
HAWKEYE II Imaging Accessory (1989)
Demonstrations of the Tactical camera generated a lot of interest,
but its size and weight precluded military field use. FSD borrowed
the mechanical design of the PPD IRIS camera, developed a DRAM
image storage module (ISM) with more capacity than the available
memory cards, and created a compact camera design with real
printed circuit boards. Exotic and expensive lithium batteries kept
the power-hungry camera and ISM going. The name “imaging
accessory” was used because Kodak was reluctant to develop
digital cameras that might compete with film. Five units were built.
•
•
•
•
•
• Stock Nikon F3 body
Selectable 1280x1024 or 640x512 resolution
8-bit A/D
Removable 5-Mbyte DRAM Image Storage Module for 4/16 images
Replaceable lithium batteries
All other features of Tactical camera, except motor drive
HAWKEYE II Imaging Accessory (1989)
The normal customer response to a demo of integrated Hawkeye II
camera was, "That's incredible! It would be perfect for my
application if it only had one more special feature." So FSD
returned to the tethered camera configuration, designing a totally
modular camera system that could be easily expanded and
adapted. A patented "image bus" backplane accommodated plugin circuit boards. Interchangeable camera heads, battery and
power modules completed the system. A few units were sold with Brier 20-Mbyte floppy drives and
built-on video monitors. A two-headed camera was built for stereo photography. The camera
achieved real fame in 1991, when it went into orbit on Shuttle mission STS-44.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Stock Nikon F3 body, some units with motor winder
Optional monochrome or color Kodak KAF-1300 series image sensor (M3) (1320 x 1035, 16 µm)
Internal 100-Mbyte hard drive
Removable lead acid battery module
Intel 80C188 uController, PL/M
All other features of integrated Hawkeye II camera
Camera
EO
Tactical
Hawkeye II int
Hawkeye II teth
Hawkeye II teth
Hawkeye II teth
Imager
M1
M1
M1
M1
M3
M3
Pixels
1035x1320
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
CFA
Mono
Mono
Mono
Mono
Mono
3G RGB
ISO
200-800
200-800
50-400
50-400
50-400
50-400
FPS
5
5
0
2
2
2
Depth
6
12
4
6
6
6
D-5000 (1989)
Developed by the Electronic Photography Division (EPD), The D-5000, or
ECAM was the prototype of all modern professional digital single-lens reflex
(SLR) cameras. A compact autofocus SLR with megapixel color imager,
memory card slots, JPEG, and what's this? No image display on the back? The
DOS model added a PCMCIA-ATA card slot. Although not a product of the FSD or Professional
Photography Division (PPD) teams, the camera was marketed by FSD to government customers, and
many of the original ECAM team brought their expertise to PPD for later projects.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Color or monochrome Kodak KAF-1300 series image sensor (3M) (1280x1024, 16 µm).
Color ISO 160
Standard K mount lenses
Auto focus with illuminator
M, Av, Program auto exposure
TTL flash
Selectable color balance
SRAM or flash memory card slot
IRIS (1990)
Larry McMillan of the Professional Photography Division (PPD) had
championed the Kodak 35 mm rapid film scanner (RFS) to meet the news
photographer's need to send images home electronically as quickly as
possible. He saw that a digital camera could eliminate the time to process
film. “IRIS” was a confidential project to create a memory card camera for
photojournalists. The camera was as simple as possible, with no image
processing or bells and whistles; it saved the raw imager data to the card.
Just a few demo units were built.
•
•
Stock Nikon F3 body
SRAM memory card slot
Professional Camera Back (1990)
Just as the integrated Hawkeye II camera was cool but not quite enough for the
government customers, IRIS didn't meet the real needs of the news shooters. PPD
had paid to develop the first color megapixel imager (M3) and conceived a fast
frame rate news camera that could directly transmit images from the field without a
computer. PPD had the right imager and the right market; FSD had the camera
architecture, so the two teams combined the M3 with the Hawkeye II image bus
electronics in a sleek and commercial-looking plastic housing. Several demo
cameras were shown privately at Photokina and publicly at the NPPA Electronic
Workshop in November of 1990. Most of the FSD development team moved to
PPD to commercialize a camera in response to the ensuing excitement.
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS (1991)
By May of 1991, PPD was ready to announce the first Kodak
Professional Digital Camera System at a New York City press
conference. The prototype camera was spruced up with a much
larger image LCD and optional JPEG compression and serial
transmission boards. Six models were priced from $20,000 to
$25,000. The slogan "Convert to a new digital system without
switching cameras" suggested that the familiar F3 camera body
would make the digital transition simple and easy! To make the
system easily luggable for the planet-roving photojournalist, a
custom nylon hip pack and an enormous hard case were thrown in for free. After the launch of the
Kodak Professional DCS 200 IR digital camera, a magazine reviewer named this camera the “DCS
100.” Although never official, the name stuck, even within Kodak. A total of 987 units were sold from
1991 to 1994.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Stock Nikon F3 body with motor winder
Color or monochrome KAF-1300 (M3) imager (1320x1035, 16 µm)
8-bit A/D
Monochrome LCD image display
NTSC video output
SCSI interface
Removable lead acid camcorder battery
Intel 80C188 uController, PL/M multitasking firmware
Internal 200-Mbyte hard drive (160 uncompressed/600 compressed images)
Optional JPEG compression board, serial interface, and captioning keyboard
8- or 32-Mbyte buffer memory
Acquire module software for Adobe Photoshop (Macintosh)
Plug-in software for Aldus Photostyler (Windows)
Camera
DCS DC3
DCS DC3/32
DCS DC3/B
DCS DM3
DCS DM3/32
DCS DM3/B
Imager
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
Pixels
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
CFA
3G RGB
3G RGB
3G RGB
Mono
Mono
Mono
ISO
100-800
100-800
100-800
200-1600
200-1600
200-1600
FPS
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
Depth
6
24
6
6
24
6
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 200 (1992)
Announced at MacWorld Boston in August 1992, the DCS 200 targeted
desktop publishing rather than photojournalism. In sharp contrast to the
complexity and cost of the original DCS, the 200 was the simplest DCS
camera ever. Everything but the imager fit onto one circuit board. 2.5-inch
hard drives had just appeared and were just the size to tuck under the
camera body. The 8008s was the least-expensive Nikon body with a
removable back. The simple camera was conceived and commercialized in
less than a year and shocked a market expecting minor improvements to the
original DCS. The non-i models omitted the internal hard drive to lower the
price. All models supported HitchHiker external hard drives for removable storage. For the commercial
studio, a monochrome 200 with the Kodak Professional color filter wheel accessory produced superb
color images. The filter wheel was an afterthought and was controlled by an interface piggybacked
on the SCSI port. The original plan to sell the low-cost back without the body was scrapped. 3,240
cameras were sold from 1992 to 1994.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Stock Nikon 8008s body
8-bit A/D
2-Mbyte buffer
Internal 80-Mbyte 2.5-inch SCSI hard drive (50 images)
Removable AA batteries in body and back
Status LCD, SCSI ID and DELETE buttons
SCSI interface
Intel 80C196 uController, PL/M firmware
Camera
DCS 200c
DCS 200ci
DCS 200m
DCS 200mi
Imager
M5
M5
M5
M5
Pixels
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
CFA
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
ISO
50-400
50-400
100-800
100-800
FPS
1/3
1/3
1/3
1/3
Depth
1
1
1
1
The use of the familiar and respected Nikon and Canon bodies for most DCS cameras was
a marketing advantage, but the Kodak name didn't appear on the "crown" of the camera
until the production of the Kodak Professional DCS Pro 14n digital camera. Many thought
that the original DCS was a product of Nikon with some Kodak help, when in fact, Nikon
was not aware of the project until it was announced. Nikon's actual participation began
when they provided technical information for the stock N90 body used in the NC2000
camera. So, to avoid further confusion, the team decided to brand the DCS 200 with the
huge Kodak logo on the grip.
DCS 200 + Architecture (NC2000, DCS 4XX, EOS DCS X)
The success of the DCS 200 camera encouraged a new electronic design to fit the same mechanical
package as the earlier camera. Major improvements resolved problems with batteries and complaints
about the slow performance and internal hard drive of the 200. The PCM CIA slot accepted the new
Type III hard drive cards, and audio recording enabled a busy news photographer to add quick
comments for captioning images. With only minor changes, the new main board was designed into
dozens of camera models for Nikon, Canon, and medium-format bodies, with imagers from 1.2 to
6 megapixels. FSD designed the architecture into several specialized government models, including
underwater models based on the Nikonos body.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
12-bit A/D
Audio recording (WAV files)
Status LCD, SCSI ID, and DELETE buttons
Single PCMCIA-ATA card slot
Internal NiMH battery
SCSI interface (undocumented parallel port mode)
Intel 80C196 uController, PL/M firmware
AP NC2000 (1994)
Developed by Kodak "in cooperation with AP," announced by the Associated
Press in February of 1994, and offered first to AP member newspapers for
$17,500, the News Camera 2000 became the standard digital news
camera. The Nikon N90s offered snappier autofocus than the 8008s. The
NC2000e model with 16-Mbyte buffer memory was offered in 1996. The
official relationship with Nikon began in 1994 and Nikon provided
confidential documentation on the 10-pin body interface. 550 cameras were
produced for the Associated Press.
•
Stock Nikon N90s body
Camera
AP NC2000
AP NC2000e
AP NC2000m
AP NC2000ir
Imager
M3
M3
M3
M3
Pixels
1012x1268
1012x1268
1012x1268
1012x1268
CFA
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
ISO
200-1600
200-1600
200-1600
200-1600
FPS
2
2
2
Depth
5
12
12
12
From 1995 to 1998, the DCS camera team was part of the new Digital
and Applied Imaging (D&AI) Division and later 4XX cameras sported
the new "Kodak digital science" logo. Although the original DCS logo
was left behind, the honored DCS name would remain to the end.
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 4XX Digital Camera
(1994)
The NC2000 was followed by a string of Kodak models. The most important
was the Kodak Professional DCS 460 digital camera, which introduced the 6megapixel imager. The "world's highest resolution portable digital camera"
captured images that begged comparison with film. Problems with charging
the internal battery prompted the only DCS safety recall. One camera
actually exploded in a customer's studio. Over 5000 cameras were
produced.
•
Stock Nikon N90s body
Camera
DCS 410c
DCS 420c
DCS 420ir
DCS 420m
DCS 420c P/S
DCS 460c
DCS 460m
DCS 460c P/S
DCS 460ir
Imager
M5
M5
M5
M5
M5
M6
M6
M6
M6
Pixels
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
2036x3060
2036x3060
2036x3060
2036x3060
CFA
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Mono
ISO
100
100-400
200-800
200-800
100-400
80
80
80
80
FPS
2
2
2
2
2
2/8
2/8
2/8
2/8
Depth
1
5
5
5
5
2
2
2
2
KODAK PROFESSIONAL EOS-DCS (1995)
After the many Nikon-bodied DCS cameras, Canon longed to see its lens
mount in front of those megapixel imagers, so they joined Kodak to help
develop and market the EOS-DCS cameras, which carried the "in cooperation
with Canon" label. Canon provided custom firmware and interface
connections in the "D" branded EOS-1N body. Canon only sold the 1 and 3
models. Over 1000 cameras were produced.
•
Modified Canon EOS-1N body
Camera
EOS-DCS 1c
EOS-DCS 1m
EOS-DCS 1ir
EOS-DCS 3c
EOS-DCS 3ir
EOS-DCS 3m
EOS-DCS 5c
EOS-DCS 5ir
EOS-DCS 5m
Imager
M6
M6
M6
M3
M3
M3
M5
M5
M5
Pixels
2036x3060
2036x3060
2036x3060
1012x1268
1012x1268
1012x1268
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
CFA
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
IR
Mono
ISO
80
80
80
200-1600
400-6400
400-6400
100-400
200-800
200-800
FPS Depth
0.6
2
0.6
2
0.6
2
2.7
12
2.7
12
2.7
12
2.3
10
2.3
10
2.3
10
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 465 (1995)
Studio photographers loved the Kodak Professional DCS 460 digital
camera for its image quality, but they missed the flexibility of their
medium format and view cameras. The DCS 465 was a DCS 460 with a
standard Hasselblad back mount that could be hung on almost any studio
camera with the right adapter. A row of connectors supported both
electrical and mechanical trip cameras and studio flash units. About 200
units were produced.
•
•
Standard Hasselblad camera back mount
Camera sync, electrical trip, mechanical trip, flash sync connectors
Camera
DCS 465c
DCS 465m
DCS 465ir
Imager
M6
M6
M6
Pixels
2036x3060
2036x3060
2036x3060
CFA
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
ISO
80
80
80
FPS
2/8
2/8
2/8
Depth
2
2
2
DCS 4XX GPS, CIR
After 1990, the FSD continued to create custom cameras to meet the special
needs of government and military customers by modifying the commercial
DCS products. These include global positioning system (GPS)- compatible
models and the color infrared (CIR) models, which provided a unique
capability that was ideal for environmental and law enforcement that
required forestry and vegetation analysis.
•
•
Stock Nikon N90s body
Interchangeable filters for selective spectral response
Camera
DCS 420 GPS-C
DCS 420 GPS-IR
DCS 420 GPS-M
DCS 420CIR
DCS 460CIR
Imager
M5
M5
M5
M5
M5
Pixels
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
CFA
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
ISO
100-400
200-800
200-800
200-800
200-800
FPS
2
2
2
2
2
Depth
5
5
5
5
5
DCS 425, 435
Some of the FSD models became major repackaging projects. The
Federal Systems Division (FSD) DCS 425 and DCS 435 digital cameras
packed the 200+ electronics, batteries, and PCM CIA slot into a one-inch
thick back for the Nikonos RS submersible camera for the serious military
photographer.
•
•
Stock Nikonos RS body
Replaceable 6v Lithium batteries
Camera
DCS 425c
DCS 425ir
DCS 435
Imager
M5
M5
M3
Pixels
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1268
CFA
Bay RGB
IR
Bay RGB
ISO
100- 400
200- 800
200-1000
KODAK DIGITAL SCIENCE SCS 1000 Camera
Another ruggedized repackaged camera from FSD, the specialty camera
system (SCS) 1000 cameras were noticeably more compact than the
corresponding commercial EOS DCS models using the same Canon body.
•
•
•
•
Stock Canon EOS 1N body
Optional MIL SPEC connector for SCSI and serial
GPS capability
3v Lithium K123 batteries
Camera
SCS 1000ir
SCS 1000m
Imager
M3
M3
Pixels
1012x1268
1012x1268
CFA
IR
Mono
ISO
16-3200
16-3200
FPS
2.3
2.3
Depth
10
10
Pro SLR Architecture (DCS 3XX, 5XX, 6XX)
Four years of 200+ family cameras created a long wish list for the next DCS generation. Professionals
wanted instant image review and JPEG compression, like consumers enjoyed on their cheap digital
cameras. Blue noise and color filter array (CFA) aliasing were the major image quality complaints. The
design required a clean sheet and a lot of problem solving. A new PowerPC microprocessor would
provide the horsepower for a graphical user interface and quick display of images. The originally
designed image-processing path would finish and JPEG-compress images in real time, but that plan
died in the details. Some models later provided background JPEG processing. The new Firewire
interface made history of SCSI's bulky cables and terminator confusion.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lithium Niobate blur filter
12-bit A/D
Audio recording (WAV files)
Color LCD, graphical user interface, 1/4/9 image display, histogram
Status LCD
White balance, tagging, card format and recover
Background JPEG processing
Dual PCM CIA-ATA card slots
Removable NiCd/NiMH battery.
IEEE 1394 (Firewire) interface for host computer
Folding rigid-flex main circuit board
Motorola MPC821 uController, C multitasking firmware
Optional cell phone transmission kit
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 5XX, Canon EOS
DXXXX (1998)
The partnership with Canon culminated in the first truly integrated DCS
camera, where the body and back were seamlessly merged (well, almost).
Canon provided an EOS 1N body with special firmware and no film
transport parts. The 2-megapixel M15 imager used indium tin oxide (ITO)
clock conductors and a new CFA mix to dramatically improve blue channel
output. 3.6 superb images per second, no aliasing, and a pong game for downtime made it a winner
with news and sports shooters. The revolutionary camera was launched at PMA in 1998 at $14,995
and was the first to carry the new Kodak Professional brand. The EOS D2000 and D6000 were
Canon branded and marketed models functionally identical to the Kodak Professional DCS 520 and
DCS 560 cameras.
•
Modified Canon EOS-1N body
DCS 520c
DCS 520x
DCS 560c
DCS 560m
EOS D2000c
EOS D6000c
Imager
M15
M15
M16
M16
M15
M16
Pixels
1152x1 728
1152x1728
2008x3040
2008x3040
1152x1728
2008x3040
CFA
Bay RGB
Xena CMY
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
ISO
200-1600
200-1600
80- 200
320- 800
200-1600
80- 200
FPS
3.6
3.6
1
1
3.6
1
Depth
12
12
3
3
12
3
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 3XX (1998)
Since the DCS 200, the team struggled to find a way to make a lessexpensive professional camera. The Calvin project was the first to reach
the market after several attempts, and it was the first DCS with popup
flash! The M5 imager and the new Pronea APS body made possible the
lowest DCS price yet, only $4,995. The 315 introduced background JPEG
processing and automatic white balance (scene balance). The Kodak
Professional DCS 315 digital camera was the beginning of the "coopetition" relationship with Nikon
that continued to the end of the DCS line. The DCS 315 images disappointed customers that were
spoiled by the DCS 520 quality, but the much-better and still-affordable 3-megapixel DCS 330 was
just the right camera for small portrait studios.
•
•
Modified Nikon Pronea 6i body
AA batteries
Camera
DCS 315c
DCS 330c
DCS 354c
Imager
M5
M17
M24
Pixels
1008x1520
1504x2008
1958x2606
CFA
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
ISO
100-400
125-400
FPS
2
1
Depth
3
8
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 6XX (1999)
At PMA 1999, Kodak unveiled the super-pro Nikon F5 body, which was
seamlessly integrated to the DCS 520 electronics and wrapped in a
bulletproof magnesium housing. After Nikon launched the D1, later in '99,
Kodak Professional planned to ease out of the photojournalist market and
concentrate on studio photography. The Kodak Professional DCS 620x
digital camera, with the super high ISO image quality of the Xena CMY
imager was planned to be the last DCS photojournalist camera.
•
Modified Nikon F5 body
Camera
DCS 620c
DCS 620x
DCS 660c
DCS 660m
DCS 660cir
Imager
M15
M23
M16
M16
M16
Pixels
1152x1728
1152x1728
2008x3040
2008x3040
2008x3040
CFA
Bay RGB
Xena CMY
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
ISO
200-1600
400-6400
80- 200
320- 800
320- 800
FPS
3.6
3.6
1
1
1
Depth
12
12
3
3
3
By 1998, PPD had become Kodak Professional and the
DCS team happily reunited with that organization. The
rest of the DCS cameras proudly bore the red and gray Kodak Professional brand.
Pro 3 Architecture (DCS Pro Back, 7XX)
The new focus on the studio market meant more and more pixels! Kodak Professional added a TI DSP
to the PowerPC to gain the performance to process all of those pixels.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
12-bit A/D
Audio recording (WAV files)
Color LCD, graphical user interface, 1/4 image display, histogram
Zoom and pan raw images
Status LCD
White balance, tagging, card format, and recover
In-camera JPEG processing
IEEE 1394 (Firewire) interface
Motorola MPC823 uController, C multitasking firmware
Texas Instruments TMS320C6211 DSP
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Pro Back (2000)
The 16-megapixel M11 imager packed with all the DCS Pro 3 features
and horsepower made the Pro Back a worthy successor to the DCS
465. Launched at Photokina 2000, it heralded Kodak's serious attack
on the digital studio market. There was no other portable studio back.
The Plus model added a connector to support most electrical trip studio
cameras. The DCS Pro Back was shipped with Kodak Professional
capture studio software as well as the new Kodak Professional DCS
Photo Desk application.
•
•
•
•
•
Hasselblad 555 ELD camera back mount
Adapter for Mamiya RZ67
High-voltage flash sync
Dual CF card slots
Powered from Firewire cable or external battery
Camera
DCS Pro Back
DCS Pro Back m
DCS Pro Back Plus
Imager
M11
M11
M11
Pixels
4080x4080
4080x4080
4080x4080
CFA
Bay RGB
Mono
Bay RGB
ISO
100
100
100
FPS
0.5
0.5
0.5
Depth
4
4
4
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 7XX (2001)
With Nikon still happy to supply F5s, it was natural, a "no brainer," in fact, to
drop the new DCS Pro 3 electronics into the good old 6XX housing and make
some very cool cameras. Despite the intent to back out of the market, the
Kodak Professional DCS 720x digital camera was yet another great
photojournalist camera with its high ISO and high frame rate. But the DCS
760, introduced at only $7,995, was destined to be a cult camera for the
portrait and wedding photographers. The cameras were indestructible and
made very nice images. Still available on eBay… The Kodak Professional
DCS camera manager software first shipped with the DCS 760. The Kodak Digital Science SCS2000
C camera was an FSD-modified, weather-resistant version of the DCS 720x.
•
Modified Nikon F5 body
Camera
DCS 720x
DCS 760c
DCS 760m
DCS 760ir
SCS 2000c
Imager
M23
M16
M16
M16
M23
Pixels
1152x1728
2008x3032
2008x3032
2008 x 3032
1152 x 1728
CFA
Xena CMY
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Xena CMY
ISO
400-6400
80-400
320-800
320-800
400-6400
FPS
4.3
1.5
1.5
1.5
4.3
Depth
25+
24
24
24
25+
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Pro Back 645
(2002)
The project began as an even smaller Pro Back model to fit the totally
new autofocus medium-format camera Hasselblad was secretly
developing. The H1 was delayed enough that Kodak introduced
models for the Mamiya and Contax 645 AF cameras first. Only the
front plate and camera interface flex are different between the three
models.
•
•
•
•
Custom fit for Mamiya 645 AF and AFD, Contax 645 AF, and Hasselblad H1
Single CF card slots
Clip on Li ION battery
Optional Li Niobate blur filter
Camera
DCS Pro Back 645 C
DCS Pro Back 645 H
DCS Pro Back 645 M
Imager
M11
M11
M11
Pixels
4080x4080
4080x4080
4080x4080
CFA
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
ISO
100-400
100-400
100-400
FPS
0.55
0.55
0.55
Depth
8
8
8
PRO 14 Digital Camera Architecture
Bigger, faster, cheaper (and smaller and lighter, too), "the only camera you'll ever need" filled the
35 mm frame with pixels. Fill Factory of Belgium supplied the first non-Kodak and the first CMOS
imager to be used in a DCS camera. The successful DCS Pro 3 architecture was “supercharged” with a
much faster DSP to process the huge and messy C14 images. A snazzy user interface with popup
menus and lots of new features included a "basic" mode for the overwhelmed user.
•
•
•
•
•
CF and SD/MMC card slots
Removable Lithium ion battery
IEEE 1394 (Firewire) interface
Motorola MPC823 uController, C multitasking firmware
Texas Instruments TMS320C6414 DSP
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Pro 14n Digital
Camera (2002)
Late in 2002, the decision was made to end the Kodak Professional camera
business, which had yet to make a profit. A last-minute reprieve amid hopes
that a new projected camera might turn the tide led to the most dramatic
DCS announcement ever. After Canon pre-leaked its announcement of the "world's highest resolution
digital SLR," the 12-megapixel 1Ds at $9,000, the 14-megapixel DCS Pro 14n at only $4,995 stole
the show at Photokina 2002. But the DCS Pro 14n was months late, and high ISO image noise was
disappointing. Still, at $4,995, it was a very cheap studio camera that signaled the demise of the
medium-format digital back.
•
Modified Nikon F80 body
Canon
DCS Pro 14n
DCS Pro 14n 512
DCS Pro 14n m
Imager
C14
C14
C14
Pixels
3000x4500
3000x4500
3000x4500
CFA
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Mono
ISO
6-800
6-800
6-800
FPS
1.7
1.7
1.7
Depth
20
7
20
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Pro SLR/n Digital
Camera (2004)
Fill Factory's disappointment in the C14 imager prompted them to redesign
it and find a better imager foundry, in hopes of saving the Kodak
Professional business. Announced at PMA, February 2004, the DCS Pro
SLR/n camera with the new-and-improved X14 imager was the camera the
14n was meant to be. Loyal Pro 14n owners were offered an upgrade to the new imager, making
their older cameras nearly the same as the new Pro SLR/n. Also announced in 2004, the Pro 14n and
SLR/n could be upgraded by Kodak with the Pocket Wizard transceiver for versatile wireless camera
and strobe triggering.
•
Modified Nikon F80 body
Camera
DCS Pro SLR/n
DCS Pro SLR/n m
DCS Pro 14nx
Imager
X14
X14
X14
Pixels
3000x4500
3000x4500
3000x4500
CFA
Bay RGB
Mono
Bay RGB
ISO
6-1600
6-1600
6-1600
FPS
1.7
1.7
1.7
Depth
20
20
20
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Pro SLR/c Digital
Camera (2004)
With the Canon relationship long gone, but with patent cross licenses still in
place, Kodak enlisted Sigma to design and manufacture a Canon-mount
version of the 14n using Kodak supplied imager modules and a body
derived from the Sigma SD-9 digital camera. The new X14 imager came
along just in time, so the new camera became the stablemate of the SLR/n. After its revelation at
CeBIT 2004, happy Canon shooters celebrated the return of Canon mount DCS cameras. But alas, the
party is over with this one...
•
Custom Sigma body.
DCS Pro SLR/c
Imager
X14
Pixels
3000x4500
CFA
Bay RGB
ISO
6-1600
FPS
1.7
Depth
20
Host Software
When the original DCS camera was introduced in 1990, it's friendly relationship with Macintosh
computers and PCs appealed to the working professional whose income depended on efficiently
moving images to print. The still video cameras of the day, and many video-oriented digital cameras
to follow lacked the vital "workflow" pros wanted. The essential and acclaimed DCS host software
evolved in concert with the features of the cameras.
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Acquire Module/TWAIN (1991)
Some things never change. In 1991, Adobe Photoshop was the application of choice in working with
high-quality images. It was a Macintosh-only application then. Aldus offered PhotoStyler, a substitute
for PhotoShop for Windows. The DCS software team provided plug-ins for both applications. The first
few DCS cameras shipped with the Macintosh Acquire module only. Windows users were satisfied a
few weeks later. By 1996, PhotoShop was running in Windows and the PC TWAIN standard allowed
a single plug in to work with many imaging apps. The Acquire and PC TWAIN plug-ins provided direct
control of the cameras through the SCSI interface as well as an efficient browser for images on
camera or on disk.
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Photo Desk (2000)
Freedom from the limitations of the plug-in environment was the motivation to create two new standalone applications to replace the Acquire/TWAIN software. Photo Desk was a powerful browser and
image-processing program that first shipped in December of 2000 and supported images from all
DCS 520 and later cameras.
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS
Camera Manager (2001)
Photo Desk provided no tethered camera support, so
the Camera Manager application was created to
control Firewire connected cameras. Camera
Manager was designed to work with Photo Desk. A
click of the “Take Picture” button commanded the
camera to capture and image, which Camera
Manager could transfer to a folder open in Photo
Desk, where the new image would appear. Later, a
preview window was added to allow for quick
adjustments before saving.
Model
EO
Tactical
D-5000
IRIS
Hawkeye II int.
Hawkeye II teth.
Hawkeye II teth EM
Catalog
Not sold
Not sold
Not sold
PPD prototype
DCS DC3
DCS DC3/32
DCS DC3/B
DCS DM3
DCS DM3/32
DCS DM3/B
DCS 200c
DCS 200ci
DCS 200m
DCS 200mi
AP NC2000
AP NC2000e
AP NC2000m
AP NC2000ir
DCS 410c
DCS 420c
DCS 420ir
DCS 420m
DCS 420c P/S
DCS 460c
DCS 460m
DCS 460c P/S
DCS 460ir
DCS 465c
DCS 465m
DCS 465ir
EOS-DCS 1c
EOS-DCS 1m
EOS-DCS 1ir
EOS-DCS 3c
EOS-DCS 3ir
EOS-DCS 3m
EOS-DCS 5c
EOS-DCS 5ir
EOS-DCS 5m
DCS 420 GPS-C
DCS 420 GPS-IR
DCS 420 GPS-M
DCS 420CIR
DCS 460CIR
DCS 425c
DCS 425ir
DCS 435
SCS 1000ir
SCS 1000m
108 3286
185 5378
872 2800
885 7153
860 8184
868 8269
870 4363
137 4719
865 6803
836 6718
870 6814
806 5328
848 3042
144 6574
174 3939
121 7389
829 1213
107 4095
833 6307
130 3809
140 0761
870 8281
152 2481
806 1541
841 9210
174 9571
194 3645
165 0787
183 2773
879 7805
DCS 315c
DCS 330c
DCS 354c
DCS 520c
DCS 520x
DCS 560c
DCS 560m
DCS 620c
DCS 620x
DCS 660c
DCS 660m
DCS 660cir
EOS D2000c
EOS D6000c
860 6576
868 6677
Not sold
889 1681
Not sold
815 2209
Not sold
866 3296
135 4109
152 8173
885 5595
Not sold
DCS ProBack
DCS ProBack m
DCS ProBack Plus
DCS 720x
DCS 760c
DCS 760m
DCS 760ir
DCS ProBack 645 C
DCS ProBack 645 H
DCS ProBack 645 M
SCS 2000c
DCS Pro 14n
DCS Pro 14n 512
DCS Pro 14n m
DCS Pro 14nx
DCS Pro SLR/n
DCS Pro SLR/n m
Announced
Venue
1987
1988
1989
1989
1989
1989
1990
FSD
FSD
EPD
PPD
FSD
FSD
FSD
Sep 30, 1990
May 28, 1991
May 28, 1991
May 28, 1991
May 28, 1991
May 28, 1991
May 28, 1991
PK
Kodak
Kodak
Kodak
Kodak
Kodak
Kodak
Aug 6, 1992
Aug 6, 1992
Aug 6, 1992
Aug 6, 1992
MacW
MacW
MacW
MacW
Feb 8, 1994
Apr 23, 1996
AP
List
Imgr
um
Pixels
CFA
ISO
M1
M1
M3
M1
M1
M1
M1
6.8
6.8
16
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
1035x1320
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
Mono
Mono
3G RGB
200-800
200-800
160
Mono
Mono
Mono
50-400
50-400
50-400
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
1024x1280
3G RGB
3G RGB
3G RGB
3G RGB
Mono
Mono
Mono
100-800
100-800
100-800
100-800
200-1600
200-1600
200-1600
$8,495
$9,995
M5
M5
M5
M5
9
9
9
9
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
50-400
50-400
100-800
100-800
$17,950
$14,750
M3
M3
M3
M3
M5
M5
M5
M5
M5
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M3
M3
M3
M5
M5
M5
M5
M5
M5
M5
M6
M5
M5
M3
M3
M3
16
16
16
16
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
16
16
16
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
16
16
16
1012x1268
1012x1268
1012x1268
1012x1268
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
2036x3060
2036x3060
2036x3060
2036x3060
2036x3060
2036x3060
2036x3060
2036x3060
2036x3060
2036x3060
1012x1268
1012x1268
1012x1268
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1524
2036x3060
1012x1524
1012x1524
1012x1268
1012x1268
1012x1268
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Mono
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
IR
Mono
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Bay RGB
Mono
Bay RGB
IR
Bay RGB
IR
Mono
200-1600
200-1600
200-1600
200-1600
100
100-400
200-800
200-800
100-400
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
M5
M17
M24
M15
M23
M16
M16
M15
M23
M16
M16
M16
M15
M16
9
9
6.8
13
13
9
9
13
13
9
9
9
13
9
1008x1520
1504x2008
1958x2606
1152x1728
1152x1728
2008x3040
2008x3040
1152x1728
1152x1728
2008x3040
2008x3040
2008x3040
1152x1728
2008x3040
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Xena CMY
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Xena CMY
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
100-400
125-400
M11
M11
M11
M23
M16
M16
M16
M11
M11
M11
M23
9
9
9
13
9
9
9
9
9
9
13
4080x4080
4080x4080
4080x4080
1152x1728
2008x3032
2008x3032
2008x3032
4080x4080
4080x4080
4080x4080
1152x1728
Bay RGB
Mono
Bay RGB
Xena CMY
Bay RGB
Mono
Mono
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Xena CMY
C14
C14
C14
C14
X14
X14
8
8
8
8
8
8
3000x4500
3000x4500
3000x4500
3000x4500
3000x4500
3000x4500
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Mono
Bay RGB
Bay RGB
Mono
$23,000
$20,000
$25,000
$20,000
$25,000
$7,995
$11,000
Aug 15, 1994
1995
Discont
Dec, 1999
Dec, 1999
1994
$28,000
1995
1995
$27,495
Mar, 1998
Dec, 1995
Dec, 1998
Jul, 1995
Jul, 1998
Jul, 1998
Feb, 1998
Feb, 1998
Feb, 1998
1994
1994
1994
1997
1997
1997
1996
1996
1996
1996
1996
1997
1997
C&GS
C&GS
C&GS
C&GS
C&GS
Oct, 1998
Aug, 1999
PK
PPA
Feb 12, 1998
PMA
$14,995
Jul, 2001
Sep 11, 1998
PK
$28,500
May, 2001
Feb, 1999
Aug 29, 2000
Oct, 1999
Dec, 1999
PMA
Seybold
$10,495
Mar, 1998
Dec, 1998
Canon
Canon
102 8455
Not sold
811 9034
807 2977
187 8461
882 3486
Not sold
145 4248
185 3878
819 7329
Sep 19, 2000
PK
834 4269
133 4374
Not sold
Upgrade
891 6611
Not sold
Sep 24, 2002
2003
PK
$4,995
Jan, 2004
Mar, 2004
Feb 12, 2004
Feb 12, 2004
PMA
PMA
$4,995
Mar, 2005
172 1885
Dec, 2001
Sep 15, 2001
Apr, 2001
WPPI
Feb, 2002
Oct, 2002
Feb, 2002
2001
PK
PMA
C&GS
May, 2001
Feb, 2001
May, 2001
Jul, 2001
Dec, 2001
Dec, 2002
$21,995
$6,995
$7,995
Mar, 2004
Mar, 2003
Mar, 2003
Mar, 2003
Mar, 2004
Mar, 2004
Mar, 2004
200-1600
400-6400
400-6400
100-400
200-800
200-800
100-400
200-800
200-800
200-800
80
100-400
200-800
200-1000
16-3200
16-3200
200-1600
400-6400
80-200
320-800
200-1600
400-6400
80-200
320-800
320-800
200-1600
80-200
100
100
400-6400
80-400
320-800
320-800
100-400
100-400
100-400
400-6400
6-800
6-800
6-1600
6-1600
Model
Body
RAM
FPS
Dep
Storage
Battery
I/F
Video
EO
Tactical
D-5000
IRIS
Hawkeye II int.
Hawkeye II teth.
Hawkeye II teth EM
Canon F1
Canon F1
Kodak
Nikon F3
Nikon F3
Nikon F3
Nikon F3
10MB
20MB
5
5
6
12
100MB HD
Lead
Lead
SCSI
SCSI
NTSC
80C196
80C196
4-10MB
10MB
5
5
4
6
6
SRAM/Flash card
SRAM card
5MB DRAM ISM
200MB HD
20MB Brier
Li
Lead
Lead
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
NTSC
NTSC
NTSC
Mono CRT
HC05
80C196
80C188
80C188
PPD prototype
DCS DC3
DCS DC3/32
DCS DC3/B
DCS DM3
DCS DM3/32
DCS DM3/B
Nikon F3
Nikon F3
Nikon F3
Nikon F3
Nikon F3
Nikon F3
Nikon F3
8MB
8MB
32MB
8MB
8MB
32MB
8MB
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
6
6
24
6
6
24
6
200MB HD
200MB HD
200MB HD
200MB HD
200MB HD
200MB HD
200MB HD
Lead
Lead
Lead
Lead
Lead
Lead
Lead
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
NTSC
NTSC
NTSC
NTSC
NTSC
NTSC
NTSC
Mono LCD
Mono LCD
Mono LCD
Mono LCD
Mono LCD
Mono LCD
Mono LCD
80C188
80C188
80C188
80C188
80C188
80C188
80C188
200c
200ci
200m
200mi
Nikon 8008s
Nikon 8008s
Nikon 8008s
Nikon 8008s
2MB
2MB
2MB
2MB
1/3
1/3
1/3
1/3
1
1
1
1
Ext
80MB HD
Ext
80MB HD
AP NC2000
AP NC2000e
AP NC2000m
AP NC2000ir
DCS 410c
DCS 420c
DCS 420ir
DCS 420m
DCS 420c P/S
DCS 460c
DCS 460m
DCS 460c P/S
DCS 460ir
DCS 465c
DCS 465m
DCS 465ir
EOS-DCS 1c
EOS-DCS 1m
EOS-DCS 1ir
EOS-DCS 3c
EOS-DCS 3ir
EOS-DCS 3m
EOS-DCS 5c
EOS-DCS 5ir
EOS-DCS 5m
DCS 420 GPS-C
DCS 420 GPS-IR
DCS 420 GPS-M
DCS 420CIR
DCS 460CIR
DCS 425c
DCS 425ir
DCS 435
SCS 1000ir
SCS 1000m
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Med Format
Med Format
Med Format
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikon N90s
Nikonos RS
Nikonos RS
Nikonos RS
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
8MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
16MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2/8
2/8
2/8
2/8
2/8
2/8
2/8
0.6
0.6
0.6
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.3
2.3
2.3
2
2
2
2
2
5
12
12
12
1
5
5
5
5
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
12
12
12
10
10
10
5
5
5
5
5
16MB
16MB
2.3
2.3
10
10
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
PCMCIA
DCS 315c
DCS 330c
DCS 354c
DCS 520c
DCS 520x
DCS 560c
DCS 560m
DCS 620c
DCS 620x
DCS 660c
DCS 660m
DCS 660cir
EOS D2000c
EOS D6000c
Nikon Pronea 6i
Nikon Pronea 6i
Nikon Pronea 6i
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
Nikon F5
Nikon F5
Nikon F5
Nikon F5
Nikon F5
Canon EOS-1N
Canon EOS-1N
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
8MB
2
1
3
8
3.6
3.6
1
1
3.6
3.6
1
1
1
3.6
1
DCS ProBack
DCS ProBack m
DCS ProBack Plus
DCS 720x
DCS 760c
DCS 760m
DCS 760ir
DCS ProBack 645 C
DCS ProBack 645 H
DCS ProBack 645 M
SCS 2000c
Med Format
Med Format
Med Format
Nikon F5
Nikon F5
Nikon F5
Nikon F5
Contax 645 AF
Hasselblad H1
Mamiya 645 AF
Nikon F5
128MB
128MB
128MB
128MB
128MB
128MB
128MB
256MB
256MB
256MB
128MB
Nikon N80
Nikon N80
Nikon N80
Nikon N80
Nikon N80
Nikon N80
512MB
256MB
512MB
512MB
512MB
512MB
DCS
DCS
DCS
DCS
DCS
DCS
DCS
DCS
DCS
DCS
Pro 14n
Pro 14n 512
Pro 14n m
Pro 14nx
Pro SLR/n
Pro SLR/n m
AA
AA
AA
AA
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
Display
Processor
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
Li
Li
Li
Li
Li
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
80C196
12
12
3
3
12
12
3
3
3
12
3
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
AA NiCd
AA NiCd
AA NiCd
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiMH
NiCd
NiCd
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
0.5
0.5
0.5
4.3
1.5
1.5
1.5
0.55
0.55
0.55
4.3
4
4
4
25+
24
24
24
8
8
8
25+
2xCF
2xCF
2xCF
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
2xPCMCIA
CF
CF
CF
2xPCMCIA
Ext
Ext
Ext
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
NiCd
Li ION
Li ION
Li ION
NiCd
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
20
7
20
20
20
20
CF / MMC
CF / MMC
CF / MMC
CF / MMC
CF / MMC
CF / MMC
Li ION
Li ION
Li ION
Li ION
Li ION
Li ION
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
1394
SCSI
SCSI
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
MPC821
MPC821
MPC821
MPC821
MPC821
MPC821
MPC821
MPC821
MPC821
MPC821
MPC821
MPC821
MPC821
MPC821
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
MPC823 \ 320C6211
MPC823 \ 320C6211
MPC823 \ 320C6211
MPC823 \ 320C6211
MPC823 \ 320C6211
MPC823 \ 320C6211
MPC823 \ 320C6211
MPC823 \ 320C6211
MPC823 \ 320C6211
MPC823 \ 320C6211
MPC823 \ 320C6211
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
NTSC/PAL
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
Color LCD
MPC823 \ 320C6414
MPC823 \ 320C6414
MPC823 \ 320C6414
MPC823 \ 320C6414
MPC823 \ 320C6414
MPC823 \ 320C6414
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement